• Home

Question

Case Study Project

Infant and Toddler Care : Case Study Project

Lesson 5 Overview

Although several important principles are discussed in your text, one in particular is the
principle of trust. For this project, you’ll read a case study and respond to each of the
questions in paragraph format. Each response must demonstrate thoughtful knowledge of
the core concepts discussed in the text.

5.1 Evaluate a scenario involving a parent dropping off a child at a child
care center
Case Study Project
READING ASSIGNMENT
Your project must be submitted as a Word document (.docx, .doc) or Rich Text Format file (.rtf)*. Your
project will be individually graded by your instructor and therefore may take up to five to seven days to
grade. Be sure that your document contains a Title Page indicating the following information:

Project Name/Title of Paper
Your name
Your student ID number
Name of School
The course number and name
Project number
Date of submission

To submit your graded project, follow these steps:

Log in to your student portal.
Click on Take Exam next to the lesson you’re working on.
Find the exam number for your project at the top of the Project Upload page.
Follow the instructions provided to complete your exam.

Be sure to keep a backup copy of any files you submit to the school!

Infant and Toddler Care

Introduction

Infant and Toddler Care (v2) : Lesson 5 : Page 1© 2021 Penn Foster Inc.

For this project, review the concepts in your textbook Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers: A
Curriculum of Respectful, Responsive Care and Education, by Janet Gonzalez-Mena and
Dianne Widmeyer Eyer. In particular, pay attention to the concepts presented in Chapters 5–
11.

Although there are several important principles discussed in your text, one in particular is the
principle of trust. For this project, you’ll read a case study included in your textbook on page
104 and write an essay reflecting on the importance of building trust in relationships with
infants and toddlers. The essay must demonstrate thoughtful knowledge of the core
concepts discussed in the text. It may be necessary to conduct outside research to further
support your responses and understanding of the core concepts.

Case Study

Go to page 104 of your textbook and read The Principles in Action on Principle 9. This case
study outlines a scenario where a child (Cameron) is being left in child care for the first time.
As you’re reading the scenario, think about how you would handle the situation if you were
the child’s parent and how you would handle the situation as the caregiver in the child’s
classroom.

Essay

After reading through the case study, you’ll write an essay that addresses the following
questions in separate paragraphs of 4–6 sentences each. No bulleted or number lists should
be included in the essay. Remember to include an introduction and conclusion paragraph.

Write responses to the following questions. Each response should be at least 4–6 sentences
in length.

1. When Cameron realized her mother was gone, she became somewhat inconsolable.
Reflecting on what was learned throughout the course, what attachment behavior(s) is
Cameron experiencing and why?

2. How do you feel about Cameron’s mother leaving the classroom while her daughter was
distracted? How might this affect Cameron’s development of a sense of trust and what
problems may occur in the future?

3. If you were the caregiver in Cameron’s classroom how would you address the situation

Infant and Toddler Care (v2) : Lesson 5 : Page 2© 2021 Penn Foster Inc.

with the mother? How could you support attachment and the development of trust
between Cameron and her mother and you (the caregiver) and Cameron?

4. Chapter 11 discussed caregivers’ responses to children’s separation anxiety issues. It’s
important for caregivers to cope with emotions and to understand how to manage
separation anxiety, so they can be most effective in helping the children. How did you
learn to deal with separation anxiety issues?

Writing Guidelines

1. Type your submission, double-spaced, in a standard print font and size. Calibri 11, Arial
11, and Times New Roman 12 are all recommended fonts and sizes. Use a standard
document format with one-inch margins.

2. Include a Title Page in APA format that includes your full name, the name and number
of this assignment, the name and number of this course, the name of the school, and
the date of submission. Refer to the Sample APA Paper for ECE Students on the Early
Childhood Learning Resource Center.

3. Be sure to cite all sources used to support your writing using in-text citations in the body
of your essay and a References page at the end; use APA format for both.

4. Review the grading rubric that follows this section to ensure all portions of the
assignment are satisfied.

5. You’re encouraged to access and review the course resources available on the Early
Childhood College Programs and Courses Learning Resource Center for additional
guidance on completing this
assignment: https://pflibrary.pennfoster.edu/earlychildhoodcenter/college (pflibrary.penn
foster.edu/earlychildhoodcenter/college) .

To learn how to cite sources in APA format, please review all available APA resources on the
Early Childhood Learning Resource
Center https://pflibrary.pennfoster.edu/earlychildhoodcenter/college (pflibrary.pennfoster.edu/
earlychildhoodcenter/college) .

Grading Criteria

Your final project will be graded according to the following rubric.

Infant and Toddler Care (v2) : Lesson 5 : Page 3© 2021 Penn Foster Inc.

Case Study Project

Grading Criteria Exemplary100–90
Proficient

89–80
Fair

79–70
Poor
69–0

Introduction: The introductory paragraph introduces
the reader to the setting presented in the case study
and highlights the importance of building trust in
relationships with infants and toddlers.

10–8 8–7 7–6 6–0

Paragraph 2: The student provides a clear
explanation of at least one attachment behavior the
child is exhibiting and rationale for why that behavior
is present. The student’s rationale is supported by
the course text and/or outside research.

15–14 14–13 13–12 12–0

Paragraph 3: The student provides a clear
explanation of his or her feelings towards the use of
distraction at departure and the effect such practices
can have on the development of a child’s sense of
trust. The student’s explanation is supported by the
course text and/or outside research.

20–19 19–17 17–15 15–0

Paragraph 4: The student identifies ways to
appropriately and supportively address the situation
with Cameron’s mother. The student identifies and
explains ways to support attachment and the
development of trust between Cameron and her
mother and Cameron and the student. The student’s
explanation is supported by the course text and/or
outside research.

20–19 19–17 17–15 15–0

Paragraph 5: The student provides a clear
explanation of how they learned to deal with
separation anxiety issues.

15–14 14–13 13–12 12–0

Conclusion: The conclusion summarizes what was
learned from the experience and how it can be
applied to future work.

10–8 8–7 7–6 6–0

Overall Formatting and Mechanics: Grammar,
spelling, and format are appropriate, including
components of APA and professionalism.

10–8 7–6 5–4 3–0

Infant and Toddler Care (v2) : Lesson 5 : Page 4© 2021 Penn Foster Inc.

  • 354152_cover
  • 35415200

Question

1

Ford Motor Company’s Strategic Plan

John Smith
BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy

Instructor Dr. Ronald Beach
June 19, 2020

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 2

Ford Motor Company’s Strategic Plan

Executive Summary

Company History

Mission Statement

Ford’s mission statement, according to Corporate Ford (2019), is “One Team. One Plan.
One Goal […] One Ford is Fords motor Company’s mission and vision” (para. 1). The
statement is concise, easy to remember, unique and incorporates the importance of the people,
goal and plan, but it does not contain the four especial questions in their mission statement as

Ford Motor Company has a long history of innovation, quality, and cutting-edge
technology and brand recognition that has become a household name around the world. Henry
Ford started his journey as an automaker 1896 with a four-cylinder Quadracycle on four
bicycle wheels. Ford founded the Detroit Automobile Company eighteen months later; the
company ended in bankruptcy. Moving his talents, knowledge, and experience to the second
innovative company, Ford founded another automotive company in 1901, which was called
the Henry Ford Company. This company would then fail, and later become Cadillac, one of
Ford’s major competitors (Henry Ford Biography, n.d.).

Investing $28,000, in June of 1903, Henry Ford and twelve others founded the
formattable Ford Motor Company in Dearborn Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. Also
incorporated the same year, Ford sought to produced affordable cars for the average working
man as they were inexpensive to manufacture (Ford Motor Company Timeline, 2019).
According to Henry Ford’s obituary (1947) Starting with the Ford Model A one month after
incorporating, the Ford Motor Company produced the most affordable and serviceable cars
during his tenure. The Model A base model sold for a whopping base price was $850.00 (Ford
Motor Company, 2019c).

After the Model A was produced, Ford’s next innovation was the Model T, manufactured
in Highland Park, another suburb of Detroit in 1908 also priced at $850.00. In 1909, 10,666
Model T’s were produced (Tomac, Radonja & Bonato, 2019). In 1913 Ford’s state of the art
assembly line reduced the cost of the Model T to just $300.00 (Ford Motor Company, 2019c),
and in 1921 the same Model T was only $200.00 (Link, 2018), this was due to an upgraded
assembly line and consolidation of parts. Although the public mocked the early models
because they were not made for the elitists, the Ford Motor Company “Became the greatest
automobile manufacturer in the World” (Henry Ford obituary, 1947, p. 399). Ford models
were regarded as poor people’s cars, but the laugh was on them, as people were buying them
“By the thousands” (Henry Ford obituary, 1947, p. 399). Ford Motor Company’s products
over the next hundred years include trucks, WWI, and WWII military vehicles such as boats,
tractors, tanks, and airplanes. Ford also mass-produced Lincoln and Mercury luxury vehicles,
race cars, the famous Mustang, economical cars, minivans, SUVs, hybrid and electric cars, as
well as the favorite F-series trucks (Ford Motor Company, 2019b). In 1959 Ford founded the
credit department (Ford Motor Company Timeline 2019), which provides financing to its
buyers and lessees, as well as mobility services; a smart connectivity program provides
transportation networks to urban areas (Reuters, 2019).

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 3

it does not present what they do, how it’s done and for whom, nor does it express the benefit
or value the organization brings (Hull, 2014).

Analysis
Ford is an automotive manufacturer which is not stated. As Abraham (2012) expressed,

“The mission does not differentiate the company from other firms” (sec. 2.1); this
differentiation is essential to the mission statement, as it must state what Ford does. There is
no mention of the product or service that is offered. Although the company works together,
and this could be a partial answer to what they do, but it is too broad and assumed. Ford’s
mission statement does not reveal how they do it, although that they do it as one. Ford’s
customers are global dealers, distributors, and the end-user which is the buyer of the vehicle.
This mission statement does not identify Ford’s customers. The target market should be
defined in the strategic analysis and revealed in the mission (Martin, Cowburn & Mac Intosh,
2017). Ford brings a vehicle that will change the lives of its customers, workforce, community,
and the world, but the mission statement does not express the value they bring to other than
working together for the common goal.

Using the Fortune 500 five-star rating system, Ford’s mission statement would score one
star, as the statement does not encompass the company. The statement is vague and does not
include the industry, or products they produce, nor does it define the customers, how they are
providing their products or the value they offer. Although once researched, the “One Ford”
mission and value statement did reveal that Ford’s strategy is one plan to lower variability in
the parts used to manufacture its cars and compete in one world market. According to
IBISWorld (2019), One Ford’s purpose was to streamline “Ford’s global design and
production by sharing designs, platforms and parts for Ford vehicles sold in different regions”
(sec. 2, para. 2). After examination of the Ford website, governance policies, and sustainability
report the mission statement was nowhere to be found. It should be integrated into every
website, flyer, policy, and the sustainability report as the mission statement should drive the
progress of the company.

Situational Analysis
Current Situation

The Ford Motor Company is a multi-billion-dollar global company that manufactures
autimobiles, mobility, and a credit-issuing company and has been in business for over one
hundred years. Ford’s headquarters located in Dearborn, Michigan and employed over 199,000
people globally at the end of 2018 and is the number one American automobile producer.
Ford, designs, manufactures, markets, and services; cars, trucks, SUVs, Lincoln luxury
vehicles, as well as parts and accessories. Ford also provides financing to its buyers and
lessees, as well as mobility services; a smart connectivity program provides transportation
networks to urban areas (Reuters, 2019). The mobility programs that will connect drivers with
parking locations, alternative traffic routes, and rideshare, this service will connect with the
autonomous cars once in production. As the front runner of electric performance vehicle/SUV
such as the Mustang, which debuted November 21, 2019, and is in the process of transforming
trucks to electric power as well. Today the lowest price car that Ford Motor Company offers is
the Fiesta, with a base price of approximately $14,000, and in the first quarter of 2019,
15,943 units were produced (Cruz, 2019).

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 4

SWOT Analysis

The purpose of the SWOT analysis is to assess the company’s strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats. This is done by listing external and internal factors that affect the
company, determine alternative strategies, and mitigate threats (David, David & David, 2017).

Ford’s SWOT Analysis
Environment
Opportunity Threat

The Ford Motor Company is the highest revenue yielding automotive company in the
United States. As the leader of the “Big Three,” Ford Motor Company has remained successful
over the last century, and was the only company that did not pursue funding from the $85
billion governmental bailouts of 2009. These bailouts were the “Largest government bailout of
a nonfinancial industry in modern history” (Wollmann, 2018, p. 1374). The Ford Motor
Company’s 2019 revenue is 158 billion (Mergent, 2019). Ford’s top U. S. competitors are;
General Motors (GM) with 144.81 billion revenue (Deloitte & Touche LLP., 2019), and Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) 110.4 billion revenue (Ernst & Young S.p.A., 2018). Ford’s
household name, known for its steadfast force of serviceable, high-quality, and affordable cars,
trucks, and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) has remained strong over its tenure.

(Gale Business Insights: Global, 2019)

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 5

Strengths
 A technology leader for over 100 years
 The brand is an industry tradition which presents strong customer loyalty
 High revenue in the U.S. automobile market
 A competitive edge on autonomous and electric performance vehicles
 Financial health overall is strong

Weaknesses
 Recall costs for 2018 were 147.7 billion
 Business strategies must change to accommodate autonomous and

environmentally friendly cars
Opportunities
 Collaboration with Volkswagon to build smart and autonomous vehicles
 The demand for smart cars combined with Ford’s well-known brand will

create greater loyalty
 The U. S. automotive market is the second in the world and Ford is a top

competitor
 Creating a more conclusive global strategy
 An innovative contribution to yet again change the world
 By changing the business strategy, sales will increase in the global market

Threats
 The aggressive race for technology between competitors
 Advancing technology may be difficult to integrate
 Global issues; exchange rates, tariffs, no brand recognition
 Governmental regulation has raised operational costs and lowered profit

C
om

pa
ny

S
tr

en
gt

h

Technology leader

Brand recognition and loyalty

High revenue stream

Completive edge – Innovative
vehicles

Financial health

Rapidly advancing technology

Oil price instability

Innovative process changes

W
ea

kn
es

s

Product recalls

Changing business strategy

Debt

Global market

Changes in government policy

Fierce competitors

Supply chain

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 6

 Supply chain interruptions have plagued Ford over the last

S.W.O.T. Summary
As environmental and atmospheric changes are developing, so too is the influence

society brings to decreasing the environmental impact of the people in the world. The demand
and need to change gas-guzzling vehicles, into innovative low environmental impacting
machines. Today technology is changing rapidly, but Ford has stepped across the finish line
as according to the article Autonomous Vehicles (2019), “In 2018, Ford became the first
automotive manufacturer to pilot autonomous vehicles in Washington, DC” (para. 3), and is
working on electric cars as well. Ford has joined forces with Volkswagen to advance
autonomous automobiles and develop electric vehicles (Autonomous Vehicles, 2019). Ford is
now the first to mass-produce cars, the first in autonomous vehicle production and has proven
it has a competitive edge. Although they are not in mass production, autonomous vehicles and
electric cars are the wave of the future, and Ford, GM, FCA, and every other U. S. competitor
is racing to the finish line.

There were several threats found in Ford’s SWOT analysis, such as oil price instability,
governmental regulations, rapidly advancing technology, and fierce competition, as every
automotive company is competing for zero-emissions vehicles. Oil instability has always been
a problem; the automotive world is still trying to play catchup with these fluctuations. Another
threat is changing governmental regulations. But, new environmental regulations will be added
as chemicals are used in the batteries, and to store them. These chemicals are corrosive, and
will ultimately leak, allowing them into the atmosphere. Global expansion produces other
governmental and environmental regulations.

Another threat of doing business globally is foreign currency rates; the translation costs
are higher than expected. Ford faced a supply chain interruption, last year a fire erupted at the
Meridian Magnesium Products plant; this plant three critical parts for the F-series trucks.
Resulting in almost nearly 8,00 layoffs, a shutdown production of an estimated 35,000
vehicles costing Ford $1.6 billion in lost revenue (Foley, 2018). Taking into consideration that
Ford is an industry leader in technology, with a global presence and an excellent reputation
and impressive revenue stream, the opportunities for environmentally-friendly vehicles will
alter business as they know it in the future. Opportunities such as introducing alternative fuels
and smart cars will also be a challenge as it is doing business differently than it has been done
over the last 100 years.

Contingency Plan
As the currency exchange rate continues to be volatile, Ford should investigate

manufacturing in more host countries, and utilizing local suppliers; this will maintain the same
exchange rates (Abraham, 2012). Research opportunities to mitigate volatile currency
exchange rates (i.e., joint ventures, acquisitions, forward exchange rate contracts and variable
prices) (Lander, 2016). Unpredictability in oil prices are a constant concern, but the hybrid,
alternative fuel, and electric vehicles are the contingency plan for this risk. Once these vehicles
are mass-produced, oil instability will no longer be a threat. To drive the Ford brand, it must
also ramp up the advertisement in the host countries to drive the Ford brand as well as
continue to develop alternative fuel vehicles, smart cars, and autonomous automobiles.

To mitigate supply issues generated by the fire, Ford must find alternative suppliers to
step in when another supplier drops the ball; this is done by having a few key suppliers that
distribute parts and diversify suppliers. Ford could also add to the strategic plan to seek other
suppliers so that this trigger or contingency will not be required; furthermore, the company

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 7

could store supplies, build up six to eight months supply as part of their strategic plan, and
then implement the contingency once the inventory drops to 30%. As mentioned above, the
trigger is an external supplier, specific, and quotative as the chemicals are delayed for six
months, the trigger is when the manager learns that the needed supplies will be delayed
(Abraham, 2012). As always, the contingency plan must be reviewed at least annually.

Environmental Scan and Porter’s 5 Forces

The environmental scan revealed that the challenges Ford faces are new technology,
moving away from the traditional automotive industry, to utilizing alternative fuels, moving to
all-electric popular vehicles such as the Mustang and F-150 trucks, to smart vehicles, and
autonomous cars (Ford, 2019). Ford’s competitors such as GM touts, they are “The only
company with a fully integrated solution to produce self-driving vehicles, at scale” (General
Motors, n.d., p. 1). Tesla is also an upcoming competitor that has built its first all-electric car
in 2008, which has become best in class (Tesla, 2019). The environmental scan demonstrates
that Porter’s five-forces model aids in Ford’s understanding of its competitive position as the
rivalry of competitors are fierce amongst automakers, which means there is little profit margin,
especially automobiles manufactured in the United States of America.

Ford’s environmental analysis revealed fierce competition and that rivalry drives the
following four forces of Porter’s model which effects buyer bargaining power; this requires
the supplier or seller to lower the profit margin to sell the product (Abraham, 2012). Most
automotive manufacturing in the U.S. is approximate in size and delineates little in variation;
thus, industry growth is slow, and barriers are high (Porter, 2008). Rivalry among the
automakers lowers profitability by forcing the company to lower prices, increase advertising,
and create distinctive vehicles, all of these expenses reduce the profit margin. One example of
Ford Motor Company’s sustainable innovation, was its history of mass-production, and has
now entered the mass-production race to manufacture electric vehicles (Azadi & Rahimzadeh,
2012).

The Ford Motor Company has created a brand that reduces buyer’s bargaining power, as
an emotional connection has been created; customers are loyal to its brand, and will buy that
brand even though the price may be slightly higher (Kwan, 2018). The bargaining power of
suppliers can be mitigated by utilizing multiple suppliers and not just put its eggs in one
basket. According to Mergent (2018), Ford’s form 10k “We purchase a wide variety of raw
materials from numerous suppliers around the world for use in the production of our vehicles”
(p. 7). Ford, GM, and FCA have faced many new entrants from the global industry, and these
entrants receive a higher profit margin and can lower their price points, which has burdened
the U.S. automakers over the last several years. Ford contributes to the threat of entrants as the
company has brand loyalty, experience in the industry, supply connections, capital, and
resources. The final concept in Porter’s forces revealed by the environmental scan, is the high
risk of substitution, as competition is high and automobiles do not vary, customers may choose
another brand. Ford has created a brand that is dependable, easy to service, and reasonably
priced, the customers loyal to the brand will keep them buying, and the threat of substitution is
low in the U. S. Although this is true in the U. S. the global market does not hold the loyalties
of domestic buyers. Ford’s U. S. brand loyal customers consistently buy, but if a bargain does
come along, they will weigh the options, including their emotional comfort, before buying
another brand.

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 8

International Performance

Ford Motor Company is a global organization that manufactures automobiles in North
and South America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific (Ford Media Center,
2019). As automobile manufacturing exceeds the demand globally, Ford has not maintained a
profitable price point and a prolonged period of this situation, according to Mergent (2018),
“Could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations”
(p. 19). Below is the operating profit margin of Ford’s global market.

(Ford Motor Company, 2019c)

Above are Ford’s operating margins for the last six quarters, 2018 and 2019. The
operating profit margin is the Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) divided by the total
revenue. The higher percentage rate means higher profitability, and at the end of the third
quarter, Ford’s operating margin was 8.6%; this means that there is only $0.086 operating
profit for every $1 of revenue in the North American market. South America came in at
(15.9%), Europe (2.8%), Middle East and Africa (4.4%), and Asia Pacific (1.9%). The global
operating margins are in the negative. Thus far, it appears that Ford’s global strategy is not
working and must be reexamined. The foreign exchange rates are volatile, and this risk
“Cannot be avoided” (Abraham, 2012, sec. 11.2). The alternative is to reevaluate the strategies
in place to create more revenue and reduce costs. Foreign currency translation cost Ford $4.8
billion in 2018, which contributed to a deficit of $2.2 billion, earnings before interest and taxes
(EBIT) in South America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia Pacific (Mergent, 2018).
Monetary exchange rates are one of the risks that every corporation performing business
globally will face, as they are unstable, to say the least.

Operational Planning

Financial Performance

As mentioned above, Ford Motor Company’s financial health has been at a gradual climb
since 2009, with a few dips; as you can see below, September 30, 2019, the revenue drop was
8%. PricewaterhouseCoopers (2019) expects the trend to stay constant, and the Earnings
Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA) is anticipated to be
$12,613.00 in the first quarter of 2021, although with the release of the all-electric Mustang
the trend could go straight up.

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 9

(Gale Business Insights: Global, 2019)

(Mergent, 2018)
Ford’s liquidity or current Ratio is 1.2, which means that the company has positive

capital sufficient to satisfy short-term liabilities. The Inventory turnover rate is 12.68 which
means that every 29 days the inventory stock turns over. Ford’s return on assets (ROA) is
1.43, and the return on equity (ROE) is 10.38. ROA and ROE measure how effectively assets
and equity are being used, and the numbers show that they are using debt, assets, and equity
adequately. Ford’s Debt-to-Equity Ratio is 4.3; this means that the company’s debt is high, as
for each dollar of equity, there is four dollars debt. Although the debt to equity ratio is high,
the ROE is greater than the ROA, which means that Ford is increasing overall earnings by
using its borrowing effectively. Although the total revenue has improved, the total costs and
expenses have also increased resulting in the third-lowest net income in three years.

The outlook in the global industryperformance has declined recently but is estimated to
be flat in 2019, compared to the 2018 volumes sold (Mergent, 2018). After assessing the Ford
Motor Company’s financials, overall, the financial health of the company is robust, extremely
well managed, and the financial condition proves they are performing exceptionally to date
(Abraham, 2012).

Operational Budget and Assessment

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 10

An organization’s condition is demonstrated by its financial health, and analyzing the
financial statements. These statements provide a financial picture that illustrates the
organizations’ performance at specific periods of time, such as annually, quarterly or monthly.
The visual representation of the financial statements allows the organization to see trends that
may affect company progress, and quickly move to correct negative trends. Below is an
estimated budget for the current quarter and the next, a trend analysis, as well as a simple
balance sheet, and a ratio chart that analyzes the financial health of Ford. The estimated
working capital is determined by subtracting the current liabilities, Ford’s working capital for
this quarter is 16.7 billion, and next quarter is projected to be 15.3 billion; this lower estimate
is due to the current assets steadily declining since the first quarter of 2019.

[Prior Quarter]

Budget
Projection Next

Q

Var +/-

Var %
Revenue

Sales Revenue 36,990,000,000 36,600,000,000 (390,000,000) (1.05)

Interest Income N/A – 0

Investment Income N/A –

0

Other Income N/A 350,000,000 350,000,000 100

TOTAL INCOME 36,990,000,000 36,950,000,000 (40,000,000) (1.08)

[Prior Quarter]

Budget
Projection Next

Q
Var +/- Var %

Costs and Expenses

Salaries 2,601,000,000 2,615,000,000 14,000,000 .54

Supplies 33,969,000,000 34,029,595,000 60,595,000 .18

Insurance N/A

Rent/Lease Payments 400,000,000 304,400,000 (95,600) (24)

Interest Expenses 1,000,000 1,000,000 0 0

TOTAL
EXPENSES 36,971,000,000 36,949,995,000 (21,005,000) (.06)

NET
PROFIT/LOSS (19,000,000) 5,000 (18,995,000) (.05)

Net Earnings Before
Taxes (Gain or Loss) (19,000,000) 5,000 (18,995,000) 99.97

Income Tax
Expense

442,000,000

1,250 (441,998,750) (99.99)

Net Earnings After
Taxes 423,000,000 3,750 (422,996,250) (99.99)

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 11

Ford Motor Company
(In Millions)

Estimated Next
Quarter

September 30, 2018 Percentage of
Change

Total Current Assets 114,700 115,754 (.9)
Total Assets 258,300 258,157 .05
Total Current Liabilities 99,400 99,087 .316
Total Liabilities 223,000 222,770 .15
Total Equity 35,000 35,387 (1.11)
Retained Earnings 21,000 22,590 (7.5)
Total liabilities & equity 751,000 753,749 (.365)

Ford Financial Health

(In Millions except NPM & ROA 12/18, and ROE 9/18) Ratio
Ratios 12/30/18 9/30/18 12/18 9/18 Ideal

Current
Ratio 114,700/99,400 115,754 /99,087 1.15 1.17 1.0 >
Total-asset
turnover 36,600/258,300 36,990/258,157 .14 .14 0.5 <
Debt-to-
equity ratio 223,000/ 35,000 222,770/35,387 6.37 6.30 2.0<
Net profit
margin 3,750/36,990,000,000 423,000/36,600 0.0010138 1155.7 5 >
Return on
assets 3,750/258,300,000,000 423,000 /258,157 0.0000014 1.64 10 >
Shareholder
Equity 258,300-223,000 258,157-222,770 35,300 35,387
Return on
equity 423/35,300

3,750
/35,387,000,000 1.2 0.0001 10 >

The Ford Motor Company’s ratios demonstrate its financial health. According to the ratio
chart above the 2018 last quarter revealed a current ratio of 1.15, which is favorable, as it is
greater than one, and working capital was positive in both quarters revealing that Ford’s
liquidity is 1.5/1.7 times more assets than liabilities, and can meet its short-term obligations.
The automotive industry average is 1.58, which is slightly higher; therefore, Ford’s short-term
liabilities will take longer to settle than its average competitor (CSI Market Inc., 2019). The
total asset turnover ratio of 0.14; this means that for every dollar in assets generates $0.14 of
revenue. The ratio is below the industry standard of 1.02 (CSI Market Inc., 2019), which
indicates that Ford is less efficient than its competitors, revealing that it needs to invest more
to deliver more revenue. Ford’s leverage is high, as its debt-to-equity ratio is 6.37, revealing
that creditors’ funding is unequal to Ford’s input.

To determine profitability and efficiency, the following ratios and analysis will reveal the
effectiveness of management. Ford’s net profit margin (NPM) dropped from the third quarter
to the last quarter as the last quarter did not include an income tax benefit of 42 million,
revealing a NPM of $0.01, which means that Ford’s net income is less than one cent per dollar
of its revenue. Profitability ratios are ROA and ROE. The ROA was also below .01% which
means for every dollar the company invests, there is a less than 0 return; this is less than the
industry standard of 4.47% (CSI Market Inc., 2019). The ROE is the return that Ford earns on

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 12

its shareholder equity is 1.2%, which is considerably below the industry standard of 14.67%
(CSI Market Inc., 2019).

According to the estimated budget, the financial health of the Ford Motor Company is
weak, as many of the ratios are low, for the history of the company and below industry
standards. Ford’s asset turnover is low, creating a $0.86 revenue deficit for each dollar of
assets which reveals it cannot keep up with the efficiency of its competition. When comparing
Ford to the industry standards, the deficiency of its dollar declines to $0.88; this means that
Ford’s competition generates $0.88 more revenue. Ford’s debt is high, as for each dollar of
equity, there is $6.37 debt, and compared to the industry standard of $0.36, its debt is
exceptionally high, revealing that Ford’s debt management is abortive, as its competitors start
with a $6.01 lead. Ford’s profitability ratios are also low, revealing that it is not as efficient as
its competitors, as the return on equity is approximately $13.00 less than the industry
standards. Although the Ford Motor Company is the highest revenuing U. S. based company,
the industry standards show that it is not being managed well, and its financial health is
unsatisfactory. It is imperative that Ford creates an aggressive, comprehensive strategic plan or
its legacy will be just a memory.

Strategic Goals: Core Strategies and Tactics
Strategic Goals

In January of 2019, Ford committed to reforming global operations, as well as strengthen
North America (Ford Media Center, 2019). Ford has changed its strategy to generate more
sales globally by hiring a global advertising company and will put in place a tier two
advertising campaign. This will broadcast local deals in these regional global markets to bring
more attention to Ford’s already known brand. Another strategy that Ford will be focusing on,
is replacing its existing lineup in the U. S. and utilizing common parts between the different
models to streamline and reduce production time (Ford Motor Company, 2019c). Ford’s more
agile marketing model, restructuring production line, reducing inefficiencies, and offering
cutting-edge designs will increase revenue and decrease costs, and will transform its global
presence, and become the world’s most trusted company.

Today more than ever, people are trying to find ways to contribute to environmental
sustainability, and with Ford’s hybrids, electric vehicles, and smart cars, they will be able to
enjoy the performance while saving the planet. Ford estimates that during the 21st-century,
transportation will look very different from the traditional gas-fired automobiles of yesteryear
(Hughes-Cromwick, 2011). As environmental and atmospheric changes are developing, so too
is the influence society brings to decreasing the environmental impact of the people in the
world. Today technology is changing rapidly, but Ford has stepped across the finish line, as
according to the article Autonomous Vehicles (2019), “In 2018, Ford became the first
automotive manufacturer to pilot autonomous vehicles in Washington, D.C.” (para. 3), and is
working on electric cars as well as collaborating with Volkswagen to advance autonomous
vehicles (Autonomous Vehicles, 2019). Ford is now the first car mass producer and will be the
first in autonomous car production and has proven it has a competitive edge. Although they are
not in mass production autonomous vehicles and electric cars are the wave of the future, and
Ford, GM, FCA, and every other competitor is racing to the finish line.

FORD’S STRATEGIC PLAN 13

Prioritized Core Strategies

question

Campbell Essential Biology, Seventh Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Sixth Edition

Chapter 14

How Biological

Diversity Evolves

PowerPoint® Lectures created by Edward J. Zalisko, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

If Rocks Could Speak, What Would they Tell Us? Several Hundred Million Years of
History is “Written” in the Layers of Rock in the Grand Canyon

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

2

Biology and Society: Humanity’s Footprint (1 of 2)

Humanity has had an extraordinary effect on the ecology and geology of Earth.

Our indelible footprint includes

the transport of organisms far from their natural homes,

the prevalence of agriculture and domesticated animals,

the existence of manufactured materials such as plastics and concrete,

radioactivity from testing nuclear weapons, and

climate-altering emissions from burning fossil fuels.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

3

Biology and Society: Humanity’s Footprint (2 of 2)

The irreversibility of these changes has led some scientists to propose that a new epoch in Earth’s history has begun: the Anthropocene.

The Anthropocene signals a significant shift in the geologic record that includes a high rate of extinction and accelerating change to Earth.

Human-driven changes in the environment also bring about evolutionary change in populations of organisms, including pesticide-resistant insects and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

4

Tailings (Waste Residue) Dump from Mining Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

5

The Origin of Species

In the 150 years since the publication of Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, new discoveries and technological advances have given scientists a wealth of new information about the evolution of life.

The diversity of life evolved through speciation, the process in which one species splits into two or more species.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

6

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

A Marine Iguana (Right), An Example of the Unique Species Inhabiting the Galápagos

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7

7

What is a Species? (1 of 2)

Species is a Latin word meaning “kind” or “appearance.”

The biological species concept defines a species as “a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring (offspring that can reproduce).”

The biological species concept cannot be applied in all situations, including asexual organisms and fossils.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

The Biological Species Concept is Based on Reproductive Compatibility Rather than Physical Similarity

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

9

9

What is a Species? (2 of 2)

Biologists may also define a species

according to measurable physical traits,

solely on the basis of molecular data, a sort of bar code that identifies each species, or

as the smallest group of individuals sharing a common ancestor and forming one branch on the tree of life.

Checkpoint: According to the biological species concept, what defines a species?

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

10

Checkpoint response: the ability of its members to interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring in a natural setting

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

Reproductive Barriers Between Species

A reproductive barrier is anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding.

Prezygotic barriers prevent mating or fertilization between species.

Postzygotic barriers operate if

interspecies mating occurs and

hybrid zygotes form.

Checkpoint: Why is behavioral isolation considered a prezygotic barrier?

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

Checkpoint response: because it prevents mating and therefore the formation of a zygote

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

Reproductive Barriers Between Closely Related Species

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

12

Prezygotic Barriers

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

13

Postzygotic Barriers

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

14

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

15

15

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

17

Evolution: Mechanisms of Speciation

A key event in the origin of a species occurs when a population is somehow cut off from other populations of the parent species.

Species can form by

allopatric speciation, in which the initial block to gene flow is a geographic barrier that physically isolates the splinter population, or

sympatric speciation, without geographic isolation.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

18

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

Allopatric Speciation

A variety of geologic processes can isolate populations.

Speciation occurs with the evolution of reproductive barriers between the isolated population and its parent population.

Even if the two populations should come back into contact at some later time, the reproductive barriers will keep them as separate species.

Checkpoint: What is necessary for allopatric speciation to occur?

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

19

Checkpoint response: A population must be split into more than one group by a geographic barrier that interrupts gene flow between the two groups.

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they belong. As instructors of biology, it can become increasingly difficult to empathize with this perspective. To help ease students into the topic, consider pointing out that species of life do not reflect an even spectrum of diversity. Instead, there are many clear groups of related organisms (fungi, flowers, owls, sharks, beetles, butterflies, and frogs, for example). Ask students to consider why such clumping exists. Is it in any way due to the same reason that a particular human family is distinct from other families? This grouping of kinds, the existence of natural groups, is related to common ancestry.

Teaching Tips

1. Identify or have your students find several commonly recognized and related species of plants or animals in your area and find out what reproductive barriers keep these species from interbreeding. Local examples help to bring a point home.

2. The isolation of a few individuals from a parent population may result from a catastrophic weather or geologic event. Ask your students to think back to news footage of torrential rains, massive debris rocketing down a river, and the struggles of animals to haul themselves onto these rafts. Better yet, show them a short news clip of such an event. Dramatic weather and geologic events may be rare in our lifetimes, but they are frequent enough to play a role in speciation.

3. The silvery salamander, Ambystoma platineum, is a triploid, all-female species living in parts of the Midwestern United States. It is believed to have formed by the hybridization of two related species thousands of years ago. It is an unusual example of sympatric speciation in animals. The following website is a good starting point to learn more about this species: wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/collections/herps/data/ilspecies/am_platine/.

4. The abundance of polyploid plants used for food facilitates further study for student assignments. Perhaps small groups or individuals can select a polyploid crop and describe its evolutionary history and/or its current method of reproduction.

5. An analogy might be made between the specialized functions of finch beaks and the many types of screwdrivers (or pliers) that exist today. Each type of screwdriver (Phillips, flathead, hex, and so on) represents a specialization for a particular job or a generalist approach, useful in a variety of applications.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before lecturing about species concepts, have students work in small groups, without the benefit of books, to define a species. They might begin by simply creating a list of the properties of species.

Allopatric Speciation of Antelope Squirrels on Opposite Rims of the Grand Canyon

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

20

20

Possible Outcomes After Geographic Isolation of Populations

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

21

21

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

22

Sympatric Speciation (1 of 2)

In sympatric speciation, a new species arises within the same geographic area as its parent species.

Factors that can reduce gene flow in sympatric populations include

polyploidy, in which a species may originate from an accident during cell division that results in an extra set of chromosomes,

habitat complexity, and

sexual selection.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

23

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students may think that species evolve because of need. However, need has no role in biological evolution. Biological diversity exists and the environment selects. Evolution is not deliberate. It is reactive. Species do not deliberately change. There is no plan. As teachers, we must be careful in how we express evolution to best reflect this process. This use of the passive voice in our descriptions of evolution better reflects the nature of this fundamental process.

2. The concept of “sudden” in geologic terms is likely misunderstood. Events such as major floods, earthquakes, or asteroid impacts, which might be so rare as to occur every 1,000 years, are actually common in geologic terms. Students might not realize that 1,000 such “1 in a thousand” events would be expected to occur in a million years.

3. Students might not have considered how species are “naturally” kept separate and unique. Instead, students are more likely to consider species as fixed entities, especially the species to which they be

question

Campbell Essential Biology, Seventh Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Sixth Edition

Chapter 15

The Evolution of Microbial Life

PowerPoint® Lectures created by Edward J. Zalisko, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

This is Not a Hot Tub! Specialized Archaeans are the Only Form of Life that Can Survive in this Water

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

2

Biology and Society: Our Invisible Inhabitants (1 of 2)

Your body contains trillions of individual cells.

Microorganisms residing in and on your body

primarily live in your skin, mouth, and nasal passages, and digestive and urogenital tracts and

weigh between 2 and 5 pounds.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

3

Biology and Society: Our Invisible Inhabitants (2 of 2)

Scientists hypothesize that disrupting our microbial communities may

increase our susceptibility to infectious diseases,

predispose us to certain cancers, and

contribute to conditions such as

asthma and other allergies,

irritable bowel syndrome,

Crohn’s disease, and

autism.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

4

Colorized Scanning Electron Micrograph of Bacteria (Red) Nestled Among Ciliated Cells of a Human Small Intestine (7000x)

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

5

Major Episodes in the History of Life (1 of 3)

Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago.

Prokaryotes, having cells that lack true nuclei,

evolved by about 3.5 billion years ago,

began oxygen production about 2.7 billion years ago as a result of photosynthesis by autotrophic prokaryotes,

lived alone for about 1.7 billion years, and

continue in great abundance today.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often have difficulty grasping the enormity of time. Perhaps surprisingly, many students do not understand that a billion is a thousand times greater than a million! Exercises and examples that help students comprehend such large numbers should be considered, so that students can understand these tremendous periods for evolutionary diversification. Here are just a few examples to consider:

a. If an earthquake or volcano erupts just once every thousand years or so, how often will this event occur in a million years? (One thousand times.) Note that what is rare to us becomes “common” in geologic terms.

b. Have students calculate the age of a human when they reach their 1 billionth second of life. (Starting with birth, the answer is 31.688 years.) 1,000,000,000 (seconds) = 31.688 (years) × 365.25 (days in a year) × 24 (hours in a day) × 60 (minutes) × 60 (seconds).

c. Then have students calculate how long it takes to live 1,000,000 seconds. (About 11.574 days.)

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making some sort of timeline to scale in a hallway, long laboratory, or the side of the lecture hall. Mark these proportional periods: The full length of time is 4.6 billion years. The percentages below were calculated using the textbook’s approximate dates for each of these events.

0.0%—Earth forms.

13%—Earth’s crust solidifies.

24%—The first life appears.

41%—Photosynthetic prokaryotes start producing an oxygen-rich atmosphere.

54%—The first eukaryotes appear.

74%—The first multicellular eukaryotes appear.

89%—Plants first invade land.

0.004%—Our species appears.

2. Students may need to be reminded about the reactive properties of oxygen. Note that rust is the result of oxygen interacting with iron and could be seen in the fossil record. Oxygen is highly reactive and could interfere with life-forming chemical processes today.

Some Major Episodes in the History of Life

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7

7

Major Episodes in the History of Life (2 of 3)

Eukaryotes

are composed of one or more cells that contain nuclei and many other membrane-bound organelles absent in prokaryotic cells and

first evolved from a prokaryotic community, a host cell containing even smaller prokaryotes.

Mitochondria are descendants of smaller prokaryotes, as are the chloroplasts of plants and algae.

Multicellular eukaryotes first evolved at least 1.2 billion years ago.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often have difficulty grasping the enormity of time. Perhaps surprisingly, many students do not understand that a billion is a thousand times greater than a million! Exercises and examples that help students comprehend such large numbers should be considered, so that students can understand these tremendous periods for evolutionary diversification. Here are just a few examples to consider:

a. If an earthquake or volcano erupts just once every thousand years or so, how often will this event occur in a million years? (One thousand times.) Note that what is rare to us becomes “common” in geologic terms.

b. Have students calculate the age of a human when they reach their 1 billionth second of life. (Starting with birth, the answer is 31.688 years.) 1,000,000,000 (seconds) = 31.688 (years) × 365.25 (days in a year) × 24 (hours in a day) × 60 (minutes) × 60 (seconds).

c. Then have students calculate how long it takes to live 1,000,000 seconds. (About 11.574 days.)

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making some sort of timeline to scale in a hallway, long laboratory, or the side of the lecture hall. Mark these proportional periods: The full length of time is 4.6 billion years. The percentages below were calculated using the textbook’s approximate dates for each of these events.

0.0%—Earth forms.

13%—Earth’s crust solidifies.

24%—The first life appears.

41%—Photosynthetic prokaryotes start producing an oxygen-rich atmosphere.

54%—The first eukaryotes appear.

74%—The first multicellular eukaryotes appear.

89%—Plants first invade land.

0.004%—Our species appears.

2. Students may need to be reminded about the reactive properties of oxygen. Note that rust is the result of oxygen interacting with iron and could be seen in the fossil record. Oxygen is highly reactive and could interfere with life-forming chemical processes today.

Major Episodes in the History of Life (3 of 3)

The Cambrian explosion, about 541 million years ago, resulted in the evolution of all major animal body plans and all the major groups.

About 500 million years ago plants, fungi, and insects began to colonize the land.

At the end of the Mesozoic, 65 million years ago, flowering plants, birds, and mammals, including primates, began to dominate the landscape.

The origin of modern humans, Homo sapiens, occurred roughly 195,000 years ago.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

9

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often have difficulty grasping the enormity of time. Perhaps surprisingly, many students do not understand that a billion is a thousand times greater than a million! Exercises and examples that help students comprehend such large numbers should be considered, so that students can understand these tremendous periods for evolutionary diversification. Here are just a few examples to consider:

a. If an earthquake or volcano erupts just once every thousand years or so, how often will this event occur in a million years? (One thousand times.) Note that what is rare to us becomes “common” in geologic terms.

b. Have students calculate the age of a human when they reach their 1 billionth second of life. (Starting with birth, the answer is 31.688 years.) 1,000,000,000 (seconds) = 31.688 (years) × 365.25 (days in a year) × 24 (hours in a day) × 60 (minutes) × 60 (seconds).

c. Then have students calculate how long it takes to live 1,000,000 seconds. (About 11.574 days.)

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making some sort of timeline to scale in a hallway, long laboratory, or the side of the lecture hall. Mark these proportional periods: The full length of time is 4.6 billion years. The percentages below were calculated using the textbook’s approximate dates for each of these events.

0.0%—Earth forms.

13%—Earth’s crust solidifies.

24%—The first life appears.

41%—Photosynthetic prokaryotes start producing an oxygen-rich atmosphere.

54%—The first eukaryotes appear.

74%—The first multicellular eukaryotes appear.

89%—Plants first invade land.

0.004%—Our species appears.

2. Students may need to be reminded about the reactive properties of oxygen. Note that rust is the result of oxygen interacting with iron and could be seen in the fossil record. Oxygen is highly reactive and could interfere with life-forming chemical processes today.

The Origin of Life (1 of 2)

For the first several hundred million years of its existence, conditions on the young Earth were so harsh that it’s doubtful life could have originated, or if it did, it could not have survived.

Earth of 4 billion years ago was still violent.

Water vapor had condensed into oceans on the planet’s cooling surface.

Volcanic eruptions belched gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3) and other nitrogen compounds into its atmosphere.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

10

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

An Artist’s Rendition of Conditions on Early Earth

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

11

The Origin of Life (2 of 2)

Life is an emergent property that arises from the specific arrangement and interactions of its molecular parts. In this way, life is an example of interactions within systems.

To learn how life originated from nonliving substances, biologists draw on research from the fields of chemistry, geology, and physics.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

A Four-Stage Hypothesis for the Origin of Life

According to one hypothesis for the origin of life, the first organisms were products of chemical evolution in four stages:

synthesis of small organic molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotide monomers;

joining small molecules into macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids;

packaging these molecules into pre-cells; and

origin of self-replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

Stage 1: Synthesis of Organic Compounds (1 of 3)

The chemicals in Earth’s early atmosphere, such as water, methane, and ammonia, are all small, inorganic molecules.

In contrast, the structures and functions of life depend on more complex organic molecules, such as sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides, which are composed of the same elements.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

Stage 1: Synthesis of Organic Compounds (2 of 3)

The first stage in the origin of life was the first to be extensively studied in the laboratory.

In 1953, Stanley Miller devised an apparatus to simulate conditions of early Earth.

After the apparatus had run for a week, an abundance of organic molecules essential for life, including amino acids, the monomers of proteins, had collected in the “sea.”

Many laboratories have since repeated Miller’s experiment using various atmospheric mixtures and have also produced organic compounds.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

15

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

Apparatus Used to Simulate Early-Earth Chemistry in Urey and Miller’s Experiments

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16

16

Stage 1: Synthesis of Organic Compounds (3 of 3)

Scientists are testing other hypotheses for the origin of organic molecules on Earth, including

the hypothesis that life may have begun in submerged volcanoes or deep-sea hydrothermal vents and

the hypothesis that meteorites were the source of Earth’s first organic molecules.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

17

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

Stage 2: Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers

Once small organic molecules were present on Earth, how were they linked together to form polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids without the help of enzymes and other cellular equipment?

Researchers have brought about the polymerization of monomers to form polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids, by dripping solutions of organic monomers onto hot sand, clay, or rock.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

18

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh left in the open would apparently produce flies. At that time, little was understood about eggs, sperm, and fertilization, making spontaneous generation a logical conclusion.

2. The four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life is a little like building cells “from the bottom up.” If your students do not remember details about biological molecules and basic cell structure, you may need to review these principles before addressing the stages.

3. The inherent property of bipolar molecules such as phospholipids to naturally form double membranes or micelles is worth discussing with your class. Because of these properties, membranes naturally heal as the hydrophobic phospholipid tails and polar heads align.

4. Much of the remaining chapter is descriptive of the traits and habits of single-celled prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Students might benefit from developing a series of charts that allow them to quickly review the properties of various subgroups (for example, the shapes of bacteria, the major modes of nutrition, and the various prokaryote subgroups).

Active Lecture Tips

1. At some point in the presentation of the four-stage hypothesis for the origin of life, students should be challenged to work in pairs or small groups to consider at what point “life” exists. Are self-replicating, RNA-based, membrane-bound structures alive? Discussing the evolution of the first cells helps clarify definitions of life.

Stage 3: Formation of Pre-Cells

A key step in the origin of life would have been the isolation of a collection of organic molecules within a membrane.

Researchers have demonstrated that pre-cells could have formed spontaneously from fatty acids.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

19

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students might not have considered that cells today are not “created from scratch.” Unlike the way a cake is prepared, or an automobile is constructed, life today is not known to form by the assembly of raw materials in the production of new cells.

2. Students may think that scientists have answers for all of life’s questions. Thus, they may appreciate knowing that many questions are inappropriate for science. Matters of aesthetics, morals, and political issues are often addressed by other methods of thinking. Questions such as “Was Picasso a better artist than Rembrandt?” “How can we help homeless people?” and “Should abortion be illegal?” are examples. This might be a good time to further distinguish between the process of science and other ways of knowing.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider pointing out the logic of spontaneous generation given the knowledge at the time. Piles of manure and rotting flesh

question

Campbell Essential Biology, Seventh Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Sixth Edition

Chapter 16

The Evolution of Plants and Fungi

PowerPoint® Lectures created by Edward J. Zalisko, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

We’re Surrounded by Ancient Atoms. Burning Coal Releases CO2 Captured by Plants that Lived more than 300 Million Years Ago

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

2

Biology and Society: The Diamond of the Kitchen

Truffles are subterranean reproductive bodies of certain fungi and are highly prized by gourmets for their powerful earthy scent.

Truffles represent a mutually beneficial relationship between plants and fungi. The roots of most plants are surrounded by a finely woven web of fungal filaments.

The ultrathin fungal filaments absorb water and inorganic nutrients and pass them to the plant.

The plant supplies the fungus with sugars and other organic molecules.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

3

Black Truffles Ready to be Thinly Sliced or Grated for Some Lucky Diner

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

4

Colonizing Land

A plant is a multicellular eukaryote that carries out photosynthesis and has a set of adaptations for living on land.

Photosynthesis distinguishes plants from the animal and fungal kingdoms, which are also made up of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms.

Algae lack terrestrial adaptations and thus are classified as protists rather than plants.

Some plants live in water, but these aquatic plants evolved from terrestrial ancestors.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants

Living on land requires a special set of adaptations.

Bodies that were upright in the buoyant water go limp on land and soon shrivel in the drying air.

In addition, algae are not equipped to obtain carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis from the air.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Adaptations of the Plant Body (1 of 4)

Resources on land are found in different places:

Carbon dioxide is mainly available in the air and

Mineral nutrients and water are found in the soil.

Thus, the complex bodies of plants have organs specialized to function in these two environments.

Subterranean organs called roots anchor the plant in soil and absorb minerals and water from the soil.

Above ground, shoots are organ systems that consist of photosynthetic leaves supported by stems.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Structural Adaptations of Algae and Plants

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8

8

Adaptations of the Plant Body (2 of 4)

Roots typically have many fine branches that thread among the grains of soil, providing a large surface area that maximizes contact with mineral-bearing water in the soil—just one example of how plant organ systems exemplify the relationship between structure and function.

Most plants have symbiotic fungi associated with their roots. These root-fungus combinations, called mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”), enlarge the root’s functional surface area. Mycorrhizae are key adaptations that made it possible for plants to live on land.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

9

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic Associations of Fungi and Roots

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

10

10

Adaptations of the Plant Body (3 of 4)

Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs of most plants, utilizing

stomata, microscopic pores found on a leaf’s surface, for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere,

a waxy layer coating on the leaves and other aerial parts of most plants called the cuticle, helping the plant body retain water, and

vascular tissue, a network of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant, for the transport of vital materials between roots and shoots.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Adaptations of the Plant Body (4 of 4)

There are two types of vascular tissue.

One type is specialized for transporting water and minerals from roots to leaves.

The other distributes sugars from the leaves to the roots and other nonphotosynthetic parts of the plant.

The cell walls of many of the cells in vascular tissue are hardened by a chemical called lignin. The structural strength of lignified vascular tissue, otherwise known as wood, is amply demonstrated by its use as a building material.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Network of Vascular Tissue in a Leaf

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

13

Identifying Major Themes (1 of 3)

Roots typically have many fine branches that thread among the grains of soil, providing a large surface area that maximizes contact with mineral-bearing water in the soil.

Which major theme is illustrated by this action?

The relationship of structure to function

Information flow

Pathways that transform energy and matter

Interactions within biological systems

Evolution

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

Major Themes Answer – The Relationship of Structure to Function: The fine branches of roots increase the surface area, which facilitates absorption of necessary resources.

Identifying Major Themes (2 of 3)

Vascular tissue was an adaptation that allowed ferns to colonize a greater variety of habitats than mosses.

Which major theme is illustrated by this action?

The relationship of structure to function

Information flow

Pathways that transform energy and matter

Interactions within biological systems

Evolution

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

15

Major Themes Answer—Evolution: Natural selection led to the development of vascular systems in ferns, giving them an advantage in a variety of habitats. This could also be an example of the relationship of structure to function because vascular tissue functions to move materials throughout the plant.

Reproductive Adaptations (1 of 2)

Adapting to land also required a new mode of reproduction.

For the protist algae, water ensures that gametes (sperm and eggs) and developing offspring stay moist.

Water also provides a means of dispersing the gametes and offspring.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the needs of living on land. Instead, variations of existing traits were favored by the special conditions of terrestrial environments.

2. The text identifies charophytes as the algal group most closely related to plants. Students might misinterpret this to mean that modern charophytes were the direct ancestors of plants. Instead, modern charophytes and plants share a common ancestor, but each has been evolving since the lineages diverged. This same confusion occurs when considering the evolutionary history of humans and chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor. Modern humans did not evolve from modern chimpanzees. Although such distinctions may be clear to us as instructors, beginning students with little experience can easily be confused.

Teaching Tips

1. Consider making a connection between water lilies and whales, because both are aquatic organisms that evolved from terrestrial forms. Students might contemplate the changes in both of these organisms as they returned to the aquatic environment from which their ancestors emerged.

2. Point out to your students that in an aquatic environment, resources (such as nutrients and water) are exposed to nearly the entire plant. However, on land, structural specializations have evolved because resources are no longer evenly exposed to the plant (roots are subterranean adaptations and shoots are aerial adaptations).

3. Consider an analogy between vascular systems in plants and a major interstate highway, with traffic running in opposite directions. Highways, like vascular tissues, permit the widespread distribution of concentrated resources.

Active Lecture Tips

1. Before addressing plant evolution, have your students work in small groups and list the demands of living on land versus in water. Ask students to consider the challenges that plants faced when they moved onto land. Such reflections prepare your students for the discussion of the resulting adaptations in Chapter 16.

2. Have your students work in pairs or small groups to discuss the specific advantages of similar adaptations in the reproductive systems of plants and mammals. What are the advantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: The embryonic environment can be carefully regulated by the parent and the parent can better protect the young from damage, disease, or predation.) What are the disadvantages to keeping the developing embryos with the parent? (Possible answer: All of the embryos are concentrated and collectively jeopardized if the parent plant is harmed or killed.)

Reproductive Adaptations (2 of 2)

Plants, however, must keep their gametes and developing offspring from drying out in the air and produce their gametes in a structure that allows them to develop without dehydrating.

The egg remains within tissues of the mother plant and is fertilized there.

In plants, but not algae, the zygote (fertilized egg) develops into an embryo while still contained within the female parent, which protects the embryo and keeps it from dehydrating.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

17

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students often misunderstand evolution as a deliberate and directed process. This chapter provides good examples of how evolution actually occurs. For example, American chestnut trees were driven nearly to extinction because they did not possess the adaptations that would have helped them to survive a blight fungus. If evolution involved acquiring needed adaptations, why then would the chestnuts suffer? As plants evolved onto land, the properties of a terrestrial environment selected among the diversity of the species that existed. For example, plants that produced leaves with more wax had the advantage of greater water retention. Plants did not evolve adaptations to address the nee

question

Campbell Essential Biology, Seventh Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Sixth Edition

Chapter 17

The Evolution of Animals

PowerPoint® Lectures created by Edward J. Zalisko, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

Are You 100% Homo Sapiens? According to Recent DNA Analysis, Many of Us Have a Bit of Neanderthal in Our Genes

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

2

Biology and Society: Evolving Adaptability (1 of 2)

What makes humans such successful animals?

Much of our success is due to brain power.

The ratio of brain volume to body mass in humans is roughly 2.5 times the brain volume to body mass ratio in chimpanzees, our closest primate relatives.

The part of our brain that deals with problem solving, language, logic, and understanding other people is particularly well developed.

Although body size has remained roughly the same for about the last 1.5 million years of human evolution, brain size has increased by about 40%.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

3

Biology and Society: Evolving Adaptability (2 of 2)

Other species can fly, breathe underwater, or produce millions of offspring in their lifetimes, but none can match our ability to learn and change our behavior.

Humans are just one of the 1.3 million species of animals named and described by biologists.

This amazing diversity arose through hundreds of millions of years of evolution as natural selection shaped animal adaptations to Earth’s many environments.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

4

Comparison of Human and Chimpanzee Skulls, Showing a Large Difference in Brain Size

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

5

The Origins of Animal Diversity: What is an Animal?

Animal life began in Precambrian seas with the evolution of multicellular creatures that ate other organisms.

Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organisms that obtain nutrients by eating, and are able to digest the food within their bodies.

Animal cells lack the cell walls that provide strong support in the bodies of plants and fungi.

Most animals have muscle cells for movement and nerve cells that control the muscles.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

Nutrition by Ingestion, the Animal Way of Life

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7

7

What is an Animal?

Most animals

are diploid,

reproduce sexually, and

proceed through basic stages found in most animal life cycles.

In a sea star life cycle, the larva undergoes a major change of body form, called metamorphosis, in becoming an adult capable of reproducing sexually.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

The Life Cycle of a Sea Star as an Example of Animal Development

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

9

9

Early Animals and the Cambrian Explosion (1 of 3)

Scientists hypothesize that animals evolved from a colonial flagellated protist.

Although molecular data point to a much earlier origin, the oldest animal fossils that have been found are about 560 million years old.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

10

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

Hypothetical Common Ancestor of Animals

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

11

Fossils of Precambrian Animals

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

12

Early Animals and the Cambrian Explosion (2 of 3)

Animal diversification appears to have accelerated rapidly from 525 to 535 million years ago, during the Cambrian period.

Because so many animal body plans and new phyla appear in the fossils from such an evolutionarily short time span, biologists call this episode the Cambrian explosion.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

Early Animals and the Cambrian Explosion (3 of 3)

What ignited the Cambrian explosion?

Scientists have proposed several hypotheses, including increasingly complex predator-prey relationships and an increase in atmospheric oxygen.

But whatever the cause of the rapid diversification, it is likely that the set of “master control” genes—the genetic framework of information flow for building complex bodies—was already in place.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

A Cambrian Seascape

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

15

15

Identifying Major Themes (1 of 3)

It is likely that the set of “master control” genes that allow building complex bodies was in place before rapid diversification.

Which major theme is illustrated by this action?

The relationship of structure to function

Information flow

Pathways that transform energy and matter

Interactions within biological systems

Evolution

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16

Major Themes Answer—Information flow: The information needed to direct the development of diverse body forms is contained in DNA, which is transmitted between generations.

Animal Phylogeny (1 of 2)

Historically, biologists have categorized animals by “body plan,” general features of body structure.

Distinctions between body plans were used to construct phylogenetic trees showing the evolutionary relationships among animal groups.

More recently, a wealth of genetic data has allowed evolutionary biologists to modify and refine groups.

A major branch point in animal evolution distinguishes sponges from all other animals based on structural complexity. Unlike more complex animals, sponges lack tissues, groups of similar cells that perform a function.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

17

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

An Overview of Animal Phylogeny

Checkpoint: In the phylogeny shown to the right, chordates are most closely related to which other animal phylum?

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

18

18

Checkpoint response: Echinoderms

Animal Phylogeny (2 of 2)

A second major evolutionary split is based on body symmetry.

Radial symmetry refers to animals that are identical all around a central axis.

Bilateral symmetry exists where there is only one way to split the animal into equal halves.

The evolution of body cavities also helped lead to more complex animals. A body cavity is a fluid-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

19

Student Misconceptions and Concerns

1. Students struggle to think through the requirements of invertebrates and to consider them as animals with basic needs. It is intellectually challenging to see the similarities between an earthworm and a bird or a tick and a cat. The common features of animals addressed at the start of Chapter 17 can be expanded to include the needs for oxygen, nourishing food, a tolerable environment, and a suitable habitat to reproduce, applied to animals representing all of the major phyla. Illustrating these common demands can help to build the intellectual foundations that can be so difficult to fully comprehend.

Teaching Tips

1. Depending on what chapters you have included to this point in your course, you might consider carefully examining the defining traits common to all animals. Consider challenging your students to identify at least one characteristic of each of the other kingdoms in the domain Eukarya that is distinctly different from animals.

2. You might wish to share the now somewhat famous quote of Lewis Wolpert, who in 1986 said, “It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.” The development and arrangement of the basic embryonic layers (ectoderm forming skin and nervous system, mesoderm forming muscle and bone, and endoderm forming the digestive tract) establish the basic body plan.

3. Your students might enjoy discussing whether or not they are larvae and if they can be said to go through metamorphosis. (No, to both questions.)

4. The website of the University of California Museum of Paleontology is an excellent resource in support of evolution and the history of life. The following portion of that website specifically addresses the Cambrian period: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html.

Active Lecture Tips

1. When considering animals in general, students are typically biased toward vertebrate examples. As a thought exercise, consider starting your first lecture on animal diversity by asking students to write down the name of the very first type of animal that comes to their minds, without giving it any extra thought. Depending upon your class size, either tabulate their responses quickly or have students raise their hands to indicate the type of animal they chose. In general, fewer than 5% (often fewer than 1%) of my students have thought of an invertebrate. This exercise makes the point that what we tend to think of, when we think of animals, is vertebrates. Many of us have had a dog, cat, or other vertebrate for a pet. Yet more than 95% of all known species of animals are invertebrates. The content in Chapter 17 should help expand students’ understanding of what it means to be an animal.

2. Before addressing the subject of animal symmetry, ask your students to work in pairs and try to list the adaptive advantages of radial versus bilateral symmetry found in animals. This sort of comparison raises an opportunity to make some larger points about biology. There is no one best animal. Each form, each adaptation, and each body plan has advantages and disadvantages. The value of adaptations is relative to the organism’s environment. Most adaptations represent a compromise.

Body Symmetry

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

20

20

Body Plans of Bilateral Animals

Copyright © 2021 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

21

21

Major Invertebrate Phyla: Sponges

Invertebrates are animals without backbones and represent 95% of the animal kingdom.

Sponges (phylum Porifera)

are stationary animals,

lack true tissues, and

probably evolved very early from colonial protists.

The body of a sponge resembles a sac perforated with holes. Choanocyte cells move water through the pores into a central cavity and then out of the sponge through a larger opening.

Copyrig

Question

Module 11 Lab Assignment – Documentation of Complete Head to Toe Physical Assessment

Module 11 Lab Assignment – Documentation of Complete Head to Toe Physical Assessment

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Module 11 Content

1.

Top of Form

You completed your full head-to-toe assessment skills demonstration last week and now will document your results. Continue to document only the objective findings for this section without bias or explanation. Remember if you can’t feel something then it is “nonpalpable,” if you can’t hear something just state they were not heard such as no bowel sounds heard (unless you listened for the full five minutes which we wouldn’t want to do for our purposes – then you could document absent bowel sounds). Be descriptive if necessary but at the same time be brief.

Complete Head-to-Toe Physical Assessment Assignment.docx

Submit your completed assignment by following the directions linked below. Please check the 
Course Calendar
 for specific due dates.

Bottom of Form

Title:

Documentation of the complete head to toe physical assessment.

Purpose of Assignment:

To demonstrate the ability to document the findings of an objective head to toe assessment and identify abnormal findings.

Course Competency:

Demonstrate physical examination skills of the skin, hair, nails, and musculoskeletal system.

Prioritize appropriate assessment techniques for the gastrointestinal, breasts, and genitourinary systems.

Demonstrate physical examination skills of the head, ears, and eyes, nose, mouth, neck, and regional lymphatics.

Apply assessment techniques for the neurological and respiratory systems.

Select appropriate physical examination skills for the cardiovascular and peripheral vascular systems.

Instructions:

Content:

· Objective findings including short descriptive paragraph of findings for each section.

· Actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Format:

· Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.)

Resources:

Chapter 5: SOAP Notes: The subjective and objective portion only

Sullivan, D. D. (2012). Guide to clinical documentation. [E-Book]. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=495456&site=eds-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_91

Smith, L. S. (2001, September). Documentation do’s and don’ts. Nursing, 31(9), 30. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=107055742&site=eds-live

Documentation Grading Rubric- 20 possible points

Levels of Achievement

Criteria

Emerging

Competence

Proficiency

Mastery

Objective

(16 Pts)

Missing components of assessment for particular system. May contain subjective data. May have signs of bias or explanation of findings. May have included words such as “normal”, “appropriate”,
“okay”, and “good”.

Failure to provide any objective data will result in zero points for this criterion.

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Lacks detail. Uses words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. Contains all objective information. May have signs of bias or explanation of findings.

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Avoided use of words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. No bias or explanation for findings evident Contains all objective information

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Detailed information provided. Avoided use of words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. No bias or explanation for findings evident. All objective information

Points: 11

Points: 14

Points: 15

Points: 16

Actual or Potential Risk Factors (4 Pts)

Lists one to two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with no description or reason for selection of them. Failure to provide any potential or actual risk factors will result in zero points for this criterion.

Brief description of one or two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Limited description of two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Comprehensive, detailed description of two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Points: 1

Points: 2

Points: 3

Points: 4

Points: 12

Points: 16

Points: 18

Points: 20

Question

 Increasingly, daily teamwork is required for most roles within an organization but should all work be teamwork? Considering the challenges of teamwork described in the readings in this unit, contrast the work that is best completed in teams with the work best provided by individual contributors. How might a manager effectively divide work between teams and individuals? 

  • 10

Question

PRAC 6541: FNP Clinical Procedures Self-Assessment Form

Procedure

Confident (Can complete independently)

Mostly confident (Can complete with supervision)

Beginning (Have performed with supervision or need supervision to feel confident)

New (Have never performed or does not apply)

Cerumen Impaction Removal (irrigation and curette)

Fluorescein Staining

Corneal Foreign Body Removal

Wood’s Light Examination

Epistaxis management/nasal packing

Remove Foreign Body (ear, eye, nose, soft tissue, other)

EKG Lead Placement and Interpretation

Peak flow meter Measurements

Pulmonary Function Tests

Burn Treatment/dressing

Cryotherapy

Shave Biopsy

Punch Biopsy

Suturing

– Simple Interrupted Sutures and Suture Removal

Staple Placement

Skin Adhesive Placement

Toenail Avulsion

Incision and Drainage

Subungual Hematoma Evacuation

Skin Tag Removal

Wart destruction/removal

Wound Care

Wound Debridement

Steri Strip Application

Tick Removal

KOH skin slide for fungus

Hemorrhoid, excision of thrombus

Local/Field Block for Anesthesia

Digital Block for Anesthesia

Trigger Point Injection

Joint Injection

Splinting

Basic microscopy (yeast, BV)

Contraceptive Placement (Long term)

IUD Placement and Removal

Summary of strengths:

Opportunities for growth:

Now, write three to four (3–4) possible goals and objectives for this practicum experience. Ensure that they follow the SMART Strategy, as described in the Learning Resources.

© 2020 Walden University 1

Question

Module 10 Lab Assignment – Documentation of an Examination of the Peripheral Vascular System

Module 10 Lab Assignment – Documentation of an Examination of the Peripheral Vascular System

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Module 10 Content

1.

Top of Form

You will perform a history of a peripheral vascular problem that your instructor has provided you or one that you have experienced and perform a peripheral vascular assessment. You will document your subjective and objective findings, identify actual or potential risks, and submit this in a Word document to the drop box provided.

Peripheral Vascular System Assignment

Submit your completed assignment by following the directions linked below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document. (Mac users, please remember to append the “.docx” extension to the filename.) The name of the file should be your first initial and last name, followed by an underscore and the name of the assignment, and an underscore and the date. An example is shown below:

Title:

Documentation of problem based assessment of the peripheral vascular system.

Purpose of Assignment:

Learning the required components of documenting a problem based subjective and objective assessment of peripheral vascular system. Identify abnormal findings.

Course Competency:

Select appropriate physical examination skills for the cardiovascular and peripheral vascular systems.

Instructions:

Content: Use of three sections:

0. Subjective

0. Objective

0. Actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with no description or reason for selection of them.

Format:

1. Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.)

Resources:

Chapter 5: SOAP Notes: The subjective and objective portion only

Sullivan, D. D. (2012). Guide to clinical documentation. [E-Book]. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=495456&site=eds-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_91 >

Smith, L. S. (2001, September). Documentation do’s and don’ts. Nursing, 31(9), 30. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=107055742&site=eds-live >

Documentation Grading Rubric- 10 possible points

Levels of Achievement

Criteria

Emerging

Competence

Proficiency

Mastery

Subjective

(4 Pts)

Missing components such as biographic data, medications, or allergies. Symptoms analysis is incomplete. May contain objective data.

Basic biographic data provided. Medications and allergies included. Symptoms analysis incomplete. Lacking detail. No objective data.

Basic biographic data provided. Included list of medications and allergies. Symptoms analysis: PQRSTU completed. Lacking detail. No objective data. Information is solely what “client” provided.

Basic biographic data provided. Included list of medications and allergies. Symptoms analysis: PQRSTU completed. Detailed. No objective data. Information is solely what “client” provided.

Points: 1

Points: 2

Points: 3

Points: 4

Objective

(4 Pts)

Missing components of assessment for particular system. May contain subjective data. May have signs of bias or explanation of findings. May have included words such as “normal”, “appropriate”,
“okay”, and “good”.

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Lacks detail. Uses words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. Contains all objective information. May have signs of bias or explanation of findings.

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Avoided use of words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. No bias or explanation for findings evident Contains all objective information

Includes all components of assessment for particular system. Detailed information provided. Avoided use of words such as “normal”, “appropriate”, or “good”. No bias or explanation for findings evident. All objective information

Points: 1

Points: 2

Points: 3

Points: 4

Actual or Potential Risk Factors

(2 pts)

Lists one to two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with no description or reason for selection of them. Failure to provide any potential or actual risk factors will result in zero points for this criterion.

Brief description of one or two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Limited description of two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Comprehensive, detailed description of two actual or potential risk factors for the client based on the assessment findings with description or reason for selection of them.

Points: 0.5

Points: 1

Points: 1.5

Points: 2

Bottom of Form

Question

https://fiu.instructure.com/courses/123374/files/19942239/preview

Prompt question: From the recommendations provided in the article under the learning materials, which one do you believe will be the most feasible and effective? You can discuss more than one policy.

1,000 Words

Question

Discussion Question:

Discuss the following: 

1. In today’s economy, there are powerful companies who in all appearances control massive segments of different markets.  Using the NEXIS-Uni Legal Database or the FTC website below, research and provide one company and case in the last five years that has (or might have) have engaged in anti-competitive behavior.  Explain why the activity is anti-competitive OR, if the case was litigated and the court found otherwise, why not? (Do not write on Amazon, Google, Facebook, Qualcomm, Samsung or Apple – try to find a local company in your home state).  

Nexis-Uni link: https://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://www.nexisuni.com

 

Federal Trade Commission: Cases and Proceedings: Advanced Search | Federal Trade Commission (ftc.gov)

 

2. Identify and explain what Horizontal restraint of trade is and Vertical restraint of trade from the chapter reading and provide what type of action your example above exhibits.  Substantiate your response.

Sample Answer:

Case: 

Cereceres v. City of Baldwin Park, 2020 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 6902

Facts:

· In 2016, voters in California approved Proposition 64, a bill that allowed the Legislature enactment of the Medical and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act.

· Proposition 64 allows for cultivation, distribution, transport, storage, manufacturing, processing, and sales of medical and recreational cannabis that must be controlled and regulated.

· The City of Baldwin Park adopted a development agreement with Rukli, Inc. (taxicab company), a license to transport cannabis in that City. It will require all other cannabis licenses in the City to use Rukli, Inc. to transport cannabis.

Plaintiff Argued:

· The Appellant has a petition and argued that the City uses zoning to grant Rukli a monopoly.

Defendant Argued:

· Rukli Inc was granted the exclusive right to operate a cannabis transportation business by the City officials because it was deemed the safer route by using one distributor. Rukli tracks all deliveries and works closely with law enforcement to ensure no illegal activity is occurring.

Trial Court (Outcome)

· The Judgement is affirmed. The Respondent the City is awarded its costs on appeal. Therefore, the Act approved does not prohibit Anti-Competitive conduct by cities (1).

 

My Opinion:

· I have mixed feelings about this case. On the one hand, the City knows it is safer to use one distributor instead of other organizations. However, I do agree that this situation can appear to be monopolizing. Using only one company, such as Rukli Inc., as a cannabis distributor eliminates any other competition in this industry (transportation and distribution), especially in a big city like Los Angeles. 

 

In the class readings, two types of trades discussed are horizontal restraint and vertical restraint of trade. First, horizontal restraint of trade is designed to lessen competition among a firm’s competitors (2). I believe horizontal restraint trade was used in my case. The City only approved one distributor of cannabis, which automatically eliminates other competition. Last, you have vertical restraint of trade, which involves getting products from their creation to their ultimate consumer (2). An example of this type of trade is price discrimination, which is the same product sold at different prices depending on the market and location.

 

 

1. Cereceres v. City of Baldwin Park, 2020 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 6902, 2020 WL 6157825 (Court of Appeal of California, Second Appellate District, Division FourOctober 21, 2020, Opinion Filed). 
https://advance-lexis-com.libdatab.strayer.edu/api/document?collection=cases&id=urn:contentItem:6145-2D71-FJDY-X1D6-00000-00&context=1516831

 

2. Marianne Jennings. (2018). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment (11th ed.). Cengage

QUESTION

Answer the questions below according to the instructions given. Please note that responses to BOTH questions must be included in the same submission in order for your examination to be graded; otherwise, it will be returned to you for revision.

1. Write a composition using one of the topics listed below. Your composition needs to be three to five paragraphs long. It must contain an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.

For the purpose of this examination, 
sport
 is defined as “an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment without a predetermined outcome.” If you choose to explain why a certain sport is your favorite, please ensure that the chosen sport fits this definition.

• Argue for or against the limitation of speed limits.
• Explain why a certain sport is your favorite.
• Compare and contrast driving in the winter and driving in the summer.
• Describe a SINGLE memorable day in your life. 

Question

Prior to completing this assignment, review your prior research and course submissions related to the company you selected for research in Week 2’s Environmental Scanning interactive assignment. Ensure that you have incorporated the feedback you received from your previous submissions. In your Final Project this week, you will pull the various elements you’ve created together to aid your creation of a Strategic Plan. From the perspective of an executive with the firm, your supervisor has tasked you with creating a strategic plan to grow the business over the next three years using this  Download Strategic Plan Templateand here is an   Download Example Strategic Planusing the template. Continue to access the Mergent University of Arizona Global Campus Library online database which offers company financials, descriptions, history, property, subsidiaries, officers, and directors and the Business  Insights database. (View the Getting Started With Mergent  Download Getting Started With Mergent and Business Insights: Global (Links to an external site.) documents for suggested methods of searching University of Arizona Global Campus Library databases generally as well as specific advice for searching these two databases).

Your strategic plan must be future-oriented and must

  • Describe the company, the company’s history and its 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion).
  • Examine the company’s mission statement and assess its impact on the organization’s activities.
  • Explain the current situation of the organization in the market (industry, market, and general environment analysis).
  • Add your SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) of your chosen company here. Evaluate areas that offer opportunities for
    • Choose three or four areas from your SWOT analysis and assess why the areas you have chosen are essential to your strategic plan
  • Summarize the results of your Environmental Scan and Porter’s 5 Forces.
    • Evaluate the degree to which they aid in conceptualizing the company’s competitive position in its marketplace.
  • Assess the company’s international performance in light of Cultural Barriers, Monetary Exchange Rates, and Political Instability.
  • Assess the financial performance and condition of the
  • Operational budget: Research and assess the company’s operational budget.
  • Assess the performance in terms of key performance indicators.
  • In your analysis, be sure to include profitability ratios relevant to your analysis.
    • Debt to Equity ratio
    • Debt to Assets ratio
  • Based on the data, evaluate the overall current financial condition of the company.
    • Support your analysis by referring to the company data
    • Create a three year end trend analysis
  • Assess how your Operational Budget analysis affects your three-year strategic plan.
  • Recommend an organizational structure in terms of the organizational design as defined in Abraham (2012) section 2.6.
  • Assess the impact of the strategic plan on the organizational culture.
  • Strategic Goals: Create measurable core strategic goals for each of the three to four areas addressed from the SWOT analysis, addressing any contingencies associated with the strategies you are recommending and prioritizing them according to ease of achievement and time to completion.
  • Recommend marketing positions and opportunities for growth in your strategic plan
  • Add specific language to the strategic plan that addresses the company’s Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Explain your plan to measure the success of your strategic plan
  • Submit the Strategic Plan to the instructor.

The Final Paper

question

The case used in this week’s Discussion will provide an awareness of the difficulties and possible criteria that a manager may use in making termination decisions.

For this week’s Discussion:

· Read “Exercise: Which Employee Should Be Terminated?” on pages 91–92 of Nkomo, Fottler, and McAfee.(directly below)

· Locate at least one external resource from the Walden Library or the Internet to aid you in making a decision in the case.  

· Select one employee from the case to be terminated.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 3 the name of the employee you have chosen to dismiss and a substantive explanation (at least 250 words) why you have chosen to dismiss the employee. Within your explanation, identify the equal opportunity laws involved in the case, and address how they impacted your decision. Explain the legal issues involved in the case and how they impacted your decision. Justify your choice with specific citations from the Learning Resources and any additional sources.

CASE

28 Exercise: Which Employee Should Be Terminated?

I. Objectives

A. To make you aware of the difficulties involved in making termination decisions.

B. To familiarize you with possible criteria a manager can use in making termination decisions.

C. To give you practice in conducting termination interviews.

II. Out-of-Class Preparation Time: 10 minutes to read exercise and decide which employee should be terminated

III. In-Class Time Suggested: 40–50 minutes

IV. Procedures

Either at the beginning of or before class, you should read the exercise and determine which title examiner should be terminated. This exercise requires that groups determine which company employee should be terminated. To start the exercise, the instructor will ask five students to play the role of title examiners. One will play the role of Rick Feinberg, another the role of Jeff Simon, and so on. These individuals will be asked to leave the classroom and prepare to play their roles. They should study carefully the material contained in this exercise and determine how to respond if, in fact, they are the one chosen to be terminated.

The instructor will divide the remaining students into groups of four to six. Each group should develop a list of criteria for layoffs/termination, and rank the title examiners from first to go to last to go. After the group has reached a consensus, it should select one spokesperson to communicate the decision to the title examiner who is to be terminated.

After all groups have finished performing the preceding tasks, the role play begins. One at a time, each group’s spokesperson announces to the class which title examiner his or her group believes should be terminated. The instructor then brings that person into the room and asks him or her to sit down at the front of the class. The spokesperson sits down opposite the title examiner, tells that person that he or she is terminated, and gives the rationale behind the decision. The title examiner then responds in any realistic way that he or she deems appropriate. This process continues until all groups’ spokespersons have had an opportunity to present their decision. A critique of the role plays and a discussion of the difficulties involved in terminating an employee should then follow.

Situation

The Stanton Title Insurance Company was founded in 1964 by Harvey Stanton to sell title insurance policies to buyers of real estate. The company works closely with a group of about 35 lawyers who, although they do not actually buy the title insurance policies, encourage their clients (the property purchasers) to do so. When the company was originally established, Stanton was its only employee. As company sales increased, new employees were hired, and now 23 individuals are working in various capacities for the firm. Stanton has always followed the policy of making all major decisions himself. This includes all personnel decisions such as determining who should be hired and how much they should be paid.

Five of the employees work primarily on examining titles at local government offices. In recent weeks, Stanton has noticed that the workload of these five employees has declined considerably. In part, this is due to the recent election of three “no-growth” candidates to the city council. In addition, a competing firm has recently opened an office in town and is successfully taking away business. Stanton has reluctantly decided that he must terminate the employment of one of the title examiners. He simply cannot transfer one of them to a new position. His only question is, which one?

A summary of Harvey’s evaluation of each title examiner is in Exhibit 2.4; a profile of each of the five title examiners appears below.

EXHIBIT 2.4: Harvey’s Evaluation of Individual Job Performance for Title Examiners for Last Year

Title Examiner

Current Salary

Work Quality

Work Quantity

Knowledge of Job

Dependability

Cooperativeness

Rick Feinberg

$56,500

Excellent

Good

Excellent

Good

Poor

José Sanchez

$32,000

Good

Good

Fair

Excellent

Excellent

Kathy Wallace

$36,500

Good

Fair

Good

Fair

Excellent

Doris Matthews

$45,000

Poor

Good

Excellent

Good

Good

Anthony Pope

$50,200

Good

Poor

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent


Rick Feinberg: 45 years old; white; married with three children; 20 years with the company; graduated from a community college; knows how to resolve difficult title policies due to his extensive experience; is difficult to get along with; antagonizes other employees at main office; hates to fill out company reports not related to title examination and refuses to do so on occasion; will not work overtime under any condition, which puts a burden on others.

José Sanchez: 23 years old; Latino; married; attending college; one year with the company; wife works at main office as a computer programmer; works very hard and is eager to learn; well-liked by all employees and is highly dependable; is never absent and will gladly work overtime to meet emergencies; with more experience, he should be an outstanding title examiner; is highly loyal and dedicated; moved recently to a new apartment across the street from the government office where he works.

Kathy Wallace: 24 years old; single; college degree; African-American; working on MBA at night; three years with company; well-liked by employees; very active in community affairs; capable of moving up to a top management position with the company; often misses work due to school and community activities.

Doris Matthews: 36 years old; married; white; attended community college but did not graduate; ten years with company; niece of Harvey Stanton; has had eye problems and headaches, which affected work quality this year and may continue to do so; has been very helpful in getting new business for the company; is well-known and highly respected by law firms.

Anthony Pope: 63 years old; white; 15 years with company; no college; hard working and well-liked by employees; three children in college; a solid, stable employee who is able to remain calm and solve problems in crisis situations; excellent at resolving conflicts between employees; well-known to local government officials; very slow but highly accurate worker.

Page 1 of 3

Question

Please use APA style formatting.

Question 1

The network below belongs to a small-sized pharmaceutical company researching vaccines. The methods and products developed in this company are at the target of state-sponsored hacker groups.

Although database server is the primary critical asset that stores intellectual property and webserver is used to access the data by authorized users from the Internet, the attack surface includes all of the assets you see in the figure.

Assets (Attack surface): Database server, user workstations, internal & DMZ switch, Webserver, DNS server, firewall, router, and company employees.

As a result, hackers have been trying all possible ways of exploiting vulnerabilities in these assets. Moreover, the activities of internal employees should also be observed, and it should be confirmed that they follow the need-to-know principle and don’t perform malicious activities.

Select one of the following monitoring tools that also have strong network security monitoring capabilities. Please carefully review the website of the software you chose.

1. Nagios

2. Cacti

3. Solarwinds

Explain how this network monitoring tool helps security administrators in detecting the following cases. Feel free to provide the names of the modules/plugins/agents of the selected tool. Select at least three attack case for your answer.

1) Hackers are scanning externally visible IP addresses of the company.

2) Hackers are performing vulnerability scanning of the web applications hosted on the webserver.

3) Hackers are trying to poison the cache of the DNS server.

4) Internal threats are installing malicious tools on their computers.

5) Internal threats are trying to access/dump/backup database.

6) Internal threats are launching man-in-the-middle (Arp cache poisoning) attack.

7) Intenral threats are accessing external malicious websites.

Question 2

You are the security administrator of this network; please draft a network operational procedure that lists the steps of discovering one of the three malicious behaviors you selected in the previous question. You can conduct research of existing procedures on the web.

Question

The treatment of mentally ill patients can drastically differ based on factors such as race, age, socioeconomic status? Pick a factor (age, race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomuc status)  and elaborate on how you think it might impact the treatment of a patient? In your response include one real life example, from an academic source (cite your source). 

Do you think people can prevent the onset of mental illnesses such as depression and  anxiety, if they are in tune with their body/self, elaborate?

Question

Hello, Can you help the fix the errors that I have in my lesson plan and in my reflection ( linked below). When you open the links, you can see the notes about what I have to. fix missing parts no gramma.

https://acrobat.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn:aaid:scds:US:bbb2378d-6cc0-48c6-965b-51d8cd6b8a0f

https://acrobat.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn:aaid:scds:US:93951c7f-0431-4d57-adec-03dbdcd98db5

Question

300 words minimum, single space

 Start this discussion by searching the internet for authoritative references regarding formal instructional presentations. Discuss some or all of the following: (a) Length, (b) use of PowerPoint slides, (c) do’s and don’t’s of an effective presentation, and (d) effective slide design.  

Question

 

Introduction

What is the objective or purpose in practicing how to paraphrase properly and learning how to annotate?

Results and Interpretation

Explain how you will apply proper paraphrasing skills as you write annotated bibliographies and other papers throughout this course.

What value did annotating a peer-reviewed academic journal article bring to your own understanding of individual behavior and how will this advanced effectiveness in your management practice?

Conclusion

How would you assess your current skill level in paraphrasing and annotating?

Describe specific insights you gained in this learning activity.

What are some techniques or approaches that you will use in order to increase your competency in properly paraphrasing and annotating?

    • 10

    question!!

    U6 Team Communication Conflict Case Study

    Newly hired, Candice is a regional product manager for a retail chain. Within a few days of starting her new role, she became aware of a strong us-versus-them mentality that existed within the current staff. Candice decided to meet with each of her new staff members individually in an attempt to more fully understand why the divisions existed. During that process, she found out that the product division had become very segmented and hyper-focused only in their functional areas. She discovered that the division rarely met as a team. Instead, they were very siloed and were not aware of how their small group goals related to the overall strategy of the division or the larger organization. Candice was surprised to learn that her predecessor only met with the team leaders one-on-one. He did not like team meetings and felt they were an opportunity for conflict, something which he avoided at all costs. It also appeared that her predecessor played favorites with individual team members, which left many others feeling disconnected and ignored. Candice asked her ten team leaders how the conflict was handled within their teams and received ten different answers. Throughout her interviewing process, Candice found her employees to be generally unmotivated, disengaged, frustrated, and insecure. She knew she had to correct these issues quickly and turn this team around to be successful in her new role.

    Organizations often use teams to achieve work goals. However, often teams experience conflict that impedes their productivity. Please read the case study to prepare for this assignment.

    I/O psychology professionals often present their findings through PowerPoint presentations. For this assignment, you will create a 10–15 slide narrated PowerPoint presentation that proposes conflict resolution strategies to address the case study provided. You should develop this presentation as if you are a CURRENT member of this organization who has been brought in as an internal consultant due to your expertise. Design your slides as if you will be presenting your recommendations to organizational leaders and managers of the team in distress.

    To prepare for this assignment, you should study relevant research on this topic. Review your course readings, as well as journal articles to identify best practices for effective conflict resolution in this setting. Include the following in your presentation:

    · Discuss the importance of communication to organizational dynamics

    · Discuss the importance of establishing clear conflict resolution processes within organizations. Present evidence supporting your main ideas.

    · Considering what you have studied about conflict management in general, your personal experience, and evidence-based practices from scholarly sources:

    · Present three conflict resolution suggestions to address the current conflict and evidence to support each suggestion.

    · Present at least one suggestion to prevent and/or manage similar future conflicts should they occur.

    · An introduction and summary slide.

    · Best practices for effective PowerPoint presentations.

    · You should apply APA style formatting throughout your presentation, including in-text citations and a reference slide.

    · Cite a minimum of three relevant empirical research and scholarly articles within psychology and related areas to support your assertions.

    · You should cite peer-reviewed journal articles that were published within the last five years (one older resource is allowed if it is considered a seminal work).

    · Carefully select sources after reviewing the literature and evaluating the credibility, relevance, quality, and research merit of each source.

    Question


    Discussion Question

    Leo works for FLYME Airlines as an air traffic controller at a busy city airport.  For the last two years, his health has been deteriorating.  He sits all day, does not exercise, has gained 28 pounds and has slowly developed high blood pressure.  Leo recently had a heart attack and is worried the stress of his job will be too much for him.  He is nearing retirement but does not want to stop working. You are Leo’s boss and not happy with his job performance or his physical or mental state.  You are worried about his personal health and more so, his ability to do the job safely and the safety of others.  

    Discuss the following: 

    1. Determine and identify the law in your home state as to Worker’s Compensation and who is entitled to it.  Then, provide what the company’s options are and whether Leo qualifies for workers’ compensation due to his health issues and high blood pressure.  Analyze the key legal and ethical issues faced by you, the employer and what some of the arguments would be on both sides if Leo applies for worker’s compensation. 

    2. Explain the Direct Threat defense pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act and whether the employer can fire Leo using the defense.

    3. Per the chapter reading this week, summarize your understanding of Unions and some of the key issues that are important to both employees and employers today.

    Please do the discussion on the state of Virginia.

    Please see a sample answer to this discussion question below.

    In my home state South Carolina workers’ compensation Act provides that all employees suffer injury by accident arising out 0f and in the course of employment, that individual is entitled to recover medical expenses, temporary total compensation for lost time, and permanent disability benefits if he / she suffered any permanent injury as a result of the work accident.Under the current law employer has the right to select the doctor who will treat them. If the employer go to see your own doctor doctor wthout permission of the employer, the employer may not be held liable for the medical expense, unless it constitutes an emergency cndition. You such alway report your injury to your supervisor, you should request that employer be responsible for the medical treatment. If your claim is denied you can attempt to handle it yourself and hire a attorney, your attorney will file a form 50 on your behalf with Worker’s Compensation Commission. Once the case has been decided by the full commission it is rare that it with be appealed to the court. Fault or negligence is nt issue regarding the payment of Workers’ Compensation claim . For example If  employee was intoxicated at the time of the injury. 

    Home Workers’ Compensation Commission – SC.GOV The official website of the state of South Carolina

    SEOlegal.com

    Leo is an air traffic controller who has had significant problems with high blood pressure. He has changed his diet, takes medication,but the ploblem persists. His doctor has recommended that he find 0ther employment because his job is causing his blood pressure and continuing to work at the job may have lead him to the massive heart attack. Yes he be able to apply for worker compensation benefits as a medical case temporary disability because it might occur while he is working so it two requirements to be deemed compensable under the Workers’ Compensation Act. This is consider a injury so he be states disability benefit. 

    Under the Americans with Disabilities Act’s denfense is intended to shield employers who must take an employee’s disability into account in rder to protect employees from significant danger. Leo effect of the accommodation of the operation of the facility making the accommodation he may not be qualified to remain in the job.

    Per chapter what i have learn is unions are important because they help set the standars for education, skill levels, wages, working conditions, and quality of life for workers. Union-negtiated wages and benefits are generally superior to what non-union workers receive. most union contracts provide far more protections than state and federal laws.  Modern unions have shifted their focus to a number of targeted issues and work with management to protect the interests of its members in those aeas. 

    Question

     200-250 words max

     Cross referenced through turn it in and course hero.

    Select a behavior and an intervention and indicate which design you could implement to determine the validity of the intervention. Answer the following

    1. Who would your participant(s) be? ex: “Student A was a 14-year old girl diagnosed with ADHD” (1 point)
    2. What behavior will you measure? (2 points)
    3. What is your intervention? (2 points)
    4. What is your experimental question? (5 points)
    5. What design are you using? Why? (5 points)
    6. How will you know your intervention was successful (hypothetically)?  
    7. What does your ideal graph look like and be sure to describe the wanted descriptions of the visual analysis. For example, trend, level, variability, and latency to change (5 points) (no need to draw)
      • 11

      Question

      Prior to completing this assignment, review your prior research on the company you selected for research in this Week’s Environmental Scanning interactive assignment. Also watch the video How to Perform a SWOT Analysis (Links to an external site.) (2016). In approximately 250 words,

      • Describe the company’s history, products, and major competitors by accessing the Mergent University of Arizona Global Campus Library online database which offers company financials, descriptions, history, property, subsidiaries, officers and directors and by accessing the Business  Insights database. (View the Getting Started With Mergent (Links to an external site.) and Business Insights: Global (Links to an external site.) documents for suggested methods of searching University of Arizona Global Campus Library databases generally as well as specific advice for searching these two databases).
      • Assess the financial performance and condition of the organization.

      Next, conduct a SWOT analysis using the   Download SWOT Analysis Template. Detail the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that may affect the organization. Copy and paste the completed table from the template into your SWOT analysis paper.

      In the evaluation portion of your paper of your SWOT analysis:

      • Describe the specific areas that indicate a need for change.
      • Determine what changed objectives, or newly implemented interventions, are required to improve the company’s position within its market.
      • Assess the trending performance of the company and provide recommendations for improvement.

      (NOTE: Incorporate the feedback you receive from your instructor and save your work. It will be part of your Strategic Plan Final Project for this course).

      The SWOT Analysis paper

      • Must be from five to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource.
      • Must include a separate title page with the following:
        • Title of SWOT Analysis
        • Student’s name
        • Course name and number
        • Instructor’s name
        • Date submitted
      • Must use at least two scholarly and/or credible sources in addition to the course text.

      Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

      Question!!

       

      • Discuss the importance of communication to organizational dynamics
      • Discuss the importance of establishing clear conflict resolution processes within organizations. Present evidence supporting your main ideas.
      • Considering what you have studied about conflict management in general, your personal experience, and evidence-based practices from scholarly sources:
        • Present three conflict resolution suggestions to address the current conflict and evidence to support each suggestion.
        • Present at least one suggestion to prevent and/or manage similar future conflicts should they occur.

      Question

      Persuasion and Influence
      in American Life

      Seventh Edition

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page i Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page ii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Persuasion and Influence
      in American Life

      Seventh Edition

      Gary C. Woodward
      College of New Jersey

      Robert E. Denton, Jr.
      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      WAVELAND

      PRESS, INC.
      Long Grove, Illinois

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page iii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      For information about this book, contact:
      Waveland Press, Inc.
      4180 IL Route 83, Suite 101
      Long Grove, IL 60047-9580
      (847) 634-0081
      info@waveland.com
      www.waveland.com

      Photo and Cartoon Credits
      p. xvi ©Ivy Photos/shutterstock.com; p. 6 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 26 ©Orhan Cam/
      shutterstock.com; p. 32 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 39 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 48 ©Joshua
      Haviv/shutterstock.com; p. 54 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 67 ©AAraujo/shutterstock.com;
      p. 80 ©Junial Enterprises/shutterstock.com; p. 83 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 104 ©jiawangkun/
      shutterstock.com; p. 110 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 128 ©Pavel L Photo and Video; p. 137
      ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 156 ©Golden Pixels LLC/shutterstock.com; p. 169
      ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 180 ©Golden Pixels LLC/shutterstock.com; p. 186 ©auremar/
      shutterstock.com; p. 187 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 189 ©Aspen Photo/shutterstock.com;
      p. 222 ©Steve Broer/shutterstock.com; p. 234 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 245 ©Steve Heap/
      shutterstock.com; p. 254 ©ben bryant/shutterstock.com; p. 278 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 290
      ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 298 ©spirit of america/shutterstock.com; p. 304 ©Cartoonbank.com;
      p. 323 ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 334 ©MarkVanDykePhotography/shutterstock.com; p. 343
      ©Cartoonbank.com; p. 363 ©wavebreakmedia/shutterstock.com; p. 381 ©Cartoonbank.com

      Copyright © 2014 by Waveland Press, Inc.

      10 digit ISBN 1-4786-0789-0
      13 digit ISBN 978-1-4786-0789-2

      All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
      in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.

      Printed in the United States of America

      7 6 5 4 3 2 1

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page iv Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page v Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Contents

      Preface xiii

      1 Persuasion and Influence 1
      The Necessity and Challenge of Persuasion 4
      Persuasion Defined 4
      Five Introductory Settings 8

      The Unanticipated Effects of Selling Inclusion 8
      Doubt and Influence in the Jury Room 9
      Advocating Dangerous Forms of Religion 11
      A Campus Food Fight 13

      Persuasion in Everyday Life 14
      What These and Other Persuasion Settings Suggest 16

      Persuasion is as much about sources as messages. 16
      Persuasion is measured by its effects on others. 16
      Persuasion is enormously difficult. 16
      Even minimal effects can be important. 18
      Persuasion can easily stray toward the arts of deception. 19
      Persuasion outcomes are not very predictable. 19

      Three Types of Communication 20
      Pure Information 20
      Pure Expression 21
      Pure Persuasion 21

      Summary 22
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 23
       ADDITIONAL READING 24

      v

      vi  Contents

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page vi Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      2 The Advocate in an Open Society 27
      Freedom of Expression and Its Limits 28
      Subduing Advocacy in a One-Party State 30
      Weighing the Value of Public Opinion 32

      “Man Is the Measure of All Things.” 34
      Individual Freedom and the American Experience 35
      The Technological Push toward Openness 38

      How “Open” Is American Society? 39
      Governmental Controls 39
      Corporate Controls 41

      Summary 44
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 45
       ADDITIONAL READING 47

      3 The Advocate and the Management of Symbols 49
      The Nature of Language 51

      Signs 51
      Symbols 52
      Meaning 52
      Functions of Language 55

      Language, Interaction, and Reality 59
      The Creation of Reality through Interaction 59
      Self as a Product of Interaction with Others 60
      Society as a Product of Interaction with Others 60

      Political Uses of Language 61
      Functions of Political Language 62
      Strategic Uses of Political Language 64
      Common Political Language Devices 68

      The Changing Nature of Public and Political Discourse 73
      Summary 76
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 77
       ADDITIONAL READING 78

      PART I
      Origins of Persuasive Practice 25

      Contents  vii

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page vii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      4 Persuasion and Reasoning 81
      Understanding Practical Arguments: Key Distinctions 83

      Analytic Arguments and Practical Enthymemes 84
      Demonstration and Argumentation 87
      Factual and Judgmental Claims 88
      Implied and Stated Components of Arguments 90
      Reasoning to Discover and to Defend 91
      Finding Good Reasons for Claims 91
      The Most Common Error of Reasoning Analysis:

      The Alleged Logic–Emotion Distinction 92

      Common Forms of Defective Reasoning 93
      Ad Hominem 94
      False Cause 94
      Non Sequitur 95
      Circular Argument 96
      Fallacy of Oversimplification 97
      Excessive Dependence on Authority 98

      How Persuasion and Logical Argumentation Differ 98
      Denial Often Defeats Reasoning 98
      Persuasion’s “Self-Interest” and Argumentation’s “Public Interest” 100

      Summary 102
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 103
       ADDITIONAL READING 103

      5 Theories and Models of Source Credibility 105
      The Three Meanings of “Credibility” 107

      Ethos as Good Character 108
      The Rational/Legal Ideal of Credibility 109
      Source Credibility as Believability 112

      Credibility as Authority: Strategic Dimensions 116
      Legitimation 116
      Mystification 118
      Anonymity and Identity Concealment 119
      Two-Step Flow 120
      Source/Placebo Suggestion 121
      Authoritarianism and Acquiescence 122

      Summary 125
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 126
       ADDITIONAL READING 127

      PART II
      Four Perspectives on the Nature of Persuasion 79

      viii  Contents

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page viii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      6 The Mind in Persuasion 129
      Cognitive Elements Affecting Persuasion 130

      Beliefs 131
      Attitudes 131
      Values 134
      How These Elements Work Together 134

      Essential Theories and Models of Persuasion 135
      Stimulus-Response Theory 135
      Inoculation Theory 136
      Attribution Theory 138
      Consistency Theory I: Theory of Cognitive Dissonance 140
      Consistency Theory II: Theory of Induced Discrepant Behavior 143
      The Boomerang Effect 144
      Social Judgment Theory 146
      Elaboration Likelihood Theory 148
      The Motivated Sequence 152
      Theory of Motivated Reasoning 153

      Summary 153
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 154
       ADDITIONAL READING 155

      7 Persuasion, Audiences, and Social Learning 157
      A Conceptual Baseline: Social Learning 159
      Audiences: The Generative Forces of Persuasion 160

      The Challenge of Finding Homogenous Audiences 161
      Is There a Common Center? 162

      The Audience Analysis Process 163
      The Principle of Identification 164
      Universal Commonplaces 165
      Audience-Specific Norms 167

      Advocates, Messages, and Audiences 170
      Believing in Our Words 170
      High Credibility/High Agreement Persuasion 172
      High Credibility/Low Agreement Persuasion 172
      Low Credibility/High Agreement Persuasion 173
      Low Credibility/Low Agreement Persuasion 174

      Summary: The Ethics of Adaptation 175
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 176
       ADDITIONAL READING 177

      Contents  ix

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page ix Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      8 Interpersonal Persuasion 181
      Dimensions of Interpersonal Communication 183
      Variables of Interpersonal Persuasion 184

      Verbal Characteristics 184
      Nonverbal Characteristics 185
      Power and Control 189
      Compliance-Seeking Messages 190
      Conflict 194
      Gender Differences 199
      Culture and Diversity 202
      Leadership 204

      Contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion 207
      Organizations 207
      Sales 213
      Interviews 217

      Summary 219
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 220
       ADDITIONAL READING 221

      9 Public and Mass Persuasion 223
      Public Communication and Persuasion 224

      Characteristics of Public Communication 225
      Public Opinion and Persuasion 226

      Persuasive Campaigns 229
      Product or Commercial Campaigns 230
      Public Relations Campaigns 230
      Political Campaigns 232
      Issue Campaigns 234

      Social Movements 244
      Characteristics 244
      Persuasive Functions 246
      Life Cycle 247
      Leadership 248
      Resistance to Social Movements 249

      Campaign Implementation 250
      Summary 251
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 252
       ADDITIONAL READING 253

      PART III
      The Contexts of Persuasion 179

      x  Contents

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page x Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      10 Advertising as Persuasion 255
      Advertising Today 256

      Expenditures 256
      Celebrity Endorsements 257
      Cross Selling 258

      What Is Advertising? 259
      The Evolution of Advertising from a

      Communication Perspective 262
      Cultural Frames 262
      Identification with a Product 264
      Using Music to Structure the Message 264

      The Role of Psychology in Advertising 266
      Neuromarketing 266
      Psychographics 268
      Branding 269

      How Advertising Works 270
      Consumer Decision Making 271
      Involvement 272
      Creating Demand 272
      Reach, Frequency, and Integrated Marketing 274
      Subliminal Advertising 276

      Advertising as Myth 277
      Common Advertising Appeals 280

      Emotional Appeals 280
      Transformative Appeals 282
      Rational-Functional Appeals 285

      How to Critique Ads 285
      Criticisms of Advertising 287

      Deception 287
      Language 289
      Children 290
      Consumerism 292
      Social Effects 292
      Freedom of Speech 293
      Privacy 293
      Private versus Public Interests 294

      What Can I Do? 295
      Summary 295
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 296
       ADDITIONAL READING 297

      Contents  xi

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page xi Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      11 Political Persuasion 299
      Language, Communication, Politics, and Persuasion 302
      Characteristics of Political Communication and Persuasion 304

      Short-Term Orientation 304
      Specific Objectives 305
      Mediated 305
      Audience Centered 305

      Ideology 306
      The Political Socialization Process 307

      Political Socialization Outcomes 307
      Agents of Political Socialization 308
      Levels of Interaction 310

      Forms of Political Persuasion 311
      Administrative Persuasion 311
      Legislative Persuasion 313
      Campaign Persuasion 316
      Political Persuasion through Symbolic and Status Issues 323
      Political Persuasion in the Context of Entertainment 324

      What We Can Learn from Political Persuasion 327
      Limited Effects Model 327
      Significant Effects Model 328

      Politics and Trust 328
      Summary 329
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 330
       ADDITIONAL READING 331

      12 Ethical Considerations of Persuasion 335
      Ethics, Values, and Principles 338
      Communication, Ethics, and Society 339

      Persuasion and Communication Ethics 341
      Sources of Attitudes and Values 342
      Categories of Communication Ethics 344

      PART IV
      Issues and Strategies of Message Preparation 333

      xii  Contents

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page xii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Considerations for Ethical Communication 346
      Communicator Considerations 346
      Message Considerations 347
      Medium Considerations 347
      Receiver Considerations 348
      Ethical Values of Communicators 348

      Areas of Special Concern 349
      Media and New Technologies 349
      News Journalism 352
      Politics and Political Communication 356
      Public Discourse 359

      Summary 361
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 362
       ADDITIONAL READING 363

      13 Constructing and Presenting Persuasive Messages 365
      Strategic Considerations for Nondiscursive Persuasion 367

      The Visual Image 368
      Honoring Gestalt Values in Visual Design 369
      Set Realistic Goals 376
      Keep the Message Thematically Simple 376
      Consider the Appropriate Cultural Palette 376
      Use a Sympathetic Figure or Key Icon to

      Communicate Your Central Idea 378
      Frame the Discussion in the Imagery of

      Heroes, Villains, and Victims 379

      Strategic Considerations of a Set Presentation 379
      Know the Audience 380
      Determine Your Objectives 381
      Determine Your Thesis 382
      Develop Main Points as Good Reasons 383
      Amplify and Support the Main Points 384
      Write the Introduction 386
      Prepare the Outline 389
      Presenting the Message 390

      Two Additional Considerations for Discursive Messages 391
      When to Reveal the Thesis 391
      Whether to Recognize Opposing Views 392

      Summary 392
       QUESTIONS AND PROJECTS FOR FURTHER STUDY 393
       ADDITIONAL READING 394

      Endnotes 395
      Index 431

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page xiii Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Preface

      The first edition of this book was published twenty-five years ago. At that time
      interest in persuasion in universities was largely defined by a tight circle of con-
      cerns drawn largely from the fields of rhetoric, communication theory, and experi-
      mental psychology. But the circumference of the subject’s boundaries has grown to
      such an extent that it is even pushing against formerly distant fields such as ethnog-
      raphy and neurobiology. Researchers now track “neural pathways” activated when
      subjects are exposed to everything from “shooter” video games to deodorant ads.1

      Factor in recent interest in personal and social media, alternative routes to tradi-
      tional advertising, or “screen time” as a measure of the dominant activity of
      humans during their waking hours, and it becomes evident why nearly everyone
      now seems interested in the processes of personal influence.

      We enthusiastically endorse the expanding exploration of persuasion, although
      with some concern about the growing fashion for seeking answers using brain
      imaging devices. It is increasingly common to find research where neural imaging
      is used to map the “brain activity” of individuals while they view movies, play
      video games, or scan web pages.2 There is no question that we have much to learn
      about specific brain locations and routes that are awakened by certain kinds of
      media and presentational forms. And while there is ample evidence that some mes-
      sages and activities influence hormone releases that affect mood and feelings, we
      believe such mapping feeds a growing impression that a relatively new “science”
      will give the analysis of persuasion a form of certainly that it has never had. We
      heartily welcome all forms of research that give us more insight into how we pro-
      cess communications, but we doubt that persuasion can be usefully understood as a
      function of electrochemical processes.3 The reduction of cognition to the connec-
      tivity of neurons is like describing a piece of music in terms of the physics of the air
      pressure created by the musicians who created it. To be sure, it is easy to measure
      sound this way, converting pressure into frequencies, and perhaps displaying them
      on an audio analyzer. But to study music or persuasion by focusing on their physical
      processes has the effect of mistaking the conditions necessary for their production
      with their essence.

      xiii

      xiv  Preface

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page xiv Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      It is important to remember that human communication must be understood
      as a cluster of outcomes produced when minds are engaged. The brain is indeed the
      physical site where thinking—cognition—takes place. But unlike nearly all other
      body organs, it has no single function. In terms of higher-order mental activities, it
      facilitates thought and perception, but in ways that are always unique to the experiences
      of an individual. An individual’s presence—a rich mix of genetics, personal and
      social history, and attendant memories—must be measured in terms of what we
      say and do, what we “know,” what we believe about our intentions and the inten-
      tions of others, and so on. Thinking, decision-making, the weighing of options, the
      interpretation of other’s words are the functions that are more interesting for why
      they occur than where they occur. The brain is so “plastic”—various centers accom-
      modate so many different kinds of thought—that any search for a single “pathway”
      of cognition seems far too simple. Neuroscience usually concedes as much.4 And
      that acknowledgement serves as a healthy reminder that the analyst of persuasion
      must be an interpreter of the person in their world.

      The processes of influence discussed in this book are drawn from a holistic per-
      spective that marries the social and “hard” sciences to the humanities and the ori-
      gins of persuasion in rhetorical theory. This mix of approaches reflects the view
      that this is a subject that must be explored by placing the individual not just in
      material realm but also in the conceptual space of their experiences, ideas, atti-
      tudes, and social judgments.

      These myriad complexities keep us humble. The basic idea of a textbook is that
      it will offer settled knowledge about its subject. But that has never really been true
      of persuasion, where the contingencies and unique features of every situation com-
      plicate efforts to make definitive claims. The subject requires respect for nuance
      and a capacity to accept unanticipated outcomes. Students of persuasion may use
      the tools of the sciences to test various strategies and approaches, but in basic ways
      persuasion rarely submits to the kinds of certainties to which researchers aspire.
      Though textbook style is traditionally the very definition of certainty, we are happy
      to acknowledge the very soft ground on which theories of influence rest.

      As you would expect this far into the new millennium, this edition pays more
      attention to social media and online communities, to Internet product and politi-
      cal marketing, and to refinements of theories and models that have become part of
      the canon of persuasion theory. To better highlight the growing terminology avail-
      able for analysis, key ideas in each chapter are set off from the running text in bold
      italics, and simple definitions follow. We hope this formatting creates a useful run-
      ning glossary of key terms that can be easily referenced when reading or reviewing
      a chapter.

      As with earlier editions, we examine the process of seeking influence from its
      roots in the timeless ideals of democratic institutions and social ethics. And we
      continue to see it as a set of interactions typically involving active rather than pas-
      sive agents. From this perspective, persuasion is not necessarily something some-
      one does to others. In its best forms, it works with willing recipients and attentive
      persuaders, often in the same space. When asked about his techniques for manag-
      ing the outsized Hollywood egos that filled his days, the former chairman of Sony
      Pictures offered a piece of candid advice that seemed as accurate as it was simple.

      Preface  xv

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page xv Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      He noted that success often amounts to just being “in the same room” with some-
      one and “breathing the same air.”5 As academics we instinctively want to add qual-
      ifiers and exceptions, but his comment is a good place to start.

      Endnotes
      1 See, for example, Tom Hummer, et. al, “Short-Term Violent Video Game Play by Adolescents Alters

      Prefrontal Activity During Cognitive Inhibition,” Media Psychology; April–June, 2010, pp. 136–154,
      Ebsco Communication and Mass Media Complete, http://ezproxy.tcnj.edu:2417/ehost/
      detail?sid=7436d970-3710-4b34-b1f7-fcd2651767ce%40sessionmgr110&vid=16&hid=113&bdata=
      JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ufh&AN=51377162

      2 Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2011), pp.
      115–138.

      3 For a preliminary look at how neuroscience fits into studies of communication see Jack Jordynn and
      Gregory Appelbaum, “‘This is your Brain on Rhetoric:’ Research Directions of Neurorhetorics,”
      Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2010, pp. 422–437. See also Sally Satel and Scott Lilienfeld,
      Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience (New York: Basic Books, 2013), pp. ix–xxiii.

      4 Steven Pinker, “My Genome, My Self,” The New York Times Magazine, January 11, 2009, p. 50, and
      Ibid, pp. 26–35.

      5 Michael Cieply, “In Film and Life, The Story Is King,” The New York Times, February 27, 2011, Sun-
      day Business, p. 6.

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page 0 Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page 1 Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      1

      Persuasion and Influence
      Introduction

      OVERVIEW

       The Necessity and Challenge of Persuasion

       Persuasion Defined

       Five Introductory Settings
      The Unanticipated Effects of Selling Inclusion
      Doubt and Influence in the Jury Room
      Advocating Dangerous Forms of Religion
      A Campus Food Fight
      Persuasion in Everyday Life

       What These and Other Persuasion Settings Suggest
      Persuasion is as much about sources as messages
      Persuasion is measured by its effects on others
      Persuasion is enormously difficult
      Even minimal effects can be important
      Persuasion can easily stray toward the arts of deception
      Persuasion outcomes are not very unpredictable

       Three Types of Communication
      Pure Information
      Pure Expression
      Pure Persuasion

      1

      2  Chapter One

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page 2 Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      The pursuit of wisdom through discourse is, after all, the charac-
      teristic humanistic act. We are all worshipers of Peitho, the God-
      dess of Persuasion.1

      —Hugh D. Duncan

      Every year about 30,000 men and women between the ages of 18 and 21 pass
      through a well manicured collection of low buildings that adjoin the Provo campus
      of Brigham Young University. The Missionary Training Center of The Church of
      Latter Day Saints (LDS), perhaps the largest institution for that purpose in the
      world, lies at the base of Utah’s Wasatch Mountains. The specific goal of the center
      is to prepare recruits to proselytize Mormonism in the United States and overseas.
      These novice missionaries spend up to twelve weeks honing their foreign language
      skills, studying the Book of Mormon and the Bible, and getting ready for the rigors
      of 10-hour days of communicating with strangers in distant locales. It’s all part of
      the church’s tradition of encouraging young members to devote two years of their
      lives to finding new converts.

      This massive effort at persuasive outreach is a huge change from the mid-nine-
      teenth century, when small groups of followers of Joseph Smith escaped the East
      and Midwest in their own diaspora. Although the Mormons eventually settled in
      the geographic isolation of Utah with the hope of being left alone, the LDS Church
      is now among the largest five denominations in the United States, and one of the
      fastest growing religions in the world.

      All male Mormons over 18 are asked to serve on a mission, and about half do.
      Women who are at least 21 can also join the ranks, but they do so in smaller num-
      bers.2 After they leave the training center, individuals are assigned a partner who
      will be their constant companion for the duration of the mission. Young men in
      buttoned-down white shirts, pressed slacks, and conservative haircuts easily stand
      out from their surroundings. They may end up in Baltimore, Manila, or Sao Paulo,
      but they all look like they could have just walked out of the pages of your grandpar-
      ent’s high school yearbook.

      Missionaries call potential converts “investigators,” recognizing that conver-
      sion is usually not sudden. Investigators seem at least willing to listen, often at bus
      stops, or on street corners, and front yards. The logic is that the more they learn, the
      more willing they may be to explore the church or to attend services or meetings.

      The Student Manual at the Missionary Training Center sees the task of winning
      converts in terms of the expected biblical admonitions to go out and serve as wit-
      nesses for the faith. In this frame of reference, missionaries often think of them-
      selves as “sharing” or “teaching” the two primary works in the Mormon canon,
      with the hope that some of these scriptures will be prophetic or provide moral clar-
      ity.3 The church also emphasizes the classic persuasion idea that you should physi-
      cally embody what you advocate, a principle that echoes back to ancient rhetorics

      Persuasion and Influence  3

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page 3 Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

      that urged persuaders to show in their own conduct the values that they espouse.
      New missionaries are taught to be positive, courteous, and to approach every per-
      son as a potential new friend. They also talk up the importance of family and try to
      communicate with the unambiguous certainty of a committed believer. This is not
      an effort that owes much to the irony or cynicism that flows through much of the
      rest of American life.4 Earnestness is the order of the day.

      Many new recruits are initially shy. Most who openly write about their experi-
      ences are positive about the experience. But a reader of these accounts sometimes
      gets a sense that many of the church’s volunteers don’t see themselves as natural per-
      suaders.5 After all, this is not going to be their career. Some appear to struggle to find
      the confidence to approach people in settings far different than the prosperous Rocky
      Mountain enclave that is the center of the LDS church. What do you say to an
      impoverished mother of seven in a rundown section of Columbus, Ohio? One resi-
      dent, Star Calley, feels the awkwardness of the moment, but invites Jonathan Hoy
      and Taylor Nielsen to sit on her porch and talk. She worries about raising her kids in
      the neighborhood. The missionaries listen, sympathize, and then ask her to pray with
      them.6 After they leave, she admits she was just trying to be nice, noting that “it must
      take a lot of courage to do what they do, for all the good it does.”7 For their part, they
      hope they can come by again, perhaps building on a first encounter to offer more
      reassurance that her family will be better off within the local LDS community.

      The Manual also offers a range of more secular advice about how to maximize
      success. As a general rule, it urges missionaries to follow what is by now an axiom of
      political persuasion: look for people who have recently been buffeted by reversals or
      unwanted change. “People who are experiencing significant changes in their lives—
      such as births, deaths, or moving into new homes—are often ready to learn about the
      restored gospel and make new friendships.”8 It also reminds recruits to find a way to
      be brief and effective. What can be offered to someone waiting for a bus, or a person
      who is willing to give up just a few minutes? The promise of eternal salvation is, of
      course, the primary message. But there are other inducements that open doors as well,
      such as helping someone do a simple household repair or offering to help a family
      research its own history through the vast genealogical resources of the LDS church.9

      One researcher studying Mormon missionaries estimates that in the thousands
      of contacts a single member makes in a given year, he or she will convert only
      about four to seven people.10 That can amount to a “success” rate of a fraction of
      one percent. Jonathan Hoy went through the experience and remembers even
      fewer but still found his limited success worth the effort. In 2007 Hoy recalls the
      nearly 10,000 people he talked to during a 22-month stint in Ohio and Greece. He
      especially remembers a young woman in Athens who converted after spending
      time studying various “restored” scriptures from the Book of Mormon. “I saw it
      change her life,” he said. “That’s what keeps me going.”11

      The seemingly low rates of conversion are balanced by the crucial role that this
      rite of passage has on the missionaries themselves—self-persuasion. Sometimes the
      greatest effect of a message is on the persuader. While these missionaries may return
      with limited success in attracting large numbers of converts, they have become
      committed activists for their faith, carrying some of that fervor into their relation-
      ships with others.12

      4  Chapter One

      Woodward-Denton 7E.book Page 4 Wednesday, December 4, 2013 12:03 PM

       The Necessity and Challenge of Persuasion
      A mandate that urges young members to find new recruits for a church may be

      somewhat unique to Mormons, but the underlying process of reaching out to oth-
      ers with a vision or belief to share is a lifeline of identity for most of us. Words con-
      vey praise, blame, guilt, and joy. We invest them with enduring significance. We
      establish our place in the lives of others by the ways we label our actions and those
      around us. The natural impulse to associate and connect gives language the awe-
      some responsibility of carrying our judgments and feelings.

      The LDS missionary experience is also a reminder that persuasion is a particu-
      larly challenging form of communication. Defined as a request for others to agree
      or yield, it turns out that persuasion is neither simple to understand or easy to
      achieve. One of its early theorists, the Roman philosopher Cicero, noted that
      “whether it is acquired by art or practice, or the mere powers of nature, it is the
      most difficult of all attainments.”13 He thought that mastery of its various compo-
      nents was beyond the reach of most. Aristotle, who preceded Cicero and wrote one
      of the first practical persuasion handbooks, was more certain that its study could be
      systematized, although he also noted that resistance was more the norm than the
      exception.14 Both Cicero and Aristotle seemed to sense that persuasion was a spe-
      cial subject made all the more interesting by its tendency to put all forms of human
      genius and frailty on conspicuous display.

      The primary goal of this book is to offer a systematic description and vocabu-
      lary for the persuasive process, focusing on some of the same questions that first
      drew the attention of philosophers. How do we change deep-seated attitudes?
      What makes us susceptible to or immune from constant attempts to persuade us to
      accept ideas, products, and people? How can advocates sometimes cause people to
      deny their beliefs and accept actions that impose serious hardships? The answers to
      these questions not only equip us to better adapt to our communication-saturated
      world, but they also reveal some interesting and surprising characteristics of
      human nature.

      Persuasion takes no single form. It occurs in a diverse range of contexts and
      media—from simple exchanges of opinions between friends to elaborate campaigns
      designed for specific broadcast and Internet audiences. Persuaders may be as well-
      financed as the Microsoft Corporation or as resource-poor as a small band of home-
      owners fighting the decisions of a local zoning board. The range of human contacts
      that call for effective advocacy is nearly endless. As citizens in a free society, we can-
      not escape the responsibility for organizing or participating in public persuasion. As
      friends, family members, and coworkers linked to a web of personal relationships, we
      similarly face the necessity of managing a vast array of demands and opportunities.

      In the remainder of this chapter we will offer a definition of persuasion and several
      additional case studies. We will also offer a set of key propositions about persuasion.

       Persuasion Defined
      There are two competing traditions in the definition of persuasion. One tradi-

      tion sees it as an ethically suspect process—a form of hucksterism—where advo-

      <

      question

      Vol:.(1234567890)

      J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578
      DOI 10.1007/s10803-016-2977-0

      1 3

      ORIGINAL PAPER

      EAT-UP™ Family-Centered Feeding Intervention to Promote
      Food Acceptance and Decrease Challenging Behaviors: A Single-
      Case Experimental Design Replicated Across Three Families
      of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Joanna Cosbey1  · Deirdre Muldoon2,3 

      Published online: 30 November 2016
      © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

      Introduction

      Feeding and eating difficulties among children with autism
      spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being recognized
      as an integral part of the disorder (e.g., Cermak et al. 2010;
      Edmond et al. 2010). The growing body of research in this
      area has provided information to establish evidence-based
      practices (EBPs) to support mealtimes, particularly through
      the use of therapists or other professionals as the interven-
      tionists. There is limited information regarding the efficacy
      of multicomponent interventions that are implemented by
      parents using these established EBPs.

      Parent implemented intervention (PII), in which a par-
      ent learns to provide intervention in their home or commu-
      nity through a guided training program, is an EBP for use
      with young children to make the behavior change sustain-
      able across time and outcome areas (Moes and Frea 2002;
      Wong et al. 2013). Studies such as one conducted by John-
      son et  al. (2015) examined the use of parents as interven-
      tionists through strategies such as clinic-based behavioral
      training programs. However, the majority of studies related
      to promoting mealtime behaviors involve an interventionist
      working directly with the child and may or may not have a
      family training component. In fact, a comprehensive syn-
      thesis of treatment outcomes in feeding interventions by
      Sharp et  al. (2010) indicated that only 58.3% of the inter-
      ventions documented caregiver training and over 80% of
      the studies had trained professionals, rather than parents,
      providing the intervention. Additional research is needed to
      determine appropriate methods for integrating PII and feed-
      ing interventions to make lasting changes for children and
      their families.

      The current research has examined the efficacy of spe-
      cific strategies and intervention approaches, such as behav-
      ioral strategies, sensory strategies, and communication

      Abstract This study evaluated the effectiveness of a fam-
      ily-centered feeding intervention, Easing Anxiety Together
      with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP™), for
      promoting food acceptance of children with autism spec-
      trum disorder at home. A concurrent multiple-baseline
      design was used with systematic replication across three
      families. Baseline was followed by an ‘Intervention-Coach-
      ing’ phase and then an ‘Intervention-Independent’ phase.
      Using direct observation and pre- and post-intervention
      questionnaires, data on acceptance of less preferred foods
      and challenging mealtime behaviors were collected. Proce-
      dural fidelity was monitored throughout all study phases.
      Data were analyzed using visual analysis and measures
      of effect size. All children demonstrated increases in food
      acceptance (effect size >0.90) and dietary diversity and
      decreased challenging behaviors. Implications for practice
      and research are discussed.

      Keywords Autism spectrum disorder · Parent
      implemented intervention · Mealtime behaviors · Food
      refusal · Evidence based practices

      * Joanna Cosbey
      jcosbey@salud.unm.edu

      1 Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Pediatrics,
      University of New Mexico, HSSB Room 140, MSC09 5240,
      1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA

      2 Center for Development and Disability, Department
      of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM,
      USA

      3 Present Address: Department of Communication Sciences
      and Disorders, The College of Saint Rose, Albany, NY, USA

      565J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      interventions. The majority of the research in the area of
      feeding and eating difficulties in ASD is focused on spe-
      cific behavioral strategies to ameliorate difficult behaviors
      at mealtimes (for a review see Volkert and Piazza 2012).
      These evidence based practices (EBPs) include strategies
      such as: functional assessment (e.g., Gale et  al. 2011);
      positive, differential, or non-contingent reinforcement (e.g.,
      Allison et  al. 2012); and escape extinction (e.g., Galensky
      et  al. 2001). Several researchers have addressed the possi-
      ble behavioral functions of food avoidance and challenging
      mealtime behaviors (e.g., Gale et al. 2011). Although iden-
      tifying the clear functions of these behaviors is extremely
      important within research and clinical contexts, in natural
      contexts it may not always be appropriate or feasible for
      parents to fully evaluate the function of a particular behav-
      ior. While many of the current feeding interventions are
      behavioral and include assessment of function, it is often
      difficult to decide which interventions are most appropri-
      ate to address challenging mealtime behaviors and thus,
      require multi-disciplinary assessment and treatment (Sharp
      et al. 2013; Tanner et al. 2015).

      A number of authors have described the impact of a
      child’s sensory processing characteristics on food selectiv-
      ity and subsequent mealtime behaviors (see Cermak et  al.
      2010 for a review). Sensory factors, such as the taste, tex-
      ture, or appearance of foods, can influence an individual’s
      behavioral response to foods, leading to food refusal, gag-
      ging, vomiting, etc. Researchers in this area have focused
      on manipulating food (Ahearn 2003) or using sensory-
      based interventions to support the child (Adison et  al.
      2012). Other interventions that have been found to be effec-
      tive in supporting the mealtimes of children with ASD
      address both behavioral and sensory components of feed-
      ing, such food chaining (Fishbein et al. 2006) and changing
      bite size and/or number of bites (e.g., Sharp et al. 2010), as
      well as changes to the physical environment, such as seating
      and type of plate (e.g., Gale et al. 2011; Gentry and Luiselli
      2007). Communicative strategies such as functional assess-
      ment and functional communication training with children
      with ASD and their families has been found to be effective
      in reducing the occurrences of challenging behavior (Moes
      and Frea 2002; Wong et al. 2013), but have not been explic-
      itly investigated during mealtimes. Additionally, visual sup-
      port strategies to support a child’s receptive understanding
      and promote appropriate behavior during meals have been
      used as part of intervention packages (e.g., Binnendyk and
      Lucyshyn 2008). However, these communication strategies
      have not been explicitly investigated during mealtimes and
      have not been used to address the complex, dynamic com-
      munication interactions that occur between the parent and
      the child.

      Most of these studies and other research conducted in
      the area of promoting mealtime behaviors has focused

      on identifying specific variables that are responsible for
      behavior change. For example, studies have evaluated
      the efficacy of one specific strategy or of one strategy in
      comparison to another (e.g., Ahearn 2003; Peterson et al.
      2016). These studies have contributed to the knowledge
      base regarding EBPs, but typically do not focus on the
      complex, dynamic nature of naturally occurring family
      mealtimes. So although they are able to demonstrate effi-
      cacy from a research perspective under controlled condi-
      tions, the success of the intervention in a more natural
      context is not as clear. Additionally, as discussed, most
      of the interventions addressed in published research
      approach feeding difficulties as residing in the child,
      with either behavioral or sensory explanations for the
      challenges. More recent research (e.g., Chao and Chang
      2016; Estrem et al. 2016) recognizes that feeding difficul-
      ties impact both child and parents and supports a more
      comprehensive approach to addressing mealtime behav-
      iors. In other words, although it can be important to sys-
      tematically control for all variables in the early stages
      of research examining EBPs, after a practice has been
      established to be effective in controlled settings, it is also
      important to evaluate its efficacy in more natural settings,
      which often includes the use of multiple interventions
      simultaneously to promote progress.

      In order to address the dynamic nature of eating, feed-
      ing and mealtimes, the components outlined above are
      the focus of the current study. For clarity when talking to
      the parents, the components were organized as (a) social
      environment (use of behavioral interventions, such as
      reinforcement, prompting strategies, etc.), (b) physical
      environment (positioning, etc.), (c) food characteristics
      (primarily sensory manipulations, such as the types of
      food provided at meals/snacks); and (d) dyadic commu-
      nication supports (both receptive and expressive for both
      the parent and the child). These components provided a
      framework for the menu of intervention options for par-
      ents when individualizing their intervention and directly
      addressed the unique dynamics of each family in the
      study. As outlined above, a number of researchers have
      evaluated these components in isolation or by grouping
      one or two components together. However, interventions
      looking holistically at the mealtime environment related
      to all of those areas have not been explored, particularly
      in the context of family-as-interventionist.

      The purpose of this preliminary study was to expand
      on the research outlined above and to determine the
      efficacy and perceived intervention acceptance (social
      validity) of EAT-UP™, a parent-implemented multicom-
      ponent intervention package designed to improve the
      mealtime performance of children. This study specifically
      examined the efficacy of EAT-UP™ with children with
      ASD.

      566 J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      Method

      Participants

      Three boys from diverse backgrounds who were diagnosed
      with ASD (Blake, Craig, and Dominic) and their families
      participated in this study. Each of the boys had received a
      diagnosis of ASD prior to his third birthday by interdisci-
      plinary teams, meeting criteria for autism according to the
      World Health Organization, ICD-10, (1992).

      The children were recruited from a statewide interdis-
      ciplinary feeding clinic. Families were provided informa-
      tion about the study by the second author and completed
      a screening to determine eligibility for participation. To be
      included in the study, the family had to live within 30 miles
      of the clinic and have at least one parent who was profi-
      cient in English. The child had to have a multidisciplinary
      diagnosis of ASD, be between the ages of 2 and 9  years
      old, have no medical contraindications for oral feeding,
      and have significant behavioral difficulties around meal-
      times. Significant behavior difficulties were assessed using
      the Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory (BAMBI)
      (Lukens 2005) and were defined as a total score >45, which
      corresponds to a score that is >+2 SD from the mean for
      children who are typically developing (Lukens 2005). Upon
      completion of the screening, if they met the inclusion crite-
      ria for the study, families were provided with more detailed
      information about the study and the opportunity to pro-
      vide informed consent to participate. Informed consent
      was obtained from all individual participants included in
      the study. Because of their age and language abilities, the
      children were not asked to provide assent for participation.
      This study was approved by the University of New Mexico
      Human Research Protection Office.

      Blake was a 6-year-old White, Hispanic boy who lived
      with his married parents and several siblings. He had two
      older siblings and two younger siblings when the project
      began, with a baby born towards the middle of the project.
      His father worked full-time out of the home and his mother
      worked part-time, mostly from home. His family typically
      ate together at a dinner table, with the expectation that
      everyone eat the same meal. Blake would stay at the table
      for very short periods of time and often would not eat any
      of the dinner. He would eat granola bars and other “snack
      foods” during non-meal times. His parents’ primary goals
      were (1) increase his participation in family mealtimes, (2)
      incorporate vegetables into his diet, and (3) decrease chal-
      lenging behaviors (leaving the table and banging his head
      with his hand to communicate refusal). Both of his parents
      were targeted as interventionists and they worked together
      to support Blake and the other children during meals.

      Craig was an 8-year-old White boy who lived with his
      married parents. His father typically traveled 1–2 weeks out

      of every month for work, so it was often just Craig and his
      mother at home for meals. Craig was an only child and his
      mother did not work outside the home. Craig typically ate
      his meals alone at a desk in their living room or while rid-
      ing in the car to/from therapy sessions. His mother reported
      that they had him eat alone because he frequently chewed
      food without swallowing it, then spit the masticated food
      into his palm, shaped it into a ball, and put it back in his
      mouth to chew again. He commonly repeated this routine
      multiple times before ultimately swallowing the food. He
      primarily ate highly processed and/or fast-food and was
      very particular about the brand of food. He did not eat any
      fruits, vegetables, or meats, and was significantly over-
      weight at the time of his initial evaluation at the feeding
      clinic. His mother was the interventionist and her primary
      goals were (1) increase his acceptance of healthier foods,
      (2) decrease his manipulation of masticated foods so that
      he could eat with his parents, and (3) decrease other chal-
      lenging behaviors (verbal refusals, licking preferred foods
      repeatedly, hitting others, and throwing objects).

      Dominic was a 7-year-old African-American boy who
      lived with his mother, grandmother, and grandfather. He
      was an only child and his mother was a single mother. His
      mother worked full-time outside the home, typically eve-
      nings and weekends, so his mother and grandmother shared
      caregiving responsibilities relatively equally. Both of his
      grandparents also worked outside the home. Dominic’s diet
      consisted of crunchy and sweet food, as well as a nutritional
      supplement drink and large quantities of milk. He would
      not eat any fruit or vegetable and he disliked food that was
      wet (e.g., apple slices). Everyone in the family ate meals at
      different times and was on a different specialty diet (e.g.,
      gluten-free), so meals did not have a social component
      at his house. Dominic most often ate dry cereal, cookies,
      and chips in front of the television. Dominic’s mother and
      grandmother were both the interventionists and their pri-
      mary goals were (1) increase the number of foods he would
      eat and (2) decrease challenging behaviors (verbal refusals,
      overstuffing of his mouth, and hiding under pillows/blan-
      kets). Most often only his mother or his grandmother was
      home during an intervention session, but if they were both
      home, they would identify the primary parent for that par-
      ticular meal or snack.

      Setting

      All of the sessions were conducted in the family home
      using the foods and utensils that were typically used by
      the family during mealtimes. Based on family preference,
      intervention sessions occurred during mealtimes for Blake
      and snack times for Craig and Dominic.

      Blake’s interventions were at the family dinner table,
      typically with both parents and all of his siblings present.

      567J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      On rare occasions, his father wasn’t present for the meal.
      Craig’s interventions were initially at a small table in the
      living room, but within the first month of intervention, his
      mother began expecting him to eat at the family dinner
      table at least during intervention sessions. Dominic’s inter-
      ventions, like his meals and snacks, took place in a variety
      of places within his house, including in front of the tele-
      vision, on the living room floor, in his bedroom, and in a
      hallway. Over the course of the intervention, an increasing
      number of sessions occurred at a small corner of the dining
      room table that had been cleared specifically for the ses-
      sions with the researchers.

      Experimental Design

      A mixed-methods quantitative design was used to examine
      changes in mealtime behaviors of the child and his parents
      (i.e., Craig’s mother, Blake’s mother and father, and Domi-
      nic’s mother and grandmother). This study used both sin-
      gle-case experimental design (i.e., single subject research
      design) and pre-/post- measures to document changes in
      child and parent behavior over time. The use of the two
      types of data collection methods allowed for triangulation
      of our findings, providing support for the conclusions both
      through parent report and through direct observation.

      Single subject data collection for this project was devel-
      oped following the recommended practices for single-case
      experimental research (e.g., Wolery 2013). A concurrent
      multiple-baseline design with replication across partici-
      pants was used to document changes in the children’s food
      acceptance by direct observation. In this study, reversals
      of the target behaviors were unlikely, so the multiple base-
      line design was used to demonstrate causality. The baseline
      phase was limited to 5–6 sessions per participant because
      this number of sessions provided adequate documentation
      of the stability of the children’s behaviors (Gast and Led-
      ford 2010) without unnecessarily prolonging the delay in
      implementing intervention and risking further behavioral
      and/or nutritional difficulties. Following baseline, Phase 1
      was an Intervention-Coaching phase during which the par-
      ent was trained to implement the interventions with coach-
      ing and post-session feedback. When the parent indepen-
      dently implemented 90% of the intervention strategies each
      session over three consecutive data sessions, they would
      begin Phase 2, which was an Intervention-Independent
      phase. During this phase, the coaching was eliminated but
      the post-session feedback continued. Phase 2 was termi-
      nated after the child met a level of food acceptance score
      greater than 85% based on their individualized food accept-
      ance hierarchy across three consecutive data days or after
      5  months of intervention, whichever came first. Neither
      randomization nor blinding strategies were used in this
      study. The decision was made to start the intervention at

      the same time for all families rather than randomly assign-
      ing them to staggered baseline and intervention phases
      because of the families’ expressed urgency for intervention.

      Procedural fidelity data were collected on the parents’
      implementation of the intervention during every session.
      Using a variety of questionnaires, quantitative data were
      collected prior to the initiation of the intervention and upon
      completion of the intervention period to document the
      children’s food acceptance and their parents’ perceptions
      of mealtime behaviors, as well as the parents’ perceived
      acceptance of the intervention.

      Interobserver Agreement

      Interobserver agreement (IOA) between the authors was
      established prior to the interventions using video tape of
      evaluations conducted at the feeding clinic. IOA was estab-
      lished across three variables: ‘less preferred opportunities,’
      ‘less preferred points on hierarchy,’ and ‘parent behavior.’
      IOA was considered adequate when agreement reached
      90%. Through direct observation of sessions, IOA was col-
      lected for an average of 34.1% of the total sessions per par-
      ticipant (range 31.0–38.5%), with IOA sessions distributed
      relatively evenly across study phases.

      Data Collection

      Data to assess the effectiveness of the intervention were
      collected at various points throughout the study. Prior to
      the onset of intervention and again after the completion
      of the intervention phase, each child’s mother completed
      questionnaires related to his mealtime behaviors, food
      acceptance/dietary diversity, and family quality of life. The
      children’s mealtime behaviors were assessed using two
      questionnaires: the BAMBI (Lukens 2005) and the Behav-
      ioural Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) (Crist
      and Napier-Phillips 2001). Both measures use anchored
      Likert-scales, are quick to administer, and have been used
      in other studies to assess the parent’s perception of meal-
      time behaviors. The children’s food acceptance and dietary
      diversity were assessed through the use of a Food Fre-
      quency Questionnaire (adapted from Harvard School of
      Public Health 2012) and a 24-h food recall (adapted from
      Lukens 2005). The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)
      provides parents with a list of approximately 150 foods,
      asking them to indicate if each food had been presented to
      the child in the previous 6  months and, if so, if the child
      rejected it or how often they ate it. In addition, they were
      asked to document everything that their child ate in one
      24-h period (Lukens 2005).

      In addition to these data, data on the child’s food accept-
      ance and the parent’s behaviors were collected during every
      session throughout the study. The researchers developed

      568 J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      coding sheets to document the food available to the child
      and the child’s interaction with the food based on a food
      acceptance hierarchy. Data were collected throughout the
      course of a meal or snack, as defined by the parent, so the
      number of opportunities per session varied greatly. A bite
      opportunity was defined as beginning when either the par-
      ent or the child initiated interaction with the food and end-
      ing when both the parent and the child ceased interaction
      with the food. At the end of every session, the researcher
      completed a feedback sheet for the parent that documented
      the parents’ implementation of the intervention strategies.
      These feedback sheets were shared with the parent during
      the Intervention and Maintenance phases.

      To assess the acceptability of the intervention strategy
      by the child’s parent, a goodness-of-fit survey that used
      an anchored Likert-scale (adapted from Albin et  al. 1996)
      was distributed to the parent before the intervention began
      and after the intervention period ended, as well as a Family
      Quality of Life Scale (Hoffman et  al. 2006) that evaluates
      multiple aspects of quality of life for families that include
      an individual with a disability. All three mothers responded
      to these surveys.

      Procedures

      Individualization of Intervention Targets and Strategy

      The authors facilitated the intervention for all three fami-
      lies. Prior to baseline, the researchers met with each fam-
      ily to identify the primary intervention goals for their child.
      Additionally, at this stage in the study, data were collected
      regarding the child’s food consumption (using the 24-h
      food recall and FFQ), as well as mealtime behaviors (using
      BPFAS). During baseline, data were collected on the inter-
      vention targets identified and on a wide variety of potential

      intervention strategies that the parent could use. At this
      time, a food acceptance hierarchy was also individualized
      for each child based on his individual patterns of accepting
      new foods (see Table 1).

      Following baseline, the researchers met with each child’s
      parent to finalize the goals and to develop an individualized
      intervention plan that would collectively address the child’s
      needs, fit within the family routines, and utilize strategies
      that addressed the family’s strengths (see Table  2). As
      discussed previously, the same two general goals related
      to increasing dietary diversity (the total number of foods
      accepted) and decreasing challenging behaviors were iden-
      tified by all three families. The specific foods introduced
      and the challenging behaviors to target were individual-
      ized for each family. All three of the family’s intervention
      plans included interventions in four areas: food character-
      istics, dyadic communication supports, physical environ-
      ment, and social environment. See Table  2 for a complete
      accounting of the interventions that were selected by each
      family. Food characteristics included strategies to increase
      the variety of foods presented, recognize the sensory char-
      acteristics of the foods being presented, and increase the
      consistency of presentation of less preferred foods. Dyadic
      communication supports included strategies to promote
      communication between the parent and child, including
      giving the child a voice in the process and ensuring that the
      parent was communicating appropriately and effectively.
      Physical environment strategies were designed to ensure
      appropriate positioning and use the physical environment
      to promote attention, compliance, and reciprocal interac-
      tions. Finally, social environment strategies were intended
      to support positive parent–child interactions around meals
      and food, including avoiding power struggles and ensuring
      clear communication. There were several intervention strat-
      egies that were consistent across all three families, but each

      Table 1 Individualized food
      acceptance hierarchies and
      associated point scores

      Point Scores Blake Craig Dominic

      0 Anything lower than “touches
      with tool”

      Anything lower than “toler-
      ates on table/plate”

      Anything lower than
      “touches with tool”

      1 Touches with tool Tolerates on table/plate Tolerates on table/plate
      2 Touches with hand Touches with tool Touches with tool
      3 Touches to face Touches with hand Touches with hand
      4 Touches to lip(s) Touches to face Touches to face
      5 Touches to teeth Touches to lip(s) Touches to lip(s)
      6 Touches with tongue Touches to teeth Touches to teeth
      7 Food hovers in mouth Touches with tongue Touches with tongue
      8 Spits bite out Spits bite out Spits out small bite
      9 Spits bite out after delay Swallows small bite Swallows small bite
      10 Chews once, spits it out Swallows typical bite Spits out typical bite
      11 Chews >1×, spits it out – Swallows typical bite
      12 Swallows bite – –

      569J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      family also had strategies specific to their situation (see
      Table 2).

      Baseline

      During baseline sessions, the parent was asked to provide a
      meal or snack to the child under usual circumstances. The
      researcher(s) observed the meal/snack to collect data on
      parent and child behavior, but no instruction on mealtime
      interventions was provided to the children or their parents.
      Blake and Craig each had five baseline sessions and Domi-
      nic had six.

      Intervention‑Coaching

      During the first part of the intervention phase of the study,
      one researcher coached the parent through the meal/snack
      to increase the child’s food acceptance. Coaching continued
      until the parent demonstrated the ability to independently

      implement at least 90% of the intervention strategies each
      session across three consecutive data sessions. This phase
      of the intervention lasted for 9–21 sessions, depending
      on the needs of the family (Craig = 9, Blake = 11, Domi-
      nic = 21). Strategies such as demonstration, verbal instruc-
      tions, and visual supports were used to teach the parents to
      implement various strategies. Significant efforts were made
      to maintain the interaction between the child and the par-
      ent, so most of the coaching was conducted verbally while
      the parent was implementing the strategy. Occasionally it
      was necessary for the researcher to teach a technique out-
      side of the meal or snack. Parents were asked to implement
      the intervention throughout the week, but were not required
      to document the use of the interventions outside of the data
      collection sessions. The researchers emphasized that the
      parents had ownership of the intervention and were free
      to decide how often to implement it throughout the week,
      with the understanding that more frequent implementa-
      tion would likely lead to faster progress. At the end of each

      Table 2 Components of
      individualized intervention
      plans for each family

      Intervention strategy Child

      Blake Craig Dominic

      Food characteristics
       Offer foods from three food groups X X X
       Select foods he is likely to learn to eat (texture, color, shape, etc.) X X X
       Present both preferred and less-preferred foods at each snack/meal X X X

      Dyadic communication
       Use picture menu or verbal choices for child to select foods to eat X X
       Promote communication during meals X X X
       Use visual supports for “first/then” X X X
       Follow through with use of “first/then” X X X
       Use more commands/statements than requests for less preferred foods X X X
       Use visual food acceptance hierarchy X X X
       Help child appropriately communicate ideas like, “I don’t want that” X X X

      Physical environment
       Eat meal/snack at specified table X X X
       Use appropriate seating (e.g., booster seat) X
       Stay at the table with the child X X X
       Position adults/siblings near child X X
       Remove distractions from environment X X
       Keep TV/tablets off for at least 30 min X
       Increase expectations for time at table X

      Social environment
       Maintain a generally positive tone X X X
       Use positive reinforcement X X X
       Encourage exploring less preferred foods X X X
       Limit to two verbal prompts before helping child meet hierarchy target X X X
       Follow through on expectations you set X X X
       Stay focused on goal of food consumption X X X
       Use siblings as peer models X
       Use token-based system X X

      570 J Autism Dev Disord (2017) 47:564–578

      1 3

      coaching session, the researcher would provide the parent
      with written feedback regarding implementation of the tar-
      get strategies and recommendations for strategies to sup-
      port the child until the next research session.

      As discussed, Table 2 provides an overview of the inter-
      vention strategies that each family included in their inter-
      vention package. Overall most of these strategies have been
      described elsewhere and reflect general strategies used to
      promote behavior change and food acceptance (e.g., use
      of a positive tone throughout the meal, gradually increas-
      ing expectations, etc.). A few elements of the interven-
      tion appear to be somewhat unique to EAT-UP™ and
      require further explanation. First is the use of a verbal or
      visual menu to allow the child to select the less-preferred
      food he wanted for a meal or snack each day, support-
      ing active involvement by both the child and the parent
      in the mealtime. In general, the parent would provide the
      child with two choices of less preferred foods. If the child
      didn’t choose between the two, the parent would make the
      choice. Blake’s family did not select this strategy because
      everyone was expected to eat the same thing and none of
      the children were given a choice of foods. Second was the
      use of a visual hierarchy. These individualized hierarchies
      presented the expectations outlined in Table  1 using color
      photographs (matching approximate age, gender, and race
      of child) and simp

      question

      pplied behavior analysts have a
      rich history of teaching socially

      important behavior to individuals
      with developmental disabilities and autism
      using behavior chaining. A behavior chain
      is a sequence of responses leading to a
      terminal behavioral objective. For example,
      brushing teeth involves responses such as
      picking up the toothbrush and toothpaste,
      squeezing the toothpaste onto the brush,
      bringing the brush into the mouth, brushing
      all of the teeth thoroughly, and rinsing the
      mouth. The order of this sequence is not
      fixed (e.g., the toothpaste can be picked
      up before the toothbrush), but some steps
      must come before others (e.g., toothpaste
      should be on the brush before the teeth are
      brushed). The units of responding within
      a chain are established by developing a
      task analysis, which is the delineation
      of a skill into its essential components
      (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007; Foxx,
      1982). Task analyses specify the response
      components and response sequences
      necessary to teach a complex skill. Task
      analyzed chaining has been used to teach a
      variety of skills, such as mending (Cronin
      & Cuvo, 1979), cooking (Schleien, Ash,
      Kiernan, & Wehman, 1981), completing
      vocational tasks (e.g., Maciag, Schuster,
      Collins, & Cooper, 2000), and following

      picture activity schedules (e.g., MacDuff,
      Krantz, & McClannahan, 1993).

      A variety of response prompts,
      including vocal instruction, modeling,
      and physical guidance, have been used to
      teach chained responding (e.g., Cuvo, Leaf,
      & Borakove, 1978; Glendenning, Adams,
      & Sternberg, 1983). For example, Cuvo
      et al. used vocal instructions, along with
      modeling and physical guidance, to teach
      janitorial skills. Glendenning et al. found
      that vocal prompts were more effective
      when combined with physical prompts
      when teaching vocational tasks (i.e., tying
      strings around boxes). Systematic fading
      of prompts is also important to promote
      prompt-free or independent performance.

      Effectiveness and efficiency of teaching
      are often cited as critical factors in evaluating
      chaining procedures. A procedure is
      considered effective if it leads to acquisition
      of the targeted skill. Efficiency is defined
      as the number of learning trials or time it
      takes to reach criterion performance, as well
      as the number of errors that occur during
      acquisition (Gast, Doyle, Wolery, & Ault,
      1991). Response prompting procedures
      used to teach response chains likely have
      a crucial impact on the effectiveness and
      efficiency of teaching.

      The focus of the current study was on

      the use of physical prompts to teach behavior
      chains. Generally, physical prompts are
      faded using either most-to-least or least-
      to-most techniques, both of which can be
      combined with a time delay. Most-to-least
      prompting consists of a teacher placing
      his or her hands over the learner’s hands
      to guide the learner through the initial
      training trials. A less intrusive prompt, such
      as guiding the learner at the wrist, is used on
      subsequent training trials. The intrusiveness
      of the prompt continues to be faded as long
      as the learner is demonstrating success
      during training trials. With least-to-most
      fading, the teacher allows the learner a brief
      opportunity to respond independently on
      each training trial and then delivers the least
      intrusive prompt if needed. Increasingly
      more intrusive prompts are then delivered
      as necessary for the learner to complete
      each training trial. Time delay refers to
      the amount of time the learner is given to
      engage in the desired response prior to the
      teacher issuing a prompt. Inserting a delay
      to the prompt can be helpful when fading
      physical prompts.

      One strength of behavior analytic
      techniques is that they can be tailored
      to the unique learning characteristics of
      each person. However, there have been
      far too few systematic comparisons of

      A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most
      Prompting on the Acquisition of Solitary Play Skills
      Myrna E . Libby12, Julie S . Weiss1, Stacie Bancroft12 and William H . Ahearn12

      The New England Center for Children1

      Northeastern University2

      Two studies are presented in which common prompting procedures were evaluated while
      teaching children with autism to build Lego® play structures. In the first study, most-to-
      least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompting were compared. All participants learned
      to build the play structures when the teacher used MTL, which was associated with fewer
      errors than LTM. Nonetheless, three participants learned more quickly with LTM. This
      finding suggests that MTL may prevent errors, but it sometimes slows learning. The second
      study compared LTM to MTL without and with a delay (MTLD). MTLD provided an
      opportunity for the child to independently initiate responding but still minimized the
      likelihood of errors. Results showed that acquisition was nearly as rapid when the teacher
      used MTLD as LTM but it produced fewer errors than LTM. Best practice guidelines for
      choosing prompting procedures are proposed.
      Descriptors: autism, behavior chains, play skills, prompting

      A

      ABSTRACT

      37A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      BAIP_1-48.indd 37 4/7/08 2:02:08 PM

      prompting procedures to determine the
      relative efficacy of each. Demchak (1990),
      who reviewed the literature on response
      prompting procedures, made the following
      tentative conclusions for behaviors taught
      through chaining: (a) Most-to-least
      prompting is associated with fewer errors
      than least-to-most prompting; (b) constant
      time delay and least-to-most prompting
      are equally effective in teaching chains, but
      constant time delay is more efficient; and
      (c) more comparative research on prompt
      fading methods would be useful to guide
      practitioners. Many studies have examined
      specific prompting techniques or variants
      of effective strategies since Demchak
      was published. However, very few have
      systematically compared them and no
      definitive conclusions have been made.

      The purpose of the current study was to
      conduct a comparative analysis of common
      prompting techniques for teaching
      behavior chains. The goal was to develop
      a strategy for identifying the most effective
      and efficient prompting procedure for
      learners who require systematic prompting
      to acquire new skills. When conducting
      this type of comparative analysis, special
      consideration must be given to other factors
      that might influence the relative outcomes

      of prompting techniques. One
      such variable is the size and
      complexity of the steps in the
      chain. It can be challenging to
      equate the difficulty or complexity
      of tasks associated with different
      prompting techniques. Previous
      comparison studies have examined
      chains with equal numbers of
      steps or with steps of equal
      difficulty (e.g., Kayser, Billingsley,
      & Neel, 1986; Spooner, 1984;
      Walls, Zane, & Ellis, 1981).
      However, these studies evaluated
      heterogeneous chains (steps with
      different response characteristics),
      so it is likely that task difficulty
      remained a relatively uncontrolled
      variable.

      With this in mind, the
      children in this study were taught
      to manipulate Lego® blocks to
      assemble structures as they would
      during certain types of solitary
      play (e.g., building a house from

      blocks). Increasing appropriate
      solitary play skills was a goal for all of
      the participants. Each step of the chain
      consisted of locating and placing one piece
      in its designated place. The structures
      constructed were arbitrary in that they did
      not resemble real-life structures. This was
      done in an attempt to equate task difficulty
      and control for learning history. That is,
      while our participants may have had varied
      experience playing with Lego® blocks, none
      would have had any prior history with
      the actual structures they were taught to
      construct in the study.

      We compared most-to-least and least-
      to-most prompting in the acquisition of
      these construction tasks. Based on the
      literature review, we assumed that the
      children would make fewer errors with
      most-to-least prompting than with least-
      to-most prompting. However, clinical
      experience led us to believe that the
      prompting procedure that would produce
      the most rapid acquisition (in terms of
      trials to criterion) would likely vary across
      the participants. In the first study, we
      compared most-to-least prompting to least-
      to-most prompting. In the second study,
      we compared least-to-most prompting to
      most-to-least prompting when it did and
      did not include a time delay.

      .

      Study 1 – Method

      Participants

      All five participants were children
      who resided in a private residential
      school for children with autism and
      related disabilities. Each child received
      educational and behavioral services at
      a centrally located school and in their
      various residences. All of the participants
      except Zach were diagnosed with autism.
      Zach was a 15-year-old boy with a primary
      diagnosis of pervasive developmental delay
      (PDD). He communicated through the
      use of a voice output device and a few
      manual signs. He also used a picture-based
      communication system with approximately
      12 pictures. He produced vocal imitations
      and approximations but frequently emitted
      stereotypic vocal utterances. He could
      follow 2-step directions and was grouped in
      a 1:2 teacher-to-student ratio throughout
      his day. Ernie was an 11-year-old boy who
      had minimal expressive and receptive skills
      and communicated through vocalizations
      which approximated word sounds. He
      also used a picture-based communication
      system with approximately 30 pictures and
      had some limited signing. He could follow
      2-step directions and was typically grouped
      in a 1:2 or 1:3 teacher-to-student ratio.

      Tom, a 9-year-old boy, communicated
      vocally and could follow multi-step
      directions. He frequently received 1:1
      staffing for problem behavior but was
      typically grouped 1:2 for academic
      instruction. Ricky was a 9-year-old boy who
      communicated vocally, often in complete
      sentences, and had good receptive skills.
      He could follow multiple-step directions
      and typically received 1:1 staffing due to
      behavior problems. Andy, a 9-year-old boy,
      communicated with the use of a picture-
      based communication system and manual
      signs. Andy had a receptive and expressive
      vocabulary of approximately 10 signs and
      was learning to make full sentence requests
      with picture cues using over 50 pictures. He
      followed 2-step directions and was typically
      grouped in a 1:2 teacher-to-student ratio.

      All participants had received
      developmental testing in conjunction with
      the development of individual educational
      plans and all tested below 3 years of age.
      None were on behavior control medications

      Figure 1. Pictures of the play structures that children
      were taught to build in Study 1.

      38 A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      BAIP_1-48.indd 38 4/7/08 2:02:08 PM

      during the study. Although all of the
      participants exhibited behavior problems,
      none of the target behaviors occurred
      during the study.

      Setting

      Training was conducted either in a
      classroom at the participants’ school or in a
      leisure room at their residence. For a given
      participant, all training sessions occurred in
      the same setting. Materials in the training
      settings included a table, at least two chairs,
      data sheets, pencils, the task materials,
      preferred edibles, and a video camera. More
      than 60% of sessions were videotaped.

      Materials and Task Analyses

      Four play structures made from Lego®
      blocks were developed. The structures
      were randomly assigned to a teaching
      condition, and each structure was
      taught at least once with each response
      prompting technique. The four structures
      were evaluated by six independent raters
      (teachers and administrators) and judged to
      be of equivalent difficulty. Each structure
      consisted of a base upon which seven other
      Lego® pieces were placed. The bases for
      the four structures were the same shape and
      size, but varied in color. The completed
      play structures are shown in Figure 1. For
      each structure, the individual building
      pieces varied in color and shape but only
      one was used for each step in the chain. An
      8-step task analysis that specified the order
      of placement of the pieces was developed
      for each structure. The first step of each
      chain was for the participant to pull the
      base out from a group of the blocks. The
      second and all following steps involved
      picking up and placing one block in the
      order determined by the task analysis.
      (To view the task analyses, visit www.
      abainternational.org/BAinPractice.asp).
      Each structure was taught to the participants
      using a different prompting technique so
      that the effectiveness and efficiency of the
      techniques could be compared.

      Training Procedures

      Prior to the study, a food preference
      assessment based on the methods described
      by Fisher et al. (1992) was conducted to
      identify highly preferred food items for
      each participant. At the beginning of
      each training session, the participant chose

      between two highly preferred
      foods, and the selected item was
      used as a reinforcer for correct
      responses in that session.

      Forward chaining was used
      to teach all chains, regardless of
      the prompting technique. That is,
      each successive step in the chain
      was taught after the participant
      had mastered the previous step
      in the chain. At the beginning
      of each instructional trial, the
      trainer placed the materials in
      front of the participant in a
      random arrangement and said,
      “Let’s play.” Data were collected
      on the number of steps performed
      independently in sequence on
      the last trial of each session, the
      number of errors per session,
      and the number of sessions to
      acquisition. Correct order and
      placement were required to
      score a step as being correctly
      completed.

      Each training session
      consisted of one “probe” trial
      followed by 10 training trials. The
      purpose of the probe trial was to
      allow the learner an opportunity
      to independently construct the
      Lego® structure in the absence
      of prompting and reinforcement.
      The probe trial continued until
      the participant made an error or
      went 15 s without responding. Probe data
      from the very first session served as baseline
      and indicated that none of the participants
      demonstrated any correct steps in the
      chain.

      During training trials, the chain was
      taught using either most-to-least or least-
      to-most prompting. Each prompting
      technique was associated with a different
      but equally difficult response chain. The
      most-to-least prompting hierarchy (MTL)
      included five prompting levels: hand-over-
      hand, hand on the participant’s forearm,
      hand on the participant’s upper arm, light
      touch or shadow by the elbow, and no
      prompt. The prompting levels associated
      with MTL prompting are shown in Figure
      2. The criterion for reducing the level of
      assistance on a step was two consecutive
      correct responses at the designated prompt
      level. Two consecutive errors led to an

      increase in the intrusiveness of the prompt
      used. After two consecutive correct
      independent responses, training moved
      to the next step in the chain. The least-
      to-most prompting hierarchy (LTM) was
      the same as that used for most-to-least but
      in the reverse order (see Figure 2). At the
      training step, the participant was given 2 s
      to respond independently. If there was no
      response, the trainer proceeded to give the
      next most intrusive prompt at 2 s intervals
      until the training step was completed.
      After 2 consecutive independent trials, the
      next step was taught. The training step
      at the start of each session was based on
      performance in the prior session.

      With both prompting techniques,
      any errors made on the training step or on
      previously acquired steps of the chain were
      immediately corrected with hand-over-
      hand guidance. Two consecutive errors

      Least-to-Most

      Independent
      Light touch/shadow
      Manual guidance at upper arm
      Manual guidance at forearm
      Hand over hand

      Most-to-Least

      Hand over hand
      Manual guidance at forearm
      Manual guidance at upper arm
      Light touch/shadow
      Independent

      Most-to-Least with 2-s Delay

      Hand over hand
      2-s delay, manual guidance at forearm
      2-s delay, manual guidance at upper arm
      2-s delay, light touch/shadow
      Independent

      Figure 2. This diagram shows the prompt levels
      associated with the three prompting techniques
      examined across the two studies (least-to-most and
      most-to-least with and without a 2-s delay); The
      most intrusive prompt in the sequence is shown in
      boldfaced type, and the opportunity for independent
      performance during training trials is italicized.

      39A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      BAIP_1-48.indd 39 4/7/08 2:02:08 PM

      on a previously acquired step resulted in
      retraining on that and all subsequent steps.
      Reinforcement consisting of the trainer
      saying, “Good Job,” and delivering a
      preferred food item immediately followed
      correct completion of the trained step.
      After delivery of the reinforcer, the trainer
      completed the remaining (untaught)
      steps in the chain prior to starting the
      next training trial. Thus, a full model was
      displayed to each participant at the end of
      each trial. Each participant was taught by
      only one trainer, and there were different
      trainers across participants.

      The mastery criterion was met when
      all steps of the chain were completed
      independently for two consecutive trials.
      If performance was 100% correct on a
      probe trial, another probe was run. If both
      probe trials were 100% correct, the solitary
      play structure was considered mastered.
      Thus, a structure could either be mastered
      at the start of a session, as indicated by
      performance during the probe, or mastery
      could emerge during the training trials.
      Following mastery, generalization probes
      were conducted by a novel trainer in a
      different room, typically on the same day
      as mastery was achieved. The skill was
      considered generalized if the participant
      completed the structure independently
      during the probe.

      Performance associated with the
      two different prompting techniques was
      compared by rapidly alternating training
      sessions with each chain. This is called a
      multielement or alternating treatments
      design. Sessions were alternated such that no
      more than two sessions of either prompting
      procedure were run consecutively.
      Participants received training sessions one
      to three times per day, 2 to 5 days per week.
      Multiple sessions on one day were separated
      by a minimum of 10 min of unrelated
      activities.

      Interobserver Agreement and
      Procedural Integrity

      Most sessions were videotaped to allow
      interobserver agreement and procedural
      integrity to be measured. Agreement
      on each student’s performance was
      examined on a trial-by-trial basis. Two
      trained observers independently recorded
      participant responses during at least 50%
      of sessions, and reliability was calculated

      by dividing the number
      of agreements by the total
      number of agreements
      and disagreements
      and multiplying by
      100%. Mean agreement
      scores on training step
      performance exceeded
      95% for each participant
      across conditions (range,
      92% to 100%) Another
      critical aspect of teaching
      is procedural integrity or
      the accuracy with which
      the training procedures
      are implemented. The
      accuracy with which the
      trainers set up each training
      step, prompted correct
      responses, and delivered
      reinforcement was assessed
      by trained observers
      during a minimum of
      50% of sessions across
      participants, conditions,
      and trainers. Mean
      accuracy scores were 95%
      (range, 93% to 100%).

      Results and Discussion

      Acquisition graphs in Figures 3
      and 4 show the number of consecutive
      independent steps performed by each
      participant on the last training trial of each
      session, as a function of the prompting
      procedure. Examining the last training trial
      reveals the learner’s performance at the end
      of the training session. If all steps on the
      initial probe trial for a session were 100%
      correct, the data point for that session reflects
      performance on the probe. Three of the
      children (Ernie, Ricky, and Tom) acquired
      the chain in fewer sessions with LTM than
      with MTL. On the other hand, Zach had
      not yet progressed beyond Step 3 of the
      chain associated with LTM prompting when
      he acquired the chain associated with the
      MTL prompting. Therefore, after the 22nd
      LTM session, the prompting technique was
      changed to MTL. Zach then acquired the
      chain in 6 additional sessions. In a similar
      manner, Andy had made no progress on the
      structure being taught using LTM when
      he had acquired the chain taught through
      MTL. At that point, the LTM prompting
      procedure was changed to MTL. Andy

      then acquired that chain in 6 additional
      sessions. All participants immediately
      showed generalized responding to a novel
      therapist and setting.

      Table 1 shows the total number of
      sessions and the average number of errors
      per session that were associated with the
      two prompting techniques. All participants
      made more errors with LTM prompting
      than with MTL prompting. The type of
      errors varied across individuals and did not
      cluster around a specific step of the task
      analysis for a structure.

      To summarize briefly, for two of the
      five participants, MTL was more effective
      and efficient than LTM in teaching solitary
      play chains. However, both prompting
      techniques produced learning for the other
      three participants, although LTM was more
      efficient in all cases. Thus, although MTL
      may not be necessary for all learners, there

      40 A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      Video clips of simulated training sessions
      can be found on the BAP website

      http://www .abainternational .org/BAinPractice .asp

      Participant Most-to-Least Delayed Prompt Least-to-Most

      Total
      Sessions

      Ave. per
      session

      Total
      Sessions

      Ave. per
      session

      Total
      Sessions

      Ave. per
      session

      Ernie 15 2.33 6 2.17 5
      3.4

      Ricky 15 1.6 5 1.4 3 2.3

      Ian 6 0 4 0.5 3 0

      Table 1: Total Number of Sessions and
      Average Number of Errors per Session in Study 1

      Participant Most-to-Least Least-to-Most

      Total Sessions Avg. per
      session

      Total Sessions Avg. per
      session

      Ernie 6 1.2 4 3.8

      Ricky 4 0.5 3 1.3

      Tom 11 0.8 7 2.7

      Zach 22 2.2 23 4.6

      Andy 26 1.6 22 2.2

      Table 2: Number of Sessions and Average Number of
      Errors per Session in Study 2

      BAIP_1-48.indd 40 4/7/08 2:02:09 PM

      were more errors per session with LTM
      prompting than with MTL prompting.
      This finding is consistent with those
      reported previously (Demchak, 1990).
      Overall, results support the use of MTL
      when errors are highly undesirable.

      It is possible that the slower
      acquisition associated with MTL for the
      three participants was simply an artifact
      of the prompting procedure itself. As
      implemented, the prompt fading procedure
      required 8 trials of guided performance (2
      trials of correct responding at each prompt
      level) before independent performance
      was possible, unless it occurred on the
      probe trial. Thus, the physical prompts
      provided to the participants at each step
      may have prevented them from engaging
      in independent responding. Prompt fading
      may have occurred more slowly than was

      necessary for the participants.
      If so, this limitation of MTL could be

      remedied by combining MTL with a time-
      delay procedure. To examine this possibility,
      the trainers delayed the prompt for 2 s
      when using MTL in a second study. This
      allowed for independent performance to be
      demonstrated within the session as soon as
      the participant acquired the step. It could
      be very beneficial to develop a procedure
      that allows the learner to demonstrate a
      response as soon as it is acquired, as with
      LTM, but which also limits errors, as with
      MTL.

      Study 2 – Method

      Participants and Setting

      Ernie and Ricky participated again,
      along with a third participant, Ian. Ian was

      a 9-year-old boy whose primary diagnosis
      was autism. Ian communicated vocally,
      followed 2- and 3-step directions, and
      could expressively label a variety of pictures,
      objects and people. Ian was typically
      grouped in a 1:2 teacher-to-student ratio.
      The setting was the same as that in Study
      1.

      Training Procedures

      All procedures were the same as in
      Study 1 except that 10-step rather than
      8-step solitary play chains were taught. In
      addition, three prompting techniques were
      compared for each participant: LTM, MTL,
      and MTL with a fixed time delay (MTLD).
      The MTLD procedure was identical to
      the MTL procedure except that, on all
      prompting steps except hand-over-hand, the
      experimenter waited 2 s before prompting

      Figure 3. The number of steps of the task analysis performed
      independently during training with most-to-least and least-to-most
      prompting for three participants in Study 1. Each graph shows the
      results for one participant. The solid squares represent the acquisition
      of independent steps for the least-to-most condition. Open squares
      represent acquisition of independent steps for the most-to-least
      condition. The triangles represent the generalization trials.

      41A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      Figure 4. The number of steps of the task analysis performed
      independently during training with most-to-least and least-
      to-most prompting for two participants in Study 1. Each
      graph shows the results for one participant. The solid squares
      represent the acquisition of independent steps for the least-to-most
      condition. Open squares represent acquisition of independent
      steps for the most-to-least condition. The triangles represent the
      generalization trials.

      BAIP_1-48.indd 41 4/7/08 2:02:10 PM

      the participant unless an error was made;
      errors were corrected immediately with
      hand-over-hand guidance (see Figure 2
      for prompt levels). Each participant was
      taught 3 different chains, each of which
      was associated with a different prompting
      technique. Sessions with each technique
      were rapidly alternated, as in Study 1.
      The assignment of chains to a prompting
      procedure was counterbalanced across the
      participants.

      Results and Discussion

      Acquisition graphs in Figure 5 show

      the number of consecutive independent
      steps performed by each participant on
      the last training trial of each session, as a
      function of the prompting procedure. All 3
      participants acquired the chain trained with
      LTM first, followed by the chain trained
      with MTLD and then the chain trained
      with MTL. However, it should be noted
      that acquisition was nearly as rapid when
      the trainer used the MTLD procedure as
      the LTM procedure. Furthermore, both
      MTL and MTLD were associated with
      fewer errors per session than LTM, with the
      exception of Ian who had very few errors

      with any of the prompting techniques (see
      data in Table 2). These findings showed
      that MTLD was just as efficient as LTM in
      producing acquisition yet produced fewer
      errors.

      Conclusions and Guidelines
      for Best Practice

      Developing efficient and effective
      procedures for teaching students with
      autism and other developmental delays is
      fundamental to advancing applied behavior
      analysis as a field. Overall, results of these
      empirical analyses showed that MTL led
      to fewer errors per training session than
      LTM and produced fairly rapid acquisition
      when it was combined with a time delay.
      Furthermore, it was much more effective
      than LTM for two participants.

      Practitioners may want to minimize
      errors because they have been shown
      to impair discrimination learning (e.g.,
      Terrace, 1963). Errors provide no more,
      and perhaps less, feedback than correct
      reinforced attempts. They require additional
      training trials depending on the retraining
      criteria and make training more complex
      for teachers because decisions have to be
      made about resetting training steps and
      prompting levels. Errors also produce a
      lower rate of reinforcement per response,
      which may impair learning. Finally,
      minimizing errors may reduce the likelihood
      of problem behavior during instruction
      (Weeks & Gaylord-Ross, 1983).

      Thus, MTLD may be the best choice
      as a default strategy. Nonetheless, some
      individual differences were found among
      the learners in this study. For example,
      although MTL prompting was the only
      technique that was effective for two
      participants in Study 1, LTM produced the
      most rapid acquisition for the remaining
      children. Based on these findings and those
      of previous studies, the following guidelines
      are recommended for best practice:

      • MTLD is likely the best default response
      prompting technique when a child’s learn-
      ing history is unknown.

      • MTL or MTLD is preferable if errors
      have been found to impede a child’s
      learning or to increase problem behavior;
      however, MTL without a time delay may
      produce slower acquisition even though it
      minimizes errors.

      Figure 5. The number of steps of the task analysis performed independently during training
      with least-to-most prompting and most-to-least prompting with and without a delay for the
      three participants in Study 2. Each graph shows the results for one participant. The solid
      squares represent the acquisition of independent steps for the least-to-most condition. Open
      squares represent acquisition of independent steps for the most-to-least condition. The triangles
      and diamonds represent the generalization trials.

      42 A Comparison of Most-to-Least and Least-to-Most Prompting

      N
      um

      be
      r o

      f S
      te

      ps
      P

      er
      fo

      rm
      ed

      In
      de

      pe
      nd

      en
      tly

      BAIP_1-48.indd 42 4/7/08 2:02:10 PM

      • LTM may be preferable for students who
      have already shown rapid acquisition with
      this prompting technique.

      • Progress should be monitored frequently
      to insure that errors do not stall learning.

      These recommendations indicate
      another important clinical implication of
      the findings: The prompting technique
      should be tailored to the individual learner.
      The procedures used in this study may be
      useful for determining the most effective
      prompting technique for individual
      learners. As demonstrated in this study,
      practitioners who would like to compare
      different prompting strategies for their
      learners should make certain that the tasks
      are of equal difficulty and that the learner
      does not have unequal exposure to the tasks
      prior to the comparison.

      Practitioners should also consider the
      possibility that the most effective prompting
      technique for a learner may vary across the
      types of skills that are being taught. For
      example, a student may readily learn to
      answer questions with LTM prompting but
      require MTL prompting when learning to
      button a shirt. Further research is needed
      to address this issue. In the meantime,
      practitioners should probably conduct
      these comparisons for different skills areas
      with individual learners.

      It should also be pointed out that the
      present data were obtained with participants
      diagnosed with autism, all boys between
      the ages of 9 and 15 who lived in the same
      residential facility. These findings may
      not generalize to other individuals, such
      as those who do not have the diagnosis of
      autism but do have profound intellectual
      disabilities. More research on chaining
      and prompting techniques is necessary to
      inform our practices so that we provide
      our students with the most effective and
      efficient training technology.

      References

      Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
      (2007). Applied behavior a

      Question

      Prior to entering this discussion, review section 4 of the Environmental-Trend Analysis in the Abraham’s textbook.

      As you have learned in this week’s readings, many businesses exist in dynamic markets that pose unique economic, political, and technological challenges. Select a medium- to large-sized, publicly traded corporation that currently exists in a challenging business environment. Refer to the seven common categories of trend analysis as laid out in your textbook: Economic, regulatory/legislative, political, demographic, sociocultural, attitude/lifestyle, and technological. Research the company online by accessing the Mergent University of Arizona Global Campus Library online database which offers company financials, descriptions, history, property, subsidiaries, officers and directors. Also, access the Business  Insights: Global University of Arizona Global Campus Library online database which offers information on global companies and industries. It includes environment analysis, market share data, financial reports, case studies, business news, and company comparison charts. (View the Getting Started With Mergent  Download Getting Started With Mergent and Business Insights: Global  Download Business Insights: Globaldocuments for suggested methods of searching University of Arizona Global Campus Library databases generally, as well as specific advice for searching these two databases). You can always conduct research using credible online sources of corporate financial information, just be sure that wherever you obtain financial information that you cite your source. Use this Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) document for guidance. Choose one of the seven categories to use as a basis of analysis for this discussion. Ensure that the time frame is now and that the challenges are continuing.

      In your initial post of at least 200 words,

      • Provide a general description of the publicly traded company you chose.
      • Describe the challenges facing the company in the chosen category of analysis.
      • Assess its current performance in your chosen category of analysis.
      • Forecast its projected performance in your chosen category of analysis.
      • Evaluate impending opportunities or challenges that result from your environmental scan.

      (NOTE: Incorporate the feedback you receive from your instructor and peers and save your work. It will be part of your Strategic Plan Final Project for this course).

      Question

      Toward a behavior-analytic understanding of jealousy and
      compersion in romantic and sexual relationships
      Glenna Hunter a and August Stockwellb

      aChildren’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada; bChicago, USA

      ABSTRACT
      Jealousy is the emotional response to a real or imagined threat to
      an important relationship, and is a common source of distress
      within romantic and other close interpersonal relationships. In
      contrast, compersion is the experience of joy in response to
      a partner experiencing emotional or sexual attraction toward and
      interactions with another person. In this paper the authors present
      a contingency analysis of jealous responding and identify ways in
      which contingencies may be altered to produce a reduction in
      jealous responding in situations in which this is a targeted goal.
      Contingencies involved in compersive responding are also pro-
      pounded, with suggestions as to how compersive responding
      may be fostered within relationships in which compersion is a goal.

      ARTICLE HISTORY
      Received 3 January 2020
      Accepted 6 September 2021

      KEYWORDS
      Jealousy; compersion;
      monogamy; consensual non-
      monogamy; behavioral
      contingencies; emotion

      I love thee not as something private and personal, which is your own, but as something
      universal and worthy of love, which I have found (Thoreau, 1980, p. 219).

      Jealousy has been a common theme in poetry, prose, and song and a preoccupation of
      romantic couples for centuries. Jealousy has been identified as a common source of
      distress within romantic relationships (Elphinston et al., 2013) when one partner suspects
      that the other is attracted to someone else. Matters of jealousy are frequently the cause for
      couples to seek counseling (De Silva, 1997), and jealousy is particularly problematic when
      it is related to violence and abuse that occurs within relationships (American Medical
      Association, 1992; Dittman, 2005; Hettrich & O’Leary, 2007).

      Jealousy is not the only response that may occur when one’s partner experiences
      sexual or romantic feelings for another person. In contrast, compersion is the experience
      of joy in response to a partner experiencing emotional or sexual attraction toward and
      interactions with another person (Aumer et al., 2014; J. Deri, 2015; Eve, 1985; J. H. Deri,
      2011; Hypatia from Space, 2019; Mogilski et al., 2019). While compersion is little talked
      about in the context of monogamous relationships (though see Aumer et al., 2014 for an
      exception), it is considered particularly important in promoting the well-being of con-
      sensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships (Aumer et al., 2014; J. Deri, 2015; Eve,
      1985; J. H. Deri, 2011; Hypatia from Space, 2019; Wolfe, 2003). CNM relationships are
      those in which partners agree that each may engage in romantic or sexual relationships

      CONTACT Glenna Hunter glennahunter@gmail.com
      The authors would like to thank Deric Toney, Worner Leland, Rivanna Jihan, Jessica Gamba, Sara Beck, and anonymous
      reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.

      EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS
      https://doi.org/10.1080/15021149.2021.1981751

      © 2021 Norwegian Association for Behavior Analysis

      with others, with the full knowledge and consent of all involved (Conley et al., 2013;
      Mogilski et al., 2019). CNM relationships exist in a number of forms which are typically
      categorized based on the degree to which the extra-dyadic relationships are primarily
      sexual in nature, as in the case of swinging and open relationships, or emphasize
      emotional involvement and commitment, as in the case of polyamory (Grunt-Mejer &
      Campbell, 2015).

      While there is a paucity of research on compersion, there is a rich body of research on
      the topic of jealousy spanning a range of theoretical perspectives (Demirtas-Madran,
      2011; Duma, 2009; Pines, 1992), including evolutionary (e.g., Easton et al., 2007), socio-
      logical (e.g., J. Deri, 2015; J. H. Deri, 2011), cognitive (e.g., Bauerle et al., 2002;
      Schumacher & Slep, 2004), and neurobiological (e.g., Harmon-Jones et al., 2009) frame-
      works, each of which have yielded important insights. In contrast, the body of research
      on compersion (e.g., Aumer et al., 2014; Balzarini et al., 2021; Duma, 2009; J. H. Deri,
      2011) is relatively small. Neither jealousy nor compersion have been examined from
      a behavior-analytic perspective.

      What follows is a preliminary foray into understanding jealous and compersive
      responding through a behavior-analytic lens, focused on the direct contingencies1

      involved in these collections of responses. Implications for reducing jealous responding
      are discussed, as well as possible ways of fostering compersive responding in situations in
      which compersion is a desired outcome. In keeping with much of the research on this
      subject, the authors will discuss jealous responding as it occurs in the context of intimate
      relationships but do so with the recognition that any time two people are in an important
      relationship (e.g., friendship and family relationships; Parrot, 1991) the opportunity for
      jealous responding exists, and with the hope that the framework suggested may be
      extended to other types of relationships as well. Furthermore, whereas the degree to
      which jealous responding is perceived to be negative or positive varies across different
      cultures and subcultures, in this paper the authors strive to present an analysis of jealousy
      without negative or positive valence. Instead, they attempt, without judgment, to present
      jealous behavior as a natural response to the contingencies within the relationship.

      Defining jealousy

      Attridge (2013) provides a definition of jealousy standard of those commonly used in
      jealousy research: “an emotional response to the real or imagined threat of losing some-
      thing of value from a romantic relationship” (p. 1). This definition can inform
      a behavior-analytic account of jealousy with further specification of what is meant by
      emotional response, as well as threat to something of value.

      Jealousy: an emotional response

      In a number of studies, researchers have attempted to catalogue specific response
      topographies that characterize jealousy. Typically, participants are first asked to remem-
      ber a situation in which they have felt jealous (e.g., L. Guerrero et al., 1995; L. K. Guerrero
      et al., 2005), or to imagine situations2 that may induce jealousy, such as their partner
      engaging in sex with or falling in love with another person (e.g., Attridge, 2013; Barelds &
      Barelds-Dijkstra, 2007; Marelich, 2002; Salovey & Rodin, 1986). Participants are then

      2 G. HUNTER AND A. STOCKWELL

      asked to list (e.g., L. Guerrero et al., 1995; L. K. Guerrero et al., 2005), or to rate on
      a Likert scale (e.g., Attridge, 2013; Barelds & Barelds-Dijkstra, 2007; Bryson, 1991;
      L. Guerrero et al., 1995; L. K. Guerrero et al., 2005; Marelich, 2002) the actions that
      they did/would do, and the thoughts and feelings that they had/would have in the
      situation. The participants’ responses are then grouped into categories such as those
      found in Table 1.

      Jealousy as described in research is commonly conceptualized as being divisible into
      the components of behavior, cognition and affect (Guerrero et al., 2005), or actions,
      thoughts, and feelings (Kim et al., 2017). In a behavior analytic approach, these three
      components are not viewed as fundamentally separate processes, but rather all are viewed
      as behavioral responses (Anderson et al., 1997). Thoughts and feelings, rather than being
      non-behavioral hypothetical constructs that affect a person’s behavior, are construed as
      private events (i.e., events observable only by one person) that are behavioral responses as
      much as are overt behaviors. While the role of private events in the analysis of behavior
      continues to be a point of discussion between behavior analysts (Anderson et al., 1997;
      Schlinger, 2011), private events are generally afforded no special status, but instead
      viewed as being subject to the same environmental contingencies as overt behaviors
      (Moore, 2000; Skinner, 1957, 1974). Briefly, thinking is behavior, such as talking, that
      typically occurs at a covert level such that it may not be observed by others besides the
      person behaving but that nevertheless is governed by environmental contingencies in the
      same way as overt behavior (Moore, 2000; Skinner, 1957, 1974).3 Feelings are recognized
      as “conditions of the body” (Moore, 2000, p. 50) that come about in response to the
      circumstances under which they occur, and that can thereby be understood through an
      analysis of the contingencies involved. Therefore, the triad of actions (overt behavior),
      thoughts (covert behavior), and feelings (conditions of the body) may be analyzed in
      terms of environmental contingencies.

      A traditional analysis of emotion, which corresponds to a lay understanding of
      emotions, would posit that emotional behavior (e.g., yelling) is caused by the emotion
      itself (e.g., anger) or that emotional behavior is a way of expressing the emotion felt. This
      position is clearly reflected in a study by Guerrero et al. (2005) in which participants were
      asked to remember a situation in which they had felt jealous and to describe the emotions

      Table 1. Categories of jealous responding.
      Response Category Examples

      Negative affect expressiona Showing sadness or anger
      Solution oriented

      communicationa
      Talking with their partner in a constructive way, self disclosure, providing explanations

      for their reaction
      Distributive communicationa Yelling
      Active distancinga Ignoring their partner
      Avoidance or deniala Denying being jealous
      Violent communicationa Threatening their partner
      Surveillance restrictiona Spying on their partner
      Contacting the rivala Telling the rival not to see their partner any more
      Manipulationa Trying to make their partner feel guilty or jealous
      Compensatory restorationa Trying to improve the relationship, trying to become more attractive to their partner
      Violence towards objectsa Breaking objects
      Intropunitiveb Blaming self
      Emotional devastationb Rumination, depression, crying
      Need for social supportb Talking with friends

      aL. Guerrero et al. (1995). bBryson (1991).

      EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 3

      that they had felt as well as the way in which they had communicated with their partner
      about the situation. The authors then correlated the reported behavior with the reported
      emotions and explained the behavior in terms of the emotions. For example, those who
      reported having felt hostile were more likely to report that they had used violence, from
      which the authors concluded that the violence may come about due to underlying
      hostility. This conclusion comes about from circular reasoning: Why are they threatening
      their partner? Because they feel hostile. Why do they feel hostile? Because they are
      jealous. How do you know they are jealous? Because they are threatening their partner.

      A behavior-analytic approach avoids circular reasoning in that emotional behavior is
      not considered to be caused by emotion. Rather, the feeling of jealousy (the privately
      experienced conditions of the body) and the emotional behavior (both covert and overt
      responses) are seen to be the result of the same environmental variables (Moore, 2000;
      Skinner, 1953) but not causal of each other even though they are temporally contiguous.
      That is, a person did not yell because they felt jealous when they found out that their
      partner had kissed someone else, but rather, they yelled and felt jealous when they found
      out that their partner had kissed someone else. An analysis of jealous responding there-
      fore requires an examination of the contingencies between the responses and the
      circumstances under which they occur.

      Jealousy: a response to a threat to something of value

      The definition provided by Attridge (2013) points toward circumstances under which
      a response is considered one of jealousy: the real or perceived presence of a threat to
      a valued aspect of one’s relationship.

      Valued aspect of a relationship
      Many characteristics of a relationship may be valued by those in the relationship, and
      those characteristics which are valued vary across relationships as well as between people
      in a relationship. For example, one person may value time spent working on common
      projects, or the way in which they co-parent with their partner. Another may value the
      way in which they and their partner discuss and share worldviews. While an exploration
      of the variables that determine what a person values in a relationship is beyond the scope
      of this paper, it is important to acknowledge that each person comes to a relationship
      from a different learning history that affects what they value in that relationship.

      A valued aspect of a relationship (VAR) may be identified as some abstract quality of
      the relationship characterized by a set of behaviors and their related reinforcers that
      maintain continued responding specific to that relationship (Hunter & Stockwell, 2019).
      For example, Sternberg (1997), in his Triangle Theory of Love, lists the abstract qualities
      of intimacy, passion, and commitment as components of love that characterize relation-
      ships. Terms such as intimacy, passion, and commitment suggest classes or patterns of
      behavior whose consequences serve as reinforcers. For example, behaviors such as talking
      about feelings, and sharing secrets may fall under the umbrella of intimacy – behaviors
      which may be reinforced by one’s partner responding in kind. Engaging in acts of
      physical affection or sexual interactions with another person that occur at high rates,
      high magnitudes, or both may fall under the term passion. Commitment can be con-
      ceptualized as relationship-related behaviors that persist across time and circumstances,

      4 G. HUNTER AND A. STOCKWELL

      including adverse situations (as in the traditional Christian wedding vows: to have and to
      hold for richer or poorer, in sickness and in health). Another term of particular
      importance to the discussion of jealousy is exclusivity, which refers to certain responses
      that occur only within the specific relationship. For example, physical exclusivity refers to
      the practice of engaging in physically affectionate behavior (e.g., kissing, cuddling, or
      sexual behavior) only with one’s partner, and emotional exclusivity to engaging in certain
      social responses (e.g., self-disclosure, saying “I love you”) only towards one’s partner.

      VARs may also involve reinforcers obtained outside of the interactions between the
      people in the relationship. For example, being in the relationship may bring about an
      increase in social status: community members may interact with the people in the
      relationship in a way that results in increased contact with reinforcement by those in
      the relationship. Practical benefits such as increased financial security or support in child
      rearing may also constitute VARs.

      Throughout this analysis, contact with a VAR refers to contact with another’s VAR-
      related behavior or with opportunities to engage in VAR-related behavior. Under
      circumstances in which VAR-related behavior results in reinforcement, contact with
      a VAR is synonymous with contact with reinforcement (Hunter & Stockwell, 2019).
      The introduction of the acronym VAR does not suggest that any process is in play
      over and above reinforcement; the acronym is used simply as an efficient way of referring
      to specific reinforcers contacted by virtue of being in the relationship.

      Threats to a valued aspect of the relationship
      A threat to a VAR refers to any event or condition that signals a decrease in the frequency
      of another’s VAR-related behavior or in opportunities to engage in VAR-related beha-
      vior, and therefore signals a decrease in reinforcement available. For example, if the
      attention of their partner is a valued aspect of the person’s relationship, the arrival of the
      partner’s friend may constitute a threat to this VAR given a history of the partner shifting
      their attention away from the person and toward the friend. The friend’s arrival signals
      a decrease in the partner’s attention, and thus, in circumstances in which the partner’s
      attention serves as an effective form of reinforcement, the friend’s arrival signals
      a decrease in reinforcement available.

      A threat to a VAR may also be any event or condition that reduces the reinforcing
      effectiveness of contact with one’s partner’s VAR-related behavior or in the consequences
      of one’s own VAR-related behavior. For example, even if physical intimacy is a VAR,
      after one discovers that one’s partner has been cheating, one’s partner’s physical affection
      may no longer function as a reinforcer as it did prior to the discovery of betrayal.

      As Attridge’s (2013) definition of jealousy suggests, the threat may be either real
      or imagined. A real threat may involve environmental events which relate directly to
      a loss in reinforcement (e.g., a partner stating “I want to spend more time with
      other people”), whereas an imagined threat may constitute a situation in which
      there are some, but not all, events present that have preceded that change in the
      past (e.g., a partner spending more time out of town than usual). It is important to
      note that, for either type of threat situation, the person may not have a direct
      history with these environmental events leading to loss of reinforcement and may
      instead be engaging in rule-governed behavior. In the example above, a person may
      not have had a previous partner who began taking more out-of-town trips and then

      EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 5

      disclosed their infidelity; instead, this person may be operating according to the rule,
      “If they take more out-of-town trips, this means they are cheating on me”. This rule
      may have been stated by someone in the person’s verbal community or presented
      through media messages, or it may have been self-generated (see Hayes et al., 1998;
      Rosenfarb et al., 1992; Skinner, 1945).

      Much research into jealousy presumes that exclusivity – be it emotional or sexual or
      both – is the VAR to which a threat would evoke jealous responding (J. H. Deri, 2011).
      Participants in jealousy studies are typically given scenarios to read which depict
      hypothetical situations in which their partner is either engaged in an emotional or
      sexual interaction with someone else (e.g., Attridge, 2013; Marelich, 2002), or else
      asked to imagine such a situation (e.g., Shackelford et al., 2000), and then asked to rate
      how they would respond in such a situation. The underlying assumption upon which
      these studies lie is that any deviation from exclusivity constitutes an act in response to
      which a person would respond with jealousy. This assumption may be valid to many
      people in monogamous relationships but would not necessarily be so for those in CNM
      relationships. Thus, it is important to consider that threats to aspects of the relation-
      ship other than exclusivity may evoke jealous responding. This recognition is impor-
      tant when examining jealous responding that occurs in the context of CNM
      relationships, in which sexual or emotional exclusivity is not a defining aspect of the
      relationship.

      Within any relationship, specific agreements govern the behavior of those in the
      relationship. These agreements serve to maintain the VARs and may be implicit or
      explicitly established by the people in the relationship. As the agreements serve to
      maintain the VARs, any breaking of an agreement constitutes a threat to a VAR and
      may set the occasion for jealous responding. For example, in most monogamous relation-
      ships each person in the relationship agrees implicitly to engage in sexual behavior only
      with the other partner and with no one else; sexual exclusivity is presumed to be a VAR.
      Any situation in which the agreement is broken, such as if one partner engages in sex
      with another person, constitutes a threat to sexual exclusivity, and is likely to lead to
      jealous responding on the part of the other partner. Partners within CNM relationships,
      who agree that each partner may engage in romantic or sexual relationships with other
      people, may establish agreements as to what constitutes acceptable and unacceptable
      behavior regarding each person’s relationships with other people (Cook, 2005; Hardy &
      Easton, 2017; Hypatia from Space, 2019; Veaux & Rickert, 2014; Wolfe, 2003; Wosick-
      Correa, 2010). These agreements are often created through direct and ongoing commu-
      nication (Wosick-Correa, 2010), and established so as to ensure that each person con-
      tinues to contact that which they value in their relationship with their partner. Honest
      communication is one example of a possible VAR. Partners in a CNM relationship may
      agree that it is acceptable for each person to date other people so long as they first talk to
      their partner and that they honestly answer any questions or respond to any concerns
      that their partner may have. If one partner breaks this agreement and dates another
      person without first talking with their partner, or if they lie to their partner about dating
      someone else, this situation would constitute a threat to honest communication, and may
      thus lead to jealous responding on the part of their partner.

      6 G. HUNTER AND A. STOCKWELL

      Contingency analysis of jealous responding

      Emotion, which is suffering, ceases to be suffering as soon as we form a clear and precise
      picture of it.. (Frankl, 1963, p. 117)

      A contingency refers to “the relations between the responses and other events” (Lattal,
      1995, p. 210). While both operant and respondent relations are no doubt involved in
      jealous responding, the current discussion focuses on the operant relations involved, and
      therefore on the roles of events that serve as motivating operations (MOs) and discri-
      minative stimuli (Sds and S∆s) as antecedents, and consequent events that serve to
      reinforce, punish, or extinguish jealous responding.

      Interlocking contingencies

      Situations of jealousy that occur within a relationship involve the behavior of at least two
      people: the person engaging in the jealous response and their partner. The behavior of
      each person in the relationship has an effect on the other, and so, to fully understand
      a person’s jealous responses, one must consider the actions of their partner and vice versa
      (Ridley, 1996). Considering the interlocking contingencies at play for both partners
      mirrors the approach of Toney and Hayes (2017) in their analysis of interpersonal
      conflict, which in turn reflects Skinner’s (1957) handling of verbal interactions.

      The behavior of other people, such as the rival, or other community members (both in
      person and on social network sites like Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, etc.) may also
      play a significant role in how a situation of jealousy unfolds (Martínez-León et al., 2017).
      For example, if a person’s friends respond sympathetically to the person’s accusational
      complaints about their partner, accusational behavior may be maintained. For the sake of
      concision, the behavior of others will not be included in the analysis of jealousy that
      follows, but the authors recognize that a truly complete analysis of certain situations will
      require consideration of others’ behavior as well.

      MOs

      MOs are commonly defined as events or stimulus conditions that alter the reinforcing or
      punishing effects of other events (the value altering effect), and alter the frequency of
      behaviors that are affected by these events as consequence (behavior altering effect;
      Laraway et al., 2003; Michael, 1993). MOs that serve to increase the effectiveness of
      events as reinforcers or punishers are referred to as establishing operations (EOs),
      whereas MOs that serve to reduce the effectiveness of events as reinforcers or punishers
      are referred to as abolishing operations (AOs; Michael, 1993). Recognizing the role of
      MOs aids in analyzing the contingencies involved in both the experience and expression
      of emotions (Lewon & Hayes, 2014; Toney & Hayes, 2017).

      Establishing operations that are pertinent to jealous responding may involve those
      that affect the reinforcing effectiveness of contact with a person’s partner and the
      likelihood of behaviors occurring that produce contact with the partner. For instance,
      the time a person spends with their partner may serve either as an EO or AO with
      regards to further contact with them. Situations not directly related to the

      EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 7

      relationship itself may also serve as EOs or AOs. For example, stressful events at
      work, illness, or conflict within other relationships may serve as EOs that increase the
      effectiveness of contact with a person’s partner as a form of reinforcement and
      increase the likelihood that the person may attempt to contact their partner; in
      contrast, compelling projects at work or positive experiences within other relation-
      ships may serve as AOs. It is important to note that one cannot categorize events as
      EOs or AOs based on the features of the event, but only by their effect on behavior.
      For example, one person faced with a parent’s terminal illness may turn to their
      partner for comfort, whereas another person may withdraw and spend time alone.
      For the first person, this event serves as an EO with regards to contact with the
      partner that increases the likelihood that the person will attempt to contact their
      partner, while, for the second person, this event serves as an AO decreasing such
      a likelihood.4

      Two antecedent factors may be drawn from the definition of jealousy that are
      suggestive of MOs. The first is the presence of a VAR – something that constitutes
      a source of reinforcement, the loss or deprivation of which would serve as an EO – and
      the second is the presence of a threat to the VAR – the presence of which would serve as
      a reflexive EO.

      Deprivation of a VAR as an EO
      In cases where a person experiences a loss of some valued aspect of their relation-
      ship, this relative deprivation functions as an EO for that which was lost. Contact
      with the VAR increases in effectiveness as a reinforcer and behaviors that have led to
      increased contact with that VAR in the past may be evoked. Some forms of jealous
      behavior are suggestive of the effects of this EO. For example, a number of partici-
      pants in a study by Guerrero et al. (2005), when asked to imagine instances in which
      their relationship had been threatened by their partner’s attention to a rival, reported
      that they made efforts to increase their attractiveness to their partner. Plausibly,
      deprivation of the partner’s attention due to the presence of the rival had served as
      an EO increasing the value of attention from their partner and had evoked behavior –
      attractiveness-enhancement – that had in the past resulted in gaining that attention.

      EOs related to aggression
      Decades of research have shown that exposure to aversive stimulation or to extinction
      schedules increases the chance that an organism will engage in aggression (Lewon &
      Hayes, 2014), and that novel functional classes of aggressive behavior can emerge in
      response to an outside party contacting reinforcement when an organism does not have
      contact with reinforcement (Andronis et al., 1997). One interpretation of these findings
      suggests that aversive stimulation and extinction serve as EOs that momentarily establish
      the products of aggression – such as signs of damage to another – as reinforcing (Lewon
      & Hayes, 2014; Michael, 1993; Winston, 2016). Note that damage need not be physical
      damage, but may be signs of emotional hurt as well, such as expressions of guilt, remorse,
      or sincere apologies (Toney & Hayes, 2017; Winston, 2016). Toney and Hayes (2017)
      describe both verbal and non-verbal features of apologies that are generally considered to
      reflect sincerity, such as changes in facial expression, crying, and statements of being in

      8 G. HUNTER AND A. STOCKWELL

      pain, and suggest that these “signs of sufferance” (p. 140) may be that which serves to
      reinforce the aggressive behavior of the person who has been victim of someone’s
      offending (i.e., aversive) behavior.5

      If a person experiences a reduction in contact with some VAR or the presence of
      a threat to the relationship, this aversive situation may serve as an EO that momentarily
      increases the effectiveness of signs of sufferance as a reinforcer, such as signs of guilt,
      remorse or apology from their partner. Furthermore, if a person’s attempts to re-establish
      such contact with the VAR encounters extinction, the likelihood of aggression is
      increased. For example, if a person’s partner is less responsive to their bids for attention
      because the partner’s attention is diverted toward a rival, the person’s bids for attention
      will contact extinction. The reinforcing effectiveness of seeing the partner hurt increases,
      and aggressive behavior is evoked until the partner expresses remorse, or otherwise
      shows signs of sufferance.

      A number of jealous response forms described in the literature (see Table 1) involve
      forms of aggression, such as distributive communication, violent communication and
      violence toward objects (Guerrero et al., 1995). Active distancing and manipulation
      (Guerrero et al., 1995) are less obvious forms of behavior that may inflict suffering on
      the partner. Intropunitive responding (Bryson, 1991) may also be viewed as a form of
      covert, self-inflicted aggression. If this interpretation is correct, an intropunitive response
      may occur when a person whose learning history has resulted in the elimination of
      outwardly aggressive behavior nevertheless experiences conditions (e.g., extinction) that
      establish the results of aggression as reinforcers. Rather than aggressing overtly, the
      person resorts to aggressing covertly (White, 2008).

      Justifying aggression: evidence of betrayal as transitive EO
      A transitive EO is one that establishes another stimulus or event as an effective reinforcer
      or punisher (Michael, 1993). If one event serves as an EO for a second event, it may also
      serve as a transitive EO for establishing those conditions necessary for the second event to
      come about. For example, the message “call your partner right away” establishes speaking
      with one’s partner as a reinforcer, and also serves as a transitive EO momentarily
      establishing access to a phone as a reinforcer and evokes phone-seeking behavior.

      The presence of a threat to the VAR serves as an EO for aggression, but also as
      a transitive EO for evidence of the partner’s wrongdoing – justification for the aggression
      (Winston, 2016). Engaging in aggression toward another person without evidence of
      infidelity or other wrongdoing is more likely to be punished by the denial, indignation,
      and distancing of the other person, not to mention by the disapproval of friends and
      family, than it is to be reinforced. However, under evidence of the partner’s culpability,
      such behavior may be considered justified or even condoned. Confronting one’s partner
      with direct evidence of infidelity is more likely to be reinforced by signs of sufferance
      (e.g., crying, apologizing, etc.) from the partner and by support

      Question

      ESTABLISHING DERIVED TEXTUAL CONTROL IN ACTIVITY
      SCHEDULES WITH CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

      CAIO F. MIGUEL, HEEJEAN G. YANG, HEATHER E. FINN, AND
      WILLIAM H. AHEARN

      NEW ENGLAND CENTER FOR CHILDREN

      NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY

      Activity schedules are often used to facilitate task engagement and transition for children with
      autism. This study evaluated whether conditional discrimination training would serve to transfer
      the control from activity-schedule pictures to printed words (i.e., derived textual control). Two
      preschoolers with autism were taught to select pictures and printed words given their dictated
      names. Following training, participants could respond to printed words by completing the
      depicted task, match printed words to pictures, and read printed words without explicit training
      (i.e., emergent relations).

      DESCRIPTORS: activity schedules, autism, conditional discrimination, derived stimulus
      relations, stimulus equivalence

      _______________________________________________________________________________

      Activity schedules are commonly used to cue
      children diagnosed with autism to perform tasks
      independently (McClannahan, MacDuff, &
      Krantz, 2002). Activity schedules usually consist
      of binders with one picture per page that
      children are taught to open, turn the pages, look
      at the pictures, and engage in the corresponding
      task (MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan,
      1993; McClannahan & Krantz, 1999). When
      children start learning to read, it may be
      developmentally appropriate to replace the
      pictures with printed words. Although McClan-
      nahan and Krantz recommend using within-
      stimulus fading for this task, conditional
      discrimination training (i.e., matching to sam-
      ple, MTS) may be a viable alternative for
      transferring control from pictures to printed
      words in activity schedules (Lalli, Casey, Goh,

      & Merlino, 1994). One potential advantage of
      an MTS procedure is the possibility of
      emergence of untaught responses (i.e., stimulus
      equivalence). If taught to select pictures when
      given the dictated names (AB) and printed
      words when given the same dictated names
      (AC), participants may match pictures and
      printed words (BC, CB) and label pictures
      (BD) and printed words (CD) without direct
      training (Sidman, 1994).

      Rehfeldt and colleagues have demonstrated
      that learning to relate dictated words to their
      corresponding pictures and printed words via
      MTS discrimination training resulted in accu-
      rate mands using printed words instead of
      pictures (Rehfeldt & Root, 2005; Rosales &
      Rehfeldt, 2007). Other emergent relations were
      also evident without direct training, including
      matching words to pictures, pictures to words,
      and naming pictures and words. Sidman (2004)
      has suggested that matching words and pictures
      is a prerequisite for reading with comprehen-
      sion; thus, MTS seems to be an efficient way to
      teach socially important skills that should be
      evaluated with children with autism.

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
      use of MTS conditional discrimination training
      to replace pictures with text in activity schedules
      of children with autism (i.e., derived textual

      Caio Miguel is now at California State University,
      Sacramento. Heather Finn is now at Cabrillo Unified
      School District, Half Moon Bay, California. We thank
      Rebecca McDonald and the staff in the Intensive
      Instruction Program at NECC for their onsite support,
      as well as Danielle LaFrance for her comments on a
      previous version of this manuscript. Special thanks go to
      Linda LeBlanc for her invaluable editorial assistance.

      Address correspondence to Caio Miguel, Department of
      Psychology, California State University, Sacramento, 6000
      J Street, Sacramento, California 95819 (e-mail: miguelc@
      csus.edu).

      doi: 10.1901/jaba.2009.42-703

      JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2009, 42, 703–709 NUMBER 3 (FALL 2009)

      703

      control). Participants who could follow picture
      schedules were taught to select pictures and
      printed words given their dictated names fol-
      lowed by an evaluation of their ability to follow a
      textual activity schedule. Reading comprehension
      was also assessed by testing to see if children could
      match pictures to printed words (and vice versa)
      and read the words out loud.

      METHOD

      Participants

      Two 6-year-old children who had been
      diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder
      participated in the study. Ben spoke in three- to
      five-word sentences. Dennis spoke in two- to
      four-word sentences that were almost all prompt-
      ed. Both had a very limited sight-word vocabulary
      (i.e., few correct vocal labels for written words).

      Setting and Stimulus Materials

      Sessions were conducted in a secluded work
      area of the participants’ preschool classroom.
      Materials included a three ring binder (11.5 cm
      by 16.5 cm) with one strip of hook-and-loop
      tape on each of six pages (i.e., activity schedule),
      a stimulus placement board (50 cm by 19 cm)
      with three strips of hook-and-loop tape, and 12
      laminated cards (5 cm by 7 cm). The 12 cards
      consisted of six digital photographs of preferred
      items and six cards with their corresponding
      printed names in Times New Roman 40-point
      font on white backgrounds. All items and
      pictures had previously been trained in picture
      activity schedules using the procedures outlined
      by McClannahan and Krantz (1999). Partici-

      pants had previously been taught to tact each
      item and picture with 100% accuracy using a
      prompt delay procedure. Two sets of preferred
      items and activities were identified via prefer-
      ence assessments (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996).
      Ben’s Set 1 items included a puzzle, a robot toy,
      and crackers; the Set 2 toys included a shape
      sorter, a file-folder MTS activity, and chocolate
      candies. Dennis’ Set 1 items included a garage
      play set, an Etch-a-Sketch, and a Magna
      Doodle; the Set 2 items were a wooden pizza
      play set, a pretend medical kit, and chips.

      Experimental Design and Measurement

      The effects of the MTS conditional discrim-
      ination training on completion of textual
      activity schedules were evaluated using a
      concurrent multiple-baseline design across two
      sets of three pictures and toys. All six words
      were on the schedule in each session but
      training for one three-item set commenced
      before training of the other. In addition, pre-
      and posttests were conducted to assess emergent
      stimulus relations. The order of conditions was
      as follows: emergent relations pretests, textual
      activity-schedule baseline, conditional discrim-
      ination training, textual activity-schedule post-
      training, and emergent relations posttests (see
      Table 1).

      Observers scored whether the presence of
      printed words on the activity schedule (i.e.,
      derived textual activity control) occasioned
      correct independent completion of an activity
      that consisted of looking at a printed word,
      retrieving the corresponding item from an array
      (Ben) or bookshelf (Dennis), and either con-

      Table 1

      Order of Training and Testing Conditions

      Condition Relations Trained or tested

      Emergent relations pretest CB, BC, CDa Tested
      Textual activity baseline C task completion Tested
      Conditional discrimination training AB, AC, and mixed Trained
      Textual activity posttraining C task completion Tested
      Emergent relations posttest CB, BC, CD Tested

      a A 5 dictated word, B 5 picture, C 5 printed word, D 5 participant’s vocal response.

      704 CAIO F. MIGUEL et al.

      suming or completing it before flipping to
      another page. The percentage of correct inde-
      pendent responses was calculated by dividing
      the number of correct responses by the total
      possible number of responses per set (three).
      Observers also scored selections and oral
      labeling responses during emergent relations
      tests as correct or incorrect. The percentage of
      correct responses was calculated by dividing the
      number of correct responses by the total
      possible number of responses per block (nine).
      A second independent observer scored responses
      during 33% and 60% of the sessions for Ben
      and Dennis, respectively. Each trial was scored
      either as an agreement (i.e., identical observer
      record) or a disagreement. Point-by-point
      agreement was calculated by dividing the
      number of agreements by the sum of agree-
      ments and disagreements, and this ratio was
      converted to a percentage. Mean interobserver
      agreement was 92% (range, 78% to 100%) for
      Ben and 100% for Dennis.

      Procedure

      Emergent relations pre- and posttests. Relations
      between pictures and printed words were tested
      using a typical visual-visual MTS task. The
      experimenter presented one stimulus (sample),
      and the participant was required to point to the
      sample prior to the presentation of the
      comparisons (i.e., observing response). The
      experimenter then presented three comparisons
      attached to the stimulus placement board and
      asked the participant to ‘‘match.’’ Testing
      occurred under extinction, in which correct
      responses were never reinforced and incorrect
      responses or no response for 5 s resulted in the
      presentation of the next trial. No additional
      instructions or prompts were provided.

      Testing was arranged in nine-trial blocks in a
      predetermined order in which samples were each
      presented three times and comparison stimuli
      served as the correct comparison once on the
      right, once in the middle, and once on the left of
      the bottom array. Emergent conditional relations

      were tested along with a socially important
      topography-based response (i.e., reading aloud).
      First, printed words served as the samples and
      pictures served as the comparisons (CB). Next,
      pictures served as the sample and printed words
      served as comparisons (BC). Emergent textual
      behavior (i.e., reading aloud) in the presence of
      printed words was also tested in nine-trial blocks
      in which each printed word was presented three
      times with a pointing response and the question,
      ‘‘What is this?’’ (CD). The criterion for evidence
      of emergent relations was set at eight of nine
      (89%) correct trials during a testing block.

      Textual activity baseline and posttraining
      probes. All six pictures in the child’s activity
      schedule were replaced with printed words.
      Ben’s toys and edible items were placed on a
      table in front of him. Dennis’ materials were
      stored on shelves, and he had already learned to
      retrieve the items. The experimenter presented
      the textual activity schedule and said, ‘‘Time to
      use your schedule.’’ The experimenter sat on a
      chair approximately 3 m away for data-collec-
      tion purposes. No adult-mediated reinforce-
      ment was provided during the session. Each
      session consisted of one presentation of the
      activity schedule. The order of presentation of
      printed words varied across sessions. Correct
      responses consisted of completing the activity
      displayed in the textual stimulus (i.e., printed
      word). Session length varied depending on the
      amount of time required for completing each
      activity or consuming the item, but it never
      exceeded 20 min. Although sessions would have
      been terminated if all tasks had not been
      completed within 25 min, this never happened.

      Conditional discrimination training. For each
      trial, the experimenter presented the vocal
      sample (A) followed immediately by the stimulus
      board with the three comparisons (i.e., auditory-
      visual MTS). The experimenter cued responses by
      pointing to the correct comparison at a series of
      five progressive delays (0 s, 1 s, 2 s, 3 s, 4 s, and
      no prompt) after the presentation of the sample.
      Criterion to progress through prescribed delays

      DERIVED TEXTUAL CONTROL 705

      Figure 1. Percentage of correct responses during baseline and posttraining textual activity probes (i.e.,
      correspondence between order of printed activity and engagement in activity).

      706 CAIO F. MIGUEL et al.

      Figure 2. Percentage of correct responses during emergent relations tests for Stimulus Sets 1 and 2. Emergent
      relations consisted of CB (selecting the picture in the presence of the printed word), BC (selecting the printed word in the
      presence of the picture), and CD (reading the printed word).

      DERIVED TEXTUAL CONTROL 707

      was two consecutive nine-trial blocks with eight of
      nine correct responses. All correct preprompt
      responses resulted in praise and tokens that could
      be exchanged for preferred items at the end of the
      session. Incorrect responses (i.e., incorrect selec-
      tions prior to or after the prompt, no selection
      within 5 s) resulted in re-presentation of the same
      trial at a 0-s delay. Trials were separated with 3-s
      intertrial intervals. First, the participant matched
      dictated words to their corresponding pictures
      (AB), followed by matching dictated words to
      their corresponding printed words (AC). Then
      mixed training was conducted with interspersing
      trials of the AB and AC relations. The mastery
      criterion for each relation and the mixed training
      was two consecutive nine-trial blocks with eight of
      nine correct unprompted responses (89% accu-
      racy).

      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

      Figure 1 depicts participants’ baseline and
      posttraining performances during textual activ-
      ity probes. Dennis’ baseline percentage of
      activities completed on both sets was low, and
      Ben’s baseline percentage of activities completed
      was variable, with increases in accuracy in
      baseline for the Set 2 items as he mastered the
      Set 1 items (i.e., three of the six activities were
      eliminated). These results suggest a lack of
      specific textual control over participants’ behav-
      ior prior to MTS training. Ben mastered the
      conditional discrimination tasks in 261 trials for
      Set 1 and 153 trials for Set 2, and Dennis
      mastered the conditional discrimination tasks in
      81 trials for Set 1 and 99 trials for Set 2. During
      the posttraining activity probes, both partici-
      pants responded accurately across the stimulus
      sets, with a few errors by Ben. These results
      suggest that the conditional discrimination
      procedure was effective in transferring control
      from the pictures to printed words. In other
      words, neither child could consistently follow a
      text-based activity schedule during baseline but
      both could do so after MTS training on related
      skills.

      During emergent relations pretests (Fig-
      ure 2), both participants scored below chance
      levels for all relations on Set 1 and Set 2. Higher
      accuracy scores occurred for the BC and CB
      relations for Set 2 for both participants, but
      these relatively high pretest scores were still
      below the success criterion and were not
      associated with effective use of the textual
      activity schedules. Emergent relations posttest
      performances showed that both participants
      matched words to pictures and pictures to
      words with at least 89% accuracy. Participants
      also read all printed words without direct
      training (CD).

      In summary, after learning to match dictated
      words to pictures (AB) and dictated words to
      printed words (AC), children with autism
      responded to printed words in the same way
      that they responded to pictures. In addition,
      participants matched printed words to pictures
      (CB) and pictures to printed words (BC) and
      read the printed words aloud (CD) without
      direct training. The fact that participants were
      able to match pictures to printed words suggests
      that they were responding to the printed words
      with comprehension (Sidman, 1994).

      Future research should further evaluate the
      effectiveness of the conditional discrimination
      procedure and compare it to within-stimulus
      fading in order to determine which of these
      strategies is more efficient and effective when
      transferring the control from pictures to printed
      words in activity schedules, as well as whether
      stimulus fading would yield any form of
      emergent responding.

      REFERENCES

      DeLeon, I. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Evaluation of a
      multiple-stimulus presentation format for assessing
      reinforcer preferences. Journal of Applied Behavior
      Analysis, 29, 519–533.

      Lalli, J. S., Casey, S., Goh, H., & Merlino, J. (1994).
      Treatment of escape-maintained aberrant behavior
      with escape extinction and predictable routines.
      Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 705–
      714.

      708 CAIO F. MIGUEL et al.

      MacDuff, G. S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E.
      (1993). Teaching children with autism to use
      photographic activity schedules: Maintenance and
      generalization of complex response chains. Journal of
      Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 89–97.

      McClannahan, L. E., & Krantz, P. J. (1999). Activity
      schedules for children with autism: Teaching indepen-
      dent behavior. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

      McClannahan, L. E., MacDuff, G. S., & Krantz, P. J.
      (2002). Behavior analysis and intervention for adults
      with autism. Behavior Modification, 26, 9–27.

      Rehfeldt, R. A., & Root, S. L. (2005). Establishing derived
      requesting skills in adults with severe developmental
      disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38,
      101–105.

      Rosales, R., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2007). Contriving
      transitive conditioned establishing operations to
      establish derived manding skills in adults with severe
      developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior
      Analysis, 40, 105–121.

      Sidman, M. (1994). Equivalence relations: A research story.
      Boston: Authors Cooperative.

      Received March 21, 2008
      Final acceptance September 8, 2008
      Action Editor, Linda LeBlanc

      DERIVED TEXTUAL CONTROL 709

      question

      AN EVALUATION OF THE GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME IN
      KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS

      JEANNE M. DONALDSON AND TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER

      UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

      TANGALA KROUS AND SUSAN DOWNS

      DAVENPORT, IOWA, SCHOOL DISTRICT

      AND

      KERRI P. BERARD

      UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

      The good behavior game (GBG) is a classwide group contingency that involves dividing the class
      into two teams, creating simple rules, and arranging contingencies for breaking or following
      those rules. Five kindergarten teachers and classrooms participated in this evaluation of the
      GBG. Disruptive behavior markedly decreased in all five classrooms as a result of the
      intervention. This study extends the GBG literature by systematically replicating the effects of
      the GBG with the youngest group of students to date.

      Key words: group contingencies, classroom management, disruptive behavior

      _______________________________________________________________________________

      Implementation of individualized behavior
      plans in large general education classrooms can
      be extremely difficult for teachers, creating a
      need for classwide behavior-management strat-
      egies that are easy for teachers to implement and
      effective for most students. One classwide
      behavior-management strategy that has been
      primarily implemented and evaluated for first
      through fifth grade children is the good
      behavior game (GBG). Because of its simplicity
      and evidence of long-term effects (Kellam et al.,
      2008; Kellam, Ling, Merisca, Brown, &
      Ialongo, 1994), the GBG has been termed a
      ‘‘behavioral vaccine’’ (Embry, 2002). The GBG
      is even recommended by the Surgeon General
      as a Promising Program for prevention of youth

      violence (U.S. Department of Health and
      Human Services, 2001).

      The GBG is an interdependent group
      contingency that involves dividing the class
      into teams, creating simple rules, and arranging
      contingencies for breaking or following those
      rules. Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf (1969)
      conducted the first empirical evaluation of the
      GBG in one fourth-grade classroom. Out-of-
      seat and talking-out responses were substantially
      reduced as a result of the intervention. Several
      studies have since evaluated the GBG and
      modifications of the GBG (see Tingstrom,
      Sterling-Turner, & Wilczynski, 2006, for a
      review). Replication of the GBG with students
      younger than first grade would provide impor-
      tant information on the generality of the
      procedure because kindergarten represents the
      entry level of schooling for many children.
      Experience with the GBG may establish
      histories of appropriate behavior and rule
      following when entering school. Presumably,
      such effects could have longer term implica-
      tions, and some evidence exists to support that

      Address correspondence to Timothy R. Vollmer,
      Department of Psychology, University of Florida, P.O.
      Box 112250, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (e-mail: vollmera@
      ufl.edu).

      doi: 10.1901/jaba.2011.44-605

      This study was funded by the Davenport Community
      School District in Davenport, Iowa. We would like to
      thank the principals and teachers at the three schools in
      which the study was conducted.

      JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2011, 44, 605–609 NUMBER 3 (FALL 2011)

      605

      notion (Embry, 2002). Thus, the purpose of
      this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a
      modification of the GBG on the disruptive
      behavior of kindergarten students.

      METHOD

      Participants and Settings

      Five kindergarten teachers at three elementa-
      ry schools in an Iowa public school district
      volunteered to participate as implementers. The
      classes were general education classrooms with
      15 to 22 students each, totaling 98 students.
      Overall, the classrooms were 53% female and
      69% white, 12% black, 9% Hispanic, 8%
      biracial, 1% Asian, and 1% American Indian.
      All sessions occurred in the teachers’ classrooms
      during group instruction. During group in-
      struction, students were expected to sit on a
      carpet in front of the teacher. Group instruction
      occurred at least twice per day in each classroom
      (typically for reading and math) and varied in
      duration from approximately 10 to 35 min.

      Target Responses, Data Collection, and
      Interobserver Agreement

      Target responses and response definitions
      were developed by the experimenters in close
      collaboration with the teachers. Students were
      considered to be out of seat if they were not
      sitting with their legs crossed on their spot on
      the carpet and facing forward. Students were
      considered to be talking out of turn if they made
      any vocalization without being called on by the
      teacher, unless the teacher indicated that all
      students could call out answers. Students were
      considered to be touching another student if their
      hands or feet made contact with another
      student.

      During baseline and teacher implementation
      phases, an observer collected data on the
      frequency of each of the three target responses
      for all individuals in the class (individual
      student data were not isolated) using a
      computer program designed for data collection
      in real time. During experimenter implementa-

      tion (described below), the observer served as
      the implementer and scored behavior by writing
      hatch marks on a dry-erase board that was
      visible to the students.

      A second observer recorded data during 35%
      of sessions for Teacher 1, 15% for Teachers 2
      and 3, 20% for Teacher 4, and 11% for
      Teacher 5. Total agreement scores were calcu-
      lated by dividing the smaller total score by the
      larger total score and multiplying by 100%.
      Total agreement was used (rather than interval-
      by-interval methods) because total scores were
      the only data collected by one observer during
      sessions in which an experimenter was imple-
      menting the GBG (and having a total of three
      additional adults in the room was viewed as too
      obtrusive, too impractical, or both). Mean total
      agreement was 84% (range, 60% to 94%), 92%
      (range, 82% to 97%), 80% (range, 56% to
      100%), 81% (range, 56% to 95%), and 86%
      (range, 67% to 98%) for Teachers 1, 2, 3, 4,
      and 5, respectively. The lower scores were
      considerably lower than most scores and were
      obtained during baseline when extremely high
      rates of disruptive behavior occurred.

      Design and Procedure

      A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design
      across classrooms was used to evaluate the
      effectiveness of the GBG.

      Baseline. During baseline, the teacher in-
      structed the class as usual, and students were
      allowed to sit in spots of their choosing. The
      students were not told what the observer was
      recording and received no feedback from the
      observer.

      Good behavior game. Each class was divided
      into two teams by the teacher. Teachers were
      asked to divide the teams in such a way that
      both teams were equally likely to win. That is,
      students whose behavior the teachers had
      already identified as problematic were evenly
      divided between the two teams. Prior to starting
      the game, the students were assigned spots on
      the carpet, and an experimenter explained to the
      class the rules of the game, how to win, and the

      606 JEANNE M. DONALDSON et al.

      reward for the winning teams. Immediately
      before playing the game each session, the
      children were reminded of the rules and the
      reward for the winners. The rules of the GBG
      were to sit with legs crossed, to speak only when
      called on or when the teacher indicated that
      everyone could respond, and to keep hands and
      feet to oneself. A team won the game by having
      fewer points than the other team, or both teams
      won if they both met a set criterion selected by
      the teacher that was at least an 80% reduction
      from baseline (no more than 15 points for
      Teacher 1; 10 points for Teachers 2, 4, and 5;
      and 5 points for Teacher 3). Rewards were
      selected by each teacher and included snacks
      (e.g., cheese crackers, yogurt snacks, fruit
      snacks), stickers, small toys, extra recess, and
      extra free time.

      Initially, an experimenter implemented the
      GBG while the teacher continued the lesson.
      Eventually, the teacher implemented the game
      while teaching the lesson (recall that all baseline
      sessions were conducted by the teacher). Scores
      were posted on a dry-erase board next to the
      teacher in a location that was visible to all
      students. When a student broke a rule, the
      teacher stated the rule and which team was in
      violation (e.g., ‘‘Team 1 needs to raise a hand to
      talk’’) and made a hatch mark on the dry-erase
      board. The GBG was played every time the class
      came to the carpet for group instruction.
      Follow-up data were collected in Teacher 3’s
      classroom 1 month after the experimenter left
      the classroom.

      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

      Figure 1 shows the rate (responses per
      minute) of disruptive responses for all students
      in each class. During baseline, relatively high
      and stable levels of disruptive behavior were
      observed in all classrooms (Ms 5 13, 5, 4, 7,
      and 8 responses per minute for Teachers 1, 2, 3,
      4, and 5, respectively). Disruptive behavior
      decreased in all classrooms following imple-
      mentation of the GBG (Ms 5 2, 1, 1, 2, and 1

      responses per minute for Teachers 1, 2, 3, 4,
      and 5, respectively). A new student entered
      Teacher 2’s classroom and initially refused to
      play the GBG the day Teacher 2 began
      implementing the GBG herself. The new
      student gradually began to join the class for
      group instruction and eventually played the
      GBG successfully. Teacher implementation of
      the GBG was monitored during every session to
      ensure that the rules and rewards were stated
      and rewards were provided to the winning
      teams contingent on meeting the criteria for
      earning the rewards. Treatment integrity data
      were collected while the teachers implemented
      the GBG and were calculated by comparing the
      teachers’ total number of hatch marks to the
      total instances of disruptive behavior recorded
      by an observer. Treatment integrity averaged
      60% across all five classrooms. Although
      teachers’ implementation integrity was lower
      than what might be hoped, it is important to
      note that these levels were enough to maintain
      the intervention effects. The students did have a
      history of playing the GBG with an experi-
      menter before the teachers began playing the
      GBG, which may have been necessary for the
      GBG to be so effective when treatment integrity
      declined. One area for future research could
      involve systematically evaluating the effects of
      changes in treatment integrity on the effective-
      ness of the GBG.

      Teachers easily transitioned to playing the
      GBG in their classrooms while teaching without
      compromising the effectiveness of the GBG.
      These results were similar to those produced
      with older children (e.g., Barrish et al., 1969;
      Harris & Sherman, 1973) and provide further
      evidence that the GBG is a simple and effective
      classroom-management technique. Also, be-
      cause some of the classrooms participated in
      the study for several months, the longer term
      effectiveness of the GBG was demonstrated. In
      fact, after several weeks of exposure to the GBG,
      Teachers 2, 3, 4, and 5 asked the students to
      vote on whether they would like to play the

      GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME 607

      Figure 1. Total rate of disruptive behavior, including out of seat, talking out of turn, and touching, across sessions
      for each classroom. Teacher implementation of the GBG began after the dashed vertical line. Unique features in the data
      for Teachers 2 and 3 are indicated by arrows.

      608 JEANNE M. DONALDSON et al.

      GBG for the rest of the year. Of the students in
      classrooms that participated in the social
      validity assessment (students for Teachers 2, 3,
      4, and 5), 78% voted to continue playing the
      GBG for the rest of the year. Some students
      even played the GBG during free time; one or
      two students played as teachers and provided
      hatch marks for students who were breaking the
      rules. Data collection continued in Teacher 1’s
      classroom until the end of the year, so her
      classroom was not asked if they wanted to
      continue to play. Teachers 2, 3, 4, and 5 also
      implemented the GBG for the remainder of the
      school year, independent of participation in this
      study. All teachers continued to play the GBG
      the following school year.

      The GBG could be conceptualized as a type
      of differential reinforcement of low rates of
      responding schedule in which reinforcers are
      delivered contingent on the occurrence of fewer
      than a particular number of responses within a
      specified time period (Dietz & Repp, 1973).
      However, reinforcer assessments were not
      conducted to determine whether the rewards
      provided would actually function as reinforcers
      for any specific behavior for any or all of the
      children in the classrooms. Also, the GBG
      includes several components, making it difficult
      to determine which of the basic principles
      underlie its effectiveness. Rewards may have
      functioned as reinforcers for appropriate behav-
      ior, hatch marks may have functioned as
      punishers for disruptive behavior, and social
      praise or scolding from teammates could also
      have functioned as reinforcers or punishers.

      One limitation that should be addressed in
      future research is that data on individuals’
      responses were not isolated. Data on the change
      in behavior of each individual student could be
      important, but because there were 15 to 22
      students in each classroom, collecting data on
      each individual student was not feasible.
      Although the low rates of disruptive behavior
      during the GBG make it likely that all or most
      students who were engaging in disruptive

      behavior during baseline responded to the
      intervention, the extent to which the GBG
      changed the behavior of each individual student
      is unknown. Another area for future research is
      to evaluate the effects of the GBG on academic
      performance. Because the GBG is typically
      played during instructional time, a decrease in
      disruptive behavior during this time suggests
      that the students should have fewer distractions
      from the lesson (e.g., the class is quieter so the
      teacher can be heard). Further support would be
      provided for the use of the GBG if academic
      improvements were demonstrated as a result.

      REFERENCES

      Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M. S., & Wolf, M. M. (1969).
      Good behavior game: Effects of individual contin-
      gencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior
      in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2,
      119–124.

      Dietz, S. M., & Repp, A. C. (1973). Decreasing classroom
      misbehavior through the use of DRL schedules of
      reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6,
      457–463.

      Embry, D. D. (2002). The good behavior game: A best
      practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine.
      Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5,
      273–297.

      Harris, V. W., & Sherman, J. A. (1973). Use and analysis
      of the ‘‘good behavior game’’ to reduce disruptive
      classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior
      Analysis, 6, 405–417.

      Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N.
      S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., et al. (2008). Effects of a
      universal classroom behavior management program in
      first and second grades on young adult behavioral,
      psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol
      Dependence, 95S, S5–S28.

      Kellam, S. G., Ling, X., Merisca, R., Brown, C. H., &
      Ialongo, N. (1994). The effect of the level of
      aggression in the first grade classroom on the course
      and malleability of aggressive behavior in middle
      school. Development and Psychopathology, 10,
      165–185.

      Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski,
      S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969–2002.
      Behavior Modification, 30, 225–253.

      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001).
      Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General.
      Rockville, MD: Author.

      Received April 27, 2010
      Final acceptance September 27, 2010
      Action Editor, Michael Kelley

      GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME 609

      <<
      /ASCII85EncodePages false
      /AllowTransparency false
      /AutoPositionEPSFiles true
      /AutoRotatePages /None
      /Binding /Left
      /CalGrayProfile (Dot Gain 30%)
      /CalRGBProfile (None)
      /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Sheetfed Coated v2)
      /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1)
      /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Error
      /CompatibilityLevel 1.4
      /CompressObjects /Off
      /CompressPages true
      /ConvertImagesToIndexed false
      /PassThroughJPEGImages true
      /CreateJobTicket false
      /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default
      /DetectBlends true
      /DetectCurves 0.1000
      /ColorConversionStrategy /LeaveColorUnchanged
      /DoThumbnails false
      /EmbedAllFonts true
      /EmbedOpenType false
      /ParseICCProfilesInComments true
      /EmbedJobOptions true
      /DSCReportingLevel 0
      /EmitDSCWarnings false
      /EndPage -1
      /ImageMemory 1048576
      /LockDistillerParams false
      /MaxSubsetPct 100
      /Optimize false
      /OPM 1
      /ParseDSCComments false
      /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true
      /PreserveCopyPage true
      /PreserveDICMYKValues true
      /PreserveEPSInfo true
      /PreserveFlatness true
      /PreserveHalftoneInfo false
      /PreserveOPIComments false
      /PreserveOverprintSettings true
      /StartPage 1
      /SubsetFonts true
      /TransferFunctionInfo /Apply
      /UCRandBGInfo /Remove
      /UsePrologue false
      /ColorSettingsFile ()
      /AlwaysEmbed [ true
      ]
      /NeverEmbed [ true
      ]
      /AntiAliasColorImages false
      /CropColorImages true
      /ColorImageMinResolution 150
      /ColorImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK
      /DownsampleColorImages true
      /ColorImageDownsampleType /Bicubic
      /ColorImageResolution 600
      /ColorImageDepth 8
      /ColorImageMinDownsampleDepth 1
      /ColorImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
      /EncodeColorImages true
      /ColorImageFilter /FlateEncode
      /AutoFilterColorImages false
      /ColorImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG
      /ColorACSImageDict <<
      /QFactor 0.15
      /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1]
      >>
      /ColorImageDict <<
      /QFactor 0.40
      /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1]
      >>
      /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict <<
      /TileWidth 256
      /TileHeight 256
      /Quality 30
      >>
      /JPEG2000ColorImageDict <<
      /TileWidth 256
      /TileHeight 256
      /Quality 30
      >>
      /AntiAliasGrayImages false
      /CropGrayImages true
      /GrayImageMinResolution 150
      /GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK
      /DownsampleGrayImages true
      /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic
      /GrayImageResolution 600
      /GrayImageDepth 8
      /GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2
      /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
      /EncodeGrayImages true
      /GrayImageFilter /FlateEncode
      /AutoFilterGrayImages false
      /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG
      /GrayACSImageDict <<
      /QFactor 0.15
      /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1]
      >>
      /GrayImageDict <<
      /QFactor 0.40
      /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1]
      >>
      /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict <<
      /TileWidth 256
      /TileHeight 256
      /Quality 30
      >>
      /JPEG2000GrayImageDict <<
      /TileWidth 256
      /TileHeight 256
      /Quality 30
      >>
      /AntiAliasMonoImages false
      /CropMonoImages true
      /MonoImageMinResolution 1200
      /MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK
      /DownsampleMonoImages true
      /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic
      /MonoImageResolution 1200
      /MonoImageDepth -1
      /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
      /EncodeMonoImages true
      /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode
      /MonoImageDict <<
      /K -1
      >>
      /AllowPSXObjects false
      /CheckCompliance [
      /None
      ]
      /PDFX1aCheck false
      /PDFX3Check false
      /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly true
      /PDFXNoTrimBoxError false
      /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [
      0.00000
      0.00000
      0.00000
      0.00000
      ]
      /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox false
      /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [
      0.00000
      0.00000
      0.00000
      0.00000
      ]
      /PDFXOutputIntentProfile (Euroscale Coated v2)
      /PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier (FOGRA1)
      /PDFXOutputCondition ()
      /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org)
      /PDFXTrapped /False

      /CreateJDFFile false
      /SyntheticBoldness 1.000000
      /Description <<
      /DEU <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>
      /FRA <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>
      /JPN <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>
      /PTB <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>
      /DAN <FEFF004200720075006700200064006900730073006500200069006e0064007300740069006c006c0069006e006700650072002000740069006c00200061007400200072006100700070006f007200740065007200650020006f006d0020006f0076006500720068006f006c00640065006c007300650020006100660020005000440046002f0058002d00330020006f00670020006b0075006e002000700072006f0064007500630065007200650020005000440046002d0064006f006b0075006d0065006e007400650072002c002000680076006900730020006400650020006f0076006500720068006f006c0064006500720020007300740061006e00640061007200640065006e002e0020005000440046002f005800200065007200200065006e002000490053004f002d007300740061006e0064006100720064002000740069006c00200075006400760065006b0073006c0069006e0067002000610066002000670072006100660069006b0069006e00640068006f006c0064002e00200059006400650072006c006900670065007200650020006f0070006c00790073006e0069006e0067006500720020006f006d0020006f007000720065007400740065006c007300650020006100660020005000440046002d0064006f006b0075006d0065006e007400650072002c00200064006500720020006f0076006500720068006f006c0064006500720020005000440046002f0058002d0033002c002000660069006e00640065007200200064007500200069002000620072007500670065007200760065006a006c00650064006e0069006e00670065006e002000740069006c0020004100630072006f006200610074002e0020005000440046002d0064006f006b0075006d0065006e007400650072006e00650020006b0061006e002000e50062006e006500730020006d006500640020004100630072006f0062006100740020006f0067002000520065006100640065007200200034002e00300020006f00670020006e0079006500720065002e>
      /NLD <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>
      /ESP <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>
      /SUO <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>
      /ITA <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

      Question

      THEORETICAL ARTICLE

      The Role of Contingency Adduction in the Creative Act

      Nolan Williams1

      Accepted: 8 October 2020
      # Association for Behavior Analysis International 2020

      Abstract
      This article discusses the potential role of contingency adduction in creative behavior. Some have characterized creativity as the
      study of generativity. Generativity is the investigation of procedures that result in the occurrence of untrained, often composite,
      patterns from earlier trained components. An increasing number of applied programs are attempting to apply generative proce-
      dures in their design. Headsprout Early Reading®, for example, explicitly employed generative procedures to teach reading.
      There remains a lack of understanding about the role contingency adduction plays in the generative process. Contingency
      adduction is defined when patterns shaped under one context are recruited by contingencies in another context for which the
      pattern was not originally shaped. Adduced patterns may be new sequences of repertoires, the combination of repertoires, or the
      repertoire may acquire a new function. The moment of reinforcement of these new patterns from previously established patterns
      marks the moment of adduction. Thus, procedures that make such selection more likely may be fundamental to encourage what
      might be called creative behavior. Examples and nonexamples of contingency adduction involving both verbal and nonverbal
      procedures in both animals and humans will be described, and their implications noted.

      Keywords Adduction . Contingency Adduction . Creativity . Variability

      Most societies value creative, novel, and innovative solutions
      in art, sport, business, entertainment, and science and technol-
      ogy. An adequate theory of human behavior must address all
      aspects of human functioning—including behavior called cre-
      ative. Of course, creativity is an important topic to behavior
      analysts. By extension, if behavior analysts could reliably en-
      gineer such behavior, the social value of our science would
      increase.

      To guide behavior analysts’ efforts in developing proce-
      dures to encourage creative performance, behavior analysts
      must first determine what sorts of behaviors qualify as crea-
      tive. This determination may be aided by an analysis of the
      conditions which control the use of the tact “creative” in our
      society. To establish the boundary of the tact “creative,” it
      may be useful to first identify the conditions which do not
      occasion the tact’s use. When do verbal communities rein-
      force the use of tacts such as “uncreative,” “application,” or
      “derivative?” For example, saying dog in the presence of a

      new dog, even though it has not previously occurred, is not
      typically considered creative.

      Popular media provides numerous examples of uncreative
      behavior. Critics pan screenwriters for recycling plot lines.
      Fans of well-established bands, authors, and comedians groan
      when their favorite entertainers repeatedly produce material
      with similar sounds, themes, and punchlines. The electorate
      has little patience for politicians who persist in courses of
      action that have failed to produce solutions to major societal
      problems. Romantic partners often brandish the accusation of
      thoughtlessness and lack of creativity when a once well-
      received anniversary gift becomes an annual or predictable
      occurrence.

      The common denominator in each example above is
      behavior or a repertoire that was reinforced under one set
      of conditions is simply repeated under new conditions. An
      additional commonality is that the repeat performance is
      emitted under contingencies where repetition is unlikely to
      be reinforced. These two conditions seem to define what it
      means to be uncreative. If behaviors that are extended to
      and repeated across sometimes novel situations are not
      creative behaviors, under what conditions do we use the
      tact “creative?” What follows is a discussion of perfor-
      mances the verbal community often tacts as creative.
      These examples serve as the basis of an attempt to abstract

      * Nolan Williams
      nrwilliams42@gmail.com

      1 University of North Texas, 103 East Park Place, Jeffersonville
      Indiana 47130, USA

      https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-020-00440-z

      / Published online: 1 November 2020

      The Psychological Record (2021) 71:543–551

      what common features of these performances might con-
      trol that tact “creative.”

      Artistic behavior is often called creative. Painters who em-
      ploy new brush strokes or who depict a subject in a novel way
      are often said to be creative. Musicians who create novel ar-
      rangements of notes are said to be creative. Writers who tell
      new stories, or who tell old stories in new ways are said to be
      creative. The behavior of scientists, engineers, and inventors
      stand out as creative, when those behaviors result in novel
      solutions to various problems.

      Each of these instances of creativity seem to share an ele-
      ment of novelty. Each example involves a new topography or
      topographies of behavior. These novel topographies must also
      meet some criterion for reinforcement, and in so doing, meet
      the requirement in ways never directly reinforced. In addition,
      the label of creativity seems to be reserved for novel acts that
      meet criterion for reinforcement in a socially acceptable man-
      ner. That is, these novel behaviors do not also meet require-
      ments for punishment—such as hallucinations and other pat-
      terns considered pathological. The tact “creative,” therefore, is
      a pattern or patterns of behavior that meet criterion for rein-
      forcement and for which the individual has no direct history of
      reinforcement. And these patterns also fail to meet criterion
      for punishment.

      Behavior analysts assume all behavior is the product of
      learning history, contingencies of reinforcement, and stimulus
      control. Given these assumptions, the emergence of novel
      topographies, or topographies that have never produced rein-
      forcement for the organism before, presents a real mystery for
      behavior analysts. The question that behavior analysts must
      answer is, what variables are responsible for the novel behav-
      iors that seem to be prerequisites for creative acts?

      Variability is a critical component of any novel or creative
      behavior, and therefore any behavior analytic account of cre-
      ativity must address the sources of such variability. One strat-
      egy for understanding variability in operant behavior is exem-
      plified in the literature on the reinforcement of variability
      (Page & Neuringer, 1985; Neuringer, 2002). Others have sug-
      gested that extinction, rather than reinforcement, is the likely
      source of variability (Holth, 2012a; Kieta, 2017). In either
      case, the emerging behavior analytic account of creativity
      may benefit from considering the of role contingency adduc-
      tion in the generation of novel behavior and in acts of creation.
      This article reviews the concept of contingency adduction and
      provides examples of the role adduction plays in the produc-
      tion of novel instances of behavior.

      What Is Contingency Adduction?

      Contingency adduction describes a class of outcomes obtain-
      ed when patterns shaped in one context are recruited by con-
      tingencies in contexts different from the one for which the

      pattern(s) was originally established (Andronis, Layng, &
      Goldiamond, 1997; Layng, Twyman, & Stikeleather, 2004).
      That is, when an organism is exposed to new contingencies of
      reinforcement, some aspect or aspects of the new context will
      occasion a response, or a combination of previously learned
      responses, that meets this new criterion for reinforcement,
      selecting this new stimulus control topography and/or pattern
      of behavior (Ray, 1969). This selection of new behavioral
      variants from previously shaped patterns may be a primary
      source of what might be considered creative behavior.

      It is important to distinguish between contingency adduced
      behavior and shaped behavior. Shaping involves the selection
      from variation along a single dimension of behavior that has
      not been previously reinforced, and that occurs in the same
      context. Consider the task of shaping a dog’s approach behav-
      ior. Each step in the shaping plan involves the same
      dimension—the movement of the dog toward the trainer—
      and the criterion for reinforcement is changed gradually, re-
      quiring successive decreases in the total distance between the
      trainer and the dog.

      Adduction describes the moment when “previously
      shaped” or “preestablished” behavior—often along multiple
      dimensions—occurs in a new context and meets a new con-
      tingency requirement. For instance, after a trainer shapes a dog
      to approach on the command “come” and then shapes the dog
      to raise its right paw in the presence of a lifted right fist, the
      responses may be combined or blended by presenting the
      stimulus for “come” along with a raised right fist that controls
      raising the right paw. The combined behavior may result in
      the dog limping towards the trainer. If the new behavior is
      reinforced, this first reinforcement of the new pattern repre-
      sents the moment of adduction.

      Another important note, the prevailing contingencies are
      responsible for the adduction of behavior. Organisms do not
      adduce behavior. Organisms do not select their own physical
      traits; the organism’s ecology selects its physical traits via
      natural selection. Likewise, an organism is no more capable
      of adducing a new response into its behavioral repertoire than
      it is capable of evolving an extra arm.

      Several different outcomes can be categorized as adduc-
      tion. Different component responses can blend to form new
      response topographies. New sequences of responses can occur
      and be established as new functional units. New antecedent
      variables can acquire control of the response. And new con-
      sequential and motivational variables can acquire control of
      the response. In summary, contingency adduction is charac-
      terized by:

      & The recruitment of repertoires established under one set of
      conditions by contingencies operating under another set of
      conditions

      & The patterns come “preshaped” or from species typical
      behavior

      544 Psychol Rec (2021) 71:543–551

      & May be a single pattern or combinations of patterns
      & Meets a new contingency requirement
      & May be derived from a variety of sources including

      – Resurgence
      – Combining stimuli
      – Separating stimuli
      – Impossible discrimination
      – Schedule induced or adjunctive behavior (Andronis et al.,

      1997; Layng et al., 2004)

      Contingency Adduction as the Engine of Creativity

      Given the generative nature of the outcomes of adduction,
      procedures that make adduction more likely could be pivotal
      to understanding and occasioning creative behavior. The role
      of adduction in creativity can best be illustrated using exam-
      ples of adduced, creative performances of both nonhuman
      animals and humans. In some cases, the organisms under
      study emitted previously learned responses in novel contexts
      (Andronis et al., 1997; Layng et al., 2004). In other examples,
      the organism emitted novel topographies (Schiller, 1957;
      Pryor, Haag, & O’Reilly, 1969; Epstein, 1985). In all cases,
      the responses met new contingency requirements. In each ex-
      ample, it is the first occasion where the previously established
      response or composite met the new contingency requirement
      that represents the moment of adduction. After the initial oc-
      casion, subsequent instances of the adduced response repre-
      sent a simple operant. Contingency adduction simply refers to
      the procedures used to induce novel performance and the mo-
      ment that such performances are selected via reinforcement
      and then become part of the organism’s repertoire. Adduction
      is a principle that may underlie much of the behavior consid-
      ered creative, and one that if overlooked makes the sources of
      creative performance seem mysterious.

      Adduction in Nonhuman Animals

      Creative Symbolic Aggression in Pigeons

      The first laboratory investigation of adduction occurred at the
      Behavior Analysis Research Laboratory at the University of
      Chicago (Andronis, 1983; Andronis et al., 1997). Andronis
      et al. (1997) report procedures that effectively adduced novel
      symbolic aggression in pigeons from nonsocial component
      behaviors. Even though it had no effect on their own work
      schedule, pigeons came to peck keys that increased the work
      requirements for a bird in an adjacent chamber, visible
      through a transparent acrylic wall. By pecking a key, pigeons

      produced a houselight change and increased schedule require-
      ments, from which they themselves had consistently escaped,
      for a bird in the adjacent chamber. Further, the birds would
      switch to whichever side key produced that change. This was
      achieved without direct training of the pattern and occurred as
      a novel recombination of earlier trained nonsocial component
      behaviors that involved:

      1) Responding under three schedule values FR-10, FR-50,
      and FR-100 correlated with red, white, and green house-
      light colors, respectively (a three-ply multiple schedule)
      on a food key located above the food hopper;

      2) Pecking transparent side keys mounted in a transparent
      acrylic wall to change the houselight color from white to
      red and lower schedule requirements

      3) Switching between side keys when a peck to a side key
      produced a change to a green houselight that indicted an
      increased schedule requirement to FR-100

      The investigators then placed the birds in a chamber
      adjacent to the one in which they were initially trained;
      the original training chamber was clearly visible and emp-
      ty. Food key pecking was initially maintained by a fixed-
      ratio schedule. Pecks to the side keys quickly extinguished
      once lights changed in the empty adjacent chamber but had
      no effect on their own work requirement. Side key pecking
      did not return when a bird was subsequently placed in the
      adjacent chamber. The food key schedule was changed to
      FI-40s, a reinforcement schedule that reliably produces ag-
      gression in pigeons when a conspecific is present. The
      birds attempted to physically attack the adjacent bird but
      were prevented from doing so by the acrylic wall. The
      complex symbolic social pattern arose not as a result of
      direct training or shaping. Instead, it was a function of
      existing nonsocial behavioral components being adduced
      into a symbolic, social pattern after the acrylic wall
      prevented physical attacks.

      After 10 sessions, two clear patterns emerged. First, all four
      referent birds showed scalloping and earned food at the maxi-
      mum rates allowed by the FI schedules. Second, all four refer-
      ent birds consistently pecked whichever switching key raised
      the schedule requirement and changed the houselight color to
      green (the FR-100) for the conspecific pigeon. Further, the
      pigeons tracked changes in the switching keys so that when a
      key failed to produce the schedule increase, they switched
      responding to the other key. At no time did pecking the side
      keys change their own work requirements. Side key pecking
      was maintained by the change in houselight color and the sub-
      sequent increase in schedule requirement for another bird. Not
      aware of the experimental conditions, one might say the birds
      “creatively” used the experimental arrangements to deliver a
      novel attack they could not otherwise accomplish.

      545Psychol Rec (2021) 71:543–551

      Creative Problem Solving in Pigeons

      Epstein (1985) provided another excellent example of adduc-
      tion in his famous box and banana study. This study demon-
      strates an example of adduction where the outcome is a new
      auto-chained sequence of responses that meets a new contin-
      gency requirement. In this study, pigeons learned to peck a
      banana to produce food. Once the pecking response was well-
      established, the experimenter attached the banana to the ceil-
      ing of the chamber, and pecks made while flying or jumping
      failed to produce food, resulting in the extinction of those
      responses. At the same time, the experimenter added a box
      to the chamber that was the right height for the pigeons to
      stand on and reach the banana. Epstein found that the birds
      did not make use of the box in their attempts to solve the
      problem. After these observations, he removed the banana.
      Then he trained the pigeons to move the box to specified
      points in the cage. In particular, the birds learned to move
      the box towards different colored dots in the chamber; placing
      the box on the dot was reinforced with food. Epstein also
      trained the pigeons to climb on top of the box to produce food.
      Once the birds reliably pushed the box and climbed on top of
      the box, the banana was reintroduced. This time, the pigeons
      pushed the box under the banana and pecked the banana.

      In this example, pecking the banana was made highly po-
      tent by food deprivation. This allowed for the auto-chaining of
      the pigeon’s response. That is, the deprivation combined with
      the bird’s history with the banana resulted in the potentiation
      of reduced proximity to the banana as a conditioned reinforc-
      er. Thus, moving the box and then jumping atop was being
      adduced moment by moment; each time the pigeon moved the
      box and jumped on top, it resulted in a decreased proximity to
      the banana. Even though the initial movement did not bring
      the bird into contact with the banana, pushing and jumping
      were likely adduced by the reduction in proximity, and thus
      continued. With each push the bird got closer. Thus, adduc-
      tion selected the auto-chaining that eventually resulted in a
      “creative” solution to the problem, which was then
      reinforced, and so adduced, by the delivery of food.

      Creative Porpoises

      Contingency adduction may also have been an important
      component of the creative behavior reported by Pryor et al.
      (1969) in their report on the creative porpoise. In this study,
      the experimenters trained two porpoises to perform a novel
      response at the beginning of each new training session. The
      experimenters reinforced only one response per session. They
      began by reinforcing species typical responses, one at a time,
      until they had exhausted the animals’ repertoires. Each ses-
      sion, the porpoises tended to fall into stereotypic response
      patterns. When the animals became “stuck” on a response,
      the experimenters shaped a novel topography, usually a blend

      of the previously reinforced topographies. Once a new topog-
      raphy was created, the trainers reinforced it several times to
      ensure that the response was “strong.” After 16 sessions under
      such contingencies, the experimenters observed the emission
      of novel responses from the animals (Pryor et al., 1969). From
      session 16 on, the criterion for reinforcement was the produc-
      tion of a novel response at the beginning of each session.
      Subsequent reanalysis of the experiment (Holth, 2012b) sug-
      gests that the variation or novelty in the pattern may not have
      been shaped, but instead occurred because of prolonged pe-
      riods of extinction. Once the variation occurred it was
      reinforced.

      These criteria for reinforcement resemble the lag schedules
      in Neuringer’s research (Page & Neuringer, 1985) in so far as
      topographies reinforced in previous sessions were not candi-
      dates for reinforcement in future sessions, but variants are.
      This schedule differed in that each new session required a
      new variation, at no time (after session 16) did the trainers
      reinforce responses from previous sessions.

      In general, novel responses appeared after a few of the
      previously reinforced responses underwent extinction. Once
      the novel response (i.e., standing on the tail and spitting water)
      was reinforced, that same response was emitted exclusively
      for the duration of the session. These novel responses often
      consisted of components that had been previously learned and
      recombined. The moment where the new response was rein-
      forced represents the moment of adduction. The new response
      combination was not shaped, it was “adduced” or selected
      from previously established patterns by reinforcement and
      became established as part of the organism’s repertoire. In this
      case, the key to establishing creative performance in the por-
      poise was to expand the repertoire, and to utilize extinction to
      induce variability in responding.

      Creative Tool Building in Primates

      Another example of contingency adduction comes from Paul
      Schiller’s (1957) work with apes and tool use. In these studies,
      the experimenter put chimpanzees into enclosures and placed
      food just out of their reach, on the outside of the enclosure.
      Inside the cages, the chimps had two hollow sticks that could
      be connected. The solution to the problem was to connect the
      sticks and use them to pull the food into the cage. Schiller
      (1957) conducted several experiments to isolate the require-
      ments for the chimps to be able to successfully complete the
      tool use problem.

      Adult apes in such environments, with no specific training,
      invariably solve this problem. However, young primates ex-
      posed to the same situations invariably fail to solve the prob-
      lem. Schiller (1957) questioned this discrepancy and began
      searching for an explanation for why young primates
      struggled to solve problems that seemed easy for older ones.
      He formulated two general hypotheses. One hypothesis

      546 Psychol Rec (2021) 71:543–551

      suggested that the chimps needed some minimal set of
      experiences to solve the problem. The other hypothesis
      postulated that the problem solving was a product of some
      maturational factors interacting with instincts. Schiller
      (1952) was quickly able to rule out an explanation based upon
      the maturational factor. Thus, he began his search for what he
      called the “necessary general experiences” that were crucial
      for the final performance (Schiller, 1957).

      Schiller described several behaviors that needed to be
      “readily available” to the apes before they could solve their
      problem. He discovered that many of these behaviors were
      species typical and developed during periods of free play,
      where the chimps manipulated the sticks in a wide variety of
      ways. Schiller found three critical components for producing a
      solution. First, the animals must learn to fluently connect
      sticks, one inside the other. Second, the animals needed to
      develop skills manipulating the stick side to side, up and
      down, and pointing the stick in various directions. Finally,
      the chimps needed to experience moving objects closer to
      them using shorter sticks within their enclosures. If the chimps
      failed to demonstrate any of these responses prior to being
      exposed to the problem, the final performance would not oc-
      cur (Schiller, 1957).

      Schiller also noted the need to change contingency require-
      ments to adduce tool use. The chimps would consistently try
      to reach for the food with their hands, with shorter sticks, and
      would sometimes try throwing things at the food before the
      final solution emerged. If any of these operants succeeded,
      tool use did not emerge (Schiller, 1957).

      In these studies, the first time the primates connected the
      sticks and pulled the bananas into the cage successfully
      marked the moment of adduction. This example illustrates a
      type of creative behavior where previously trained responses
      are resequenced. What Schiller described is analogous to re-
      quirements for some forms of generative behavior. That is,
      teachers must train component behaviors to fluency, make
      those behaviors potent at the same time, and extinguish or
      make unavailable previously established patterns.

      Examples of Adduction in Human Animals

      Creative Discovery in Headsprout Early Reading

      The designers of the Headsprout Early Reading program used
      an oddity to sample and the combined stimulus procedure in a
      discovery exercise (Layng et al., 2004) to produce adduction
      of letter/sound combinations by children who could not pre-
      viously make such responses. In the oddity procedure, the
      experimenter trained the subject to respond away from a pre-
      viously learned stimulus. Once this stimulus consistently oc-
      casions responding to the “other” stimulus, novel “other stim-
      uli” may be introduced and the previously established

      response can enter new contingencies with different anteced-
      ent and consequential stimuli. A learner who has previously
      learned to click on sn when hearing the phonetically pro-
      nounced “sn” using a computer mouse, is presented with the
      never before encountered letter n displayed alongside sn. The
      learner hears, click on the sound that is not “sn.” The learner
      clicks on n and hears yes “n” (phonetically pronounced). Next
      the learner sees n, sn, and another letter displayed and hears
      click on “n.” The learner clicks on n in the presence of “n” and
      hears yes “n,” which marks the moment of adduction. The
      spoken “n” now occasions selecting “n” from a three-letter
      array.

      In the combined stimulus procedure, the experimenters first
      taught nine different single letter/sound combinations. In the
      next phase experimenters presented the single letters as two
      letter blends. During each trial, a narrator pronounced one of
      the four blends and asked the learners to click on the corre-
      sponding letter blend. Without any training or previous expo-
      sure to the blends, the students selected letter blends that
      corresponded to the sound. In this example, experimenters
      taught learners the needed components for the composite
      “blend” to occur. The resulting blends were adduced the mo-
      ment they produced reinforcement (Layng et al., 2004).

      These examples demonstrate the important role that stimu-
      lus control can play in occasioning creative behavior. The
      researchers engineered either a response from a separated
      stimulus or produce a composite performance by combining
      stimuli that controlled the component responses. These proce-
      dures add to the behavior analytic account of the origins of
      variability in behavior.

      Creativity at Morningside Academy

      Morningside Academy is a laboratory school for typically
      developing elementary and middle school students with aver-
      age to above average intelligence test scores and who may or
      may not have a diagnosed learning disability. Morningside is
      not a school for students with significant emotional or behav-
      ioral problems or autism spectrum disorder diagnoses.
      Morningside Academy primarily serves students who struggle
      to acquire foundational skills in math, reading, and writing as
      well as critical thinking and problem-solving skills (Johnson
      & Street, 2020). Morningside Academy’s model of generative
      instruction is an example of a program utilizing adduction
      (Johnson & Street, 2004). Morningside Academy focuses on
      the identification of minimal repertoires or generative sets that
      are most likely to recombine when contingencies in the learn-
      ing environment change. In this model, educators identify the
      minimal components that make up more difficult composite
      tasks, and they introduce them using either Mathetics or Direct
      Instruction (Gilbert, 1962; Adams & Engelmann, 1996).
      Then, students practice the component material until fluent.
      Once students demonstrate fluency, teachers introduce

      547Psychol Rec (2021) 71:543–551

      application situations that are carefully designed to make each
      component likely, but that require more complex composites
      to meet the contingency requirement. These arrangements typ-
      ically result in the adduction of new patterns (Johnson &
      Layng, 1992; Johnson & Street, 2004).

      Johnson and Layng (1992) provide an example of one of
      the programs from the model. Four students completed assess-
      ments of their ability to solve word problems involving frac-
      tions. None of the four students answered more than half of
      the 14 questions correctly on the assessment. Others answered
      as few as three questions correctly. Different assessments
      showed that the students also struggled with solving whole-
      number word problems as well as fraction computations. In
      the intervention program, the teachers focused exclusively on
      teaching component skills; the actual performance of solving
      fraction-word problems was not taught.

      Once component training was complete, the students
      showed impressive gains. The worst performance of the four
      students on a follow up 14-item assessment of the fractional
      word problems was one incorrect response. These gains were
      achieved exclusively by strengthening component skills and
      were not the product of shaping by successive approximations
      (Johnson & Layng, 1992).

      In this example, the experimenters identified two compo-
      nents (fractional computations and solving whole-number
      word problems) needed to produce a more complex composite
      (solving fraction-word problems) and taught them to fluency
      (for component and composite analysis, see Binder, 1993;
      Weiss, 2001). Then, in a situation where both components
      needed to be applied to solve a problem, the two components
      blended, and the resulting performance was adduced. This
      example is another reminder of the importance of having the
      proper component skills to encourage adduction. Much of the
      work regarding generative sets focuses on finding such com-
      ponents to accelerate the learning process via adduction.

      Occasioning Creative Behavior

      There are several practical applications for adduction proce-
      dures. Pursuits in education, art, athletics, and science repre-
      sent just a few of the areas where adduction procedures can be
      used to occasion creative performance. The final section of
      this report will review some of these procedures.

      Robert Epstein has contributed enormously to procedures
      in this area. He lists four important competencies for improv-
      ing creative performances and making the adduction of novel
      repertories more likely (Epstein, 1999). The first of these com-
      petencies is capturing, which includes a variety of methods for
      recording new ideas as they come to you (a way to keep
      adduced behaviors in the repertoire). A second competency
      is to seek out tasks that require performance beyond your skill
      level. These situations make multiple behaviors probable at
      the same time, which increases the likelihood of new blends of

      behavior being emitted. Some of these new blends may be
      useful and become candidates for adduction by the prevailing
      contingencies. Another of Epstein’s suggestions includes
      broadening skills and knowledge. This encourages adduction
      by adding components to your repertoire that could later re-
      combine into a novel, creative performance. Diversity in the
      repertoire increase the likelihood of interesting and creative
      blends that could then be adduced. Epstein’s fourth suggestion
      is to regularly change the physical and social environment,
      because new stimulus arrangements encourage new combina-
      tions of behavior to compete with one another.

      Epstein’s four competencies increase the likelihood of the
      emergence and adduction of creative performance in any of
      the fields described previously. These represent excellent
      strategies for individuals looking to boost their own creative
      performance. What about strategies for those tasked with fos-
      tering creativity in others? Teachers, trainers, and coaches
      could modify Epstein’s competencies so that they expose their
      learners to such contingencies. But other strategies also exist.

      Presentation of multiple cues was frequently cited in the
      previous examples of adduced creativity. This is a relatively
      easy way to produce new blends of behavior. Such strategies
      could usefully be employed to teach complex athletic skills.
      For example, a coach could teach two component skills to
      fluency, such as running a post route in football and catching
      a thrown football. Then, by combining the cues (i.e., “post”
      and a thrown ball) the young receiver would be more likely to
      successfully catch the

      Question

      Pick 2 of the questions below and respond in a minimum for 3 full paragraphs (8 sentences in each paragraph.

      1.  George Floyd’s role in his own murder is still a focal point in the media. Discuss whether his murder should be justified or not and illustrate the ethical dilemmas.

      2. Research Central Park 5. Discuss the case and the situation that led to the trial. Discuss the results of the sentencing and incarcerations and list the ethical misconducts that occurred. 

      Question

      https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-021-00491-w

      T H E O R E T I C A L A R T I C L E

      On the Distinction between the Abstract Tacts Art and Craft: A Concept
      Analysis

      Maasa Nishimuta1  · T. V. Joe Layng2

      Accepted: 4 October 2021
      © Association for Behavior Analysis International 2021

      Abstract
      We may marvel at both the creativity and quality of work in a piece of pottery or a sculpture, or of a well-played basketball
      game or well-acted play. Although each may have similarities, and each may have instances of what might be called crea-
      tivity, one is often considered art, whereas the other a craft. This article, using concept analyses, will explore what may be
      guiding the abstract tact “art” and the abstract tact “craft.” The critical features of each as well as the varying features will
      be described, compared, and contrasted. The consequential contingencies governing the creation or performance of each,
      and the effect of the work on the audience are the basis of the concept analysis. In the process it will be demonstrated how a
      consequential contingency analysis may contribute to understanding art, craft, their creation, and definition.

      Keywords Art · Craft · Concept analysis · Abstract tact · Consequential contingencies

      Defining “art” has proven difficult and has been the topic of
      philosophical debates for centuries. As expressed by Adajian
      (2018), writing in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
      “The definition of art is controversial in contemporary phi-
      losophy. Whether art can be defined has also been a matter
      of controversy. The philosophical usefulness of a definition
      of art has also been debated.” According to Adajian, who
      reviewed the various theories of art, many, such as Kant,
      believed that purpose played a primary role in the creation
      and definition of art. Others suggest that there is no consist-
      ent definition of art, that instead the different instances of art
      share family resemblances (after Wittgenstein, 1953), rather
      than a set of definable shared properties, because art takes so
      many forms. Neither is there agreement about what governs

      the classification of a work as poor art versus not being art
      at all. There is no apparent consensus among philosophers
      and others as to how art is defined. Yet, something occasions
      saying “art” in the presence of certain stimuli. Further, the
      creation of these occasions may have features that distinguish
      artistic activities, that is “doing art,” from other activities.

      Is perhaps the definition to be found in aesthetics? A
      recent series of commentaries appearing in a 2018 special
      issue in The Psychological Record occasioned by a lead
      article by Francis Mechner (2018) explored what could be
      the possible basis for “aesthetic” responses in humans. The
      various authors noted that such responses can occur across
      a range of stimuli and events, from a great work of art to a
      beautiful sunset to mathematical equations. For example,
      Hineline (2018, p. 323), writing in response to Mechner,
      proposes aesthetic responses as applying to “a broad range
      of domains, including behavioral arrangements and the prod-
      ucts of workmanship as well as explicitly artistic endeavors.”

      Thus, although related to how one might respond to a
      work of art, the aesthetic response itself does not thereby
      define art. Indeed, strolling through a gallery one may hear,
      “I find that art utterly distasteful.” If the aesthetic response
      does not define art, this raises the question of what does, and
      what that definition may suggest about the creative process
      that produces art.

      We will examine how a concept analysis (see Layng, 2019)
      based on a consequential contingency analysis may contribute

      This article was part of ABAI 2019 presentation. We thank Joanne
      Robbins, Paul Thomas Andronis, Francis Mechner, and Sean Will
      for their thoughtful feedback and support during the ABAI paper
      presentation and preparation for this article.

      * Maasa Nishimuta
      maasanishimuta@gmail.com

      * T. V. Joe Layng
      layng@comcast.net

      1 Constructional Approach to Animal Welfare and Training,
      Palm Bay, USA

      2 Generategy, LLC, Seattle, WA, USA

      / Published online: 1 December 2021

      The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      to our understanding and definition of art, perhaps in ways
      philosophers and art critics have thus far failed to provide. We
      will do this by comparing “doing art” to a close-in nonexam-
      ple, “doing craft,” both of which may evoke strong aesthetic
      or appreciative responses. We will explore what occasions and
      distinguishes the abstract tacts “art” and “craft” from the van-
      tage point of a consequential contingency analysis. We exam-
      ine what may be guiding the responses producing art and the
      responses producing craft during their creation and the role
      such guidance plays in the definition of each. Stated differ-
      ently, we will define art and craft in terms of a consequen-
      tial contingency analysis of their creation. These differences
      in contingencies will form the basis of the concept analysis
      methods (after Tiemann & Markle, 1990) used to distinguish
      between the abstract tact “art” and subtract tact “craft.”

      The Origins of a Contingency Analysis of Art

      In 1969, Skinner gave a talk at the Guggenheim Museum,
      “On the Future of Art: Creating the Creative Artist.” He
      discussed why artists made art and why audiences looked at
      it and emphasized the important role of consequences on the
      behaviors of both the artist and the audience.

      Why, indeed, do artists paint pictures, and why do peo-
      ple look at them? Another way to put that “why” is to
      use the colloquial “what for.” What do artists paint
      pictures for? What do people look at pictures for? The
      word “for” points forward into the future. It points to
      the consequences of action. The things that we do a
      thing for are the things which follow, and it is these
      consequences of behavior which have been shown
      recently to be terribly important in giving an account
      of what a man does. (Skinner, 1969, p. 2)

      Skinner (1953) also observed that literature, art, and
      entertainment may become contrived reinforcers. Whether
      the public buys books, tickets to performances, or works of
      art depends upon whether those books, plays, concerts, or
      pictures, occasion and maintain such purchases. However,
      purchase of art does not define it as such. As Skinner noted,
      “frequently the artist confines himself to an exploration of
      what is reinforcing to himself” (p. 75). Skinner suggested an
      approach of looking at consequences specific to the creation
      of art to explain artists’ and audiences’ behaviors.

      A Concept Analysis Based
      on the Consequential Contingencies Guiding
      the Abstract Tact, “Art”

      By adopting Skinner’s approach of looking at consequences
      of the behavior as the basis for a formal concept analysis
      (Layng, 2019; Tiemann & Markle, 1990), we may be able

      to further understand the features that occasion the abstract
      tact “art.”

      As Robbins et al., (1995, p. 1) wrote:

      Skinner made the distinction between a tact controlled
      by a generally invariant stimulus, (e.g., saying “Mona
      Lisa” in the presence of the collection of properties
      that comprise that painting or in the presence of a
      print of that painting), and a tact controlled by vary-
      ing stimuli, (e.g., saying “Impressionist” in the pres-
      ence of a new example of Impressionist art (Tiemann
      & Markle, 1990). Skinner (1957) called the former a
      simple tact; he called the latter an extended tact. One
      form of extended tact is the abstract tact, exemplified
      by the “Impressionist” example given above. Abstract
      tacts are those tacts that are under control of prop-
      erties or features of a stimulus rather than the entire
      stimulus itself, that is, the brush strokes and subject
      matter which define Impressionism rather than the
      individual painting itself. While many abstract tacts
      may be controlled by a single property of a stimulus,
      others may be controlled by a “subcollection” of prop-
      erties, all of which, however, must be present. Abstract
      extension requires that a speaker be able to distinguish
      between paintings that are examples of Impressionism
      and those that are not, even where they share some
      Impressionistic properties. This final requirement dis-
      tinguishes abstract extension from generic extension,
      which does not have the latter requirement. (Skinner,
      1957)

      In an abstract tact or behavioral concept analysis, attrib-
      utes or properties of the stimuli that comprise examples
      of the class are assigned to two types of features: critical
      attributes and variable attributes (Layng, 2019; Tiemann
      & Markle, 1990). Critical attributes are the must have fea-
      tures (Layng, 2019) that are required for class membership,
      absence of any one of which forms a nonexample. Vari-
      able attributes are can have features (Layng, 2019) that vary
      within the class, whose variations provide a wide range of
      examples. Concept analysis asks what attributes are guiding
      people to classify examples and nonexamples of the class.
      That is, what are the must have features? For example, how
      do people classify chairs from nonchairs such as a couch
      or a stool? The concept analysis reveals which attributes of
      chair are critical for people to classify a piece of furniture as
      a chair (Layng, 2019). Our task in this article is to provide
      an analysis that includes all the various art forms, painting,
      sculpture, theater, dance, and so on, as distinguished from
      all forms of craft, in an attempt to identify some of the vari-
      ables responsible for the creation of each (see, for example,
      Fig. 3).

      When observing a work of art, we may be amazed by the
      work itself. Looking at a painting in a museum and finding

      586 The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      it beautiful, like the sunflower oil painting by Van Gogh in
      Fig. 1, we may describe how well the creation of the paint-
      ing is executed, such as the arrangement of the flowers, the
      brush strokes, the color combinations, and so on. Skinner
      (1969, p. 3) stated that the words “beautiful” or “amazing”
      we use are synonyms for the technical word “reinforcing.”
      That is, when Skinner says an audience, including the artist,
      finds a work reinforcing, he is not referring to some inter-
      nal satisfaction, or an aesthetic appreciation (after Mechner,
      2018) though that may be reported, he is instead describing
      how the arrangement of the components of the work main-
      tain our looking, purchases, and so on, and for the artist,
      continued engagement in the work.

      But what about the artist who creates the work? What
      are the consequences that maintain the creation of a work
      of art? Skinner (1953) and Layng (1971) suggest that as
      artists create works, they also find the evolving composi-
      tion, the arrangement of the stimuli they are producing,
      to be reinforcing, which maintains the creation of works
      of art. Skinner (1969) notes that the artist is not simply
      putting paints on a canvas but is doing so in a way that the
      arrangement of the stimuli is reinforcing for the artistic
      effort. As one stimulus is produced, it will occasion the
      production of yet other stimuli that now in combination
      with the previous one will maintain the artist’s behavior
      or result in a change or restart. The arrangement of the
      stimuli becomes a combination of different elements. For
      example, the arrangement of stimuli can be a number of
      brush strokes with particular color differences or intensi-
      ties, or sizes in the painting. As long as one set of stimuli
      that the artist creates in a medium produces an occasion for
      further creation, it reinforces that behavior and creates the
      conditions for further alteration of those stimuli. However,
      if a set of stimuli the artist creates does not occasion further
      creative manipulation of the medium, the artist may erase,
      change, or throw away the whole work of art, and start it

      over again. The artist continues to arrange the stimuli until
      no further changes provide additional occasions for going
      on, with the final reinforcement value of the work residing
      in its “completion.” This may be made potent by prospec-
      tive public display or sale of the work. As Skinner (1969, p.
      6) stated, the “[Artist] puts paint on a canvas and is or is not
      reinforced by the result,… he can let the picture stand, or he
      can change it. And that is the major nature of his activity,”
      manipulating the paint, or stimuli, on a canvas.

      Others have made similar observations. In his article,
      “A Behaviourist Theory of Art,” philosopher James K.
      Feibleman (1963) wrote:

      Beauty is the quality which emerges from the per-
      fect relations of parts in a whole, it is the quality
      of internal relations. The artistic method consists in
      apprehending in a material object the quality of such
      relations. Beauty is in readily accessible form when
      the qualitative correlate of the relation of consistency
      in a material object dominates the appearances of
      that object. Where the quality of internal relations
      is featured in a material object (as it is in a work of
      art), it symbolizes a unity in which every separate
      part is represented as a necessary part of the whole.
      A work of art, then, is a material object made for
      the quality of its internal relations. (p. 8; emphasis
      added)

      Skinner (1969) and Layng (1971) suggest that these
      “internal relations” come from the arrangement of the
      stimuli during creation. How the artist arranges the stimuli
      in the medium depends on the artist’s history of reinforce-
      ment and their current contingencies. The artist’s con-
      tinuous manipulation of the medium inherently provides
      occasions for further arrangement, which maintains their
      behavior. That is, the artist arranges the stimuli comprising
      the work such that the arrangement itself maintains and
      occasions the artist’s behavior. Thus, the critical attributes
      of the abstract tact, “art,” are (1) the creation of a work
      (2) maintained solely by the arrangement of stimuli within
      that work. These define the work as art and the creator as
      an artist.

      The outcome created by arranging stimuli and the subse-
      quent behavior it occasions are what maintains the artist’s
      behavior and distinguishes it from other acts of creation. It is
      this arrangement of the stimuli and its effects on the artist’s
      behavior, that defines art. As Skinner (1972, p. 398) wrote:

      A poem seldom makes its appearance in a completed
      form. Bits and pieces occur to the poet, who rejects
      or allows them to stand, and who puts them together
      to compose a poem. But they come from his past his-
      tory, verbal and otherwise, and he has had to learn
      how to put them together.Fig. 1 Sunflower painting by Vincent Van Gogh (1887) at The Metro-

      politan Museum of Art (Public domain, CC0)

      587The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      Potentiation of the Arranged Stimuli
      as Reinforcers and Emotive Expression

      Many people know the Water Lilies paintings by Claude
      Monet, one of which is shown in Fig. 2, and many people
      find them to be reinforcing, that is, they look at them for a
      long time and are willing to pay an admission fee to see
      them. Let’s examine what Monet may have done to create the
      paintings. In order to draw the Water Lilies series, he created
      a garden with water lilies so that he could observe them in
      reality and produce and arrange stimuli on canvas to capture
      what he saw. He produced and arranged the stimuli: such as
      the lilies themselves, the water, the garden, the combination
      of colors, and the brush strokes, which reinforced his behav-
      iors during the creation of the paintings.

      What makes a particular arrangement reinforcing lies
      in the personal and cultural history of the artist, as well
      as current environmental events, such as a loss, a sunset,
      a love, and so on. The potentiating variables (Goldiamond
      & Thompson, 1967/2004) that make the arrangements rein-
      forcing may at times be recognized in the arrangement. The
      sadness in Picasso’s The Old Guitarist is often attributed to
      the suicide of a friend. How closely an arrangement matches
      a particular school of art, or instructions of a teacher, or
      likeness of a model all may potentiate the emerging arrange-
      ments as reinforcers. Seeing the result of those arrangements
      may lead observers to believe that the artist is attempting to
      express an inner vision or emotion, and that it is this expres-
      sion that defines the work as art. Plato (380 BCE), as early
      as the fourth centry bce asserted four qualities of artistic
      composition as divinely inspired and emerging from within
      the artist. This view in various forms has been maintained to

      this day as what philosopher Karl Popper (2002) called the
      subjectivist theory of art. The approach taken here, however,
      proposes that the reinforcing and any possible emotive fea-
      tures of art arise not from within the artist, as feelings to be
      expressed, but from the act of its creation. This is not alto-
      gether different from Popper’s (2002) objectivist alternative:

      According to my objectivist theory (which does not
      deny self-expression but stresses its utter triviality) the
      really interesting function of the composer’s emotions
      is not that they are to be expressed, but that they may
      be used to test the success or the fittingness or the
      impact of the (objective) work: the composer may use
      himself as a kind of test body, and he may modify and
      rewrite his composition (as Beethoven often did) when
      he is dissatisfied by his own reaction to it; or he may
      even discard it altogether. (Whether or not the compo-
      sition is primarily emotional, he will in this way make
      use of his own reactions—his own “good taste”: it is
      another application of the method of trial and error.)
      (Kindle edition)

      He goes on to write: “According to this objectivist theory
      it is the work which is mainly responsible for the emotions
      of the musician rather than the other way round.”

      Likewise, contingencies, perhaps described by certain
      emotions, may be responsible for initiating the art in the
      first place. Such contingencies may occasion description of
      art as reflective of the artist’s emotional state, but it is per-
      haps better understood as a reflection of their consequential
      contingencies of which their emotions are a part (cf. Layng,
      2017). We contend, that once initiated, it is the developing
      arrangement of stimuli as a work is being created that main-
      tains the artist’s behavior and perhaps occasions collateral
      emotions or emotional behavior (after Goldiamond, 1979;
      Layng, 2017, 2020).

      The Many Forms of Art

      Next, let us explore the variable attributes of artistic crea-
      tion. Art is produced in many forms. It can be painting,
      poetry, stage play, photography, pottery, sculpture, sing-
      ing, songwriting, clothing, and so on. This variation in the
      respective media gives us a wide variety of examples of art,
      but those do not enter into its definition as art––rather these
      are variable attributes. Other variable attributes include the
      subject, the complexity of the work, time taken to complete
      or perform, its permanence, and so on. The price paid for
      a work of art, if sold, may also vary from next to nothing
      to millions of dollars, but the price does not define a work
      as art; rather, it is another variable attribute; consider the
      original sale prices, if any, of Van Gogh’s paintings.Fig. 2 Water lilies painting by Claude Monet (1906) at The Art Insti-

      tute of Chicago (Public domain, CC0)

      588 The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      Popularity as a Variable Attribute

      We maintain that how the audience responds and inter-
      acts with art does not define a work as art, so this is yet
      another variable attribute. Not unlike the artist, in order
      for the audience to call it a work of art, the arrangement
      of the stimuli in the art must likewise bring the audience’s
      behavior under the control of the arrangement of the stim-
      uli (Layng, 1971). They may consider it art, but not art
      that serves as a reinforcer. They may recognize that the
      arrangement of the stimuli was reinforcing to the artist but
      fails to reinforce their own continued engagement with it.
      Stated otherwise, they may not find it aesthetically pleas-
      ing. They may consider it poorly done art. For others, a
      work may not be considered art at all. For example, an
      individual viewing three different works of art may linger
      for one, indicating that one reinforces viewing whereas
      the others do not. Another person lingers at different one
      of the three ignoring the other two. Therefore, there can
      be opposing opinions of the same work. Their evaluation
      does not enter into the act of creation unless the reinforc-
      ing effect of the arrangement for the artist is potentiated
      by audience approval while the creative act is taking place.
      Hence there are painters, poets, and such who never show
      their work, or whose work is never acknowledged until
      after their death. Thus, the art is defined through its crea-
      tion, not by its preservation. What the audience reports,
      either art or not art, its popularity, does not determine
      whether a work is art or not art, it instead determines its
      universality (Layng, 1971). Thus, popularity is a variable
      attribute of art.

      Popularity and money may be beneficial for the artist,
      but the artist’s reinforcement in creating art is neither the
      universality nor the money, but the arrangement of the
      stimuli themselves that keep them creating the art. Artists
      may be commissioned, and may not finish a work if not
      paid, but that is simply a monetary consequence super-
      imposed upon those arising from the work itself. Young
      children “doing art” are unlikely to find their art hung in a
      museum, it may not be popular, however, we contend that
      they are doing art if their behavior is reinforced by the
      arrangement of stimuli during their creation.

      Craft as a Nonexample of Art

      Are there works where the arrangement of the stimuli is
      reinforcing, and as “aesthetically pleasing,” yet would not
      be classified as art? When we call some works crafts rather
      than art, we are appreciating the arrangement, but some-
      thing is different. We and craftspersons are interacting dif-
      ferently with the work from the way we interact with art.

      With a craft, reinforcers maintaining the creation of the
      work differ somewhat from those maintaining creation of
      a work of art. There is an added consequence, function or
      utility. We may, for example, use the work as a container
      to put something in, or to put something on. We use a cup
      into which we pour coffee, use a table upon which we put
      a book, wear clothes to prevent us from getting cold or to
      get attention from friends, use a car and an airplane for
      transportation. We will use works of craft for a functional
      purpose other than simply enjoying the work itself.

      Yet, the term “craft” conveys more than simply function.
      Putting together a prefabricated cabinet creates utility, but
      it is not considered craft. The craftsperson not only creates
      function, but also provides that function in the context of an
      arrangement of the stimuli found to be reinforcing. Hine-
      line (2005) eloquently described how the creation of a tool
      may be jointly guided by the reinforcing properties of the
      arrangement of stimuli and its functional use. Both the func-
      tion and the arrangement of stimuli maintain the craftsper-
      son’s behavior. Thus, the critical attributes of the abstract
      tact “craft” are (1) the creation of a work (2) maintained by
      the arrangement of the stimuli within that work, (3) which
      has utility, that is, serves a useful function, at the time of its
      completion. Figure 3 summarizes the critical and variable
      attributes of art and craft.

      A vase, such as in Fig. 4, can be fashionable and beauti-
      ful, the arrangement of the stimuli may be reinforcing, but
      if the reinforcers maintaining the craftsperson’s behavior is
      to create something beautiful in which to put flowers, its
      function, it is a craft. The beauty or the creativeness does
      not determine whether the work is art or craft, rather what
      reinforces the behaviors of the creator in its creation deter-
      mines art or craft. Though closely related, art and craft are
      different. Feibleman (1963, p. 6) speculated that the creation
      of art has its foundation in craft.

      Perhaps art arose as a secondary development of physi-
      cal technology. Men who made for themselves crude
      tools, such as chipped stone arrowheads and clay pots,
      may have seen the comparison between those well
      done and those better done. The delight in the differ-
      ence may have exceeded the utility of either. Hence
      there may have arisen the notion of things excellent
      for their own sake, that is to say for the sake of the
      excellence rather than for the sake of the thing, and the
      product was the first work of art: superfluous beauty
      probably first produced and afterwards recognized as
      a by-product of craft excellence.

      This plausible paleobehavioral speculation suggests
      how craft became art and later how art and craft eventually
      diverged based on the arrangement of stimuli and the artistic
      behavior occasioned during creation.

      589The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      Similar to art, craft may have many variable attributes.
      Craft can vary in form or medium, subject, the complex-
      ity of the work, time taken to complete or perform, price,
      permanence, two perspectives of the craftsperson and the
      user, and its universality.

      Performance Art and Performance Craft:
      A Comparison

      A basketball game in Fig.  5 and a dance performance
      in Fig.  6 highlight the difference in critical attributes
      between art and craft that lack permanence. In both, we
      are amazed by how the players or dancers interact: their
      movements may awe us. But when over, nothing remains
      of either. Yet even though we find the arrangement of
      the stimuli of both to be reinforcing, one is craft, and
      the other is art. In a basketball game, the players interact
      with each other to win a game. Their grace and skill may
      delight us; they not only score but do so in such a way
      as to keep us highly engaged. Their interaction with one

      Fig. 3 Summary of the critical
      and variable attributes of art and
      craft (The format is adapted
      from Tiemann & Markle, 1990)

      Fig. 4 Flower vase (Photo by Wenyang on Unsplash)

      Fig. 5 Basketball game between the U.S. Air Force Academy and
      University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Wikimedia, Public domain)

      590 The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      another is not simply to win the game. “Flair” is added to
      their play, a no-look behind-the-back pass is made when
      a simpler forward pass would suffice, the performance
      provides reinforcers for the players, and likely the audi-
      ence, beyond simply scoring points, but the critical rein-
      forcer (after Goldiamond, 1976) is the scoring of points.
      Because basketball has both reinforcing effects during
      the composition of the game and has a functional utility,
      scoring points and winning the game, it is a craft. For
      the audience, when the game is over, one is perhaps left
      with a tendency to return to the game after either a win
      or a loss. However, continued losses may see a marked
      decline in attendance, demonstrating the consequences
      maintaining viewing is not simply the performance of
      the athletes. For a dance performance, it is simply the
      arrangement of the stimuli that maintains the composer
      and dancer’s behavior, thus, it is an art. And, for the
      audience, perhaps there will be a tendency to attend more
      dance performances.

      The Distinction between Audience Tacts
      and Artistic Works

      Earlier, we discussed two perspectives for art and craft,
      the artist or craftsperson and the audience. Those per-
      spectives are variable attributes; thus, how audiences
      report or interact with the works does not define whether
      the works are art or craft. There are times when what
      reinforces audience behavior matches what reinforces the
      artist and the craftsperson’s behavior. However, there are
      also times where there is a mismatch between them. The
      reinforcers maintaining the audience’s or user’s behav-
      iors can be dynamic. They can change over time. Also, a
      person, such as a museum worker who explains the work,
      can inf luence how an audience might “see” a work of

      art, thus altering the reinforcing effect of the arrange-
      ment of stimuli in the work. Let’s look at examples of
      the two perspectives, and the match and mismatch of the
      reinforcers.

      A Persian rug, a carpet woven by hand using various
      materials like wools and silks, is a great example to show
      the mismatch of the reinforcers maintaining the behavior
      of the artist and the audience. Persian rugs are originally
      created as art to display as tapestries on the wall, as seen in

      Fig. 6 A dance performance (Public Domain, CC0)
      Fig. 7 Persian rug hung on the wall (With a permission by Rug
      Knots)

      Fig. 8 Persian rug used as furniture (Photo by Ryan Christodoulou on
      Unsplash)

      591The Psychological Record (2021) 71:585–594

      Fig. 7. As Fallahi (2017) said, “the rug often conveys the
      weaver’s character or mood, much in the same way an artist
      portrays their mood or views in a painting.” However, today,
      we see many people put a Persian tapestry on the floor and
      use it as a rug, as in Fig. 8. When the tapestry changes its
      use from an object whose arrangement of stimuli maintains
      the observer’s behavior to an object that serves as a walking
      surface, it changes from art to craft. The rug now has util-
      ity from the observer’s point of view. However, the way the
      audience classifies and uses it does not mean that the rug is
      no longer art from the point of view of the artist. The rug
      maker made it as art.

      On the other hand, a craft can shift to be classified as
      art from the audience’s perspective. In the past, ancient
      Chinese clothes were worn as regular clothes. Clothes
      worn by the imperial family, like the dragon robe shown
      in Fig. 9, might have had another purpose that suggested
      their class or status. That is, they were created as a craft;
      their utility was an important consequence shaping their
      creation. Today, those clothes may be displayed in a
      museum for people to enjoy observing the way it was
      sewn, the historical patterns, the combinations of the
      colors, and so on, as in Fig. 10. As time has passed, for

      some audiences, the clothes shifted from craft to art; that
      is, their utility as clothing became inconsequential, leav-
      ing only the arrangement of stimuli to maintain audience
      engagement. This shift, however, is in the classification
      by the audience. The tailor, however, was making wear-
      able clothes, a craft. At times the distinction may not
      be so obvious. Consider this: an ancient Grecian urn,
      originally crafted to hold olive oil, becomes so fragile
      with the passage of time that its utility as an oil vessel is
      gone, yet it maintains its original arrangement of stimuli.
      It is eventually displayed in an art museum, even perhaps
      occasioning poetry to be written about it. Most important,
      though, with the passage of enough time how can we be
      certain the craftsman/artist was actually guided by the
      urn’s functionality?

      Conclusion

      In summar y, we maintain that the cr itical a

      Question

      Discuss how you intend to implement your evidence-based findings. What are your anticipated challenges? How do you intend to overcome some of those challenges? Assignment :1 Write 2-3 pages applicable to your capstone project. Identify the stakeholders (use fictitious names for stakeholders) that will play a major part with your study and integrate with your project. Topics to include: Roles of stakeholders Identify your stakeholders – are they supportive to your project? List of stakeholders who will be interested in the results of your project Promoting stakeholder participation Possible concerns/barriers from stakeholders Strategies that you will use to gain support and assistance from your stakeholders 

      Question

      Vol.:(0123456789)1 3

      The Psychological Record
      https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-021-00505-7

      B R I E F CO M M U N I C AT I O N

      How Can We Talk about Creativity?

      Sarah Sumner1

      Accepted: 28 June 2021
      © Association for Behavior Analysis International 2021

      Abstract
      In his work Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein (1953/2009) argues that our language is only clearly com-
      municated by agreement of definitions and judgments. He suggests that the meanings of such words are found in their use
      by the verbal community. Further, their use may somewhat change from instance to instance, which makes the debate about
      their essence, essential properties, or definition futile. He instead suggests that each use has a set of family resemblances; that
      is, the uses may share some, but not all features with one another. The word is part of a language game that has identifiable
      consequences for its participants. The same may be true for the study of creativity. Instead of searching for creativity, or how
      to make one more creative, behavioral investigators may first find it more productive to investigate the language game of
      which the term creative is a part: that is, we should perhaps determine the criteria and consequences for asserting a creative
      act occurred and why it is considered important.

      Keywords creativity · language game · Wittgenstein · Skinner

      What is it that the word “creativity” names? We talk about
      “it.” We admire “it.” We study “it.” We try to encourage or
      teach “it.” But is there an “it?” The approach taken here is
      that the effort to define creativity may be largely futile at best
      and misdirected at worst. But if creativity does not name
      something, what is it people are doing when they speak of
      “it?” Instead of assuming there is a thing, or process, or
      quality, that creativity describes, perhaps a better approach
      to understanding creativity may be not to define (and argue
      about) what the word “creativity” names, but instead, inves-
      tigate the effect on a verbal community of using the word
      “creativity.”

      In Philosophical Investigations (1953/2009), Ludwig
      Wittgenstein coined the term “language games.” Wittgen-
      stein uses the term “language games” to describe how words

      get their meaning by examining how the words are used
      within a verbal community. That is, the meaning of a word
      is not in what it stands for or what it represents; instead, its
      meaning is found in the effect it has on a verbal community.
      Wittgenstein explained this further by giving an example of
      how to conceptualize words and their meaning,

      I send someone shopping. I give him a slip of paper
      marked “five red apples.” He takes the slip to the shop-
      keeper, who opens the drawer marked “apples”; then
      he looks up the word “red” in a chart and finds a color
      sample next to it; then he says the series of elementary
      number-words. I assume that he knows them by heart
      up to the word “five,” and for each number-word he
      takes an apple of the same color as the sample out of
      the drawer.—It is in this and similar ways that one
      operates with words.—“But how does he know where
      and how he is to look up the word ‘red’ and what he
      is to do with the word ‘five?’”—Well, I assume that
      he acts as I have described. Explanations come to an
      end somewhere. But what is the meaning of the word
      “five?” No such thing was in question here, only how
      the word “five” is used.” (pp. 5–6)

      In other words, the word “red” can have a different effect
      depending on how the audience responds to “red.” In this
      example, if there had not been a color sample to match the

      This article is based on a presentation delivered at the
      Association of Behavior Analysis International 41st Annual
      Conference, Chicago, IL. Special thanks to Dr. T. V. Joe Layng
      for your support, guidance, and inspiration for this article. I am
      extraordinarily thankful for your comments, and to Awab Abdel-
      Jalil and Leah Herzog for your feedback.

      * Sarah Sumner
      sarahsumner@my.unt.edu

      1 Department of Behavior Analysis, University of North
      Texas, Denton, TX 76012, USA

      The Psychological Record

      1 3

      word “red,” then the person gathering “apples” may not
      gather Red Delicious Apples, but instead Honeycrisp Apples
      with yellow and green tints mixed with red. The use of red
      is defined by what the person brings back from the store.

      Those familiar with Skinner’s treatment of verbal behav-
      ior may find this is not unlike Skinner’s approach. Skin-
      ner (1957) defined verbal behavior as behavior reinforced
      through the mediation of a listener, and further, the other/
      listener’s behavior has been conditioned to reinforce the
      speaker’s verbal behavior. To understand meaning is to
      understand this relation. Day (1969) elegantly compared
      and contrasted the viewpoints of Skinner and Wittgenstein.
      He pointed out 10 similarities across their philosophies. For
      example, the section The Behavioral Nature of Language
      identifies the similarity in regard to language. Both view
      language as “something natural, with an emphasis on the
      effects of verbal behavior and on the situation in which ver-
      bal behavior occurs” (p. 496). “For both, there are no such
      things as meanings, where meanings are taken to be mental
      entities somehow focally involved in communication. For
      both, a search for meaning can lead only to the study of word
      usage, to the analysis of verbal behavior as it is actually seen
      to take place. For both, the meaning is the usage” (p. 498).

      If we accept Wittgenstein and Skinner’s proposition that
      meaning comes from use, and not from reference to, or a
      stimulus substituted for a thing, what are the implications for
      understanding creativity within a behavior analytic context,
      not as a thing to be studied, but as part of a language game
      that may change from instance to instance?

      Creativity may not be a tangible thing at all, or even a
      word that represents a thing (Wittgenstein, 1953/2009). It
      may be that the interaction within a community defines
      what creativity is and what it is not. And further, that use,
      although overlapping from situation to situation, may not
      be the same in many cases. As Wittgenstein noted, “human
      agreement decides what is true and what is false.—It is what
      human beings say that is true and false; and they agree in the
      language they use. That is not agreement in opinions but in
      form of life” (p. 94). In behavioral terms, both the speaker
      and listener (i.e., the verbal community) are governed by
      similar contingencies. That is, the interlocking speaker/lis-
      tener consequential relations (after Skinner, 1957) define
      the meaning of the words used. In essence, these differing
      contingencies may be considered as describing the bounda-
      ries between differing language games. Hagberg (2014) writ-
      ing in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy suggests
      that our aesthetic engagements are occasions and activi-
      ties. Thus, in order to analyze the properties that explain
      something as “beautiful” or “creative,” one must look to the
      activities in which we engage when using the terms “beau-
      tiful” and “creative.” In behavior analysis, how we use the
      word creativity within a given speaker–listener relation is
      perhaps best understood by the different uses that behavior

      analysts have made of the term—their language games. Let’s
      examine two such uses from two behavior analysts.

      Enter Skinner

      Much of Skinner’s (1970) discussion of creativity is focused
      on artistic creativity and how one can encourage it. He
      spends much of his time in “On Creating the Creative Art-
      ist” describing how to provide environments such that works
      described as creative are more likely to occur. Skinner does
      not appear to embrace the notion that there is a special con-
      tribution of an individual whose work may be classified as
      creative. He states,

      the poet is also a locus, a place in which certain genetic
      and environmental causes come together to have a
      common effect. Unlike a mother, the poet has access
      to his poem during gestation. He may tinker with it.
      A poem seldom makes its appearance in a completed
      form. Bits and pieces occur to the poet, who rejects or
      allows them to stand, and who puts them together to
      compose a poem. But they come from his past history,
      verbal and otherwise, and he has had to learn how to
      put them together. The act of composition is no more
      an act of creation than “having” the bits and pieces
      composed. (p. 398)

      If there is no specialness to behavior that makes it crea-
      tive, then that specialness must arise out of the effect of the
      behavior on the audience.

      Skinner (1957) uses the language of process and contin-
      gencies to describe and account for the creative act. In other
      words, the artist’s reinforcers are contingent upon specific
      behaviors often under audience control of which the artist
      is also a member. This particular process produces what is
      later called the creative act. From Skinner’s perspective, the
      creative act is an outcome of a selective process that leads
      an artist to the final composition. Skinner (1981) asserts that
      “neither phylogenically nor ontogenically has verbal behav-
      ior evolved to the point at which a complex combination of
      personal history and a current situation will give rise to a
      passage having an appropriate effect upon the reader” (p. 7).

      As Skinner (1972, p. 378) notes,

      A poem seldom makes its appearance in a completed
      form. Bits and pieces occur to the poet, who rejects or
      allows them to stand, and who puts them together to
      compose a poem. But they come from his past history,
      verbal and otherwise, and he has had to learn how to
      put them together.

      In other words, the final composition does not occur
      full blown as a form of inner expression. It is the outcome
      of a step-by-step process as a function of one’s history of

      The Psychological Record

      1 3

      reinforcement and audience control. Skinner (1970), how-
      ever, does not detail what the verbal community is doing
      when it uses the term “creative,” but does suggest it can be
      trained to do so.

      Enter Epstein

      Epstein et  al. (2008) takes a more procedural approach
      by establishing four competencies that allow for “creative
      expression.” He coined the term “generativity theory”—the
      theory that novel and creative behavior is a function of the
      combination or reordering of previously established behav-
      iors that occur under specifiable conditions. Epstein main-
      tains that individuals may acquire the ability to create these
      conditions. He lists four competencies: capturing, challeng-
      ing, broadening, and surrounding. These four competencies
      allow one to identify and train measurable behaviors that
      predict the rate and nature of creative expression. “Captur-
      ing” is to preserve new ideas as they occur or find a place
      and time where new ideas can be observed easily. In terms
      of creative writing, capturing is the behavior of writing. For
      example, having a pen and paper on hand to write down
      ideas as they occur. The second competency is “challeng-
      ing,” this is for one to take on difficult tasks, to set open-
      ended goals, to effectively manage fear and stress associated
      with failure. It is the criterion needed to set the occasion for
      a creative act. For example, if one faces a situation where
      the usual outcomes of one’s actions do not follow, then one
      keeps behaving without giving up; like pushing through
      writer’s block. The third competency is “broadening,” this
      is to seek training, experience, and knowledge outside of
      current areas of expertise and beyond the current repertoire.
      Increasing skills outside of the typical writing scope, like
      learning calligraphy. The fourth competency is “surround-
      ing,” this is changing the physical and social environments
      regularly and seeking out unusual stimuli or combinations
      of stimuli to evoke a creative act. In other words, making
      sure one’s stimulus control is changed so that new behaviors
      are evoked, like writing at a new coffee shop. All of these
      competencies describe four different behaviors that occur
      in relation to the environment. This raises the question are
      Skinner and Epstein talking about the same thing when they
      use the word, “creativity?”

      The Language Games

      Wittgenstein (1953/2009) suggests that language games
      provide functional definitions of words. He does this by
      giving an example of using tools in a toolbox. In essence,
      all of the different tools can be used differently. If a tool is
      used for one specific function, then someone else can use

      that same tool for a different function. The word “hammer”
      is not an actual tool or a representation of the tool. It is
      to change the behavior in relation to the tool. In terms of
      creativity, person A describes a piece of art as creative and
      person B also describes the same piece of art as creative.
      In Wittgenstein’s perspective, one might conclude that
      person A and B are playing the same language game to
      describe one piece of art. It’s about the interaction between
      the words communicated and actions from B. The terms
      are intended to have an effect on the audience and to meet
      a requirement from the speaker. Thus, the word “creative”
      does not represent the item itself, but the effects the word
      is having on others in the discussion.

      Epstein’s use of “creative” is similar to Skinner’s in that
      the behaviors he describes have no special creative features
      but are classified as creative in reference to certain condi-
      tions in which they occur. However, Epstein uses the word
      somewhat differently from the way Skinner does. Epstein
      (1996) explains creativity by describing explicitly what the
      individual is doing. Skinner (1970) explains more about the
      general process and outcome of creativity and creative acts.
      Even though both use the word creativity to describe some-
      thing, the word “creativity” may not have the same effect on
      the audience. The question is raised, are they using differ-
      ent words to talk about the same thing (creativity)? Or are
      they using the same word (creativity) to talk about differ-
      ent things? Their language games although resembling one
      another, may in fact be quite different.

      Another important topic described by Wittgenstein
      (1953/2009) is “family resemblances.” Family resemblances
      are

      various resemblances between members of a family,
      build, features, color of eyes, gait, temperament, and
      so on and so forth, overlap and crisscross in the same
      way. And I shall say: “games” form a family, and like-
      wise, the kinds of number, for example, form a family.
      Why do we call something a “number?” Well, perhaps
      because it has a direct affinity with several things that
      have hitherto been called “number”; and this can be
      said to give it an indirect affinity with other things that
      we also call “numbers.” And we extend our concept of
      number, as in spinning a thread we twist fiber on fiber.
      And the strength of the thread resides not in the fact
      that one fiber runs through its whole length, but in the
      overlapping of many fibers.” (p. 36)

      In behavioral terms, we can think of family resemblances
      as uses that share the same name but may have different
      functions or outcomes. In the first example, the use of “red”
      identifies the type of apple brought home. If one were to
      say, “no, it’s red,” and saying that, ended the conversation,
      then the use or function of the word “red” was to end a
      conversation. Both uses share features, they have family

      The Psychological Record

      1 3

      resemblances, but both, according to Wittgenstein, would
      have different meanings because they have different uses.

      We would expect to find similar differences in the use of
      “creative” across a range of representational systems. Each
      is having a different effect on a verbal community. All want
      the verbal community to do something different, as a result
      of their differing explanations. The meaning of the word
      “creative” is then found in that change in the verbal com-
      munity and not in the subject matter being studied. Is one
      studying creativity and the other not? Does one approach
      understand creativity better than the other? Perhaps the dif-
      ferences do not lie in the thing being studied, but in the
      language used to describe that study. Various communities
      and representational systems may employ different language
      games, having different audience effects.

      Nonvocal behavior likely must be considered as well. As
      described by Hagberg (2014), the nonvocal behaviors being
      exchanged between person A and B are also included in the
      effects on the audience. These nonvocal behaviors include
      “non-descriptive-predicate based remarks, where aesthetic
      adjectives play a diminished role or no role at all. We show
      our approval of a tailor’s work not by describing the suit,
      but by wearing it. Occasions and activities are fundamen-
      tal, descriptive language secondary” (p. 6). In other words,
      actions and nonvocal behaviors within a community may
      help define abstract terms such as “creativity” and “beauty”
      more than descriptive language.

      This suggests that instead of striving for a behavior analy-
      sis of “creativity,” it may be more fruitful to explore how the
      word is used in everyday and academic discourse. That is, to
      understand creativity may be simply to understand the use
      of the word by the verbal community. What are the language
      games shared by verbal communities where the word crea-
      tive is used?

      Creativity as a Social Event

      Creativity may not be the study of a particular phenome-
      non, but the study of family resemblances and differences in
      representational systems and how they affect the audience.
      Therefore, it may be useful for behavior analysis to consider
      the range of language games when discussing creative acts,
      inside and outside of behavior analysis. This quest is not
      searching for the essence of what it means to be creative;
      instead, its focus is on the uses of the word within verbal
      communities. Much like the selection of the red apples
      described by Wittgenstein, the features described by Skin-
      ner and by Epstein may both occasion the use of the word
      “creative.” Stated differently, Skinner and Epstein are giving
      us two different lists to take to the behavioral store.

      Perhaps, the role of the behavior analyst in terms of cre-
      ativity is to understand the social contingencies that give

      rise to these relations, or stated differently, understand the
      language games that describe these relations. Using a lan-
      guage or an art form requires that we already be within a
      network of possible tools (contingencies) in a language-
      game or possible tools within an artistic style (after Hag-
      berg, 2016). Language games can change as a function of
      changes in social variables as described by Varnedoe and
      Gopnik (1990), that is, “in order for modern art to happen
      as it did, a diverse cast of spectators—fellow artists, a few
      collectors, a critic here and there, eventually a public—had
      to decide not to throw the aberrant players out of the game,
      but to see that their mischief redefined the way the game
      might be played” (p. 217).

      Implications

      It may be helpful for behavior analysts to decide what the
      rules of our language game are before we can determine how
      to teach creativity in applied settings. We need to know what
      we are trying to accomplish, what is the effect we are trying
      to have on a verbal community, what will the community be
      doing and saying? Once specified, then we may be able to
      determine the behavioral program that is required. We are
      likely not dealing with a single phenomenon, but multiple
      phenomena with family resemblances when we talk about
      creativity. That is, the doing and saying may differ across
      instances of “creativity.”

      The uses could be different within different contexts, and
      within and between cultures. Behavior analysts can begin the
      analysis by determining how the term “creativity” serves a
      variety of functions in each of the communities in which it
      occurs. The creative behavior itself may be nothing special.
      The specialness may conceivably be found in the effect on
      the audience. Perhaps behavior analysts should clearly define
      the effects we are seeking when we use the word “creative,”
      and design our programs accordingly, rather than exploring
      or trying to define or analyze creativity itself.

      Data Availability Not applicable

      Declarations

      Conflict of Interest Not applicable

      References

      Day, W. F. (1969). On certain similarities between the philosophical
      investigations of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the operationism of
      BF Skinner. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,
      12(3), 489.

      The Psychological Record

      1 3

      Epstein, R. (1996). Cognition, creativity, and behavior: Selected
      essays. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.

      Epstein, R., Schmidt, S. M., & Warfel, R. (2008). Measuring and train-
      ing creativity competencies: Validation of a new test. Creativity
      Research Journal, 20, 7–12.

      Hagberg, G. L. (2014). Wittgenstein’s aesthetics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.),
      The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Metaphysics Research
      Lab, Center for the Study of Language & Information, Stanford
      University. plato.stanford.edu

      Hagberg, G. L. (2016). Wittgenstein, verbal creativity and the expan-
      sion of artistic style. In S. S. Grève & J. Mácha (Eds.), Wittgen-
      stein and the creativity of language (pp. 141–176). Springer.

      Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
      Skinner, B. F. (1970). Creating the creative artist. In Toynbee, A. J.

      et al. (Eds.), On the future of art (pp. 61–75). New York: Viking
      Press

      Skinner, B. F. (1972). On  “having”  a poem. Saturday Review, pp.
      32–35. (Reprinted in Cumulative record, 3rd ed., 1972, pp.
      345–355.)

      Skinner, B. F. (1981). How to discover what you have to say: A talk to
      students. The Behavior Analyst, 4(1), 1–7.

      Varnedoe, K., & Gopnik, A. (Ed.). (1990). Modern art and popular
      culture: Readings in high & low. Harry N. Abrams.

      Wittgenstein, L. (2009). Philosophical investigations (4th ed.). (G. E.
      M. Anscombe, Trans.) John Wiley & Sons. (Original work pub-
      lished 1953)

      Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to
      jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

      Psychological Record is a copyright of Springer, 2021. All Rights Reserved.

      • How Can We Talk about Creativity?
        • Abstract
        • Enter Skinner
        • Enter Epstein
        • The Language Games
        • Creativity as a Social Event
        • Implications
        • References

      Question

      Persuasive Theories Assignment


      Persuasive Theory Application

       

       1. Describe each theory identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each theory

           Inoculation Theory and Cognitive Dissonance

      2.   Compare and contrast these theories

      3.  Gives an example of how you have seen someone use these theories to persuade others.

      4.  How will you use the theories in the future to persuade others?  Be specific.

       

      This assignment should be at least 7-8 pages. This paper should demonstrate that you understand the theories and that you can critically apply them. If you quote the textbook, use quotation marks and proper documentation. Only use the text to explain the theories. Even if you paraphrase the textbook, please document it and give the page number. For further instructions on APA documentation and plagiarism, please consult the course material.  Be sure to include references. Remember the point of the assignment is to demonstrate that you have read and can apply the text material. Write the questions out completely and then answer them. Be sure you document the text material and only use the text.

       

      Comprehension and Application Rubric

       

      Excellent (3)

      Acceptable (2)

      Unacceptable (1)

      Connections to Discipline

      Sees (makes) connections across disciplines, perspectives

       

       

      Thoroughly describes each theory in detail giving attention to the strengths and weaknesses of each theory.

      Describes each theory.

      Has little discussion of the theories.

      Transfer

      Adapts and applies skills, abilities, theories, or methodologies gained in one situation to new situations.

      Thoroughly compares and contrasts the theories giving attention to their specific differences and their similarities.

       

      Compares and contrast the theories.

       

       

      Has little or no comparison/contrast.

       

       

      Connections to Experience

       

      Gives excellent examples of how he has seen someone else use each of these theories.

      Gives examples of how he has used or has seen someone else use these theories.

      Makes an inaccurate or incomplete application of one or more theories.

      Reflection and Self-Assessment

      Demonstrates a developing sense of self as a learner, building on prior experiences to respond to new and challenging contexts (may be evident in self-assessment, reflective, or creative work)

      Gives specific examples of how he will use the theories in their personal and business lives. Must apply all theories

      Gives some examples of how they will use these theories in his life.

      Paper includes little application.

      Integrated Communication

       

      Writing and Documentation—See the writing guidelines

      Demonstrates excellent writing and documentation skill using the APA method of documentation without errors in the body of the paper and in the references.

      Demonstrates average writing skills making few mistakes in grammar or spelling.  Uses the APA method of documentation with only one or two mistakes in the body of the paper or references.

      Has multiple problems using the APA method of documentation. Paper may also include grammar problems, writing, or spelling problems.

       

       

       

       

      question!!

      3/10/22, 7:38 PM Unit 6 Assignment Dropbox – PS541 Organizational Management and Behavior – Purdue University Global

      https://purdueglobal.brightspace.com/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=1096355&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=203683 1/3

      PS541 Unit 6 Assignment Rubric
      Course: PS541 Organizational Management and Behavior

      Criteria 1
      Level III
      18 points

      Level II
      15 points

      Level I
      11 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      Communicatio

      n and

      Organizational

      Dynamics

      / 18● Discusses the
      importance of

      communication

      to organizational

      dynamics

      ● Describes
      importance of

      communication

      to organizational

      dynamics

      ● Lists important
      aspects of

      communication

      in relation to

      organizational

      dynamics

      ● This
      submission does

      not meet the

      minimum criteria

      for the

      assignment

      Criteria 2
      Level III
      18 points

      Level II
      15 points

      Level I
      11 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      Conflict

      Resolution

      Techniques

      / 18● Discusses the
      importance of

      establishing clear

      conflict

      resolutions

      processes within

      an organization.

      ● Discusses the
      importance of

      establishing clear

      conflict

      resolutions

      processes within

      an organization,

      but lacks

      relevant details.

      ● Identifies
      conflict

      resolution

      techniques

      without

      discussion of the

      importance

      within an

      organization.

      ● This
      submission does

      not meet the

      minimum criteria

      for the

      assignment

      Criteria 3
      Level III
      20 points

      Level II
      16 points

      Level I
      12 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      3/10/22, 7:38 PM Unit 6 Assignment Dropbox – PS541 Organizational Management and Behavior – Purdue University Global

      https://purdueglobal.brightspace.com/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=1096355&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=203683 2/3

      Criteria 3
      Level III
      20 points

      Level II
      16 points

      Level I
      12 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      Recommendat

      ions to Case

      Study

      / 20● Provides 3
      conflict

      resolution

      strategies to

      address the

      conflict in the

      case study


      Recommendation

      s are evidence-

      based

      ● Provides 3
      conflict

      resolution

      strategies to

      address the

      conflict in the

      case study, but

      lacks relevant

      details.


      Recommendation

      s are evidence-

      based

      ● Provides 1-2
      conflict

      resolution

      strategies to

      address the

      conflict in the

      case study


      Recommendation

      s are evidence-

      based

      ● This
      submission does

      not meet the

      minimum criteria

      for the

      assignment

      Criteria 4
      Level III
      7 points

      Level II
      5 points

      Level I
      4 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      Writing and

      Mechanics

      / 7Writing meets all
      of the following

      criteria:

      ● Clear and
      logical

      organization of

      slides.

      ● Uses bullet
      points to convey

      information

      effectively

      ● Uses correct
      grammar,

      spelling, and

      punctuation.

      ● Meets slide
      number

      requirement

      Writing meets at

      least two of the

      following criteria:

      ● Clear and
      logical

      organization of

      slides.

      ● Uses bullet
      points to convey

      information

      effectively

      ● Uses correct
      grammar,

      spelling, and

      punctuation.

      ● Meets slide
      number

      requirement

      Writing meets

      one of the

      following criteria:

      ● Clear and
      logical

      organization of

      slides.

      ● Uses bullet
      points to convey

      information

      effectively

      ● Uses correct
      grammar,

      spelling, and

      punctuation.

      ● Meets slide
      number

      requirement

      ● This
      submission does

      not meet the

      minimum criteria

      for the

      assignment

      Criteria 5
      Level III
      7 points

      Level II
      5 points

      Level I
      4 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      3/10/22, 7:38 PM Unit 6 Assignment Dropbox – PS541 Organizational Management and Behavior – Purdue University Global

      https://purdueglobal.brightspace.com/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=1096355&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=203683 3/3

      Total / 70

      Overall Score

      Criteria 5
      Level III
      7 points

      Level II
      5 points

      Level I
      4 points

      Not Present
      0 points

      Criterion Score

      APA Style / 7APA Style
      includes all of

      the following:

      ● Clearly written
      in Standard

      English.

      ● References or
      academic

      sources as

      required,

      including in-text

      citation(s).

      ● Paraphrased
      correctly and

      accurately; direct

      quotes used

      minimally.

      ● Formatted
      correctly using

      either APA style

      or provided

      template.

      APA Style

      includes a

      majority of the

      following:

      ● Clearly written
      in Standard

      English.

      ● References or
      academic

      sources as

      required,

      including in-text

      citation(s).

      ● Paraphrased
      correctly and

      accurately; direct

      quotes used

      minimally.

      ● Formatted
      correctly using

      either APA style

      or provided

      template.

      APA Style

      includes less

      than half of the

      following:

      ● Clearly written
      in Standard

      English.

      ● References or
      academic

      sources as

      required,

      including in-text

      citation(s).

      ● Paraphrased
      correctly and

      accurately; direct

      quotes used

      minimally.

      ● Formatted
      correctly using

      either APA style

      or provided

      template.

      ● This
      submission does

      not meet the

      minimum criteria

      for the

      assignment

      Level III
      57 points minimum

      Level II
      43 points minimum

      Level I
      1 point minimum

      Not Present
      0 points minimum

      Question

      use the pdf attached to answer the following questions. cross referenced through turn it in and coursehero.

      a) Topic: Briefly describe your topic of interest & why it is important. Importance should be related to previous research in the field and need to assess the intervention.

      b) Indicate how the attached article is related to your topic of interest. Be sure to cite it in APA style.

      c) Research Question: Create a research question based on the topic. Remember to include all of the components of a good research question.

      d) Independent Variable: Identify the intervention or treatment package.        

      e) Dependent Variable: Identify the target behavior(s).  

      f) Participant(s): Describe the population and justify why they were selected for your study. 

      g) Measurement Procedure: Identify how you will capture the dependent variable and include whether the measurement you selected is continuous or discontinuous.  

      h) Design: Select one of the single-case designs you learned about and justify the reason for selection.

      i) Measurement Integrity: Based on your measurement procedure and design, indicate which IOA procedure you will use.

      j) Procedural Integrity: Describe how you will account for treatment integrity. 

      k) Maintenance and Generalization: Describe considerations for maintenance and generalization.

      l) Social Validity: Defend how your study has social validity

      m) Ethical Considerations: Identify any ethical considerations in your research, such as consent, assent, conflicts of interest, etc.

      n) General: Indicate where your visual display of data be located in a scientific paper.

      o) General: Indicate where you would place the implications of your results in a scientific paper?

      Question

      1. What was the purpose of the study? That is, what were the researchers trying to find out; what are the research questions?

      2. How many participants were included in the study? State each participants’ age, sex, and any diagnosis?

      3. List the operational definitions of all target behaviors.

      4. State how the data were measured and graphed.

      5. In your own words, provide a description of all the experimental procedures used in the study.

      6. Summarize level, trend, and variability for one participant.

      7. What contributions to the science and practice of ABA did this article provide? In other words, what was the main take away point(s) of this article?  

      8. Extra Credit: What is the social validity of this experiment or procedure. Consider habilitation and how the individual’s like may have been improved.

      question

      THE EFFECTS OF ERRORLESS LEARNING AND
      BACKWARD CHAINING ON THE ACQUISITION OF

      INTERNET SKILLS IN ADULTS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

      JARED JEROME, ERIC P. FRANTINO, AND PETER STURMEY

      QUEENS COLLEGE AND THE GRADUATE CENTER OF THE CITY

      UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK

      An important area in the learning and development of individuals with disabilities is the
      acquisition of independent, age-appropriate leisure skills. Three adults with autism and mental
      retardation were taught to access specific Internet sites using backward chaining and most-to-
      least intrusive prompting. The number of independent steps completed in the task analysis
      increased following training.

      DESCRIPTORS: autism, computer use, leisure skills

      _______________________________________________________________________________

      Age-appropriate leisure skills are important
      and valued for all individuals, and the use of
      personal computers has become an important
      form of leisure activity for many, including
      those with developmental disabilities. Several
      prior investigations have demonstrated effective
      methods for training leisure skills to individuals
      with developmental disabilities. For example,
      Luyben, Funk, Morgan, Clark, and Delulio
      (1986) trained 3 adults with mild mental
      retardation a side-of-the-foot soccer pass using
      chaining and prompting. The pass was analyzed
      into nine steps that were taught sequentially
      through forward chaining with a varying degree
      of prompts as training progressed. At first,
      verbal instruction plus a physical prompt were
      used. These were succeeded by imitative
      prompts, gestural prompts, and finally, verbal
      prompts alone. Eventually the target behavior of
      side passing the soccer ball was learned without
      prompts for all participants.

      Frank, Wacker, Berg, and McMahon (1985)
      taught 5 individuals with mental retardation to
      perform two computer tasks. There were 32 steps
      required to initiate and terminate a spelling
      program and 23 steps required to initiate and
      terminate a clock program on the computer. Both
      skills were evaluated in a combined multiple

      baseline (across students) and sequential with-
      drawal design. After the first two training sessions
      in which picture prompts were used, the
      percentage of correct steps completed increased
      across sessions for each participant. When the
      picture prompts were removed in the second
      baseline condition, however, the percentage of
      correct steps decreased. The posttest and follow-
      up procedures showed a return to the high
      percentages found after the first two training
      sessions with picture prompts. Thus, Frank et al.
      demonstrated that picture prompts were very
      effective in the training of computer skills to
      individuals with developmental disabilities.

      Although these studies show that adults with
      developmental disabilities can learn both leisure
      and computer skills using prompting, forward
      and backward chaining, and differential reinforce-
      ment, no previous research has shown that adults
      with developmental disabilities can be taught to
      use the Internet to access age-appropriate adult
      leisure activities. Thus, the aim of the current
      study was to teach adults with autism and mental
      retardation to access age-appropriate Web sites on
      the Internet using a combined errorless learning
      and backward chaining procedure.

      METHOD

      Participants and Settings
      Chris and Mark were 32-year-old and 24-year-

      old men, respectively, and both had been

      Requests for reprints should be sent to Jared Jerome,
      67-41 Burns St. Apt. L7, Forest Hills, New York 11375.

      doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.41-06

      JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2007, 40, 185–189 NUMBER 1 (SPRING 2007)

      185

      diagnosed with autism and mild mental re-
      tardation. Ethan was a 25-year-old man who had
      been diagnosed with mild mental retardation and
      deafness. Each man was chosen to be a participant
      because, when asked ‘‘Do you want to play on the
      computer?’’ he got up and walked to the
      computer and sat next to it within 10 s on five
      consecutive trials, and if he turned on the power
      button on either the computer or the monitor on
      five consecutive trials when prompted.

      All sessions were conducted in a day-habil-
      itation center for adults with mental retardation
      and autism. The sessions took place either in
      the participant’s classroom or in a separate
      classroom with a different computer. Across all
      sessions, the participant was seated in a chair
      approximately 1 m away from and facing the
      computer.

      Response Measurement and Reliability

      Across all conditions, data were collected on
      the number of independent tasks completed.
      The frequency of steps completed per session
      was based on a 13-step task analysis (described
      below), and the data were analyzed based on the
      number of steps completed independently
      relative to the total number of steps. Interob-
      server agreement was assessed on 53% of all
      sessions by having a second observer simulta-
      neously but independently collect data on the
      completion of each step of the task analysis. An
      agreement was defined as both observers
      marking a check when a step of the task analysis
      was performed or marking an X when a step
      was not performed. Agreement was calculated
      by dividing the number of steps with agree-
      ments by the number of steps with agreements
      plus the number of steps with disagreements
      multiplied by 100%. Agreement averaged
      100% for task completion throughout baseline
      and postteaching.

      Procedure

      The following 13-step task analysis was
      conducted to develop the requisite skills
      necessary to access a specific Web site:

      1. Press the computer power button.

      2. Press the monitor power button.

      3. Place hand on the mouse.

      4. Move the cursor with the mouse until it

      points to the Internet ExplorerH icon.
      5. Double click the Internet ExplorerH

      icon.

      6. Move the cursor with the mouse to the

      GoogleH search box.
      7. Left click in the box.

      8. Type in the search topic of interest.

      9. Place hand back on mouse.

      10. Move cursor to the box labeled ‘‘search.’’

      11. Single click the box.

      12. Move the cursor with the mouse down to

      the Web site of choice.

      13. Single click the Web site of choice.

      Across all steps, clicking was defined as
      pushing down with the right index finger on
      the front part of the mouse.

      Prior to each day’s sessions, a stimulus
      preference assessment (based on DeLeon &
      Iwata, 1996) was conducted to determine the
      items to be presented as reinforcers during the
      teaching sessions. For all participants, small
      edible items (e.g., jelly beans) were used as
      reinforcers.

      Preferred online games or Web sites for each
      participant were determined before baseline by
      asking program staff what topics interested the
      participants and then observing the participants
      engage in the game or Web site for a minimum
      of 5 min when the Web sites had been accessed
      by the experimenters. Staff informed the
      experimenters that the participants often used
      those Web sites, but the staff had to access the
      Web sites for them. To gain access to the
      preferred Internet activity, participants needed
      to double click the link to the Web site from
      a search engine (i.e., the GoogleH homepage;
      www.google.com). Chris and Ethan worked to
      access an online pinball game, and Mark
      worked to access a Web site that played music
      videos (specific links are available from the first
      author).

      186 JARED JEROME et al.

      Baseline. During baseline, each session began
      with the experimenter saying, ‘‘[name], do you
      want to play on the computer?’’ After the
      participant sat down, the experimenter stood
      1 m behind the participant. The experimenter
      said nothing else and did not deliver any other
      prompts during the baseline condition. When
      the participant either looked away from the
      computer or did not engage in the initial step or
      any subsequent step of the task for 2 min, the
      trial was terminated and the experimenter
      accessed the target online game or Web site
      and allowed the participant to interact with the
      online game or Web site for 5 min. All baseline
      sessions lasted between 2 and 5 min, depending
      on the participant’s behavior.

      Teaching. In the teaching condition, the
      experimenter stood 1 m behind the seated
      participant throughout the session. When each
      teaching session began, however, the initial 12
      steps of the task analysis were complete such
      that the participant was only required to click
      on the link for their preferred internet activity
      present on the GoogleH homepage. The
      experimenter then said, ‘‘[name], begin playing
      on the computer.’’ If the participant correctly
      completed this step, access to the preferred
      internet activity was delivered for 5 min.

      If the participant did not click the mouse after
      3 s, an errorless learning procedure was used to
      click the GoogleH link. A most-to-least intrusive
      prompting procedure (i.e., hand-over-hand
      guidance, followed by hand-over-wrist guid-
      ance, then hand-over-elbow guidance, and
      finally hand-over-shoulder guidance) was used
      until all prompts were faded and the participant
      independently clicked on the GoogleH link.
      Experimenters progressed to a less intrusive
      prompt after the participant performed the task
      with the previous prompt on two consecutive
      trials. Thus, the participants were not given the
      opportunity to perform an incorrect task on the
      computer. With the exception of the most-to-
      least intrusive prompting procedure, no other
      verbal prompts were delivered.

      The prompting procedure continued until
      the participant independently completed each
      of the 13 task-analysis steps two times consec-
      utively. After mastery of each step, training on
      the previous step was added. For example, once
      the participant independently completed the
      13th step on two consecutive trials, the
      prompting procedure was applied to the 12th
      step and so on, based on a backward chaining
      procedure. When all 13 steps were completed
      independently for three consecutive sessions,
      teaching was considered to be completed.

      Throughout the teaching condition, the
      experimenters delivered edible items after the
      participant completed each step of the task
      analysis, for both prompted and independent
      task completion. Edible items were delivered
      as a form of immediate reinforcement to
      maintain behavior in the absence of the
      delayed reinforcement provided by accessing
      the Internet activity. In addition, the participant
      received 5-min access to the preferred
      Internet activity after completion of the final
      step in the task analysis, regardless of whether
      completion of that step was prompted or
      occurred independently. Each teaching session
      lasted for a maximum of 40 min based on the
      maximum time available on the participants’
      schedules.

      Postteaching. Postteaching sessions were con-
      ducted in an identical manner to the baseline
      condition; that is, edible reinforcers and
      prompts were not delivered. The only difference
      was if the participants did not complete the 13-
      step chain, the session was terminated without
      access to the Web site. Participants were
      required to progress from one step to the next
      within the same 2-min time frame that existed
      during baseline.

      Generalization probes. Beginning in the post-
      teaching phase, a second computer became
      available in a separate classroom, located
      approximately 8 m from the computer used
      during baseline. The generalization computer
      and monitor were similar to the training

      INTERNET SKILL DEVELOPMENT 187

      Figure 1. Number of steps of task analysis completed for 3 participants across all trials.

      188 JARED JEROME et al.

      computer in size and general layout (e.g., power
      button, mouse type). The same 13-step task
      analysis allowed access to the Web site of
      choice, and the same procedure as baseline and
      postteaching was used. Generalization probes
      were conducted on this second computer on
      52%, 58%, and 38% of postteaching sessions
      for Chris, Mark, and Ethan, respectively.

      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

      The results are shown in Figure 1. Chris had
      a range of one to four steps completed in
      baseline. He met criterion for all 13 steps in one
      40-min teaching session. In postteaching, he
      completed all 13 steps of the task analysis
      during every session. Mark completed zero to
      one steps in baseline. He met criterion after five
      40-min teaching sessions. In postteaching, he
      completed 1 to 13 steps, and he completed all
      13 steps in 10 of 12 sessions. Ethan completed
      zero to five steps in baseline. He met criterion in
      one 40-min teaching session. In postteaching,
      he completed all 13 steps in every session. Thus,
      the number of steps completed independently
      increased after teaching for each participant. In
      addition, participants’ skills generalized to
      a novel computer.

      Previous research has demonstrated the use of
      task analyses and errorless learning to teach
      a variety of nonleisure computer skills and other
      leisure activities. The present study combined
      the efforts of this previous research by teaching
      leisure skills on the computer to adults with
      developmental disabilities. A limitation of the
      present study was that it taught access to only
      two Web sites, an online game and a music
      Web site that had been determined to be
      preferred prior to the study. Future research
      should extend this method to include choice
      among a variety of available Web sites, because
      choosing among multiple activities may result
      in higher levels of task engagement (Tiger,
      Hanley, & Hernandez, 2006). A second
      limitation to the study was that only one

      generalization computer was used and was used
      only during postteaching and not during
      baseline. Future research should evaluate stim-
      ulus generalization across different computers
      and locations as well as response generalization,
      such as to other Internet skills. Also, during the
      baseline condition participants were given only
      the following discriminative stimulus: ‘‘[Name],
      do you want to play on the computer?’’ It is
      possible that if participants were given more
      detailed instructions, they would have been able
      to perform more task-analysis steps. Likewise, it
      is possible that the delivery of edible reinforcers
      in the teaching condition may have resulted in
      increased task completion relative to baseline.
      Finally, although the participants completed the
      13-step chain during the postteaching and
      generalization conditions without any prompt-
      ing, it was not determined whether they learned
      to approach a computer independently to access
      a Web site of choice. Future research should
      observe whether participants would indepen-
      dently initiate trained leisure skills while not
      under the control of a specific discriminative
      stimulus.

      REFERENCES

      DeLeon, I. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Evaluation of
      a multiple-stimulus presentation format for assessing
      reinforcer preferences. Journal of Applied Behavior
      Analysis, 29, 519–532.

      Frank, A. R., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., & McMahon,
      C. M. (1985). Teaching selected microcomputer skills
      to retarded students via picture prompts. Journal of
      Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 179–185.

      Luyben, P. D., Funk, D. M., Morgan, J. K., Clark, K. A.,
      & Delulio, D. W. (1986). Team sports for the
      severely retarded: Training a side-of-the-foot soccer
      pass using a maximum-to-minimum prompt reduc-
      tion strategy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19,
      431–436.

      Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Hernandez, E. (2006). An
      evaluation of the value of choice with preschool
      children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39,
      1–16.

      Received March 16, 2006
      Final acceptance September 12, 2006
      Action Editor, Henry Roane

      INTERNET SKILL DEVELOPMENT 189

      Question

      Prior to completing this assignment, review Chapter 2, section 2.1 in your Constellation textbook and read the article Answer 4 Questions to Get a Great Mission Statement (Links to an external site.) (Hull, 2013), being sure to review this Fortune 500 Mission Statements (Links to an external site.) Now, turning to the company you selected, research and find the company’s mission statement. Then,

      • State how the mission statement provides guidance for the company’s organizational activities.
      • Evaluate the company’s mission statement per each of the four questions posed in the Hull article as well as your assigned readings for the week.
      • Rate the company according to the 5 star rating system used in the Fortune 500 list, stating how many stars would you rate the mission statement. Explain your rationale.
      • Rewrite the mission statement so that it better addresses the four questions and forms a complete mission statement.

      Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

      Question

       

      Development and implementation of an effective quality management strategy requires organizations to pay attention to a range of issues. These issues typically include: quality management and continuous improvement philosophy; process improvement tools and techniques; quality costing; quality management systems; and, service quality.

      You are required to critically evaluate the quality management strategy of DHL.

      Your report on this evaluation should include:

      • A brief profile of your chosen organization – included as an appendix – and a rationale for its selection;
      • A description of the organization’s quality management strategy and its evolution;
      • A critique of this strategy, identifying any strengths and areas for possible improvement;
      • An overview of the current environment in which the organization is based, focusing on the identification of opportunities and strengths; and,
      • A set of recommendations aimed at enhancing competitive advantage through improved approaches to various facets of quality

      Building on the work undertaken in your group for Coursework Assessment 1, your report should set out how appropriate quality management tools are currently being deployed in the organization, as well as how their deployment could be enhanced as part of the overall quality management strategy.

      Please note that your chosen organization can be a company, a division or strategic business unit (SBU) within a company, a public sector body, a non-governmental organization (NGO) or any other suitable organizational entity.

      Your report should be around 2,500 words in length (excluding executive summary, figures, tables, references and appendices). Figures and tables should be of clear quality and numbered consecutively. Titles and sources for both figures and tables should be provided.

      Requirements: Your report should be around 2,500 words in length (excluding executive summary, figures, tables, references & appendices). Figures & tables should be of clear quality and numbered consecutively. Titles & sources for figures & tables should be provided

      Question

       

      Assessment Instructions

      Show and explain all steps in your responses to the following parts of the assignment. All mathematical steps must be formatted using the equation editor.

      Part 1: Calculate the base fee (in dollars) charged by the ride-share service.

      Part 2: Calculate the rate of increase in cost in dollars per mile. (Hint: Use the points (0, 5) and (20, 50) for your calculation)

      Part 3: Identify the slope and y-intercept of the equation in the graph.

      Part 4: Write the slope-intercept equation of the line in the graph.

      Part 5: Use your equation from part 4 to extrapolate the cost of a 50-mile ride.

      Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

      The name of the file should be your first initial and last name, followed by an underscore and the name of the assignment, and an

      Question

       

      In this Signature Assignment, you will use what you have learned in this course to conduct three statistical tests: a Pearson correlation, an independent t-test, and an ANOVA.

      You will use SPSS to conduct the statistical tests.

      You will then prepare a PowerPoint presentation in which you share the results of each statistical test. Each slide should contain notes (at least 100 words) describing the analysis in narrative form.

      Prepare the PowerPoint presentation and include a voice-over.  For instructions on how to include a narration to a PowerPoint presentation, search for “how to create voice-over narration in MSWord PowerPoint.”

       Use the attached SPSS file to complete the following: 

      Select variables appropriate to conduct each of the statistical tests below: 

      • Pearson Correlation for three variables
      • Independent Samples t-test
        • Recall from week 5 that the t-test compares means for two groups. 
      • ANOVA
        • Recall from week 5 that the ANOVA test compares means for three or more groups. 

      PowerPoint 

      Introduction 

      Introduce the assignment by stating the importance of hypothesis testing in research and how statistics are used to accomplish this.

      Present the statistical tests one at a time. For each statistical test: 

      1. Identify the null and alternative hypothesis for the statistical test.
      2. Identify the Independent and Dependent variables, as appropriate. (Note: not applicable for the Pearson Correlation statistical test) 
      3. Display appropriate graphics, and descriptive statistics for each of the variables in the statistical test. Describe the central tendency and dispersion of each variable in the slide notes using formal writing. 
      4. Display the statistical output for the test.               

                 a. Describe the statistical output in the slide notes using formal writing.          

                 b. Reflect on the use and value of the statistical test.

      Summary

      Close the assignment with a formally written reflection on building a statistical mindset and developing statistical confidence. 

      Resources:  

      SPSS Data Set

      Length: 12 to 15 slides not including title page and reference page

      Question

       

      1. Summarize the interview to create a profile of the older adult. (No more than one page in length.) for this part you are making up an interview with an old person
      2. Describe the two (2) normal age-related changes (not disease states) used in your table assignment. Describe 1) the physiologic reason for the age related changes and 2) the impact these changes have on your interviewee’s daily life.
      3. Discuss the findings from your previously completed evidence table. Compare and contrast these findings about older adults in general with what your interviewee said regarding these age related changes.
      4. Based on what you now learned about these age related changes from your interviewee and the research findings you described, discuss the implications for gerontological nursing practice. What nursing interventions or care strategies would you be sure to incorporate into your future practice based on the evidence you reviewed (from an older adult interview and the research you did for the evidence table) to help manage each age-related change to promote successful aging?
      5. Describe specifically the CNL role in promoting the types of care strategies and interventions you identified in #5 for older adults. Describe how the CNL role & responsibilities are uniquely distinct from the nursing interventions identified in #5.

      Question

      What interpersonal helping skills can you use to decrease the chances that you will be involved in dangerous situations with clients? You will need to read the Chapter on Personal Safety to have the ability to discuss this with ease

      • a month ago
      • 3

      Question

      Write a program that generates our recurring theme of the month and random rainfall.For this assignment, you will need to use pointers for the months and rainfall data.

      Unlike the previous assignment this time the random rainfall will be double data type formatted as shown.Add header file #include <typeinfo> to your code so you can display the required results.

      The first two lines of your output will show the type for the months and rainfall. You can name your pointer anything you want but the following is the required aforementioned code using ptr_month and ptr_rainAmountcout << “Month has type :” << typeid(ptr_month).name() << “\n”;cout << “Rainfall has type :” << typeid(ptr_rainAmount).name() << “\n”;Your output should resemble:

        Question

          

        Write pseudocde for the 5 (five) problems for full credit. There are two ways to complete this quiz. One is to simply download the instructions file (docx) below and do your pseudocode code editing right into the instruction document. Then upload the edited Word file.The other is to type a separate document with your pseudocode and submit the newly created document. Make sure your pseudocode includes the problem descriptions.You get to pick your own poison.You DO NOT need to create C++ source code files for this assignment.Remember pseudocode is intended to be a discription/roadmap for your program. Keep it simple but include enough information to define your plan. It is not supposed to look like code.Use the template sectionsPurpose: Don’t just repeat the problem description. Think in terms of HOW you are going to do the job.Input: What values (if any) do you need from the user. You can also include known/defined values such as PI.Processing: Describe what processing/calculations need to be doneOutput: Results to be output. Text and/or calculated values.

          Question

           

          A) Please list the primary legalfor each of the following scenarios:

          B) For each of the Issues ( scenarios) use westlaw to locate one relevant court opinion from my state (NY) and correctly cite the opinion and provide the headnotes

          Scenario

          Mr. Frank Incense was arrested for theft when he took $500,000 worth of tools from behind a neighbor’s shed which faced an alley. Frank insisted that he thought the tools were being thrown away. He was having financial difficulty and thought he could make some money by selling the tools. While being questioned, Frank asked for an attorney. Finally, he was provided with an attorney who specialized in Bankruptcy Law, and who was required to take on criminal cases pro bono. The attorney really did not understand criminal procedure, and as a result, Mr. Insence was not only found guilty, but also received a very stiff sentence. Mr. Insence wants to appeal his case because he believes that he not only had a right to counsel, but a right to counsel who was competent in handling criminal proceedings.

            Question

              

            Week 02 Discussion

            Essential Questions for Week’s 1-2 Readings and Discussion: “When making ethical decisions, what forces within the human personality should be prioritized? Which should be considered suspect (if any)?” 

            Read at least eight of the resources provided in the Required Readings for this week. Refer to at least four (using specific quotes) in your original post in the discussion and refer to at least one of them in each of your responses to your peers in that discussion. Use your life experience, logic, or intuition in addition to your reading, to explain how you arrived at your conclusions and critiques. You will note that a number of questions have been asked in the introductions as well. You may use those as additional prompts for your writing as you see fit. Please supply at least one question of your own at the end of your original post to give your instructor and peers a sense for how they might contribute most effectively to your learning goals.

            The following texts are used in the course: 

            • Pojman,      L. P., & Vaughn, L. (2018). The moral life: An introductory reader in      ethics and literature (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

            · Note: All Brief Introductions are required readings. Read/watch at least eight of the subsequent resources provided in each week as these will be used for your discussion posts. Please read the weekly discussions for further instructions.

            Week 2: Required Readings

            The Social Self

            The Spiritual Self

            The Rational Self

              Question

              Write a function playGame(maxValue) to perform the following task (it’s based on an old school yard game called “Fuzz Buzz”):

              Create a loop that depends on a variable x starting with the value 1 and increasing in value by 1 for each iteration of the loop, until x reaches a maximum value specified by the formal parameter maxVal. At each iteration of the loop the value of x should be displayed, unless one of the conditions shown below is true, when the message specified below should be displayed instead:

              • If the value of x is divisible by 11, skip to the next value of x and display the word “skip”.

              • If the value of x is divisible by 10, display the word “fuzz”

              • If the value of x is divisible by 4, display the word “buzz”

              • If the value of x is divisible by both 10 and 4, display the words “fuzz”

              and “buzz”, unless the first rule applies.

              • Otherwise just display the value of x.

              You can find out if a number is ***** by another using the modulo operator %. This tells you the remainder after integer division. For example:

              8 % 2 equals 0 as 2 goes into 8 four times leaving no remainder.

              8 % 3 equals 2 as 3 goes into 8 two times leaving a remainder of 2.

              You should then create a function runGame() that invites the user to enter an appropriate value for maxValue, and then calls the playGame() function accordingly.

                Question

                The mean ±1 sd of ln [calcium intake m(mg)] among 30 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is 6.56 ±0.64. Similarly, the mean ±1 sd of ln [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is 6.80 ±0.76.Set the significance level α = 0.05a.Test for a significant difference between the variance of the two groupsPossible Answer: Am I doin this correctly in R?s1 = 0.64s2 = 0.76## find test stat – FF_stat = (s1^2) / (s2^2)F_stat## [1] 0.7091413# F_stat = 0.7091413 > 0.5 -> fail to rej# conclude: var equal

                  Question

                  WEB230: JavaScript 1Final Project–To-DoList

                  This is a project. You are not allowed to discuss this project with anyone. It is to test your overall ability in JavaScript. You are allowed to research content on the internet, but you may not post questions, or use any code that you did not write. In this project, you will write code to create a Todolist. You are provided with HTML, CSS and a skeleton file. Look at the HTML and CSS file to get an understanding of how to select and manipulate your DOM elements. When researching online, you are allowed to look for guidelines. DO NOT copy and paste the code. That is considered cheating. NOTES• DO NOT modify the HTML or CSS files. Doing so will lose you marks.• Include a comment in the JavaScript file with your name, student number, and the date.• Follow best practices as discussed during the lecture.o Use camel-casing for variable names.o Remember to use letor constvariables.•Zip the folder containing the project files before submitting. Please submit in a zip format. Do not use any other archive formats (RAR, 7zip, tar, etc.).REQUIREMENTS For this final project, the to-do list must have:•When you create a new section, it should create a new divelement with a class named section, and idsectionwith a title. Example is provided in the index.htmlfile.oSection should have their own buttonto create their own items within’that section.•When clicking on the lielement, it should toggle the classstrikethrough, to signal that it isdone.oMake sure that this is done through event delegation on the ul element. (Remember to use tagName to identify for li).•Adding a new item should appropriately add the new item to that section.•Programmatically addyour own name as a pelement, and console logged your studentnumber onconsole.

                  WEB230: JavaScript 1PREVIEWBONUS•Have a button for each section that sorts the to-dolist alphabetically.(5 marks)•Have a button that removes all the finished to-do list items (those that are marked with a strikethrough).(5 marks) there’s the requirements

                    Question

                    Write a program that prints a letter. Ask the user for the receiver’s name, a topic (any string), and the sender name. Your program should print a letter like this:

                    Hi *receiver*,

                    This is *sender*. I would like to discuss *topic* with you.

                    Call me.Regards,

                    *sender*

                      Question

                      “What’s Up Doc?”

                      This assignment focuses on the psychologically rich world around us. Yo are asked to complete a pyschological profile of any one person featured in a documentary. Your review will be more substantial than the sample shown here,and you can use these films, because there are only dot points shown, but you also can use any other film if it meets these criteria. 

                      Criteria for acceptance:

                      Film must be a documentary

                      It must be over 1 hour long 

                      It must be about anor person which lends itself to a discussion of psychology (so is not only about a sports contest, or nature etc).

                      It can be about only one person or a few people (so the excellent  “Amy” documentary about Winehouse will work)  as would “Epstein -Filthy Rich”, but you would focus on just one person or two or three, but a large group. For example you could examine Epstein, or any one or two of his victim’s or accomplices). If you choose the excellent “Athlete A”, focus on Nasser, or up to three of his victims.

                      It must include psychologically related material on at least one person or group. 

                      So, ‘A perfect 14″ is a great documentary, and is about plus sized models, and so would work. “The World before her” is only about Hindu girls and will be good tool. Blackfish is about marine mammals etc, so will not work, neither will “March of the Penguins”. But, “Love Me” (Mail order bride industry). Remember to focus on one bride or one male.  “The True Cost” (International garment industry), “It’s a Girl” (the killing off of girls in India and China, because they are girls), “Happy” (the name says it all), these will all work because they involve disparate groups, governments, men, woman, Ukrainians, Americans, Indians etc. You will also find lots of documentaries about individuals, such as “Missing Mom”, “A Sister’s Call”, “Forgetting Dad”, “The Family I had “, “Goodnight Sugar Babe”, “Killer in the family”, “Natascha Kampusch”, “The Moors Murders”, and “Memories of a Penitent Heart” and probably hundreds of others.  

                      So here is what to do for the documentary YOU choose.

                      Name it, and say in one sentence what its about. Do NOT focus on retelling story of the individuals, just give a profile of one key person, or up to three people. 

                      Here is an example of how short the description of the story should be. This is a summary of Les Miserables.

                      ” Jean ValJean is a released prisoner who is bitter at life, until an unexpected act of kindness, by a Catholic bishop, launches him on  life of service and redemption, in which, despite being pursued by the police, he assists many others achieve a measure of success and happiness”  Then, focus on only the psychology of your subject(s) (one or more people) sociology, not the politics, technology or legal aspects. Here’s an example. “Missing Mom”. The psychological impact on adult kids of a mom who deserted them 25 years ago, and the developments when (SPOILER) they find her. Profile them or Or profile HER. What is their, or her, psychological profile, how did loss and abandonment affect their  social status, (ascribed or acquired), class, inequity, gender, caste, institutions (one is an RMCP officer). How are functional or dysfunctional are they. What are their in groups, out groups, connections with marginalized people, (mom was homeless and drug involved at times) role of governments, relevance of education, exploitation, etc. 

                      Or you can choose a small group affected by a bigger issue: For example, 

                      “The True Cost”, international garment industry and its impact around the world. 

                      Discuss, why do western women featured (its mainly women, less so men) “need” new outfits each month? Where did this psychological needed come from? Is it healthy? What are the psychological impacts on individual poor Asian women who leave their children to work in sweatshops? Why do (and how do) Westerners ignore the death and injury inflicted on exploited women? What is going on in their minds? Is rampant materialism okay or sign of a psychological disturbance? 

                      “Takeaways”. What are the two or three key points about the subject group(s) psychological status? What are their top mental problems? Solutions? Is it likely to happen and if so, who needs what treatment? Can psychology explain what is going on?

                      Example: The Main three facts are 

                      A. Valjean is extremely disturbed as a result of trauma and injustice. Modern treatment options for him would be..(Don’t stop here, continue to tell us more about him. He is generous by possessive, prone to feelings of guilt but empathetic, sometimes aggressive, but only in the face of injustice. 

                      B. Javert is obsessive, inflexible and paranoid. And add more, for example what impact his birth in prison might have had..

                      Same with Cosette, Fantine etc.

                      Tell us what he/she/they are like, psycholigically, and why. What therapy (if any would you suggest if they arrived at your clinic door)?He would benefit from  . X exploits Y because X has raised barriers and sees Asian girls as “other”. X can be treated to readjust her view of exploited workers if…etc”, b. It CAN be changed if people only do this…..c. Its likely (Not likely) to happen because the Westerners’ status goal are achieved by the acquisition of cheap good by anonymous women..

                      Same with “Love me” (Internet brides). Who are the men? Rich, average poor? Why do they prefer to seek wives abroad? Are they adventurers or exploiters, lechers or lovers? Is their psychology different from their fellow citizens who prefer western brides? Who are the women? Naive or devious? Gold Diggers or depressed or hopeless women looking for a better life? Scammers or just average women looking for love? Psychologically immature, naive or devious? What is the impact on potential wives in the West (the women these men prefer to skip)? And the men in Ukraine that the women refuse to marry? 

                      Are the men immature and  looking for a trophy wife etc? Are these men and women being helped or exploited by each other or a system? Is this just another way to meet people, or does it suggest the women are avaricious, using the men to access resources, or are the men using the women to overcome untreated psychological issues which cause social backwardness. 

                      Are their psychological indications that the men have elements of misogyny and hatred of self? What are the psychological ramifications of giving up on dating in the West and seeking to enter a more “arranged” system?  Are the men seeking love of fraternity (with other men)? Are the men and women commenting on their own society, and are their criticisms valid, or are they victims of deviant thinking ? Are their expectations of each other based on fact or only perceptions of status, rich husbands? Is this “all good” or does it have negative aspects of misogyny, sexism, nationalism, etc.

                      “Takeaways”. What are the two or three key points? What are the top problem? Solutions? Is it likely to happen?

                        • a month ago
                        • 5

                        Question

                        What is the somatosensory cortex?

                        What was Dr. Ramachandran’s hypothesis for why rubbing the patient’s cheek created sensations of his phantom limb?

                        How did the brain imaging results support Dr. Ramachandran’s hypothesis?

                        Consider the ideas of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.   Explain how Derek’s case supports one or both of these concepts?  

                        A common critique of case studies is that they are not generalizable; how are these case studies useful in understanding brain structure and function in general?

                          • 8

                          Question

                          Create method PopulateListBox that will accept as an argument a one-dimensional doublearray that will then load the data from the array passed as an argumentinto the listbox with the format “$xxx,xxx.xx” such as “$247,850.00”ii.Create method CalcAverageSalesthat will accept as an argument a one-dimensional douoblearray that will then calculate the average sales fromthe data from the array passed as an argumentand put the result in lblAverage displayed as currency with two decimal places, example: $206,280.79iii.Create method FindHighestSalesthat will accept as an argumenta one-dimensional doublearray that will then find the highest sales from the data from the array passed as an argumentand put the result in lblHighest displayed ascurrency with zero decimal places, example: $264,448iv.Create method FindLowestSalesthat will accept as an argument a one-dimensional doublearray that will then find the lowest sales from the data from the array passed as an argumentand put the result in lblLowest displayed as currency with zero decimal places, example: $109,872.

                            Question

                            2 (a) The number of particles emitted per second by a radioactive source has a Poisson distribution with mean 20. Calculate the probabilities of

                            (i) 0 (ii) 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 3 or more emissions in a time interval of 1 second

                            (b) y 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 P (Y = y) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

                            Calculate the standard deviation of the random variable Y above.

                            (c) There are 800 pupils in a school. Find the probability that exactly5 of them have their birthdays on 1 January, by using (????) B (800, 1/365) (????) Po (800/365)

                            (d) A continuous random variable, has a probability density function, f(x), given by

                            1 ????????????1≤????≤???? ????(????) = {????2

                            0 ????????h????????????????????????

                            Height(m)

                            1.55- 1.59

                            1.60- 1.64

                            1.65- 1.69

                            1.70- 1.74

                            1.75- 1.79

                            1.80- 1.84

                            1.85- 1.89

                            1.90- 1.94

                            1.95- 1.99

                            JULY, 2021

                            A random sample of 100 observations is taken from this distribution, and the mean, ????, is found. Write

                            Find (i) the mean, μ (ii) the variance,σ2, of this distribution down the distribution of ????.

                            JA: The Tutor can help you get an A on your homework or ace your next test. Is there anything else the Tutor should know before I connect you? Rest assured that they’ll be able to help you.

                            Customer: 3 Consider the table of values below

                            Age(x) 21 23 24 27 30 32 Mark (y) 100 80 95 85 75 95 (a) Calculate the Spearman’s rank correlation for the data and explain the value.

                            (b) You are given the data set on the following table:

                            Y 24 32 40 50 60 72 82 X 11 15 19 24 29 35 40

                            (i) fit the regression line for these two variables (where Y is the dependent variable and X is the independent variable)

                            (ii) Interpret the intercept of the linear regression line (iii) interpret the slope of the linear regression line (iv) calculate the response if X is 30.

                              Question

                              1. Please provide a brief description of your interaction with the applicant and, if applicable, the applicant’s role in your organization (4-6 sentences).
                              2. How does the applicant’s performance compare to that of other well- qualified individuals in similar roles (if applicable)? Please provide specific examples. (E.g. what are the applicant’s principal strengths?) (4-6 sentences)
                              3. Describe the most important piece of constructive feedback you have given the applicant. Please detail the circumstances and the applicant’s response. (2 pages)
                              4. (Optional) Is there anything else we should know? (2 pages)

                                      

                                               4 pages

                                • 20

                                Question

                                For this assignment, you will reflect on the importance of using the appropriate leadership style to influence employee engagement and performance. You will analyze three leadership approaches—transformational, transactional, and servant leadership—to discuss their relative advantages, disadvantages, or appropriate use.

                                Prior to beginning work on this assignment,

                                 

                                In your paper,

                                • Discuss the importance of using the appropriate leadership style to influence employee engagement and performance.
                                • Define transformational, transactional, and servant leadership.
                                • Explain the main differences between transformational, transactional, and servant leadership.
                                • Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of each leadership approach: transformational, transactional, and servant leadership.
                                • Discuss situations in which each leadership style would work well and situations in which each style would not be as effective.

                                 

                                The Comparing and Contrasting Distinct Leadership Approaches assignment

                                 

                                Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

                                  • 2 months ago
                                  • 15

                                  Question

                                  You may assign the value o to the elements in your array to initialize the elements — whether you are creating the array or appending to the array. 0 will indicate an “empty” element. • Recall, in pre-allocation, we allocate more space in memory than what is requested by the user. rows and cols are the number of rows and columns the user has requested for in their 2D matrix. For example, if rows is 10 and cols is 10, and the user appends a value such that the number of rows increase by one, then you increase rows to 11. o reserved_rows and reserved_cols are the number of rows and columns that are reserved for the user i.e. this is the capacity of your 2D array. For example, currently, the rows and reserved_rows are 10 and cols and reserved_cols are 10. If the user appends a value such that the number of rows should increase, then you increase rows to 11 and double the size of reserved_rows to 20 along with the number of rows allocated in memory for your 2D array. Review preallocation for more details. These functions would work around the following user defined data structures (see toimgr.h): /* Structure type that encapsulates our image: 2D array. * the rows represent the indices of the main array, * the cols represent the indices of the arrays pointed to by the pointers * in the elements of the main array. */ typedef struct { uint8_t** pixels; unsigned int rows; unsigned int cols; unsigned int reserved_rows; unsigned int reserved_cols; } imgr_t; /* A type for returning status codes */ typedef enum { IMGR_OK, IMGR_BADCOL, IMGR_BADROW, IMGR_BADALLOC, IMGR EMPTY } imgr_result_t; HINTS • Don’t forget to keep adding appropriate function calls to your test driver as you go along. reserved_rows should always represent the amount of memory allocated to all the row arrays in imgr_t. This means that if you doubled the length of one row, you need to do the same for all other rows. reserved_cols should always represent the amount of memory allocated to the main col array. This means that if you double your original array, you also need to double the amount of rows you have in imgr_t. TESTING: you can test your program by running: $ make to # OR gcc -Werror -Wfatal-errors -g -o to to.c toimgr.c (see Makefile) $ ./to (see? Makefiles saves your gcc command so you don’t have to type this long thing over and over again, convenient huh :D) The following is a breakdown of the tasks. REMINDER: • write comments!! Test and debug your code! Prompt the user for what they should enter by printing messages with printf , e.g. “Enter an integer: “, and let the user know what the output is by printing a message, e.g. “Here is the result: Task 01.1 REQUIREMENT: write a function in toimgr.c with