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Physical Science 9

SCI 110 Midterm Week 6 Solutions

Name: _______________________________________ Date: _________________________

1. Which of the following is not considered a major physical science:

 

a. 

Physics

 

b. 

Astronomy

 

c. 

Geology

 

d. 

Biology

 

e. 

Meteorology

2. The word science comes from the Latin word meaning

3. True or False: The most information about our environment comes to us through the sense of touch.

4. A quantitative observation that is the basis of scientific investigation is a(n)

 

a. 

experiment.

 

b. 

measurement.

 

c. 

explanation.

 

d. 

number.

5. A scientific law describes

 

a. 

the scientific method.

 

b. 

a fundamental relationship of nature.

 

c. 

the behavior of nature.

 

d. 

an experiment.

6. In a one or two sentence, explain what is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.

7. A standard unit

 

a. 

is the same in all systems of units.

 

b. 

may not be fixed in value.

 

c. 

is found only in the British system.

 

d. 

is used for taking accurate measurements.

 

e. 

is found only in the metric system.

8. The standard unit of time is the

 

a. 

.

 

b. 

day.

 

c. 

second.

 

d. 

minute.

9. Which has a larger volume, a liter of water or a liter of mercury (a liquid metal)?

 

a. 

water

 

b. 

mercury

 

c. 

none of these

10. Density describes

 

a. 

mass per unit volume.

 

b. 

length per unit time.

 

c. 

volume per liter.

 

d. 

weight per mass.

11. The natural sciences are divided into ______________ sciences and biological sciences.

12.  A(n) ______________ is a tested explanation of a broad segment of basic natural phenomena.

13. A proposed concept or model of nature is tested using the ______________.

14. The three fundamental quantities studied in Chapter 1 are length, mass, and ______________.

15. Motion necessarily involves

 

a. 

a change in velocity.

 

b. 

a change in speed.

 

c. 

a change in direction.

 

d. 

a change in position.

 

e. 

all of these

16. If an object moves with constant velocity,

 

a. 

its speed is constant.

 

b. 

its direction is constant.

 

c. 

its average speed is constant.

 

d. 

its distance traveled per unit time is constant.

 

e. 

all of these

17. A freely falling object

 

a. 

has a uniformly increasing velocity.

 

b. 

is unaffected by gravity.

 

c. 

has a uniformly increasing acceleration.

 

d. 

has a uniformly increasing displacement.

18.  A continuous change in position is called ______________.

19.  Dropped objects on the Moon fall at a slower rate than on Earth because of a smaller ______________.

20. A ball dropped from the top of a building hits the ground 9.0 s later. How high is the building (in meters)?

21. The essentials of the first law of motion were initially developed by

 

a. 

Aristotle.

 

b. 

Galileo.

 

c. 

Newton.

 

d. 

an unknown scientist.

22. The natural tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with a constant velocity is called

 

a. 

an external force.

 

b. 

an unbalanced force.

 

c. 

inertia.

 

d. 

none of these.

23. A mass is accelerated when ______________ acts upon the mass.

 

a. 

a balanced force

 

b. 

any force

 

c. 

no force

 

d. 

an unbalanced force

 

e. 

none of these

24. When you push on a stationary object on a horizontal surface and it doesn’t move, what kind of force is most likely opposing your efforts?

 

a. 

Static friction force

 

b. 

Sliding friction force

 

c. 

Lubricant friction force

 

d. 

Gravitational force

 

e. 

Normal Force

25. It is generally easier to push an object once it is moving than when you are getting it started. This is because

 

a. 

sliding friction is zero.

 

b. 

sliding friction is less than static friction.

 

c. 

static friction is less than sliding friction.

 

d. 

static friction is zero.

26. The buoyant force of an object is equal to the ______________ of the ______________ it displaces.

 

a. 

mass; fluid

 

b. 

weight; fluid

 

c. 

mass; solid

 

d. 

weight; solid

27. Which of the following would be the same for a person on the Moon rather than on Earth?

 

a. 

Maximum jumping height

 

b. 

Weight

 

c. 

The amount of time for an object to fall 2 meters from rest

 

d. 

Mass

 

e. 

Gravitational acceleration

28. Newton’s third law of motion states that the force pair acting on different objects consists of two forces that

 

a. 

are under the influence of gravity.

 

b. 

are equal and in the same direction.

 

c. 

always produce an acceleration.

 

d. 

are equal and in opposite directions.

29. According to Newton’s second law, the force required to accelerate an object is equal to

 

a. 

its acceleration divided by its mass.

 

b. 

its mass times the acceleration.

 

c. 

its mass divided by the velocity.

 

d. 

its weight times the velocity.

30. The total linear momentum of an isolated system of masses remains the same if there are no external ______________ acting on the system.

 

a. 

forces

 

b. 

torques

 

c. 

unbalanced forces

 

d. 

unbalanced torques

31. A change in motion requires a(n) ______________.

32. Work is defined as force times

 

a. 

distance.

 

b. 

time.

 

c. 

parallel distance.

 

d. 

perpendicular distance.

33. The quantity is known as

 

a. 

kinetic energy.

 

b. 

potential energy.

 

c. 

work.

 

d. 

energy.

 

e. 

power.

34. An object has kinetic energy of 324 J. If its speed is 9 m/s, what is its mass?

 

a. 

8

 

b. 

36

 

c. 

1620

 

d. 

324

35. The kinetic energy of a pendulum is greatest

 

a. 

when its potential energy is greatest.

 

b. 

at the top of its swing.

 

c. 

at the bottom of its swing.

 

d. 

when its total energy is greatest.

36. The potential energy of a pendulum is least

 

a. 

when its potential energy is greatest.

 

b. 

at the top of its swing.

 

c. 

at the bottom of its swing.

 

d. 

when its total energy is greatest.

37. Which of the following four objects has the greatest kinetic energy?

 

a. 

An object of mass m moving with speed 4v

 

b. 

An object of mass 3m moving with speed 2v

 

c. 

An object of mass 4m moving with speed v

 

d. 

An object of mass 2m moving with speed 3v

 

e. 

None of these; all four objects have the same kinetic energy.

38. The energy of position is called

 

a. 

potential energy.

 

b. 

power.

 

c. 

kinetic energy.

 

d. 

heat.

39. Power is

 

a. 

work divided by time.

 

b. 

velocity multiplied by time.

 

c. 

momentum divided by time.

 

d. 

energy multiplied by time.

40. Currently, in the United States, which fuel has the largest consumption?

 

a. 

Oil

 

b. 

Natural gas

 

c. 

Coal

 

d. 

Nuclear

41. Energy provided directly from Earth’s interior is called

 

a. 

groundwater energy.

 

b. 

geothermal energy.

 

c. 

artesian energy.

 

d. 

thermionic energy.

42. The product of force times parallel distance is called ______________.

43. Energy resulting from motion is called ______________.

44. A temperature of degrees 250 Celsius is equivalent to _____ degrees Fahrenheit.

 

a. 

–9.4

 

b. 

482.0

 

c. 

121.1

 

d. 

–23.0

45. Heat transfer that involves mass movement is

 

a. 

temperature.

 

b. 

conduction.

 

c. 

convection.

 

d. 

radiation.

46. The number of molecules in a container is quadrupled and the Kelvin temperature quadrupled. The volume remains unchanged. The new pressure will be how many times greater than the original pressure?

 

a. 

16

 

b. 

1

 

c. 

20

 

d. 

32

47. When a material is found to have a definite volume but no definite shape, and when it assumes the shape of the container in which it is placed, what is the phase of the material?

 

a. 

Gas

 

b. 

Liquid

 

c. 

Plasma

 

d. 

Solid

48. When a material is found to have no definite volume and no definite shape, what is the phase of the material?

 

a. 

Gas

 

b. 

Liquid

 

c. 

Plasma

 

d. 

Solid

49. The Fahrenheit scale has a ______________ degree size than the Celsius scale.

50. On bare feet, a tile floor feels colder than a rug because the tile has a greater ______________.

51. If the volume and the number of molecules remain constant for a gas, a temperature increase causes the pressure to ______________.

52. The first law of thermodynamics states that heat added to a closed system can change the internal energy of the system and/or do ______________.

53. Which of the following characterize(s) a wave?

 

a. 

Wavelength

 

b. 

Amplitude

 

c. 

Period

 

d. 

All of these

54. Wave amplitude is related to

 

a. 

wave velocity.

 

b. 

frequency.

 

c. 

energy.

 

d. 

wavelength.

55. Which of the following radiations has the longest wavelength?

 

a. 

Infrared

 

b. 

Visible

 

c. 

Ultraviolet

 

d. 

X-rays

56. Which of the following radiations has the greatest frequency?

 

a. 

Infrared

 

b. 

Visible

 

c. 

Ultraviolet

 

d. 

X-rays

57. Electromagnetic waves are

 

a. 

longitudinal.

 

b. 

reverse.

 

c. 

transverse.

 

d. 

a combination of these.

58. Light waves travel fastest in

 

a. 

water.

 

b. 

glass.

 

c. 

a vacuum.

 

d. 

air.

 

e. 

none of these; they travel at the same speed in all these media.

59. The region of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies just less than those in the visible region is the ______________ region.

 

a. 

infrared

 

b. 

gamma rays

 

c. 

radio waves

 

d. 

microwaves

 

e. 

x-rays

60. Sound is a(n)

 

a. 

longitudinal wave.

 

b. 

electromagnetic wave.

 

c. 

transverse wave.

 

d. 

standing wave.

61. Which of the following sound frequencies lie(s) outside the audible range?

 

a. 

14 Hz

 

b. 

11 kHz

 

c. 

2700 Hz

 

d. 

All of these

62. A wave is a propagation of ______________.

63. The loudness of a sound wave is determined by its ______________.

64. When a system is being driven at a natural frequency, it is said to be driven in ______________.