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Directions: Read each quote carefully. Choose 3 of the quotes below and determine the situation of the excerpt and write a thoughtful response discussing the significance of the passage and its relationship to the rest of the work.

1.“‘You are burnt beyond recognition,’ he added, looking at his wife as one looks at a valuable piece of personal property which has suffered some damage. She held up her hands, strong, shapely hands, and surveyed them critically, drawing up her lawn sleeves above the wrists. Looking at them reminded her of her rings, which she had given to her husband before leaving for the beach. She silently reached out to him, and he, understanding, took the rings from his vest pocket and dropped them into her open palm.” (Ch. 1)

2.“In short, Mrs. Pontellier was not a mother-woman. The mother-women seemed to prevail that summer at Grand Isle.” (Ch. 4)

3.“Her glance wandered from his face away toward the Gulf, whose sonorous murmur reached her like a loving but imperative treaty.” (Ch. 5)

4.“A certain light was beginning to dawn dimly within her – the light which, showing the way, forbids it.” (Ch. 6)

5.“At a very early period she had apprehended instinctively the dual life – the outward existence which conforms, the inward life which questions.” (Ch. 7)

6.“Edna was what she herself called very fond of music. Musical strains, well rendered, had a way of evoking pictures in her mind. She sometimes liked to sit in the room of mornings when Madame Ratignolle played or practiced. One piece which that lady played Edna had entitled ‘Solitude.’. . . When she heard it there came before her imagination the figure of a man standing beside a desolate rock on the seashore. He was naked. His attitude was one of hopeless resignation as he looked toward a distant bird winging its flight away from him.” (Ch. 9)

7.“She heard him moving about the room; every sound indicating impatience and irritation. Another time she would have gone in at his request. She would, through habit, have yielded to his desire; not with any sense of submission or obedience to his compelling wishes, but unthinkingly, as we walk, move, sit, stand, go through the daily treadmill of the life which has been portioned out to us.” (Ch. 11)

8.“She completely abandoned her Tuesdays at home, and did not return the visits of those who had called upon her.” (Ch. 19)

9. “The pigeon-house pleased her. It at once assumed the intimate character of a home, while she herself invested it with a charm which it reflected like a warm glow. There was with her a feeling of having descended in the social scale, with a corresponding sense of having risen in the spiritual.” (Ch. 32)

10. “You have been a very, very, foolish boy, wasting your time dreaming of impossible things when you speak of Mr. Pontellier setting me free! I am no longer one of Mr. Pontellier’s possessions to dispose of or not. I give myself where I choose. If he were to say, ‘Here, Robert, take her and be happy, she is yours,’ I should laugh at you both.” (Ch. 36)

11. “The children appeared before her like antagonists who sought to drag her into the soul’s slavery for the rest of her days. But she knew a way to elude them. She was not thinking of these things when she walked down to the beach.” (Ch. 39)

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Annotated Bibliography Rubric

You must submit a minimum of three (3) Annotated Bibliography entries to receive credit for this component!!!

**Note: Two points will be deducted for each missing entry

Is the Annotated Bibliography page formatted correctly? (MLA format)

12 Point Times New Roman Font

Name block in left corner (Name, Date, Block, Mrs. Browne)

Title: Annotated Bibliography or Topic: An Annotated Bibliography

10

8

6

4

2

Citation:

Is the citation formatted correctly with a hanging indent? Does it contain all of the important information?

10

8

6

4

2

Summary/Annotation:

Did you fully summarize this source in your own words in 3-5 sentences?

10

8

6

4

2

Assessment:

Have you analyzed and explained why this source is credible in at 5- 10 sentences?

10

8

6

4

2

Total: /40

Sample Graphic Organizer of an Annotated Bibliography

Bibliography:

Make sure it is in MLA format and it has a hanging indent. No bold; no underline

“Your Space: Schools Struggle to Find Ways to Curb Cyberbullying without Violating Student Rights.” Current Events, a Weekly Reader publication 25 Oct. 2010: 7+. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 30 Mar.

2011.

Summary/Annotation: Summarize the entire article or the excerpt you used in your own words. This should be done in 3-5 sentences.

This article discusses whether or not schools should be able to punish students for bullying online. The argument is most cyberbullying isn’t occurring on school computers or during school time. However, in the Tinker vs. Des Moines case in the 1960s, it was decided schools could discipline students for off- campus behavior that seriously disrupted school life.

The article notes the debate that cyberbullying is different than the Tinker vs. Des Moines case because their peaceful protesting didn’t harm anyone, whereas bullying is hurtful and interferes with someone else’s life.

It also discusses schools’ efforts to involve the student body in preventing cyberbullying.

Analysis/Assessment/Reflection: Analyze and explain why this source is credible. Describe in detail how the information in this source is going to be used in your paper. This should be done in 5-10 sentences.

I found this article on Gale Opposing Viewpoints, and this article references well known court cases that involve students’ rights and cyberbullying.

This article also shows both sides of the story. And, it was published in Weekly Reader. Lastly, being published in 2010, it is an article that is current and deals with current issues being faced in schools.

This will help me explain why although privacy rights are important and we shouldn’t take them away from students, something has to be done about cyberbullying. I will also use this article to show why it should be the school’s responsibility to help protect its students.

Name:

Annotated Bibliography Organizer

Items 1, 2 & 3 make up an entry for an annotated bibliography. For this assignment, you will need three

(3) sources so you can complete three of these sheets – one for each source. Then type up each entry in MLA format for a complete annotated bibliography. Alphabetize your entries by author last name.

1) Citation of Source:

Make sure it is in MLA format and it has a hanging indent. No bold; no underline

2) Summary/Annotation: Describe the TYPE of source

– book, article, database, video clips, etc., then summarize the entire article or excerpt you used in your own words. This should be done in 3-5 sentences.

3) Analysis/Assessment: Analyze and explain why this source is credible. Describe in how the information in this source is going to be used in

your paper.

This should be done in 5-10 sentences.

1) Citation of Source:

Make sure it is in MLA format and it has a hanging indent. No bold; no underline

2) Summary/Annotation: Describe the TYPE of source

– book, article, database, video clips, etc., then summarize the entire article or excerpt you used in your own words. This should be done in 3-5 sentences.

3) Analysis/Assessment: Analyze and explain why this source is credible. Describe in how the information in this source is going to be used in

your paper.

This should be done in 5-10 sentences.

1) Citation of Source:

Make sure it is in MLA format and it has a hanging indent. No bold; no underline

2) Summary/Annotation: Describe the TYPE of source

– book, article, database, video clips, etc., then summarize the entire article or excerpt you used in your own words. This should be done in 3-5 sentences.

3) Analysis/Assessment: Analyze and explain why this source is credible. Describe in how the information in this source is going to be used in

your paper.

This should be done in 5-10 sentences.

1) Citation of Source:

Make sure it is in MLA format and it has a hanging indent. No bold; no underline

2) Summary/Annotation: Describe the TYPE of source

– book, article, database, video clips, etc., then summarize the entire article or excerpt you used in your own words. This should be done in 3-5 sentences.

3) Analysis/Assessment: Analyze and explain why this source is credible. Describe in how the information in this source is going to be used in

your paper.

This should be done in 5-10 sentences.

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PURPOSE OF ASSIGNMENT:  The purpose of this assignment is to help you reflect on your learning in the class.

 DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT:

· In a well-written paragraph, describe how you will apply the information learned in the class to your future goals. What are your future goals, and how do you see yourself using the information learned in this class. Go beyond just finishing a degree. How can the skills learned help you in your future career?

 

Guidelines:

1-2 paragraphs

MLA Formatting

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Trace the critical junctures and Champions of Women’s Peace & Security throughout history that led to the enhancement or worsening of human rights regarding gender and sexuality in the socio-economic and legal fields. The country chosen is: Mexico

It is important to:

  • Review the research objective of tracing women’s socioeconomic and legal status within your chosen region and country.
  • Conduct, Produce and Address thorough research to understand and connect the lived experiences, historical events, and processes with concepts and theories of Women’s and Gender Studies.
  • Apply an innovative method of analyzing and highlighting gender and sexuality in your chosen country/society, drawing upon both primary and secondary sources. 

12-point font (Times New Roman, Arial) and double- or 1½-spaced with page numbers at the bottom. 

Sources that can be use:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802845/

used the following websites: https://www.unwomen.org/en/search-results?search_api_fulltext=mexico

https://ilga.org

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you will write an essay demonstrating your understanding of essay writing. 

Your essay should consist of the following:

– A three-point thesis statement

– 5 paragraphs (Introduction, 3 body, and conclusion

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200 words or more with references

1. View the images below and choose three that reflect health topics important to you.

2. List, describe (topic, target audience, what it looks like…) , and explain why you chose the three images.

3. Answer the following questions for each image.

· Is the image more educational or geared toward behavior change? How do you know?

· Do any of your images remind you of, or reflect the Self-efficacy theory?  Which ones? How do you know?

· Do any of your images remind you of, or reflect the Health Belief Model? Which ones? How do you know?










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John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address

John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to
by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of the United States, serving from 1961
until his assassination in 1963.

After Kennedy’s military service as commander of
the Patrol Torpedo Boat PT -109 (Motor Torpedo
Board) during World War II in the South Pacific,
his aspirations turned political, with the
encouragement and grooming of his father.
Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts in
the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to
1953 as a Democrat, and in the U.S. Senate from
1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice
President and Republican candidate Richard
Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one
of the closest in American history. He is the
youngest man and the only practicing Roman
Catholic to be elected president. He is also the
only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.
Events during his administration include the Bay
of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the
building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the
American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War.

Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald
was charged with the crime and was murdered two days later by Jack Ruby before he
could be put on trial. The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in
killing the president; however, the House Select Committee on Assassinations declared in
1979 that there was more likely a conspiracy that included Oswald. The entire subject
remains controversial, with multiple theories about the assassination still being debated.
The event proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the
nation and the ensuing political repercussions.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy

35th President of the United States

Table of Contents
JFK’s Inaugural Address…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

JFK’s Inaugural Address

i

John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address
Project Gutenberg, Gutenberg.org

JFK’s Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961, 12:11 EST

We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom. . .symbolizing an end as well as a
beginning. . . signifying renewal as well as change for I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same
solemn oath our forbears prescribed nearly a century and three−quarters ago.

The world is very different now, for man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human
poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forbears fought are
still at issue around the globe. . .the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but
from the hand of God. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution.

Let the word go forth from this time and place. . .to friend and foe alike. . .that the torch has been passed to a
new generation of Americans. . .born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace,
proud of our ancient heritage. . .and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to
which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today. . .at home and around
the world.

Let every nation know. . .whether it wishes us well or ill. . .that we shall pay any price, bear any burden,
meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and the success of liberty. This
much we pledge. . .and more.

To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share: we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends.
United. . .there is little we cannot do in a host of co−operative ventures. Divided. . .there is little we can do. .
.for we dare not meet a powerful challenge, at odds, and split asunder. To those new states whom we
welcome to the ranks of the free: we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed
away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting
our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom. . .and to remember
that. . .in the past. . .those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside. To
those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery: we
pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required. . .not because the
Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot
help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

To our sister republics south of our border: we offer a special pledge. . . to convert our good words into good
deeds. . .in a new alliance for progress . . .to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of
poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors
know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. . .and let
every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

To that world assembly of sovereign states: the United Nations. . . our last best hope in an age where the
instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support. . .to prevent
it from becoming merely a forum for invective. . .to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak. . . and to
enlarge the area in which its writ may run.

JFK’s Inaugural Address 1

Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversaries, we offer not a pledge but a request:
that both sides begin anew the quest for peace; before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science
engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self−destruction. We dare not tempt them with weakness. For
only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be
employed. But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course
. . .both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the
deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of Mankind’s final
war.

So let us begin anew. . .remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is
always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate. Let both sides
explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. Let both sides, for the
first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms. . .and bring the
absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. Let both sides seek to
invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts,
eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce. Let both sides unite to heed in
all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah. . .to “undo the heavy burdens. . .let the oppressed go free.”

And if a beachhead of co−operation may push back the jungle of suspicion. . .let both sides join in creating
not a new balance of power. . . but a new world of law. . .where the strong are just. . .and the weak secure
. . .and the peace preserved. . . .

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand
days. . . nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

In your hands, my fellow citizens. . .more than mine. . .will rest the final success or failure of our course.
Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its
national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. Now
the trumpet summons us again. . .not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need. . .not as a call to battle. . .
though embattled we are. . .but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle. . .year in and year out,
rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation. . .a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny. . .poverty
. . .disease. . .and war itself. Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance. . .North and
South. . .East and West. . .that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic
effort?

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its
hour of maximum danger; I do not shrink from this responsibility. . .I welcome it. I do not believe that any of
us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion
which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it. . .and the glow from that fire can
truly light the world.

And so, my fellow Americans. . .ask not what your country can do for you. . .ask what you can do for your
country. My fellow citizens of the world. . .ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can
do for the Freedom of Man.

Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards
of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the
final judge of our deeds; let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but
knowing that here on earth God’s work must truly be our own.

JFK’s Inaugural Address

JFK’s Inaugural Address 2

  • Table of Contents
  • JFK’s Inaugural Address

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The video for this assignment is on YouTube (Kate Chopin: A Reawakening 1998)

For this assignment, you are tasked with learning more about Kate Chopin, the author of The Awakening. Once you have watched the short documentary, in 3-5 sentences, give your impression of this prolific writer. What interesting fact did you discover about her? What intrigued you the most?

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DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT:

Re-read “Inaugural Address”

Review “Making Appeals” on pages 320-322.

Develop a thesis statement and write an essay addressing the following prompt:

In Kennedy’s “Inaugural Address” speech, he had a specific goal in mind. What was his overall message in the speech and how does he use the three appeals to develop his message?

Be sure to write an attention-grabbing introduction with the thesis placed at the end of it. Also, be sure to create a conclusion that extends your topic in some way.

If you have trouble developing a thesis, you may use the following template:

Kennedy used logos, ethos, and pathos appeals to ___________________________ (message of the speech).

Your essay must be 600-700 words, double spaced, and MLA format.

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Assignment details:

Read the article: “The Classic Novel That Saw Pleasure as a Path to Freedom” Download The Classic Novel That Saw Pleasure as a Path to Freedom”

Answer the following question: Considering today’s view of women, have they finally gained liberation or is the female still confined to the roles of women in the past? Has the female, in today’s society, had her “awakening”?

In your post, please make sure you address ALL of the questions posed. You may number your answers, or you may answer them in paragraph form; just make sure you address them all.

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https://www.gutenberg.org/files/160/160-h/160-h.htm

Chapter 1

1. What might be meant by the title, The Awakening?

2. Explain how the parrot and the mockingbird are used to introduce this chapter. Consider their location and what they say.

3. Describe Léonce Pontellier. How is he a typical husband of the time?

4. What does the following quotation tell you about Léonce’s attitude toward his wife? He looked “at his wife as one looks at a valuable piece of personal property which has suffered some damage.”

5. What indications are there that the Pontellier marriage is strained?

Chapter 2

1. Describe Edna Pontellier.

2. Describe Robert. What kind of person is he?

3. What do you learn about Robert and Edna from their conversation at the end of this chapter?

Chapter 3

1. How does Léonce’s behavior when he returns from the Klein Hotel reveal his attitude toward his wife?

2. How does he view Edna as a mother?

3. What shows the reader more signs of the marital conflict between the Pontelliers?

4. Discuss how sounds are used as a backdrop to the scene of disagreement between Léonce and Edna. How is the sea used as a symbol?

5. Why is Edna crying? Find the best word from the text to describe what she is feeling?

6. Was the argument resolved? Why or why not.

7. How does the gift Edna receives from her husband symbolize her marriage and most marriages of this time?

Chapter 4

1. What is a mother-woman? Notice which term comes first—why is that?

2. What satiric comment does the narrator make concerning “mother-woman”? Cite specific words that reveal the satiric nature of these comments.

3. What kind of woman is Edna?

4. Who is Adéle Ratignolle, and how is she the embodiment of the “mother-woman”?

5. How does the fact that Edna is not a Creole affect her relationship with others on Grand Isle?

6. Why does Edna hide the book she’s reading at the end of the chapter? How is this significant to her “awakening”?

Chapter 5

1. During the Middle Ages, courtly love was embodied in the behavior of a knight toward the fine lady he loved. He would prostrate himself before her, idealize her, carry her favor into battle, but never demonstrate physical love for her. How does Robert’s behavior toward Edna fit this pattern?

2. Who is described as a “faultless Madonna”? Is this a fitting allusion? Why?

3. What is the difference between Robert’s present attentions to Edna and his past attentions to Adéle Ratignolle?

4. What is the significance of Edna’s sketching in this chapter? Why does it, in a way, make sense that Edna is an artist?

5. How is the sea described?

Chapter 6

1. What question does Robert pose to Edna after Madame Ratignolle leaves? Why does this question pose a problem for Edna?

2. What does Edna start to realize about her life? Relate this to the title.

3. How is the sea used symbolically in this chapter?

Chapter 7

1. How has Edna changed during the course of the summer?

2. How are Edna Pontellier and Adéle Ratignolle contrasted in this chapter?

3. Why is Adele always in white?

4. How are the lady in black and the two lovers used symbolically in this chapter?

5. What does Edna remember feeling back when she was 12 years-old walking though the field? Why does she think of it now?

6. What experience did Edna have of love? Why did she marry Leonce?

7. What realities does Edna now face in regards to her husband and children?

8. How is the theme of “awakening” revealed in this chapter?

9. Is Edna responsible for her present state of unhappiness? Why or why not?

Chapter 8

1. Why does Adéle tell Robert to leave Edna alone? Why is he annoyed by this?

2. Do you think that Robert is being too friendly with Edna?

3. Alcee Arobin is introduced as a character. Why? How does he contribute to the story?

4. Where is Vera Cruz? What is its significance?

Chapter 9

1. Why are so many husbands and fathers present at Grand Isle?

2. Mademoiselle Reisz is introduced as a character. Why? How does she contribute to the story?

3. What adjectives might we use to describe her role in society?

4. In the past, what image has been evoked in Edna’s mind by a certain musical passage? How is this a contrast to Edna’s life up to this point?

5. What is Edna’s response to the music of Mademoiselle Reisz? How is this related to the “awakening” theme in the novel?

6. What mythical or literary allusions are referenced? Why?

7. How do “those others” view Mlle. Reisz? Why does she only notice Edna?

Chapter 10

1. What realization does Edna come to as she walks to the water with her husband by her side?

2. How are images of sound and smell used as a backdrop to this scene?

3. How does Edna respond to swimming successfully for the first time? What simile is used?

4. What symbolism is present here?

5. Why does Edna swim back to shore? How has she changed?

6. In what way does Edna and Robert’s behavior towards one another change at the end of this chapter? Why is this?

Chapter 11

1. How is the theme of rebellion against marriage shown in Edna’s behavior when her husband returns?

2. How does this rebellion end?

3. Explain the symbolism with the cigar and wine.

Chapter 12

1. Why does Edna have trouble sleeping? Symbolic value here?

2. Edna goes to the Chêniére for mass. What does Edna do that she has never done before? What phrases are repeated?

3. What is Robert’s reaction? In what position does this put Edna as far as her relationship with Robert is concerned?

4. How are the “lovers” used here?

5. Explain the conversation between Robert and Mariequita.

6. How does Edna feel as she and Robert sail to the Chêniére Caminada?

7. What is the significance of the plans Robert says he has for the future? What is Edna’s response?

Chapter 13

1. How does Edna respond to the actual church service?

2. Who is Madame Antoine?

3. How do the 5 senses relate to Edna’s awakening? Discuss their use in this chapter, esp. in the bedroom scene.

4. What role does Robert play during this time?

5. What does Edna say to Robert when she wakes up? Discuss the meaning here.

6. How might the ghosts and phantom ships of the sea might be connected to Edna and Robert?

Chapter 14

1. What is Léonce’s reaction when Edna does not return with the others? What does this show you about their marriage?

2. How does Edna clarify for herself and for Robert how special their relationship has become?

3. What is the meaning of Robert’s song?

Chapter 15

1. What reason does Robert give when he decides to leave Grand Isle for Mexico? What is his real reason?

2. Why didn’t Robert tell Edna himself?

3. What is Edna’s reaction to the news that he is leaving?

4. Discuss their conversation. What is left unsaid?

5. Why does Edna begin to cry? What emotions are overcoming her?

Chapter 16

1. Should Edna give Robert up? Is her interest in Robert considered cheating?

2. How does Edna spend much of her time after Robert leaves?

3. What does she say or do that shows the depth of her feelings for Robert and her awareness of a change within herself?

4. “Edna had once told Madame Ratignolle that she would never sacrifice herself for her children, or for anyone…[she says] I would give my life for my children, but I wouldn’t give myself.” What does she mean by this statement?

5. Why does Adele not understand it?

6. What does she learn from Mademoiselle Reisz about Robert and Victor Lebrun?

7. How are Mademoiselle Reisz and Adéle Ratignolle foils to Edna?

Chapter 17

1. What is the setting? How does this contrast to the previous setting?

2. How is Léonce Pontellier’s attitude toward his home similar to his attitude toward his wife?

3. What is the purpose of Edna’s Tuesday “at home”? How does this change after she returns from Grand Isle, and how does this fit into the theme of rebellion?

4. Edna says, “you used to think the cook was a treasure.” And Leonce responds, “perhaps she was when she first came, but cooks are only human.” What is the significance of this passage?

5. What does Edna do after Léonce leaves?

6. “Taking off her wedding ring, flung it upon the carpet…stamped her heel upon it, striving to crush it…her small boot heel did not make an indenture, not a mark upon the little glittering circlet.” What is the significance of this passage?

Chapter 18

1. Edna visits the home of Adéle Ratignolle in New Orleans. How is the Ratignolle marriage a contrast to the Pontellier marriage?

2. How does Edna feel about a marriage such as Adéle’s?

3. Madame Ratignolle refers to “Life’s delirium,” leaves Edna pondering its meaning. To what might Adele be referring?

Chapter 19

1. How does Edna spend most of her time in this section of the book?

2. What is Léonce’s reaction?

3. How does Edna feel about her painting?

4. Although she is haunted by memories of Grand Isle, how does she manage to “enjoy” her life?

Chapter 20

1. Why does Edna go to the Lebrun home in New Orleans?

2. How is this house described? In what way is this description related to Edna’s desire for Robert?

3. Edna meets Robert’s brother, Victor. How is Victor a kind of exaggeration of Robert?

4. What is Victor’s comment about Edna at the end of the chapter? Is this true?

Chapter 21

1. Describe the apartment of Mademoiselle Reisz. How is it fitting for her character?

2. What is the content of a letter Robert has written to Mademoiselle Reisz?

3. When Edna shares her desire to be an artist, Mlle Reisz says she must be “Courageous, ma foi! The brave soul. The soul that dares and defies.” What is meant by this statement?

4. “The shadows deepened in the little room. The music grew strange and fantastic—turbulent, insistent, plaintive and soft with entreaty. The shadows grew deeper. The music filled the room.” What are the shadows and music referencing besides themselves…what is happening?

5. “Come whenever you feel like it. Be careful; the stairs and landings are dark; don’t stumble.” How might this be interpreted?

Chapter 22

1. How do the actions and comments of Léonce and Doctor Mandelet illustrate the following theme: that men cannot understand women? Cite specific references to the text to support your answer.

2. What is the doctor’s advice? What does the doctor not say?

Chapter 23

1. What do Edna and her father share as a common interest?

2. How does Adéle treat Edna’s father? What is Edna’s reaction?

3. What does Adele Ratignolle see as the problem with the Pontelliers? How does Edna respond?

4. What observations does Doctor Mandelet make when he comes to the Pontellier home to meet Edna’s father and to observe her?

5. Describe the story Dr. Mandelet tells at dinner. What is Edna’s tale about? What is the symbolic value of this?

6. What is the doctor’s reaction to the evening and to Edna’s story? How is this an example of foreshadowing?

Chapter 24

1. What is Edna’s attitude toward her sister’s wedding? How do her father and Léonce react to this?

2. What advice does Edna’s father give to Leonce?

3. What is different about Edna’s attitude toward Léonce both before and after he leaves for the wedding?

4. Where are the children?

5. How does she feel about being alone?

6. What book does she read in the library? Which essay do you think she may be reading?

Chapter 25

1. What does Edna do when the weather is bad?

2. Who is Alcée Arobin?

3. What does Edna do that is uncommon for women her age? How does she do?

4. What entices Alcee Arobin to Edna, do you think? Why does she like his company?

5. Describe the situation when Arobin shows Edna the scar on his hand. Why does she react this way?

6. “He cast one appealing glance at her, to which she made no response. Alcee Arobin’s manner was so genuine that it often deceived even himself.” What is meant by this passage?

7. Who does Edna think of after Arobin is gone? Does this surprise us?

8. What language is used to tell us that Edna is attracted to Arobin?

9. How would readers in the time period of the novel react to this language?

Chapter 26

1. As their meetings continue, in what way does Edna allow Alcée to speak to her?

2. What draws Edna to Mademoiselle Reisz?

3. What decision has Edna made? Why does she decide this?

4. What does Edna decide to do before leaving? Do you agree with this decision?

5. How does she plan to manage on her own?

6. What 2 details are revealed upon reading the latest letter from Robert?

7. What comment does Mademoiselle Reisz make about Robert, and how does Edna react?

8. What does Edna do for her children and for her husband?

9. What has Edna not taken into consideration?

Chapter 27

1. How does Edna view herself as a woman?

2. Why does Mlle. Reisz feel Edna’s shoulder blades? What is the symbolic value of this?

3. What happens in the developing relationship between Edna and Alcée?

Chapter 28

1. What happened between them? Why is this only implied?

2. How does Chopin present the consummation of Edna and Alcée’s relationship? After the passionate kiss with Alcée, what does Edna realize about herself?

Chapter 29

1. What does Edna do in order to carry out her plan to leave Léonce? How does this illustrate the theme of independence?

2. When Alcée visits her that afternoon, how did he expect to find her?

3. How is Edna very much in command of the situation?

4. What is a coup d’étate? Is this a fitting description?

5. Why is Arobin disappointed at the end of the chapter?

Chapter 30

1. Who are the guests who attend the dinner?

2. List the guests who do not appear and the reason they do not attend.

3. Describe the setting for the dinner, the table, the furnishings, and the overall atmosphere. What does this tell the reader about Edna’s decision to leave?

4. How is Edna dressed, and how does she look?

5. How does Edna feel during the evening?

6. How is Victor dressed, and how does he act during the dinner? What does he sing?

Chapter 31

1. What are Edna’s dual feelings as she and Alcée clean up after everyone leaves?

2. What is the pigeon house? In what way is it different from Léonce’s house?

3. How does Edna feel when she enters the pigeon house with Alcée?

4. In what ways has Alcée invaded Edna’s personal space?

Chapter 32

1. What incidents show Léonce’s concern with appearances? What steps does he take to avoid scandal?

2. Does Léonce seem concerned to discover why Edna is leaving? Why?

3. How does Edna feel in her new home?

4. How does Edna react to her visit with her children?

5. What is her feeling when she returns to the pigeon house?

Chapter 33

1. What request does Adéle make of Edna?

2. What warning does Adéle give to Edna when she visits her at the pigeon house? What is Edna’s attitude?

3. Why is Edna upset when she sees Robert at Mademoiselle Reisz’s apartment?

4. How does Robert act during this meeting?

5. What excuse does he give for not writing to Edna during his absence? Why do you think he says this?

6. How does Edna’s expectations not match up to reality here?

7. Later, during dinner at the pigeon house, whose picture upsets Robert? Why is this?

8. What does Robert say when questions about his work in Mexico? Why is this not satisfactory to Edna?

Chapter 34

1. How do Edna and Robert act during dinner? What do they say about Grand Isle?

2. How does Robert’s tobacco pouch add to the tension?

3. How does Alcée Arobin act when he drops by the cottage to give Edna a message from Mrs. Merriman?

4. What is Robert’s reaction?

5. Why does Robert mention Mr. Pontellier before he leaves?

6. How do Edna and Alcée act after he leaves?

7. What verbal exchange takes place before Alcée leaves?

8. After Alcée leaves, what are her thoughts about her reunion with Robert?

Chapter 35

1. How does Edna feel the next morning?

2. What three letters does Edna receive that morning?

3. What happens in Edna’s relationships with Robert and Alcée?

4. Why does Chopin include the fact that Arobin left late that night?

5. How does Edna now feel in the morning and at night? Discuss.

Chapter 36

1. How is the garden in the suburbs used as a symbol in this chapter?

2. During her encounter with Robert, what does Edna realize is true about his feelings for her? Why do you think this presents a problem for him?

3. Who kisses whom first? Is this unusual considering the time period?

4. In what way is the new Edna much more liberated than Robert?

5. What do they say to each other? Why is Mr. Pontellier mentioned?

6. Why must Edna leave? Should she?

Chapter 37

1. How does Adéle prepare for the birth of her child?

2. How does Edna feel and what does she remember from the birth of her own children?

3. What warning does Adéle try to give Edna after she delivers? What could be the meaning of this?

Chapter 38

1. What effect does witnessing the birth have on Edna?

2. What conversation do Edna and Dr. Mandelet have when he walks her home?

3. What does Edna say about dreams and sleep, and “being a dupe to illusions all one’s life”?

4. What does Edna continue to think about?

5. What does she find when she returns home? What do you think Robert means?

6. How does Edna spend the rest of the evening?

Chapter 39

1. How is the setting for this last chapter appropriate?

2. What is the subject of conversation between Victor and Mariequita?

3. How would you describe Edna’s demeanor at this time?

4. What does she give them as the reason for her visit?

5. What does she say she intends to do before dinner? What is their response to this?

6. The reader learns what Edna thought during that last sleepless night following her return from Adéle’s. What realization does she come to about herself, Léonce, her children, and Robert?

7. How is the bird with the broken wing symbolic here?

8. How is Edna’s removal of her clothes as she walks down to the beach symbolic?

9. What descriptions of the sea are being repeated here? Why does Chopin do this?

10. Edna swims out too far, experiences one moment of terror, and then relaxes into the ocean. What thoughts does Edna have now?

11. What choice has Edna made? Do you agree or disagree with her decision?

12. Does Edna have any other choice, given her nature and the conventions of society at this time?

13. Does she “think of the children”? Explain.

14. What other choices would Edna have today that didn’t exist during the time in which the novel was written?

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The Classic Novel That Saw Pleasure as a Path to Freedom

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Kate Chopin in 1870.

Kate Chopin in 1870.Credit…Missouri History Museum

By Claire Vaye Watkins

· Published Feb. 5, 2020Updated Feb. 27, 2020

Early in “The Awakening” — Kate Chopin’s great feminist novel of identity and self-consciousness, which still throbs with relevance more than 120 years after its publication — the heroine’s husband picks a fight. He has spent the evening at a casino and now it’s approaching midnight, but the card game has left Léonce “in high spirits, and very talkative.” He wakes his wife to gossip but she answers him sleepily, “with little half utterances.” Spurned, and still intent on rousing her, Léonce manufactures a fever for their sleeping son. When Edna dares doubt this, Léonce calls her a bad mother. She springs out of bed to check, while Léonce — no longer worried, if he ever actually was — enjoys his cigar. Soon, Mr. Pontellier is fast asleep, but “Mrs. Pontellier was by that time thoroughly awake.”

Awake to what? After the fight, Edna moves out to the balcony and weeps profusely: “An indescribable oppression, which seemed to generate in some unfamiliar part of her consciousness, filled her whole being with a vague anguish.”

Whatever it is, it is indescribable, unfamiliar, vague. Yet also partly named: oppression, anguish. Edna edges into the uncharted territory of her own consciousness. She is beckoned — like Eve, like the women convened at Seneca Falls decades before, like Betty Friedan and Audre Lorde decades later, like Claudia Rankine today — to “use language to mark the unmarked.”

Awakening as a metaphor for accessing not only the unfamiliar part of one’s consciousness but the buried truth of our society has exploded into the mainstream thanks to the Black Lives Matter movement. On Jan. 9, 2016, in Baton Rouge — not so far from the novel’s setting of Grand Isle (or what’s left of Grand Isle after so many superstorms) — the activist DeRay Mckesson was arrested while protesting the extrajudicial execution of Alton Sterling by the police. Mckesson broadcast his arrest on Periscope, where viewers around the world watched him handcuffed by the police in a T-shirt reading “#StayWoke,” the millennial iteration of an adage that has bolstered the black community’s freedom fight since the black labor movement of the 1940s, as Kashana Cauley explored in The Believer. Historically, the phrase stay woke, Cauley wrote, “acknowledged that being black meant navigating the gaps between the accepted narrative of normality in America and our own lives.”

Innovative grammatical constructions like “stay woke” and “wokeness” powerfully evoke the ongoing struggle for justice embodied in Black Lives Matter and the movements that came before it, as well as those that followed, including the reinvigorated women’s movement and the swell of activism on the American left working for visibility, participation and self-determination of marginalized people at all levels of civic life. The echoes between this moment and the expanded consciousness represented by “The Awakening” reverberate so loudly they have been recently satirized by the poet Juliana Gray as 
“The Awokening.”
 At the risk of engaging in the kind of appropriation and dilution Cauley finds rightfully tiresome, today’s wokeness has a kindred spirit in “The Awakening.” Both emphasize omnipresent, if latent, wisdom.

Novels are neither recipes nor advice columns, yet it seems useful — at this moment when feminism yearns to outgrow its divisive metaphors, to correct for its hypocrisies and moral failings, and to resist cynical corporate co-opting that seeks to turn the movement into a marketing tool — to re-examine the transformation underway in a foundational book like “The Awakening.” Feminism endures when it embraces consciousness both within and without, becoming a cooperative struggle for justice across categories, what Kimberlé Crenshaw termed “intersectionality.” With this in mind, it seems to me urgent to read “The Awakening,” a bible of consciousness-raising for so many, and notice: What wakes us up?

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In June 1899, a review of “The Awakening” in The Morning Times of Washington, D.C., concluded that “the agency of the ‘awakening’ is a man, Robert Le Brun.” In fact, as generations of readers have observed, the agent of Edna’s awakening is Edna herself: her body, her friends, her art, her time in nature. Edna’s awakening begins outdoors, an escape from the structures of patriarchy into the unbuilt landscapes of the sensual, sublime and the supernatural. Edna swims in the gulf, languishes in a hammock, escapes to the balcony, where “there was no sound abroad except the hooting of an old owl in the top of a water-oak, and the everlasting voice of the sea.”

She finds her own everlasting voice within spaces of sisterhood. Edna’s female friendships are fountains of encouragement for her artistic ambition, as well as sites of confession. Sitting by the sea with her uninhibited Creole friend, Madame Ratignolle, Edna can admit, if only to herself, her maternal ambivalence: “She was fond of her children in an uneven, impulsive way.” Edna knows she is “not a mother-woman” like her radiant and ever-pregnant friend, not “some sensuous Madonna.” If Edna is not a Madonna then by patriarchy’s binary she must be a whore. So be it, Edna all but says, flinging herself into a breathless flirtation with Robert.

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But Robert is far from the sole object of Edna’s desire. Their liaison eschews monogamy in more ways than the obvious infidelity, taking as lovers the moon, the gulf and its spirits. In the moonlit sea Edna “walks for the first time alone, boldly and with overconfidence” into the gulf, where swimming alone is “as if some power of significant import had been given to control the working of her body and soul.” Solitude is essential to Edna’s realization that she has never truly had control of her body and soul. (The novel’s original title was “A Solitary Soul.”) Among Edna’s more defiant moments is when she refuses to budge from her hammock, despite paternalistic reprimand from both Robert and Léonce, who each insist on chaperoning, as if in shifts. Edna’s will blazes up even in this tiny, hanging room of her own, as Virginia Woolf would famously phrase it nearly 30 years later. Within the silent sanctuary of the hammock, gulf spirits whisper to Edna. By the next morning she has devised a way to be alone with Robert. Chopin’s novel of awakenings and unapologetic erotic trespass is in full swing.

Upon her return home to New Orleans, Edna trades the social minutiae expected of upper-crust Victorian white women — receiving callers and returning their calls — for painting, walking, gambling, dinner parties, brandy, anger, aloneness and sex. She shucks off tradition and patriarchal expectations in favor of art, music, nature and her bosom friends. These open her up, invite her to consider her self, her desires. One friend offers the tattoo-worthy wisdom that “the bird that would soar above the level plain of tradition and prejudice must have strong wings.” Is Edna such a bird? This is the novel’s central question, one it refuses to answer definitively. Chopin gives Edna the freedom to feel and yet not know herself. The women in the novel draw forth Edna’s intuition — they take the sensual and braid it with the intellectual. Eventually, the body and the mind are one for Edna.

“The Awakening” is a book that reads you. Chopin does not tell her readers what to think. Unlike Flaubert, Chopin declines to explicitly condemn her heroine. Critics were especially unsettled by this. Many interpreted Chopin’s refusal to judge Edna as the author’s oversight, and took it as an open invitation to do so themselves. This gendered knee-jerk critical stance that assumes less intentionality for works made by women is a phenomenon that persists today. Especially transgressive was Edna’s candor about her maternal ambivalence, the acuity with which Chopin articulated the fearsome dynamism of the mother’s bond with her children: “She would sometimes gather them passionately to her heart, she would sometimes forget them.” This scandalized — and continues to scandalize — readers because the freedom of temporarily forgetting your children is to find free space in your mind, for yourself, for painting, stories, ideas or orgasm. To forget your children and remember yourself was a revolutionary act and still is.

Edna Pontellier does what she wants with her body — she has good sex at least three times in the book. But the more revolutionary act is the desire that precedes the sex. Edna, awakened by the natural world, invited by art and sisterhood to be wholly alive, begins to notice what she wants, rather than what her male-dominated society wants her to want. Edna’s desire is the mechanism of her deprogramming. The heroine’s sensual experience is also spiritual, and political. Political intuition begins not in a classroom but far before, with bodily sensation, as Sara Ahmed argues in her incendiary manifesto “Living a Feminist Life”: “Feminism can begin with a body, a body in touch with a world.” A body in touch with a world feels oppression like a flame, and recoils. For gaslit people — women, nonbinary and queer people, people of color — people who exist in the gaps Cauley describes between the accepted narrative of American normal and their own experience, pleasure and sensation are not frivolous or narcissistic but an essential reorientation. The epiphany follows the urge. Feeling her own feelings, thinking her own thoughts, Edna recalibrates her compass to point not to the torture of patriarchy but to her own pleasure, a new north.

Like Edna, Kate Chopin did what she wanted with her mind, whatever the cost, and it cost her almost everything. In 1899 “The Awakening” earned her a piddling $102 in royalties, about $3,000 in today’s money. Shortly after its publication the now unequivocally classic novel fell out of print. Chopin’s next book contract was canceled. Chopin died at age 54 from a brain hemorrhage after a long, hot day spent at the St. Louis World’s Fair with her son. Her publishing career lasted about 14 years. And yet she established herself among the foremothers of 20th-century literature and feminist thought. She showed us that patriarchy’s prison can kill you slow or kill you fast, and how to feel your way out of it. She admired Guy de Maupassant as “a man who had escaped from tradition and authority,” and we will forever argue whether Edna is allowed this escape, whether she shows us not the way but a way to get free. As for Chopin, there is no doubt that she was free on the page, free to let her mind unfurl. None of this is accident or folly, not caprice nor diary. She knew what she was doing. She was swimming farther than she had ever swum before.

CLAIRE VAYE WATKINS is the author of the story collection “Battleborn” and the novel “Gold Fame Citrus.” This essay is adapted from her introduction to “The Awakening: And Other Stories,” forthcoming from Penguin Classics.