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geography – coral reefs case study – creating a schedule

Coral Reefs

Case Study:
Coral Reefs

Major
endangered
reef regions

Only 2.6%
protected

33% of reef
species
endangered

Coral Reefs
 Small unique areas rich with marine life

 Highly vulnerable to extinction

 World’s most endangered ecosystems

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

Click link below to learn more about coral reefs:

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

Coral Reefs: Importance
 Coral reefs support the livelihoods of millions of

people.

 Coral reefs supply seafood, building materials, sources
for medicinal products, and draw in much needed
tourism revenue.

 Reefs also protect shorelines and communities from
storms and erosion.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance
 Coral reefs are an important source of food for

hundreds of millions of people, many of whom have
no other source of animal protein.

 However especially reefs in developing countries are
threatened and if human impact on reefs is not
reduced there is a great danger, that some of the
world’s poorest people will lose an important source of
nutrition, and in many cases their livelihoods.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance
 Despite their extraordinary value, coral reefs are

deeply threatened by human activities and global
climate change.

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

Coral Reefs: Threatened
 Nations most socially and economically

vulnerable to coral reef degradation
 Haiti, Grenada, the Philippines, Comoros, Vanuatu,

Tanzania, Kiribati, Fiji, and Indonesia.

 28% of global reef systems

 Reefs provide food, tourism, and coastal protection

 Threatened by unsustainable fishing, population
stresses, and global warming

 Governments do not have capacity to protect them

Coral Reefs: Case Study
Most Endangered Coral Region on Earth

Coral Reefs: Coral Triangle Region

Coral Triangle

• 600 different species
of coral

•3000 different species
of fish (37% of world’s
reef fish, 8% endemic)

•Home to 6 of the 7
marine turtle species
and 22 species of
marine mammals

•120 million people
live in the region and
rely on the reef
resources, income,
and protection

Coral Triangle: Economics
 The total annual economical value of natural habitats

in the Coral Triangle including coral reefs, mangroves,
and seagrass beds is an estimated US $2.3 billion

 The commercial fishing industry of the Coral Triangle
generates US $3 billion in income annually and
supports millions of people in many costal villages.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate
-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle: Economics
 Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds are crucial

breeding grounds for many marine creatures,
including several commercially important species such
as yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, skipjack tuna,
Napoleon wrasse, and bumphead parrotfish.

 Without these nurseries for large pelagic fish species,
there would be nowhere for adults to spawn or for the
fry and juveniles to grow and eventually reproduce,
making the continued existence of these species
impossible.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate
-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle
 Fish density declining 6% annually

 Endangered species:
 All marine sea turtles

 Green sea turtle

 Loggerhead

 Hawksbill

 Olive Ridley

 Leatherback

 Flatback

 Dugong

 Humphead wrasse

Coral Triangle: Threats
•Pollution

•Deforestation

•Overfishing
• 50% taken before

able to reproduce

• 79% spawning
aggregations
stopped forming or
are in decline

•Destructive fishing
• Cyanide Poisoning

• Dynamite fishing

• Blasts destroy 200 sq.
feet at a time

Coral Triangle: Threats
•Bycatch

• Million pounds of
non-target species
entangled in gillnets,
trawls, and longlines
each year

• Devastating to
species, especially
endangered marine
turtles, sharks, and
juvenile fish

•Climate Change
• Rising sea levels

• Warming

• Bleaching

• Acidification

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role
 Coral reef mapping
 Monitoring reef health
 Reef and marine ecosystem

classification
 Estimate reef area coverage
 Change detection
 Water quality
 Shoreline erosion/accretion

responsible for reef
degradation

 Limited coral reef
management

 Coastal zone management
 Marine protected areas
 Fishing zones

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role
MONITORING CORAL REEFS
AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role
MONITORING CORAL REEFS
AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role
MONITORING CORAL REEFS
AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Geographic is one of the projects now
underway at Coral reef Research which will
culminate almost all that is known about the
biogeography of reef building stony corals.

Coral Triangle: Solutions
 Marine protected areas can include several zones— “no-take”,

sustainable use, research—which provide opportunities for both
conservation and sustainable exploitation.

 But there are still too few marine protected areas in the region.
And even where they exist, often they are not effectively
managed. This severely limits the ability of MPAs to replenish
fish populations.

 What we need are well-designed and well-managed networks of
marine protected areas and locally managed marine areas. This is
the key to preventing further biodiversity loss and fisheries
collapse.

 How/where do we design these marine protected areas?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_wor
k/coraltriangle/solutions/marine_protected_areas/

Legend..CoralSpeciesRichness%ofThreatenedCoralSpecies(Vulnerable,EndangeredandCriticallyEndangered)IUCNRedListDataforCoralsintheoralTriangle

Coral Triangle: Solutions
 Sustainable fishing

 International laws and standards support sustainable
fisheries management, and are applicable to tuna
regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs)
and their member states.

But in reality, tuna RFMOs have been unable to prevent
overexploitation of tuna, rebuild depleted stocks, or
protect the wider ecosystem.

 How do we address the problem of unsustainable
fishing?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_wor
k/coraltriangle/solutions/sustainable_tuna_fisheri
es_coraltriangle/

Coral Triangle: Solutions
 In the Coral Triangle, the impacts of bycatch have been

devastating. Populations of nesting marine turtles have
declined by as much as 90% in some areas

 Overfishing of sharks in longline fisheries targeting tuna
has endangered many species and in shrimp fisheries,
juvenile ‘trash fish’ can outweigh the catch of targeted
shrimp by more than 10 to 1

 Fishing gear—longlines, gillnets, and trawl nets, not
selective

 How do we implement and enforce the use of better,
safer technologies for fishing?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_wor
k/coraltriangle/solutions/tackling_fisheries_bycat
ch/

Coral Triangle: Status
40% of coral reefs and
mangroves destroyed
in the last 40 years

Only 1% of protected
areas effective in
stopping coral
degradation

Coral Triangle will
disappear at a rate of
1-2% every year

In 40 years, the Coral
Triangle may collapse
and vanish

Easy Ways You
Can Protect
Coral Reefs

• Conserve water and
energy

• Reduce Pollution
• Buy renewable or

biodegradable products
instead of plastics

• Support reef-friendly
businesses

• Wear a swim shirt for
sun protection or
natural sunscreens

• Do not step on or harm
coral

• Volunteer for ocean and
rivers clean-ups! Caribbean Reseeding Project

Conservation Infogram:
The Coral Triangle
1) How/where do we design these marine

protected areas?

2) How do we address the problem of
unsustainable fishing?

3) How do we implement and enforce the use of
better, safer technologies for fishing?

 Pick one of the three questions and create an
Infogram highlighting the potential solutions to
the problems.

geography – coral reefs case study – creating a schedule

The Endangered Earth

Coral Reefs

Case Study:
Coral Reefs

Major endangered reef regions

Only 2.6% protected

33% of reef species endangered

2

Coral Reefs

Small unique areas rich with marine life

Highly vulnerable to extinction

World’s most endangered ecosystems

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

https://www.slideshare.net/notesmaster/coral-reefs-theory-types-formation

Click link below to learn more about coral reefs:

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

Coral Reefs: Importance

Coral reefs support the livelihoods of millions of people.

Coral reefs supply seafood, building materials, sources for medicinal products, and draw in much needed tourism revenue.

Reefs also protect shorelines and communities from storms and erosion.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance

Coral reefs are an important source of food for hundreds of millions of people, many of whom have no other source of animal protein.

However especially reefs in developing countries are threatened and if human impact on reefs is not reduced there is a great danger, that some of the world’s poorest people will lose an important source of nutrition, and in many cases their livelihoods.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance

Despite their extraordinary value, coral reefs are deeply threatened by human activities and global climate change.

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

Coral Reefs: Threatened

Nations most socially and economically vulnerable to coral reef degradation

Haiti, Grenada, the Philippines, Comoros, Vanuatu, Tanzania, Kiribati, Fiji, and Indonesia.

28% of global reef systems

Reefs provide food, tourism, and coastal protection

Threatened by unsustainable fishing, population stresses, and global warming

Governments do not have capacity to protect them

Coral Reefs: Case Study
Most Endangered Coral Region on Earth

Coral Reefs: Coral Triangle Region

Coral Triangle

600 different species of coral

3000 different species of fish (37% of world’s reef fish, 8% endemic)

Home to 6 of the 7 marine turtle species

and 22 species of marine mammals

120 million people live in the region and rely on the reef resources, income, and protection

Coral Triangle: Economics

The total annual economical value of natural habitats in the Coral Triangle including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds is an estimated US $2.3 billion

The commercial fishing industry of the Coral Triangle generates US $3 billion in income annually and supports millions of people in many costal villages.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle: Economics

Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds are crucial breeding grounds for many marine creatures, including several commercially important species such as yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, skipjack tuna, Napoleon wrasse, and bumphead parrotfish.

Without these nurseries for large pelagic fish species, there would be nowhere for adults to spawn or for the fry and juveniles to grow and eventually reproduce, making the continued existence of these species impossible.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle

Fish density declining 6% annually

Endangered species:

All marine sea turtles

Green sea turtle

Loggerhead

Hawksbill

Olive Ridley

Leatherback

Flatback

Dugong

Humphead wrasse

Coral Triangle: Threats

Pollution

Deforestation

Overfishing

50% taken before able to reproduce

79% spawning aggregations stopped forming or are in decline

Destructive fishing

Cyanide Poisoning

Dynamite fishing

Blasts destroy 200 sq. feet at a time

Coral Triangle: Threats

Bycatch

Million pounds of non-target species entangled in gillnets, trawls, and longlines each year

Devastating to species, especially endangered marine turtles, sharks, and juvenile fish

Climate Change

Rising sea levels

Warming

Bleaching

Acidification

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

Coral reef mapping

Monitoring reef health

Reef and marine ecosystem classification

Estimate reef area coverage

Change detection

Water quality

Shoreline erosion/accretion responsible for reef degradation

Limited coral reef management

Coastal zone management

Marine protected areas

Fishing zones

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Geographic is one of the projects now underway at Coral reef Research which will culminate almost all that is known about the biogeography of reef building stony corals.

Coral Triangle: Solutions

Marine protected areas can include several zones— “no-take”, sustainable use, research—which provide opportunities for both conservation and sustainable exploitation.

But there are still too few marine protected areas in the region. And even where they exist, often they are not effectively managed. This severely limits the ability of MPAs to replenish fish populations.

What we need are well-designed and well-managed networks of marine protected areas and locally managed marine areas. This is the key to preventing further biodiversity loss and fisheries collapse.

How/where do we design these marine protected areas?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/coraltriangle/solutions/marine_protected_areas/

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geography – coral reefs case study – creating a schedule

Watch the EDGE of Existence video on coral reefs found in Media Gallery or Kaltura Media Gallery link in the Coral Reef Modules. Try this link: EDGE of Existence (Links to an external site.) 

In the video, “Reefs on the EDGE”, a 15-year-old girl retells her grandfather’s stories of coral reefs, gone from existence in her life. This 2012 short film was intended as a powerful message to raise awareness about the threats of climate change. 

Discuss your initial thoughts and final reactions. What questions do you have?

The Curious Case Study (50 points) 

For this assignment, you will complete the case study by answering the questions posed in the lecture. (Learning Outcomes #2, #3, #5, and #7) 

Cite your answers. If you’ve drawn your ideas from the Endangered Earth Introduction lecture, then cite slide #.

Options for Assignment: 

1. You create a table with the questions & problems on the left side and all the possible solutions for the question/problem on the right side (use bullet points instead of full sentences). 

example: 

How do we increase cheetah populations? 

  • Restore cheetah to Iran and India 
  • Ex-situ breeding programs 

How do we reduce cheetah-human conflict? 

  • Anatolian Shepherds to guard livestock