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what other tort liability theory might apply and why?

what other tort liability theory might apply and why?

Scenario (based on a real Missouri case): At a local Missouri hospital a patient had a total right knee replacement (arthoplasty) under general anesthesia. However, upon awakening from the anesthesia, he immediately experienced pain in his right hand, arm and shoulder which was not present before the surgery. The patient sued the hospital and the surgeon for medical malpractice.
What should be the basis of the lawsuit given these facts?
Should it be based upon a typical negligence principle (e.g., duty, breach of duty, causation, etc.)?
If so, which one(s)?
If not, what other tort liability theory might apply and why?
How should the court rule?
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Your initial reaction to this question is probably going to be, “I don’t have enough facts to answer the question!” However, that’s not true.
Put yourself in the shoes of a malpractice lawyer. This patient comes to you, asking for legal advice. You don’t have much information about what could have gone wrong in the surgery. However, SOMETHING must have gone wrong to have an outcome like this. In fact, somebody likely did something negligent during the surgery, you’re just not sure who or what. Is there a legal theory,that could help out a plaintiff in this situation, where he doesn’t have all the facts?
Please answer all question, follow all instructions, use citations and reference APA style.