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part 2

1


Current use of BWC in Police Departments

One of the studies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BSJ) had a very remarkable outcome on the use of body-worn cameras by law enforcement agencies in the United States in 2016. General-purpose law enforcement agencies had 47% of members acquiring body-worn cameras in the data. Considering the large police department, the rate was 80% of all its members. In local police departments, it means that mainly 60% of the officers had fully deployed body-worn cameras, while 49% of the sheriffs also followed suit (Hyland, 2018).

Studies and literature have significantly been produced to show the relationship between police use of force and the effectiveness of the behavior of police in tacking some of the outcomes that have been of concern on police use of force.( This sentence (and some others throughout) is a bit wordy. I would cut it down. For example, studies and literature are the same thing, so say one or the other. Original: Studies and literature have significantly been produced to show the relationship between police use of force and the effectiveness of the behavior of police in tacking some of the outcomes that have been of concern on police use of force. Revised: Researchers have examined the effectiveness of BWCs across a variety of outcomes..)One of the literature review articles was produced in 2020 by Cynthia Lum and the team to summarize 30 studies reflecting on the impact of BWC on officers and citizen behavior, majorly from the United States with studies from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2018. The study used randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental research designs to measure the behavior of police and citizens’ behavior and perceptions of police BWC. The study also used key worlds like camera, video, and body-worn cameras (BWC) (Lum et al., 2020).

The main populations of interest included police officers, law enforcement and non-law enforcement, and civilians. The study’s outcome was to set interventions on the eligibility of wearing body cameras and the effectiveness of the outcomes. Other existing studies have expressed great insight into police use of force and play a significant role in explaining the outcomes of the study (Lum et al., 2020).

One of the main significant conclusions realized is that police and citizen behavior has not been significantly impacted by the policy, nor has it developed any consistent and significant effect on officer’s use of force in service. In terms of arrest or any other measured behavior as it would have been expected when the policy was being implemented (Lum et al., 2020).

It is vital to note the use of BWC has significantly reduced the number of complaints against police officers. However, there is no existing evidence to justify the reason for the decline (Lum et al., 2020).

The need to have the BWC for police working is significantly important considering how costly the technology being used by police agencies and the need for it to benefit the community and the police is of great high alert. The research by Lum does not provide any evidence to support that BWC is significantly impacting the accountability of police or even developing a higher rate of trust between the police and the community. More research may be needed to develop a strengthening bond and fully serve the interest of the policy (Lum et al., 2020).

Research Findings on Effectiveness of BWC by Police

Police Use of Force

The main idea for implementing the policy on BWC is to regulate police use of force, and the idea behind it was to help others see and judge based on what the officers on the ground experienced. Many of the studies also had a great focus on the study. They gave a direct correlation as the intended use is to provide accountability of the police on issues of racial and ethnic communities who are mainly minorities.( This does not make sense as written. Rewrite using simple, clear language.) Lum et al., 2019 had a remarkable outcome on the issue as the results showed a heterogenous result of either increase, a decrease, or even no effect on the use of force, meaning that there is great uncertainty regarding the impact of BWC on reducing police use of force. The outcome was generated from 26 out of 30 to measure the effectiveness of the study (Lum et al., 2020).

Complaints

The element of complaints raised on police use of force was high before implementing BWC. It was expected that the implementation of the policy would alter the rate at which complaints are generated as it taps mainly on police behavior and citizen reporting behavior. In the Lum et al., 2019 (It says 2020 later.) study, out of the 30 studies, 22 indicated the issue of complaints. It shows a 16.6% reduction of complaints about how citizens felt they were being treated with a probability statistic of (P=0.042). Thus, it can be seen that officers who had body cameras on all the time had few complaints compared to those who did not wear any BWC. It is vital to note that the study on complaints in contracts to the police force is not statistically significant, with the heterogeneous effect seen as it has a small random-effect parameter (Lum et al., 2020).

Assault on Officers and Resistance to Officers

The issue of citizens resisting arrests and even injuries from officers is a significant element that the policy aimed at solving by implementing the BWC. It is more effective to say that the restrain is more effective on civilian behavior than the police. The interaction and relationship between police and consumers greatly affect how the impact is addressed. Citizens aware that they are being recorded are less assaultive than civilians who are not. Lum et al. 2019 study mainly focused on 15 out of 30, which gave a deep insight into the element. The study’s outcome indicates a 15.9% increase in assaults against police officers wearing BWC. However, it did note that the findings were not statistically significant, which meant no significant evidence to support the benefit or harm of using the outcome of BWC, which creates a great uncertainty on the effect on police and civilian behavior (Lum et al., 2020).

Arrests

Body-worn cameras were aimed at solving the issue with the arrests, mainly considering that the presence of BWC is a great deal for the officers to act within legal jurisdictions, especially when choosing whether to make an arrest or not in the name or awareness of being recorded. The expected reduction of the impact of illegal arrests. 13 out of the 30 studies conducted had a focus on the outcome. It indicated a 3.9% reduction in the arrests and the treatment conditions compared with the other controlled conditions. Its also vital to note that the findings were not statistically significant due to the heterogeneous effect, which means that BWC may have led to more arrests and reduced the rate of arrests in other conditions creating great uncertainty in the outcome of the condition (Lum et al., 2020).

Officer Initiated Calls for Service

The issue of self-initiated activity calls for service shows how proactive an officer can be as it ranges in a diverse range of options. Officers wearing BWC mat tend to be less proactive considering that it comes will added scrutiny, and considering the element of proactivity is not considered. Some of the elements that were given a direct effort were traffic stops and traffic tickets, frisks, and field interviews; out of the 30 studies, eight reported a great measure on initiated call for service. All the outcomes indicated a 3.8% increase in self-initiated calls for services, including BWC, compared to the controlled conditions. The case is also heterogenous in the impacts of the outcome (Lum et al., 2020).

Traffic Stops and Frisks

It is vital to note that traffic stops can be self-initiated or initiated by civilians but are a great deal in reporting the proactivity of the police force. The study by Lum et al. (2020) did not show any significant correlation between BWC and traffic stops and even tickets. Out of the 30 studies, only five studies directly correlated the outcome and suggested a 5% reduction in the rate of traffic stops in the treatment group compared to the control group. The study was also heterogeneous, which means caution needs to be taken when inferring, considering only five studies were used, and all had a considerable element of being heterogenous (Lum et al., 2020).

Field Interviews Stops and Frisk

The element is also used to measure proactivity, and on Lum et al., 2020, mainly out of 30 studies, only four directly correlated to the outcome. The study showed a 12% reduction in the interview and stop and frisks in t The element is also used to measure proactivity, and on Lum et al., 2020, mainly out of 30 studies, only four directly correlated to the outcome. The study showed a 12% reduction in the interview and stop and frisks in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. The study was also highly heterogeneous, meaning they need to proceed with caution needs to be highly considered as it is based on four studies (Lum et al., 2020).he treatment group compared to the controlled group. The study was also highly heterogeneous, meaning the need to proceed with caution needs to be highly considered as it is based on four studies (Lum et al., 2020).

Dispatched Calls for Service

The element of dispatched calls for service is mainly based on consumer behavior and the trust in the police’s ability to offer help in times of crisis. It is common to note that most civilians would act differently when considering being videotaped and may choose not to call the police while reposting an incidence and realizing that a video record is on. The awareness of civilians to know officers on duty have BWC makes all the difference. On the contrary, most consumers do not know when they are being videotaped and when not on record, meaning there may be no great impact on citizen calls. Six studies analyzed the issue out of the 30 meta-analysis data on the effects of BWC on dispatched calls for service, and there was a relatively 2.6% increase in treatment conditions. However, the data is not significant statistically due to its heterogeneous form (Lum et al., 2020).

A different Study (I would use a different heading.) from Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD)

A different study that highlights the benefits of BWC, which was not part of the Lum et al. (2020) meta-analysis, uses randomized controlled trials and offers new findings on the effectiveness of BWC in police use of force. The study finds out that the use of technology in controlling police use of force and behavior towards civilians has a far-reaching potential and is greatly lacking in the level of understanding from the parties involved. The study notes that successful implementation can require great changes in police organizations and their partners in policy, training, technology, investigation, and stuffing. The research relied on 400 officers in the LVMPD patrol officers, with the main target being the use of force, a number of complaints, police citations, and arrests (Braga et al., 2017).

The outcome of the randomized controlled trials tests in the study on citizen complaints a police use of power showed that between the pre-intervention period and the intervention period, the percentages of treatment officers who had at least one complaint had decreased y 16.5% from 54.6% to 38.1%. The control group with at least one complaint had also reduced by 2.5%, from 48.0% to 45.5% (Braga et al., 2017).

A similar situation was experienced during the pre-intervention and during the intervention regarding the officer with at least one complaint about using force. The percentages of the treatment team had decreased by 11.5%, from 31.2% to 19.7%. The other team is made of control officers, which had at least generated one case of force, and had increased by 1.0%, moving from 26.3% to 27.3%. The results also indicated modest contamination of control conditions noted by the analysis of the call event responses, which did not result in diffusion of treatment effects (Braga et al., 2017).

On the element of officer activity outcomes, the study indicated that during the pre-intervention and post-intervention outcomes, no statistically significant outcome could be attributed well to the conditions that led to the monthly count of dispatched of all call events. Officer-initiated call events or even call events from crime reports. However, the controlling group indicated a significant increase of 6.8% in the monthly count for call events with citation used. There was also a 2.5% increase in the treatment team’s monthly count relative to the control team officers (Braga et al., 2017).

The implication of the research suggests that the benefit of BWC on LVMPD officers was great as it led to a reduction of police use of force when looking at the treatment officers and as compared to those who had no BWC on them. According to the study, BWC can be used to de-escalate the aggression of officers and develop civilization among the police. Its vital to note the main impact is on the disadvantaged groups and minority neighborhoods. The use of BWC can effectively improve the relationship between the communities. Officers with BWC made more arrests than those without BWC due to the element of accountability, which is highly expressed (Braga et al., 2017).

The study’s findings also greatly impacted policy and practice elements because BWC has a big potential in benefiting police agencies by reducing the complaints against the officers in charge and incidents of the use of force. The study shows police productivity is increased with a modest increase in the policy rate of arrests. The need to see if there is an increased bias in the arrests and if the productivity of the police has any negative toll on community perception of police in doing work is part of the gaps that the study did not give an in-depth evaluation (Braga et al., 2017).

A consideration of the camera’s benefit versus the cost incurred in implementing the outcome is that it far outweighs the program’s cost. Although the benefit may not transition directly to the relationship with the community, it offers s high level of operations for the police. It can be a game-changer in implementing and bringing accountability to police who use excessive force on consumers (Braga et al., 2017).

Missing gap in Existing Literature

Some of the existing literature gaps on body-worn cameras can mainly be categorized into two areas that lack a clear explanation and even analysis. The areas are the meaning of force, which means moving beyond the self-reported use of force reported in other significant studies. The distinction between the compliant and non-compliant arrest of suspects can be used to set the description of the outcomes (Henstock, 2015).

One of the most important elements is that not all force responses are created equal. For instance, they are considering if, since the implementation of BWC on police, there can be a significant reduction in the use of force? The preceding meta-analysis by Lum et al., (2020) gave a straightforward conclusion based on the studies. It is also becoming apparent that a closer examination of the extent and type of force is likely to be developed when there is a BWC and when the BWC is off. Thus, if the impact is more positive on all attributes of force than others, BWC effectively controls the use of force and the development of sustainable use and effectiveness of the BWC (Henstock, 2015).

One element that is highly considered is the element of force continuum affected by the BWC can be on the lowest bands, such as elements of verbal commands, aggressive response techniques, and empty hand submission technique. Thus, having a clear description of the force continuum used as excessive force by police can be a standard guide when dealing with a suspect resisting arrests in most cases (Henstock, 2015).

Body-worn cameras can be effective in the element of the theory, which is when force apparatus is used such as weapons like teaser discharge, use of dogs, and some lethal force. On the contrary, things may be different when officers can convince suspects to step down using verbal approaches and control the applicability of force to the point force apparatus is applied.

Considering that suspects will not always be easy and many can be aggressive, it can be true to realize that forceful response will be applied at some point, whether there is BWC. A balanced view relies on rational calculation, awareness, and judgment of the police. Setting the guide and bottom line can positively impact the police regardless of body-worn cameras (Henstock, 2015).

The other factor is compliant and non-compliant arrests which have not been given a direct analysis in the previous studies. An arrest where the suspect is handcuffed and voluntarily aggress to move to the station and a different case where the suspect is handcuffed but is involuntarily escorted to the police station for further questioning can give a mandate of physical restraint and handcuffs that cannot be legally adjacent. In most cases, the need for the arrest is mainly to exercise power over the suspect. Suppose the suspect is voluntarily cooperating and is not resisting arrests. In that case, it may mean that the use of handcuffs which are a safety guideline, are not mainly used and recorded as a measure of police use of force, but are a great deal when measuring bias on the measures that address if the police use of BWC offers a dipper insight on the behavior of the police even on the instances of arrests and handcuffing (Henstock, 2015).

The scrutiny in handcuffing may seem irrelevant but offers a great insight into the use of force for which the policy for BWC was majorly set to analyze. For instance, using handcuffing as a measure of force can require the officer to log in some use of force in the arrest when dealing with a non-compliant suspect as it is recordable. Still, when dealing with a compliant suspect, there will be no need to file any use of force.

Although all the elements require some level of force, one is recordable while the other is not recordable. Making all the necessary change in the handcuffing policy as one appear and remain in the record. In contrast, the other would not greatly impact the changes attributed to transparency used when reporting the use of force and even reporting the data for comparability. The need to keep on police reporting the use of force is a great element that will keep the data on record when reporting the use of force (Henstock, 2015).

References

Durlauf, S. N., & Heckman, J. J. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: A comment. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 3998-4002. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/710976

Fryer Jr, R. G. (2020). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force: a response. Journal of Political Economy128(10), 4003-4008. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/710977

Gaub, J. E. (2021). Assessing the Utility of Body-Worn Cameras for Collegiate Police Agencies. Police Quarterly, 10986111211037586. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/10986111211037586

Henstock, D., & Ariel, B. (2017). Testing the effects of police body-worn cameras on use of force during arrests: A randomized controlled trial in a large British police force. European journal of criminology14(6), 720-750. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1477370816686120

Jennings, W. G., Fridell, L. A., Lynch, M., Jetelina, K. K., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2017). A quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance in a large metropolitan police department. Deviant behavior38(11), 1332-1339 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2016.1248711

Laming, E. (2019). Police use of body worn cameras. Police practice and research20(2), 201-216. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2018.1558586

Malm, A. (2019). Promise of police body-worn cameras. Criminology & Pub. Pol’y18, 119. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/crpp18&section=14

Smith, J. J. (2019). To adopt or not to adopt: Contextualizing police body-worn cameras through structural contingency and institutional theoretical perspectives. Criminal Justice Review44(3), 369-385. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734016819847267

Sousa, W. H., Miethe, T. D., & Sakiyama, M. (2018). Inconsistencies in public opinion of body-worn cameras on police: Transparency, trust, and improved police–citizen relationships. Policing: A Journal of policy and Practice12(1), 100-108. https://academic.oup.com/policing/article-abstract/12/1/100/3077014

Yokum, D., Ravishankar, A., & Coppock, A. (2019). A randomized control trial evaluating the effects of police body-worn cameras. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(21), 10329-10332. https://www.pnas.org/content/116/21/10329.short

Braga, A., Coldren Jr, J. R., Sousa, W., Rodriguez, D., & Alper, O. (2017). The benefits of body-worn cameras: new findings from a randomized controlled trial at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police. Arlington, VA: CNA. The Benefits of Body-Worn Cameras: New Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (ojp.gov)

Henstock, D. (2015). Testing the effects of body-worn video on police use of force during an arrest: A randomized controlled trial. Unpublished master’s thesis). Wolfson College, Cambridge: UK. darren-henstock.pdf (cam.ac.uk)

Hyland, S. (2018). Body-worn cameras in law enforcement agencies, 2016. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Body-Worn Cameras in Law Enforcement Agencies, 2016 Full Report (ojp.gov)

Lum, C., Koper, C. S., Wilson, D. B., Stoltz, M., Goodier, M., Eggins, E., … & Mazerolle, L. (2020). Body-worn cameras’ effects on police officers and citizen behavior: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews16(3), Article-number. Body-worn cameras’ effects on police officers and citizen behavior: A systematic review | QUT ePrints

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part 2

6

Part II: Data Collection Procedures & Measurement Tools/Instruments

Describe ALL methods to collect data in detail (i.e. interview, survey, observation……etc.)

Describe
each
measurement tool/instrument used to measure/assess outcomes in the study in detail.

Results/Findings

Participant Characteristics/Sociodemographic Findings

Describe participant characteristics or sociodemographic status

Must be objective, descriptive, and comprehensive

Must describe the findings of Tables/Figures to provide comprehensive information about participant characteristics as article provided.

Study Results/Findings

Describe
ALL
Other Results/Findings besides above participant characteristics in detail.

Each result item must include Headings/Subheadings as the article provided.

Do
NOT
simply saying “pain level was decreased,” “adherence was increased”…etc …be specific

Do
NOT
include contents from Discussion and/or Conclusion in the article.

Part III: Synthesis of Findings

Synthesis of Findings

Describe the
Rationale/Mechanism
for how/why
Finding
of each intervention/factor helps your Research Question (i.e. how/what mechanism does music therapy help pain, how does sucking stimulation increase oral intake for pre-term infants)

Should
NOT
repeat same contents you had on Findings section and/or article

May include citations from other sources for above described rationale/mechanism (i.e. textbooks, CDC…etc)

Nursing Implications

How the nurses can implement the research findings into nursing practice.

Group Article Summary Table (All group members)

Describe each group member’s article on Research Article Summary Table.

Use bullet points for each category.

Grading Rubric & Description for IAPRA

Part I (80)

Research Question

5

· Accurately/Clearly states group’s Research Question as your group formulated

Purpose of Study

5

· Describe the purpose of the study as the author stated in the article.

· Do
NOT
change or modify the statement on the article

Variables

10

· Identify study variables from the above stated Purpose of Study

· Quantitative Study: Dependent & Independent variables


OR

· Descriptive, Qualitative Study: Variables of Interest

Participants

5

5

5

· Enrollment: How did they recruit eligible participants in the study?

· Eligibility: Describe Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

· Numbers: Total numbers of participants in the study

Intervention Procedures

Obtaining Information Procedures

35

Quantitative Study:

· Intervention Group: Describe the detailed Intervention contents, procedures, and person who provided Intervention for Intervention group.

· Control Group: Describe the detailed contents, procedures, and person who provided contents for Control group

OR

Descriptive Study:

· Describe the detailed procedure for obtaining information/data (i.e. made appointment to meet each participant, visited home/met clinical……etc)

Format

10

Followed APA format for paper and in-text citations

Part II (75)

Data Collection

Measurement Tools

5

25

· Describe ALL data collection methods in detail (i.e. survey, interview, observation)

· Describe each measurement tool/instrument used to measure study outcomes in detail.

Participant Characteristics/Sociodemographic Findings

All other Results/Findings

10

25

· Must be descriptive and comprehensive

· Describe participant characteristics or sociodemographic findings

· Describe the findings of Tables/Figures to provide comprehensive information about participant characteristics as article provided

· Describe
ALL
Other Results/Findings besides above participant characteristics in the article in detail for each Result item

· Each Result item may include Headings/Subheadings of Results as the article provided.

· Do
NOT
simply saying “pain level was decreased,” “adherence was increased” – provide numbers or % if available

· Do
NOT
include contents from Discussion and/or Conclusion in the article.

Format

10

· Followed APA format for paper and in-text citations

Part III (45)

Synthesis of Findings

10

· Describe the
Rationale
for how/why
Finding
of each intervention/factor helps your Research Question (i.e. how or by what mechanism does music therapy help pain? How does sucking stimulation increase oral intake for pre-term infants?)

· Should
NOT
repeat same contents you had on Findings section and/or article

· Should have citation of analyzed article(s)

· May include citations from other sources for above described rationale and mechanism (i.e. textbooks, CDC…etc)

Nursing Implication

7

· How can nurses implement the research findings into nursing practice?

Format

3

· Followed APA format for paper, in-text citation, references.

Article Summary Table (Group)

25

· Describe article on Research Article Summary Table

· Use bullet points for each column in the Table

· Submit Table as separate document

Total Points: 200 Points

Part-2

 Scenario: You work in the claims department for The Acme Company. Your new supervisor Swizzle Malarkey has attempted to improve the professionalism within the company. In particular, Swizzle has asked employees to limit their personal calls during business hours as well as the number of personal conversations everyone has around the office. Unfortunately, your coworkers have not complied and office productivity is decreasing. Out of frustration, Swizzle drafts the below memo but asks you to review it before it’s sent to all employees. You recognize that the office atmosphere has become too relaxed, but you also believe that the style and tone of the memo could be improved for professionalism.  

MEMO

 To:       Acme Co Chitchatters (you know you are)

  From:     Swizzle Malarkey, Supervisor  

Subject:  Office Chitchats and Miscellaneous 

 Date:     September 15, 2019 

 Pursuant to my recent memo, I must insist that telephonic communication for personal problems be reduced immediately.  I know you gals have to take calls from your kids when they are out of control, but the general conversations about everyone’s surgical operations needs to cease. There seems to have developed a general problem with attending to our work tasks on a regular and timely basis. I provide the coffee, but that doesn’t mean I’m encouraging a general milling around the coffeemaker for 20 minutes every morning.  In short, it is acknowledged that a certain amount of verbal exchange is typical for every office and is useful for maintaining a relaxed atmosphere in the office surroundings, but it can all interfere with normal working schedules and inhibit the accomplishment of the work we are gathered to perform.

TEXT BOOK LINK ; https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/54645-professional-and-technical-writing/1/view

Instructions: You have two tasks:

  1. Edit the memo for style and tone. Paste your revised memo under the original so I can clearly see your suggested edits.
  2. Once you’ve edited the memo, write a brief memo to Swizzle (200–250 words) that summarizes your major editorial suggestions. Focus on justifying your 2–3 primary style improvements. Your goal is to persuade Swizzle to accept all your style suggestions, so support your recommendations by citing the suggested principles in your textbook.

    • 21 hours ago
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