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research design and ethics

CPHS RESEARCH PROPOSAL

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOyKsaN8PXg PLS KINDLY WATCH THIS VIDEO

This assignment is worth 20% of your final grade for this course. This assignment is to be completed INDIVIDUALLY. Here are a few pointers as you begin your last assignment for this course…

For this assignment, you will demonstrate your knowledge and skills that you have learned over the entire semester to create a proposal for an original research study. It is an opportunity for you to demonstrate that you can put research ‘all together’. That is, you will demonstrate your newly acquired skills and knowledge in forming a research question, measuring variables, applying sampling theory, incorporating ethical principles in your proposed study, etc. Be sure that your entire study is congruent (ie, your variables are congruent with levels of measurement; your levels of measurement are congruent with your statistical test, etc). There are pointers in the syllabus that give you helpful tips regarding how to fill out each section of the CPHS proposal. Remember, CPHS stands for the “Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects”, and this is a committee at each university that approves proposals for original research studies. Instead of writing a paper, most of these committees require you to complete a standard form (proposal) for your original study. This form will give them all the details about what you would like to do for your study, and the methods you will use to do it.

I have adapted this proposal form for the purposes of our class, and keep in mind that this proposal will just be submitted to me for a grade- it will not be sent to our TSU CPHS, nor will you have to go out and collect or make-up data for this assignment. It is simply a PROPOSAL.

At the end of your Literature Review paper, you should have identified future variables of interest for research studies, and one or two possible research questions, based on the gaps you found in the 6 articles. Your CPHS proposal research question must be related to the variables of interest from your literature review paper— DO NOT CHANGE TOPICS.

The first thing you need to think about for this assignment is a RESEARCH QUESTION. Remember, this question must be quantitative in nature, include 1-2 specific variables which must be measurable, and your question must be specific, testable, simple, and feasible. When you come up with your research question idea, I ENCOURAGE EACH OF YOU TO EMAIL ME YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION IDEA FOR FEEDBACK AND APPROVAL before you design your proposal around it. I will help provide feedback so that you can refine it, if needed. This is KEY to writing a successful proposal, as all the proposal information revolves around creating a strong research question. If your research question doesn’t make sense, is not quantitative, or is not measureable, your entire proposal will not make sense.

Once I approve your research question, you can begin completing the information on the CPHS proposal form. Before you begin completing the CPHS proposal form, be sure to read the syllabus CAREFULLY! In the syllabus, you will find all the instructions about the required content and documents that are required for your proposal. You will type your answers directly onto the CPHS proposal form (found on blackboard), and you will submit (via the “Submit CPHS Proposal” link, below) your completed CPHS form. Every section of the CPHS proposal form MUST be completed; type your answers into the GREY box for each item, and answer all parts of the question in that item. You will also upload your Informed Consent form (templates are provided to you on blackboard), as well as your Instrument/Measure. For an example, if your proposal included a study on changes in self-esteem among older adults in an assisted living facility after “X” intervention, and you are using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale as your measure of self-esteem, I need you to include a copy of this standardized scale in your email to me, along with your CPHS proposal and Informed Consent form. If you have designed a survey to operationalize your measure, you will create that and upload. I will need all of these documents (CPHS proposal, Informed Consent form and your measure/instrument) submitted by the due date.

DATE:

TITLE:

RESEARCHER:

FACULTY SPONSOR: >>insert Instructor name here<<

PROPOSED PROJECT END DATE:

Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects

(CPHS Research Proposal) Application for

Investigation Involving Human Subjects

A. DATA COLLECTION DATES:

1. From:

2. To:

B. Human subjects description:

1. Age range:

2. Approx. number:

3. Gender composition:

C. Project Summary: (provide 3-5 sentences that give an overview of your proposed study [similar to an abstract])

1. Background and Significance

Provide a brief portion (1/2 page to 1 page in length) of your literature review, to provide a rationale for your proposed study. Include at least 3 citations (in 7th edition APA format) of your peer-reviewed journal article sources. (Note: You MUST attach a References page to this proposal)

2. Specific Aims

A. What is your research question? Hypothesis?

B. What are your specific variables, and their levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, scale)?

C. Provide an operational definition for each of your variables.

A.

B.

C.

3. Research Method, Design and Procedures

A. Describe your research methodology and design; Is this an exploratory, descriptive or experimental study? Which specific type of research design are you going to use? What are the specific threats to validity of your study? Explain HOW these are threats.

B. Provide step-by-step description of procedures and how they are to be applied: How are you going to collect your data? How will the data be analyzed (i.e., which statistical test do you plan to use to analyze the data)?

C. What are participants asked to do? When and where are they to participate? How long will it take to participate? Describe type of research information gathered from participants (i.e., data being collected).

A.

B.

C.

4. Instruments for Research with Human Subject

A. Describe the instruments to be used: What are the constructs your instruments are measuring? How

are the instruments scored? What are the strengths and weaknesses of your instrument(s)

regarding validity and reliability?

B. Explain how your instrument or specific items on the instrument will answer your research question.

C. If using a previously published scale/instrument, give information about the original author of the

scale (full name, agency/university association, email, phone number or physical address), whom

you would contact to ask for permission to use for your research.

A.

B.

C.

5. Human Subject Source and Selection Criteria

Describe the procedures for the recruitment of the participants (provide step-by-step detail):

A. Describe relevant characteristics (demographics) of participants in your sample.

B. Where and how participants are drawn for subject selection criteria. Coercion or undue influence

needs to be considered and eliminated.

C. The specific type of probability or non-probability sampling technique used. Explain how your

chosen sampling technique will be carried-out.

D. Criteria for inclusion and exclusion for sample participants, and provide rationale.

A.

B.

C.

D.

6. Informed Consent

A. Describe procedure for obtaining informed consent.

B. Explain how your informed consent and/or assent document is culturally sensitive.

A.

B.

7. Confidentiality or Anonymity

A. Will participation be confidential or anonymous? Explain.

B. How data will be collected and recorded?

C. Where will data be stored?

A.

B.

C.

8. Research Benefits & Incentives

A. Are there any anticipated benefits (direct or indirect) to participants? Explain.

B. Describe incentives (if any) for participation.

A.

B.

9. Risks

A. Describe any foreseeable risks to the subjects, whether physical injury, psychological injury, loss

of confidentiality, social harm, etc., involved in the conduct of the research.

B. Describe the specific contact information of organization(s) for professional treatment that you are

going to provide to the participants on the Informed Consent.

(Note: The researcher cannot be listed as a referral source in the case that the participant

experiences injury or harm).

A.

B.

10. Other Sites or Agencies Involved in Research Project

A. Indicate specific site research will take place (e.g., school districts or school, clinics, agencies, etc).

B. If your proposed research would take place at a location other than TSU, describe how you would obtain permission to conduct study at a partnering location/agency, and describe who you might obtain permission from at that location/agency.

A.

B.

This proposal is for class purposes ONLY!!! 3

(This proposal will NOT be submitted to an IRB committee)

HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR PROPOSAL

Submit CPHS Proposal (and required attachments) HERE (due April 29)

Click on this link to submit your CPHS Proposal, and required associated attachments. Once you click on the link, upload these files in either microsoft word format (.doc or .docx) and/or pdf format (.pdf). If extra credit SPSS file is uploaded, that file should have file extension “.sav”:

1-CPHS Proposal in Microsoft Word document format,

2-informed consent,

3-instrument(s)/measure(s),

4-References page, and

5- (optional extra credit) SPSS data file [define variables in “Variable View” tab ONLY].

Any documents uploaded in the incorrect format will NOT receive a grade for this assignment.

Do NOT upload any internet links or web pages!

research design and ethics

SPSS LAB 2

In this folder, you will find a first draft of an Informed Consent that was developed for a local agency years ago. The agency was applying for a federal grant and needed to conduct a needs assessment of youth in Gulfton-area (predominately Spanish-speaking community) middle and high schools in Houston, Texas. This was the first-draft of the Informed Consent, which obviously, needed a lot of revisions.

Applying what you have learned about ethics in research, provide a critique of this Informed Consent form. What are its weaknesses? Where does it fall short ethically? How would you change this form so that it is more aligned with ethical guidelines for research with human subjects? Provide specific examples in your answer.

research design and ethics

LITERATURE REVIEW PAPER

Strengthen your critical thinking skills as informed consumers of research! This assignment will

help you develop your research question, and set the foundation for your CPHS research

proposal! In this paper, you will conduct a literature review in an area of interest of your choice,

critically analyze the literature and synthesize your findings in a literature review. Your chosen

area of interest MUST BE RELEVANT TO SOCIAL WORK! The References section should begin at the end of your paper, in the same document as your paper.

Requirement Specific Instructions

Format of paper/

Length

Your paper must include 3 sections: (1) A cover page, (2) typed text (must be

between 3 pages [minimum] and 6 pages [maximum] in length), and (3) a

References page.

Your paper must be typed in APA format on a Microsoft Word document

(Note: Do NOT use programs that format your citations!!! These programs do

NOT format correctly!). This means that your paper must: (1) have a cover page

with a running head, the title for the paper, your first/last name(s), the course title, centered

on cover page (2) page numbers in the upper-right hand corner [each page should

have a page number in upper-right hand corner], (Note: Do NOT include an

abstract page), (3) double-spaced, (4) typed in 12-point font, (5) paragraph

construction [Note: Paragraphs must be at least 3 sentences in length to stand

alone as paragraph], (6) complete sentences, (7) good grammar.

Citations You must cite your sources of information in the correct APA format (Note: You

MUST utilize your 7th edition APA manual! On Blackboard, click on the “APA

format” tab to get important information about avoiding plagiarism,

paraphrasing, basic citations in paragraphs and in References section, as well

as important pages to refer to in your 7th edition APA manual).

Note: You can use no more than TWO direct quotes in your paper!!! This

means you must the majority of information from other sources in YOUR OWN

WORDS (paraphrase). Cite your source of information correctly!

You must select a minimum of 6 peer-reviewed journal articles that are

exploratory, quasi-experimental and/or experimental research studies (only one

of your six articles can be qualitative research articles). ALL OF YOUR

ARTICLES MUST HAVE A “METHODS” SECTION. You will find these

SOCW 360/ Spring, 2022

– 12 –

on the TSU Library electronic databases. (Note: If you are not familiar with

what peer-reviewed journals are, watch this tutorial @

https://youtu.be/8xHUDaKmN8E ).

You may also want to include citations from credible websites (.gov, .edu, .org),

which often provide current statistics and information about your chosen area of

interest. That information can best contribute to your discussion in the first two

sections of your paper, the “Introduction” and “Scope of Problem”.

Note: Information from credible websites are in addition to the 6 required

original research studies published in peer-review journals. These credible

websites do NOT take the place of the 6 required original research studies!

You must also cite all of your sources in a References section at the end of your

paper (Note: A References section begins on a separate page at the end of your

paper; see your 7th edition APA manual to format this page and types of sources

correctly).

Citing your sources and constructing your References section in correct 7th

edition APA format will be a significant part of your grade for this paper! YOU

MUST USE YOUR 7th EDITION APA MANUAL TO DO THIS! Any papers

submitted without citation of sources will receive an automatic “0”, as this

is considered plagiarism.

Content of paper A literature review requires a synthesis of the research articles you have

reviewed- you should not discuss each article separately! In the literature

review, you should critically analyze and synthesize the literature of a topical

area of interest. Use the following outline to format your paper. Use the below

headings in your paper, and address each item within each heading, in the order

presented below:

INTRODUCTION

*Introduction of the topic/problem

*Provide a brief explanation about why this issue is relevant to the profession of

social work

*Provide a brief description of what your paper is going to address

SCOPE OF PROBLEM

*Describe the breadth (who/what is affected) and depth

(impact/magnitude/severity) of the problem

*Discuss the population(s) affected most by this problem

*Describe how the population(s) are affected

*Define your variables of interest

*Explain why this problem is important to explore and address

PREVIOUS FINDINGS

*Describe previous studies about your chosen problem (refer to studies

SOCW 360/ Spring, 2022

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METHODS sections, and synthesize this information)

– research designs

– sampling methods

– participants utilized in studies

– operationalization of independent and dependent variables

– statistical tests

– theories used (if any)

– hypotheses tested

– major findings

CRITIQUE OF LITERATURE

*Describe the strengths and weaknesses of previous studies methodology (i.e,

generalizability, measurement, cultural sensitivity, research design, threats to

validity, etc…)

CONCLUSION

*In general, describe what previous research has contributed to this topic of

interest

*Based on limitations of previous studies, describe how future studies can

address the weaknesses you identified

*Describe possible suggestions for future research by identifying potential

research questions, or relationships between variables that need further

exploration

*Close the literature review with a discussion of implications: Why is your

suggestion for future research important to the profession of social work?

research design and ethics

How to UPLOAD your SPSS Lab assignments (SOCW 360)

Step 1: Click on “SPSS Lab” tab in blackboard; Then click on “SPSS Lab 1” folder
Step 2: Scroll to bottom of page and you will see a link entitled “Submit SPSS Lab 1 HERE”; Then click on that link
Step 3: Upload three required files by clicking on “Browse my computer” button; Then upload your (1) Microsoft word doc [this has your answers from the CASE
SCENARIO], (2) Your SPSS Datafile [is an “.sav” file], and (3) Your SPSS Output file [is an “.spv” file].

(Note: You must upload your two SPSS files from a computer that has the SPSS software. If you don’t do this, your SPSS files will be saved as “.jnl” files, which

I CANNOT open. Any SPSS files that are uploaded as a “.jnl” file extension will receive “0” credit; Check this BEFORE you click “SUBMIT”).

Make SURE these
SPSS files
are NOT “.jnl” files!!!

Your Data file should
end in “.sav”

Your Output file
should end in “.spv”

Research Design And Ethics

 

This folder contains a Lab #2 case scenario, a participant data file, as well an instructional PowerPoint to walk you through the step-by-step to use SPSS/PASW.  
 

2. In order to submit this assignment, you will submit all three documents to the “submit assignment” link, below: (1) Your Microsoft word document with all of the answers to the questions on the Case Scenario, with your answers numbered, (2) Your SPSS Datafile [this has a “.sav” file extension], and (3) Your SPSS Output file [this has a “.spv” file extension].  You will find an example of how these attachments look in an email by clicking on the “SPSS Labs” tab on blackboard and clicking on the first document ‘How to Email SPSS lab assignments’.

 I will only grade Labs that have all three completed files, uploaded in the correct format.

4. All the materials you will need for Lab #2 are found in the ‘SPSS Labs’ Blackboard tab, in the “SPSS Lab #2” folder.

5. This second lab is going to teach you how to use DATA to evaluate your practice, through a case vignette about gerontological social work.  You should first read the “Case Scenario for Lab #2” carefully.  There are 8 questions you must answer, listed at the end of the Case Scenario (NOTE: You will NOT be creating a Descriptive Statistics table for this Lab #2).  Number your questions on the Microsoft word doc, so that I know which question you are answering.  You can only answer the questions AFTER you have run your analyses in SPSS, so don’t try and answer them before analyzing your data.  Remember, your answers should be based on your data analysis from the Output file – not on your ‘personal opinion’ or ‘experience’, and you must also integrate knowledge/concepts from your assigned readings and lectures into your answers.  This is part of ‘evidence-based practice’, which in this lab, is using evidence to evaluate your practice.

6. Your participant data (standardized scales you hypothetically distributed to older adults) are found in the “PRE-test” file, and the “POST-test” file.  This is the data from your participant pre-test and post-test that you will need to enter into SPSS and analyze to answer the questions on the Case Scenario. 

You are going to encounter specific challenges in this lab, in which you are going to find a few ‘problems’ with some of the participants’ responses.  You must utilize your critical thinking and integrate your readings to figure out how best to handle this situation.  Please do not email me asking me ‘what to do’ about these items.  Remember, there are several ways in which to solve problems, and I want you to use your knowledge and critical thinking to come up with a good solution.

7. Before you get started defining the variables for this survey in the SPSS “Variable View” tab, you should watch the lecture video, entitled “Introduction to SPSS Lab #2’”.  

8.  Once you have defined variables in the “Variable View” tab, and also entered all participant data for both the pre-test and post-test in the “Data View” tab, you must watch the lecture video, entitled “Introduction to SPSS Lab #2”.  That video will show you what to do in SPSS to run your analysis to evaluate change on self-esteem between pre-test and post-test.  

9. After running your analysis in SPSS, the software will give you an Output file, which will give you the results of differences between scores for pre-and post-tests.  You will interpret the results on the Output file and use your critical thinking to answer questions #1-8 from your Case Scenario.

research design and ethics

SPSS Lab #2: Defining Variables and Running Paired/Dependent samples t-test with Standardized Scales

Step #1: Define variables (participant ID & scale item #s for pre- and post-tests) in “Variable View” tab. Then, enter data from pre- and post-

tests in “Data View” tab

Step #2: Reverse coding (Note: do this for BOTH pre- and post-test items that need reverse coding)

1 = 4

2 = 3

3 = 2

4 = 1

Step #3: Compute a ‘total scale score’ for each participant on BOTH pre-test and post-test measures (Click on “Transform”, then “Compute
Variable”)

Step #4: Run your Paired Samples t-test

Item 1+Item2+Item3+…Item10

Step #5: Interpret your Output file

Step #6: Write-up template

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to test the hypothesis that (H1 here). The dependent variable was (DV here),
as measured by the (describe scale, range of scores; interpretation of scores). The independent variable was (IV here).
The scale was administered to (insert participant sample here) (N=? here), before and after the (insert intervention
here). The (insert intervention here) demonstrated a (insert impact/relationship here), t(X) = -X.XXX, p=.XXX.
Participants demonstrated (describe construct and Mean (M=X) differences at pre-and post-test here). Results suggest
that (describe overall conclusion/generalizations that can be made about the impact of the specific intervention on your
construct/specific population).

research design and ethics

SPSS Lab #2: How to Write-Up Results of a Paired-Samples samples t-test

(Use this paragraph template to write-up your results, by filling-in the information from your study in the sections with red font)

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to test the hypothesis that H1 here. The dependent variable was write
Dependent Variable here, as measured by the describe scale, range of scores; interpretation of scores. The
independent variable was write Independent variable here. The scale was administered to describe participant
sample here (N=?), before and after the write intervention here. The insert intervention here demonstrated a write
impact/relationship here, t(X) = -X.XXX, p=.XXX. Participants demonstrated describe construct and Mean
differences at pre-and post-test here. Results suggest that describe overall conclusion/generalizations that can be
made about the impact of the specific intervention on your construct/specific population.

research design and ethics

Case scenario for assisted living facility intervention

This is the case scenario for the assisted living facility. Read the scenario carefully, and answer the questions after completing your data analysis in SPSS. Remember, each client has a ‘pre test’ and ‘post test’ scale they have completed. You must remember to match the ID numbers in the upper right-hand corner to be sure you will enter each clients correct pre and post-test data.

Master copy of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Attached Files:

File Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale-master copy.doc (25 KB)

A master copy of the standardized scale (administered at both pre- and post-test), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (use to define variables in “Variable View” tab).

PRE-test data for participants

Attached Files:

File PreTest Data from Assisted Living.pdf (430.205 KB)

This data file contains the PRE-test data for each of the older adult participants in your study, which include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scales that each of your participants completed BEFORE you introduced your intervention. Note that each participants ID number is located in the top right-hand corner. When entering their ID numbers into SPSS, do not use any dashes or spaces.

POST-test data for participants

Attached Files:

File PostTest Data Assisted Living.pdf (2.913 MB)

This data file contains the POST-test data for each of the older adult participants in your study, which include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scales that each of your participants completed AFTER they participated in your intervention. Note that each participants ID number is located in the top right-hand corner. When entering their post-test data, make sure you match-up each participants post-test data with their pre-test data.

Template for Writing-Up Results for paired-samples t-test

Attached Files:

File SPSS Lab 2- HOW TO WRITE UP RESULTS OF T-TEST.pdf (83.165 KB)

Use this template to write-up your results of your analysis for Lab 2. Writing up your results is one of the questions you must answer in the questions on the Case Scenario.

Step-by-step: Defining variables, entering data, and running statistical analysis (Lab #2)

Attached Files:

File SPSS Lab_2_Briefing-SPRING 2021.pdf (1.741 MB)

Attached Files:

File How to UPLOAD your SPSS Lab assignments.pdf (307.099 KB)

Submit your SPSS Lab #2 on this link. Once you click on the link, upload your three Lab #2 documents. To upload each document, click the “Browse My Computer” button, find that file on your computer, and attach. Do this to upload each document.

View the attached pdf document to see HOW your uploaded files should look before you submit them.

research design and ethics

Name_____ ___________

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale


Directions
: Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. Please circle the appropriate answer for each item, depending on whether you strongly agree (1), agree (2), disagree (3), or strongly disagree (4) with it.

Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly

Agree Disagree

________ _____ _______ _______

1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.

1 2 3 4

2. At times I think I am no good at all. 1 2 3 4

3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 1 2 3 4

4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. 1 2 3 4

5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 1 2 3 4

6. I certainly feel useless at times. 1 2 3 4

7. I feel that I am a person of worth. 1 2 3 4

8. I wish I could have more respect for myself. 1 2 3 4

9. All in all, I am inclined to think that I am a failure. 1 2 3 4

10. I take a positive attitude toward myself. 1 2 3 4

research design and ethics

SPSS Lab Exercise #2:
Quantitative Data Analysis & Standardized Instruments

Brief description of hypothetical research project:

You are a BSW student intern at the Alpine Valley Assisted Living Facility in Galveston, Texas.
There is one Social Worker at the agency, and he will be your Field Instructor. During your
orientation, the Field Instructor shares with you that one of the greatest challenges his
clients face at the facility are declines in physical and mental health after elderly clients move
in to the facility. In particular, many clients appear to experience a significant decrease in
self-esteem after relocating to the facility. The Assisted Living Facility is relatively new, and
does not offer any specific interventions to address self-esteem.

In the educational contract that you and your Field Instructor create, one of your learning
tasks includes creating and intervention designed to increase self-esteem (practice) AND
evaluate the impact of the intervention (research).

In your literature review, you discover research suggests a relationship between
volunteerism and self-esteem. You decide to create a Volunteer intervention for clients at
the facility, and coordinate volunteer work for the elderly clients to become involved in
around the community. In the literature, you also find a scale to measure changes in self-
esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSE]) that you would like to use to evaluate the
impact of volunteerism on the self-esteem of the elderly participants at Alpine Valley
Assisted Living Facility.

Assuming you have already collected informed consent, here is what you must do to
complete this hypothetical research project:

DATA ENTRY & ANALYSIS: INSTRUCTIONS

• Define variables in SPSS for your RSE scale.

Note: each scale item should be coded as individual variable in SPSS.

• Enter data from the RSE pre- and post-tests in SPSS.
• Analyze the RSE data in SPSS by using the appropriate statistical test(s).

Scoring the RSE= The RSE is scored by summing the numbers of each item, yielding a total
score of between 10 (lower self-esteem) and 40 (higher self-esteem); The items #
1,3,4,7,10 need to be reversed-coded before calculating total score. Scale was normed on
adolescents and adults of various ethnic backgrounds; Reliability demonstrated between
.77 and .88; RSE has high construct validity, as has correlated in predicted directions with
the Beck Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.

Chronbach’s α = [<.60] unacceptable; [.60-.65] undesirable; [.65-.70] minimally acceptable;

[.70-.80] respectable; [.80-.90] very good; [>.90] # items should be
shortened (DeVellis, 2003).

METHODOLOGY: Answer the following questions/items on a microsoft word document, and
be sure to number your answers…

1. What is the research question? What is your research hypothesis? What statistical test

did you use to test it?
2. What are your independent and dependent variables?
3. Describe your sampling method (choose a specific type of probability or non-probability

sampling method). How did you carry-out sampling? What were the inclusion and/or
exclusion criteria for participants? Explain.

4. Cultural competency: Describe how and where you administer the RSE. Explain your
answer.

5. How much time (days, weeks, months, etc) will you allow between pre-test and post-
test? Explain why you chose that amount of time.

6. How would you (hypothetically) test construct (or criterion) validity of the RSE scale?
7. Run a reliability analysis on your pre-test scale data (make sure this analysis is included on

your SPSS Output file). How reliable is the scale?
8. Write-up the results of your study (see document in SPSS Lab 2 folder “Template for

Writing-Up Paired Sample t-test” and your Output file to format/answer this question).