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English 1A – Literary Analysis Guidelines

Tamara Fritzchle

Guidelines for Writing a Literary Critical Analysis

Guidelines:

· This is a 3-page literary analysis of 3 – 4 stories from Salinger’s Nine Stories.

· This is not a book report. You are analyzing the novel and explaining what you think Salinger is telling his audience. What is his purpose in writing these stories?

· Find out who Salinger is and introduce him to your audience.

· Analyze the treatment of one of the following themes or motifs in order to come to a conclusion about the meaning the text intends to impart: gender roles; landscape; sentimentality and/or romanticism; mythology; feminism: art. If you have another idea, run it by me for approval.

· Use 1-3 secondary articles you found during your research that backs up and/or further explains your analysis (you can use any of the video’s and/or articles from our class or if you found something from our library or other reliable source), cite all the sources you use (for a quotation, paraphrase, or summary), and include them in the works cited page in MLA style.

· Avoid logical fallacies.

What is a literary critical analysis?

A literary critical analysis explains a work of fiction, poetry or drama by means of interpretations. The goal of a literary analysis (as with any other analysis) is to broaden and deepen your understanding of a work of literature.

What is an interpretation?

An interpretation is an individual response that addresses meaning. Example: The mother in Jamaica Kinkaid’s story “Girl” cannot speak directly of her love for her daughter, so Kinkaid uses details about a woman’s everyday life to convey her pride and anxiety about her daughter.

How do you develop an interpretation?

Interpretations are developed by an in-depth examination of a text. An interpretation often will be the thesis of your paper.

How do you conduct an “in-depth” examination of a text?

1. Before reading the work, make sure to examine the title carefully. Often the title is a clue to an important idea in the work.

2. Make sure you look up in the dictionary any words with which you are not familiar.

3. After reading the work the first time, ask yourself the following questions:

· What is the geographical, historical and social setting?

· How does this affect the story?

· Who is (are) the main character(s)?

· Who are the secondary characters, and how are they linked to the main characters?

· Does the main character change? If so, how and why? If not, why not?

· What is the conflict? Can you trace the development and resolution of the conflict?

· Who is telling the story? How does this influence the story?

4. As you re-read the work, make sure you can answer these questions. Then ask yourself the following questions, which may help you to discover deeper meanings that will lead you to an interpretation.

· Can you summarize the author’s meaning in one paragraph?

· Can you state a theme of the work in one sentence?

· Can you identify any symbols or metaphors? What do they mean?

How do you prove your interpretation?

You prove your interpretation by finding a pattern of examples in the literature that support your idea. You find this pattern in the literary elements, such as plot, point of view, character, setting, symbols, tone, and style.

If interpretations are a response through a literary lens, is that interpretation valid?

· Because an interpretation must be supported, the strength or weakness of your interpretation rests on the strength or weakness of your argument. In other words, you must organize a discussion that convinces the reader that your point of view is astute.

· Where do you find evidence to support your interpretation?

· In a literary analysis evidence is found mainly from the work you are discussing. Secondary sources (published critical analyses) may support your point of view as well.

How much of the story should you retell in a critical analysis?

You do need to locate your reader to the scene or section of the story that you are discussing; therefore, some plot summary is necessary, but re-telling the story is not considered an analysis. You can assume your reader has read the work.

What should be documented in a critical analysis?

· Any secondary sources, i.e. research

· Direct quotes

· Summaries

· Paraphrases

· Pictures and charts

· The novel…did I mention the novel? Please cite the novel.

The Basic’s:

1. Use Word, double-space, and use one-inch margins and 12-point times New Roman, Garamond, Palatino, Book Antiqua, or Courier New.

2. In the upper left corner of your paper, write your name, the instructor’s name (Ms. Fritzchle), English 1A, your course section number, and the due date.

3. Center the title of the assignment.

4. Things to include in your essay:

· Your thesis statement

· Salinger’s background (one or two paragraphs)

· Direct quotes, summary, and paraphrases

· Brief explanation of the lens you are using

· Use examples from the novel when talking about how it fits into the lens you chose.

· Talk about the theme (using the lens you picked)

· Two to three outside sources

· Use third person point of view only

· In-text citations

· MLA Works Cited page


Here’s how you can lose points. 

The following list shows the point value I will deduct.

· Using less than the minimum required articles – 3 points

· Writing less than the minimum required pages – 5 points per absent required page count. 

· Failure to use third person point of view exclusively – 5 points

· Missing in-text MLA citation references – 10 points

· Missing MLA Works Cited page – 10 points

· Inappropriate title (titling your essay with the ‘type’ of paper) – 3 points

· Numerous typos, misspellings, grammatical errors (that results in a major distraction from the topic)– 5 points

· Incorrectly formatted in-text citation reference information from your sources – 3 points

· Incorrectly formatted Works Cited page – 3 points

writing homework

https://scccd.instructure.com/courses/76887/files/14270590/preview

https://scccd.instructure.com/courses/76887/files/14270589/preview

Click on the links above and see the famous Dorothea Lange “Migrant Mother” the photo offers an excellent opportunity to consider point of view in photography. This very famous portrait by photographer Dorothea Lange was originally photographed with black-and-white film. A book by Neil Scott-Petrie,
Dorothea Lange Color
, turns Dorothea Lange’s images from the Great Depression into color images. The image on the right is the original black-and-white photograph from the Library of Congress. The image on the left, has color added to it.

Study the image by Dorothea Lange titled “Migrant Mother.”

Read about Dorothea Lange and how she came to make this image.

Describe the tones, lines, shapes, texture, and space you see in the original black and white image. Do you see any composition elements of design utilized? What do you notice first in this picture? Where is your eye led? How many faces do you see? What are the people wearing? How are they posed? Where are their hands resting? How are the hands important to the composition?

Which image do you feel is more impactful and why? Give me your thoughts on how color changes this image for you. Do you think technology improves this image? Do you think it is right to change the way in which this famous image is taken?

Look up and include in your paper the other 4 images Lange took that day of this mother and her family.

Speculate on why this one image from the series became an icon of the Great Depression.

Use your own words in writing this paper.

No quotes. Please research and read about this image but this is your analysis, not someone else’s.

When you are done you should have 4 pages.

Two written (double spaced), one source list with a minimum of three sources.

Make the source list with active links, and

one page should contain the other 4 images Lange took that day of the same mother and her family.

writing homework


Guidelines

Spend time this week working on your second and final paper for this class.

· This paper should be in essay form, 10-12pt type, and two pages in length.

· On a third page cite three sources different from the websites I have provided for each photographer.

· Place the images you are critiquing on the third page. 

· The photographers you can select from are listed below.

· Specific directions are below. so, make sure you read this entire page.

“Angélica Dass is an award-winning photographer living in Madrid, Spain. Originally from Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, she is acutely aware of how small differences in skin tone can swell into large misconceptions and stereotypes about race. She is the creator of the internationally acclaimed Humanæ Project, a collection of portraits that reveal the diverse beauty of human colors.”



Angelica Daas https://www.angelicadass.com/humanae-project/

 

“Fabiola Ferrero, born in Caracas in 1991, is a journalist and photographer currently based in Caracas, Venezuela. She is part of the VII Mentor Program and a 
Magnum (Links to an external site.)
 Foundation Fellow.”



Fabiola Ferrero     https://artpil.com/fabiola-ferrero/ 

“Erik Johansson (born 1985) is a photographer and visual artist from Sweden based in Prague, Czech Republic. His work can be described as surreal world created by combining different photographs. Erik works on both personal and commissioned projects with exhibitions and clients all around the world. In contrast to traditional photography he doesn’t capture moments, he captures ideas with the help of his camera and imagination.”

Erik Johansson    
http://www.erikjohanssonphoto.com/work/

“Matt Black is from California’s Central Valley. His work has explored the connections between migration, poverty, agriculture, and the environment in his native rural California and in southern Mexico.”

Matt Black  


https://www.mattblack.com/

·
Instructions
: Look through the galleries provided in the links above.

· Select one image from 
two
 different photographers from that listMake sure you select two different photographers
 .  Do not select two photographs from the same photographer.  

· Review the video below on “9 Photo Composition Tips.”

· Identify the elements of composition you feel each photographer uses in the image you select for each of your two photographers. 

·
I do not want a bio on each photographer. 
Your job is to select your images, one from whichever two photographers, then try to figure out what elements of composition out of the nine below are being used in the photographs you select.

· Explain in detail how you see the techniques used in each image you select. If you see the use of diagonals, point out where you see the diagonals. Do not assume I will see them.

Whichever two images you select identify the elements of composition as outlined in the video below.

Each photographer is very different in their approach. Identify what composition elements of design he or she uses. The paper is all about composition. Apply what you have learned.  The paper must be saved as a word document, google docs, or a pdf double-spaced, two pages, and submitted here. This paper will be going through Turnitin so make sure these are you own words. I do not want you to use quotes. This should be in your own words.

The three additional sources can be ones that help you understand composition.

Place the two images you select a separate page with your source list. Remember: (One page per photographer)  Be descriptive. Make sure your paper answers the following questions in essay form:

·  Identify the elements of design being used in the composition and describe how they are being used? Address each of the ones I have put into this list. Explain in detail how that element works in the image.  Refer back to the video.  I noticed that several of you did not understand framing. Framing has to utilize an element in the scene to frame something within the scene. Please pay close attention to the 9 photo composition tips below. Also, lines can be implied they do not have to be actual lines in an image. Here is the list: https://youtu.be/7ZVyNjKSr0M

· 1. Rule of Thirds: The rule of thirds is based on dividing your scene into a grid of nine equal parts; the four intersection points of the grid lines represent the best locations to place your subject within the frame to make a well-balanced, pleasing composition.

· 2. Leading Lines: Use natural or implied lines to lead the eye into the photograph.

· 3. Diagonals: Diagonal lines create movement. These can be implied or real.

· 4. Framing: Use natural frames like windows and doors.

· 5. Figure to ground: How does your foreground relate to your background? Is it a relationship of contrast or harmony. This is perhaps the hardest of techniques.

· 6. Fill your frame: Get close to your subjects.

· 7. Center the dominant eye: Placing the dominant eye in the center of the photo gives the impression the eyes follow you.

· 8. Pattern and repetition: like areas are repeated throughout the image.

· 9. Symmetry: the image is symmetrical. SYMMETRY refers to a line that splits an object in half and, if both sides of the object are an exact mirror image of each other, then this object is said to be symmetrical
https://expertphotography.com/symmetry-in-photography/

writing homework

Bajunaid 1

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

20 February 2022

Review between the Hybrid vs Electric Cars

It should be noted that the following assessment between hybrid against electric vehicles is

intended to target enthusiasts and new buyers of vehicles of either configuration or type.

Additionally, the information offered is for knowledgeable purposes, in other words, offering

potential buyers a simplified appreciation of each technology and its impact on the

environment.

Hybrid Vehicles

Since the late 1800s, automobile developers have created and sold hybrid cars; yet,

due to the increased expense of manufacturing them on a large scale, their market acceptance

has remained low. However, automakers continued to study and develop improved hybrid

technologies in order to meet stricter emissions standards. Nevertheless, hybrid vehicles are

propelled by two propulsion systems, a conventional combustion engine, and an electric

motor. Both collaborate to rotate the wheels. It results in less petrol being consumed and

hence improved fuel efficiency.

Hybrids provide increased power and fuel economy by combining the benefits of high

fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional cars when hybrid cars cruise or

brake, extra power is used to charge the batteries, resulting in increased fuel economy or

range. There are various methods to construct a hybrid vehicle. However, the first widely

available mass-market version was developed and utilized by Honda and is referred to as a

parallel or tandem hybrid.

According to Zhang et al., “the system connects an internal combustion engine with

an electric motor via a shared transmission gearbox. The differential transmits power between

Bajunaid 2

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

20 February 2022

the system’s two propulsion units and distributes it to the driving wheels in whichever

configuration the automobile requires at the time”. There are four primary forms of operation.

The first is the purely electric mode; the engine may be completely disconnected from the

share transmission through a clutch, allowing the automobile to be propelled only by the

electric motor.

The powertrain may be disabled under this model, and the automobile will drive

entirely on electricity. The engine may be restarted and the clutch compressed while the

electric motor is still operational, enabling the axles to be driven by both the electric and

gasoline engines. Also, “it is advantageous in the circumstances requiring torque, such as

entering onto an expressway or ascending a slope.” The powerplant can continue to run,

driving the electric motor instead of actively producing power. It effectively converts the

powerplant to a generator while driving the automobile. It allows the batteries to be charged

without the car being plugged in or stopped. The automobile acts similarly to a conventional

hydrocarbon vehicle in the arrangement.

The ultimate mode occurs when the automobile decelerates, neither propulsion system

produces power, and the wheels are connected to the motor. It causes the automobile to slow

down faster, as the engine uses the rotating motion of the axles to charge the battery. The

process is referred to as regenerative braking.

Electric Cars

All-electric cars (EVs), also known as battery electric vehicles, retain the electric

power to propel the motor driver in a battery pack. EVs charge by connecting it to a power

source, mainly mains electricity. Also, “…while energy generation contributes to

Bajunaid 3

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

20 February 2022

environmental pollution, the EPA (the United States Environmental Protection Agency)

classifies all-electric cars as zero or nil emission vehicles since they emit no immediate

exhaust or tailpipe pollutants.” Generally, most of today’s EVs have a lower range (per

recharge) than equivalent traditional cars (per tank of petroleum).

However, as the variety of new car models such as Tesla expands and the

advancement of high-powered recharging infrastructure continues, thus closing the gap. The

economy and endurance of electric vehicles vary significantly depending on the operating

circumstances. Extremely cold or extremely hot surrounding conditions tend to restrict range

since more energy is required to change the temperature of the vehicle’s interior. EVs are

much more economical in cities than on highways.

Cities feature frequent stops, which maximizes the advantages of regenerative braking

as previously mentioned; however, highway driving often uses more effort to counteract the

higher drag at faster speeds. Additionally, in comparison to slow acceleration, rapid

acceleration diminishes the vehicle’s endurance. Towing big items or driving over steep

inclines can significantly affect range.

Hybrid Vs. Electric Cars

The primary distinction between a hybrid and an electric vehicle is that it utilizes both

a combustion engine and an electric motor to propel its wheels. Conversely, electric vehicles

are propelled by a singular power source, electric motors. While hybrid vehicles offer

increased fuel economy and endurance, electric vehicles have yet to achieve their full

potential. Nonetheless, electric vehicles emit fewer pollutants than hybrid vehicles, which

rely on a combustion engine.

Bajunaid 4

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

20 February 2022

When deciding between a hybrid and an electric vehicle, keep in mind that each has

environmental advantages and is more fuel-efficient than gasoline-only vehicles. However,

one of the primary advantages of hybrid over gasoline-powered vehicles is that they are more

environmentally friendly since they operate cleaner and have a higher gas economy. Hybrid

cars are propelled by two engines, one gasoline, and one electric, reducing fuel use and

conserving energy.

Additionally, hybrids have a shorter battery range than all-electric vehicles, and the

electrical capability is intended to complement conventional engine driving and aid in fuel

economy optimization. Certain hybrids include a battery-operated operating option, limited to

slower speeds or short distances. In other words, they use the advantages of both propulsion

systems and eliminate range concerns.

Bajunaid 5

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

20 February 2022

Works Cited

Zhang, Yan-Tao et al. “Develop Of A Fuel Consumption Model For Hybrid

Vehicles”. Energy Conversion And Management, vol 207, 2020, p. 112546. Elsevier BV,

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112546. Accessed 18 Feb 2022.Sub

writing homework

English 1A – Argument Essays Guidelines – FA2020

WRITE ABOUT Hybrid and Electric Cars – which is better?

(This essay is about the same topic I have used for the Compare and Contrast and/ Analysis Essay. I posted the files for the Compare and Contrast and/ Analysis Essay as an attachment for you to read it so you can complete this Argument Essay.)

THE BASICS for the Argument Essay

· This is an 8-page essay proving your argument/thesis on the same topic you used for the Compare and Contrast and/or Analysis Essay. Remember, we are building an argument essay by using the articles, research, and foundations from the first two essays by synthesizing the data you used, gathering more information that will back your thesis statement, and creating a solid argument. (If you want a new topic, please talk to me first. This may require more time and research.)

· If you are using the same topic from your previous essays, you will need to use the three articles you already analyzed along with 1 – 3 other articles from additional research. For this essay you need between 4-6 sources to support your argument and one to two articles that refutes your argument. Three of these resources need to be from a scholarly source.

· Find and use one to two rebuttals (articles with opposing arguments).

(A good argument essay not only has evidence to support your thesis, it also contains information that argues against your thesis. This shows your reader that you are aware of what ‘the other’ is saying and are prepared to defend your argument.)

· You will be analyzing your researched materials and deciding which ones offer the strongest backing for your thesis statement.

· Use quotes, summaries, and paraphrases from all the articles you are using.

· Make sure you use MLA citations after all the quotes, summaries, and paraphrases within your paper and include a Works Cited page.

· If you are using APA style, make sure you are using it according to our textbook, with in-text citations and a Reference page.

· Analyze your resources as closely as you did for the analysis essay.

· Avoid passive statements unless appropriate. Your argument needs to be active in order to engage the reader.

·
Use third person point of view only.

· If you are using the same topic from the first two essays, you may copy and paste from those essays any information that builds and adds to your argument but try to find a better way of saying it.

· Use quotes, examples, paraphrases, charts, images, and/or graphs; this is okay and encouraged. Don’t forget to use MLA or APA to site these things.

· Present your argument then state the counterargument. Make sure your argument is stronger than the counterargument.

You may include several different points in one rhetorical argument, but generally, you don’t have to include all the possible areas in one essay. You might use an analysis of a work to explain how it fits a certain ideology or rhetorical mode. Whatever your point is, that becomes your thesis, and remember, it’s a thesis about the argument you are trying to prove.

ESSAY STRUCTURE: Start with the header followed by a title that suggests what the paper is about. Do not title your paper Argument Essay. Your first paragraph is your introduction. Your thesis statement can go in this paragraph or the second. Do not wait until halfway through the essay to plant your thesis. Lines need to be double spaced, use size 12 font, Sanskrit Text, Calibri Light, Courier New, Cambria, or Times New Roman. Use a hanging indent on the Works Cited/Reference page. You may use subtitles and footnotes. Check the MLA/APA style chapters to learn how to do that according to the style you are using.

· Find support for your viewpoint.

· Include a brief summary of the articles, and if needed, introduce the authors. This lends credibility to those writers.

· Uses examples, quotes, images, and/or charts.

· Use any of the terms from our textbook.

· Keep your voice distinct.

· Try modeling your essay after one of the types of argument essays: Classical, Toulmin, Rogerian.

Here’s how you can lose points. 

· Using less than the minimum number of articles required – 5 points

· Writing less than the minimum required pages – 5 points per absent required page count. 

· Missing in-text MLA citation references – 10 points

· Missing MLA Works Cited page – 10 points

· Inappropriate title (titling your essay with the ‘type’ of paper,) – 5 points

· Numerous typos, misspellings, grammatical errors (that results in a major distraction from the topic)– 1-20 points

(If there are numerous errors, you will be asked to work on it, make corrections, and resubmit it.)

· Incorrectly formatted text or Works Cited page – 5-20 points

· Failure to use third person point of view exclusively – 10 points

· Failure to follow the guidelines – 40 points

· Plagiarism – 100 points

2

2

writing homework

Bajunaid 1

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

6 February 2022

Review of Expert Opinions Regarding Hybrid vs. Electric Cars

Although the majority of motorists across the world still use the conventional internal

combustion engines, electric and hybrid cars are fast gaining popularity. These vehicles are

constantly being developed as a means of creating more environmentally-friendly vehicles. The

dropping costs of these vehicles coupled with an increase in their reliability and driving range is

making them attractive to motorists. However, debates still remain as to which of the two types

of vehicles (electric and hybrid) are better than the other. Electric cars draw power from electric

motors to propel the vehicles while hybrid cars draw power from both electric motors and

internal combustion engines to propel the vehicles. This paper compares two articles that discuss

this topic to get an insight into the authors’ perceptions of electric and hybrid vehicles, in

addition to enabling the reader to deduce the better vehicle between the two.

In this article, Graham-Rowe review the perceptions of mainstream consumers toward

hybrid and electric vehicles. Based on a qualitative study, the article compares the two types of

cars based on six categories: vehicle confidence, cost minimization, environmental beliefs,

vehicle adaptation demands, impression management, and the general development of the

vehicles. The authors are well-known and trustworthy. They have impressive academic

credentials and work for the Transport Research laboratory in the UK.

In this article, Weiss, Zerfass, and Helmers present the cost-benefit analyses and

experience curves for hybrid and electric cars sold in Germany. They investigate the user costs of

Bajunaid 2

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

6 February 2022

both cars in terms of maintenance and the costs for mitigating air pollutant emissions. They also

discuss the relevant recharging infrastructure associated with both vehicles. The authors are well-

known and trustworthy. They have good academic credentials, vast experience in transport

issues, and work for the Joint Research Center, Institute of Energy, Transport, and Climate.

The intended audience for both articles is comprised of the stakeholders of the car

industry. This includes the car manufacturers, the car buyers, and the relevant policymaking

bodies in transportation. By comparing electric and hybrid vehicles using various attributes, the

audience can make crucial deductions aimed at informing the future development of both types

of cars. Regarding the purpose of writing the articles, Graham-Rowe aimed to compare hybrid

and electric vehicles based on six categories. Their findings are meant to give the reader an

insight into the pros and cons of each vehicle and the type of car that will offer better value for

money based on the current developments. Weiss, Zerfass, and Helmers aimed to investigate the

user costs of both cars. Their findings are meant to reveal the level at which each car saves on

costs based on maintenance and environmental pollution.

The stance by Graham-Rowe is that based on the vehicles that are currently available,

hybrid cars present a better value for consumers’ money compared to electric ones. Graham-

Rowe assert that “the prioritization of personal mobility needs over environmental benefits,

concerns over the social desirability of electric vehicle use, and the expectation that rapid

technological and infrastructural developments will make current models obsolete” (p. 140). The

Bajunaid 3

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

6 February 2022

implication is that hybrid vehicles outperform electric vehicles based on the research they

conducted on mainstream consumers. Hence, they conclude that there is a need for electric

vehicles to be significantly improved if their popularity among the mainstream consumers is to

increase.

The stance by Weiss, Zerfass, and Helmers is that the current infrastructure supports the

use of hybrid vehicles to a greater extent than electric vehicles. Weiss, Zerfass, and Helmers

argue that “the observation of robust technological learning suggests policymakers should focus

their support on non-cost market barriers for the electrification of road transport, addressing

specifically the availability of recharging infrastructure” (p. 1478). Hence, they conclude that

hybrid vehicles are better than electric vehicles since their maintenance and performance are

more client-friendly and supported by current infrastructure.

The genre used by both Graham-Rowe and Weiss, Zerfass, and Helmers is a report whose

findings are supported by a primary study. Both sets of authors bring reliable information to the

context of their articles. Their articles are grounded on primary studies. Also, the findings they

get are supported by scholarly secondary literature. The media used by both sets of authors is a

professional journal. Both journals used are scholarly and peer-reviewed, which enhances their

validity, reliability, and credibility. In conclusion, this paper has compared two articles to get an

insight into the authors’ perceptions of electric and hybrid vehicles, in addition to enabling the

Bajunaid 4

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

6 February 2022

reader to deduce the better vehicle between the two. Both authors assert that hybrid vehicles are

better than electric cars.

Bajunaid 5

Mohammed Bajunaid

Tamara Frtzchle

English 1A

6 February 2022

References

Graham-Rowe, E., Gardner, B., Abraham, C., Skippon, S., Dittmar, H., Hutchins, R., &

Stannard, J. (2017). Mainstream consumers driving plug-in battery-electric and plug-in

hybrid electric cars: A qualitative analysis of responses and evaluations. Transportation

Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(1), 140-153.

Weiss, M., Zerfass, A., & Helmers, E. (2019). Fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars-An analysis

of learning rates, user costs, and costs for mitigating CO2 and air pollutant emissions.

Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 1478-1489.