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Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?

Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?

Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of
plasma oncotic pressure.
osmotic forces.
antidiuretic hormone.
hydrostatic forces.
Question 2
Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water (TBW)?
Because they are unable communicate adequately when they are thirsty
Because more than half of an infant’s body weight is water
Because infants have a slow metabolic rate
Because an infant’s kidneys are not mature enough to counter fluids losses
Question 3
Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of
20:1.
10:2.
10:5.
1:20.
Question 4
Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?
Renin
Angiotensin I
Aldosterone
Angiotensin II
Question 5
How does the loss of chloride during vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis?
Loss of chloride causes retention of bicarbonate to maintain the anion balance.
Loss of chloride causes hydrogen to move into the cell and exchange with potassium to maintain cation balance.
Loss of chloride stimulates the release of aldosterone, which causes the retained sodium to bind with the chloride.
Loss of chloride causes hypoventilation to compensate for the metabolic alkalosis.
Question 6
In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of
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NR507 week 2 Quiz – September 2017 – All correct
Asked by sharpie
Dated: 22nd Sep’17 02:04 PM
Bounty offered: $20.00
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depression of the sinoatrial (SA) node.
cardiac cell repolarization.
cardiac cell hyperexcitability.
cardiac cell hypopolarization.
Question 7
When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated?
By an increase in aldosterone secreted into the plasma
By an increase in the antidiuretic hormone secreted into the plasma
By an increase in the hydrostatic pressure of the plasma
By an increase in the osmotic pressure of the plasma
Question 8
In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating
apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells.
formation of immunoglobulin G to initiate the complement cascade.
phagocytosis by neutrophils and eosinophils.
macrophages that release TNF-α.
Question 9
_____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.
Pulmonary emboli
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Acute pulmonary edema
Pneumonia
ARDS is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.
Question 10
Which of the following is a true statement?
Hyperventilation results in an increased PaCO2.
Hypoventilation causes hypocapnia.
Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia.
Hyperventilation causes hypercapnia.
Question 11
Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma?
Bradykinin, serotonin, and neutrophil proteases
Lymphokines, serotonin, and prostaglandins
Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
Neutrophil proteases, bradykinin, and histamine
Question 12
Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg.
20
10
30
40
Question 13
The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with
elimination of the causative agent.
drugs that reduce bronchospasm.
drugs that decrease airway inflammation.
broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Question 14
High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through
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hypoventilation.
shunting.
decreased inspired oxygen.
diffusion abnormalities.
Question 15
Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of
asthma.
emphysema.
pneumonia.
chronic bronchitis.
Question 16
A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma.
cavitation
consolidation
empyema
abscess
.
Question 17
Dyspnea is not a result of
decreased pH, increased PaCO2, and decreased PaO2.
decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata.
stimulation of stretch or J-receptors.
fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm.
Question 18
Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include
peripheral edema and jugular venous distention.
systemic blood pressure greater than 130/90.
dyspnea on exertion and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
productive cough and rhonchi bilaterally.
Question 19
The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing
pulmonary hypertension.
pulmonary fibrosis.
disruption of alveolocapillary membrane.
atelectasis and decreased lung compliance.
Question 20
Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma?
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgG
Question 21
What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn?
A surfactant deficiency
Anemia
Small alveoli
An immature immune system
Question 22
An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n)
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pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray.
obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency.
obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation.
pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferens.
Question 23
Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect?
Treatment includes the instillation of exogenous surfactant down an endotracheal tube of infants weighing less than 1,000 g.
Supporting the infant’s respiratory function by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). An infant’s respiratory function is supported by using continuous
pressure (CPAP).
Administering oxygen to mothers during preterm labor increases their arterial oxygen before birth of the fetus.
Administering glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor accelerates the maturation of the fetus’s lungs.
Question 24
Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults.
higher than
the same as
lower than
unlike that
Question 25
Which of the following types of croup is most common?
Autoimmune
Viral
Fungal
Bacterial