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Police Body Cameras and Police Use of Force



Abstract

This paper will solely evaluate the issue of police use of force and the development of police body-worn cameras as one of its remedies. Body-worn cameras have become popular in today’s law enforcement agencies to combat police brutality against citizens. Additionally, the agencies view it to promote evidentiary information from various encounters. Police brutality is a common menace to society. In the 2014 police shooting of Michael Brown, a black man in Missouri experienced conflicting witness accounts. Resultantly, (Say, “In response.)the country’s administration funded body-worn camera programs across 32 states in the US. In 2016, the cameras had become practical in about 47 percent of the country’s law enforcement agencies. However, one of the challenges in the policy is that citizens often request the release of recorded scenarios, especially on high-profile incidents like police shootings. They want to watch themselves and make their conclusions according to their opinions. The policy also faces cost challenges. This report mainly bases its information on desk research, intensely relying on the peer-reviewed journal for the facts it presents. The peer-reviewed journals have conducted surveys, questionnaires, and case studies to collect relevant data about BWCs. (Not Needed) This paper generally concludes that body-worn cameras have become influential in the battle to curb police brutality. Several reports have shown that officers wearing cameras are less violent than those without. The cameras are crucial for providing indisputable evidence and automatically capturing the officers’ actions.

Police Body Cameras and Police Use of Force

Introduction

In todays’ society, police brutality has become rampant and has called for swift measures to fight it and improve police relations with the public (Fryer, 2020). One of the measures law enforcement agencies have adopted in this fight is deploying body-worn cameras (BWCs) (Henstock & Ariel, 2017). The agencies believe BWCs are a powerful tool to curb police brutality since they provide indisputable evidence from police encounters (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). Body-worn cameras automatically capture audio and visual encounters (Henstock & Ariel, 2017). Therefore, they can provide information that can help police performance and accountability in the future. In the past and recently, there have been shocking reports of police brutality.

Additionally, most cases involve fatality against people of color (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020).( You need a different citation here. This paper is a comment/critique of a paper that argued no racial differences. These authors critiqued the method/data. So, I would cite a study that had this result.) One example is an encounter in 2014 whereby police officers shot a black man named Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri (Fryer, 2020). The case saw conflicting witness accounts, which could probably make it problematic for law enforcers to create a healthy verdict over it. The paper will focus on analyzing the development of body-worn cameras to determine how they have improved and addressed the issue of police use of force.

Literature Review

Use of Force among Police Officers

Police use of force refers to police officers’ effort to compel compliance from unwilling subjects (Sousa et al., 2018). Therefore, sometimes it becomes necessary for the police to use force. It is acceptable by the law in specific circumstances such as self-defense and when the officers are defending others. However, the issue is tricky since neither two situations nor any two officers (Smith, 2019). However, the amount of force that police officers use is observable through physical and verbal restraint, lethal force, and less deadly force.

Police brutality is a situation whereby police officers violate various human rights. In most cases, police brutality has involved racial abuse, beating, torture, unlawful killing, and misuse of power to control protests (Sousa et al., 2018). Several reports have shown that police brutality has prevailed among individuals and crowds. According to law enforcement agencies, Police brutality is one of the most extreme misconducts among police officers (Smith, 2019). However, unlike police use of force allowed in some situations, police brutality is not acceptable by law enforcement agencies.

Several international laws are set to oversee police actions towards the public. Such laws are present in organizations like the United Nations (Fryer, 2020). They state those police officers should only use force as the last option when they are strictly under threats that could lead to death or severe injury (Sousa et al., 2018). Use of force may also be allowed when all other de-escalation measures are inadequate.

However, laws governing police use of force and brutality are, to some extent, insufficient. Some countries are not having any national laws addressing this issue (Gaub, 2021). For example, in the US, nine states do not have any regulations on police use of lethal force (Sousa et al., 2018). It means that victims of such cases have more significant tasks to seek justice from international laws. Several reports have shown that several victims of police use of force and brutality are innocent and unarmed (Fryer, 2020). It shows that the police officers in the assault cases do it with impunity without considering the international laws. Numerous studies have shown that from 2013 to 2019, about 99 percent of police officers who use excessive force and killings do not face any criminal charges (Gaub, 2021).

Several reports have studied incidents that predict the use of force by the police. Although several studies have shown the use of force against unarmed victims, some have also shown that suspects shot by the police pose an imminent danger to the officers during the shootings (Gaub, 2021). Additionally, research has demonstrated that suspects’ arrest resistance is significant in predicting the use of less-lethal force (Fryer, 2020). In a recent study, military veterans in the Dallas Police department were more likely to engage in shooting scenarios. Combat experienced officers had a three times much higher probability of involving in such a case. Officer level predictors have also prevailed in some studies.

Some studies have looked at the use of force by police and its relationship with police gender. However, these studies have shown inconsistent results, whereby some have shown that female police have lower probabilities of using force (Gaub, 2021). However, some have shown similar results across the police gender. Another significant factor that studies have addressed is police race. Some studies have shown that police race has not been a major factor in determining police use of force since police behavior has appeared similar across their races (Fryer, 2020).

Organizational and ecological correlates of force have also turned into a study subject for researchers. In such studies, police use of force has been closely linked to community characteristics like racial composition, economic inequality, and environmental factors (Gaub, 2021). In several cases, community violence level positively relates to rates of police use of force. As organizational factor is concerned, informal organizational culture and policy are among the leading factors that could guide and control police use of force (Gaub, 2021). On the other hand, unclear and unenforced policies have higher chances of escalating lethal force.

In police specialty units, numerous studies have systematically looked into lethal power by these units. They have reported multiple cases of dog bites that were recorded in K9 units of single agencies (Laming, 2019). They also found 35 to 40 percent and 24 percent of suspected nervousness led to dog bites (Gaub, 2021). Officers assigned to specialty units use almost four times greater force than general police units. Therefore, unit-level is significant in mitigating coercive behavior. Unit assessment policies should also prevail as a remedy.

Police use of force situations happens frequently. Some get displayed in the news, while most of them that occur far too often do not get to the public spotlight (Smith, 2019). Additionally, countless police brutality occasions are not getting national attention, and several are not even reported (Smith, 2019). In 2016, incidents involving police use of force in the United States resulted in 1,093 killings. However, this was a slight improvement among the officers since, in 2015, police officers killed 1,146 victims (Laming, 2019). Studies have shown that cases of police killings have reduced in urban zones and significantly escalated in suburban and rural areas in recent years. In 2020, the first half of the year had more police brutality cases than the second half (Gaub, 2021).

Research in California has shown that police brutality has highly prevailed over the past decade. High-profile shooting has heightened, leading to deaths of civilians at the hands of law enforcement officers (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). The brutality has occurred towards all races, but black civilians have been affected more in most of those significant cases. The studies have also shown that police officers shoot 250 victims every year, out of which roughly 195 civilians die in California at police hands (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020).

Fifteen percent of police fatal encounters resulted from misunderstandings at the vehicle and pedestrian stops (Fryer, 2020). Some citizens are killed, and some record serious injuries in this situation. Additionally, more than four out of ten victims of gunshots suffer mental health complications later. Other problems with the cases are alcohol-related and substance-related disorders (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). However, in 80 percent of cases involving gunshot wounds in California, the civilians were armed and posed a significant danger to the police. In other cases that led to serious injuries, 56 percent of the civilians were unarmed (Fryer, 2020).

One of the examples reports has shown in addressing the issue of police brutality against black civilians transpired in Minneapolis city in 2020, where a black man, George Floyd, died in police custody. The 44-year old got arrested for allegedly using a counterfeit 20 dollars bill. His killing was brutal since the policeman had handcuffed him and knelt on his neck for several minutes (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). Additionally, the killer police did this inhuman action in front of bystanders and refused to listen to their pleas to lift his knee off the victim.

In some cases, police use of force is associated with the task assigned to them and the kind of people they will deal with. Reports have shown that police violence is more prevalent in cases involving arrest resistance and violence from the victims (Fryer, 2020). However, police brutality chances are reduced when dealing with mentally challenged suspects. Force has also been highly prevalent when officers deal with several suspects since they are likely to offer more resistance (Gaub, 2021).

Researchers in US and UK have also shown that cases of police assault by citizens have risen by a 15 percent higher notch when the police are wearing cameras. It may be due to overconfidence by the public that the officers would not use force in such cases (Fryer, 2020). Unfortunately, such cases are among those that drive the police towards using more power towards the public to ensure they accomplish their tasks (Gaub, 2021). Therefore police use of force may come from defending themselves against public assaults.

Department levels have also been a factor affecting police brutality. Different departmental units treat their suspects with varying levels of force (Gaub, 2021). For instance, research has shown that SWAT-certified patrol officers use more power when conducting non-SWAT operations than general patrol officers (Smith, 2019). The officers would also increase the force they use due to inadequate supervision.

The above cases signify that it is essential to perform police reforms to improve the officers’ accountability. Police officers must have healthy relations with the public, which will promote trust among them (Gaub, 2021). Police accountability is also a crucial requirement in society to ensure the proper undertaking of their services. Additionally, it is essential in preventing unnecessary suffering and mortality.

Body-worn Cameras’ Evolution

Since the issue of police use of force had become chronic, law enforcement agencies saw the need to introduce policies to combat this menace ((Adams & Mastracci, 2019). The use of police body-worn cameras came as a priority in this fight. The first generation of modern BWCs got introduced in 2005 in the United Kingdom (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). However, from 2014 to date, these gadgets have seen large-scale implementation in the US and other parts of the world.

The first generation of police body-worn cameras had several challenges. Generally, first-generation cameras were fixed on police bodies using a clip or a magnet. Therefore, the cameras could not firmly hold on to the police bodies (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). In such cases, the cameras were in greater danger of falling off, especially when the police officers were involved in critical situations requiring recording. It means that they could fall off when they were most necessary (Piza, 2021).

One such case was when police officers were involved in a foot pursuit. In such incidents, an officer will focus on chasing their victims. They will have little concern about going back to the camera since it could be essential to prevent suspects from evading arrest than fixing a camera (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). Sometimes, a police officer could also struggle with a suspect resisting arrest. In such cases, loosely fixed cameras could easily fall off (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

Another challenge that faced the first-generation BWCs was that they only had manual activation. Therefore, police officers had to activate them manually when they got into critical situations. The activation feature was inconsistent since some police officers failed to record crucial incidents (Piza, 2021). Some significant incidents could occur abruptly, giving the officer inadequate time to activate the camera (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). Manual activation could also lead to inconsistency as officers could forget to activate their gadgets.

File storage also prevailed as a significant challenge in the early designs of body-worn cameras. The first-generation cameras could only store the recorded videos internally. Therefore, the gadgets’ storage space could sometimes get full after storing several recorded videos (Piza, 2021). When they got full during police operations, they could fail to record more critical situations or delete some of the already recorded ones. In 2012, West Lafayette Police Department collaborated with graduate school research in the College of Research at Purdue University on a BWCs research. The study showed that the BWC technology was still reasonably archaic (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

However, as technology evolves, the excellence of body-worn cameras has also improved dramatically. The second generation of gadgets has seen several advancements in various functionalities and design. First, wearing the cameras has improved significantly. BWCs can now be built into helmets and eyeglasses (Piza, 2021). Such wearing is excellent in preventing the BWCs from falling off during foot pursuit and struggles.

By 2017, the second generation BWCS had had already seen most of the essential advancements required. For example, the West Lafayette Police department deployed a state-of-the-art BWC and instituted the policy-based concept, which had embraced automatic recording triggers (Piza, 2021). The automatic triggers became an effective remedy for police officers failing to record essential situations. Therefore, automation has improved the BWCs’ reliability, efficiency, and consistency (Piza, 2021).

Second-generation BWCs are equipped with several automation sensors. For example, the new technology has incorporated built-in accelerometers, which have shown excellence in the devices. The accelerometers can automatically detect when a police officer is running and will start recording automatically (Piza, 2021). Therefore, the cameras will activate automatically during foot pursuits.

Officer down alert and activation is another significant advancement. The feature is crucial, especially in events where the officer is in danger during field operations. It allows the camera to detect and start automatically on occasion when an officer goes down (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). The feature also alerts the nearby officers and sends GPS coordinates of the downed officer to the command center.

More intelligent technology has still developed in the police BWCs. The current generation allows the cameras to activate using computer-aided dispatch (CAD) calls (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). CAD calls automatically start recording when an officer receives the call for service. Action zones are another intelligent feature that helps in the automatic recording. It allows the officers to set certain areas as action zones, and the cameras will start to record audio and video automatically when they enter these areas (Piza, 2021). Some cameras can also detect gunshots and activate recording instantly. Therefore innovative technology has played a core role in developing police body-worn cameras. During the first phase of BWCs deployment, several positive outcomes were seen regarding police use of force. However, as the policy continued, it attracted mixed reactions from the public and some police departments. (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

As various research projects in addressing the issue of BWCs have mainly shown how vital the cameras are. They have also demonstrated that innovative technology improvements have made the BWCs excellent in their work. Several automation capabilities have enabled police officers to capture videos and audio recordings even in circumstances that could not allow them to activate recording (Smith, 2019).

For example, officers can capture situations such as foot pursuit automatically. It is also proper to conclude that BWC policy has successfully addressed the issue of police use of force. For instance, BWCs have become significant help in the case of police mistreatment of people of color, such as that of George Floyd in 2020. The introduction of cameras has also proved to be a great way to promote police supervision (Laming, 2019). The constant supervision has enabled the conduct of police officers who work better when they are being supervised, which has resultantly promoted their accountability.

However, some of the studies are inconsistent in showing the effect of the BWCs use. For instance, some studies have shown no difference between police use the devices and when they do not (Sousa et al., 2018). However, most studies have proven significant positive changes in police use of force when the cameras are incorporated. Besides, some authors admit that site-selection bias might have inflated their results.

References

Adams, I., & Mastracci, S. (2019). Police body-worn cameras: Development of the perceived intensity of monitoring scale. Criminal Justice Review44(3), 386-405.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734016819846219

Durlauf, S. N., & Heckman, J. J. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: A comment. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 3998-4002.
https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/710976

Fryer Jr, R. G. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: a response. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 4003-4008.
https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/710977

Gaub, J. E. (2021). Assessing the Utility of Body-Worn Cameras for Collegiate Police Agencies. Police Quarterly, 10986111211037586.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/10986111211037586

Henstock, D., & Ariel, B. (2017). Testing the effects of police body-worn cameras on use of force during arrests: A randomised controlled trial in a large British police force. European journal of criminology14(6), 720-750.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1477370816686120

Jennings, W. G., Fridell, L. A., Lynch, M., Jetelina, K. K., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2017). A quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance in a large metropolitan police department. Deviant behavior38(11), 1332-1339
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2016.1248711

Laming, E. (2019). Police use of body worn cameras. Police practice and research20(2), 201-216.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2018.1558586

Malm, A. (2019). Promise of police body-worn cameras. Criminology & Pub. Poly18, 119.
https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/crpp18&section=14

Piza, E. L. (2021). The history, policy implications, and knowledge gaps of the CCTV literature: Insights for the development of body-worn video camera research. International Criminal Justice Review31(3), 304-324.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1057567718759583

Smith, J. J. (2019). To adopt or not to adopt: Contextualizing police body-worn cameras through structural contingency and institutional theoretical perspectives. Criminal Justice Review44(3), 369-385.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734016819847267

Sousa, W. H., Miethe, T. D., & Sakiyama, M. (2018). Inconsistencies in public opinion of body-worn cameras on police: Transparency, trust, and improved police-citizen relationships. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice12(1), 100-108.
https://academic.oup.com/policing/article-abstract/12/1/100/3077014

Yokum, D., Ravishankar, A., & Coppock, A. (2019). A randomized control trial evaluating the effects of police body-worn cameras. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(21), 10329-10332.
https://www.pnas.org/content/116/21/10329.short

science

Name: Date:

Care Plan #

CON
CEPT MAP

Pathophysiology – preEclampsia

Medical Diagnosis


PreEclampsia

Signs & Symptoms/Clinical Manifestations (all data subjective and objective: labs, radiology, all diagnostic studies) (What symptoms does your client present with?)

Complications

Treatment (Medical, medications, intervention and supportive)

Causes/Risk Factors (chemical, environmental, psychological, physiological and genetic)

.

REMEMBER THAT THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES MUST BE MEASURABLE. THE INTERVENTIONS ARE WHAT YOU DO TO ASSURE THE OUTCOME AND THE CLIENT’S RESPONSE IS SPECIFICALLY HER RESPONSE.

PLAN OF CARE: Use your top two priorities

NANDA NURSING DIAGNOSIS use NANDA definition

Expected outcomes of care (Goals)

Interventions

Patient response

Goal evaluation

NRS DX:

Problem Statement:

R/T: (What is the cause of the symptom)

Manifested by: (Specific symptoms)



Short term goal

: Create a SMART goal that relates to hospital stay/shift/day.



Long term goal
: Create a SMART goal that is appropriate for discharge.

This is specific to the patient that you are caring for. A list of planned actions that will assist the patient to achieve the desired goal. (i.e. obtain foods that the patient can eat/ likes)

Interventions for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Interventions for long term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Identify what the patients response or “outcome is to the goal or care that you have provided. i.e. patient ate 45% of lunch)

Reassess for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Reassess for long-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Was it met or not met there is no partially met.

Summer 2021 JM 9

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Afternoon Simulation

Vincent Brody- COPD with Spontaneous Pneumothorax

The below activities are required to be completed before you arrive to simulation. Completing the below criteria is your “ticket to enter” the simulation. Please have all prework completed by Monday at 2359. Anyone that does not submit the clinical prep work will receive a failure for the simulation experience. Submitting this completed clinical document prior to simulation is important in order to be prepared for the clinical day. If this prep work is not completed, you will not be allowed to participate in the simulation (please be advised that simulations are limited, so make-up is not an option. If the simulation is not completed for this course you will fail to meet the objectives and not pass this course-both lecture and clinical).

Describe the Pathophysiology of a Pneumothorax? What are causes of a pneumothorax? What are the different types of pneumothorax? (Include at least 5 sentences along with in-text citations.) (30 minutes)

1. Complete the Pathophysiology diagram below by using the ATI Med/Surg ebook or your Ignatavicius Med-Surg Text located in your lecture course shell regarding COPD. (See Chapters 28 & 30, pg. 539, pp. 637-638 in Ignatavicius Med/Surg Book for more information.) (1hr)


References:

COPD

(define)

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention:

[Text]

Risk Factors

Document two Nursing Diagnosis and two Goals for your client:

[Text]

[Text]

Lab Tests/ Diagnostics

[Text]

Nursing Interventions

[Text]

Client Education

Medications (list only)

[Text]

Multidisciplinary Care

Possible Complications

[Text]

[Text]

[Text]

science

SIM DAY 1- Morning Simulation

Jennifer Hoffman- Acute Severe Asthma

The below activities are required to be completed before you arrive to the simulation. Completing the below criteria is your “ticket to enter” the simulation. Please have all pre-work submitted by Monday at 2359 prior to the simulation day. If this is not completed, you will not be allowed to participate in the simulation (please be advised that simulations are limited, so make-up is not an option. If the simulation is not completed for this course you will fail to meet the objectives and not pass this course-both lecture and clinical).

Complete the Pathophysiology diagram below by using the ATI Med/Surg ebook or your Ignatavicius Med-Surg Text located in your lecture course shell regarding Status Asthmaticus. (chapter 30) (1hr)


1. Complete the table below (1hr)

Complete the table below on medications using a Drug eBook.

Graphical user interface, text, application  Description automatically generated

Drug Name

Indications

Pharmacokinetics

Contraindications/Precautions

Nursing Implications

Implementation

Patient/family teaching

Evaluation

Albuterol 5mg in 3 mL

Ipratropium Bromide 0.5mg in 2.5mL normal saline via nebulization

Methylpred-nisolone IV 125mg

2. Complete the table below (30 min.)

Complete the table below on lab values using the Lab and diagnostic ebook (example below).

Graphical user interface, text  Description automatically generated with medium confidence

Lab Name

Rationale

Normal Ranges

Indications

Nursing Implications

ABG Analysis (What are normal results?)

pH:

CO2:

HCO3:

What ABG findings would you expect with hyperventilation?

What ABG findings would you expect with hypoventilation?

References:

Status Asthmaticus

(define)

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention:

[Text]

Risk Factors

Document two Nursing Diagnosis and two Goals for your client:

[Text]

[Text]

Lab Tests/ Diagnostics

[Text]

Nursing Interventions

[Text]

Client Education

Medications (list only)

[Text]

Multidisciplinary Care

Possible Complications

[Text]

[Text]

[Text]

science

Fetal strip monitoring Practice 1

#2

What type of deceleration is this?

How do you know?

What should the nurse do?

#1

#3 What type of deceleration is this?

How do you know?

What should the nurse do?

4 What type of deceleration is this?

How do you know?

What should the nurse do?

#5. What is this type of deceleration?

Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring (Chapter 3) - A Practical Manual to  Labor and Delivery

#7 What is this type of deceleration?

#6 What is this type of deceleration?

Late deceleration and hypoxia index in fetal monitoring

For additional practice: https://ncc-efm.org/game/efmgame.cfm

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Observations and Measurements Record
Keep track of the data you collect during this investigation in the boxes below.

My observations:

[Keep a record of things you notice here]

My measurements:

[Keep a record of things you measure here]

Science

We have been studying In class. Before we started

this investigation, we explored

We noticed

Our goal for this investigation was to figure out

The guiding question was

To answer this question,

We figured out

The graph below includes information about

This analysis suggests

This evidence is based on several important scientific ideas. The first one is

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PLEASE ANSWER ALL HIGHLIGHED QUESTIONS

ONE SLIDE BY QUESTION WITH SPEAKER NOTE

Top of Form

Assignment Scenario

After graduating from nursing school and passing your boards, you accepted a position as an RN in the Progressive Cardiac Care Unit (PCCU) at Rasmussen General Hospital (RGH). In the weeks ahead, the PCCU plans to implement a new initiative where clients who received a cardiac stent during their angioplasty will be sent home on 6 months of oral antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel.

Historically, clients diagnosed with coronary artery disease post-op stent placement were admitted to the hospital’s observation unit for 24 hours and then sent home. However, when surveyed about their experiences, many clients reported they did not like moving to a new unit for 24 hours, it was considered time-consuming, and inconvenient. Under RGH’s new program, PCCU nurses will be responsible for educating clients about their new medication and administering the first dose to the client before discharge instead of transferring clients to the observation unit for 24 hours.

As part of this new initiative, all PCCU nurses at RGH must be trained to properly educate these clients on all aspects of their new medication regimen. Because you have demonstrated a keen interest in pharmacology, your manager has asked you to develop the educational tools that will be used to train the nurses at RGH.

Assignment Instructions

Your manager explained that all of the PCCU nurses at RGH will be educated in small groups through a short, in-service training session. You have been asked to develop a professional-looking PowerPoint presentation that the trainers will use to guide the in-service sessions. Your PowerPoint will need to:

1. Be professional-looking (show current evidence-based practices), have a title slide, and 10-15 content slides.

2. Use the Speaker Notes feature in PowerPoint to reduce the amount of text that appears on the content slides.

3. The Speaker Notes for each slide will contain the text that will guide what the trainer will say while presenting the slides during the in-service.

4. The speaker notes should be written in full sentence format. The speak notes should show comprehension of the material, this means the speaker notes should add additional information to the notes on the slide; they should explain definitions, diagrams, and provide examples. The speaker notes should be easy to understand and follow. The speaker notes should add to the presentation and not be directly copied from the content slides. (Speaker notes should follow APA guidelines)

5. The Speak Notes need to be copied onto a word document and submitted through grammeraly.

6. The content slides themselves should be clear and easy to understand; they serve as an outline so the audience can follow along with what is being presented (Slide should follow APA guidelines)

7. Both slides and speaker notes should be written using proper spelling/grammar and at a level that would be appropriate for the audience.

8. Remember the purpose of the training is to help nurses learn about this medication so they can educate their clients about the use of a medication. With that in mind, it may be helpful to provide examples of how to explain the information to a client in an easy-to-understand way without complicated, technical terms.

9. Include APA formatted in-text citations on each slide as well as in the speaker notes. This assignment requires 3 scholarly references and present the sources in APA format on a References slide.

10. Contain content addressing the items below.

11. Pharmacotheraputics

12. State the drug name and its therapeutic category

13. Pharmacodynamics (how does this drug work? How does it affect the body?)

14. Pharmacokinetics (how is this drug absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted; why is this information important to the nurse? How can you connect this information to nursing care?).

15. Discuss dosage, scheduling, route, and length of therapy.

16. Describe what clients can expect regarding their therapeutic response and when it should develop

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Directions:

Disorders of the endocrine system affect many individuals. Providing multidimensional patient care can be challenging for patients experiencing these disorders. Ensuring the plan of care meets the patient and family needs is important in order to increase adherence to proper medical treatment following discharge.

What does it mean to provide a multidimensional approach? Provide at least three examples of how the care team can meet the patient and the family’s needs? List at least three care team members and how are they involved in providing multidimensional care?

Science

Guiding Question: How do cloud cover and green house gas concentration in the atmosphere affect the surface temperature of earth?

Once you have completed your research, you will need to prepare an investigation report

that consists of three sections. Each section should provide an answer for the following

questions:

1. What question were you trying to answer and why?

2. What did you do to answer your question and why?

3. What is your argument?

Your report should answer these questions in two pages or less. You should write your

report using a word processing application (such as Word, Pages, or Google Docs), if possible, to make it easier for you to edit and revise it later. You should embed any diagrams,

figures, or tables into the document. Be sure to write in a persuasive style; you are trying

to convince others that your claim is acceptable or valid.

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PowerPoint: do just the one highlighted on “Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia” (Compare and contrast) two sliced each

Top of Form

Competency

Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

Scenario

You are working as a nurse supervisor. You are finding a lot of new nurses are unfamiliar with certain endocrine disorders. You have decided to put together a guide for these nurses to educate them on different endocrine diseases and provide them with ways to provide quality multidimensional care.

Instructions

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the following information:

· Identify and compare the causes and diagnostic tests.

· Identify and compare the signs and symptoms of the disorder.

· Describe the nurses’ role in caring for a patient that suffers from this disorder to include the multidimensional aspects of nursing care.

· Identify how you will evaluate responses to the interventions taken for each disorder.

PowerPoint:

do just

the one

highlighted

on

Hypoglycemia

and

hyperglycemia

(

Compare

and

contrast

)

t

wo sliced each

Competency

Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

Scenario

You are working as a nurse supervisor. You are finding a lot of new nurses are

unfamiliar with certain endocrine disorders. You have decided to put together a

guide for these nurses to educate them on different endocrine diseases and provide

them with ways

to provide quality multidimensional care.

Instructions

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the

following information:

o

Identify and compare the causes and diagnostic tests.

o

Identify and compare the signs and symptoms of

the disorder.

o

Describe the nurses’ role in caring for a patient that suffers from this

disorder to include the multidimensional aspects of nursing care.

o

Identify how you will evaluate responses to the interventions taken for each

disorder.

PowerPoint: do just the one highlighted on “Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia”

(Compare and contrast) two sliced each

Competency

Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

Scenario

You are working as a nurse supervisor. You are finding a lot of new nurses are

unfamiliar with certain endocrine disorders. You have decided to put together a

guide for these nurses to educate them on different endocrine diseases and provide

them with ways to provide quality multidimensional care.

Instructions

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the

following information:

o Identify and compare the causes and diagnostic tests.

o Identify and compare the signs and symptoms of the disorder.

o Describe the nurses’ role in caring for a patient that suffers from this

disorder to include the multidimensional aspects of nursing care.

o Identify how you will evaluate responses to the interventions taken for each

disorder.

Science

 By using the Greenhouse Effect computer simulation collect the data and analyze it to answer the guiding question for this investigation. 

https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/greenhouse-effect/latest/greenhouse-effect_en.html

Guiding Question-How do cloud cover and greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere affect the surface temperature of earth? 

science

1. PowerPoint-One Slide for each question and do just the once highlight with reference

Top of Form

Assignment Scenario

After graduating from nursing school and passing your boards, you accepted a position as an RN in the Progressive Cardiac Care Unit (PCCU) at Rasmussen General Hospital (RGH). In the weeks ahead, the PCCU plans to implement a new initiative where clients who received a cardiac stent during their angioplasty will be sent home on 6 months of oral antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel.

Historically, clients diagnosed with coronary artery disease post-op stent placement were admitted to the hospital’s observation unit for 24 hours and then sent home. However, when surveyed about their experiences, many clients reported they did not like moving to a new unit for 24 hours, it was considered time-consuming, and inconvenient. Under RGH’s new program, PCCU nurses will be responsible for educating clients about their new medication and administering the first dose to the client before discharge instead of transferring clients to the observation unit for 24 hours.

As part of this new initiative, all PCCU nurses at RGH must be trained to properly educate these clients on all aspects of their new medication regimen. Because you have demonstrated a keen interest in pharmacology, your manager has asked you to develop the educational tools that will be used to train the nurses at RGH.

Assignment Instructions

Your manager explained that all of the PCCU nurses at RGH will be educated in small groups through a short, in-service training session. You have been asked to develop a professional-looking PowerPoint presentation that the trainers will use to guide the in-service sessions. Your PowerPoint will need to:

1. Be professional-looking (show current evidence-based practices), have a title slide, and 10-15 content slides.

2. Use the Speaker Notes feature in PowerPoint to reduce the amount of text that appears on the content slides.

3. The Speaker Notes for each slide will contain the text that will guide what the trainer will say while presenting the slides during the in-service.

4. The speaker notes should be written in full sentence format. The speak notes should show comprehension of the material, this means the speaker notes should add additional information to the notes on the slide; they should explain definitions, diagrams, and provide examples. The speaker notes should be easy to understand and follow. The speaker notes should add to the presentation and not be directly copied from the content slides. (Speaker notes should follow APA guidelines)

5. The Speak Notes need to be copied onto a word document and submitted through grammeraly.

6. The content slides themselves should be clear and easy to understand; they serve as an outline so the audience can follow along with what is being presented (Slide should follow APA guidelines)

7. Both slides and speaker notes should be written using proper spelling/grammar and at a level that would be appropriate for the audience.

8. Remember the purpose of the training is to help nurses learn about this medication so they can educate their clients about the use of a medication. With that in mind, it may be helpful to provide examples of how to explain the information to a client in an easy-to-understand way without complicated, technical terms.

9. Include APA formatted in-text citations on each slide as well as in the speaker notes. This assignment requires 3 scholarly references and present the sources in APA format on a References slide.

10. Contain content addressing the items below.

11. Pharmacotheraputics

12. State the drug name and its therapeutic category

13. Pharmacodynamics (how does this drug work? How does it affect the body?)

14. Pharmacokinetics (how is this drug absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted; why is this information important to the nurse? How can you connect this information to nursing care?).

15. Discuss dosage, scheduling, route, and length of therapy.

16. Describe what clients can expect regarding their therapeutic response and when it should develop

17. Introduce non-drug measures that clients can do to enhance their therapeutic response (e.g., specific diet to follow, exercise requirements, substances to avoid, special precautions to take, etc.)

18. Side Effects, Adverse Effects, and Interactions

19. Explain the symptoms of common side effects, and what clients can do to minimize any discomfort. Ask yourself what can nurses do to prevent and/or treat some of the common side effects listed?

20. Explain the symptoms of any major adverse effects. What should clients do if they experience them? How can clients prevent these major adverse effects? How can nurses assess for these adverse effects? How can nurses prevent and/or treat these adverse effects?

21. List the major adverse drug-drug interactions and drug-food interactions that clients need to be made aware of

22. Follow-up Care

23. Provide information regarding when clients should call their doctor for advice (e.g., questions, non-urgent symptoms, unpleasant side effects, etc.)

24. Emphasize any symptoms for which clients should seek immediate care (e.g., when to go to the emergency center or call 911)

The following items need to be turned in to complete this assignment:

25. The power-point presentation with speaker notes

26. The word document with the speaker notes

science

Describe how this new knowledge will impact your nursing practice.

Course Competencies

1. Explain principles of care for clients with oncological disorders.

2. Identify components of safe and effective nursing care for clients experiencing fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

3. Describe strategies for safe, effective multidimensional nursing care for clients with acid-base imbalances.

4. Select appropriate nursing interventions for clients with upper gastrointestinal disorders.

5. Select appropriate nursing interventions for clients with lower gastrointestinal disorders.

6. Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

science


GEO 303C Introduction to the Solar System

Homework #2

Due 3/11/22

Remember to answer ALL parts of the questions.

1) How do we know that the Earth has a large metal core? That the core is mostly made of iron? That the outer core is liquid? Describe how scientists reach these conclusions about Earth’s internal structure.

2) You and a friend come across a small round depression (~1 km diameter) outside of Odessa, TX. You believe that you have discovered an impact crater, but your friend, who has not taken this class, believes the depression is from an extinct volcano. Describe several things you could look for to determine if the crater formed from an impact.

3) a. Describe how the process by which magma is generated in the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges differs from that at subduction zones, and how this affects the style of volcanism and type of lava produced at these two tectonic settings.

b. Based on your answer above, would you expect volcanism Venus to have been dominated by effusive basaltic (low-SiO2) eruptions, or explosive eruptions of andesite or rhyolite (high-SiO2)? Justify your answer.

4) What is the dominant type of lava erupted from most shield volcanoes, and how can you tell?

5) Describe the Coriolis effect? What direction do hurricanes rotate in the northern hemisphere, and why?

6) The Mariner spacecraft and more recently the Messenger spacecraft detected a magnetic field around Mercury similar in shape (but much weaker) to Earth’s dipole magnetic field. What does this tell us about the internal structure and dynamic behavior of Mercury?

7) Describe how the composition of Earth’s atmosphere is different from that of Venus, and what process(es) may be responsible for generating these differences.

8) Describe how the “greenhouse effect” works. What effect on Earth’s climate is likely to result from rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere?

9) If impact cratering is a ubiquitous process in the solar system, why does Earth have comparatively few impact craters compared to the moon or most other terrestrial planets?

10) Mars does not appear to have plate tectonics. Explain how this may explain why some Martian volcanoes such as Olympus Mons are much larger than similar shield volcanoes on Earth.

SCIENCE

Competency

Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

Scenario

You are working as a nurse supervisor. You are finding a lot of new nurses are unfamiliar with certain endocrine disorders. You have decided to put together a guide for these nurses to educate them on different endocrine diseases and provide them with ways to provide quality multidimensional care.

Instructions

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the following information:

· .

· Describe the nurses’ role in caring for a patient that suffers from this disorder to include the

· multidimensional aspects of nursing care.

THE DISEASE IS:

Multidimensional aspects of nursing care for Addisons disease​ AND CUSHINGS SYNDROMEC

science

Areas for reflection:

· Describe how you achieved each course competency including at least one example of new knowledge gained related to that competency

· Describe how you achieved the transferable skill, 
Communication
, including at least one example of new knowledge gained related to the transferable skill

· Describe how this new knowledge will impact your nursing practice

Course Competencies

· Describe the foundations of mental health nursing.

· Explain current legal issues and social concerns in mental healthcare.

· Select appropriate nursing interventions for clients with certain cognitive, addictive and psychotic conditions.

· Evaluate nursing care strategies for clients with certain mental health/mood/personality and eating disorders.

· Assemble nursing care interventions for clients with mental health/stress related disorders.

· Identify factors that impact mental health in special populations.

science

T he fifteen year-old patient was scheduled for surgery on the right
side of his brain to remove a right tem-
poral lobe lesion that was believed to be

causing his epileptic seizures.
The surgery began with the sur-

geon making an incision on the left
side, opening the skull, penetrating the
dura and removing significant portions

of the left amygdala, hippocampus and
other left-side brain tissue before it was

discovered that they were working on
the wrong side.

The left-side wound was closed,
the right side was opened and the pro-

cedure went ahead on the right, correct
side.
The error in the O.R. was revealed

to the parents shortly after the surgery,
but only as if it was a minor and incon-

sequential gaffe.
The patient recuperated, left the

hospital, returned to his regular activi-
ties and graduated from high school
before his parents could no longer deny

he was not all right. After a thorough
neurological assessment he had to be

placed in an assisted living facility for
brain damaged individuals.

When the full magnitude of the
consequences came to light a lawsuit

was filed which resulted in a $11 mil-
lion judgment which was affirmed by
the Supreme Court of Arkansas.

A circulating nurse has a le-
gal duty to see that surgery
does not take place on the
wrong side of the body.
The preoperative documents
failed to identify on which side
the surgery was to be done.
It was below the standard of
care for the circulating nurse
not to notice that fact and not
to seek out the correct infor-
mation.

SUPREME COURT OF ARKANSAS
December 13, 2012

Operating Room: Surgical Error Blamed, In
Part, On Circulating Nurse’s Negligence.

Surgical Error Blamed, In Part, On

Circulating Nurse’s Negligence

The Court accepted the testimony
of the family’s nursing expert that a

circulating nurse has a fundamental
responsibility as a member of the surgi-
cal team to make sure that surgery is

done on the correct anatomical site,
especially when it is brain surgery.

The circulating nurse is supposed
to understand imposing terms like se-

lective amygdala hippocampectomy
and know the basics of how it is sup-

posed to be done.
Hospital policy called for the sur-
geon, the anesthesiologist, the circulat-

ing nurse and the scrub nurse or tech to
take a “timeout” prior to starting a sur-

gical case for final verification of the
correct anatomical site.

The circulating nurse should have
available three essential documents, the
surgical consent form, the preoperative

history and the O.R. schedule.
The full extent of the error, that is,

a full list of the parts of the brain that
were removed from the healthy side,

should have been documented by the
circulating nurse, and failure to do so

was a factor that adversely affected the
patient’s later medical course, the pa-
tient’s nursing expert said. Proassur-
ance v. Metheny, __ S.W. 3d __, 2012 WL
6204231 (Ark., December 13, 2012).

January 2013 Volume 21 Number 1

Inside this month’s
Issue …

January 2013

New Subscriptions
See Page 3

Operating Room/Circulating Nurse – Nursing Home Admission
Labor & Delivery Nursing/Pitocin/Fetal Monitor
Labor & Delivery Nursing/High Risk Patient/Fetal Monitor
Medication Error/Nursing Negligence – Correctional Nursing
Age Discrimination – Race Discrimination/Minority Nurses
Skilled Nursing/Blood Draws/PT/INR/Reporting To Physician
Flu Immunization/Public Health Emergency – Nursing Assessment
Nurse Practitioner/Pre-Signed Prescriptions – Threat Of Violence

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 2

Labor & Delivery, Pitocin, Fetal
Monitors: Court Finds Evidence
Of Nursing Negligence.

T he mother was admitted to the labor and delivery unit at 10:10 p.m. for
induction of labor.
The baby was delivered vaginally at
5:27 p.m. the next afternoon with the um-

bilical cord around her neck. She did not
start breathing on her own for almost seven

minutes and then began having seizures.
A pediatric neuroradiologist, who per-

formed ultrasound scans on the child’s
brain and who would later submit an expert

report for the family in their lawsuit
against the hospital, related the child’s
problems to asphyxia consistent with brad-

ycardic events prior to her delivery.
The Court of Appeals of Texas accept-

ed reports prepared by the family’s experts,
an ob/gyn physician, a labor and delivery

nurse and the pediatric neuroradiologist
which pointed directly at the negligence of
the labor and delivery nurses.

Family’s Medical Expert

When Cytotec has been used for cervi-
cal ripening followed by IV Pitocin for

induction of labor, the labor and delivery
nurses have the responsibility to maintain

readable tracings of the fetal heart tones
and the maternal contraction patterns. The

nurses should not start or continue Pitocin
when there are non-reassuring fetal heart
tracings, when the contractions cannot be

monitored or with uterine hyperstimula-
tion. The physician must be notified of

non-reassuring fetal heart tracings.
Family’s Nursing Expert

When Pitocin is in use the nurse must

see to it that the equipment that monitors
uterine contractions is recording the moth-
er’s contractions, the family’s nursing ex-

pert said.
Review of the fetal heart monitor trac-

ings showed several lengthy intervals of
non-reassuring heart rates. The records

further revealed that a nurse increased the
Pitocin even with late decelerations with
decreased variability, until it was eventual-

ly decreased and then stopped a few hours
before birth by a different nurse, but then

restarted again until the birth with ominous
tracings showing on the monitor. Abilene
Reg. Med. Ctr. v. Allen, __ S.W. 3d __, 2012
5951982 (Tex. App., November 29, 2012).

The patient’s nursing ex-
pert explained that the Pi-
tocin drip is usually con-
trolled by the labor and de-
livery nurse.
It is increased to increase
contractions and decreased
or stopped altogether if the
contractions get too strong,
too long or too close to-
gether.
The Pitocin is to be adjust-
ed based on whether the
baby’s fetal heart tracings
are reassuring or non-
reassuring. It is only in-
creased if the tracings are
reassuring.
The nursing expert’s re-
view of the chart revealed
that the tocotransducer
which identifies the begin-
ning and end of each of the
mother’s contractions was
not working for the first
three hours after the mother
was admitted to the labor
and delivery unit.
There were also numerous
intervals evident from the
fetal monitor tracings of
non-reassuring tones that
should have been but were
not reported.
If the physician had been
notified of the non-
reassuring tones a cesare-
an could have been done
early on to save the child
from brain damage.

COURT OF APPEALS OF TEXAS
November 29, 2012

The Court of Appeals of Mississippi
ruled there was no deviation from the

standard of care by the patient’s labor and
delivery nurses. Norris v. Southwest Miss.
Reg. Med. Ctr., __ So. 3d __, 2012 6118005
(Miss. App., December 11, 2012).

The labor and delivery
nurse’s assessment was
correct that the mother was
not actually in labor.
When the fetal heart tone
was lost a nurse promptly
began trying to reach the
physician while another
nurse kept trying to get a
fetal heartbeat.

COURT OF APPEALS OF MISSISSIPPI
December 11, 2012

T he patient was admitted to the hospital through the E.R. for what were at the
time believed to be labor pains.
She was thirty-one years old and thirty
-three weeks pregnant and was considered

high-risk due to obesity, insulin-dependent
diabetes, four previous cesareans and hav-

ing given birth to very large twins.
The labor and delivery nurse immedi-

ately started a fetal heart monitor and a
tocodynamometer and performed a vaginal

exam which showed no dilation of the cer-
vix. The patient’s ob/gyn who had deliv-
ered her other children likewise found no

dilation and gave orders for monitoring her
blood sugars and giving insulin.

Later that morning the patient’s ab-
dominal pain increased and so the nurse

paged her physician. The nurse was get-
ting no heart tones on the monitor so she
asked another nurse to keep checking for a

fetal heartbeat while she kept paging the
physician. A few minutes later the physi-

cian called and said he was on his way.
The nurse documented all this in the chart.

The physician was there within
minutes and delivered the baby by cesare-

an, but there had been a complete uterine
rupture and separation of the placenta.

Labor & Delivery:
Nurses Ruled Not
Negligent.

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 3

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The law strongly favors alternative
methods of dispute resolution such as arbi-

tration rather than jury trials in civil court
to resolve claims and disputes, but only if
both sides have agreed.

An agreement to arbitrate is basically
a civil contract. For a contract is to be

binding both parties must have the capacity
and the authority to enter into the contract.

The patient did not have the capacity
to enter into a binding contract on his own

behalf because he was quite confused.
The daughter-in-law had no actual
authority to sign a contract as her father-in-

law’s agent. There was nothing to support
the nursing facility’s argument that the

patient somehow communicated to the
facility that he wanted his daughter-in-law

to sign for him or even had the mental ca-
pacity to make such a communication.
A year earlier he had signed a durable

power of attorney naming his son as his
attorney in fact. The son was the spouse of

the daughter-in-law who signed the arbitra-
tion agreement, but that fact was irrelevant.

The nursing facility, the Court said,
made no good faith effort to determine

who was authorized to sign or to request
that that person discuss the arbitration
agreement and make the decision whether

or not to sign.
The patient did sign at least one more

admission contract upon readmission after
a subsequent hospitalization, when he ap-

parently was lucid enough to do so, but the
arbitration agreement was not included.
Koch v. Keystone Pointe Health & Rehab,
2012 WL 6098358 (Ohio App., December 10,
2012).

T he patient was transported by ambu-lance from the hospital to a nursing
facility and was met there by his daughter-
in-law.
The daughter-in-law signed the facili-

ty’s admission contract because the patient
was quite confused at the time and was not

lucid enough to sign any papers.
The daughter-in-law also signed an

arbitration agreement separate from the
admission contract. The arbitration agree-

ment stipulated that all legal claims includ-
ing negligence, malpractice and violation
of the resident’s rights, but not non-

payment of nursing home fees, would not
be decided in a court of law but would be

resolved through binding arbitration.
The patient fell in the nursing home

and then passed away four months later.
After his death his daughter as personal
representative of his probate estate sued

the nursing facility for negligence.
The nursing facility petitioned the

court to dismiss the lawsuit so the case
could be decided by arbitration as stipulat-

ed in the arbitration agreement signed by
the patient’s daughter-in-law.

The Court of Appeals of Ohio ruled
the case did not belong in arbitration but
should stay on the jury trial docket of the

local county court of common pleas.

Nursing Home Admission: Daughter-In-Law Had
No Authority To Sign, Arbitration Agreement Void.

The patient’s daughter-in-
law informed the nursing
facility staff that she did not
have power of attorney to
act on the patient’s behalf,
but the nursing facility dis-
regarded that fact and told
her that it would not admit
the patient if she did not
sign all the forms, including
the arbitration agreement.
Under these circumstanc-
es there is no evidence the
nursing facility acted in
good faith having reason to
believe that the daughter-in-
law had authority to enter
into a legally binding con-
tract on the patient’s behalf.
The nursing facility’s de-
mand that she sign the
forms lest her father-in-law
be denied admission for
necessary rehabilitation did
not create any apparent au-
thority for her to bind the
patient to a contract.

COURT OF APPEALS OF OHIO
December 10, 2012

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 4

Medication Error: Court Upholds
Verdict For Nursing Negligence.

Two physicians testified
that in their opinion, to a
reasonable degree of medi-
cal probability, the nursing
facility erroneously admin-
istered anti-diabetic medi-
cation to the deceased,
which caused a severe drop
in her blood sugar.
Two other physicians, the
nursing facility’s experts,
could only speculate that
malnutrition or a urinary
tract infection could have
caused the problem.
The physicians’ testimony,
taken along with the testi-
mony of two former nursing
home employees as to the
chaotic conditions at the
facility, supports the jury’s
verdict against the facility.
The nursing facility had
complete control of the anti
-diabetic medication at the
facility that was being taken
by residents who used such
medication, that is, none of
the four residents who ad-
ministered their own medi-
cations were on such medi-
cation.
It is not a realistic explana-
tion that anti-diabetic medi-
cation was given to this res-
ident by a third party. Even
if that did happen it would
amount to lax supervision
of the residents’ environ-
ment which itself would be
negligence.

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
SIXTH CIRCUIT

December 19, 2012

T he eighty year-old nursing home resi-dent suffered from Parkinson’s dis-
ease, dementia and the aftereffects of a
stroke at age seventy-four.
She had no history whatsoever of dia-

betes or hypoglycemia.
She was found unresponsive in her

room in the middle of the morning and was
rushed to the hospital where her blood glu-

cose was discovered to be 12.
The patient was diagnosed with en-

cephalopathy due to hypoglycemia which
the physicians suspected came from oral
ingestion of anti-diabetic medication.

The patient came out of her coma but
never regained her semi-independent func-

tioning and died within fifteen months.
The jury awarded the family $1,250,000 as

punitive damages, $400,000 for her pain
and suffering and $554,000 attorney fees
and costs. The US Court of Appeals for the

Sixth Circuit (Ohio) upheld the verdict.
Disturbing Conditions At The

Nursing Home

Two former employees of the nursing

home described disturbing conditions at
the facility, including disorganized medica-

tion carts, pre-pouring of medications and
falsification of medical records.

There were only two LPNs assigned
for the care of eighty residents. The LPNs
were often rushed and as a result of their

haste regularly engaged in the practice of
pre-pouring medications. The medication

cart was “a mess” most of the time. The
wrong pills were in the medication trays.

The nurses would borrow medication from
one resident and give it to another. At the
time of her death more than fifty of this

resident’s pills were found to be missing.
A supervisor altered records to cover

up a medication error. Staff and supervi-
sors routinely filled in “holes” in residents’

medication administration records retroac-
tively at the end of the month.
In the Court’s judgment, the whole

situation went beyond simple negligence
and justified the jury’s decision to award

punitive damages for conscious and mali-
cious disregard of the resident’s well estab-

lished legal right to a safe environment free
from significant medication errors. Freude-
man v. Landing, __ F. 3d __, 2012 WL 6600356
(6th Cir., December 19, 2012).

W hen the inmate was booked into the jail his medical history included the
fact he was being treated by a local spe-
cialist for autoimmune chronic hepatitis,
esophageal varices, anemia, jaundice and

splenomegaly.
Early in the a.m. the day after being

booked he vomited a large puddle of blood
in his cell. He explained to a jail officer

that he had gastric ulcers for which he took
numerous medications and that he had had

twenty-seven units of blood transfusions
during the previous month.
The officer phoned one of the jail

nurses at home and explained the situation.
She told the officer to give him some liq-

uid antacid. He threw up lots more blood
again. When she was phoned again the

nurse told the officer to give him a Phener-
gan suppository. When they phoned her
again the nurse finally decided to come in

to the jail. She had the inmate moved to
medical solitary and continued the supposi-

tories. The next day the inmate died from
a massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Correctional
Nursing: Court
Says Nurse Was
Deliberately
Indifferent.

The nurse violated the in-
mate’s Constitutional rights
through deliberate indiffer-
ence to his serious medical
needs.

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FIFTH CIRCUIT

December 12, 2012

The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth
Circuit (Texas) placed blame on the nurse
for failing at least to alert the physician and
for not sending the inmate to the hospital
due to the seriousness of his condition.
Deputies working for the county sher-
iff who was responsible for the jail did all
they were expected to do and the jail phy-
sician was never informed by the nurse
what was actually going on with this in-
mate. Bolin v. Wichita County, 2012 WL
6194359 (5th Cir., December 12, 2012).

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 5

Age Bias: Court
Sees Grounds For
CNA’s Lawsuit.

A n Hispanic CNA in her mid-fifties had consistently positive performance
reviews and was rewarded with pay raises
for more than sixteen years and was recog-
nized for her service by being selected for

the Resident Care Specialist Leadership
Council at the nursing home.

Then a new director of nursing took
over. A few months later the CNA was

suspended and then fired over an incident
involving alleged substandard care of a

total-care patient.
The CNA sued for race and age dis-
crimination.

The US District Court for the District
of Colorado found evidence to support the

allegations of age discrimination.
As soon as she came on board as inter-
im DON the person who would eventually

become the new permanent DON started
making remarks to the CNA pointing out

that she was the oldest CNA in the facility
and was “as old as the woodworks,” asking

her when she was going to retire, telling
her that she was too old for her job and

telling her that she was “like an old penny
that keeps coming back.”
As interim DON she also reportedly

threatened the CNA that she was going to
be watching her closely and would fire her

as soon as she became permanent DON.
The CNA was told this well before the

occurrence of the patient-care incident that
was used ostensibly to justify her firing.
Alfonso v. SCC Pueblo, 2012 WL 6568468 (D.
Colo., December 17, 2012).

A discriminatory motive
can be seen in the DON’s
derogatory remarks about
the CNA’s age.
These remarks raise seri-
ous questions whether the
patient-care incident was
merely a pretext to move
the CNA out because of her
age.

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
COLORADO

December 17, 2012

Race Discrimination: Nurses Did
Not Prove Their Case.

A fter complaining about various as-pects of their working conditions over
a span of several years, two minority nurs-
es sued their employer for race discrimina-
tion.

The lawsuit alleged they were victims
of discrimination as well as victims of re-

taliation for their complaints about what
they considered to be discrimination.

The US Court of Appeals for the Sev-
enth Circuit (Illinois) dismissed their case.

More Favorable Treatment Alleged

For Non-Minority Nurses

The two African-American nurses,
before filing their lawsuit, had delivered a
written petition to human resources at the

hospital complaining that Filipino nurses
were being given easier assignments, more

training and more leadership opportunities.
These allegations were apparently

investigated by human resources and dis-
missed as unfounded.
The Court said that these allegations,

if they could be proven, would certainly be
adequate grounds for a civil rights lawsuit.

However, a lawsuit cannot be based simply
on vague assertions and innuendo.

For a successful discrimination lawsuit
the alleged victim must identify a specific

person or persons who were treated more
favorably, specify the manner in which
they were treated more favorably and show

that they were similar to the victim in all
relevant respects except for not being a

racial minority. There was no specific
person or persons identified for purposes

of comparison in the nurses’ lawsuit.
Alleged Harassment

Was Not Racially Motivated

The two nurses were criticized and
given negative performance evaluations for

lack of teamwork. One of them was called
a “trouble maker,” a “cry baby” and a

“spoiled child” in one particular meeting
with a supervisor and had to leave the

meeting in tears.
Even if all this was true, the Court was
not able to find any discriminatory racial

motivation behind the nurses’ supervisors’
actions, which is a necessary element for

them to be able to go forward with a civil
rights lawsuit against their employer.
Brown v. Advocate, __ F. 3d __, 2012 WL
5870725 (7th Cir., November 21, 2012).

The alleged victims con-
tend that the Court can infer
racial bias from the fact that
their employer did not re-
spond to their complaints
as they would have liked.
The fact that someone dis-
agrees with you or declines
to take your advice, without
anything more, does not
suggest that they are dis-
criminating against you.
All of the supervisors’ crit-
icisms used non-racial lan-
guage and there was noth-
ing in the context to sug-
gest the criticisms were ra-
cially motivated.
Perhaps their supervisors’
criticisms were unfair, but
there is no evidence that
the criticisms were motivat-
ed by race.
The civil rights laws pro-
tect against discrimination,
not personal animosity or
juvenile behavior.
Over a two-year period the
alleged victims made nu-
merous complaints to man-
agement, some involving
racial issues and others in-
volving general workplace
disputes.
The complaints were in-
vestigated. Action was tak-
en on some of them and de-
clined as to others. The al-
leged “harassment” was
only negative feedback
about lack of teamwork.

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
SEVENTH CIRCUIT
November 21, 2012

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 6

Flu Immunization:
Public Health
Emergency, Nurse
Cannot Be Sued.

I n 2009 in response to an outbreak of H1N1 influenza the US Secretary of
Health and Human Services made a formal
declaration that a public health emergency
existed and recommended administration

of a specific antiviral vaccination.
The Secretary’s authority came from

the US Public Readiness and Emergency
Preparedness (PREP) Act of 2005.

The Governor of New York then is-
sued an executive order authorizing state

and local authorities to take steps to dis-
tribute and administer the vaccine.
A local county health department held

a vaccination clinic in a local school where
a nurse gave a kindergartener the flu vac-

cine without either parent’s consent.
The child’s mother sued the county

health department for negligence and civil
battery. The New York Supreme Court,
Appellate Division, dismissed the case.

Continued on page 7.

The US Public Readiness
and Emergency Prepared-
ness Act protects licensed
health professionals who
are authorized to administer
or dispense countermeas-
ures in response to a public
health or bioterrorism emer-
gency.
The Act does not detract
from a licensed healthcare
professional’s legal immun-
ity when a countermeasure
is administered without
consent.
As a Federal law the Act
takes precedence over any
state statute or rule of the
common law that goes con-
trary.

NEW YORK SUPREME COURT
APPELLATE DIVISION

November 21, 2012

Skilled Nursing: Court Finds
Substandard Procedures,
Upholds Civil Monetary Penalty.

A fter the death of a seventy-eight year-old patient who had been on Couma-
din for a blood clot in her leg, survey in-
spectors decided that the facility’s proce-
dures for laboratory work were out of com-

pliance with Federal standards.
A civil monetary penalty was levied of

$3050 per day for more than half a year,
the period of time during which the facili-

ty’s procedures were deemed out of com-
pliance, more than $587,000, which was

upheld by the US Court of Appeals for the
Fourth Circuit (North Carolina).

Resident’s Death Sparks Investigation

A nurse saw and charted swelling in

the patient’s lower leg and reported it to
the patient’s physician. He ordered a Dop-

pler test which found a blood clot. The
physician ordered 10 mg of Coumadin plus

Lovenox daily and daily PT/INR tests.
The care plan was “badly mishandled”
according to the Court and the PT/INR

testing did not begin for over a month.
The first result showed a critically high

Coumadin level.
After the same result two days later

the physician scaled back the Coumadin to
6 mg. The order for a follow up PT/INR

was not properly transcribed and the PT/
INR was delayed two more days until an-
other nurse caught the mistake.

The blood sample was sent back by
the lab as too small to test so a nurse tried

to draw another the next day. The patient
refused the blood draw, which was her

right, but any such refusal has to be report-
ed promptly to the physician, which was
not done.

The nurse did see and charted unusual
bruising around the breast and shoulder,

possible signs of a Coumadin overdose, but
that also was not reported to the physician

as it should have been.
Finally a sample was drawn which
showed a critically high Coumadin level

and the patient was sent to the hospital.
The hospital administered one dose of Vit-

amin K, but the family then decided to
decline further treatment and the patient

passed away the next day. Universal
Healthcare v. Sebelius, 2012 WL 6217619 (4th
Cir., December 14, 2012).

A skilled nursing facility is
required by Federal regula-
tions to ensure that each
resident’s drug regimen is
free from drugs given in ex-
cessive doses, for exces-
sive duration or without ad-
equate monitoring in the
presence of adverse conse-
quences which indicate the
dose should be reduced or
discontinued.
A skilled nursing facility
must have a system in
place to ensure that labs
are drawn when ordered,
drawn correctly, processed
correctly and the results re-
ported to the patients’ phy-
sicians.
Residents on anticoagu-
lant therapy require not on-
ly lab tests but also proto-
cols for monitoring and ob-
servation by direct caregiv-
ers.
Special instructions for
Coumadin should be placed
in care plans that any sub-
tle signs of injury should be
recorded.
At this facility there was a
systematic failure to antici-
pate and plan for the risk of
bleeding, to monitor for ad-
verse reactions and to in-
struct rank-and-file staff on
touching and handling resi-
dents on Coumadin.

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOURTH CIRCUIT
December 14, 2012

Legal Eagle Eye Newsletter for the Nursing Profession January 2013 Page 7

Nursing Assessment: Damages
Awarded For Negligence.

There was no error by the
judge who assigned fault
100% to the night nurse and
held the agency that sup-
plied her to the hospital
100% liable for the $1.4 mil-
lion judgment.
The day nurse, the hospi-
tal and the treating physi-
cian were properly dis-
missed from the lawsuit.
There was no evidence the
day nurse breached the
standard of care in her
nursing assessments or her
nursing care of the patient.
There was nothing wrong
with the treating physi-
cian’s initial diagnosis and
plan of care for the patient.
The patient was already
irreversibly paralyzed by
the time the hospital’s resi-
dent was alerted to the pa-
tient

science

Writing Assignment

Due through Canvas, Friday, April 1

We regularly hear news reports about different NASA missions, but often the details, goals, and accomplishments of these missions is not clearly reported. Take this opportunity to pick a NASA mission and research in more detail what this mission is all about. Pick one of the following:

1) The exploration of Jerzero Crater on Mars by the Perseverance rover.

2) The asteroid sample return mission Osiris-REx, which collected material from the surface of asteroid Bennu.

3) The recent launch of the long-awaited James Webb space telescope.

4) Have another NASA favorite that’s not listed here? Go for it.

Discuss what the scientific goals of your selected mission are. What are scientists trying to figure out? How are they going about that? And why are these questions important? Depending on how far along a mission is, what have we already learned?

Guidelines:

1) Papers should be a minimum of 2 pages and a maximum of 3 pages (12-point font, double spaced), not counting references and any figures. These should be included on separate pages after the main text.

2) Include at least three references, using MLA style. At least one reference should be from NASA, not a general media outlet.

3) Use proper sentence and paragraph structure – the text should follow a clear, logical progression, paragraphs should have a clear subject, and sentences should be free of obvious grammatical errors.

4) Contact me or the TA if you have questions.

Science

When we eat food, most people never think about the enzymes that are needed to help with digestion. Think about your favorite meal, now think back to a time when you had that meal. Did you ever stop to think about how your saliva was breaking that food down? Or how your stomach was secreting enzymes and acids to turn that meal into a thick digestible liquid, known as chyme? Most people probably haven’t, since thinking about your favorite meal turning into chyme is not appetizing! However, enzymes play a vital role in digestion, without enzymes we would be unable to eat. In humans, there are two important enzymes that aid in digestion: ptyalin (salivary amylase) and pepsin. Ptyalin is found in saliva and helps break down starches into simpler sugars. Pepsin is found in the stomach and helps to break down proteins into smaller peptides.

Data: An experiment was performed that examined the activity of ptyalin and pepsin under varying levels of pH. Examine the attached chart to answer the questions

Using the data, plot the results of the experiment. Upload a picture of your data.

Examine the graph. Identify the optimal pH for ptyalin. How does the date tell you this is the optimal pH?

Examine the graph. Identify the optimal pH for pepsin. Why is this the optimal pH?

Connect the optimal pH of each enzyme to their location in the body. Does each optimal pH make sense for those
locations? Why or why not?

What happens when enzymes are not in their optimal pH (hint: link to protein structure)? How does this affect
enzyme activity?

science

Directions:

Read the two case summaries provided 
here
. The case summaries are on page 2. Once you read the two case summaries, follow the instructions below.

Initial Post

Compare the appropriate nursing interventions by the nurse completed in Mississippi to the inappropriate nursing interventions by the nurse in the Texas case. Provide rationale supporting your comparison citing at least two scholarly sources.

science

Directions:

Jose is a 55-year-old Hispanic, male, migrant worker who speaks limited English. He presented to the emergency room with complaints of edema of the scrotum, urinary retention, and hematuria. He does not have any pertinent past medical history. He is married and has five young children. He states he has been having problems for a while but delayed seeing the doctor because of his work schedule and limited money. The doctor performs a digital rectal examination in the office and finds that Jose’s prostate is enlarged.

Male reproductive disorders can make a great impact on the patient’s life. Based on the case study, answer the following questions in your discussion post.

1. Discuss the potential disease processes and signs and symptoms related to the disease process that Jose may be exhibiting?

2. How would you provide multidimensional care to include cultural, psychosocial, spiritual, physical, and emotional needs for Jose?

Science

Click on the link to learn about renewable energy resources and its types. and analyze the data to determine what percentages of renewable and nonrenewable resources are used by the USA to generate electricity and create a bar graph to represent data in Google sheet. 

link to learn about renewable energy resources and its types. and analyze the data  to determine what percentages of renewable and nonrenewable resources are used by the USA to generate electricity and create a bar graph to represent  data in Google sheet. 

I already save and sent to you but here is the ink.

https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/renewable-sources/types-and-usage.php

Science

Answer discussion questions with at least 1 peer reviewed reference with citations for each
question. Each question should be answered with a 100 word minimum.

1.Discuss transcription factors, their functions, and what happens if they are turned off
or on.

2.Discuss the three regions necessary for transcription to occur. What happens if
transcription doesn’t occur? Discuss examples of diseases or syndromes that are
affected by transcription malfunctioning.

3. Define stop and start codons as they relate to the stages in translation.

4.What happens if translation doesn’t occur? Discuss examples of diseases or
syndromes that are affected by translation malfunctioning.

science

Name: Date:

Care Plan #

CON
CEPT MAP

Pathophysiology – (to the cellular level)-Client name-Mia Goodwin

Medical Diagnosis


Preterm Labor

Signs & Symptoms/Clinical Manifestations (all data subjective and objective: labs, radiology, all diagnostic studies) (What symptoms does your client present with?)

Complications

Treatment (Medical, medications, intervention and supportive)

Causes/Risk Factors (chemical, environmental, psychological, physiological and genetic)

.

REMEMBER THAT THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES MUST BE MEASURABLE. THE INTERVENTIONS ARE WHAT YOU DO TO ASSURE THE OUTCOME AND THE CLIENT’S RESPONSE IS SPECIFICALLY HER RESPONSE.

PLAN OF CARE: Use your top two priorities

NANDA NURSING DIAGNOSIS use NANDA definition

Expected outcomes of care (Goals)

Interventions

Patient response

Goal evaluation

NRS DX:

Problem Statement:

R/T: (What is the cause of the symptom)

Manifested by: (Specific symptoms)



Short term goal

: Create a SMART goal that relates to hospital stay/shift/day.



Long term goal
: Create a SMART goal that is appropriate for discharge.

This is specific to the patient that you are caring for. A list of planned actions that will assist the patient to achieve the desired goal. (i.e. obtain foods that the patient can eat/ likes)

Interventions for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Interventions for long term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Identify what the patients response or “outcome is to the goal or care that you have provided. i.e. patient ate 45% of lunch)

Reassess for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Reassess for long-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Was it met or not met there is no partially met.

Summer 2021 JM 9

science

1


Abstract

This paper will solely evaluate the problem of police use of force and the development of police body-worn cameras as one of its remedies. Body-worn cameras have become popular in today’s law enforcement agencies to combat police brutality against citizens. Additionally, the agencies view it to promote evidentiary information from various encounters. Police brutality is a common menace to society. In the 2014 police shooting of Michael Brown, a black man in Missouri experienced conflicting witness accounts. Resultantly, the country’s administration funded body-worn camera programs across 32 states in the US. In 2016, the cameras had become practical in about 47 percent of the country’s law enforcement agencies. However, one of the challenges in the policy is that citizens often request the release of recorded scenarios, especially on high-profile incidents like police shootings. They want to watch themselves and make their conclusions according to their opinions. The policy also faces cost challenges. This report mainly bases its information on desk research, intensely relying on the peer-reviewed journal for the facts it presents. The peer-reviewed journals have conducted surveys, questionnaires, and case studies to collect relevant data about BWCs. This paper generally concludes that body-worn cameras have become been influential in the battle to curb police brutality. Several reports have shown that officers wearing cameras are less violent than those without. The cameras are crucial for providing indisputable evidence and automatically capturing the officers’ actions.

Police Body Cameras and Police Use of Force

Introduction

In todays’ society, police brutality has become rampant and has called for swift measures to fight it and improve police relations with the public (Fryer, 2020). One of the measures law enforcement agencies have adopted in this fight is deploying body-worn cameras (BWCs) (Henstock & Ariel, 2017). The agencies believe BWCs are a powerful tool to curb police brutality since they provide indisputable evidence from police encounters (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). Body-worn cameras automatically capture audio and visual encounters (Henstock & Ariel, 2017). Therefore, they can provide information that can help police performance and accountability in the future. In the past and recently, there have been shocking reports of police brutality.

Additionally, most cases involve fatality against people of color (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). One example is an encounter in 2014 whereby police officers shot a black man named Michael Brown move this case up to the intro. It could be a good way to set up your paper. Then, in these sections, rely on research (not cases) to support your points. in Ferguson, Missouri (Fryer, 2020). The case saw conflicting witness accounts, which could probably make it problematic for law enforcers to create a healthy verdict over it. The paper will focus on analyzing the development of body-worn cameras to determine how they have improved and addressed the issue of police use of force.

Literature Review

Use of Force among Police Officers

Police use of force refers to police officers’ effort to compel compliance from unwilling subjects (Sousa et al., 2018). Therefore, sometimes it becomes necessary for the police to use force. It is acceptable by the law in specific circumstances such as self-defense and when the officers are defending others. However, the issue is tricky since neither two situations nor any two officers (Smith, 2019). However, the amount of force that police officers use is observable through physical and verbal restraint, lethal force, and less deadly force.

Police brutality is a situation whereby police officers violate various human rights. In most cases, police brutality has involved racial abuse, beating, torture, unlawful killing, and misuse of power to control protests (Sousa et al., 2018). Several reports have shown that police brutality has prevailed among individuals and crowds. According to law enforcement agencies, Police brutality is one of the most extreme misconducts among police officers (Smith, 2019). However, unlike police use of force allowed in some situations, police brutality is not acceptable by law enforcement agencies.

Several international laws are set to oversee police actions towards the public. Such laws are present in organizations like the United Nations (Fryer, 2020). They state those police officers should only use force as the last option when they are strictly under threats that could lead to death or severe injury (Sousa et al., 2018). Use of force may also be allowed when all other de-escalation measures are inadequate.

However, laws governing police use of force and brutality are, to some extent, insufficient. Some countries are not having any national laws addressing this issue (Gaub, 2021). For example, in the US, nine states do not have any regulations on police use of lethal force (Sousa et al., 2018). It means that victims of such cases have more significant tasks to seek justice from international laws. Several reports have shown that several victims of police use of force and brutality are innocent and unarmed (Fryer, 2020). It shows that the police officers in the assault cases do it with impunity without considering the international laws. Numerous studies have shown that from 2013 to 2019, about 99 percent of police officers who use excessive force and killings do not face any criminal charges (Gaub, 2021).

Several reports have studied incidents that predict the use of force by the police. Although several studies have shown the use of force against unarmed victims, some have also shown that suspects shot by the police pose an imminent danger to the officers during the shootings (Gaub, 2021). Additionally, research has demonstrated that suspects’ arrest resistance is significant in predicting the use of less-lethal force (Fryer, 2020). In a recent study, military veterans in the Dallas Police department were more likely to engage in shooting scenarios. Combat experienced officers had a three times much higher probability of involving in such a case. Officer level predictors have also prevailed in some studies.

Some studies have looked at the use of force by police and its relationship with police gender. However, these studies have shown inconsistent results, whereby some have shown that female police have lower probabilities of using force (Gaub, 2021). However, some have shown similar results across the police gender. Another significant factor that studies have addressed is police race. Some studies have shown that police race has not been a major factor in determining police use of force since police behavior has appeared similar across their races (Fryer, 2020).

Organizational and ecological correlates of force have also turned into a study subject for researchers. In such studies, police use of force has been closely linked to community characteristics like racial composition, economic inequality, and environmental factors (Gaub, 2021). In several cases, community violence level positively relates to rates of police use of force. As organizational factor is concerned, informal organizational culture and policy are among the leading factors that could guide and control police use of force (Gaub, 2021). On the other hand, unclear and unenforced policies have higher chances of escalating lethal force.

In police specialty units, numerous studies have systematically looked into lethal power by these units. They have reported multiple cases of dog bites that were recorded in K9 units of single agencies (Laming, 2019). They also found 35 to 40 percent and 24 percent of suspected nervousness led to dog bites (Gaub, 2021). Officers assigned to specialty units use almost four times greater force than general police units. Therefore, unit-level is significant in mitigating coercive behavior. Unit assessment policies should also prevail as a remedy.

Police use of force situations happens frequently. Some get displayed in the news, while most of them that occur far too often do not get to the public spotlight (Smith, 2019). Additionally, countless police brutality occasions are not getting national attention, and several are not even reported (Smith, 2019). In 2016, incidents involving police use of force in the United States resulted in 1,093 killings. However, this was a slight improvement among the officers since, in 2015, police officers killed 1,146 victims (Laming, 2019). Studies have shown that cases of police killings have reduced in urban zones and significantly escalated in suburban and rural areas in recent years. In 2020, the first half of the year had more police brutality cases than the second half (Gaub, 2021).

Research in California has shown that police brutality has highly prevailed over the past decade. High-profile shooting has heightened, leading to deaths of civilians at the hands of law enforcement officers (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). The brutality has occurred towards all races, but black civilians have been affected more in most of those significant cases. The studies have also shown that police officers shoot 250 victims every year, out of which roughly 195 civilians die in California at police hands (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020).

Fifteen percent of police fatal encounters resulted from misunderstandings at the vehicle and pedestrian stops (Fryer, 2020). Some citizens are killed, and some record serious injuries in this situation. Additionally, more than four out of ten victims of gunshots suffer mental health complications later. Other problems with the cases are alcohol-related and substance-related disorders (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). However, in 80 percent of cases involving gunshot wounds in California, the civilians were armed and posed a significant danger to the police. In other cases that led to serious injuries, 56 percent of the civilians were unarmed (Fryer, 2020).

One of the examples reports has shown in addressing the issue of police brutality against black civilians transpired in Minneapolis city in 2020, where a black man, George Floyd, died in police custody. The 44-year old got arrested for allegedly using a counterfeit 20 dollars bill. His killing was brutal since the policeman had handcuffed him and knelt on his neck for several minutes (Durlauf & Heckman, 2020). Additionally, the killer police did this inhuman action in front of bystanders and refused to listen to their pleas to lift his knee off the victim.

In some cases, police use of force is associated with the task assigned to them and the kind of people they will deal with. Reports have shown that police violence is more prevalent in cases involving arrest resistance and violence from the victims (Fryer, 2020). However, police brutality chances are reduced when dealing with mentally challenged suspects. Force has also been highly prevalent when officers deal with several suspects since they are likely to offer more resistance (Gaub, 2021).

Researchers in US and UK have also shown that cases of police assault by citizens have risen by a 15 percent higher notch when the police are wearing cameras. It may be due to overconfidence by the public that the officers would not use force in such cases (Fryer, 2020). Unfortunately, such cases are among those that drive the police towards using more power towards the public to ensure they accomplish their tasks (Gaub, 2021). Therefore police use of force may come from defending themselves against public assaults.

Department levels have also been a factor affecting police brutality. Different departmental units treat their suspects with varying levels of force (Gaub, 2021). For instance, research has shown that SWAT-certified patrol officers use more power when conducting non-SWAT operations than general patrol officers (Smith, 2019). The officers would also increase the force they use due to inadequate supervision.

The above cases signify that it is essential to perform police reforms to improve the officers’ accountability. Police officers must have healthy relations with the public, which will promote trust among them (Gaub, 2021). Police accountability is also a crucial requirement in society to ensure the proper undertaking of their services. Additionally, it is essential in preventing unnecessary suffering and mortality.

Body-worn Cameras’ Evolution

Since the issue of police use of force had become chronic, law enforcement agencies saw the need to introduce policies to combat this menace ((Adams & Mastracci, 2019). The use of police body-worn cameras came as a priority in this fight. The first generation of modern BWCs got introduced in 2005 in the United Kingdom (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). However, from 2014 to date, these gadgets have seen large-scale implementation in the US and other parts of the world.

The first generation of police body-worn cameras had several challenges. Generally, first-generation cameras were fixed on police bodies using a clip or a magnet. Therefore, the cameras could not firmly hold on to the police bodies (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). In such cases, the cameras were in greater danger of falling off, especially when the police officers were involved in critical situations requiring recording. It means that they could fall off when they were most necessary (Piza, 2021).

One such case was when police officers were involved in a foot pursuit. In such incidents, an officer will focus on chasing their victims. They will have little concern about going back to the camera since it could be essential to prevent suspects from evading arrest than fixing a camera (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). Sometimes, a police officer could also struggle with a suspect resisting arrest. In such cases, loosely fixed cameras could easily fall off (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

Another challenge that faced the first-generation BWCs was that they only had manual activation. Therefore, police officers had to activate them manually when they got into critical situations. The activation feature was inconsistent since some police officers failed to record crucial incidents (Piza, 2021). Some significant incidents could occur abruptly, giving the officer inadequate time to activate the camera (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). Manual activation could also lead to inconsistency as officers could forget to activate their gadgets.

File storage also prevailed as a significant challenge in the early designs of body-worn cameras. The first-generation cameras could only store the recorded videos internally. Therefore, the gadgets’ storage space could sometimes get full after storing several recorded videos (Piza, 2021). When they got full during police operations, they could fail to record more critical situations or delete some of the already recorded ones. In 2012, West Lafayette Police Department collaborated with graduate school research in the College of Research at Purdue University on a BWCs research. The study showed that the BWC technology was still reasonably archaic (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

However, as technology evolves, the excellence of body-worn cameras has also improved dramatically. The second generation of gadgets has seen several advancements in various functionalities and design. First, wearing the cameras has improved significantly. BWCs can now be built into helmets and eyeglasses (Piza, 2021). Such wearing is excellent in preventing the BWCs from falling off during foot pursuit and struggles.

By 2017, the second generation BWCS had had already seen most of the essential advancements required. For example, the West Lafayette Police department deployed a state-of-the-art BWC and instituted the policy-based concept, which had embraced automatic recording triggers (Piza, 2021). The automatic triggers became an effective remedy for police officers failing to record essential situations. Therefore, automation has improved the BWCs’ reliability, efficiency, and consistency (Piza, 2021).

Second-generation BWCs are equipped with several automation sensors. For example, the new technology has incorporated built-in accelerometers, which have shown excellence in the devices. The accelerometers can automatically detect when a police officer is running and will start recording automatically (Piza, 2021). Therefore, the cameras will activate automatically during foot pursuits.

Officer down alert and activation is another significant advancement. The feature is crucial, especially in events where the officer is in danger during field operations. It allows the camera to detect and start automatically on occasion when an officer goes down (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). The feature also alerts the nearby officers and sends GPS coordinates of the downed officer to the command center.

More intelligent technology has still developed in the police BWCs. The current generation allows the cameras to activate using computer-aided dispatch (CAD) calls (Adams & Mastracci, 2019). CAD calls automatically start recording when an officer receives the call for service. Action zones are another intelligent feature that helps in the automatic recording. It allows the officers to set certain areas as action zones, and the cameras will start to record audio and video automatically when they enter these areas (Piza, 2021). Some cameras can also detect gunshots and activate recording instantly. Therefore innovative technology has played a core role in developing police body-worn cameras. During the first phase of BWCs deployment, several positive outcomes were seen regarding police use of force. However, as the policy continued, it attracted mixed reactions from the public and some police departments. (Adams & Mastracci, 2019).

As various research projects in addressing the issue of BWCs have mainly shown how vital the cameras are. They have also demonstrated that innovative technology improvements have made the BWCs excellent in their work. Several automation capabilities have enabled police officers to capture videos and audio recordings even in circumstances that could not allow them to activate recording (Smith, 2019).

For example, officers can capture situations such as foot pursuit automatically. It is also proper to conclude that BWC policy has successfully addressed the issue of police use of force. For instance, BWCs have become significant help in the case of police mistreatment of people of color, such as that of George Floyd in 2020. The introduction of cameras has also proved to be a great way to promote police supervision (Laming, 2019). The constant supervision has enabled the conduct of police officers who work better when they are being supervised, which has resultantly promoted their accountability.

However, some of the studies are inconsistent in showing the effect of the BWCs use. For instance, some studies have shown no difference between police use the devices and when they do not (Sousa et al., 2018). However, most studies have proven significant positive changes in police use of force when the cameras are incorporated. Besides, some authors admit that site-selection bias might have inflated their results.

References

Adams, I., & Mastracci, S. (2019). Police body-worn cameras: Development of the perceived intensity of monitoring scale. Criminal Justice Review44(3), 386-405.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734016819846219

Durlauf, S. N., & Heckman, J. J. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: A comment. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 3998-4002.
https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/710976

Fryer Jr, R. G. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: a response. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 4003-4008.
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Science

SCIENCE ADI-6 LAB REPORT
Title- Plate interaction
Name-

Introduction

Method

Argument-

Science

Overdrive

THE WATSONS
GO TO

BIRMINGHAM—
1963

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 1

This book has been optimized for viewing at a monitor setting of 1024 x 768 pixels.

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 2

THE WATSONS
GO TO

BIRMINGHAM—
1963

a novel by

Christopher Paul Curtis

Delacorte Press

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 3

Published by Delacorte Press, a division of Random House, Inc.
Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.

1540 Broadway
New York, New York 10036

Copyright © 1995 by Christopher Paul Curtis

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system, without the written permission of the Publisher, except where permitted by
law.

The trademark Delacorte Press® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other
countries.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Curtis, Christopher Paul.
The Watsons go to Birmingham—1963 / Christopher Paul Curtis.

p. cm.

Summary:The ordinary interactions and everyday routines of the Watsons, an African American
family living in Flint, Michigan, are drastically changed after they go to visit Grandma in Alabama

in the summer of 1963.

eISBN 0-385-72985-5

v1.0

[1. Afro Americans—Fiction. 2. Family life—Fiction. 3. Prejudices—Fiction. 4.
Brothers and sisters—Fiction. 5. Flint (Mich.)—Fiction.] I.Title.

PZ7.C94137Wat 1995

[Fic]—dc20

95-7091

CIP

AC

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 4

This book is dedicated to my parents, Dr. Herman and Leslie Lewis

Curtis, who have given their children both roots and wings and

encouraged us to soar; my sister, Cydney Eleanor Curtis, who has been

unfailingly supportive, kind and herself; and above all to my wife,

Kaysandra Anne Sookram Curtis, who has provided a warmth and

love that have allowed me to laugh, to grow and, most importantly, to

dream.

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 5

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 6

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to extend his sincere thanks to the following: the

Avery Hopwood and Jules Hopwood Prize of the University of

Michigan, Ann Arbor, for much-appreciated recognition; the staff of

the Windsor Public Library, especially Terry Fisher, for providing a

stimulating and supportive atmosphere in which to write; Welwyn

Wilton Katz, for her valuable help;Wendy Lamb, whose skill as an edi-

tor is matched only by her patience; Joan Curtis Taylor, who forever

will be a powerful exemplar of strength and hope; Lynn Guest, whose

kindness and compassion are a restorative to a person’s faith in

humankind; and particularly to my dear friend Liz Ivette Torres

(Betty), who can’t possibly know how much her friendship, sugges-

tions and insights have meant.

Special thanks to my daughter, Cydney, who makes me feel like a

hero just for coming home from work, and to Steven, who is without

doubt the best first reader, critic and son any writer could ask for.

Finally, a salute to Stevland Morris of Saginaw, Michigan, who so

vividly and touchingly reminded me of what it felt like to be “sneakin’

out the back door to hang out with those hoodlum friends of mine.”

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 7

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 8

In memory of

Addie Mae Collins

Born 4/18/49, died 9/15/63

Denise McNair

Born 11/17/51, died 9/15/63

Carole Robertson

Born 4/24/49, died 9/15/63

Cynthia Wesley

Born 4/30/49, died 9/15/63

the toll for one day in one city

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 9

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 10

t was one of those super-duper-cold Saturdays. One of those days
that when you breathed out your breath kind of hung frozen in the
air like a hunk of smoke and you could walk along and look exactly
like a train blowing out big, fat, white puffs of smoke.

It was so cold that if you were stupid enough to go outside your
eyes would automatically blink a thousand times all by themselves,
probably so the juice inside of them wouldn’t freeze up. It was so cold
that if you spit, the slob would be an ice cube before it hit the ground.
It was about a zillion degrees below zero.

It was even cold inside our house. We put sweaters and hats and
scarves and three pairs of socks on and still were cold.The thermostat
was turned all the way up and the furnace was banging and sounding
like it was about to blow up but it still felt like Jack Frost had moved
in with us.

All of my family sat real close together on the couch under a blan-
ket. Dad said this would generate a little heat but he didn’t have to tell
us this, it seemed like the cold automatically made us want to get
together and huddle up. My little sister, Joetta, sat in the middle and all
you could see were her eyes because she had a scarf wrapped around
her head. I was next to her, and on the outside was my mother.

Momma was the only one who wasn’t born in Flint so the cold was
coldest to her. All you could see were her eyes too, and they were

1

I

1. And You Wonder Why We
Get Called the Weird Watsons

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 1

shooting bad looks at Dad. She always blamed him for bringing her all
the way from Alabama to Michigan, a state she called a giant icebox.
Dad was bundled up on the other side of Joey, trying to look at any-
thing but Momma. Next to Dad, sitting with a little space between
them, was my older brother, Byron.

Byron had just turned thirteen so he was officially a teenage juve-
nile delinquent and didn’t think it was “cool” to touch anybody or let
anyone touch him, even if it meant he froze to death. Byron had
tucked the blanket between him and Dad down into the cushion of
the couch to make sure he couldn’t be touched.

Dad turned on the TV to try to make us forget how cold we were
but all that did was get him in trouble.There was a special news report
on Channel 12 telling about how bad the weather was and Dad
groaned when the guy said, “If you think it’s cold now, wait until
tonight, the temperature is expected to drop into record-low territo-
ry, possibly reaching the negative twenties! In fact, we won’t be seeing
anything above zero for the next four to five days!” He was smiling
when he said this but none of the Watson family thought it was funny.
We all looked over at Dad. He just shook his head and pulled the blan-
ket over his eyes.

Then the guy on TV said, “Here’s a little something we can use to
brighten our spirits and give us some hope for the future: The tem-
perature in Atlanta, Georgia, is forecast to reach. . .” Dad coughed real
loud and jumped off the couch to turn the TV off but we all heard the
weatherman say, “. . . the mid-seventies!” The guy might as well have
tied Dad to a tree and said, “Ready, aim, fire!”

Momma said. “That’s a hundred and fifty miles from home!”
“Wilona . . . ,” Dad said.
“I knew it,” Momma said. “I knew I should have listened to Moses

Henderson!”
“Who?” I asked.
Dad said, “Oh Lord, not that sorry story.You’ve got to let me tell

about what happened with him.”
Momma said, “There’s not a whole lot to tell, just a story about a

young girl who made a bad choice. But if you do tell it, make sure you
get all the facts right.”

We all huddled as close as we could get because we knew Dad was

2

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 2

going to try to make us forget about being cold by cutting up. Me and
Joey started smiling right away, and Byron tried to look cool and
bored.

“Kids,” Dad said, “I almost wasn’t your father.You guys came real
close to having a clown for a daddy named Hambone Henderson. . . .”

“Daniel Watson, you stop right there. You’re the one who started
that ‘Hambone’ nonsense. Before you started that everyone called him
his Christian name, Moses. And he was a respectable boy too, he was-
n’t a clown at all.”

“But the name stuck, didn’t it? Hambone Henderson. Me and your
granddaddy called him that because the boy had a head shaped just
like a hambone, had more knots and bumps on his head than a
dinosaur. So as you guys sit here giving me these dirty looks because
it’s a little chilly outside ask yourselves if you’d rather be a little cool
or go through life being known as the Hambonettes.”

Me and Joey cracked up, Byron kind of chuckled and Momma put
her hand over her mouth. She did this whenever she was going to give
a smile because she had a great big gap between her front teeth. If
Momma thought something was funny, first you’d see her trying to
keep her lips together to hide the gap, then, if the smile got to be too
strong, you’d see the gap for a hot second before Momma’s hand
would come up to cover it, then she’d crack up too.

Laughing only encouraged Dad to cut up more, so when he saw
the whole family thinking he was funny he really started putting on a
show.

He stood in front of the TV. “Yup, Hambone Henderson proposed
to your mother around the same time I did. Fought dirty too, told
your momma a pack of lies about me and when she didn’t believe
them he told her a pack of lies about Flint.”

Dad started talking Southern-style, imitating this Hambone guy.
“Wilona, I heard tell about the weather up that far north in Flint,
Mitch-again, heard it’s colder than inside a icebox. Seen a movie about
it, think it was made in Flint. Movie called Nanook of the North.Yup,
do believe for sure it was made in Flint. Uh-huh, Flint, Mitch-again.

“Folks there live in these things called igloos. According to what I
seen in this here movie most the folks in Flint is Chinese. Don’t
believe I seen nan one colored person in the whole dang city. You a

3

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 3

’Bama gal, don’t believe you’d be too happy living in no igloo. Ain’t
got nothing against ’em, but don’t believe you’d be too happy living
’mongst a whole slew of Chinese folks. Don’t believe you’d like the
food. Only thing them Chinese folks in that movie et was whales and
seals. Don’t believe you’d like no whale meat. Don’t taste a lick like
chicken. Don’t taste like pork at all.”

Momma pulled her hand away from her mouth. “Daniel Watson,
you are one lying man! Only thing you said that was true was that
being in Flint is like living in a igloo. I knew I should have listened to
Moses. Maybe these babies mighta been born with lumpy heads but
at least they’da had warm lumpy heads!

“You know Birmingham is a good place, and I don’t mean just the
weather either.The life is slower, the people are friendlier—”

“Oh yeah,” Dad interrupted,“they’re a laugh a minute down there.
Let’s see, where was that ‘Coloreds Only’ bathroom downtown?”

“Daniel, you know what I mean, things aren’t perfect but people
are more honest about the way they feel”—she took her mean eyes off
Dad and put them on Byron—“and folks there do know how to
respect their parents.”

Byron rolled his eyes like he didn’t care. All he did was tuck the
blanket farther into the couch’s cushion.

Dad didn’t like the direction the conversation was going so he
called the landlord for the hundredth time.The phone was still busy.

“That snake in the grass has got his phone off the hook. Well, it’s
going to be too cold to stay here tonight, let me call Cydney. She just
had that new furnace put in, maybe we can spend the night there.”
Aunt Cydney was kind of mean but her house was always warm so we
kept our fingers crossed that she was home.

Everyone, even Byron, cheered when Dad got Aunt Cydney and
she told us to hurry over before we froze to death.

Dad went out to try and get the Brown Bomber started. That was
what we called our car. It was a 1948 Plymouth that was dull brown
and real big, Byron said it was turd brown. Uncle Bud gave it to Dad
when it was thirteen years old and we’d had it for two years. Me and
Dad took real good care of it but some of the time it didn’t like to start
up in the winter.

After five minutes Dad came back in huffing and puffing and slap-

4

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 4

ping his arms across his chest.
“Well, it was touch and go for a while, but the Great Brown One

pulled through again!” Everyone cheered, but me and Byron quit
cheering and started frowning right away. By the way Dad smiled at
us we knew what was coming next. Dad pulled two ice scrapers out
of his pocket and said,“O.K., boys, let’s get out there and knock those
windows out.”

We moaned and groaned and put some more coats on and went
outside to scrape the car’s windows. I could tell by the way he was
pouting that Byron was going to try and get out of doing his share of
the work.

“I’m not going to do your part, Byron, you’d better do it and I’m
not playing either.”

“Shut up, punk.”
I went over to the Brown Bomber’s passenger side and started hack-

ing away at the scab of ice that was all over the windows. I finished
Momma’s window and took a break. Scraping ice off of windows
when it’s that cold can kill you!

I didn’t hear any sound coming from the other side of the car so I
yelled out, “I’m serious, Byron, I’m not doing that side too, and I’m
only going to do half the windshield, I don’t care what you do to me.”
The windshield on the Bomber wasn’t like the new 1963 cars, it had
a big bar running down the middle of it, dividing it in half.

“Shut your stupid mouth, I got something more important to do
right now.”

I peeked around the back of the car to see what By was up to.The
only thing he’d scraped off was the outside mirror and he was bend-
ing down to look at himself in it. He saw me and said, “You know
what, square? I must be adopted, there just ain’t no way two folks as
ugly as your momma and daddy coulda give birth to someone as sharp
as me!”

He was running his hands over his head like he was brushing his
hair.

I said,“Forget you,” and went back over to the other side of the car
to finish the back window. I had half of the ice off when I had to stop
again and catch my breath. I heard Byron mumble my name.

I said, “You think I’m stupid? It’s not going to work this time.” He

5

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 5

mumbled my name again. It sounded like his mouth was full of some-
thing. I knew this was a trick, I knew this was going to be How to
Survive a Blizzard, Part Two.

How to Survive a Blizzard, Part One had been last night when I
was outside playing in the snow and Byron and his running buddy,
Buphead, came walking by. Buphead has officially been a juvenile
delinquent even longer than Byron.

“Say, kid,” By had said, “you wanna learn somethin’ that might save
your stupid life one day?”

I should have known better, but I was bored and I think maybe the
cold weather was making my brain slow, so I said, “What’s that?”

“We gonna teach you how to survive a blizzard.”
“How?”
Byron put his hands in front of his face and said, “This is the most

important thing to remember, O.K.?”
“Why?”
“Well, first we gotta show you what it feels like to be trapped in a

blizzard. You ready?” He whispered something to Buphead and they
both laughed.

“I’m ready.”
I should have known that the only reason Buphead and By would

want to play with me was to do something mean.
“O.K.,” By said, “first thing you gotta worry about is high winds.”
Byron and Buphead each grabbed one of my arms and one of my

legs and swung me between them going, “Wooo, blizzard warnings!
Blizzard warnings! Wooo! Take cover!”

Buphead counted to three and on the third swing they let me go
in the air. I landed headfirst in a snowbank.

But that was O.K. because I had on three coats, two sweaters, a T-
shirt, three pairs of pants and four socks along with a scarf, a hat and a
hood. These guys couldn’t have hurt me if they’d thrown me off the
Empire State Building!

After I climbed out of the snowbank they started laughing and so
did I.

“Cool, Baby Bruh,” By said,“you passed that part of the test with a
B-plus, what you think, Buphead?”

Buphead said, “Yeah, I’d give the little punk a A.”

6

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 6

They whispered some more and started laughing again.
“O.K.,” By said, “second thing you gotta learn is how to keep your

balance in a high wind. You gotta be good at this so you don’t get
blowed into no polar bear dens.”

They put me in between them and started making me spin round
and round, it seemed like they spun me for about half an hour.When
slob started flying out of my mouth they let me stop and I wobbled
around for a while before they pushed me back in the same snowbank.

When everything stopped going in circles I got up and we all
laughed again.

They whispered some more and then By said, “What you think,
Buphead? He kept his balance a good long time, I’m gonna give him
a A-minus.”

“I ain’t as hard a grader as you, I’ma give the little punk a double
A-minus.”

“O.K., Kenny, now the last part of Surviving a Blizzard, you ready?”
“Yup!”
“You passed the wind test and did real good on the balance test but

now we gotta see if you ready to graduate. You remember what we
told you was the most important part about survivin’?”

“Yup!”
“O.K., here we go. Buphead, tell him ’bout the final exam.”
Buphead turned me around to look at him, putting my back to

Byron. “O.K., square,” he started, “I wanna make sure you ready for
this one, you done so good so far I wanna make sure you don’t blow
it at graduation time.You think you ready?”

I nodded, getting ready to be thrown in the snowbank real hard this
time. I made up my mind I wasn’t going to cry or anything, I made
up my mind that no matter how hard they threw me in that snow I
was going to get up laughing.

“O.K.,” Buphead said, “everything’s cool, you ’member what your
brother said about puttin’ your hands up?”

“Like this?” I covered my face with my gloves.
“Yeah, that’s it!” Buphead looked over my shoulder at Byron and

then said, “Wooo! High winds, blowing snow! Wooo! Look out!
Blizzard a-comin’! Death around the corner! Look out!”

Byron mumbled my name and I turned around to see why his voice

7

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 7

sounded so funny. As soon as I looked at him Byron blasted me in the
face with a mouthful of snow.

Man! It was hard to believe how much stuff By could put in his
mouth! Him and Buphead just about died laughing as I stood there
with snow and spit and ice dripping off of my face.

Byron caught his breath and said, “Aww, man, you flunked! You
done so good, then you go and flunk the Blowin’ Snow section of
How to Survive a Blizzard, you forgot to put your hands up! What you
say, Buphead, F?”

“Yeah, double F-minus!”
It was a good thing my face was numb from the cold already or I

might have froze to death. I was too embarrassed about getting tricked
to tell on them so I went in the house and watched TV.

So as me and By scraped the ice off the Brown Bomber I wasn’t
going to get fooled again. I kept on chopping ice off the back win-
dow and ignored By’s mumbling voice.

The next time I took a little rest Byron was still calling my name
but sounding like he had something in his mouth. He was saying,
“Keh-ee! Keh-ee! Hel’ . . . hel’ . . . !”When he started banging on the
door of the car I went to take a peek at what was going on.

By was leaned over the outside mirror, looking at something in it real
close. Big puffs of steam were coming out of the side of the mirror.

I picked up a big, hard chunk of ice to get ready for Byron’s trick.
“Keh-ee! Keh-ee! Hel’ me! Hel’ me! Go geh Momma! Go geh

Mom-ma! Huwwy uh!”
“I’m not playing, Byron! I’m not that stupid! You’d better start

doing your side of the car or I’ll tear you up with this iceball.”
He banged his hand against the car harder and started stomping his

feet. “Oh, please, Keh-ee! Hel’ me, go geh Mom-ma!”
I raised the ice chunk over my head. “I’m not playing, By, you bet-

ter get busy or I’m telling Dad.”
I moved closer and when I got right next to him I could see

boogers running out of his nose and tears running down his cheeks.
These weren’t tears from the cold either, these were big juicy crybaby
tears! I dropped my ice chunk.

“By! What’s wrong?”
“Hel’ me! Keh-ee! Go geh hel’!”

8

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 8

I moved closer. I couldn’t believe my eyes! Byron’s mouth was
frozen on the mirror! He was as stuck as a fly on flypaper!

I could have done a lot of stuff to him. If it had been me with my
lips stuck on something like this he’d have tortured me for a couple of
days before he got help. Not me, though, I nearly broke my neck try-
ing to get into the house to rescue Byron.

As soon as I ran through the front door Momma, Dad and Joey all
yelled, “Close that door!”

“Momma, quick! It’s By! He’s froze up outside!”
No one seemed too impressed.
I screamed, “Really! He’s froze to the car! Help! He’s crying!”
That shook them up.You could cut Byron’s head off and he prob-

ably wouldn’t cry.
“Kenneth Bernard Watson, what on earth are you talking about?”
“Momma, please hurry up!”
Momma, Dad and Joey threw on some extra coats and followed me

to the Brown Bomber.
The fly was still stuck and buzzing. “Oh, Mom-ma! Hel’ me! Geh

me offa ’ere!”
“Oh my Lord!” Momma screamed, and I thought she was going to

do one of those movie-style faints, she even put her hand over her
forehead and staggered back a little bit.

Joey, of course, started crying right along with Byron.
Dad was doing his best not to explode laughing. Big puffs of smoke

were coming out of his nose and mouth as he tried to squeeze his
laughs down. Finally he put his head on his arms and leaned against
the car’s hood and howled.

“Byron,” Momma said, gently wiping tears off his cheeks with the
end of her scarf,“it’s O.K., sweetheart, how’d this happen?” She sound-
ed like she was going to be crying in a minute herself.

Dad raised his head and said, “Why are you asking how it hap-
pened? Can’t you tell, Wilona? This little knucklehead was kissing his
reflection in the mirror and got his lips stuck!” Dad took a real deep
breath. “Is your tongue stuck too?”

“No! Quit teasin’, Da-ee! Hel’! Hel’!”
“Well, at least the boy hadn’t gotten too passionate with himself!”

Dad thought that was hilarious and put his head back on his arms.

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Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 9

Momma didn’t see anything funny. “Daniel Watson! What are we
gonna do? What do y’all do when this happens up he-uh?” Momma
started talking Southernstyle when she got worried. Instead of saying
“here” she said “he-uh” and instead of saying “you all” she said “y’all.”

Dad stopped laughing long enough to say, “Wilona, I’ve lived in
Flint all my life, thirty-five years, and I swear this is the first time I’ve
ever seen anyone with their lips frozen to a mirror. Honey, I don’t
know what to do, wait till he thaws out?”

“Pull him off, Dad,” I suggested. Byron went nuts! He started bang-
ing his hands on the Brown Bomber’s doors again and mumbling,
“No! No! Mom-ma, doe leh him!”

Joey blubbered out,“This is just like that horrible story Kenny read
me about that guy Nar-sissy who stared at himself so long he forgot
to eat and starved to death. Mommy, please save him!” She went over
and hugged her arms around stupid Byron’s waist.

Momma asked Dad, “What about hot water? Couldn’t we pour
enough hot water on the mirror so it would warm up and he could
get off?” She kept wiping tears off By’s cheeks and said, “Don’t you
worry, Baby, we gonna get you off of this.” But her voice was so shaky
and Southern that I wondered if we’d be driving around in the sum-
mer with a skeleton dangling from the outside mirror by its lips.

Dad said, “I don’t know, pouring water on him might be the worst
thing to do, but it might be our only chance. Why don’t you go get
some hot tap water and I’ll stay to wipe his cheeks.”

Joey told By, “Don’t worry, we’ll come right back.” She stood on
her tiptoes and gave By a kiss, then she and Momma ran inside. Dad
cracked up all over again.

“Well, lover boy, I guess this means no one can call you Hot Lips,
can they?”

Dad was killing himself.“Or the Last of the Red Hot Lovers either,
huh?” He tugged on Byron’s ear a little, pulling his face back.

By went nuts again. “Doe do dat! Mom-ma! Momma, hel’! Keh-
ee, go geh Mom-ma! Huwwy!”

“Hmm, I guess that’s not going to work, is it?”
Every time he wiped away the tears and the little mustache of

boogers on Byron’s lip Dad couldn’t help laughing, until a little river
of tears was coming out of his eyes too.

10

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 10

Dad tried to straighten his face out when Momma and Joey came
running back with a steaming glass of hot water, but the tears were still
running down his cheeks.

Momma tried to pour water on the mirror but her hands were
shaking so much, she was splashing it all over the place. Dad tried too,
but he couldn’t look at Byron without laughing and shaking.

That meant I had to do it.
I knew that if my lips were frozen on something and everybody was

shaking too much to pour water on them except for Byron he’d do
some real cruel stuff to me. He probably would have “accidentally”
splashed my eyes until they were frozen open or put water in my ears
until I couldn’t hear anything, but not me. I gently poured a little
stream of water over the mirror.

Dad was right! This was the worst thing we could do! The water
made a cracking sound and froze solid as soon as it touched the mir-
ror and By’s lips!

Maybe By’s mouth was frozen but his hands sure weren’t and he
popped me right in the forehead. Hard! I hate to say it but I started
crying too.

It’s no wonder the neighbors called us the Weird Watsons behind
our backs.There we were, all five of us standing around a car with the
temperature about a million degrees below zero and each and every
one of us crying!

“ ’top! ’top!” By yelled.
“Daniel Watson, what’re we gonna do?” Momma went nuts. “You

gotta get this boy to the hospital! My baby is gonna die!”
Dad tried to look serious real quick.
“Wilona, how far do you think I’d get driving down the street with

this little clown attached to the mirror? What am I supposed to do,
have him run beside the car all the way down to the emergency
room?”

Momma looked real close at By’s mouth, closed her eyes for a sec-
ond like she was praying and finally said,“Daniel, you get in there and
call the hospital and see what they say we should do. Joey and Kenny,
go with your daddy.”

Dad and Joey went crying into the house. I stayed by the Brown
Bomber. I figured Momma was clearing everybody out for something.

11

Watsons Birmingham 11/1/01 9:39 AM Page 11

Byron did too and looked at Momma in a real nervous way.
Momma put her scarf around Byron’s face and said, “Sweetheart,

you know we gotta do something. I’ma try to warm your face up a
little. Just relax.”

“O.K., Mom-ma.”
“You know I love you and wouldn’t do anything to hurt you,

right?” If Momma was trying to make Byron relax she wasn’t doing a
real good job at it. All this talk about love and not getting hurt was
making him real nervous.

science

Name: Date:

Care Plan #

Nursing Care Plan: Basic Conditioning Factors

A. Patient identifiers:

Age: Gender: Ht: Wt. Code Status:

Isolation:

Development Stage (Erikson): Give the stage and rationale for your evaluation

Health Status

Date of admission:

Activity level: Diet:

Fall risk (indicate reason)

Client’s description of health status (how do they say they feel?)

Allergies: (include type of reaction)

Reason for admission:

Past medical history that relates to admission:

Socio-cultural Orientation

Cultural and Ethnic Background with current practices:

Socialization:

Family system: (Support system)

Spiritual:

Occupation: (across the lifespan)

Patterns of living: (define past and current)

Barriers to independent living:

Healthcare systems elements (continued) ALLERGIES:

Medications: List all medications, dosages, classifications and the rational for the medications prescribed for this patient include major considerations for administration and the possible negative outcomes associated with this medication.

DEFINE 1: What the medications does to the body to the cellular level AND 2: Why the patient is taking the medication?

Medication/dose Classification Indication/ Rationale SE’s/Nursing Considerations Client Education Text Reference

Glucagon AMP/50 ML in sterile water

Regular Insulin 7 units subcutaneously

Lantus 26 units qd

NS 20 mEq/l KCL @ 200ml/hr x 1 hour then 125 ml/hr

CON
CEPT MAP

Pathophysiology – (to the cellular level)

Medical Diagnosis


DKA

Signs & Symptoms/Clinical Manifestations (all data subjective and objective: labs, radiology, all diagnostic studies) (What symptoms does your client present with?)

Complications

Treatment (Medical, medications, intervention and supportive)

Causes/Risk Factors (chemical, environmental, psychological, physiological and genetic)

Nursing Diagnosis

Problem statement: (NANDA)

Related to: (What is happening in the body to cause the issue?)

Manifested by: (Specific symptoms)

.

LAB VALUES AND INTERPRETETION

LAB

Range

Value

Value

MEANING (If WDL then explain the possible reason for the lab)

LAB

Range

Value

Value

MEANING

HEMATOLOGY

CHEMISTRY

CBC

Glucose

WBC

BUN

RBC

Cr

HGB

GFR

HCT

Na

PLATLETS

K

Diff:

CO2

Polys

Ca

Bands

Phos

Lymphs

Amlylase

Mono’s

Lipase

Eosin

Uric Acid

GBC indices

Protein

MCV

Albumin

MCH

Cl

MCHC

Enzymes

COAG’S

LDH

PT

CPK

INR

SGOT

PTT

SGPT

ABG’S(V 0R A)

Triponin I

PH

Myoglobin

PCO2

HCO3

Cholesterol

BASE EX:

UA

SAT:

URINALYSIS

Range

Value

Value

Meaning

Findings

Meaning

Color

Gastroccult

Clarity

Hemoccult

Sp. Gravity

pH

Protein

Glucose

Ketones

Bilirubin

Occ. Blood

RADIOLOGY

Urobilogen

WBC

EKG

RBC

Epithelia

PET SCAN

WBC

RBC

CT

Epith Cell

Bacteria

MRI

Hyal Cast

MRA

Gran Cast

Ultrasounds

Leukocytes

Nitrite

ACCUCHECKS

Endoscopy

Colonoscopy

Additional information:

Universal Self-Care Deficits: Assessment: (Highlight all abnormal assessment findings)

Vital Signs

Admission

Reassess

Oxygenation/ Circulation

Input:

SPO2

1. 2. 3.

Accu-check

1. 2. 3. 4.

Output:

Cardiovascular Assessment:

Specialty devices:

Teaching needs:

Heart Sounds:

Circulatory Assessment:

Edema: JVD:

Pain assessment: (PQRST)- Specific area

Respiratory assessment

Special devices:

Teaching Needs:

Lung sounds:

Pulmonary assessment: (respiratory pattern)

Cough:

Respiratory treatment and rational for use:

Neurological assessment:

Assistive devices:

Teaching Needs:

Neuro assessment: Level of Consciousness

Fine motor function:

Gross motor functioning:

Sleep patterns: (During admission)

GI Assessment:

LBM: (description)

Teaching needs:

GI assessment: (observe – auscultate – palpate)

Alteration in eating or elimination patterns:

Nutrition Metabolic Assessment:

% of diet taken:

Alternative nutritional methods:

GU assessment:

Teaching needs:

Last void:

Due to void:

Alternative urinary elimination method: (if Foley when inserted)

Bladder scan

Assessment of urinary patterns:

Urine assessment (color odor concentration etc.)

LMP

Integumentary Assessment:

Teaching needs:

Color/ Mucous membranes

Hydration:

Wound Care:

Condition of skin:

Nutritional Assessment

Teaching needs:

Diet:

Eating patterns:

Insulin administration:

Treatment of hypoglycemia:

Alternative feeding patterns:

IV Therapies:

IV fluids infusing

IV Site 1: Assessment

Date of insertion: Change (site or dressing)

IV removal:

Reason for removal:

Additional information:

REMEMBER THAT THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES MUST BE MEASURABLE. THE INTERVENTIONS ARE WHAT YOU DO TO ASSURE THE OUTCOME AND THE CLIENT’S RESPONSE IS SPECIFICALLY HIS RESPONSE.

PLAN OF CARE: Use your top two priorities

NANDA NURSING DIAGNOSIS use NANDA definition

Expected outcomes of care (Goals)

Interventions

Patient response

Goal evaluation

NRS DX:

Problem Statement:

R/T: (What is the cause of the symptom)

Manifested by: (Specific symptoms)



Short term goal

: Create a SMART goal that relates to hospital stay/shift/day.



Long term goal
: Create a SMART goal that is appropriate for discharge.

This is specific to the patient that you are caring for. A list of planned actions that will assist the patient to achieve the desired goal. (i.e. obtain foods that the patient can eat/ likes)

Interventions for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Interventions for longterm goal:

1.

2.

3.

Identify what the patients response or “outcome is to the goal or care that you have provided. i.e. patient ate 45% of lunch)

Reassess for short-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Reassess for long-term goal:

1.

2.

3.

Was it met or not met there is no partially met.

NANDA NURSING DIAGNOSIS use NANDA definition

Expected outcomes of care (Goals)

Interventions

Patient response

Goal evaluation

NRS DX:

Problem Statement:

R/T: (What is the cause of the symptom?)

Manifested by: (specific symptoms)

Short term goal: Create a SMART goal that relates to hospital stay.

Long term goal: Create a SMART goal that is appropriate for discharge.

This is specific to the patient that you are caring for. A list of planned actions that will assist the patient to achieve the desired goal. (i.e. obtain foods that the patient can eat/ likes)

Identify what the patients response or “outcome is to the goal or care that you have provided. i.e. patient ate 45% of lunch)

Was it met or not met there is no partially met.

Pilot Summer 2016 KC 9

Science

Name  __________________________              Date  _________________

Directions: Write an informative essay in which you compare and contrast how Kenny from “The Watsons Go to Birmingham-1963” and Harry from “The Worse Birthday from Harry Potter & the Chamber of Secrets” demonstrate courage in the face of fear.  Be sure to cite evidence from both texts to support your ideas. (Hint: You will have to open both texts while completing the assignment below).

Informative Essay Title:  _________________________________

Introduction Paragraph

Hook

Bridge

Main Idea

Kenny demonstrated courage in the face of fear by ______________________________________________________________.

Harry Potter also demonstrated courage in the face of fear by ______________________________________________________________.

Body Paragraph 1: How did Kenny Watson demonstrate courage in the face of fear? Use evidence from the novel.

(Type your response here. At least 5 sentences.)

Body Paragraph 2: How did Harry Potter demonstrate courage in the face of fear? Use evidence from the text.

(Type your response here. At least 5 sentences.)

Body Paragraph 3: How are the ways that Kenny and Harry Potter demonstrated courage in the face of fear alike and different? Explain. Use evidence from the text.

(Type your response here. At least 5 sentences.)

Conclusion

(Type your response here. At least 5 sentences.)

Once you fill out the organizer above, you should have a full informative essay of 5 paragraphs.

Once completed create a word document with final draft as well.

science

Student Name: Courtney Spina/Precious Date:

Nurse Communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

Client communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

Nurse’s Thoughts &

Feelings Related to the Interaction

Communication Technique (Therapeutic/Non-Therapeutic)

Alternative or Revised Response

1.

Nonverbal: Knocks on the door, enters room, smiling, washes hands, SOLER (Morgan, 2020).

Verbal: Good morning sir, my name is Courtney, and I will be your nurse today. I’m interested in getting to know you. Do you mind if I come in and sit with you?

Nonverbal: client is sitting in a chair staring out the window, appears sad and tearful.

Verbal: Yes, I guess you can come in.

I am nervous since this is my first encounter with the client. I want to know what’s going on in his mind. I don’t want him to shut down.

Therapeutic: self. This is the orientation phase of the client-nurse relationship.

offering

Same response

2.

Nonverbal: I am checking his name band and looking in the client’s MAR to verify I have the correct client.

Verbal: Keep your chin up Mr. Jones. Before we begin, can you please verify your full name and date of birth?

Nonverbal: Mr. Jones is watching me while I check his name band.

Verbal: My name is Russel Jones, my date of birth is April 20th, 1952.

Okay, Mr. Jones is alert and orientated to self. Mr. Jones is confirming his identity which confirms that I am talking with the correct client, and I am addressing him by his correct name.

Nontherapeutic: making stereotyped comments, this a cliché expression and is meaningless in the nurse-client relationship.

This is an inappropriate therapeutic response. I should not tell Mr. Jones to keep his chin up. Instead, I would suggest saying “I am here to help you and we shall get through this together.” Talking about his loss of his

 Brief information about this client: Mr. Jones is a 69-year-old retired engineer. He was admitted to the in-patient psychiatric unit the previous day. His daughter had called the police when he locked himself in his bathroom and refused to come out. She thought he was suicidal. He was brought to the hospital by the police and was admitted on involuntary status. He has been reticent since admission but told his daughter he had no reason to live since his wife died.  Diagnosis: Major Depressive Disorder  Nursing Diagnosis: Risk for suicide. Student Goal for this interaction: gather information on Mr. Jones thoughts and feelings while demonstrating a therapeutic nurse-client relationship. Develop a plan of care for Mr. Jones to utilize.

Setting/Time: Mental Health unit, inpatient room at 0800.

wife is reiterating his actions.

3.

Nonverbal: SOLER (Morgan, 2020).

Verbal: Mr. Jones, how are you feeling today?

Nonverbal: He is sitting in his chair and looking out the window. Mr. Jones looks at me.

Verbal: “fine I guess….”

I am generally concern that something is going on with Mr. Jones. He doesn’t seem like he is doing very well.

Therapeutic: opening, this Mr. Jones to initiative in th discussion.

broad

Instead of asking Mr. Jones how is feeling today, the nurse could have said “tell me what you are thinking about?”

allows

take e

4.

Nonverbal: Nodding, looking at client.

Verbal: That’s good Mr. Jones, I’m glad that you are feeling okay.

Nonverbal: staring at the ground

Verbal: “Meh, I just don’t feel like talking this morning.”

Mr. Jones doesn’t want to talk this morning. Maybe I can ask him what is bothering him?

Nontherapeutic: approving or disapproving, the nurse is denouncing Mr. Jones behavior. She is accepting this behavior.

This is not therapeutic approach instead I could ask Mr. Jones “Mr. Jones, we all have those days when we don’t want to talk to anyone. Is there anything I can do to make you feel better?”

5.

Nonverbal: Remain silence, nodding.

Verbal: Everything will be alright Mr. Jones…

Nonverbal: angry, short, and agitated. Looks away from me.

Verbal: No, it won’t, I just want to get out of here. I don’t belong here!

Mr. Jones is getting very agitated and angry. He believes that he doesn’t belong here.

Nontherapeutic: giving reassurance, the nurse is devaluing the client’s feelings

Instead of telling Mr. Jones everything will be alright I could use a more therapeutic techniques broad opening which allows

the client to initiate the topic and interaction.

6.

Nonverbal: Concerned, nodding, looking at client.

Verbal: Mr. Jones, you feel angry that you don’t belong here, and you want to go home. Can you explain more why you feel angry?

Nonverbal: tearful while looking at nurse

Verbal: Well last night, I locked myself in the bathroom and refused to come out. I have been sad and lonely since my wife died. My daughter thought I was going to harm myself which she called the police and brought me here.

The reason Mr. Jones is angry is because he is sad and lonely that his wife passed away. His daughter thought he was going to harm himself.

Therapeutic: the nurse is focusing on why Mr. Jones feels angry.

focusing

,

Asking him what brought him in earlier may have provided a more therapeutic response which could have resulted in him not becoming angry.

7.

Nonverbal: nodding and

Nonverbal: Looking at nurse

Mr. Jones feels like his

Nontherapeutic:

This is not an

looking at client.

Verbal: What made you lock yourself in the bathroom and refuse to come out?

and staring out the window.

Verbal: I feel like my daughter doesn’t care about me and how I am feeling since my wife passed away.

daughter doesn’t care about him and his feelings about the loss of his wife. He is trying to get attention from his daughter.

indicating the existence of an external source of power, this allows Mr. Jones to blame his daughter for his actions instead of accepting the responsibility.

appropriate therapeutic response for Mr. Jones instead I should offer him silence and allow him to explain. Listening to everything he has to say is key.

8.

Nonverbal: Nods in understanding.

Verbal: Ok, Mr. Jones, Do I understand correctly that you said, “your daughter doesn’t care about you, and she doesn’t understand your

feelings since your wife passed away?”

Nonverbal: nodding and shaking his head.

Verbal: Yes. My daughter hasn’t been around much lately since my wife died.

Mr. Jones is feeling lonely because his daughter is not around much since his wife passed away. He wants some attention from his daughter.

Therapeutic:

seeking

I was able to clarify with Mr. Jones that I heard him correctly. If I didn’t clarify the

question, he may have thought that I didn’t understand what he was saying which could make him frustrated or stop talking.

clarification and

validation

. The nurse

is trying to clarify the feelings and increase between Mr. Jones

meaning of his the understanding and the nurse.

9.

Nonverbal: Nodding, SOLER (Morgan, 2020).

Verbal: What you really mean is that it’s been difficult since the loss of your wife and your daughter hasn’t been around for support?

Nonverbal: shaking his head.

Verbal: Yeah, my wife and I have been together for 45 years. She was my soulmate and whole world. We would do everything together. My daughter works so much

lately, I guess I just feel like she would be better off without me.

Mr. Jones is having a hard time coping with the loss of his wife.

His daughter seems to be someone he uses for a support system, but she isn’t around.

Nontherapeutic: interpreting, the nurse

is trying to tell the client the meaning of his thoughts.

Instead of interpreting how the client feels I should allow Mr. Jones to let him tell me how he feels.

Nurse Communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

Client communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

Nurse’s Thoughts &

Feelings Related to the Interaction

Communication Technique (Therapeutic/Non-Therapeutic)

Alternative or Revised Response

10.

Nonverbal: looking at the client.

Verbal: Okay, Mr. Jones. Please explain why you feel like your daughter would be better off without you.

Nonverbal: looking at the ground

Verbal: Well since she’s just so busy I figured that she didn’t need me anymore. I may have told her that I would

Mr. Jones is having a hard time not connecting with his daughter. She is a huge support system for him since his wife is gone.

Therapeutic: exploring, the nurse is trying to further gain information about the client’s feelings without pushing or probing the client to

Same response. However, it may be therapeutic to have a conversation with Mr. Jones and his daughter to clear the air.

rather not be here on earth anymore so I can be with my wife again.

not disclose information.

11.

Nonverbal: looking at the client.

Verbal: Why did you do that?

Nonverbal: embarrassed while looking at the ground.

Verbal: I guess I shouldn’t have told her that I would rather not be here on earth anymore. That probably made her worried and thought that I would harm myself.

Mr. Jones recognizes that what he said is wrong. He feels embarrassed of his actions.

Nontherapeutic: requesting an explanation

Using more of an exploring technique may have him tell me more about what happened in why he wanted to harm himself.

12.

Nonverbal: looking directly at the client.

Verbal: Mr. Jones, there is no one else in the room but you and me, would you ever physically harm yourself?

Nonverbal: shaking his head and tearful

Verbal: No, I don’t think I could physically harm myself. I know that my wife wouldn’t want that for me. I just miss her so much and thought that I was being a huge burden on my daughter.

Mr. Jones doesn’t want to hurt himself. He understands that his wife wouldn’t want that for him. He is sad that she is gone and doesn’t have enough support.

Therapeutic:

presenting reality

Same response. Mr. Jones tells me that he wouldn’t physically harm himself because he knows that his wife wouldn’t approve of his decision. He needs a safety plan as he does not currently have suicidal ideation.

13.

Nonverbal: Nod’s and looks at client.

Verbal: Okay Mr. Jones, tell me how you feel like a burden towards your daughter since your wife passed.

Nonverbal: nodding

Verbal: Well, you see my daughter use to come over twice a week when my wife was alive. Now, she barely comes over once a week. She is always working and when

we talk, I just feel like I’m not important to her.

Mr. Jones is feeling alone and doesn’t have any support from his daughter.

Nontherapeutic:

probing, the nurse is pushing the client to for answers. This could make the client defensive.

Allowing Mr. Jones to “go on” since he stated before that he feels like he is a huge

burden on his daughter would be more therapeutic.

14.

Nonverbal: remains silence, allowing Mr. Jones to provide more information.

Verbal: Go on….

Nonverbal: staring at nurse

Verbal: I just feel like I am not important to her because she doesn’t come over anymore. I want to spend more time with her because she is the only family I have left.

Mr. Jones feels that he is unimportant because his daughter doesn’t want to spend time with him. She is his only support system since his wife is gone.

Therapeutic: general lead

offering a

Asking Mr. Jones is he has any other family members or friends around may allow him to not focus on his daughter.

15

Nonverbal: Nodding.

Verbal: Unconsciously you’re saying you have been sad and lonely since your wife passed away. You don’t want to harm yourself. You feel like you’re a huge burden on your daughter, and you want to spend more time with your daughter since she is the only family you have.

Nonverbal: shakes his head

Verbal: Yeah, that pretty much sums it up.

Mr. Jones agrees that the information he has

provided is correct. I am going to propose some ideas that would make him feel less lonely or possibly having a talk with his daughter when she comes in.

Nontherapeutic:

interpreting, the nurse

is telling the client the meaning of his feelings and thoughts.

I should restate what Mr. Jones has told me so I can develop a trusting and working relationship with Mr. Jones. Then together we can develop a safety plan that benefits him. Either providing him with National Suicide prevention lifeline (1800-273-8255) or counselor.

16.

Nonverbal: maintain eye contact and smiling.

Verbal: Mr. Jones sounds like you have felt deep loss and grief about losing a loved one recently while having to be here. That must be very difficult for you.

Nonverbal: Nod’s head

Verbal: It really has been difficult. She was my soulmate for 45 years. I just feel like a piece of me is missing since she’s gone.

This has been a

difficult time for Mr. Jones. He has been feeling so much pain and loss from losing his wife. I need to ask him different questions, so we don’t focus on his suffering but willing for him to grieve.

Therapeutic:

verbalizing the implied

At this time, asking Mr. Jones to come up with a plan of care would be more beneficial for the next time he feels sad and lonely.

17.

Nonverbal: Nodding, providing eye contact, touches Mr. Jones hand.

Verbal: Mr. Jones, everybody feels like a piece of them is missing when they lose a loved one. I understand how you feel.

Nonverbal: uncertain and nods his head in agreeance

Verbal: If you say so….

Mr. Jones is now confused and feels that he is compared to others.

Nontherapeutic: belittling feelings expressed, this can cause the client to feel insignificant and unimportant.

I don’t understand how he feels. Instead, I should ask Mr. Jones if I could stay with him for a while to make him comfortable.

18.

Nonverbal: looking at client.

Verbal: Mr. Jones, what could you do differently if you are faced with this situation in the future?

Nonverbal: looks at nurse

Verbal: Well, I guess I could go for a walk. I used to like going for walks in the evening.

Mr. Jones use to like going for walks in the evening. I can encourage him to do activities that make him happy instead of being sad.

Therapeutic:

formulation a plan of

action

I should have noticed while he was staring out the window during our conversation that he was watching the people outside walking. I could have asked him earlier if this is something he enjoyed doing.

19.

Nonverbal: remains silent, looking at the client, nodding.

Verbal: That’s good. I’m glad that you have found a solution that works for you.

Nonverbal: smiling

Verbal: Yes, me too.

Mr. Jones seems excited about how to cope with this new solution.

Nontherapeutic: approving, the client may be trying to please the nurse.

Using silence would encourage Mr. Jones to organize his thoughts and how he feels about using this new coping method.

20.

Nonverbal: smiling and excited.

Verbal: That sounds beautiful Mr. Jones. I am happy that we have a plan. I will come back in an hour to check on you. Please let me know if you need anything.

Nonverbal: smiling and nodding

Verbal: Okay, I don’t need anything, but I will let you know if I do. Thank you, Courtney, I am glad we talked. I feel much better about things.

Mr. Jones shared a lot of information about himself and how he can cope with his loss. He doesn’t want to die but he feels lonely. Mr. Jones is learning how to deal with his coping

skills and will be successful when he can be discharged.

Therapeutic:

self. Mr. Jones is aware that I am her for him and that he i not alone.

offering

s

I am happy with my conversation with Mr. Jones. We were able to develop a plan in which he is comfortable with. I could have offered different solutions

earlier in the conversation however Mr. Jones was able to create a plan on his own.

e

References

Morgan, K. I. (2020). Davis Advantage for Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 10th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf 9.4.3]. Retrieved from vbk://9781719645140

Science

I need the list of all elements on the periodic table

    • 10

    science

    Student Name_ Sample _____________________________________________Date 01/15/2021

    Brief information about this client___34-year-old female with extreme anxiety about children and family, and has problems with sleeping and eating, which has caused her to lose 15 lbs. in a month. ________

    Student Goal for this interaction__To come up with a plan to help with the current problems and to get to the bottom of what caused the problems.

    Setting/Time: __In the patient’s room, and just after lunch time______

    Nurse Communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

    Client communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

    Nurse’s Thoughts &

    Feelings Related to the Interaction

    Communication Technique (Therapeutic/Non-Therapeutic)

    Alternative or Revised Response

    1.

    NV: At eye level and squared up to Mrs. Alverez with full eye contact.

    V: I said my name is Michaela and I will be your nurse. Can I have your name and date of birth. How would you like me to address you?

    NV: Mrs. Alverez was facing the window and looking outside while answering the questions with arms crossed. V: She stated that she was Lisa Alverez, and she was born April 29, 1987. She would like to be addressed as Lisa.

    The patient is off and not necessarily wanting to be part of the conversations and could be potentially wanting to be out there and not part of her problems.

    Therapeutic

    because

    Could have been more direct by saying what would you like me to call you? This might have been more direct and given the patient a better idea to what the nurse wanted.

    of offering a

    giving

    broad opening

    and

    reak the

    re out how he

    w they ressed

    the start.

    wanting to b ice and figu to start to build t relationship by knowing ho want to be add to not offend the patient from

    2.

    NV: Remaining focused and facing the patient.

    V: Lisa I noticed that you brought yourself in today and I was wondering if you could tell me more about why you brought yourself in?

    NV: Still facing the window, but at times during the conversations starts to make some eye contact, but only for a second or two.

    V: She states that she has noticed that she can not control her anxiety anymore and is constantly worrying about her kids and when her kids are gone, she is calling the place that they are at every 5 minutes, or she ends up picking up her children 2 hours early because they are in her sight. She also states why am I telling you this, I do

    This is a step in the right direction because she is starting to describe what is going on and putting her thoughts in words but

    is also trusting the nurse enough about talking something so sensitive.

    Therapeutic

    and it is

    It was not a bad question but could have done a better evolving the relationship with more generic questions before diving into it. The nurse could have asked how you are doing today or something along those lines.

    the

    technique of

    how

    exploring

    and getting

    a better idea of what is

    n in the s life and

    nt is coping

    going o person’ the patie with what is happening.

    not even know you.

    3.

    NV: Still facing Lisa and leaning in a little bit to look intent and interested, the nurse was a little anxious about possibly make the situation worse.

    V: Thank you for sharing Lisa and I noticed that you seem a little anxious to share your experience, but I hope you understand that this information stay between your care team and you. We are just wanting to try our best to help you, but we do nee to understand where your anxiety is coming from.

    NV: Arms are still crossed, and she still has little to no eye contact, but she is starting to slightly turn to face the nurse.

    V: I guess thank you for helping me, I just have never had anyone care about my feelings or try to understand where I am coming from. My husband works a lot and growing up my parents never cared what I did. I was gone for 5 days and they did not even notice.

    Connection is starting to form, and the patient is starting to understand that the nurse is there to help, and the patient is now willing to open more.

    Therapeutic

    because

    as trying to

    sible

    nding and

    get the

    pen more. ue was ervations.

    This is a good way to have the patient understand that she is not trying to harm the patient, but it could have been better to add a question that would help get the information instead of relying on the patient to give the information.

    the nurse w clear a pos misundersta was able to patient to o

    The techniq making obs

    4.

    NV: The nurse sits there facing the patient, leaning in, and staying focused on the patient and the patient’s non-verbal’s V: I see, and what happened after those five days?

    NV: Facing the nurse, sitting a little more upright and arms are now laying on top of her lap.

    V: After those five days my parents became even worse. I forgot to mention I was 7 when that happen. But there was a time I became very sick and ended up with an appendicitis and I had to call my grandma to come help me. Eventually my parents showed up and showed the nurses that they were great parents and cared about me. I do not want my children to feel the same way I do.

    The patient is trusting the nurse even more and the conversation is explaining more about what is going on in the patient and what might help the patient.

    Therapeutic

    were used,

    offering a and

    event in ence. niques more of an

    ng and

    ast that

    caused the

    Could have just did the general lead to get different information instead of what happened after the five days. The nurse could have just said go on.

    techniques and it was general lead placing the time or sequ These tech helped get understandi about her p might have problem.

    5.

    NV: Still maintaining the conversation while at eye level, eye contact, and leaning in. V: I sense that you think your

    NV: Patient is fully part of the conversation, full eye contact, but hands are not sitting still as conversation continues.

    The conversation is still going in the right direction and the patient is willing to talk

    Therapeutic

    were used by

    the feelings

    The question could be restated by asking her feelings toward her parents and how she

    techniques in this situation

    restating

    anxiety is based on your childhood experience and worrying about if you are there for your kids enough.

    V: I guess you could say that is true, I feel bad putting the blame on my parents because they are my parents, but I was treated horribly by them.

    about topics that make her uncomfortable but feels safe to let those feelings out.

    of the patient and giving them a clearer picture to what they are explaining.

    thinks it has impacted her parenting.

    6.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation. V: How do you think this anxiety is affecting you today?

    NV: Maintaining eye contact with the nurse and still fully facing the nurse, silent for a few minutes thinking about how it has affected her today. V: Now that I really think about it, it has affected me a lot through my choices about myself and then my choices about my children.

    This was a good question, and it made the patient truly think about her current situation and how the anxiety from her past is affecting her now.

    Therapeutic

    technique

    The question could have been more specific about wanting specifics about what is going on instead of a general question.

    and it was and tryi the relatio between her parents and her current situation.

    exploring

    ng to figure out nship

    7.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation. V: Why do you say that?

    NV: Looks confused for a second about the statement, but still facing the nurse.

    V: I guess my past has made me very anxious with my own children and wanting to make sure they are always okay, and it has led to forgetting to eat and feeling sick to my stomach.

    This idea is interesting, and it allowed the patient to add more specifics to the pervious question.

    Non-therapeutic

    tting he

    The response would have been better if I stated “ Yes, I see, please go on” instead of asking her why.

    technique it was asking a “why” question and pu the patient on t defensive.

    8.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: I understand that you realize that you forgot to eat and feel sick, but do you realize that you lost 15 pounds? Don’t you realize the risk to your health by losing so much weight so quickly?

    NV: She turns toward the window after the question and is staring out the window thinking.

    V: (Nothing was stated)

    This line of questions was not great, but it is showing that I am judging her choices.

    Non-therapeutic

    to

    or

    This could have been presented better by making it sound more empathic accusatory. I could have said “Let’s talk about your daily eating routine. Tell me what you eat on a typical day.”

    technique of

    requesting an

    explanation

    . The

    patient does not owe me an explanation her weight loss whether or not she understands the risks involved.

    9.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation and leaning in a bit more to feel she can talk and remain silenced. V: (The nurse said nothing)

    NV: Lisa is starting to turn back around to the nurse and looked less defensive and calm again.

    V: I did not think I lost that much, but it makes since because the only time I eat is with my children because I do not have to worry about them because they are there with me. But when they are gone and I am supposed to have me time or time with my husband, I become sick and do not feel like eating until I calm down and usually takes a couple hours after I see them. At that point I still do not feel hungry.

    This action was good, and the conversation is going in the right direction again.

    Therapeutic

    technique

    of silence. patient

    k about her d what the rying to get

    o

    Could have asked a more specific questions about what she thinks has caused the weight loss. But the silence technique allowed the patient to think and respond the way that helps the patient more.

    and the use It gave the time to thin answers an nurse was t the patient t understand.

    Nurse Communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

    Client communication (Verbal & Non-verbal)

    Nurse’s Thoughts &

    Feelings Related to the Interaction

    Communication Technique (Therapeutic/Non-Therapeutic)

    Alternative or Revised Response

    10.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation and showing the acceptance of what the patient answered.

    V: It must be very difficult for you to have to deal with so many emotions on top of the physical problems you are dealing with too.

    NV: She remained in the same position of being intrigued and maintaining eye contact. But she lets out a sigh.

    V: It is. But I have no idea how to control my emotions and this anxiety? And I don’t know what to do with my children. I came in to get help, what do you think I should do?

    Good step in the right direction because the patient is now asking the questions out loud and is asking for the nurse’s opinion, which means there is a connection.

    Therapeutic

    which was the implied the patient

    and what

    m in and se

    s the

    patient is

    There could have been a question instead of just a response because this could be interpreted wrong and break the trust. Could have asked if there is a relationship between the anxiety and health problems and how it could be fixed.

    technique, verbalizing and having real underst brought the that the nur

    understand

    difficulty the having.

    11.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: Why don’t you tell your husband that he needs to help you more with the children.

    NV: Sitting in silence, she thinks about what she could do and eventually letting out another sigh.

    V: I guess that I could but I’m not sure how he really can help me since he works so much.

    Not good. She seems a little upset with my comment about asking her husband to help. I think she may be shutting down.

    Non-therapeutic

    I could have asked her “What does your husband think about helping you more with the children when he gets home from work?

    technique, giving

    is

    advice

    . Telling the hat to do ow what

    .

    patient w implies I kn best for her

    12.

    NV: Still maintaining eye

    NV: Seems unsure, but her

    Patient is relaxing and

    T

    herapeutic

    Luckily the patient

    contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: I’m sorry. I shouldn’t have told you what to do, that is a discussion for you and your husband to have.

    body is relaxing, but is still a little rigid.

    V: Thank you for the apology. Yes, I think that would be a good conversation to have when I feel more rested and more like my old self. I am always tired.

    can continue the conversation without the nursing asking the questions and feels comfortable asking the nurse questions.

    technique, which helps the patient understand that you agree with their cho

    be there to help with

    the choices apologizing f her feel uncomfortable.

    accepting,

    g

    accepted my apology so I wouldn’t have changed anything here.

    ice and will

    and or makin

    13.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: Is there something that helped you fall asleep before having children of your own or when you were younger?

    NV: Thinking hard about the question, staring at the floor by the nurse’s feet, but then moves her eyes up to talk to the nurse.

    V: ummm. Yes, there was, the one good thing my mom would do for me was if I woke up from a nightmare, she would offer me a nice warm cup of milk and would tell the nanny to play me a lullaby on a jewelry box I used to have.

    The nurse is asking questions that makes the patient think about her life and about what would help her. This idea improves the conversation because it makes the patient feel very centered.

    Therapeutic

    t

    The question could have made them regress and bring out more anxiety to think about their past. The question should have been, have you tried anything throughout your entire life that

    might have helped a

    little bit with your sleep?

    technique,

    encouraging

    , which patient to

    mething tha hem with situation for them

    comparison

    allows the think of so might help t their current that worked in the past.

    14.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: Do you think you could try this now?

    NV: Has a slight smile, sitting upright, and concentrating on the nurse, and maintaining the eye contact.

    V: I think I could, I do not have the jewelry box anymore. But I could probably find it on YouTube or something like that.

    The patient is becoming very relaxed and the conversation is coming to answers about what will help the patient when she leaves and goes home.

    Therapeutic

    This question could have been a little less direct because then it may seem more like

    the nurse is suggesting then allowing the patient to come up with it. The question could be changed to is there something like this that you could try?

    technique, reflecting,

    e

    which allows the patient to restate their ideas without the nurse stating them for them. It sets patient to understand their problems and trust th nurse is listening and wanting to help.

    15

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: That sounds like a great idea. So far, we have talked about a lot of things to try and do, are you able to restate to

    NV: Sitting upright, concentrating hard on the ideas, and maintaining eye contact.

    V: Yes, I can. For my anxiety away from my children I am going to start painting again to

    The conversation is not an easy conversation, but it is a conversation that needs to be had to ensure that the patient understands they are

    Therapeutic

    a

    Could get rid of the fluff and get straight to the point, to help the patient and not make them more confused. Could have said how about we restate our

    technique, formulating

    a plan of action

    was

    used and it helps the patient come up with plan that will help them with their

    me what we are going to try during our anxious moments.

    keep my mind busy, but to also know they are always with me. This idea should help control my anxiety and help me with eating when my kids are not around. The next thing we are going to try is the music and warm milk at night to help me fall asleep to feel that I am okay.

    in good hands. But it does take some hard work for the patient to do for it to work for the patient.

    problems and can bounce their ideas off the nurse. It allows a plan to be formed and ideas to be said out loud.

    plan and ideas now for clarification.

    16.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: This is a perfect plan! You seem a little more relaxed.

    NV: seems calm and has eye contract with the nurse and has a slight smile on her face and body is relaxed.

    V: I am, thank you for helping me talk through my problems to come up with a plan and how I will get better for myself and for my children.

    The patient is trusting the nurse and understanding the thoughts and feelings behind the nurse and that she can trust the nurse to help her with this plan.

    Therapeutic

    The statement was fine but could have maybe left out the last part because she is relaxed, but what was needed was the accepting part at this time in the conversation.

    technique, accepting

    e

    nd

    is used to show the patient that we agre with their decision a that it might help them.

    17.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: Well hang in there. All of these changes are for your own good, you will see.

    NV: Looking at me with a strange look on her face. V: How do you know these changes will be good for me. You don’t know what it is like for me. I think you should leave now.

    Oh boy, I shouldn’t have said that. She is right, I do not know if these changes will be good or not. And now she asked me to leave her room. I think I just lost the rapport I was building with her.

    Non-therapeutic

    The question could have been said in a different way that did not make it seem like the nurse knew that all of these changes would be good for her. I could have said, “What do you think of the plans so far? Do you think they are manageable?”

    technique

    ,

    making a

    stereotyped comment.

    Trite expressions are meaningless.

    18.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: I did it again, I am so sorry. You are right, I have no idea if these changes will work for you. The changes we made had a lot of your input, so what I meant was that I hope these changes we discussed will help you. Would you help writing them out to take home?

    NV: She looks at the nurse with some tears in her eyes because she is upset, and I believe it is with me. V: Okay, I understand what you meant. I’m sorry that I overreacted too. I just have so much on my mind. Thank you,

    I appreciate it and understand

    (patient is starting to yawn

    The conversation is back on track, and she realized that I did not mean any ill will but that the way I stated it did not come out the

    right way. Boy, I still need to practice my communication techniques.

    Therapeutic

    The statement could have left out the part of having the patient remind the nurse because this brings up doubt and anxiety for the patient about being able to make

    the call. This idea could cause problems and break the trust they formed.

    technique, restati

    ng

    the plan and lettin the patient know t they are in control their treatment go

    g

    hat of als.

    19.

    NV: Still maintaining eye contact and being intrigued in the conversation.

    V: You seem like you are getting tired, do you want me to go and come back later and we can work on writing out the plan together for you to take home?

    NV: Her eyes are droopy, and she looks very sleepy. V: Yes, I really would like to take a nap, but would you just sit with me until I fall asleep?

    The patient is trusting and is willing to fall asleep and it is important for the patient that the nurse remain there. This idea shows the trusting relationship.

    Therapeutic

    the

    ants hat

    The questions could have been restated to make the patient suggest a nap and not the nurse suggestion.

    technique, making

    <

    Science

    157Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

    Plate Interactions
    How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

    Lab Handout

    Lab 6. Plate Interactions: How Is the Nature of the Geologic
    Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to
    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?
    Introduction
    The interior structure of the Earth
    is composed of several layers (see
    Figure L6.1). At the center of the
    Earth is the inner core. The inner
    core is a solid sphere and consists of
    mostly iron. It has a radius of about
    1,120 km. The next layer is the outer
    core. The outer core is liquid and
    extends beyond the inner core another
    2,270 km. The next, and thickest, layer
    is the mantle. The mantle is often
    divided into three sublayers: the lower
    mesosphere, the upper mesosphere,
    and the asthenosphere. The outermost
    layer of the Earth is the lithosphere.
    The lithosphere includes the crust and
    the uppermost mantle.

    The theory of plate tectonics states
    that the lithosphere is broken into
    several plates that move over time
    (see Figure L6.2). The plates move in
    different directions and at different
    speeds in relationship to each other.
    Plate boundaries are found where
    one plate interacts with another plate.
    These boundaries are classified into
    three different categories: (a) conver-
    gent boundaries result when two plates
    collide with each other, (b) divergent
    boundaries result when two plates
    move away from each other, and (c)
    transform boundaries form when two

    FIGURE L6.1
    Earth’s layers

    FIGURE L6.2
    The major tectonic plates

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    158 National Science Teachers Association

    LAB 6

    plates slide past each other. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes often occur along or near
    plate boundaries.

    In this investigation, you will explore where volcanic eruptions and earthquakes tend to
    happen. You goal is to determine if volcanic eruptions and earthquakes happen more often
    near a specific type of plate boundary. This type of investigation is important because
    natural processes, such as the gradual movement of tectonic plates over time, can result in
    natural hazards. Although it is impossible to prevent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes
    from happening, we can take steps to reduce their impacts. It is therefore useful for us to
    understand where these types of hazards are likely to occur because we can prepare for
    them and respond quickly when they happen. We can, for example, build better buildings,
    develop warning systems, and increase the response capabilities of cities to help reduce the
    loss of life and economic costs when we know where volcanic eruptions and earthquake
    tend to happen.

    Your Task
    Use an online interactive map to collect data about how often volcanic eruptions and
    earthquakes happen near the three different types of plate boundaries. Your goal is to use
    what you know about plate tectonics, patterns, and the use of different scales, proportional
    relationships, and quantities during an investigation to determine if the way plates interact
    with each other at a specific location is related to the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and
    earthquakes at that location.

    The guiding question of this investigation is, How is the nature of the geologic activity
    that is observed near a plate boundary related to the type of plate interaction that occurs
    at that boundary?

    Materials
    You will use an online interactive map called Natural Hazards Viewer to conduct your inves-
    tigation; the interactive map can be accessed at http://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards.

    Safety Precautions
    Be sure to follow all normal lab safety rules.

    Investigation Proposal Required? o Yes o No

    Getting Started
    Given the nature of this investigation, you must determine what type of data you need
    to collect, how you will collect the data, and how will you analyze the data to answer
    the research question. To determine what type of data you need to collect, think about the
    following questions:

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    159Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

    Plate Interactions
    How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

    • How will you identify the location of different types of plate boundary?

    • How can you describe an earthquake and a volcanic eruption quantitatively?

    • What are the limitations of the available data set?

    To determine how you will collect the data, think about the following questions:

    • What parts of the world will you need to include in your study?

    • What scale or scales should you use to quantify the size of an earthquake or a
    volcanic eruption?

    • Will you need to limit the number of samples you include? If so, how will decide
    what to include?

    • What concessions will you need to make to collect the data you need?

    • How will you keep track of the data you collect and how will you organize it?

    To determine how you will analyze the data, think about the following questions:

    • What types of comparisons will you need to make?

    • What types of patterns might you look for as you analyze the data?

    • What potential proportional relationships can you find in the data?

    • How could you use mathematics to determine if there are differences between the
    groups?

    • What type of diagram could you create to help make sense of your data?

    Connections to the Nature of Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry
    As you work through your investigation, be sure to think about

    • the difference between observations and inferences in science, and

    • how the culture of science, societal needs, and current events influence the work of
    scientists.

    Initial Argument
    Once your group has finished collecting and analyzing your data, your group will need to
    develop an initial argument. Your initial argument needs to include a claim, evidence to
    support your claim, and a justification of the evidence. The claim is your group’s answer to
    the guiding question. The evidence is an analysis and interpretation of your data. Finally,
    the justification of the evidence is why your group thinks the evidence matters. The justifi-
    cation of the evidence is important because scientists can use different kinds of evidence to
    support their claims. Your group will create your initial argument on a whiteboard. Your
    whiteboard should include all the information shown in Figure L6.3 (p. 160).

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    160 National Science Teachers Association

    LAB 6

    Argumentation Session
    The argumentation session allows all of the groups to
    share their arguments. One or two members of each
    group will stay at the lab station to share that group’s
    argument, while the other members of the group go to
    the other lab stations to listen to and critique the other
    arguments. This is similar to what scientists do when
    they propose, support, evaluate, and refine new ideas
    during a poster session at a conference. If you are pre-
    senting your group’s argument, your goal is to share
    your ideas and answer questions. You should also
    keep a record of the critiques and suggestions made by
    your classmates so you can use this feedback to make

    your initial argument stronger. You can keep track of specific critiques and suggestions for
    improvement that your classmates mention in the space below.

    Critiques of our initial argument and suggestions for improvement:

    If you are critiquing your classmates’ arguments, your goal is to look for mistakes in
    their arguments and offer suggestions for improvement so these mistakes can be fixed.
    You should look for ways to make your initial argument stronger by looking for things that
    the other groups did well. You can keep track of interesting ideas that you see and hear
    during the argumentation in the space below. You can also use this space to keep track of
    any questions that you will need to discuss with your team.

    FIGURE L6.3
    Argument presentation on a whiteboard

    The Guiding Question:

    Our Claim:

    Our Evidence: Our Justification
    of the Evidence:

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    161Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

    Plate Interactions
    How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

    Interesting ideas from other groups or questions to take back to my group:

    Once the argumentation session is complete, you will have a chance to meet with your
    group and revise your initial argument. Your group might need to gather more data or
    design a way to test one or more alternative claims as part of this process. Remember, your
    goal at this stage of the investigation is to develop the best argument possible.

    Report
    Once you have completed your research, you will need to prepare an investigation report
    that consists of three sections. Each section should provide an answer for the following
    questions:

    1. What question were you trying to answer and why?

    2. What did you do to answer your question and why?

    3. What is your argument?

    Your report should answer these questions in two pages or less. You should write your
    report using a word processing application (such as Word, Pages, or Google Docs), if pos-
    sible, to make it easier for you to edit and revise it later. You should embed any diagrams,
    figures, or tables into the document. Be sure to write in a persuasive style; you are trying
    to convince others that your claim is acceptable or valid.

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    162 National Science Teachers Association

    LAB 6

    Checkout Questions

    Lab 6. Plate Interactions: How Is the Nature of the Geologic
    Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to
    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?
    Use the map below to answer questions 1 and 2.

    1. On the map above, circle one convergent boundary, one divergent boundary, and
    one transform boundary. Be sure to label each one. How do you know which
    boundary is which?

    2. Earthquakes occur much more frequently in California than they do in Florida or
    New York. Using what you learned from your investigation and the map above,
    why is this the case?

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    163Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

    Plate Interactions
    How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

    3. The map below shows the location of a volcanic arc in Central America. Each
    triangle represents the location of a different volcano.

    a. What type of boundary is responsible for this volcanic arc and where is it most
    likely located?

    b. How do you know?

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    164 National Science Teachers Association

    LAB 6

    4. Scientists share a set of values, norms, and commitments that shape what counts
    as knowing, how to represent or communicate information, and how to interact
    with other scientists.

    a. I agree with this statement.
    b. I disagree with this statement.

    Explain your answer, using an example from your investigation about plate
    tectonics.

    5. The statement “There were 31 earthquakes at the convergent boundary” is an
    example of an inference.

    a. I agree with this statement.
    b. I disagree with this statement.

    Explain your answer, using an example from your investigation about plate
    tectonics.

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    London Parker
    165840000000009385
    London Parker
    165840000000009385

    165Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

    Plate Interactions
    How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

    the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

    6. Scientists often need to look for patterns that occur in the data they collect and
    analyze. Explain why identifying patterns is important for scientists, using an
    example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

    7. Natural phenomena occur at varying scales. Explain why scientists need to
    consider using different measurement or time scales when deciding how to collect
    and analyze data, using an example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

    Copyright © 2018 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
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    London Parker
    165840000000009385

    science

    1) Movie Reflection: Choose 1 movie (Girl Interrupted or Silver Linings) and write a one-page reflection including the following information: Reflect on what you learned in class today, learned in the movie observing the behavior of the person with a personality disorder, what coping mechanisms, therapies, or nutritional interventions may be of assistance to the patient, and how can you apply this information to your future nursing practice. (Include two scholarly references).

    Science

    Name: Class:

    “Where Has That Boy Got to Now?” by Dennis D is licensed under
    CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

    “The Worst Birthday” from Harry Potter and the
    Chamber of Secrets

    By J.K. Rowling
    1998

    Joanne “Jo” Rowling, pen name J.K. Rowling, is a British novelist, screenwriter, and film producer best known
    for creating the Harry Potter series. The title character, Harry Potter, is an orphan who attends a boarding
    school to learn about magic. On his summer vacation, he is forced to live with his non-magical extended
    family. As you read, take notes on how each character responds to magic.

    Not for the first time, an argument had broken out
    over breakfast at number four, Privet Drive. Mr.
    Vernon Dursley had been woken in the early hours of
    the morning by a loud, hooting noise from his
    nephew Harry’s room.

    “Third time this week!” he roared across the table. “If
    you can’t control that owl, it’ll have to go!”

    Harry tried, yet again, to explain. “She’s bored,” he
    said. “She’s used to flying around outside. If I could
    just let her out at night —”

    “Do I look stupid?” snarled Uncle Vernon, a bit of fried
    egg dangling from his bushy mustache. “I know what’ll
    happen if that owl’s let out.”

    He exchanged dark looks with his wife, Petunia.

    Harry tried to argue back but his words were
    drowned by a long, loud belch from the Dursleys’ son,
    Dudley.

    “I want more bacon.”

    “There’s more in the frying pan, sweetums,” said Aunt
    Petunia, turning misty eyes on her massive1 son. “We
    must build you up while we’ve got the chance… I don’t like the sound of that school food…”

    “Nonsense, Petunia, I never went hungry when I was at Smeltings,” said Uncle Vernon heartily. “Dudley gets
    enough, don’t you, son?”

    [1]

    [5]

    1. Massive (adjective) enormous

    1

    Dudley, who was so large his bottom drooped over either side of the kitchen chair, grinned and turned to
    Harry.

    “Pass the frying pan.”

    “You’ve forgotten the magic word,” said Harry irritably.

    The effect of this simple sentence on the rest of the family was incredible: Dudley gasped and fell off his chair
    with a crash that shook the whole kitchen; Mrs. Dursley gave a small scream and clapped her hands to her
    mouth; Mr. Dursley jumped to his feet, veins throbbing in his temples.

    “I meant ‘please’!” said Harry quickly. “I didn’t mean —”

    “WHAT HAVE I TOLD YOU,” thundered his uncle, spraying spit over the table, “ABOUT SAYING THE ‘M’ WORD IN
    OUR HOUSE?”

    “But I —”

    “HOW DARE YOU THREATEN DUDLEY!” roared Uncle Vernon, pounding the table with his fist.

    “I just —”

    “I WARNED YOU! I WILL NOT TOLERATE MENTION OF YOUR ABNORMALITY UNDER THIS ROOF!”

    Harry stared from his purple-faced uncle to his pale aunt, who was trying to heave Dudley to his feet.

    “All right,” said Harry, “all right…”

    Uncle Vernon sat back down, breathing like a winded rhinoceros and watching Harry closely out of the corners
    of his small, sharp eyes.

    Ever since Harry had come home for the summer holidays, Uncle Vernon had been treating him like a bomb
    that might go off at any moment, because Harry Potter wasn’t a normal boy. As a matter of fact, he was as not
    normal as it is possible to be.

    Harry Potter was a wizard — a wizard fresh from his first year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
    And if the Dursleys were unhappy to have him back for the holidays, it was nothing to how Harry felt.

    He missed Hogwarts so much it was like having a constant stomachache. He missed the castle, with its secret
    passageways and ghosts, his classes (though perhaps not Snape, the Potions master), the mail arriving by owl,
    eating banquets in the Great Hall, sleeping in his four-poster bed in the tower dormitory, visiting the
    gamekeeper, Hagrid, in his cabin next to the Forbidden Forest in the grounds, and, especially, Quidditch, the
    most popular sport in the wizarding world (six tall goal posts, four flying balls, and fourteen players on
    broomsticks).

    [10]

    [15]

    [20]

    [25]

    2

    All Harry’s spellbooks, his wand, robes, cauldron, and top-of-the-line Nimbus Two Thousand broomstick had
    been locked in a cupboard under the stairs by Uncle Vernon the instant Harry had come home. What did the
    Dursleys care if Harry lost his place on the House Quidditch team because he hadn’t practiced all summer?
    What was it to the Dursleys if Harry went back to school without any of his homework done? The Dursleys were
    what wizards called Muggles (not a drop of magical blood in their veins), and as far as they were concerned,
    having a wizard in the family was a matter of deepest shame. Uncle Vernon had even padlocked Harry’s owl,
    Hedwig, inside her cage, to stop her from carrying messages to anyone in the wizarding world.

    Harry looked nothing like the rest of the family. Uncle Vernon was large and neckless, with an enormous black
    mustache; Aunt Petunia was horse-faced and bony; Dudley was blond, pink, and porky. Harry, on the other
    hand, was small and skinny, with brilliant green eyes and jet-black hair that was always untidy. He wore round
    glasses, and on his forehead was a thin, lightning-shaped scar.

    It was this scar that made Harry so particularly unusual, even for a wizard. This scar was the only hint of Harry’s
    very mysterious past, of the reason he had been left on the Dursleys’ doorstep eleven years before.

    At the age of one year old, Harry had somehow survived a curse from the greatest Dark sorcerer of all time,
    Lord Voldemort, whose name most witches and wizards still feared to speak. Harry’s parents had died in
    Voldemort’s attack, but Harry had escaped with his lightning scar, and somehow — nobody understood why —
    Voldemort’s powers had been destroyed the instant he had failed to kill Harry.

    So Harry had been brought up by his dead mother’s sister and her husband. He had spent ten years with the
    Dursleys, never understanding why he kept making odd things happen without meaning to, believing the
    Dursleys’ story that he had got his scar in the car crash that had killed his parents.

    And then, exactly a year ago, Hogwarts had written to Harry, and the whole story had come out. Harry had
    taken up his place at wizard school, where he and his scar were famous… but now the school year was over,
    and he was back with the Dursleys for the summer, back to being treated like a dog that had rolled in
    something smelly.

    The Dursleys hadn’t even remembered that today happened to be Harry’s twelfth birthday. Of course, his hopes
    hadn’t been high; they’d never given him a real present, let alone a cake — but to ignore it completely…

    At that moment, Uncle Vernon cleared his throat importantly and said, “Now, as we all know, today is a very
    important day.”

    Harry looked up, hardly daring to believe it.

    “This could well be the day I make the biggest deal of my career,” said Uncle Vernon.

    Harry went back to his toast. Of course, he thought bitterly, Uncle Vernon was talking about the stupid dinner
    party. He’d been talking of nothing else for two weeks. Some rich builder and his wife were coming to dinner
    and Uncle Vernon was hoping to get a huge order from him (Uncle Vernon’s company made drills).

    “I think we should run through the schedule one more time,” said Uncle Vernon. “We should all be in position at
    eight o’clock. Petunia, you will be — ?”

    “In the lounge,” said Aunt Petunia promptly, “waiting to welcome them graciously to our home.”

    [30]

    [35]

    3

    “Good, good. And Dudley?”

    “I’ll be waiting to open the door.” Dudley put on a foul, simpering smile. “May I take your coats, Mr. and Mrs.
    Mason?”

    “They’ll love him!” cried Aunt Petunia rapturously.2

    “Excellent, Dudley,” said Uncle Vernon. Then he rounded on Harry. “And you?”

    “I’ll be in my bedroom, making no noise and pretending I’m not there,” said Harry tonelessly.

    “Exactly,” said Uncle Vernon nastily. “I will lead them into the lounge, introduce you, Petunia, and pour them
    drinks. At eight-fifteen —”

    “I’ll announce dinner,” said Aunt Petunia. “And, Dudley, you’ll say —”

    “May I take you through to the dining room, Mrs. Mason?” said Dudley, offering his fat arm to an invisible
    woman.

    “My perfect little gentleman!” sniffed Aunt Petunia.

    “And you?” said Uncle Vernon viciously to Harry.

    “I’ll be in my room, making no noise and pretending I’m not there,” said Harry dully.

    “Precisely. Now, we should aim to get in a few good compliments at dinner. Petunia, any ideas?”

    “Vernon tells me you’re a wonderful golfer, Mr. Mason… Do tell me where you bought your dress, Mrs. Mason… ”

    “Perfect… Dudley?”

    “How about — ‘We had to write an essay about our hero at school, Mr. Mason, and I wrote about you.’” This was
    too much for both Aunt Petunia and Harry. Aunt Petunia burst into tears and hugged her son, while Harry
    ducked under the table so they wouldn’t see him laughing.

    “And you, boy?” Harry fought to keep his face straight as he emerged. “I’ll be in my room, making no noise and
    pretending I’m not there,” he said.

    “Too right, you will,” said Uncle Vernon forcefully. “The Masons don’t know anything about you and it’s going to
    stay that way. When dinner’s over, you take Mrs. Mason back to the lounge for coffee, Petunia, and I’ll bring the
    subject around to drills. With any luck, I’ll have the deal signed and sealed before the news at ten. We’ll be
    shopping for a vacation home in Majorca3 this time tomorrow.”

    Harry couldn’t feel too excited about this. He didn’t think the Dursleys would like him any better in Majorca than
    they did on Privet Drive.

    [40]

    [45]

    [50]

    [55]

    2. Rapturous (adjective) full of joy
    3. an island off the coast of Spain and a popular vacation spot

    4

    “Right — I’m off into town to pick up the dinner jackets for Dudley and me. And you,” he snarled at Harry. “You
    stay out of your aunt’s way while she’s cleaning.”

    Harry left through the back door. It was a brilliant, sunny day. He crossed the lawn, slumped down on the
    garden bench, and sang under his breath:

    “Happy birthday to me… happy birthday to me…”

    No cards, no presents, and he would be spending the evening pretending not to exist. He gazed miserably into
    the hedge. He had never felt so lonely. More than anything else at Hogwarts, more even than playing Quidditch,
    Harry missed his best friends, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. They, however, didn’t seem to be missing
    him at all. Neither of them had written to him all summer, even though Ron had said he was going to ask Harry
    to come and stay.

    Countless times, Harry had been on the point of unlocking Hedwig’s cage by magic and sending her to Ron and
    Hermione with a letter, but it wasn’t worth the risk. Underage wizards weren’t allowed to use magic outside of
    school. Harry hadn’t told the Dursleys this; he knew it was only their terror that he might turn them all into
    dung beetles that stopped them from locking him in the cupboard under the stairs with his wand and
    broomstick. For the first couple of weeks back, Harry had enjoyed muttering nonsense words under his breath
    and watching Dudley tearing out of the room as fast as his fat legs would carry him. But the long silence from
    Ron and Hermione had made Harry feel so cut off from the magical world that even taunting Dudley had lost its
    appeal — and now Ron and Hermione had forgotten his birthday.

    What wouldn’t he give now for a message from Hogwarts? From any witch or wizard? He’d almost be glad of a
    sight of his archenemy, Draco Malfoy, just to be sure it hadn’t all been a dream…

    Not that his whole year at Hogwarts had been fun. At the very end of last term, Harry had come face-to-face
    with none other than Lord Voldemort himself. Voldemort might be a ruin of his former self, but he was still
    terrifying, still cunning,4 still determined to regain power. Harry had slipped through Voldemort’s clutches for a
    second time, but it had been a narrow escape, and even now, weeks later, Harry kept waking in the night,
    drenched in cold sweat, wondering where Voldemort was now, remembering his livid5 face, his wide, mad eyes

    Harry suddenly sat bolt upright on the garden bench. He had been staring absent-mindedly into the hedge —
    and the hedge was staring back. Two enormous green eyes had appeared among the leaves.

    Harry jumped to his feet just as a jeering6 voice floated across the lawn.

    “I know what day it is,” sang Dudley, waddling toward him.

    The huge eyes blinked and vanished.

    “What?” said Harry, not taking his eyes off the spot where they had been.

    “I know what day it is,” Dudley repeated, coming right up to him.

    [60]

    [65]

    4. Cunning (adjective) clever
    5. Livid (adjective) furiously angry
    6. Jeer (verb) to mock or taunt

    5

    “Well done,” said Harry. “So you’ve finally learned the days of the week.”

    “Today’s your birthday,” sneered Dudley. “How come you haven’t got any cards? Haven’t you even got friends at
    that freak place?”

    “Better not let your mum hear you talking about my school,” said Harry coolly.

    Dudley hitched up his trousers, which were slipping down his fat bottom.

    “Why’re you staring at the hedge?” he said suspiciously.

    “I’m trying to decide what would be the best spell to set it on fire,” said Harry.

    Dudley stumbled backward at once, a look of panic on his fat face.

    “You c-can’t — Dad told you you’re not to do m-magic — he said he’ll chuck you out of the house — and you
    haven’t got anywhere else to go — you haven’t got any friends to take you —”

    “Jiggery pokery!” said Harry in a fierce voice. “Hocus pocus — squiggly wiggly —”

    “MUUUUUUM!” howled Dudley, tripping over his feet as he dashed back toward the house. “MUUUUM! He’s
    doing you know what!”

    Harry paid dearly for his moment of fun. As neither Dudley nor the hedge was in any way hurt, Aunt Petunia
    knew he hadn’t really done magic, but he still had to duck as she aimed a heavy blow at his head with the soapy
    frying pan. Then she gave him work to do, with the promise he wouldn’t eat again until he’d finished.

    While Dudley lolled around watching and eating ice cream, Harry cleaned the windows, washed the car, mowed
    the lawn, trimmed the flowerbeds, pruned and watered the roses, and repainted the garden bench. The sun
    blazed overhead, burning the back of his neck. Harry knew he shouldn’t have risen to Dudley’s bait, but Dudley
    had said the very thing Harry had been thinking himself… maybe he didn’t have any friends at Hogwarts…

    Wish they could see famous Harry Potter now, he thought savagely as he spread manure on the flower beds, his
    back aching, sweat running down his face.

    It was half past seven in the evening when at last, exhausted, he heard Aunt Petunia calling him.

    “Get in here! And walk on the newspaper!”

    Harry moved gladly into the shade of the gleaming kitchen. On top of the fridge stood tonight’s pudding:7 a
    huge mound of whipped cream and sugared violets. A loin of roast pork was sizzling in the oven.

    “Eat quickly! The Masons will be here soon!” snapped Aunt Petunia, pointing to two slices of bread and a lump
    of cheese on the kitchen table. She was already wearing a salmon-pink cocktail dress.

    Harry washed his hands and bolted down his pitiful supper. The moment he had finished, Aunt Petunia
    whisked away his plate. “Upstairs! Hurry!”

    [70]

    [75]

    [80]

    [85]

    7. a British word for dessert

    6

    Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets: Copyright © J.K. Rowling 1998

    Unless otherwise noted, this content is licensed under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license

    As he passed the door to the living room, Harry caught a glimpse of Uncle Vernon and Dudley in bow ties and
    dinner jackets. He had only just reached the upstairs landing when the doorbell rang and Uncle Vernon’s
    furious face appeared at the foot of the stairs.

    “Remember, boy — one sound —”

    Harry crossed to his bedroom on tiptoe, slipped inside, closed the door, and turned to collapse on his bed.

    The trouble was, there was already someone sitting on it.

    [90]

    7

    Text-Dependent Questions

    Directions: For the following questions, choose the best answer or respond in complete sentences.

    1. PART A: What is the central idea of the passage?

    A. Harry feels alone because his family fears his powers, and he can’t be around
    his friends where he feels comfortable expressing himself.

    B. Harry completes chores for Petunia because he believes that being obedient is
    important to supporting a strong and united family.

    C. Harry behaves and decides not to cast any spells because he cannot use magic
    outside of school and he is afraid the Dursleys will find out about his magical
    powers.

    D. Harry argues with Uncle Vernon because he believes his uncle’s hatred of
    people who are different is unfair, and he wants his uncle to treat all people
    fairly.

    2. PART B: What evidence from the text best supports the answer from Part A?

    A. “Harry tried to argue back but his words were drowned by a long, loud belch
    from the Dursleys’ son, Dudley.” (Paragraph 6)

    B. “Ever since Harry had come home for the summer holidays, Uncle Vernon had
    been treating him like a bomb that might go off at any moment, because Harry
    Potter wasn’t a normal boy.” (Paragraph 23)

    C. “Aunt Petunia knew he hadn’t really done magic, but he still had to duck as she
    aimed a heavy blow at his head with the soapy frying pan.” (Paragraph 80)

    D. “While Dudley lolled around watching and eating ice cream, Harry cleaned the
    windows, washed the car, mowed the lawn, trimmed the flowerbeds, pruned
    and watered the roses, and repainted the garden bench.” (Paragraph 81)

    3. PART A: Which of the following best defines what Uncle Vernon means when he says
    “abnormality” in Paragraph 19?

    A. Harry’s evil nature
    B. Harry’s special powers
    C. Harry’s different appearance from the Dursleys
    D. Harry’s teasing attitude

    4. PART B: What quote from the text best supports this definition?

    A. “‘HOW DARE YOU THREATEN DUDLEY!’ roared Uncle Vernon, pounding the table
    with his fist.” (Paragraph 17)

    B. “Uncle Vernon sat back down…watching Harry closely out of the corners of his
    small, sharp eyes.” (Paragraph 22)

    C. “Uncle Vernon had been treating him like a bomb that might go off at any
    moment” (Paragraph 23)

    D. “As a matter of fact, he was as not normal as it is possible to be. Harry Potter
    was a wizard.” (Paragraphs 23-24)

    8

    5. PART A: How does Harry’s repetition of the phrase “I’ll be in my bedroom, making no noise
    and pretending I’m not there” impact the tone of the passage?

    A. It shows how much Harry loves sitting in his room all by himself so he can
    practice magic.

    B. It shows how much the Dursleys love Harry and respect his privacy.
    C. It highlights the contrast between Harry’s love for quiet time and Dudley’s

    hatred of it.
    D. It highlights the contrast between the Dursley’s excitement for the dinner and

    Harry’s loneliness.

    6. PART B: Which TWO phrases from the text best support the answer to Part A?

    A. “Dudley, who was so large his bottom drooped over either side of the kitchen
    chair, grinned and turned to Harry.” (Paragraph 10)

    B. “Uncle Vernon cleared his throat importantly and said, ‘Now, as we all know,
    today is a very important day.’” (Paragraph 33)

    C. “Harry fought to keep his face straight as he emerged” (Paragraph 54)
    D. “He didn’t think the Dursleys would like him any better in Majorca than they did

    on Privet Drive.” (Paragraph 56)
    E. “he would be spending the evening pretending not to exist… He had never felt

    so lonely.” (Paragraph 60)
    F. “Harry had been on the point of unlocking Hedwig’s cage by magic and sending

    her to Ron and Hermione with a letter” (Paragraph 61)

    7. Contrast the Dursleys’ perception of magic with Harry’s perception of magic in this passage.
    Cite examples from the text to support your claim.

    9

    8. How does the point of view contribute to how the events are described in the passage?

    10

    Discussion Questions

    Directions: Brainstorm your answers to the following questions in the space provided. Be prepared to
    share your original ideas in a class discussion.

    1. The Dursleys treat Harry very cruelly in regards to his magic. How does fear drive their
    actions? How does fear control us, and why might it be hard to be tolerant of others when
    afraid?

    2. Harry must hide his magical powers from the Dursleys. Have you ever been in a situation
    where you had to hide something about yourself? Is it better to hide your true self around
    people who may not accept you or is it better to feel comfortable to be yourself?

    3. Harry is treated differently from Dudley in the Dursley household. What message do you
    think the author wants to convey about what is fair? Is it fair that Harry is punished when he
    threatens Dudley with magic? Describe a time when you have been treated unfairly in your
    own life.

    4. Harry spends his summer surrounded by family, yet his magic isolates him. In the context
    of the passage, what does it mean to feel alone?

    11

    Science

    Identify, develop and explain three methods you will use to find knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors. 

      • 7

      Science

      1

      4

      Earth Science

      Student’s Name:

      Institution:

      Instructor’s Name:

      Course Title:

      Due Date

      Earth Science

      Data to be collected

      I will gather information about earthquakes and volcanoes. These will help me better understand the activities in spreading ridges and convergence zones; this information will be helpful. These boundaries also assist us in identifying other kinds of plate boundaries.

      Ways of data collection

      I’ll gather information by looking at the most prevalent sorts of earthquakes and volcanoes, as well as the types of boundaries that cause them to occur. The data will then be analyzed to discover if transform, convergent, and divergent borders are responsible for the most prevalent earthquakes and volcanoes.

      Therefore, knowing where these hazards occur is vital to plan for them and respond when they occur. Knowing where volcanic activity and earthquakes are likely to occur can help us build better buildings, develop warning systems, and improve the reaction capabilities of cities.

      My Real Data

      Site

      Yearly earthquakes

      Boundary plate

      San Andres fault

      10,000

      Transform

      Fault near Japan

      1,500

      Convergent

      Site

      Yearly volcanoes

      Boundary plate

      Ring of Fire

      450

      Mainly convergent

      The World at large

      150

      Transform/Divergent

      How to Analyze Data

      The boundaries of the main tectonic plates can be deduced from maps based on the distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes around the planet. Shallow earthquakes and also some volcanism are common along divergent plate borders. Due to subduction, many convergent borders include volcanoes ranging from shallow to profound. This is because the oceanic plate subducts into the mantle below the overriding plate when two plates meet at a convergent boundary. Convergent boundaries can also form linear and curvy mountain belts. There are usually no volcanoes or earthquakes at transform borders. (Moss $ Cervato 2016).

      My Claim

      I claim that the nature of the geological activity within a plate border is linked to the plate conversations at the boundary. The graphs on the bottom show a distinct difference in the likelihood of earthquakes and volcanoes at each location.

      Reference

      Moss, E., & Cervato, C. (2016). Quantifying the level of inquiry in a reformed introductory geology lab course. Journal of Geoscience Education64(2), 125-137.

      Science

      Science
      London Parker
      Kendrick Middle School
      Daisy Vaddi
      December 15, 2021

      Guiding Question

      How is the nature of the geologic activity that is observed near a plate boundary related to the type of plate Interaction that occurs at that boundary?

      The Earth’s outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth’s crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth’s tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

      2

      Claim

      The Earth’s outer surface has around 20 tectonic plates

      Massive energy released when the Earth’s tectonic plates grind against one another

      Volcanoes are frequently found at plate borders

      The Earth’s outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth’s crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth’s tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

      3

      Evidence

      Map of Earth’s tectonic plates

      (Coltice et al.,2019).

      Ages of the seamounts and volcanoes in the Hawaii-Emperor chain, suggesting that the Pacific plate changed its direction of motion about 42 million years ago (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018).

      The Earth’s outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth’s crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth’s tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

      4

      WESANGZ254 (W) –

      Jurisdiction

      Different geological features are linked with each of these types of plate borders

      As Earth’s crust is crushed and forced upward, convergent plate boundaries, like the one between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate

      a convergent plate boundary can sometimes result in one tectonic plate sinking beneath another (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018).

      Plate borders come in a different shapes and sizes. Plate boundaries, for instance, can meet and collide a “convergent”, split apart a “divergent”, or gliding past each other a “transform” plate border). Different geological features are linked with each of these types of plate borders. As Earth’s crust is crushed and forced upward, convergent plate boundaries, like the one between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, generate towering mountain ranges like the Himalayas. On the other hand, a convergent plate boundary can sometimes result in one tectonic plate sinking beneath another (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018). An older, thicker tectonic plate is driven deep into the globe beneath a younger, less thick tectonic plate in a process known as “subduction.” A trench”>ocean trench can emerge when this process occurs in the ocean. These trenches are among the deepest in the water, and they are frequently the epicenter of powerful earthquakes..

      5

      Work cited

      Coltice, N., Husson, L., Faccenna, C., & Arnould, M. (2019). What drives tectonic plates?. Science advances, 5(10), eaax4295.

      Kusky, T. M., Windley, B. F., & Polat, A. (2018). Geological evidence for the operation of plate tectonics throughout the Archean: Records from Archean paleo-plate boundaries. Journal of Earth Science, 29(6), 1291-1303.

      science

      Student Name________________________________________________________________________________________Date______________

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      Science

      6E5A Layers of Earth

      Look

      Think
      Think about the layers that make up Earth.

      Write
      Compare and contrast Earth’s crust, mantle, and core; and

      explain the differences among them in regard to temperature, density, and composition.

      Be sure to
      • clearly state your central idea;
      • organize your thoughts;
      • develop your essay in detail;
      • choose your words carefully; and
      • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar.

      1

      2

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      6E5A Layers of Earth

      Science

       

      INTRODUCTION

      We have been studying [    ] in class. Before I started this investigation

      [Describe what you did] My goal for this investigation was to figure out [your goal]. The guiding question was [guiding question].

      Method

      To gather the data I needed to answer this question, I [describe what you did to collect data]. I decided that this was the best way to carry out the investigation because [give some reasons]. I then analyzed the data I collected by [describe what you did to analyze the data]. I decided that this was the best way to analyze these data because [give some reasons].

      Argument

      I figured out [your claim]. The [graph ,table or images] below shows [what information is included in the graph, table or images].

      [Insert graph , table or images] here. To insert a graph or table click on “insert” in the toolbar.  The choose “chart” for a graph or “table” for a table to add a editable graph or table to this document]

      This analysis indicates [explain what trend, difference, or relationships the graph or table shows in words]. This evidence is important because [explain why the evidence matters]

      • 3 days ago
      • 15