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What are important dietary changes the patient needs to institute? Think about her BMI.

What are important dietary changes the patient needs to institute? Think about her BMI.

A 48-year-old woman is admitted to the emergency room. Her family states she has been ill for 5 days with vomiting and diarrhea. She has been unable to take fluids for the past 2 days. She has no past major medical problems. Family history is positive for type 2 diabetes in her mother and sister. She takes no medications.

On physical examination:

BP 110/80, P 96, R 22, BMI 34

Skin: dry with decreased turgor

HEENT: oral mucous membranes are dry

Lungs: clear to auscultation

Heart: regular rhythm with no murmur

Abdomen: soft bowel sounds present, no masses

On admission, the following laboratory tests were done:

Fasting blood sugar 250

Total cholesterol 265

Triglycerides 185

High Density Lipoprotein 35

Urine

Specific gravity 1.028

Ketones positive

The physician made a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

1. Reviewing the above history, physical examination, and laboratory data, which of the findings support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?

2. This is a new diagnosis for the patient and the nurse in her teaching needs to describe the pathophysiology of the disease. Provide a description of the important information that should be included.

3. What are important dietary changes the patient needs to institute? Think about her BMI.