The Changing Boundaries of
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018 & 2022);
Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018 & 2022).
Exploring the need for criminologists
Criminology & the phenomenon of crime through
• October 29, 2012 Sandy hits Jersey shore. Billions in damages,
hundreds of deaths.
• March 11, 2011 the most powerful earthquake hit Japan. Tens of
thousands of deaths. No civil unrest or looting—they waited with
civility for a fair distribution of limited supplies.
• January 12, 2010 a 7.0 earthquake hit Port au-Prince, Haiti. Approx.
316,000 dead and without a discernable police presence violence
erupted marked by looting and gang related gunfire.
• August 29, 2005, Katrina devastated New Orleans. Looter took over
the city and 1,500 police on search and rescue were reassigned to
Covid-19 Pandemic Issues in 2020
• Adler, Mueller and Laufer (2022) state that early on in 2020 it
appeared that the pandemic lockdowns and stay at home orders led
to a decrease in drug and violent crimes.
• However there was an increase in domestic violence.
• We will see later on the total cost of the pandemic resulting from stay at
home orders, masking and vaccination mandates (such as increases in mental
health issues and suicides rates).
Globalization Effects on criminology
• In past societies all produced their own goods.
• Today, worlds economy increasing becoming a “Global Village”.
• Globalization expands the need for criminologists to explore and find
solutions for evolving social issues.
• Economic, Human Rights, and Environmental crimes.
Human Trafficking and Globalization
• USA alone gets approx. 100,000 humans trafficked for illegal sex and
labor exploitation per year.
• Human trafficking is to the 21st Century what the cold war was to the 20th
• Sex Trafficking worldwide is over 20.9 million. 98% are women and
• 2 million children per year.
What Criminologists knew about these changing
• Criminologists knew looting was a stage after a natural disaster—due to past
• Criminologists understand globalization increases our risk to transnational crime
and shifting class structures within societies around the world (including our
• Do not be deceived by the media and their symbiotic relationship with
legislatures (Adler, Muller, & Laufer, 2022, p. 13).
• Police shootings, the global village & the econ., school to prison pipeline.
• Where should we focus as criminologists?
• Criminologists are needed to make better policies to protect society from the
harms of crime, from violence to fraud, corporate crimes, political and
• In all human activity deviance is possible.
another changing boundary of criminology
• State Department: the premeditated, politically motivated violence
perpetrated against non-combatant agents, usually intended to
influence an audience.
• Adler: the use of threat of violence directed at people or
governments to punish them for past actions and/or to bring about a
change of policy which is to the terrorist’s liking.
Seven Forms of Transnational Criminality
Hub of Terrorism
• 1, Illicit Drug Trafficking
• Over 1 trillion in dirty money funds illegal activity including terrorism
• 2, Money Laundering
• Repeated movement of funds in unnumbered accounts. Clean money can be used in an open
• 3, Infiltration of Legal Business
• Fronts for terrorist operative to smuggle money, agents and supplies.
• 4, Computer Crime
• ISIS believed to have ability to carry out cyber attacks.
• 5, Illicit Arms Trafficking
• 6, Traffic in Persons
• Human trafficking used to make money. Refugee immigrants have infiltrated by terrorists.
• 7, Destruction of Cultural Property
• Terrorist like Lenin, Hitler, Taliban and ISIS destroy anything apposing their ideology.
Evolution of the Field of Criminology
• Criminology the term was coined in 1885
• By Raffaele Garofalo
• Concern is on the phenomenon of crime.
• Studying crime and criminality (nature, extent, cause and control of it).
• While Criminal Justice – a relatively new field of study
• 2 closely related fields
• Studying justice related concerns.
• Police, courts and corrections
• Edwin H. Sutherland: Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding
crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the
process of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the
breaking of laws…The objective of criminology is the development of
a body of general and verified principles and of other types of
knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment or
• Criminologists: social scientists who collect and analyze data using
modern research methods (verified principles and logic not feelings).
Criminal Justice focus
• The structure, function, and decision processes of those agencies that
deal with the management and control of crime and criminal
offenders: policing, the courts and corrections.
Criminology is Multi-Disciplined
Classical School of thought vs Positivists
• Rational Choice/classical school – Beccaria
• Political Science – policy
• Anthropology – cultural conflict and values
• Criminal Justice
• Sociologist – social environmental factors
Deviance and Crime explored
• Criminologist use the term
deviance to describe behavior
that violates social norms
• A crime is any human behavior
that violates a criminal law and
is subject to punishment.
Deviance and Crime cont’d
• Who is most likely to be incarcerated?
• Those committing Deviant Acts or Criminal Acts
• Can deviance create social harm?
• Who has the power to determine significance to society?
• Criminal law – by state on behalf of the state
• Civil law – personal loss, pain or suffering.
Society’s Reactions to Lawbreakers
• Centuries ago wayward entered gates of cities by day passing gallows.
• Or criminals were banished (outlawry) from communities as in the fairytale Little Red
• Today jails and prisons dot our countryside.
• Criminologists have influenced how we deal with lawbreakers for centuries.
• Criminological research shows how punishment has often been irrational,
arbitrary, emotional, politically motivated and counter productive.
• Why hasn’t society done a better job at crime prevention then?
• Criminologist are not politicians. Can’t make laws but through sound
research we can influence a better Criminal Justice System.
The Criminal Justice System – briefly
dealing with lawbreakers cont’d
• The Process of Justice
• From initial contact, through post-release
• Crime committed – investigation
• Police make arrest based on probable cause
• Booking (custody) fingerprinting and investigation
• Grand jury hands down its indictment
• Arraignment: formal charges & rights read to defendant
• Bail or detention
• Plea bargaining
• Trial process/adjudication
• Correctional treatment
• Post release/aftercare. if early release on parole.
Interactionist view of crime
• The moral entrepreneurs define crime: the deviant is one to whom
the label has been successfully applied. – Howard Becker
Consensus View of Law and Crime
• Lawmaking is an accommodation of interests in a society.
• Lawmaking is to produce a system of laws and enforcement to which
everybody basically subscribes.
• Certain acts are deemed so threatening to the society’s survival that
they are designated as crime.
Conflict View of Law and Crime
• The law expresses the values of the ruling class.
• The criminal justice system is a means of controlling the classes that
have not power.
• Conflict theorists claim that a struggle for power is a far more basic
feature of human existence than is consensus.