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Name_______________________________________ Date__________________________

Psych 441, Quiz 2 Due Date: Monday, May 2nd, end of day

Format: Take-Home: Open book/open notes/open laptop

Part 1. Fill-In Section:20 Items, 5 points each. Please fill-in the specific term or terms that complete each item. Refer to the list of terms following the 20 items on page four of this document as well as the class lecture slides for the items requiring examples. Some items are directly noted on the list; others require finding the answers or examples on the slides or in class materials.

1. List three areas or considerations that are important for coordinating roles when co-parenting.

1.

2.

3.

2. The concept of ___________________looks at the self as separate and distinct within the relational context from significant others. It is often referred to as the “I” within the “We”. ___________________ refers to when an adolescent teen is prematurely pushed to separate by family circumstances by poor parental monitoring and limit setting, lack of parental involvement, and lack of concern.

3. The____________________________ is a normative stressor that can bring emotional upheaval given the expanding demands on the couple and family system, but the couple’s preparation for this mostly normative life event can serve as a buffer.

4. Reports from Child Trends data, indicate that the most common or frequently reported Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) is _______________________.

5. Three other examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences include:

1.

2.

3.

6. List three examples of PACES [Protective And Compensatory Experiences] that help to mitigate against trauma or ACES [Adverse Childhood Experiences]:

1.

2.

3.

7. In John Bowlby’s theory of attachment children develop a (an) ________________________ of their caregiver which describes the set of expectations and beliefs as to how their caregiver (s) will care and respond. The child’s expectations transfer to other relationships in life including teachers, friends, and adult partners/spouses.

8. Byng-Hall’s work suggested that family systems theory contributes to our understandings of _________________________.

9. According to Byng-Hall, a _______________________ refers to a family that provides a reliable and readily available network of attachment relationships, and appropriate caregivers, from which all members of the family are able to feel sufficiently secure to explore their potential.

10. Sources of couple conflict can be related to expectations and competing needs. Please list two examples for each:

Expectations:

1.

2.

Competing Needs

1.

2.

11. The four properties of couple or family conflict focus on: Please list.

1.

2.

3.

4.

12. A ___________________refers to a family consisting of remarried adults, stepchildren, and stepsiblings. A_______________ is a broad system that considers and is inclusive of all biological and step-relatives and extended family systems.

13. _______________________refers to the role of a single parent when they accept complete authority for household and family tasks and enlist help of others when needed. This role includes acceptance of changes after partner/spouse no longer present in home.

14. ______________________ is a role assumed by a child (often an older child) to care for younger children or even the parent in a single parent system.

15. Research on parenting involves thinking in terms insider and outsider perspectives. There are

____________________to understanding parenting (parenting ideas imposed and derived from outside the social or cultural group) and ___________________ (parenting ideas derived from within the social and cultural group).

16. Communication in adult partnerships (close adult relationships) has several components. List three examples.

1.

2.

3.

17. _____________________refers to when grandparents and close relatives care for their grandchildren or young relatives when parents are unavailable or unable to care for them.

18. In child welfare “reasonable efforts” refers to activities of state social services agencies that aim to provide the assistance and services needed for ______________________. The legal concept of_____________________ generally refers to the deliberation that courts undertake when deciding what type of services, actions, and orders will be needed to serve a child as well as who is the best suited to take care of a child.

19. John Gottman’s research and work referred to the negativity processes or negative communication styles in unsuccessful couples as the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. These include:

1.

2.

3.

4.

20. As defined by the APA, ______________is the social institution in which two (or, less frequently, more) people commit themselves to a socially sanctioned relationship in which sexual intercourse is legitimated and there is legally recognized responsibility for any offspring as well as for each other. Although there are exceptions, the partners typically live together in the same residence

Bonus/Extra Credit: When blending families, three example of conflict and three examples of cohesion include:

Cohesion

1.

2.

3.

Conflict

1.

2.

3.

Part 1: Terms for the Fill-in Items – Completion, 5 points each for items 1-20.

1. Individuation/Forced Individuation

2. Secure Family Base

3. Family Attachment

4. Internal Working Model

5. Transition to parenthood

6. Emic approaches and etic approaches

7. Kinship Care

8. Family Preservation/ Best Interests of the Child

9. Sole Administrator

10. Parental Child

11. Blended family/Metafamily

12. Economic Hardship

13. Marriage

Part 1 [continued] Responses requiring you to list related sub-terms or examples

14. Co-parenting (examples of areas)

15. Adverse Childhood Experiences, examples, most common

16. Mitigating ACES, examples

17. Domestic and Couple Conflict (Conflict areas, examples)

18. Four Horseman of the Apocalypse

19. Conflict Properties (list of four)

20. Communication in relationships (examples)

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Final

Braun-Unkhoff, Marina, and Uwe Riedel. “Alternative Fuels in Aviation – CEAS Aeronautical Journal.” SpringerLink, Springer Vienna, 2 Sept. 2014, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13272-014-0131-2.

Yilmaz, Nadir, and Alpaslan Atmanli. “Sustainable Alternative Fuels in Aviation.” Energy, Pergamon, 23 July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360544217312537.

Gupta, K.K., et al. “Bio-Fuels for the Gas Turbine: A Review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Pergamon, 30 July 2010, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032110002054.

Sustainable Aviation Fuel – Energy.gov. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/09/f78/beto-sust-aviation-fuel-sep-2020.pdf?TB_iframe=true&width=921.6&height=512.1.

Poleri, Andrés. “FAA Released Seven Ways Airports Are Going Green.” Aviacionline.com, 8 Apr. 2022, https://www.aviacionline.com/2022/04/faa-released-seven-ways-airports-are-going-green/.

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TH E FAM ILY AN D TH E
C H ILD :

A PSYC H O LO G IC AL VIEW

UMass Boston

Psych 441

Peggy Vaughan

Transition to Adulthood

Love, Relationships and Attachment

Links to Couplehood and Marriage

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TOPICS

• Transition to Adulthood
• Adult attachments; family attachment

• Couple subsystem/Marital subsystem:
Couple and marital tasks

• Communication and intimacy: Adam
video – one “chapter”

• Note: These slides include several key
attachment concepts, which we will
review briefly before focusing on family
attachment and adult attachment

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YO U N G A D U LT H O O D
( WA L S H , 2 0 1 6 )

§ All stages have individual and interpersonal factors

§ Is the ideal a self apart from others or in relation to others?

§ Tasks of young adulthood

§ Coming to terms with family of origin

§ Entering the adult world of work

§ New forms of relationships

§ Ideally forming or becoming a “self ” before joining with another – a partner – to
form a new family subsystem.

§ W hile separation and autonomy are valued in different ways, caring and
connections have strong values as well, as demonstrated by the work of Carol
Gilligan.

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AT TAC H M E N T R E V I E W

Key concepts from John Bowlby
and M ary Ainsworth

• attachment in the making
• proximity-seeking
• felt-security
• secure base
• balance of safety and

exploration
• reaction or response to

separation, stress and
reunions

• internal working model

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B OW L B Y ’ S E T H O L O G I C A L
T H E O RY O F AT TAC H M E N T

• Begins with innate signals that keep parent nearby

• Affectionate bond forms over time:

• Preattachment (birth to six weeks)

• Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months

• Clear-cut attachment;
separation anxiety (6–8 months to 18 months–2 years)

• Formation of reciprocal relationship (18 months to 2
years and continuing on through childhood)

• Internal working model:
expectations about availability of attachment figures

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ATTACHMENT IN THE MAKING

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J O H N B O W L B Y
( A T T A C H M E N T
A N D L O S S , 1 9 6 9

& 1 9 8 2 )

• Child develops an internal working
model of their caregiver linked to a set
of expectations and beliefs as to how
caregiver (s) will care and respond.

• The child’s expectations transfer to
other relationships in life: teachers,
friends, adult partners/spouses.

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M A RY A I N S WO RT H

• Mary Ainsworth: In the 1970’s Ainsworth developed a procedure
for assessing child attachment in the Strange Situation.

• Styles: 1) Secure; 2) Insecure-Avoidant; 3) Insecure-Anxious/Ambivalent
(a fourth pattern of disorganized was added and defined later.)

• In the attachment research and literature, these patterns are viewed as
prototypes for later attachments.

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M E A S U R I N G AT TA C H M E N T S E C U R I T Y :
R E S P O N S E S TO T H E S T R A N G E S I T U AT I O N

§ Secure attachment: Baby uses parent as secure base,
expresses clear pleasure when parent returns.

§ Three Insecure patterns:

§ Avoidant attachment: Baby seems unresponsive to parent, slow
to greet parent on reunion.

§ Insecure-resistant attachment: Baby seeks closeness to parent,
is distressed or angry when parent returns.

§ Disorganized/disoriented attachment: Reflects greatest
insecurity; baby shows confused, contradictory behaviors.

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A D U LT- A D U LT AT TAC H M E N T

• A major difference between adult-adult attachment and the
parent-child relationship attachment is that the attachment
behavior system in adults is reciprocal: adult partners are not
assigned to or set in the role of “attachment figure/caregiver” or
“attached individual/ care receiver”.

• Both attachment behavior and serving as an attachment figure
should be observable in individuals, and the two roles may shift
rapidly between the partners.

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A N E W U S E O F AT TAC H M E N T I N
T H E A P P ROAC H TO PA R E N T I N G

• The term attachment parenting was coined by Sears and
Sears to refer to a parenting approach that emphasizes
responding sensitively to the needs of babies and children.
Many of their ideas come from parenting their own eight
children, as well as from their pediatric practice; some are
from anthropologists’ observations of indigenous
childrearing practices (thought to be more “natural”); and
some (like emotional responsiveness) are consistent with
research findings.

• This approach is not the same as the attachment models
and categories developed from the attachment research
work of Bowlby, Ainsworth and others.

• We will talk more about parenting styles in the discussion
of parenthood Week 8.

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ADULT-ADULT ATTACHMENT

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AT TAC H M E N T S T Y L E S I N
A D U LT S

• What are adults’ capacity for intimacy and emotional
attachment?

• The need for and the role of felt security and internal working
model in adult relationships (Feeny & Noller,1990; Crowell, Treboux,
et al, 2002).

• There are equivalent counterparts to the three original child
attachment styles in the attachment styles of adults.

• Secure
• Avoidant
• Anxious-Ambivalent

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A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with secure attachment styles

• report positive early family
relationships.

• describe trusting attitudes towards
others.

• view themselves as friendly and
likeable.

• find it easy to get close to others.

• feel comfortable with dependence on
others and others depending on them.

• Feeny & Noller (1990); Hazen
& Shaver (1994); Bretherton
(2002)

• http://labs.psychology.illinois.e
du/~rcfraley/attachment.htm

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A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with an
anxious/ambivalent attachment
style..
• view others as unreliable and

unable to commit.

• see their relationships as having
less interdependence, trust and
satisfaction when compared to
the securely attached.

• experience others as being
reluctant to get as close as they
would like them to be.

• worry that their partners don’t
really love them.

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A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with an avoidant
attachment style..

• view relationships as less than
satisfying and intimate as
compared to those who are
securely attached.

• feel uncomfortable being close to
others.

• find it difficult to trust and depend
on others.

• become nervous when others are
too close.

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R E S E A R C H :
AT TAC H M E N T H I S TO R I E S

• Dating Couples
• Individuals with a securely attached style are generally attracted

to securely attached.

• Individuals with insecurely attached style tend to match up with
insecurely attached.

• Married Couples
• Securely attached report higher relationship satisfaction, higher

trust, greater supportiveness and positive self-disclosure.

• Securely attached also discuss conflicting goals more openly and
maintain constructive communication.

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R E C E N T R E E A R C H

• A recent study in which romantic couples were randomly assigned to
touching or nontouching conditions demonstrated the positive effect of
touch for producing feelings of emotional security (Jakubiak & Feeney,
2016). Repeated intimate contact surrounding caregiving in infancy and
sexual encounters in adulthood is rewarding, and at least partly
responsible for the development of emotional interdependence
(Zeifman & Hazan, 2016).

• As a result of repeated, soothing physical contact, one hallmark feature
of attachment relationships is that they are mutually physiologically
regulating (Zeifman, 2019).

• Infants use their caregivers as a source of comfort, the person to
retreat to in times of distress. Similarly, adults seek partners to reduce
aversive arousal.

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H E T E RO S E X UA L A N D S A M E – S E X
C O U P L E S

• Research has suggested that the similarities between same-
sex and heterosexual couples far outweigh the differences,
both in relationship quality and the processes regulating
satisfaction and commitment (Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007). A
few studies have supported this view with respect to
attachment, given findings that attachment security is
associated with same-sex relationship satis faction (Elizur &
Mintzer, 2003; Kurdek, 2002; Ridge & Feeney, 1998),
commitment (Kurdek, 1997, 2002), and communication
quality (Gaines & Henderson, 2002).

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F I N D I N G S O N A N X I E T Y A N D
AVO I DA N C E I N C O U P L E

• Consistent with research on heterosexuals, results from a
large community sample of same-sex couples indicated that
attachment anxiety and avoidance in both partners are
linked with less positive relationship evaluations and
experiences. (Mohr, Selterman, &. Fassinger, 2013).

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FA M I LY AT TAC H M E N T

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SEC U RITY IN TH E FA M ILY:
TH E C O N C EPT O F A SEC U RE

FA M ILY B A SE

• From a family systems perspective, Byng-Hall suggests that
the family contributes to attachment by providing a secure
family base.

• Definition of secure family base: “a family that provides a
reliable and readily available network of attachment
relationships, and appropriate caregivers, from which all
members of the family are able to feel sufficiently secure to
explore their potential” (Byng-Hall, 1999, p. 627).

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SYSTEMS THEORY:
FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING

ABOUT ATTACHMENTS

• Family interaction cycles influence attachment.
• Circular causality (e.g., feedback loops) in family systems influences

mutuality.

• Family rules and organizational structures influence aspects of
attachment (e.g., caregiving behavioral system, exploratory
behavioral system, and attachment behavioral system).

• Distance Regulation in the Family System
• “Too Close – Too Far” Couple and Family Systems

• Triangulation of Others as Distance Regulators
• Illnesses and Emotional Problems that Become Distance Regulators

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W H Y F O C U S O N AT TAC H M E N T ?

• Attachment relationships between adults often serve a
wide variety of other functions, including sexual bonds,
companionship, sense of competence, and shared purpose
or experience.

• Family attachments strengthen and support families when
facing stressors and at times of adaptation and potential
growth.

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ADULT RELATIONSHIPS

Stages of Relationships

Communication and Intimacy

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T H O U G H T Q U E S T I O N S

What are the common
definitions of relationship

commitment, marriage and
marriage-like

relationships/couplehood?

How do the tasks learned
and understood as a child

and adolescent (family- based
and psychological tasks) link
to the transition to couple

and/or marital tasks?

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PA RT N E R I N G
A N D M AT E
S E L E C T I O N
C O N C E P T S

A N D E R S O N &
S A B AT E L L I ,

C H . 7 ( 2 0 1 1 )

• Selection
• Negotiation
• Tests and filters
• Reciprocity
• Comparisons, attraction, turning points
• Family and past experiences
• Values and expectations

• Love
• Commitment

• Attachment theory and styles
• Intimacy
• Communication

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M AT E O R C O M PA N I O N
S E L E C T I O N

• Mate selection as a journey or the active unfolding of
expectations and partner seeking.

• All the expectations are present and active.
• Factors for the discussion of mate selection
• Focus on commitment; beliefs about cohabitation; commitment

and marriage; delayed partnering – adults remaining single longer
(postponing due to education or other life plans and goals);
deciding to parent without committed relationship; deciding
not to have children.

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R E L AT I O N S H I P T H E O R I E S

• Relationships have a developmental sequence.
• Relationships have stages/phases (Anderson and Sabatelli, 2011.)
• Initial, intermediate, later stages

• Stimulus, Value, Role (Murstein)

• Theory of Dyadic Formation (Lewis)

• Social Exchange Perspectives
• Economic metaphor–extended markets

• Costs and rewards and the process of filtering

• Interdependence is needed for satisfaction and having needs met;
mutuality needed for trust and commitment.

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C O M M U N I C A T I O N
I N C L O S E

R E L A T I O N S H I P S

• Styles and levels of disclosure
• Thinking together
• Private message system in

partnerships

• Overt and covert (intent) messages
(Day, 2010)

• Verbal and non-verbal
• Content and mood messages; facial

cues, and expressions

• Decoding

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L I N G U I S T I C S A N D I N T I M AC Y

• Conversation is made up of linguistic features.
• repetition

• dialogue

• imagery

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C O N V E R S AT I O N A L S T Y L E S

• Deborah Tannen’s Highly Discussed Research (1990). You Just
Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation

• There are goals and efforts in conversation and
communication with heterosexual and same-sex couples.

• Focus on positive aspects: congruence, listening, healthy
dialogue and understanding.

• Self-esteem is linked to the capacity for expression and
understanding.

• Rules within an intimate relationship; couples have a
private message system.

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TA N N E N :
PA RT N E R C O N V E R S AT I O N A N D

C O M M U N I C AT I O N G O A L S / I N T E N T I O N S

• Independence vs. Intimacy
• Advice vs. Understanding
• Information vs. Feelings
• Orders vs. Proposals
• Conflict vs. Compromise

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QUESTI ONS
TO

CONS I DER

• What impact do styles and histories have
on forming and continuing relationships
and commitments?

• What other individual characteristics and
factors and variables guide healthy and
viable relationships? Do personality,
temperament, beliefs, etc. have influence?

• What else can facilitate or impact
relationship development and
communication?

• View and discussion of Adam film clip.

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A DA M ( 2 0 0 9 ) V I D E O C L I P

• A romantic character study examining the obstacles to intimacy and
the compromises we make in the name of love, Adam stars Hugh
Dancy as a man living with Asperger’s syndrome who does his best to
reach out to his pretty new upstairs neighbor.

• Due to his condition, Adam isn’t the best when it comes to
communicating. He is lonely and frequently escapes interactions by
submersing himself in the world of the intellect as with his knowledge
of space exploration.

• Adam senses an opportunity for a real human connection after Beth
(Rose Byrne) moves into the apartment just upstairs.

• As Adam attempts to gain control of his off-kilter, sometimes
embarrassing social skills, he discovers that with a little patience and
understanding, developing a meaningful relationship might not be as
hard as he previously thought.

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COUPLES/UNIONS
MARITAL SUBSYSTEMS

Healthy Couples/Unions, Healthy Families

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C O U P L E / M A R I TA L S U B S YS T E M

• Key Language
• Marriages, couplehood, unions and commitment

• Factors to consider
• Patterns of interactions

• Regulating distances

• Themes

• Roles and responsibilities

• Conjugal identities

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T Y P E S O F M A R R I AG E S O R
M A R R I AG E L I K E – C O U P L I N G S

• Relationships on a continuum
• Intimate relationships; levels and length of commitment.

• Long term partners and intimate companions

• Traditional marriages ——-Experimental marriages

• Types: Arranged, open, others?

38

M A R R I AG E

Marriage in Psychology (APA Definition)

The social institution in which two (or, less frequently, more)
people commit themselves to a socially sanctioned
relationship in which sexual intercourse is legitimated and
there is legally recognized responsibility for any offspring as
well as for each other. Although there are exceptions, the
marital partners typically live together in the same residence.

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C O M M O N – L AW M A R R I AG E

• A relationship between an unmarried but long-term
cohabiting couple that is considered legally equivalent to
marriage. Most states in the United States do not recognize
common-law marriages, although cohabitees may be
regarded as equivalent to married partners for some
purposes.

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D O M E S T I C PA RT N E R S H I P

• Two people who live together in a stable, intimate
relationship and share the responsibilities of a household in
the same way that a married couple would. Some states
and companies in the United States and some other
countries provide legal and economic rights to domestic
partners (e.g., insurance and death benefits) that are similar
to those granted to married couples.

41

S A M E – S E X M A R R I AG E

A long-term, intimate, stable, and legally recognized
relationship between two people of the same sex (in the
United States*). It is less frequently called homosexual
marriage. Also called gay marriage.

*On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all
state bans on same-sex marriage, legalized it in all fifty states,
and required states to honor out-of-state same-sex marriage
licenses in the case Obergefell v. Hodges.

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M A R R I AG E D E F I N E D I N S YS T E M S
T H E O RY

• A specific family subsystem comprising of adults from two
different families of origins who have bonded together to
form what they intend to be a stable and long-term
cohabitating relationship (Anderson and Sabatelli, 2011).

• What is missing in this definition?

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A N T H RO P O L O G I C A L A N D
S O C I E TA L / C U LT U R A L V I E W S

Marriage

• All societies have customs governing how and under what
circumstances sex and reproduction can occur–generally
marriage plays a central role in these customs.

• Marriage is a socially approved union that united two or more
individuals as spouses. Implicit in this union is that there will be
sexual relations, procreation, and permanence in the
relationship.

• Sample Functions: 1. Marriage regulates sexual behavior. 2.
Marriage fulfills the economic needs of marriage partners. 3.
Marriage perpetuates kinship groups. 4. Marriage provides one
institution for the care and enculturation of children.

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Final

12/28/2021

1

Chapter 10: Violent Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007,

2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007,
2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).

Violence is the use or threat of force.

Homicide

• Killing of human being by another.
• Justifiable homicide: sanctioned by law (not always illegal then).

• Criminal homicide
• Murder: intentional killing of another person with malice aforethought.

• First degree: premeditated and deliberate

• Second degree: intentional without premeditation

• Felony murder: intention to commit some other felony.

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Manslaughter
Unlawful killing of another person without malice

Voluntary Manslaughter
• Killing committed intentionally

but without malice.
• Example: in the heat of passion or

in response to strong provocation.

Involuntary Manslaughter
• Killing unintentionally but

recklessly by consciously
disregarding a substantial and
unjustifiable risk.

• Negligent homicide (some states)
• Criminal liability for grossly negligent

killing in situations where the offender
assumed a lesser risk.

• Diane Whipple killed in her hallway by
neighbors dogs (Siegel, 2015).

Homicide Rates in the United States
• Homicide rates are high in USA but are steadily declining.
• 2018 approximately 16,214 murders nationwide.

• 5:100,000 in 2018; 4.5:100,000 in 2014 which was down 6.1% since 2005
• In 1994 it was 9:100,000 (Adler, et al., 2022).

• Regional difference (cities like Chicago, Baltimore, Detroit over rural areas).
• South accounts for 46% of homicides
• Midwest 22%
• West 19.9%
• Northeast 11.9%
• Cities like Chicago

• 1950 most had jobs by 1990 only 1 in 3 had a typical work week.
• 2016 Chicago had the highest homicide rates for any city in US history.

• States: District of Columbia highest, South Carolina 1st, Florida 5th, Michigan
10th, and Maine lowest.

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Characteristics of Murder

• Approximately 78% of murder victims are males.

• Nearly half between 20-34 years old.

• While USA doesn’t have highest homicide rates we do have highest
rates for those under age 15.

• Murder tends to be Intra-racial but not intra-gendered.
• Approx. 90% blacks killed by blacks and 85% of whites by whites (Siegel, 2015).

• Black women account for 75% of our nations female murders (Adler, et.,
2022).

• Stranger homicides only account for about 7.5% in 2018.

• USA highest risk of being murdered by family and acquaintances.

Characteristics of Murder cont’d

• Gang Homicides
• Attributed to social disorganization and lack of economic opportunity

• Killers are generally younger

• 2.5 X more participants.

• Twice as likely to not know the victims

• Increased by stander victims due to drive by shootings.

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Types of Murder

• Serial Murder (serial killers):
• killing of several victims over a period of time.

• Sociopaths: lack internal controls, disregard values, and dominate others.

• Up to 15% are women.

• Men choose victims they render helpless while women choose the helpless.

• Mass murder:
• Killing of multiple victims in one event or in very quick succession.

• Vegas strip mall Oct. 2017 with 59 dead, Orlando Pulse nightclub

• Gang murder:
• Killing of rival gang members over drugs and territory.

Assault

• Attack on a person with an apparent ability to inflict injury and is
intended to frighten or to cause physical harm.
• Battery: results in touching or striking the victim.

• Simple assault: little to no physical harm. Verbal?

• Aggravated assault: Serious harm on the victim or use of a deadly weapon.

• Assaults are the most common violent crimes.
• Often Family Related Crimes

• Spouse abuse: as many as one out of every six couples at least once per year.

• 60% yelling, slapping and pushing. Offender over 80% males for spouse murders.

• Child abuse: 4.1 million reports (abuse/neglect) to Child Protection Services in 2018

• Elder Abuse: estimates of up to 2.5 million annually over age 65

• Physical abuse/neglect. Most common is Hygiene neglect (can be self neglect)

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Rape
• Act of forced intercourse by a man on a women (other than the attacker’s wife)

without here consent.
• Stranger rape (classical rape most reported).

• Occurs when the victim has had little or no prior contact with the offender.

• Predatory rape – Use of deception or force to rape by pretending to engage in legitimate
dating behavior.

• Date rape – force used
• Marital rape and Statutory rape

• Characteristics of Rape (FBI UCR)
• In 2018 there were 139,380 reported rapes to police, up from 2014 stats of 84,041.
• As many as 25% of college female students
• Approximately ½ of offender know their victims – (reported rapes).
• Summertime higher risk.
• Siegel (2015) says rape is violent coercive acts of aggression, not forceful expression of

sexuality. Used as a weapon of war.
• 50% power, 40% anger, and 5% Sadism

Factors of Rape

Psychological factors

• Rapists suffer from mental
illness or personality disorders.

• Offences are committed due to
anger, drive for power, or the
enjoyment of maltreating a
victim.

Sociocultural factors

• Societal norms that approve of
aggression as a demonstration of
masculinity.
• Male socialization – doing gender

• Social disorganization
• societal norms.

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Kidnapping

• Abduction and detention by force or fraud and transport beyond the
authority of the place where the crime was committed.
• Lindbergh Act – 1932

• The Act makes it is a felony to kidnap and transport a victim across a state or national
border.

• Subject to death penalty, unless the victim was released unharmed.

• Often children are abducted by one parent from the primary care taker.

Robbery
• Taking of property from a victim by force and violence or by the threat of

violence.
• In 2018, 282,061 robberies (down from 1997).
• In 1997, 497,950 robberies or 186:100,000 people. This was the lowest robbery rate

since 1985.

• Characteristics of Robbers.
• Professional Robber
• Opportunistic Robber
• Addict Robber
• Alcoholic Robber

• In 2010: Sex 90% male, Age 60% under 25, Race half black & 45% white
• Second degree felony up to ten years in prison (Adler, et al., 2022).

• If attempt to kill – life
• Average 6 years (punishment based on violence not property) (Siegel, 2015).

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Organized Crime
• Many wealthy groups are speculated to have achieved wealth through

unethical means of greed and exploitation.
• Vanderbilt’s & Rockefeller’s?

• Sicilian Immigration to U.S. (1875-1920) from southern Italy (Sicily).
• History of oppression by Roman, Arab, German, Spanish and French soldiers.
• The law is for the rich, the gallows are for the poor and justice is for the fools.

• Mafia (place of refuge)
• Sicilian families that were loosely associated with one another in operating organized

crime.
• Illegal activities

• Gambling, loan sharking, alcohol & drug trafficking, pornography, prostitution, labor
racketeering, murder for hire, theft and fencing.

• Then Infiltrated Legitimate businesses
• Loading and unloading ships, fish and meat industries, liquor, vending machines, waste

disposal, and construction.

Organized Crime cont’d

• Racketeer Influence and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Act
• Attacked racketeering activities

• Racketeering is a racket to make money for providing a corrupt service

• Federal Witness Protection Program
• Protected witnesses who testified in court against organized crime.

• Includes other groups
• Colombian, Bolivian, Peruvian and Jamaican crime families.
• Motorcycle Gangs

• Disillusioned veterans of the Korean War and Vietnam conflict.

• Chinese – Triad
• Israeli and Russian-Jewish Mafia
• Japan’s Yakuza – “Tattooed Men”

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Terrorism

• Groups resorting to violence or threat of violence against opposition
of constituted authority.
• Crucial to the terrorists’ scheme is the exploitation of the media to attract

attention to their cause.

• Worldwide destructive impact
• Resulting in increased costs of security measures.

• War against terrorism
• Longest conflict/war US has very been in.

• Costing around $700 billion per year USA alone

• Global destabilization

• Sustainability?

Other Threats

• Militias
• Michigan Militia (over 10,000 members)

• Stockpile weapons, build bombs

• Linked to Training domestic terrorist Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols (1995 Oklahoma
City bombing).

• Hate Crimes
• Stiffer penalties

• School violence
• Columbine 15 dead, VT shootings 2007, Sandy Hook elementary school,

Florida Douglas High School.

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9

Gun Control Debate

• Illegal gun ownership, gang membership, and drug use are closely
related to gun crime, street crime, and minor delinquency

• Gun Control
• Aims to restrict availability of firearms.

• Stiffer penalties, including mandatory sentences that take offenders off the
streets.

• Right to Bear Arms
• second amendment right to defend oneself and others

• Conceal and open carry decreases crime

Final

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Chapter 11: Property Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007,

2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007,
2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).

Crimes Against Property

Larceny
(Theft or Stealing)

• Larceny is the prototype of all property offences: purse snatching, shop
lifting, art theft, and vehicle theft.

• Larceny The most prevalent crime in the USA
• Elements of Larceny

• A trespassory
• Taking and
• Carrying away of
• Personal property
• Belonging to another
• With the intent to deprive the owner of the property permanently.

• Involves a trespass, taking for ones own use the property of another (without
permission), by means other than force or threats on the victim
• Or forcibly breaking into a persons home or workplace with the intent to deprive the owner

of their property permanently.

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2

Extent of Larceny

• UCR reported 4.2 million thefts in 2018 a rate of 1,594.6: 100,000
• Down some from 2014 when it was 5.8 million.
• NCVS 2 x UCR rates. Neither includes autos. Majority without victim contact.

• 2 types of thieves
• Amateur Thieves – occasional offenders who tend to be opportunists
• Professional Thieves – make a career of stealing
• Edwin Sutherland says the Professional Thieves have 5 characteristics:

• Well developed skills
• Status among subculture group
• Consensus of shared values
• Learn from and protect each other
• They are organized however loosely

Other Types of Larcenies
Shoplifting

• Shoplifting – taking goods from retail stores
• Snitch theft for personal use or out of urge

• Many steal because they want merchandise but can afford it.

• Some thrill steal

• Boosters less than 10% intent to resale for profit

• Controlling shoplifting
• Less than 10% detected

• 45.5% are prosecuted.

• 41% White, 29% Black and 16% Hispanic.

• Over half of shoplifting between noon and 6 p.m.

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3

Other Types of Larcenies
Art Theft

• Art theft has increased in recent years. It can include shoplifting,
burglary, and robbery to steal an individual art, illegally export art or
pillage archaeological sites.
• “1986 a gang of Irish thieves invaded an estate in Ireland with commando

precision and made off with 11” priceless paintings (Adler, Muller & Laufer,
2018, p. 263).

• Professional art theft requires ability to fence stolen goods.
• No one knows the value as one painting maybe worth $50 and another $50

million.

• Movie and music Art Theft – is a trade mark violation
• A ring of bootlegger may earn up to $50,000 per week selling piracy videos.

Other Types of Larcenies
Motor vehicle theft

• Auto theft –the most reported crime

• 748,841 reported motor vehicle thefts in 2018 (228.9:100,000).
• Up 9% from 2014 but still overall down from 2009 (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2022).

• Types of motor vehicle theft
• Strip and run
• Scissor job
• Valet theft
• Insurance fraud
• Carjacking is considered a combination of auto theft and robbery. Most often (7 out of 10)

with threat of gun.
• Amateurs are most often juveniles joyriding or racing or steal for swag.
• Some (older criminals) use stolen vehicles for long term transportation
• Professional steal based on consignment – can sell altered falsifying registration or part out

vehicles at 3x values.

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4

Auto and Boat theft prevention

• Auto Theft Prevention
• Steering shaft locks

• High tech tracking systems – Lo-Jack

• Unbreakable Autolock

• Silent Scorpion

• Safer Parking lots.

• Boat Theft –no FBI stats till 1970
• Prevention: lock devices, alarm systems and marina guards

Fraud

• The acquisition of another persons property through cheating or deception.

• Obtaining property by false pretenses.
• The victim is made to part with property voluntarily as a result of the perpetrators untrue

statements regarding a supposed fact.

• Confidence games – offender gains the confidence of the victim and induces the
expectation of a future gain.

• Credit Card theft
• Amateurs use stolen card for 2 to 3 days.
• Professionals contact victim with story (ask for security number)
• Credit card fraud in 2014 exceeded $16 billion (Adler, Mueller & Laufer 2018).

• Check forgery
• Altering a check with intent to defraud.
• Naïve believe no one is harmed

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Auto Insurance Fraud

• Over $60 billion paid insurance claims per year.
• Estimated 10-15% of claims are fraudulent.

• Auto insurance schemes include:
• Staged claims

• Owner dumping

• Abandoned vehicles

• Staged accidents

• Intended accidents

• Caused accidents.

Filing Fraudulent Health Insurance Claims

• Health Insurance schemes include:
• Overutilization

• billing for unnecessary and superfluous tests

• Ping-Ponging
• physicians referring patients to several practitioners when symptoms do not warrant

such referrals

• Family Ganging
• A doctor extends several unnecessary services to all members of a patients family

• Steering
• Doctors direct patients to the clinic’s pharmacy to fill unneeded prescriptions.

• Upgrading
• A patient is billed for services more extensive than those that were actually performed.

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High-Tech Crimes

• Involves the attempt to pursue illegal activities through the use of
advanced electronic media.

• High technology = use of sophisticated electronic devices such as
computers, cell phones and the internet.
• Hacking – Hackers seek entry into a computer system and snoop around often

leaving no sign of entry. They have little criminal intent.

• Criminal intent involves the stealing of credit cards, or sensitive information,
vandalism, and planting of viruses.

High-Tech Computer Crimes

• Types of computer schemes:
• Industrial Espionage – gather info
• Software Piracy
• Pornography Online
• Online gambling
• Mail Bombing
• Password Sniffers
• Credit Care Fraud

• Who are high tech criminals?
• Most hackers are 14-19 year old white males who see themselves as a

counterculture fighting censorship and liberating information from corporations.
• Believe themselves to be modern day Robin Hoods.

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Burglary

• Common law Burglary was the breaking and entering of the dwelling
house of another person at night with the intention to commit a
felony or larceny inside.

• Today the UCR defines burglary as the unlawful entry into a structure
to commit a felony or theft.

• Best evidence of intent (misdemeanor larceny vs felony) what the
burglary actually does from stealing jewelry vs committing a rape.

• Fencing: receiving stolen property
• In 2018 1.2 million burglaries were reported to police. Down from 1.7 in 2014.
• Average loss $2,799
• Account for 1/5th index crimes and most are not cleared.

Arson
• Common Law: only included dwelling of another person.

• Current statutes: include structure other than homes.
• Willful, malicious burning of home, public or commercial buildings, vehicle, crops.

• Considered more violent then B/E but Arson is fairly infrequent

Juveniles account for the
largest share of Arson

3 types of Juvenile fire starters
-Playing with matches
-Crying for help
-Severely disturbed

Adult Arsonists
-Some mental issues = Pyromaniacs
Need to look for the motive to classify others:
-Revenge, jealousy, and hatred
-Financial gain (mostly insurance fraud
-Intimidation and/or extortion (often with
organized crime)
-Need for attention
-Social protest
-Arson to conceal other crimes
-Vandalism and accidental fire setting

final

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1

+

The Family and the Child:
A Psychological View
UMass Boston
Prof. Peggy Vaughan
Brief Overview of Therapy, Family Therapy, Play Therapy

1

+
Class Topics

n Review of a sample of and family therapy models and
approaches.

n Video clips of a play therapy session

n Play therapy materials and a class activity.

n Discussion

2

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2

+
Multi-Theoretical Approach to Family
Therapy

n Therapy should be
n Developmentally Informed
n Culturally Informed

n Focus of the therapy may address
n Parent and Family Attachment
n Trauma, Separation, and/or Loss
n Family Stress and Conflict
n Social and Behavioral Needs
n Family Communication

n Therapy may incorporate theoretical perspectives such as
n Psychoanalytic
n Social Learning
n Family System, Filial Perspectives
n Cognitive–Behavioral
n Humanistic
n Mindfulness and anxiety reduction
n Holistic techniques
n Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
n Medical models

3

Differences Between Individual and
Systemic Therapy Models

Individual Therapist Systemic Therapist

Obtain accurate diagnosis from
DSM V

Explore system for family
processes and rules

Begin therapy right now Begin Invite in parents, siblings,
children

Focus: causes, purposes,
processes

Focus: family relationships;
processes and communication

Concerned with individual
experience and perspective

Concerned with inter- or trans-
generational meanings, rules,
themes

Intervene to help individual learn
to cope, heal

Intervene to change context and/or
functioning within family system

4

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3

+
Early Family Therapy Leaders

n Alfred Adler-Rudolf Driekurs: Open forum Child Guidance Clinics

n Murray Bowen-Multigenerational Model: Triangulation, Differentiation
of Self

n Virginia Satir: Conjoint Family Therapy-Human Validation; Relational;
Family Enhancement and validation of self-esteem

n Carl Whitaker: Experiential Symbolic Family Therapy; therapist as coach
influences change

n Salvador Minuchin: Structural Family Therapy-create structural change

n Jay Haley: Strategic Family Therapy to solve problems now

n Cloe Madanes: Wife of Haley-Strategic Family Therapy

5

+
Beliefs of Family Therapists

n Individual’s affiliations, relationships, and interactions have more
power in person’s life than a single therapist could ever hope to
have.

n Working with child, family and/or community therapists allows one
to see how a child or individual acts in their settings.

n Seeing individual as active in a set of systems assists in developing
and implementing the types of interventions needed.

6

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+
Systemic Perspective

n Individual may carry a symptom for the entire family.

n Behavioral symptoms have a purpose.

n Individual’s behavioral functioning can be a manifestation of way
family functions.

n Individual can have symptom existing independent of family
structure.

n Symptoms always have ramifications for family members.

n Change the systems and individuals will change.

n Change dysfunctional patterns of relating and create functional
ways of interacting and relating.

7

+
Family Therapy Ethical Standards:
Nine Areas
n Responsibility to Clients

n Confidentiality

n Professional competence and integrity

n Responsibility to students and supervisees

n Research and publication

n Technology-assisted professional services

n Professional evaluation

n Financial arrangements

n Advertising

8

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+
Studies of Trauma (Lieberman et al.,2005)

n Children and their parents traumatized by exposure to
various forms of interpersonal violence, display a broad
range of parental responses.

n These range from anger at the traumatized child to an exquisite
attunement to the child’s suffering and determination to restore
the child’s emotional health.

n A similar range of parental responses has been reported in
nonclinical settings such as when traumatized children are
brought to the attention of the authorities such as via law
enforcement.

9

+
Angels in the Nursery: Parent-Child
Therapy (Discussed in early weeks of class.)

n Lieberman and others worked with ethnically and
socioeconomically diverse children ages birth to six and
their parents.
n Children/parents had witnessed or experienced trauma or

maltreatment
n Families received child/caregiver therapy

n Their clinical studies with these children and parents
identified parenting difficulties
n Their work involved clinical interviews and the use of the Adult

Attachment Interview (Main, M., 1986; 1996).

10

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+
Lieberman (2005) Angels in the Nursery:
Randomized Trial of Parent-Child Treatment
Model

n Treatment children show greater improvements than
comparison group children based on:
n Traumatic stress symptomatology

n Diagnosis of Traumatic Stress Disorder
n Behavior problems

n Treatment mothers show greater improvement based on:
n Avoidant symptomatology

n Total PTSD symptomatology

n General symptomatology

(Lieberman, Van Horn, & Ghosh Ippen, 2005;
Lieberman, Ghosh Ippen, & Van Horn, in press)

11

11

+
Treatment of Trauma

n Key ingredients in the treatment of trauma and trauma-
related events
n Supporting developmental progress

n Parent-child therapy/family therapy
n Encouraging the (re-)discovery and practice of pleasurable

emotional investment in the self, others, and the world through the
affective experience of interest, enthusiasm, joy, elation, self-
confidence, reciprocity, intimacy, and love

12

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+
Trauma and Treatment: Outcomes

n Increased capacity to respond realistically to threat

n Differentiation between reliving and remembering

n Normalization of the traumatic response

n Placing the traumatic experience in perspective

13

+
Parent-child Therapy

n Parent-infant mental health

n Parent training to guide parent-child interactions

n Parent-toddler/preschooler intervention around
developmental or behavioral needs (Greenspan & Weider,
Floortime Model, and others.)

14

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+
Play Therapy
Virginia Axline (1911-1988)

n Virginia Axline was influenced by the person-centered
approach of Carl Rogers, a humanist. She continues to have an
influence.

n Axline is recognized as the originator of Non-directive Play
Therapy.
n Her well-known book Dibs: In Search of Self written in 1964,

describes her work with Dibs and how he was able to heal himself
over a period of time. Her book is an excellent introduction to the
subject.

n Axline in turn influenced Violet Oaklander who added a gestalt
therapy approach to play therapy, as described in her book Windows
to Our Children (1988).

n Annie Rogers added psychoanalytic elements.
n Bibliography of related authors will be posted

15

+
Guiding Principles of Play Therapy

n Focuses on developing a warm and
friendly relationship with the child.

n Accepts the child as she or he is.

n Establishes a feeling of permission
in the relationship so that the child
feels free to express his or her
feelings completely.

n Is alert to and recognize the feelings
the child is expressing, and reflects
these feelings back in such a
manner that the child gains insight
into his/her behavior.

n Maintains a deep respect for the
child’s ability to solve his/her
problems and gives the child the
opportunity to do so.

n The responsibility to make choices
and to institute change is the child’s.

n Does not attempt to direct the child’s
actions or conversations in any
manner.

n The child leads the way, the therapist
follows.

n Does not hurry the therapy along.

n It is a gradual process and must be
recognized as such by the therapist.

n Only establishes those limitations
necessary to anchor the therapy to
the world of reality and to make the
child aware of his/her responsibility
in the relationship. (Safety as well.)

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+
A Developmental Approach to
Treatment

n Young children develop in relationships

n Young children depend on relationships with caregivers in
order to:
n Regulate physiological response

n Form internal working models of relationships
n Provide secure base for exploration and learning

n Model accepted behaviors

17

17

+
Materials for Play Therapy

n What are some materials that children can use?

n What is appropriate based on child age and the conditions or
situation?

n Your ideas?

n Example of activities and materials follow.

n Association for Play Therapy
n http://www.a4pt.org/?page=ptmakesadifference

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+
Clay

19

+
Music

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Paints and Paper

21

+
Mask Making

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12

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Puppets

23

+
Sand Table

24

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+
Filial Play Therapy: Involving

Parents and Caregivers

n Filial play therapy is a relatively short-term child and family
intervention with long-term results.

n The method was developed in the early 1960s by Drs.
Bernard and Louise Guerney. It continues to be relied on for
therapeutic treatment. This method has been researched
over time.

n “Filial therapy is a psychoeducational family intervention in
which the therapist trains and supervises parents as they
hold special child-centered play sessions with their own
children, thereby engaging parents as partners in the
therapeutic process and empowering them to be the primary
change agents for their own children.” Source:apa.org

25

+
Trauma-Informed Approach

n A program, organization, or system that is trauma-informed:
n Realizes the widespread impact of trauma and understands potential

paths for recovery;
n Recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in clients, families, staff,

and others involved with the system;
n Responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies,

procedures, and practices; and
n Seeks to actively resist re-traumatization.

n A trauma-informed approach can be implemented in any type of
service setting or organization and is distinct from trauma-
specific interventions or treatments that are designed
specifically to address the consequences of trauma and to
facilitate healing.

26

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14

+
Six Key Principles of a Trauma-

Informed Approach

n A trauma-informed approach reflects adherence to six key
principles rather than a prescribed set of practices or
procedures. These principles may be generalizable across
multiple types of settings, although terminology and
application may be setting- or sector-specific:
n Safety

n Trustworthiness and Transparency
n Peer support

n Collaboration and mutuality

n Empowerment, voice and choice

n Cultural, Historical, and Gender Issues

27

+
Trauma-Informed Interventions

n The dissemination of standardized, effective, trauma-informed
clinical interventions is a central means by which the NCTSN
seeks to advance the standard of care for traumatized children
and to increase the nation’s capacity to meet the needs of these
children.

n In recognition of the diverse needs of the child and adolescent
populations served by NCTSN sites across the country, the
interventions and treatments developed span a continuum of
evidence-based and evidence-supported interventions ranging
from rigorously evaluated interventions to promising and newly-
emerging practices
n See: https://www.nctsn.org/treatments-and-practices/trauma-

treatments. We will preview a few assessments and interventions in
class.

28

Final

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1

Chapter 12:
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,

2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018,
& 2022).

White Collar and Corporate Crime.

White Collar Crime defined

• Edwin H. Sutherland, 1940 defines White Collar Crime:
• Crime “committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the

course of his occupation”.
• Not Corporation inclusive!

• A violation of the law committed by a person or group of persons in the
course of an otherwise respected and legitimate occupation or business.

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2

White Collar Crime Laws and policies

• Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
• Adopts provisions to deter and punish corporate and accounting fraud and

corruption.

• Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010.
• Consolidates regulatory agencies

• Created an oversight council to evaluate systematic risk

• Enacted comprehensive regulation of financial markets.
• Increased transparency of derivatives

• Passed consumer protection reforms

• Gave authority to wind down bankrupt firms

• Increased the effect of international standards and cooperation

Occupational Crimes

• Committed by individuals for themselves in the course of rendering a
service.
• Medicare fraud, misuse of clients’ funds by lawyers and brokers, and

substitution of inferior goods.

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3

Types of White Collar Crimes
• Securities-related crimes

• Churning: practice of trading a client’s shares of stock frequently in order to generate
large commissions.

• Ponzi schemes: Broker takes client funds with promise of high return.
• hides funds in various banks Create fake investment charts
• Works until more want out then new investors can support.
• Bernard Madoff 65 billion, June 29, 2009 150 years in prison

• Insider Trading: Use of material, nonpublic financial information to obtain an unfair
advantage in trading securities.

• Stock manipulation: Trading stocks at low prices and making misleading statements
to clients.
• Some stocks are traded at very low prices.
• Which creates an artificial demand for the stocks.

• Boiler rooms: operations run by stock manipulators.
• Who manipulate uninformed individuals into buying stocks in obscure and poorly financed

corporations.

Types of White Collar Crimes continued

• Bankruptcy Fraud: Scams designed to take advantage of loopholes in the
bankruptcy laws.
• EX: Old company scam where employee bilks system for assets then files chapter 11.

10% of all bankruptcy claims include fraud. 2/3rds involve hidden assets.

• Fraud against government
• Collusion in bidding
• Payoffs and kickbacks to government officials
• Expenditures by a government official that exceed the budget
• Filing false claims

• Inflate cost to hide waste or corruption

• Hiring of friends or associates formerly employed by the government.
• Dick Chainy ties to Halliburton and a closed bid contract to rebuild Iraq.

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4

Types of White Collar Crimes cont’d

• Consumer Fraud
• Act of causing a consumer to surrender money through deceit or a

misrepresentation of a material fact.
• Forms

• Home improvement fraud
• Deceptive advertising – bait n switch
• Land Fraud
• Business opportunity fraud

• Insurance Fraud
• Policyholders defraud insurers
• Insurers defraud the public
• Management defrauds
• Third parties defraud insurers (car repair shops)

Types of White Collar Crimes cont’d

• Tax Fraud
• Willful failure to file a tax return by keeping two sets of books, shifting funds,

and faking forms. Misdemeanor vs. felony

• Bribery, corruption, and political fraud
• Used to gain favors, special privileges, services and business – felony

• Insider-related fraud
• Use and misuse of one’s position for monetary gain or privilege.

• Embezzlement: conversion of property or money with which one is entrusted or for
which one has a fiduciary responsibility (misappropriation of money or property)

• Employee-related thefts (fictitious overtime claims)
• Sale of confidential information and trade secrets

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5

Corporate Crime

• Crimes committed by one or more employees of a corporation that
are attributed to the organization itself
• Phases

• Concerns with importance and meaning of corporate personhood

• Rise and immediate fall of vicarious liability

• Strategic risk-shifting by employers and employees

• New era of regulatory law

• Post-guidelines partnership

• Selective use of existing law

• Corporate violence: Hawk’s Next West Virginia example
• Ford Pintos, and Dalcon Shield stories

Models of Corporate Culpability

• Proactive Corporate Fault (PCF)
• Assumes blame where reasonable steps were not taken to prevent an offense

• Reactive Corporate Fault (RCF)
• Considers the corporate reaction to the discovery of an offense

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Models of corporate Culpability cont’d

• Corporate Ethos (CE)
• Culpability derives from corporate ethos, culture, or personality

• Corporate Policy (CP)
• Corporate intentionally is found in decision communicated through policies.

• Constructive Corporate Culpability (CCC)
• Corporate fault is found in the reasonableness of judgment

• What would the average corporation have done?

Government Control of Corporations
• Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

• Prohibited any contract, conspiracy, or combination of business interests in restraint
of foreign or interstate trade.

• Difficult to regulate corporate conduct since corporate activity has a low
level of visibility.

• Development of US Corporate Criminal Law
• Courts determined corporations have no soul – not criminally liable.
• 1909 courts determined management could be held responsible
• As regulatory agencies and law grew in influence the focus shifted from punishment

to achieving compliance.
• Corporation joined forces with government to rout-out corporate crime
• Problem with sanction guidelines:

• For every sanction increase there is a reduction allowance created for evidence of
organization due diligence.

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7

Environmental Crimes
types of Green Collar Crimes

• Worker safety/environmental crimes
• Over 20 million workers have been exposed to hazardous material or worked

with unsafe equipment so corporations can max profit.

• Illegal Logging
• Taking trees from protected areas, going over quotas, exporting without paying export

duties.

• Illegal Wildlife Exports – Florida Everglades overrun by pythons.
• Tiger parts, ivory, rhino horns, for hunting trophies, fashion, medicines or bush meat.

• Illegal Fishing – some species reduced by 99% since 1950. shark fin soup.

Environmental Crimes
Types of Green Crime cont’d

• Illegal Dumping and Polluting
• Criminal environmental polluting is dumping substances altering quality of waters

detrimental to human and animal use (fertilizers, herbicides, oil, and animal and
livestock bacterial wastes).

• E-Waste (greed & planned obsolescence)
• Millions of tons of annual high tech electronic waste.

• USA most toxic old phones, tvs, computers and so on ends up in landfills or is
incinerated.

• Often ends up in poor countries dumped near people and water sources (Nigeria, Ghana,
China, Pakistan and India).

12/28/2021

8

Environmental Crime
Green Collar Crimes

• National Environmental policy Act (NEPA)
• Created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

• Charged with enforcing federal statutes and assisting the enforcement of
state laws enacted to protect the environment

• Environmental Laws
• Clean Water Act (1972)

• Clean Air Act (clear skies initiative)

• Emergency Planning and community Right to Know Act (1986)

• Endangered Species Act (1973)

• Oil Pollution Act (1990)

final

Psych 441 Spring 2022_March 8
Teaching Case Discussion
Bridging Worlds: Family Engagement in the Transition to
Kindergarten by Margaret Caspe

Teaching Case Discussion Process

� The identification of issues, strengths, concerns, and
“problems” in the case, including the perspectives of
various individual voices – case characters or actors.

� The application of theory (such as ecological theory;
developmental theory, and the contextual model -refer to
the slides–posted on Blackboard) to consider and
understand the case situation. The consideration of the
child’s (in this case Maya’s) stage of development and
individual needs and strengths.

� A generative discussion of the related research, the facts
and ideas from the case, and possible solutions to the
identified concerns. The dialogue should consider various
causes and alternatives.

Overview of case
� Maya is having a difficult transition to kindergarten, expressing

fear before school and reluctance to share about her day. Maya’s
mother Nicole is very concerned as she does not understand the
reasons for Maya’s emotional reactions and behavior. Maya had a
successful experience in Head Start, and Nicole had proactively
worked on ideas to ease Maya’s transition to her new school. Her
former Head Start teacher is surprised the transition is
challenging, but knows the differences from preschool to
elementary in teaching, curriculum and expectations. Maya’s
new teacher Tanya has concerns for Maya as well but with a
different perspective. She has agreed to meet with Nicole to
discuss Maya’s needs.

Source: Harvard Family Research Project: Case Study Publications

Bridging Worlds: Case Discussion
We will consider recently discusses course topics: Ecological Model,
the Contextual Model and Child Development Theory and Concepts

� As you read identify the Actors/Characters and their roles as well as the Settings/Environments
noted in the case – examples: Actors: Maya, kindergartener at the center of the case and Nicole, her
mom, etc. Environments: home, school settings, etc. You will identify these as you begin the group
discussion. You can refer to the tables of demographic data and other information (found within
the case) as part of the consideration of the settings. I will have a handout for you where you can
note.
� Case ‘Actors’/Roles
� Settings and environments (contexts where the case takes place)
� Information from the data in the case reading

� Leaders and the group will also discuss and share examples of:
� Maya’s developmental needs and self-concept; Maya’s understanding of self and school experiences
� Family Strengths; mother’s concerns (and the communication of issues and concerns)
� Context: Refer to school demographics
� Ideas about family-school engagement
� Missing aspects to better understand the child and family
� Next steps?

Bridging Worlds:
Case Discussion Questions

� Please refer to the case questions and notes handout. You can
also refer to the questions on pages 8 and 9 of the case reading.
You will not be able to cover all the questions in the discussion so
should focus on the handout. You can review these and select
questions of interest linked to Major Issues, Describing the
Situation, Contributing Factors and Next Steps.

A Few Overarching Questions
� What efforts does Nicole (mother) make in assisting Maya in her

transition? What strengths does she possess and what strategies
does she employ?

� What are some of Maya’s needs and challenges? Who holds
responsibility for her success in her new school?

� What are the most important factors to be considered to support
Maya at this time? Why is this a developmental period a critical
time to build bridges and address the identified concerns?

final

2/18/22

1

The Family and the Child:
A Psychological View

Psych 441
UMass Boston

Professor Peggy Vaughan
Family Research Brief Review

Overview: Key Points on Studying Families

Personal Inquiry
� Science is about working with truth-like, fact-based

ideas; it is not about finding ultimate ‘truths’ per se.

� Personal inquiry is very important, however:
� Our own ideas may not represent what is happening

with the larger population of people we wish to know
more about.

� Our own ideas are biased.
� Our own ideas are rarely inspected by others for

clarity and consistency.

Thoughts on Research
� Thinking of how we define families as we engage in

family research:

� “Families consist of members with very different
perspectives, needs, obligations, and resources. The
characteristics of individual family members change
over time—within life spans and across generations.
Families exist in a broader economic, social, and
cultural context that itself changes over time.”

� https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

2/18/22

2

Who is Family?
Child and Teen Perspectives

Defining Family Structure
� Research has demonstrated that family structure is more subjective than

researchers might assume.

� In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health—known as Add
Health, a nationally representative study of how social contexts affect the
health and risk behaviors of teens and young adults—adolescents and their
mothers were asked about family structure (Harris, 2009).

� In families with two biological parents, 99 percent of the responses were the
same. But in families with single mothers, married stepparents, or cohabiting
stepparents, 11.6 percent, 30.2 percent, and 65.9 percent of the responses,
respectively, were different (Brown and Manning, 2009). “The more complex
the family form, the greater the family boundary ambiguity,” Brown said. This
ambiguity can affect even estimates of family structure, depending on which
person in a family is asked about the structure.

� Excerpt from: Olson, S. Ed. (2011). Toward an Integrated Science of Research on
Families.

Experiential Reality
� We all have the potential to find out about families

in ways that transcend your personal experience.

� Our own view of life is heavily influenced by our own
experiences. While those are important to bring to
the table, we have to be careful not to
‘overgeneralize’ them.

� Research is “mesearch” for some; awareness of
one’s interests and research topic; and how
interests and experiences guide research. It is
important to remain alert to “bias”.

2/18/22

3

Sample Bias
� When we conduct research, we are usually trying to

discover or understand a problem that resides
within a larger population of people.
� An example of an exception to this idea is that some

medical research focuses on just one patient or child
with a rare disease or condition and it is not necessary
or possible to have a ‘sample’ of several patients with
the same problem.

Research Goals, Strategies, and
Methods

� The goal is large objective of a research project
� For example, the goal of much research in our field

has been to understand the nature of poverty, health
challenges, stress or adversity and their short term
and long term effects on the well-being of children
and families.

� The strategy is the method we use to answer the
questions found within the goal.

Methods
� Methods reflect the approach taken to investigate a

hypothesis. These may involve qualitative or
quantitative aspects and measures.

� Tactics or the research activities and plans are very
specific. These are the logistics of a particular
research project. These may include the specific
interventions within a study.

2/18/22

4

Review
Causation and Correlation

� Causation implies that some characteristic, event, or
property necessarily changes something else in a
predictable way (e.g. The sun causes the ice to melt;
high levels of lead exposure during early childhood
causes intellectual or cognitive deficits).

� Correlation implies that two events, characteristics,
or properties seem to occur together with
predictability (e.g. couple spending increases after
payday; unexpected family separations lead to
greater stress).

Causal versus Correlational
� Since the study of social science is not about

ultimate causal truth, we, instead find ourselves
telling stories based on correlations within data.

� The caution in studying families is one can think
they have found a cause, per se, when in fact, most
of the time we only have associative or correlational
data.

Empirical Research
� Based on collecting facts, numbers, and statistics

� Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience plus
evidence.
� The empirical world of science seeks to collect

convincing, reliable, valid evidence about the
connections among constructs.
� For example, we want to know if divorce harms children

or not. So, we devise theories, generate hypotheses, and
collect the best data we can to find out if divorce is a
negative thing in the lives of children.

2/18/22

5

Goal
� By conducting child and family research, we hope to

devise new ways of caring for children, and new
interventions or improve current interventions for
development learning, social concerns or problems.
Research-based ideas emphasize evidence as
opposed to a personal belief or personal experience.

Qualitative Research
� Another way to research families is through

‘qualitative’ research methods.
� Interview data (open-ended and in-depth).

� Use of key informants; interviews with family members
� Participant observation or ethnography. (Within cultural

settings such as a particular location or community, etc.)

� Concerned with family life and settings including
practices, rituals and daily activities. Extended time
required, such as when observing caregiving patterns and
interactions.

Mixed Methods
� The systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative

techniques to represent family processes and settings
(Weisner & Fiese, 2011).

� Includes “person-oriented research” as well as variable
or question focused research”

� Family settings and processes can be represented
� by text and words

� categories, narratives, stories, events, and scripts;
� by numbers

� scales, variables, mathematical models
� by images, sounds and smells

� photos, videos, artifacts, audio or documents linked to
culture, language and other traditions.

2/18/22

6

Ethnography
� Seeks to answer central anthropological questions concerning

the ways of life of living human beings.
� Ethnographic questions generally concern the link between culture

and behavior and/or how cultural processes develop over time.
� The data base for ethnographies is usually extensive description of

the details of social life in a smaller number of cases.
� Important to consider Emic (native) and etic (outsider) views

Example: Margaret Mead’s work in cultural anthropology
� The first anthropologist to study child-rearing practices and

learning theory within social groups in various cultures.
� Based on her observations, she proposed that children learned through

imprinting. Imprinting is when children learn by observing and following
adult behavior.

https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/margaret-mead

In-Depth Interviews
� An interviewer recruits a number of people (family

members) who have had a similar experience- such
as fathers with young children who are in prison
and/or the school-aged or adolescent children of
these fathers.

Research Questions
� Carefully designed questions are asked of the

participant and usually their answers are tape
recorded or videotaped

� Sample question areas: How do the fathers maintain
relationships with their children while incarcerated? How
do the children cope?

� Interviewers transcribe and read the responses of
the interviewees

2/18/22

7

Narrative Analysis
� Narrative analysis involves distinguishing between

“narratives” and “stories.”

� It is relatively easy to use the terms interchangeably,
but subtle distinctions can be made (Cowan, 1999).

� Most discussions on this distinction begin with
reference to “story” as content and structure and
“narrative” as the process of making sense of an
event or personal experience.

Multiple Informants
� Methods also differ in terms of the number of family

members included.
� Can be collected from a single member telling a story

about a collective family event to multiple family
members describing the impact of an individual’s
experience on the whole family.

Steps in the Research
Coding Process

� During the process of reviewing the interview data
from the tapes, the interviewer actually becomes the
research instrument and searches for themes,
patterns, reoccurring ideas, and topic areas.
� The interviewer (s) continues this process until there is

a point of saturation.
� From open coding, key themes and codes are

selected.
� Careful coding assists with data reduction.
� Coding and the review of coding with other coders

provides inter-rater reliability.

2/18/22

8

Final Process
� The researcher then organizes the work in order to

tell the “research story” and share key findings in a
brief or more detailed research report or
presentation. Editing and peer review is part of the
final process for all research studies.

Summary
� Family research requires careful and organized documentation and strong

and clear evidence.

� The family research process can be challenging, demanding, and costly.

� Mixed methods: Combines quantitative with qualitative research
and methods. Qualitative data can be “quanticized”.

� Researchers want answers to questions about family functioning and
family processes, why families do what they do, and how to help
them/inform policy and practice. This is important to providers caring for
children and families in diverse settings.

� Quality family research: Well-conducted research is culturally-anchored
research. Findings may offer strong evidence for the understanding and
supporting family life and well-being.

Family Research
Example

Review of an article on childhood illness.

2/18/22

9

Family Psychology Article
� Winter, M.A., Fiese, B., Spagnola, M. & Anbar, R.D.

(2011). Asthma severity, child security, and child
internalizing: Using story stem techniques to assess
the meaning children give to family and disease-
specific events. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(6),
857–867.

Childhood Chronic Illness
� The onset and diagnosis of a chronic illness, such as

epilepsy or asthma in a child, increases the challenges of
parenting and the levels of parental concerns.
� Parents must continue to attend the normal developmental

and caregiving tasks of childhood.
� Parents must then also learn how to manage an illness or

condition such as asthma or epilepsy.
� Parents must care for their child physically and emotionally

and help their child to both adapt to and understand their
condition.

� The family and the overall family environment needs to
remain functional and adaptive.

� Parents of children with conditions with severe symptoms
and requiring close medical management have many fears.

Study Overview
Winter, Fiese, Spagnola and Anbar (2011)

� A study of children ages 5 to 12 years old with
chronic asthma and their families.
� In 2010, nearly 10% of children (7.1 million) in the

United States received a diagnosis of asthma (Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).

� Asthma threatens emotional security and children with
asthma are at risk for emotional and mental health
problems.

� Children under age 10 years are often not the center
of the reports on the impact of their illness on
emotional security and overall family effects.

2/18/22

10

Sample Composition
� N =168 children ages 5-12 years: Mean age: 7.84

years; Standard Deviation: 2.12 years
� Majority male: 63% boys, 37% girls and

� Primary caregivers, vast majority were mothers
� 95% mothers; 3% grandmothers; 2% fathers

� Caregiver-reported child race
� 58% White; 29% African American; 12% mixed race,

and 1% Asian American.

Story Stem Techniques
� Within the study the authors focused their interest

on children’s symptoms and behaviors and their
narratives. Narrative techniques were a focus:
children’s responses to general and asthma-related
story stems were coded and analyzed.
� Children’s responses provided data on children’s

understandings of family and appraisals of illness
events.

Hypotheses
� Greater asthma severity would be related to greater

internalizing symptoms.

� Greater asthma severity would be related to less
security and trust in family.

2/18/22

11

Measures
� Asthma severity determined by test of pulmonary

function and parent report via Functional Severity of
Asthma Scale.

� Medical adherence (following medical guidelines for
appointments, treatments and medication)

� Demographics

� Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
� Internalizing and externalizing behaviors

� Story Stem Techniques

Story Stems
� The stems for the routine family events included

common, innocuous scenarios such as a family at
dinnertime, bedtime, and family celebrations.

� The story stems presenting asthma-related events,
included threatening scenarios such as tightness in
the chest or wheezing.

Rating Codes

2/18/22

12

Results
� Asthma severity relates to children’s emotional

outcomes, in terms of the level of narrative
representations and at the level of symptomatology.

� Greater asthma physiological threat (i.e., poorer lung
function) was associated with perceptions of the family
as less involved and less cohesive during routine family
events.

� There was less child ‘felt emotional security” in the
context of ambiguous, but potentially threatening,
asthma events.

(W inter, Fiese, Spagnola and Anbar, 2006, p.864)

Mixed Method Findings
� Not only did more severe asthma severity predict

more internalizing and externalizing symptoms in
children, the child narratives that were coded as less
secure were associated with greater child
internalizing symptoms.

Discussion
� A primary focus in this study was the link between

asthma severity and children’s emotional security.

� Results suggest that asthma severity influences children’s
emotional outcomes, both at the level of representations
and at the level of symptomatology.

� These findings are in accord with previous research.
� For example, Fiese, Winter, Wamoldt, Anbar, and Wamboldt

(2010) found a relation between poorer lung function and
separation anxiety symptoms in children, suggesting that
the shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing symptoms
might translate to feelings of threat and worry. This makes
sense and children need reassurance when they have fears
associated with their illness.

2/18/22

13

Conclusion
� The integration of physiological measures with narrative

analysis provides an especially rich opportunity to
explore converging evidence across different domains
(physical and social emotional) and disciplines
(psychology and medicine).

� Future efforts are warranted to further understand how
the felt experience of stress and threat are translated into
narratives about family life as either supportive or
rejecting, and how these representations influence
mental health outcomes.

� Digging deeper into the narratives of family life may
afford one avenue into understanding and improving
health and well-being.

final

Psych 441 Spring 2022_March 8
Teaching Case Discussion
What Words Don’t Say by Ann Hannum

Teaching Case Discussion Process

� The identification of issues, strengths, concerns, and
“problems” in the case, including the perspectives of
various individual voices – case characters or actors.

� The application of context and related theories (ethnic and
racial diversity, ecological theory; developmental theory,
and the contextual model) to consider and understand the
case situation. The consideration of the child’s (in this case
Martin’s) stage of development and individual needs and
strengths.

� A generative discussion of the related research, the facts
and ideas from the case, and possible solutions to the
identified concerns. The dialogue should consider various
causes and alternatives.

Overview of case
Brief overview:
Not long after a move to a new school, Martin is facing challenges and appears upset. His mother
observes this and is concerned. She makes the effort to reach out to his teacher. A specific situation or
incident leads mom to become more involved with the school.

The purpose of this case is to consider the intentional and unintentional messages that are
communicated to children how they are to perceive, process, and respond to discrimination, prejudice,
and other barriers based on race, class, and gender.
The case will also allow you think about complex home-school relations and responsibilities relating to
race and class.

The case is designed to allow for an ecological understanding of the child, including the following:
� How the child makes sense of race and class in multiple contexts
� What different ecological contexts shape the child’s development and how
� How families and schools can dialogue about sensitive issues

Source: Harvard Family Research Project: Case Study Publications

What Words Don’t Say: Case Discussion
We will consider recently discussed course topics: Ecological Model, the
Contextual Model, Diversity and Racism, and Child Development Theory and
Concepts

� As you read identify the Actors/Characters and their roles as well as the
Settings/Environments noted in the case – examples: Actors: Martin, at the center of
the case and Lorreen, his mom, etc. Environments: home, school settings, etc. You will
identify these as you begin the group discussion. You can refer to the table of
demographic data and other information (found within the case) as part of the
consideration of the settings. On the handout you will note:
� Case ‘Actors’/Roles
� Settings and environments (contexts where the case takes place)
� Information from the data in the case reading

� Leaders and the group will also discuss and share examples of:
� Martin’’s developmental needs and self-concept; Any thoughts on his understanding of

self and recent school incidents and experiences
� Family Strengths; mother’s concerns (and the communication of issues and concerns)
� Ideas about family-school engagement
� Missing aspects to better understand the child, family, teacher, and school
� Next steps?

What Words Don’t Say
Case Discussion Questions

� Please refer to the case questions on the notes handout
that also include questions found at the end of the
reading. You will not be able to cover all the questions
in the discussion so should focus on the initial
questions and select some from each of the sections
linked to Describing the Situation, Contributing
Factors and Next Steps.

final

Psych 441-01 C
Quiz 2 Part 2: Term Definitions Define 2 terms with examples, one from the list below [1-8]
and also # 9 family. Include details and provide an examples, 2 items total, 10 points each, 20 points
(Note: Each definition and example should be a minimum of two full paragraphs; longer responses
accepted as well). All students must define family (#10) based on your own thoughts and with added
ideas and concepts from what you learned from the class.

Please define with a good level of detail, and also provide a strong example and explain the
importance of the term or concept to the study of family psychology. (10 points each) There can be
some variation in the responses. Please refer to your source or sources in the definition – the slides, the
text, weekly readings, videos, or discussion readings.

Select and define 2 of the terms/concepts from this list. One of your choice plus # 9 family.
1. Adolescent identity. refer to slides and/or other sources (Adolescence)
2. Universal aspects and goals of parenting (Transition to Parenthood)
3. Stages of Parenthood (Six stages-Ellen Galinsky) (Transition to Parenthood)
4. Parenting styles and outcomes (4 styles) (Transition to Parenthood)
5. The divorce process (Diversity and Adversity)
6. Family diversity with an emphasis on one family structure or type (single parents, young parents,
military families, adoptive families, blended families, same sex parents, etc.) (Diversity and
Adversity)
7. Couple attachment and communication (Transition to Adulthood; Intimacy; Couples)
8. Regulated styles in couples (Gottman) (Couple Conflict and Wellness)
9. Family: all must define based on what you have learned this semester

final

4/25/22

1

The Family and the Child:
A Psychological View

Psych 441
UMass Boston

Professor Peggy Vaughan
Spring 2022

Family Functioning and Couple Functioning:
Couple Conflict, Family Conflict and Wellness

and the Spillover Effect

1

Topics
� Couple Communication

� Conflict: Impacts on Children

� Couple Wellness and Needed Intervention

� Conflict: Domestic and Marital

� Spillover

� Problem-solving; healing; protection and growth

� Domestic Abuse; Intimate Partner Violence

2

Considerations for Couples
Communication, Wellness and Conflict

� In and out of the context of marriage or couplehood,
what do the content, style, gestures, and non-verbal
behaviors reveal about couple intimacy and marital
wellness or conflict?

� When is there a need for attention to the
relationship issues?

� When is there a need for therapeutic intervention?

� In what ways can couple or marital quality
(including couple and marital conflict) impact the
children?

3

4/25/22

2

Thinking and Feeling
Together

4

Conflict in Marriage and Couplehood:
Impacts on Couples and their Children

� Common areas: Examples?

� Sources and Influences: Examples?

� Various factors work to influence, shape and/or
manage conflict.

� What are the effects of spillover? Can spillover be
positive and negative?

5

Domestic and Marital/Couple
Conflict

� Conflict is a source of stress in the marital/couple
system

� Common complaints and tensions may extend to
deeper levels or more serious areas

� Common areas
� Lack of time together
� Child rearing
� Sexual tension

� Financial struggles

6

4/25/22

3

Key Issues
� Your Ideas?

7

Couple Distress
Sample Guiding Theories

� Polarization Model: Magnifies and exaggerates the
causes of marital distress. Lack of success in efforts
for helping the relationship leads to hopelessness

� Demand/Withdraw Interaction Pattern

� Perception Accuracy Theory

� Disillusionment Model

� Empathy Based Theory
� Perception-Action Model of Empathy
� Empathic Accuracy Model

8

Conflict Properties
(Fine and Fincham, p. 170)

� Frequency

� Severity

� Degree of Resolution

� Content

9

4/25/22

4

Conflict Processes
� Demand/Withdraw: Related to repeated requests for

change

� Reciprocity and Negativity: Related to how partner’s
respond to each other’s negative behavior?

� Mutual Coercion: Related to patterns of negative
escalation

� Consequences of Conflict: Related to interdependence
� While conflict is a dynamic occurring within families or

couples, internal processes of each family member
influence conflict as well.

10

Managing Conflict
� Conflict-management goals

� Linked to interactions
� Maintaining and enhancing intimacy
Related Goals and Actions
� Avoidance of conflict
� Elimination of conflict
� Metamessages linked to conflict
� Pseudomutuality (facade)

� WINNING AT ALL COSTS!
� Power distribution aspects
� Negotiated power – legitimate and non-legitimate

11

Managing Conflict
� Framing and Causality

� Meaning of certain behaviors
� How these actions or behaviors are framed or

managed
� Searching for causes

12

4/25/22

5

Conflict Management
(John Gottman and colleagues)

Negativity Processes in Unsuccessful Couples

� FOUR HORSEMAN OF THE APACLYPSE

� Criticism

� Defensiveness
� Contempt

� Stonewalling

� Distressed couples engage in these more than typical couples

� Relationships become fragile when these processes or ways of
thinking and relating create distance

� Gottman suggests that a 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative
experiences may provide a buffering effect.

https://www.gottman.com/blog/the-four-horsemen-recognizing-
criticism-contempt-defensiveness-and-stonewalling/

13

Fragile Couples
� Emotional disengagement: partner (s) show a lack

of positive affect, interest, affection and concern

� Flooding: overwhelmed physically and emotionally —
leading to self-preservation

� Pattern of negative reciprocity: leading to negative
escalation; hurtful, getting back at partner

14

What are the Sources of Couple
Conflict?

� EXPECTATIONS
� Beliefs
� Roles, (work, parenting, household tasks)

� Decision making styles

� COMPETING NEEDS
� Connectedness, Separateness, balancing the demands

for time.
� Negotiation

15

4/25/22

6

What are the Sources of
Couple Conflict?

� Views of fairness and equity
� Costs and rewards
� What partner puts in; what they receive
� Comparisons

16

Domestic and Marital Conflict
� Common Influences

� In-laws or extended family
� Children and parental caregiving tasks

� Prior painful events or memories surfacing
� Personal and family stressors

17

Conflict in “Content” or
“Adjusted” Couples

� Couples can have a predominant style for managing
conflict

� Matched styles in couples may mean they are better
regulated

� Regulated styles (Gottman)
� Validating couple: constructive style; low negativity.
� Volatile couple: intense emotion, confrontation, but

manage to maintain intimacy and connection.
� Conflict-minimizing couple: avoid conflict; live with

painful yet solvable problems; however, they can
sustain a sense of intimacy and cohesion.

18

4/25/22

7

Relationship Satisfaction
� With same sex couples, there are few differences in

comparison to heterosexual couples as far as relationship
satisfaction.

� Satisfaction is linked to similarity in attitudes and values.

� Argue at similar rates about the same topics including money
(finances), sex, partner criticism and household tasks.

� Pursue same strategies for conflict resolution: negotiation,
compromise, etc.

19

Same-Sex Couple Research
� A 12-year long study by the Gottman Institute examines

the differences between how same-sex couples and
different-sex couples resolve conflicts.

� Overall, the relationship satisfaction and quality were
about the same across all couple types (gay, straight,
lesbian). However, the study did find some differences in
how same-sex and different-sex couples argue, including
using humor to diffuse tense situations, not taking things
so personally during an argument, and offering
encouragement rather than criticism.

� No matter the relationship, there are key points to be
taken away from this research in how we can all strive for
healthier conflict resolution in romantic relationships.

20

Couple Research Differences
� “Gay/lesbian couples are more upbeat in the face of

conflict. Compared to straight couples, gay and lesbian
couples use more affection and humor when they bring up
a disagreement, and partners are more positive in how they
receive it. Gay and lesbian couples are also more likely to
remain positive after a disagreement.”

� “When it comes to emotions, we think these couples may
operate with very different principles than straight couples.
Straight couples may have a lot to learn from gay and
lesbian relationships,” (Direct quotes by John Gottman
from the Gottman Institute website:
https://www.gottman.com/about/research/same-sex-
couples/)

21

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8

Family Conflict
� Factors to consider

� Incompatibility of goals
� Role fulfillment

� Frequency of conflicts; both marital and family

� Conflict can lead to the need for negotiation
emerging and disparate goals (Fine and Fincham,
p.169).

22

Children’s Responses to Everyday Marital
Conflict Tactics in the Home*

� What are your ideas about children’s reactions to
conflict?

� What scenarios create stress?

� What symptoms or behaviors do we see in children?

Cummings, E.M., Goeke-Morey, M.C., & Papp L.M. (2003). Children’s
responses to everyday marital conflict tactics in the home. Child
Development, 74, 6, 1918-1929.

23

Everyday Marital Conflict and Children
Significant Early Research
(Cummings, et al.,2003)

� Exposure to marital conflict increases children’s risk for
adjustment problems.

� Numerous clinical, developmental and educational studies
indicate that marital conflict is an important family process
influencing child development.

� Due to ethical and practical considerations, children’s reactions
in the home have seldom been documented. In addition,
researchers have often focused on marital violence and hostility,
providing possibly an overly negative view of the impact of
typical, everyday marital conflicts.

� Cummings, et al. relied on a new parent-report methodology for
documenting children’s reactions to a wide range of everyday
marital conflict tactics in the home

24

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9

Cummings, et al.(2003)
� Results supported findings of past studies that relied on

questionnaires or laboratory methodologies. Based on
over 1638 reports of marital conflicts and children’s
reactions, simple exposure to some everyday marital
conflict behaviors is distressing for children.

� There is a category of destructive conflict tactics from
children’s perspective
� parents’ verbal hostility (yelling)
� threats (of violence, leaving)
� personal insults, nonverbal hostility (angry body language)
� defensiveness, marital withdrawal (silent treatment
� physical distress (trembling, crying).

25

Constructive Conflict Approaches
� Cummings et. al. identify a category of constructive

conflict approaches from the children’s perspective.
� Children reportedly felt happy after seeing their

parents discuss issues calmly, show support for one
another (listen, try to understand), and maintain
affection (hold hands).

� This suggests that exposure to parents’ conflicts that
are handled constructively may actually increase
children’s emotional security and help them feel
better about themselves and their families.

26

Children’s Vulnerability to Interparental Conflict: The Protective
Role of Sibling Relationship Quality (2019).

Davies, P., Parry, L., Bascoe, S., Martin, M. & Cummings, E.M.

� Research has continued in the area of the impact of marital and interparental conflict on
children.

� Children who witness recurrent destructive interparental conflict characterized by hostility, negative
escalation, and difficulties resolving disagreements are at increased risk for experiencing
externalizing, internalizing, and attention difficulties

� This three-wave longitudinal study had the goal to investigate and examine sibling relationship
quality as a protective factor that interrupts the harmful and potentially pathogenic processes
underpinning children’s vulnerability to interparental conflict.

� High-quality (i.e., strong) sibling relationships conferred protection by neutralizing interparental
conflict as a precursor of increases in adolescent insecurity.

� Interparental conflict, insecurity, and psychological problems were significant for teens with low, but
not high, quality bonds with siblings.

� Guided by Emotional Security Theory (EST; Davies & Cummings, 1994), the authors examined
whether sibling relationship processes moderate the mediational role of children’s emotional
insecurity in the prospective association between interparental conflict and children’s
psychopathology. As a prevailing explanatory model, EST proposes that children’s insecurity in the
interparental relationship mediates the risk interparental conflict poses for them.

� Consistent with other sibling studies. having a strong sibling relationship may provide teens with
protection and emotional support under adverse social conditions such as exposure to interparental
conflict..

27

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10

Child’s Experience

28

Considerations and
Recommendations

� An important issue for parents, practitioners and others
concerned with the well- being of children and families is
how parents can better handle everyday differences for
the sake of the children.

� All conflict is not the same, but the way parents negotiate
everyday differences can have enriching, or negative,
influences on by-standing children.

� Cummings et al. conclude that educating parents about
more effective and constructive ways to handle
differences may foster increased family harmony and
reduce the risk for child adjustment problems

29

The Marital Relationship: Impact on
Parent-Child Relationships

� The spillover hypothesis, posits that emotions and
behavioral patterns that typify the marital relationship
will bleed into the parent–child relationship (Enger,
1988), in a way that health of the marriage causally
influences parent–child relationship quality. Stroud C. B.,
Durbin C. E., Wilson, S. & Mendelsohn, K.A. (2011). Spillover to triadic and dyadic
systems in families with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 25 (6), 919-
930.

� Note: Spillover theory is often referred to in terms of
emotion transmission. The spillover concept is applied in
several family contexts. This article reflects research
based on system theory aspects of the spillover
hypothesis. See Fine & Fincham, 2013, p.174. There are other
references to spillover linked to work-family, etc.

30

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11

Spillover Theories
� Cognitions and emotions from one domain transfer

to another domain

� Original developed to examine work-family spillover

� How do experiences at home inform and/or
influence experiences at work and vice-versa.

� Crossover and emotion transmission
� Stress from one family member spilling over to

another family member, often thought of as negative.
Positive emotions can be transmitted but negative
emotions are more “contagious”.

31

Dyadic and Triadic Parenting
� Stroud, Durbin, Wilson and Mendelsohn (2011)

explored associations with multiple positive and
negative aspects of each family sub-system (mother-
child and father-child dyad or mother-father-child-
triad).

� Methodology: multiple measures and methods (self-
report and observational coding), and multiple
reporters (self- and other- report) as indicators of
family functioning.

32

Hypothesis
� Guiding theory and related literature

� Study is based in Family Systems theory and builds from
prior family-child research studies

� Hypotheses:
� Adaptive marital functioning would be related to both

higher quality parental responsiveness and also children’s
responsiveness to fathers and mothers.

� Given evidence consistent with spillover to the triad (e.g.,
McHale, 1995), the authors predicted associations between
adaptive marital functioning and high triadic warmth and
low triadic hostility.

� Essentially more warmth among the triad would be
associated with lower triadic hostility.

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12

Sample
� Families enrolled N= 168 (148 completed family assessment)

� Children were age 3 to 6.5 years: M = 54.43 months

� 91 males; 77 females.

• Parents: Vast majority were married; 94.8%
� Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian, both mothers and fathers, 62%;

Hispanic, mothers, 9.5% and fathers, 8.8%; African
American, mothers & fathers, 7.4%; Asian, mothers, 6.1%,
fathers, 2.7%, remaining were Native American, bi-or multi-
racial or data were missing.

� Mothers’ Age Range: 23 to 52 years, Age M=36.98
� Fathers’ Age Range: 23 to 57 years, Age M = 38.71

34

Measures: Examples
� Both parent and child responsiveness were assessed

using tasks designed to elicit positive and negative
aspects of their relationship.

� Tasks were selected to capture typical parent-child
interaction domains, including instruction, discipline,
and play.

� These parent-child tasks and were drawn or adapted
from previous research.

35

Parent Measures

� Parents participated in five discussions designed to elicit
important aspects of the marital relationship, including two
conflict discussions. The conflict paradigm (used in over 200
studies) elicits naturalistic levels of couples’ expressed and
experienced emotions (Foster, Caplan, & Howe, 1997).

� Dyadic Assessment Scale (DAS) (Spanier, 1976): A measure of the
severity of relationship discord. Rates areas of disagreement.

� Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) (Benjamin, 2000).
A 32-item self-report measure assessing participants’ perceptions
of their own and their partner’s interaction behavior.

� Marital Satisfaction Inventory–Revised (MSI-R; Snyder & Aikman,
1999), a 150-item true-false measure of marital adjustment.

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13

Sample Dyadic
Parent-Child Tasks

� Mother-child tasks were (a) magnet puzzle:
collaborate to make a design from geometric
shapes; (b) prohibited toys: mother tries to prohibit
child from touching appealing toys; and (c) team
drawing: collaborate to draw a picture, with each
drawing a line connecting to their partner’s previous
line.

� Father-child tasks were (a) marble maze: play with a
marble maze using blocks; (b) prohibited toys:
similar to mother’s task but with different stimuli;
and (c) Etch-a-Sketch® maze: father helps child
draw an Etch-a-Sketch® line in a maze.

37

Triadic Tasks
� Tasks included (a) a board game: the family played

a dexterity game together; (b) things with tails:
parents used strategies to help their child name
“things that have tails”; (c) ball toss game: the
family tried to toss small, bouncy balls into buckets
spread around the room; and (d) clean up: parents
were told to prompt their child to independently
clean up all the toys used in the previous tasks.

38

Analyses and Coding
� Researchers examined the descriptive statistics and the

intercorrelations among the variables used in the
structural equation modeling.

� The analysis examined covariance. Covariance provided a
measure of the strength of the correlation between sets
of variables (given overlap among systems).

� For Tasks: Coders rated the overall quality of the parent’s
or child’s responsiveness across the entire task using a
Likert scale ranging from 1 (highly unresponsive) to 6
(highly responsive). Ratings were based on several
aspects of 1) sensitivity–insensitivity, 2) acceptance–
rejection, and 3) cooperation–interference.

39

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14

Analyses and Coding
� Coding. Triadic tasks were videotaped and coded.

After viewing each task, the quality of all
coparenting constructs (such as shared enjoyment,
disagreement, etc.) were rated using a 0- 3 point
scale (with 0 as never demonstrated the variable and
3 as exhibited multiple instance of the variable.

� Gender differences were examined relying on multi-
group models with set parameters within the
model..

40

Results
� Overall, results supported the spillover

hypothesis, but there were gender
differences in these effects.

� Findings (refer to the article discussion section)

� ONE EXAMPLE: Spillover effects were equivalent for the
most part for girls and boys, with the exception of triadic
hostility: Among parents of girls only, more adaptive marital
functioning was related to lower levels of hostility in the
triad.

41

Sample Summary Points
� Even though children were equally responsive to their

parents, their responsiveness to their mothers was more
strongly linked to their parents’ marital functioning.

� The authors believe that more work is needed to clarify
links between the marital relationship and children’s
behavior within the parent–child relationship.

� This work can examine whether the greater impact on
children’s responsiveness to mothers is specific to
children’s responsiveness in terms of their parents’
relationship or extends to other aspects of the parent–
child relationship.

42

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15

Spillover

43

Results
� Overall, results supported the spillover hypothesis, but

there were gender differences in these effects.

� Three main findings emerged – refer to discussion section
� Among families of girls and boys, spillover of marital quality occurred

to triadic warmth, fathers’ responsiveness, and child responsiveness to
their mothers,
� There was no evidence of spillover to mothers’ responsiveness or to

child’s responsiveness to fathers.
� Spillover effects were significantly stronger for fathers’ responsiveness

(as compared with mothers’ responsiveness),
� Spillover effects were significantly stronger for child’s responsiveness to

mothers (as compared with child responsiveness to fathers).
� Spillover effects were largely equivalent for girls and boys, with the

exception of triadic hostility: Among parents of girls only, more
adaptive marital functioning was related to lower levels of hostility in
the triad.

44

Summary
� Parents’ marital functioning was positively linked to

the degree of positive affect, warmth, and shared
enjoyment in the triad even after accounting for
spillover effects on the dyadic parent–child system.

45

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16

Couples
Problem Solving and Transforming

� Acceptance

� Repair

� Turning toward

� Rewriting scripts or the past

� Positive Sentiment Override: emotional climate
created when positive beats the negative; based on
fondness admiration and ability to look at past
events and current issues in a more positive context

46

Positive Constructs of Couples and
Marriage

� Transforming Marriage: Emerging Trends (Fincham, 2007)
� Conflict from center to side stage
� Larger meanings, deeper motivations
� Cultural context and personal meanings
� Changes with and without outside help
� Outcomes —spontaneous remission and self-repair

� Positive psychology and new constructs for all couple
relationships (Brainstorm)
� Forgiveness
� Commitment, attachment, and sacrifice
� Sanctification
� Healing and wellness

47

Child Adjustment: What Factors Relate
Children Exposed to Conflict

� Awareness and Timing is Key: Address conflict in
constructive and timely ways

� Safety Is Key: Verbal and other forms of reassurance to
children that there are adults who want to shield and
nurture them and keep them safe.

� Child’s reaction and adjustment: Conflict may impact child
well-being and adjustment over time. Children may exhibit
problem behaviors (externalizing and internalizing) if
repeatedly exposed to unresolved conflict.

� Understanding impact on child
� Contentious couple/marital relationships may leave less

time to focus on child needs.
� Resilience: Developing and supporting resilience

48

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17

When Conflict Leads to
Domestic Abuse

� SAFETY is the priority
� Psychotherapy: If couple conflict is based in abuse, parents

who have been battered and their children (who have been
exposed) can receive therapy together with the goal of
increasing the quality of parenting and increasing positive
outcomes for children.

� Some abusive parents may be motivated to stop using
violence if they understand the devastating effects on their
children.

� A safe, stable and nurturing relationship with a caring adult
can help a child overcome the stress associated with
intimate partner violence.

� https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviol
ence/

49

Abuse Protection Order
.The Massachusetts Abuse Prevention Act defines “abuse” as the
occurrence of one or more of the following acts between “family or
household members”:

� Actual or attempted physical abuse;

� Placing another in fear of serious physical harm;
� Causing another to engage involuntarily in sexual relations by force,

threat of force or duress.*

“Family or household members” include:
� A spouse or former spouse;
� Someone you live with or used to live with;

� A relative by blood or marriage;
� The parent of your child;
� A person you have or had a substantial dating relationship with.**

50

Web Links
Children and Conflict/Divorce

� http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.a
spx?P=GH6600

� http://www.aamft.org/families/Consumer_Updates/Child
renandDivorce.asp

Violence and Domestic Violence

� http://www.endabuse.org/userfiles/file/Children_and_Fa
milies/Children.pdf

� http://www.ncadv.org/aboutus.php

� http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/

51

final

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1

UMass Boston
Spring 2022

Psych 441
Peggy Vaughan

Family Health and Stress: Focus on Well-being, Coping and Resilience

1

Week 5
� Family health, stress and coping models
� Historical models of family stress
� Review of stress in the context of the pandemic
� Stress and life event measures in research
� Contextualization of stress in family life
� Considerations of child stressors and coping strategies
� Tools for stress: Action as well as communication,

healing, relaxation, and mindfulness.

2

Stress, Health, and Coping
� Family health is a dynamic process ref lecting how the

group develops strategies and ideas about what is
essential for healthy living (Fiese and Hammons,
2013). Ideally, the family group must respond to
normative transitions in healthy ways.

� Family health theory is linked to the socioecological
framework.

� Families engage in specific behaviors in response to
stress and health challenges. Healthy living is a goal
for families (Fine & Fincham, 2013 ,p. 400, Figure 22.1)

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2

Overview
¨ An individual family’s experience of stress, crises, and

subsequent adaptation is an ongoing and dynamic process.
¨ The process of adaptation is affected by the family’s

response to a stressful event, their accessible and available
resources, and the presence or absence of coping strategies.

¨ Adaptation exists on a continuum from positive adaptation
to maladaptation, resulting in changes in family
functioning.

¨ Note: The nature of stress in the context of well-being was
discussed previously in terms of individual stress: positive,
tolerable, toxic. From the Center on the Developing Child
Video_Week 1.

4

Stress and Types of Stressors
(Anderson & Sabatelli, 2011)
n Stress

n The degree of pressure exerted on the family to alter the
strategies it employs to accomplish its basic tasks.

n Normative stressor events
n The expected and ordinary developmental transitions

affecting the family. Their key distinguishing features are that
they are expected, occur regularly over time, and carry with
them ordinary difficulties.

n Non-normative stressor events
n Unexpected events that create unanticipated hardships and

require adaptations or alterations in the strategies used by the
system to execute some or all of its basic tasks.

5

Parenting: Impacts due to COVID-19
No masks on babies under 2 years

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3

Children and Teens
Wearing Masks in Schools and Changes with Lifting of Mandates

� https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-
12-guidance.html

� https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2022/s0218-children-wellbeing-covid-
19.html

7

Family Stress

8

Stressors and/or Transitions?
Transition as Metaphor (Walsh, 2015)
� Normative Transitions:

� These are expected and predictable based on biological,
psychological or social norms.

� Non-Normative Transitions;
� These are less predictable statistically and often

unexpected.
� Some family transitions or events, such as divorce are

hard to classify in this way.

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4

Factors in Defining a Stressful Event

S The nature of the stressor.
S The degree of hardship or the kind of problems the

stressor creates.
S The families previous successful experience in the

event crises.
S How families define stress in the context of resources

and supports.
S Childhood legacies of adult family members.

10

Family Stress Impacting Family Health
� Your Ideas.

� What helps with coping?

11

Types of Stressors
� Ambiguous loss – Link to stress theory

� Pauline Boss describes ambiguous loss as loss that is
unclear, incomplete or partial (Falicov, in F. Walsh, 2015,
p.302).

� Two Types
� physically absent but still emotionally a part of the family

(non-residential parent after divorce, family member who has
migrated, missing person or soldier missing in action).

� physically present, but emotionally or psychologically absent
(family member with a drug /alcohol addiction; Alzheimer’s
disease patient, family member with a severe psychiatric
illness).

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5

Types of Stressors
� Caring for a dependent or disabled family member.
� Demoralizing events – job loss, unwanted pregnancy,

poverty, homelessness, having one’s child in foster
care, mental illness, criminal prosecution.

13

ABC-X Theory

¨Rueben Hill (1949): Developed the original family
stress theory. Hill studied families’ responses to war,
war separation, and eventual reunion after WWII.

¨The ABC-X Model detailed how the three factors (the
ABC components) of a stressor event specifically (A),
the family’s existing resources (B) and the family’s
perception of that stressor (C) interacted to predict
the likelihood of a crisis (X) occurring.

14

ABC-X Component Interactions

� Stressor (A) → interacts with resources (B) → family’s
perception of stressor/how stressor defined (C) →
produces the crisis (X).

15

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6

ABC-X Model of Family Stress-Crisis

search 2.webloc

16

Concepts: ABC-X Components
� Stressor (A)

� Life event or transition impacting the family unit that
has the potential for changing the family social system.

� Defined as distinct from stress.
� Can occur in any aspect of the family’s life- roles,

functions, goals
� Examples include chronic illness in children, cancer, and

elder care

17

ABC-X Components
� Existing Resources (B)

� All families have some level of resources.
� Concept of existing resources is the family’s use of

community and intrafamilial systems. i.e. SES, parents
education

� May be adequate or inadequate depending on the nature
of the stressor event or family’s level of functioning

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7

ABC-X Components
� Perception of the Stressor (C)

� Defined by Hill (1958) and McCubbin and Patterson
(1983) as the meaning the family assigns to the crisis
event and the total circumstances that lead to the crisis.

� In lay terms: how well does the family define the
problem, grasp the problem and understand the
situation?

19

Crisis or X
� Crisis (X)

� Defined as the “demand for change”.
� Continuous variable that reflects the sum of the family’s

disorganization, turmoil, disruption which is triggered
by an event.

� In the model- crisis is regarded as the family’s inability
to retain stability.

� If the family is able to meet the demands of the stressor
than the crisis may be averted.

20

The Double ABC-X Model
n McCubbin and Patterson (1983) developed the Double

ABC-X Model. Their model added post-crisis variables (e.g.
coping mechanisms) to the original model explain how
families recover from crisis and adapt over time.

n The Double ABC-X Theory was originally based on
longitudinal research involving families in which a
father/husband was a POW or MIA during the Vietnam
war.

n Families facing a stressor event experience stages of
adjustment and adaptation identified by a range of
processes in which the variables interact.

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8

Link to Systems theory
S Components

S Individuals, family, environment, and health and well-
being in the face of stress/stressors
S The family is viewed as the “system”, where the experiences of

one family member affect the experiences of other family
members.

S Family systems theory and the Double ABC-X model highlight
the mutual influence of the family system on each individual
member’s development and vice-versa.

S Systems theory (and the Double ABC-X model) see
interactions of the parts are not “static” and constant but
“dynamic” processes.

22

Double ABC-X Model

23

Double ABC-X Model
� Pile-up (aA Factor)

� The effect of managing changes, strains, and stressors
over the time continuum.

� These stressor “pile-up” and accumulate affecting each
member.

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9

Double ABC-X Model
� Existing and New Resources (bB)

� Allow the family to adapt and meet demands and needs
by potentially adding expanded resources.

� Existing resources = usual mechanisms of support +
New expanded resources → new resources strengthened
or developed in response to the crisis or as a result of the
pile-up of stressors.

� A family in the face of crisis will call on existing
resources in order to prevent an event from creating
further crisis.

25

Double X Model
� Family Perception of the Stressor (cC)

� The way the family views, defines, and the significance
given to the stressor.

� The family that aims at understanding the meaning of
the crisis can help the other members manage and cope,
utilize/develop resources= adaptation.

� The family’s perception of the crisis is key and is the
central factor to it’s coping.

26

Double X Model
� Adaptation (xX)

� Realized when there is a balance between levels.
� The family has accommodated, compromised, worked

together and defined/recognized the meaning in the crisis.
� Considered at the individual family member level, unit, and

community level.
� Adaptation exists as a continuum from bonadaptation to

maladaptation.
� Bonadaptation is positive= family has achieved balance=

utilization of resources, coping mechanisms, accepts and
understands crisis.

� Maladaptation is negative= typified by family imbalance.

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10

Meeting A Crisis Creatively

S A positive outlook
S Spiritual values and support groups
S Open, supportive communication
S Adaptability
S Informal social support
S An extended family
S Community and cultural resources
S Other ideas?

28

Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR)
(Patterson,1988 in Fine and Fincham, 2013)

S Another Extension of ABC-X Model
S Phases

S Adjustments —–Adaptation
S Adjustments (may deny or remove demand)

S Facing demands, stress, stressors and hassles
S Role of capabilities

S Based on resources and coping behaviors
S Adaptations (work and address demands– look to

restore balance)
S Demands, meanings and capabilities

29

Levels of Stress
(Burr & Klein, 1994)

� Three levels of abstraction
� Level I – birth of a child

� cope via changing of role expectations or rules.

� Level II
� more essential changes needed in terms of how family relates

� Coping with adolescent and monitoring/safety rules
� Level III

� questioning; is family in trouble?

� fundamental (moral) dilemmas, spiritual and life questions
examined.
� Family member completely withdraws from family activities;

others react; members react or lash out; major communication
failures

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11

Research and Practice
S Current family research focuses on family adaptation

under stress such as to the stress of separations,
disability or chronic illness.

S Therapists and providers must be able to understand
the specific stressors and identify how families
respond.

S Identifying and understanding models of stress and
adaptation allows for a more holistic view of family life
and its challenges.

31

Areas for Consideration
� Ethnicity and cultural components
� Intervention studies that foster adaptation and

adjustment
� The use of instruments in increasingly complex family

structures
� Family measures in future classes.

32

Coping
� Coping: The cognitive and behavioral problem- solving

strategies that are used to respond to a stressor event.
� Behavioral coping strategies: What the family actually

does to manage stress.
� Cognitive coping strategies: The perceptions and

appraisals that people and families make with regard to
specific stressor events.

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12

Coping
� Coping efficacy: The adequacy of the efforts

undertaken by the family to reduce stress.
� Coping resources: Those properties, attributes, or skills

individuals, families, or societies have at their disposal
when adapting to novel and demanding situations.
Coping resources serve to minimize vulnerability to
stress.

34

Realities in Family Studies
¨ Increasing number of “stressors” and “chronic stressors”

faced by families
¨ Increasing prevalence of a variety of stressors such as those

linked to chronic conditions, chronic diseases, natural
disasters, and the prolonged pandemic.

¨ Increasing complexity and diversity of family structures
¨ Note: Although applying a stress/adaptation model in its

entirety can be cumbersome, specific aspects can be easily
looked at in the light of family experience; the perception
of the stressor (s) is a critical aspect.

35

Promoting Resilience

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13

Resilience
S Resilience can be defined as the capacity to rebound

from adversity stronger and more resourceful.
S It’s important not to equate resilience with competent

functioning.
S Resilience is more than just “getting through” or

coping with a challenging situation. Resilience
involves positive transformation and growth that
enables one to deal effectively with challenges.
S (Froma Walsh, Keys to Resilience)

37

Resilience
S One way to think of resilience is to compare it to a

rubber band. In order for a rubber band to move
forward we need to pull it back first.

S The same thing happens in life. Something might
happen that knocks us back for a while but, if we are
resilient, we stretch ourselves and spring forward.

S Froma Walsh, a researcher and family therapist
developed a family resilience framework that can be
useful for families and individuals who are dealing
with adversity.

38

Family Resilience (Walsh, 2015)

� According to Walsh, the family resilience framework applies to various
types of family structures as well as formal and informal kin networks.
Resilience is related to three areas.
� Area 1: Belief Systems

� Make meaning of crisis and challenge

� Maintain a positive outlook
� Value transcendence and spirituality

� Area 2: Family Organization and Resources
� Flexible
� Connected

� Supported by social and economic resources

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14

Family Resilience (Walsh,2006)

� Area 3: Family Communication
� Share clear and constant messages

� Openly express emotions

� Use collaborative problem solving

Resources: F. Walsh, 2015;

Walsh, F. (2006) Strengthening Fam ily Resilience (Second Edition). New York: The Guilford Press

40

Factors Enhancing Family Resilience –
Linked to the Framework

� Family beliefs and meaning making
� Spirituality
� Cohesive and close relationships
� Social, economic and instrumental supports
� Capacity to re-organize; flexible strategies
� Positive, open, clear and constructive communication
� Openness to growth and change
� Collaborative approaches to facing problems
� Energy for seeking services when needed
� Reaching out to communities of caring

41

Factors Impacting Family Stress and Resilience

� Child and family health
� Child challenges or disabilities
� Grief and loss
� Unexpected transitions
� Pile-up stressors
� All ACES (Adverse Childhood Experiences)
� Lack of available and consistent support

42

final

1

The Family and the Child:
A Psychological View

Psych 441
Spring 2022

Peggy Vaughan
Preview: Family Types, Adversity, and Diversity

1

Diversity and Adversity:
Family and Child

� Diverse in family types and structures: Marriage, divorce,
single-parenthood, step-families, same-sex parent families,
blended families, adoptive and foster/kinship care families,
military families, etc.

� Diverse parents/parent figures (single parents, same sex
parents, psychological parents)

� Socioeconomic status and its influence: based on income level,
education level, and occupation/work status.

� Diversity as a strength: Children thriving and adapting in
various family structures and situations.

� Adversity as a challenge: Children facing adverse experiences
in the family context. What are the protective factors?

2

Trends in Attitudes about
Family Diversity

3

2

Understanding Adversity
� ACE) – A term introduced by the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Kaiser Permanente, 1995-
1997) to refer to the specific types of household challenges assessed in that
study, occurring prior to an individual’s reaching age 18.

� ACE study index – The measure used in the ACE study to assess childhood
exposure to the following adversities: physical, emotional, and sexual abuse;
parental mental illness; substance abuse in the household; incarceration of a
household member; and witnessing violence against a mother. Two additional
adversities—child neglect (emotional or physical) and parental separation or
divorce—were added to the study in follow-up investigations.

4

Understanding Adversity
� Childhood adversity – One or more events or circumstances (including, but not

limited to, those used in the ACE study) that can be harmful to a child’s short-
and long-term physical and psychological health.

� Toxic stress – An over-activation of the body’s stress response system,
accompanying trauma, which can lead to lasting impairments in physical and
mental health, brain development, and genetic structure.

� Trauma – An individual’s experience of one or more events or circumstances
as psychologically and/or physically harmful or life-threatening.

� Trauma-informed care – A service system, program, or intervention in which all
participations, practices, and policies reflect an understanding of the far-
reaching impact of trauma, identify its signs and symptoms in individuals,
provide pathways for recovery, and avoid re-traumatizing the individuals
affected.

5

ACES
Nine adverse experiences are included in this indicator. These were adapted from the earlier ACEs
research[3] for use in a survey where parents are the reporters about their child. For each item, parents are
asked to respond whether the focal child “ever” had the experience.

� Econom ic hardship (if experienced “som ewhat” or “very” often)

� Divorce/separation of a parent

� Death of a parent

� A parent served tim e in jail

� W itness to adult dom estic violence

� Victim of or witness to neighborhood violence

� Living with som eone who was m entally ill or suicidal

� Living with som eone who had an alcohol or drug problem

� Being treated or judged unfairly due to race/ethnicity

All references to parents refer exclusively to parents who lived with the child. Economic hardship was excluded
in comparisons based on poverty level.

Source: Child Trends

6

3

Adverse Child Experiences
Linked to Family Circumstances

7

Adverse Child Experiences Linked to
Family Circumstances

8

THREE OR MORE ACES

9

4

ACES and Parental Education

10

ACES and Poverty Level

11

Mitigating ACES

12

5

Parental Responses to Children’s
Emotions and Adversity

• Children need to cope with emotions, both positive and negative emotions
• Families influence each other.
• Children have a more developmentally difficult time coping with negative

emotions such as anger and fear.

• Parents need to assist children with stress and coping, both mothers and
fathers.

• Children are at risk for behavioral and emotional dysregulation when coping
with and facing parental stress and depressive symptoms.

Nelson, J.A., O’Brien, M., Blankson, N.A., Calkins, S. D. & Keane, S. P. (2009). Family stress and parental
responses to children’s negative emotions, Family Psychology,23, 671-679;

Lunkenheimer, E., Skoranski, A. M., Lobo, F. M., & Wendt, K. E. (2021). Parental depressive symptoms, parent–
child dyadic behavioral variability, and child dysregulation. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(2), 247–257

13

Family Types: Diversity
� Same-Sex Parents and LBGTQIA Families

� Foster Care, Kinship Care and Adoptive Families

� Grandparent-headed Families

� Transnational Families

� Inter or Multi Cultural Families

� Young Parent Families

� Military Families

� Others?

14

Family Structure
� Single Parents

� Married Parents

� Cohabitating Parents

� Blended Families/Stepfamilies

15

6

Family Structure
� USA: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN AGES 0–17 BY PRESENCE OF PARENTS IN

HOUSEHOLD, 2010–2020

Across several countries
https://www.oecd.org/els/family/database.htm

16

Family Structure

17

Family Structure Data
� In 2020, about 70% of children ages 0–17 lived with two parents (67% with

two married parents and 4% with two unmarried cohabiting parents), 21%
lived with their mothers only, 5% lived with their fathers only, and 4% lived
with no parent.5

� Among children living with two parents, 91% lived with both of their biological
or adoptive parents, and 9% lived with a stepparent.6

� About 5% of children who lived with two biological or adoptive parents had
parents who were not married.

� The majority of children living with one parent lived with their single mother.
Some single parents had cohabiting partners. Of all children ages 0–17, 5.1
million (7%) lived with a parent or parents who were cohabiting.

� Older children were less likely to live with two parents: 67% of children ages
15–17 lived with two parents compared with 69% of children ages 6–14 and
75% of those ages 0–5.

18

7

Living Arrangements of Children
Under 18

19

Relationships and Living
Arrangements

� As relationships, living arrangements and family
life continue to evolve for American adults, a rising
share are not living with a romantic partner. A new
Pew Research Center analysis of census data finds
that in 2019, roughly four-in-ten adults ages 25 to
54 (38%) were unpartnered – that is, neither
married nor living with a partner.

� This share is up sharply from 29% in 1990.

� Men are now more likely than women to be
unpartnered, which wasn’t the case 30 years ago.

20

Living Arrangements
Marriage and Partnering Trends

21

8

Women Today in U.S. More Likely to
Have Children Than a Decade Ago

� The majority of women ages 40 to 44 who have
never married have had a baby

� Biggest increases in motherhood among women
with postgraduate degrees; shifts in timing evident
across all educational groups

� Women of all races and ethnicities delaying
motherhood.

� There is an adjustment in recent trends, given the
impact of COVID-19.

22

Motherhood Trends

23

Single Parent Family:
Dyads: Mother-son

24

9

Single Parent Family
� Enormous diversity: due to unmarried birth or

adoption, separation or divorce from partner, death
of spouse or partner, incarceration

� Single parent families: various equations; single
dads, single moms, single grandparent with
grandchildren, single foster or adoptive parent;

� Often a steppingstone before re-partnering
� Half of children spend some time in their childhood as

part of a single-parent household.

25

Single Parent Dyads:
Father and Son

26

Teen Pregnancy Rates
� The US teen birth rate (births per 1,000 females

aged 15 to 19 years) has been declining since
1991. Teen birth rates continued to decline from
17.4 per 1,000 females in 2018 to 16.7 per 1,000
females in 2019.

� This is another record low for US teens and a
decrease of 4% from 2018.1,2 Birth rates fell 7% for
females aged 15 to 17 years and 4% for females
aged 18 to 19 years.2

27

10

Teen Pregnancy
� Although reasons for the declines are not totally clear, evidence

suggests these declines are due to more teens abstaining from
sexual activity, and more teens who are sexually active using
birth control than in previous years.

� Still, the US teen pregnancy rate is substantially higher than in
other western industrialized nations, and racial/ethnic and
geographic disparities in teen birth rates persist.

� Young or teen parents do face challenges, which require family
of origin support if raising a child alone. Custodial teen parents
are primarily mothers.

28

Teen Pregnancy Data
Source: cdc.gov

29

Non-custodial Fathers
� A third of non-custodial fathers

including teen fathers live in
poverty. In addition, some analysts
have identified as a disincentive to
identifying father and enforcing
payment of child support, the states’
policies of retaining payments due to
children of TANF (welfare) recipients.

� Some have argued that policies to
strengthen the enforcement of child
support should not be structured in
a way that discourages the
involvement of low-income fathers
with their children.

30

11

Single Parents
� Relationships

� Family of origin function as source of support; there
may be shift in terms of partner’s/spouse’s family of
origin based on reasons that led to being single parent
� Reliance on family of origin may link to level of

individuation

� Role of friendships – maintaining personal rather than
couple friendships of single post-divorce

� Dating: men date sooner than women post-divorce

31

Single Parents
� Sole administrator: accepting complete authority for

household and family tasks and enlisting help of
others when needed. Includes acceptance of
changes after partner/spouse no longer present in
home.

� Parental child: a role assumed by a child (often an
older child) to care for younger children or even the
parent in a single parent system.

32

Divorce:
Altering the Family System

� Divorce as one family process or transition often
leading to single parenthood
� Stages:

� Pre-divorce family dynamics
� Individual cognition — feeling dissatisfied or distressed

� Separation: long transition leading ultimately to moving
out/divorce mediation and/or formal legal divorce
(custody and the emergence of a binuclear family
system)

� Family reorganization

33

12

Divorced Parents
� Come to terms and the acceptance that marriage

has ended

� Understand legacy from issues in the family system.

� May feel some form of continued attachment to
prior spouse even up to four years after divorce.

� May face additional stresses in the family system

34

Divorce: Adaptation

• Ex-spouses’ and children’s adaptation
▫ A process lasting a few years

• Adults need to:
▫ Have a clear understanding of causes
▫ Rebuild personal lives
▫ Parent children through the change and try to maintain schedules with

little interference

• Children:
▫ Are dealing with loss of an intact family
▫ Are dealing with loss of the presence of one parent (or two parents

united in one home)
▫ Need to maintain close one-on-one relationships with their parents

35

Family Types: Linked to Divorce and
Couple Separation

36

13

Other Family System Types
� Stepfamily: A family where both partners bring

children into the household and where there are
now both biological and non-biological parents (one
parent may not have children).

� Blended family: A family consisting of remarried
adults, stepchildren, and stepsiblings.

� Metafamly: A broad system that considers and is
inclusive of all biological and step-relatives and
extended family systems.

37

Stepfamily or Blended Family:
Parents and Children

� What are the various equations and situations for
stepfamilies and blended families?

38

Various Forms and Ages: Step
Siblings and Half-Siblings

39

14

Theories Assisting Research on the Stepfamily,
Blended Family Structure

� Family Systems Theory

� Social Capital/Social Exchange

� Symbolic Interactionism

� Attachment Theory

� Conflict Theory

� Parenting Theories

� Stress and Resiliency Theories
� What are your ideas on the relevance of these theories

to the study of this family structure? Refer to Fine and
Fincham, 2013, Chapter 16.

40

Stepfamilies
� All members have experienced important

_____________.

� All members come with_____________

� Parent-child bonds predate the new ___________
relationship

� One biological___________ is absent or elsewhere
and not a full-time family member.

� Children are often members of two__________.

� _________________ have few legal rights.

41

Concepts to consider
� Differences with cohabitating and remarried

blended families

� Family communication

� Remarriage process (Anderson and Sabatelli, 2011)
� Resolution

� Gradual modification of the single parent system
� Anticipation of remarriage
� Early remarriage and identity tasks, leading to middle

and late remarriage

42

15

Problems and Joys
in Blending Families

• Adjustment and adaptation

• Conflict
▫ Triangles with the ex-spouse/ or partner
▫ Triangles within the new blended system
▫ Triangles with the extended family (ies)
▫ Risk for some splits or isolation

• Cohesion
▫ New forms of trust and closeness
▫ Healthy changes
▫ Reestablish boundaries and rules
▫ Greater harmony

43

Stepfamilies
and Blended Families

� Relationships and boundaries

� Begin with…..
� Strength of any existing biological bonds and ties.

� Move to ……
� Learning how to negotiate and develop new emotional

bonds and create closeness.
� Developing healthy boundaries within the stepfamily.

44

Relationship Satisfaction
� With same sex couples, there are few differences in

comparison to heterosexual couples as far as relationship
satisfaction.

� Satisfaction is linked to similarity in attitudes and values.

� Argue at similar rates about the same topics including money
(finances), sex, partner criticism and household tasks.

� Pursue same strategies for conflict resolution: negotiation,
compromise, etc.

45

16

Hetero and Homosexual
(Same-Sex) Couples

� Couples regardless of orientation have more
similarities than differences
� Maintenance behaviors – shared tasks such as

cooking, household tasks, child rearing and financial
tasks.

� Options to have biological children are easier for
lesbians, but adoption is increasingly more common
among all same-sex or gender non-conforming
couples.

46

Support and Trends
� Support for same-sex parents is growing steadily

among Americans.

� A recent Pew Research Center survey found for the
first time that a majority of people (52%) who were
surveyed indicated support for the notions that that
gay men and lesbians should be allowed to adopt
children.

47

Same-Sex Marriage
� In the United States, support for same-sex marriage has

steadily grown over the past 15 years.

� Earlier polls began to show an increase in support: for same-
sex marriage from 38 percent in 1999 to 46 percent in 2008.

� According to recent data, support for same-sex marriage
remains near its highest point since Pew Research Center
began polling on this issue. Based on polling in 2019, a
majority of Americans (61%) support same-sex marriage, while
31% oppose it.

� https://www.pewforum.org/fact-sheet/changing-attitudes-on-
gay-marriage/

48

17

The American Community
Survey (ACS)

� In 2019, the ACS improved its measure of same-sex couple
households, explicitly asking people if they are same-sex or opposite-
sex spouses or partners.

� According to the ACS, same-sex parents were more likely to be
female. In 2019, 22.5% of female same-sex couple households had
children under 18 present, compared with 6.6% of male same-sex
couple households.

� In households with children, neither male nor female same-sex couple
households were more likely to have biological children present,
although male same-sex couple households were more likely to have
adopted children and less likely to have stepchildren.

49

Revisiting Family Definitions

50

Family(apa.org)
� A kinship unit consisting of a group of individuals

united by blood or by marital, adoptive, or other
intimate ties. Although the family is the fundamental
social unit of most human societies, its form and
structure vary widely: biological family; extended
family; nuclear family; permeable family; stepfamily.

� Open discussion of new ideas

51

18

Inclusive Definition of Family
� Family

� Any relatively stable group of people bound by ties of
blood, marriage, adoption; or by any sexually
expressive relationship; or who simply live together,
and who are committed to and provide each other
with economic and emotional support (Schwartz &
Scott, 2007).

52

Revisiting Family definitions:
Family is…..

� What meanings do we personally give to the term
family?

� How do we view and understand family life in all its
diverse forms and structures?

� How do children grow, learn, and successfully adapt
when families change due to unique and diverse
family circumstances?

53

Final

1

SYG 2323 FINAL EXAM Course

______ ____Intro To Criminology Learning Outcomes

In General, always be able to present a review of the key insights from any classroom video or activity

connected to each chapter. Also, know the key terms and be able to explore the critical thinking

questions at the end of each chapter. Upon completion of the assigned material, you should be able to:

CHAPTER 10: Violent Crimes

1. Differentiate amongst the various categories of criminal homicide.

2. Explain the concept of victim precipitation.

3. Explain the difference between a simple assault and an aggravated assault.

4. Discuss the evolution of laws related to rape.

5. Discuss the characteristics of robbers.

6. Discuss the rise of organized crime, terrorism, hate crimes, militias, and violence in schools in the

United States.

7. Discuss the relationship between violence and gun control.

CHAPTER 11: Crimes Against Property

1. Discuss the elements of larceny.

2. Discuss the crossover of theft prevention measures designed for motor vehicles that are increasingly

being used for boats and other watercraft.

3. Compare and contrast the various types of fraud.

4. Explain the various forms of auto insurance fraud.

5. Discuss the problems of detection and prosecution of high-tech crimes.

6. Discuss burglary and fencing.

7. Explain the role juveniles play in arson.

8. Explain the classification system of fire setters.

CHAPTER 12: White-Collar and Corporate Crime

1. Discuss the various types of white-collar crime (and other economic crimes).

2. Describe the problems associated with defining and determining the frequency of corporate crime.

2

3. Explain the development of corporate criminal law in the United States.

4. Compare and contrast the models of corporate culpability.

CHAPTER 13: Public Order Crimes

1. Describe the history of drug abuse in the United States.

2. Explain the development of drug control laws in the United States.

3. Discuss the international nature of the drug trade.

4. Explain the history of the legalization of alcohol in the United States.

5. Discuss some of the legal issues involved in dealing with pornography.

CHAPTER 16: Enforcing the Law: Practice and Research

1. Discuss the professionalization of policing that was pioneered by Vollmer and Wilson.

2. Compare and contrast the various types of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

3. Explain the command structure, and the difference between line functions and non-line functions.

4. Discuss the three primary police functions.

5. Compare and contrast the various methods of community policing.

6. Discuss the six areas in which police departments have been found to be defective or deficient.

CHAPTER 17: The Nature and Functioning of Courts

1. Describe the structure and functions of all of the courts in the U.S. Court System.

2. Explain the role of the trial judge at each stage of the trial.

3. Discuss the jury selection process.

4. Compare and contrast the philosophies and models of punishment.

5. Discuss the status of capital punishment in the United States, and how it compares to the rest of the

world.

3

CHAPTER 18: A Research Focus on Corrections

1. Explain the development of corrections in the United States.

2. Compare and contrast jails and prisons.

3. Discuss competing explanations of the origin of prison culture.

4. Compare and contrast probation and parole.

5. Discuss the additional community alternatives to incarceration.

final

4/3/22

1

The Family and The Child:
A Psychological View

Spring 2022
Psych 441

Grandparenting and Kinship Care in the
Context of the Foster Care System

1

Grandparenting
(Fine and Fincham, 2013)

� Grandparenting refers to the behavioral and interactive
aspects of grandparenthood.

� Contact frequency: amount of face-to-face and non face-
to-face contact
� The intergenerational solidarity model refers to the types of

contact with grandchildren

� What are impacts during the pandemic? How has
technology been helpful?

� Activities: Interaction patterns and types of activities as
noted in the Tinsley & Parke study (1987).

� Transmission of behaviors and attitudes

2

Grandparenting
� Communication and accommodation

� Psychological aspects
� Identity and meaning linked to roles
� Ambivalence in the relationships
� Learning process:

� Theory of socialization and sociocultural theory;
reciprocal teaching

� Social cognitive
� Consensual solidarity in terms of sharing and learning

intergenerational values and opinions, etc.

3

4/3/22

2

Kinship Care
(Engstrom, in F. Walsh, 2015)

� Formal (legal or custodial arrangement) and informal
(family arrangement) can be with grandparents or other
kin.

� Reasons and Challenges
� Reasons for care: mental health issues; death, substance

abuse and addiction, incarceration. Note: Though
challenging, these reasons may lead to profound
commitments from kin (p.197).

� Rewards:
� Positive gains when compared to nonkin foster care formal

arrangements. Positives include more regular contact with
birth parent (s), placement with siblings, reduced risk of
running away, etc.

4

Who are kinship care providers?
� Grandparent caregiving is a social phenomenon that

cuts across all socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic
groups.

� A substantial number of grandparent caregiver
families face economic hardship.

� In Massachusetts, a third of grandparent caregiving
families and half the grandchildren in grandparent
care families have incomes 133% below the federal
poverty index.

5

Kinship Care
� Current evidence reveals that kinship care is the

preferred type of out-of-home placement, and in a
number of states, more children are now entering
kinship care than traditional foster care.

6

4/3/22

3

Mass DCF Report 2019
� At the end of FY2019, 80.2% of placed children (0-17)

were living in family settings: Departmental Foster Care
(DFC) or Comprehensive Foster Care (CFC).

� Recognizing that children experience greater emotional
and placement stability when safely placed with relatives,
or kin, DCF has prioritized kin placement.

� Accordingly, 56.1% of children (0-17) placed in a DFC
foster home were placed with kin. The overall kinship
placement rate for children (0-17) in out-of-home
placement was 36.3%.

7

Concept of Kinship
• There is a deep importance to kinship in family life
• Kinship has been studied in non-western societies often by

anthropologists

• In anthropology, kinship is an important social organizing principle
along with gender and age.

• In large-scale industrial societies impact of kinship on daily and
family life is lessened by factors such as:
• Geography, mobility, and distance
• Occupation
• Social class
• Ethnicity (nationality)
• Education
• Political affiliation
• Religion

8

Legislation
� On September 29, 2014, President Obama signed

into federal law, legislation that supported children
at risk and youth in foster care, the Preventing Sex
Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act.

� The Act includes several supports specifically for
kinship families and children who achieve
permanency through the Guardian Assistance
Program GAP.
� Source: http://www.childtrends.org/funding-and-

federal-support-for-kinship-care-on-the-
rise/#sthash.zLKoYTv1.dpuf

9

4/3/22

4

Newer Legislation
� Studies show that young people do best in families, and that

healthy relationships are key to their development and long-
term stability. Toward that end, the Family First Prevention
Services Act, passed in February 2018, introduced pathways
to ensure that young people involved with the child welfare
system are able to grow up in safe, stable and secure families
— including kin placements — that support their long-term
well-being.

� The Family First Act allows child welfare systems to use Title
IV-E funds on prevention services for “candidates of foster
care,” a change expected to allow more young people to stay
with their parents or relatives.

� https://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/family-first-
prevention-services-act-ffpsa.aspx

10

final

3/21/22

1

The Family and the
Child:
A Psychological
View
Psych 441_Vaughan

W eek 9

Transition to Parenthood and
the Early Parent C hild-
Relationship System

1

Discussion Areas

Transition to Parenthood
u Theories guiding this process

u The choices of individuals and couples; options related to timing

u Patterns and parenting styles: links to care and nurturance

u Universal/cross-cultural aspects of parenting

u Stages of parenthood

u Changing and redefining roles

u Parent-child relationship system

u M utual and Bidirectional influences

u Parenthood in the current times: impacts from the pandemic,
COVID-19 restrictions and racial justice and racial reckoning

2

Couples to Parents

u What are the shifts in the transition of the couple to
marriage/commitment? What are some concerns?

u With the planning and birth of the first child, what
factors guide the transition to parenthood?

u How relevant and important are prenatal/antenatal
classes?
u Example: Harvard Children’s Zone and Baby College

3

3/21/22

2

Pregnancy as a Transition

• Pregnancy is an important
transitional period.

• Relevant and ongoing
care, information and
advice is important for
new parents-to-be during
the transition.

4

Couples to Parents

5

Couples to Parents/Families

6

3/21/22

3

Parenting Within Context

u Is the transition to parenting a “normative transition,
“a normative stressor ”, and/or a time for great
personal joy and growth?
u Parents experience some emotional upheaval, but

preparation serves as a buffer.

u Much of the early family research on parenting theories
focused on practices, roles and patterns two-parent,
middle class families; contemporary research has
shifted to address broader demographics.

7

Parenting within Context

u There are etic approaches to understanding parenting
(parenting ideas imposed and derived from outside the
social or cultural group) and emic approaches to
parenting (parenting ideas derived from within the
social and cultural group) M .A. Fine & F.D. Fincham , 2013, p.
250). W e w ill refer to som e earlier source. readings as w ell.

u Coparenting
u How two parents coordinate their roles in these areas.

Important for all parenting, but very critical when there is
separation or divorce.
u Agreement on childrearing

u Division of labor

u Support

u Management of family interactions

8

Parenting Theories

How do we best understand the transition to parenting and
the early parenting process? Perspectives: Birth mothers,
birth parents and foster/adoptive parents (surrogates?)

u Attachment Theory

u Family System theory and Interdependence
u C ouple system

u Parent-child system

u Ecological Theory
u C onsiders diversity and various system s that im pact the child.

u Ethnocultural background in term s of exam ining roles and
patterns of care.

9

3/21/22

4

Transition to Parenting

§ Family System: Dimensions of the Transition to Parenting or too
the Family Stage

§ a parent’s anxiety about becoming a parent (the inner life)
§ the need to be involved in a family (the quality of relationships

in the family)

§ the demands of a job outside the home (stress outside the
family),

§ the negotiation of new roles and decisions within the family
(the quality of marriage or partnership)

§ the intricate connectedness of lives of the parents, and the
consequences of a normative life change (having the baby).

Source: Deave, Johnson & Ingram (2008)

10

Growing Families

11

Babies and their Influence

12

3/21/22

5

Six Stages of Parenthood:
Ellen Galinsky (1987)

u Image Making: Begins before child
arrives; expectations. What is ahead?
Image shaping continues throughout
parenthood, a transforming
developmental experience.

u Nurturing: Birth to 24 months; Bonding
and attachment. Holding, touching, and
caring. Setting priorities on how to
spend time. (Closer to age 2 –
oppositional or “No” Stage)

u Authority: Ages two though four – five.
What type of authority to be? How to set
and enforce rules? How to resolve
problems and challenges?

u Interpretive; Elementary school years: How
parents interpret themselves to their children.
Developing children’s self-concepts; teachers’
and others’ views of their child. Ongoing
connectedness and emerging independence.

u Interdependent: Teen years; distance and
closeness. Communication. Limits and
guidance. New relationship with almost adult
child.

u Departure: Characterized by evaluations of
parent and grown-child relationship. Takes a
long time. Caring and helping without
controlling. New rituals, habits and traditions
established.

13

Mind in the Making, (Galinsky, 2010)

u Linking parenting to children’s holistic development
u Seven Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs
u 1. Focus and Self-control

2. Perspective Taking
3. Communicating
4. Making Connections
5. Critical Thinking
6. Taking on Challenges
7. Self-directed, Engaged Learning

u https://www.mindinthemaking.org/7-essential-skills/

14

Parenthood:
One Developmental Pathway

• There are changes in family trends and household composition
over the last 30-40 years . These changes continue. However,
parenthood remains a part of a “predictable pattern in the
developmental pathway” of the family life cycle (Day, 2010, p.
62).

• There is structural diversity in the process of shifting to
parenthood.
▫ Delayed parenting as one factor
▫ There are various developmental ways to shift from

couple to parents, or from a single person to a parent.

15

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6

A Parenting Competency Model
Johnson, Berdahl, Horne, Richter & Walters (2014)

u Decades of research from multiple perspectives
(e.g., child psychology, child development, family
systems, forensic psychology, parent education,
and pediatrics) have identified and labeled
parenting tasks and dimensions associated with
optimal emotional, developmental, cognitive, and
behavioral outcomes in children.
u Effective Parenting Practices and Styles

u Effective Parental Attributes, Beliefs, and Cognitions

u Contextual Influences on Parenting and Bidirectional
Interaction

u Review of competencies and sub-competencies

16

Competent Parenting

17

Children Coming into the World

• Estimates worldwide: 7.9 billion people in the world
• In total, an estimated 140 million children will be born in 2021. Their

average life expectancy is expected to be 82 years.
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/new-years-babies-over-370000-
children-will-be-born-worldwide-new-years-day-unicef

• Review of UNICEF Data on neonatal and child survival and mortality
• https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/neonatal-mortality/
• https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/under-five-

mortality/

• UNICEF video

18

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7

Universal Aspects of Parenting

• Families around the world are focused on the birth and
survival of their children.
• Role of already established biological and social connections.
• Plans for the provision of care and protection.
• Transmission of beliefs, rituals, and culture begins early.
• Links to promoting child survival and competence

19

Universal Goals of Parenting
(Robert Levine,1988, new ideas: 2016).

u Parents seek to prom ote the survival and success of their offspring,
but their behavior is adapted to the socioeconom ic and
dem ographic conditions of agrarian and urban-industrial societies
and further differentiated by local cultural traditions. Three areas”

u 1.ensuring physical health and survival

u 2. developing behavioral capacities for econom ic self-
m aintenance

u 3. instilling behavioral capacities for m axim izing cultural values such
as m orality, prestige, and achievem ent.

u Review of excerpts

u https://www.theatlantic.com/family/archive/2016/0
9/do-parents-matter-world/499808/

20

Child and Parent
Mutual Influences

• Parental expectations
• What parents need
• Parental comfort with roles
• Child factors

• Child gender

• Child temperament and goodness of fit

• Child identity

• Child’s health and needs

• Role of social support

21

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8

Realities and Risks

• More time with children; what happens to time with
partners’ identity as a couple?
▫ Space for children
▫ Space for couple relationship

• Focus on care and protection; managing worries and
stressors

• Potential for decreased marital or couple satisfaction due to
shift in the amount couple’s time together. The pie chart of
family time.

• Demands, wishes, and needs lead to focusing the majority
of time on children

22

Boundaries and Subsystems

• Balancing work and family
• Balancing roles: Individuals occupy roles within the family

identity
• Role strain and role transition
• Role overload
• Role conflict

• Managing emotional climate
• Managing household tasks
• Finances
• Direct and indirect costs

23

Developing Parental Identity
Considerations for Parents

• Planning and preparation during the pregnancy
• Time with children: Participation in caregiving tasks,

child-rearing and child-related activities
• Sense of competence in the parental role; role

sharing
• Co-residence with children
• Parenting satisfaction
• Stress and support levels; regulation of emotions;

fears and concerns
• Role of education and employment

24

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9

Helping Couples Become Parents

� Research findings emphasize the vulnerability of the
couple relationship during the transition to parenthood.

� Findings also emphasize the centrality of marital quality
to subsequent family relationships and children’s
adaptation.

� Reactions vary based on whether this is a natural
childbirth, who is the birthing person and whether there
was a reliance on reproduction technologies.

� Adoption involves a deeply similar advance level of
commitment.

25

Families May Continue to Expand

26

Families Together

27

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10

Key Tasks
of Parenting

Caretaking, Caregiving and
Nurturing:

Attending to the physical,
em otional, social and
psychosocial needs.
C hildren’s routine and daily
activities are vital as are the
m eanings parents place on
these.

M onitoring, Protecting and
Disciplining:

Evolving parental strategies
and parenting styles to
support child safety, self-
regulation and positive
outcom es

28

Caregiver and Family Roles:
Mother, Father, Both?

u Sources of love Others? Your Ideas?
u Protectors

u Guardians
u Heads of families

u Care providers (for physical and emotional health)
u Family Income providers
u Teachers

u Mentors
u Models of behavior
u Communicators

u Household managers: Cooks and cleaners, etc.
u Appointment makers

29

Influence of Fathers
(Fine & Fincham, 2013,pp. 94-95)

u Parenting behaviors, such as warmth, commitment and sensitivity,
are equally important features for father-child relationships as they
are for mother-child relationships.

u Paternal playfulness and boisterousness were a focus of early father-
child studies. There is no evidence the variation from this type of
more active play impacts children’s adjustment.

u Children who have positive relationships with their fathers or a
second parent with a unique parenting play style tend to develop
specific social skills that facilitate interactions and peer relationships.

30

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11

Notes on Parenting Science

u There is definite need and significance for a cultural approach to
parenting science. Descriptively it is invaluable for revealing the full
range of hum an parenting. The study of parenting across cultures
also furnishes a check against an ethnocentric w orld view of
parenting.

u Acceptance of findings from any one culture as “norm ative” of
parenting is too narrow in scope, and ready generalizations from
them to parents at large are blindingly uncritical.

u C om parison across cultures is also valuable because it augm ents
an understanding of the processes through w hich biological
variables fuse w ith environm ental variables and experiences.
Parenting needs to be considered in its socio-cultural context, and
cultural study provides the variability necessary to expose process.

u (Excerpt from Bornstein, M ., 2012 p.212.)

31

Parenting
Styles

REVIEW AND
DISCUSSION:

CONSIDERATION OF
CULTURAL
APPLICATIONS

ROLE PLAY ACTIVITY

32

Diana Baumrind

• Diana Baum rind (Born 1927)

• A clinical and developm ental psychologist at the Institute of
Hum an Developm ent, University of C alifornia, Berkley w here she
also received her Ph.D.

• She is know n for her research on parenting styles and for her
critique of deception and control in psychological research,
especially Stanley M ilgram ‘s controversial experim ent.

• Baum rind’s original three parenting styles included: Authoritarian,
Authoritative and Perm issive

• Note; Early measure of parenting style: The Parental Authority
Questionnaire (PAQ; Buri, 1991), a 30-item questionnaire, which measures
authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

• Others that relate to the early parenting typologies include the Parental
Style and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart,
1995), and the Parental Nurturance Scale (Buri, Misukanis, & Mueller,
1988).

33

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12

Parenting Strategies and Styles in the Parent-child
Relationship System

• Parenting strategies
▫ Nurturing children: warmth, acceptance comfort

▫ Controlling child behaviors: providing safety from harm,
supporting children to act in socially appropriate ways

• The Four Parenting Style Model adapted from
Baumrind by Macoby & Martin, 1983 included levels
of:
▫ Parental responsiveness

▫ Parental demandingness

34

Parenting Typology: Four Categories
Macoby & Martin (1983)
Adapted from Baumrind’s typology

u Parenting styles are linked to parental practices, values and
behaviors.

u Each style includes a level of responsiveness and
demandingness.

u Styles
u Authoritative

u Authoritarian

u Indulgent

u Uninvolved

Newer Typologies exist

35

Four Parenting Styles Summary

• Authoritative: demanding and responsive; clear
standards for conduct that are explained

• Authoritarian: demanding, very directive, and not
responsive; orders without explanation

• Indulgent (permissive): responsive and more
demanding; lenient and avoid confrontation; Two
subtypes: democratic and nondirective

• Uninvolved: low in both responsiveness and
demandingness; sometimes thought of as
neglectful in combination with permissive

36

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13

Children of Authoritative
Parents

• lively and happy disposition
• self-confident about ability to master tasks.
• well developed emotion regulation
• developed social skills
• less rigid about traditional gender-typed traits (ex:

sensitivity in boys and independence in girls)
• balance of warmth and control

37

Children of Authoritarian
Parents

• anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy disposition
• poor reactions to frustration (girls are particularly

likely to give up and boys become especially
hostile)

• do well in school (studies may show authoritative
parenting is comparable)

• not likely to engage in antisocial activities (such as,
drug and alcohol abuse, vandalism, gangs)

38

Children of Permissive
Parenting

u poor emotion regulation (under regulated)
u rebellious and defiant when desires are challenged.
u low persistence to challenging tasks
u antisocial behaviors

39

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14

Child Well-being Outcomes

• Parenting style (authoritative qualities): parenting
that provided warmth, support, clear
communication, reasoning and monitoring is
associated with positive outcomes

• Parenting style with high psychological control is
associated with negative outcomes

• Uninvolved parenting also has detrimental affects
that are evident early on and continue into early
adulthood.

40

Parents’ Contributions

• What are examples of determinants?
• Developmental histories and and cultural beliefs

and experiences
• Personality
• Psychological health
• Interpersonal resources
• Responsibility, empathy, nurturance
• Capacity to de-center

41

Child Characteristics

• Temperament
• Gender
• Special needs: areas of need, type of diagnosis,

degree and intensity of needs.
• Child’s supports: caregivers, teachers, social

environment
• Key Factor

• Goodness of fit between parent and child traits

42

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15

Cultural Factors and
Considerations

u Parent socialization goals relate to cultural beliefs.

u Significance of directive parenting

u Variations in primarily individualistic v. collectivist cultures

u Baumrind began to distinguish among authoritative, directive, and
authoritarian parenting styles which are high on demand or control but
vary in quality of control, responsiveness, and socialization goals.

u This connected to Macoby’s and Martin’s parenting style typology.

u Cross-cultural researchers have emphasized that socialization goals and
practices vary across cultures because different qualities and outcomes in
children are valued and emphasized (e.g., Chao, 1994, 2000, 2001).

u The same parental behavior and parenting style may be interpreted differently
(e.g., as more or less adequate) depending upon the cultural meaning of this
behavior or style in the particular cultural group (e.g., Chao, 2000, 2001; Deate
rDeckard, Dodge, & Sorbring, 2005)..

43

Parenting Behavior and Practices

u A large body of research indicates that the optimal combination of parental
behavior involves a high level of support, a high level of monitoring, and the
avoidance of harsh punishment (Baumrind. 1968, 1978; Darling & Steinberg, 1993;
Maccoby & Martin. 1983; Rollins & Thomas, 1979).

u In non-authoritative cultural contexts, such as more permissive/indulgent or more
authoritarian contexts there are positive outcomes reported related to cultural
practices and beliefs (Garcia & Garcia, 2009).

u Some cultures and families rely on their collectivist thinking and beliefs and may
view an authoritarian style as facilitating more harmony. In vertical collectivist
contexts, the organizational strategies of the authoritarian parenting style are
considered beneficial for the children (Sheik, 2008; Graf., Mullis & Mullis)

44

Parenting in
Contemporary
Thinking

Term s that try to capture
parenting for parents:

Attachm ent parenting

Tiger M om s

Helicopter parenting

Free-range parenting

Law nm ow er parenting

Bulldozer parenting

Boom erang children

u Have you heard some off
all of these? Others? Your
thoughts and any critiques
of the use of these terms.

u We will look at some media
and related articles.

45

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16

Tough Love

u How does this model fit with parental goals and the organization of daily
activities and their meanings?

u What is “tough love” from your perspective?
u What type of parenting style does the “tough love” resemble?
u Do some cultures value a strict model of parenting? What is your

experience?
u Amy Chua’s growing up and then her later experiences as a parent led her to

write a book The Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother
u What was the response to Amy Chua’s work? Discussion of

variations within cultures.

46

Parenting Style: Determinants

u Jay Belsky Model (Influential Model of Parent
Functioning, originally published in 1984)
u Used as a m eans to understand context of parenting and the

context of child caregiving and child m altreatm ent.

u Includes:
u Parental personal psychological resources

u Uniqueness of child characteristics

u Contextual sources of stress and support

47

Parenting During Infancy:
Mothers and Fathers

� Trajectories of Parenting During Infancy: The Role of
Infant Temperament and Marital Adjustment for Mothers
and Fathers (2013)

� Quantity and quality of parenting and caregiving
� Marriage quality
� Role of child temperament

� According to Belsky’s process model, child
characteristics such as temperament can influence
parenting behaviors, and in fact, the relation between a
child’s temperament and parenting has been well
established (Belsky, 1984 as cited in Planalp, Braungart-
Rieker, Lickenbrill & Zentall (2013)

48

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17

Trajectories Study (2013)

u Longitudinal study
u Sample N= 120 families
u Examined: mother’s and father’s levels of levels of

caregiving, play, and sensitivity.
u Constructs/variables

u Parent involvement: caregiving and play

u Infant temperament: surgency (pleasure, heightened
activity), negative affectivity (fear, sadness), regulation
(modulation of emotional reactivity)

u Marital adjustment: Questionnaires

49

Children’s Activities:
Meaning for Parents

u “Day in the life” questions
u Links to promoting child competence
u Cultural aspects
u Parental beliefs

50

Harkness, et al. (2011)

u A mixed-method approach to studying children and their parents.

u Questions asked include:
u How do we record and understand all the activities of a family’s day?

u What meanings do parents give to their beliefs and their approaches to parenting?

u How do these activities support competence. What role does culture play?

u The article focuses on Western cultures. How might this type of study work in other cultures?

51

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18

Families’ Views

u Studies of ethnic and racial socialization attempt to
reflect psychologists’ efforts to understand families
of diverse backgrounds and experience.

u Abad & Sheldon (2008) investigated how families
discuss social inequalities and injustices, and how
they teach children to manage, respond and
adapt.

u Related data on parental concerns

Social


trends/2015/12/17/3-parenting-approaches-and-
concerns/

52

Autonomy and Identification

u Cultural Identity: Related constructs for consideration

u Acculturation/assimilation: Links to well-being

u First and second generation immigrants

u Parental autonomy support

u Parenting styles

u Self-determination

u Emerging identity
u Source: Abad, N.S. & Sheldon, K.M. (2008). Parental autonomy

support and ethnic culture identification among second-
generation immigrants. Family Psychology, 22, 3, 652-657.

53

Parenting Realities and Risks

• More time with children; what happens to time with partners’
identity as a couple?

▫ Space for children

▫ Space for couple relationship

• Focus on care and protection; managing worries and stressors

• Potential for decreased marital or couple satisfaction due to shift in
the amount couple’s time together. The pie chart of family time.

• Demands, wishes and needs to focus majority of time on children

54

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19

Boundaries and Subsystems

• Balancing work and family
• Balancing roles: Individuals occupy roles in the family identity

• Role strain and role transition
• Role overload
• Role conflict

• Managing emotional climate
• Managing household tasks
• Finances

• Direct and indirect costs

55

Developing Parental Identity:
Mothers and Fathers

• Planning and preparation during the pregnancy
• Time with children: Participation in caregiving tasks,

child-rearing and child-related activities
• Sense of competence in the role; role sharing
• Co-residence with children
• Parenting satisfaction
• Stress and support levels
• Education and employment
• Class Reading: Parenting Competency Model

56

Other Contexts of Parenting

• Parental levels of stress and support
• Coping and adaptation: managing stress and the

emotional climate
• Concerns and realities
• Relationships and social networks
• Work environment and supports
• Safety and proximity
• Cultural values and beliefs

57

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20

Child’s Contribution

u Parents influence children and children influence
parents.

u What are some child factors?

58

Final

11/3/2017

1

Chapter 13: Public Order Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013 &

2018); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015 & 2018).

Drug abuse and crime

Alcohol and crime

Sexual morality offenses

Law and Morality

• Public Order Crimes
• Behavior that is outlawed because it threatens the general well-being of

society and challenges its accepted moral principles.

• Sometimes referred to as victimless crimes.
• Drug and alcohol use, prostitution, pornography and even gambling.

• Censorship of those freely choosing to engage maybe a violation of free
speech.
• Which may lead to dissent

• Moral Crusaders say it doesn’t diminish freedom of opinion.

Law and Morality

• Criminal or Immoral?
• Social harm

• Immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the injury they cause:

• Acts that cause harm or injury are outlawed and punished as crimes.

• Acts, even those that are vulgar, offensive, and depraved are not outlawed or punished if they
harm no one.

• 500,000 US deaths per year due to alcohol and tobacco

• Immoral yet legal and regulated by our government.

• Marijuana is nonfatal and sold for medical purposes

• Should laws be applied to shape social morality?

• What about polygamy, or minors and marriage?

• Why is prostitution illegal?

11/3/2017

2

Substance Abuse: when did it begin?

• Egypt – use of opium
• Religion 3,500 BC; Painkiller 1,600 AD

• USE – Use begins for medical purposes
• Opium (Morphine and Codeine)
• Used to treat a wide variety of illness
• Civil War morphine = Soldiers disease
• 1860s cocaine to unblock sinues.

• Alcohol and its prohibition
• January 16, 1920, the 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and

transportation of alcoholic beverages.
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union
• American Anti-Saloon League (Carrie Nation).

• December 5, 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution repealed 18th.

Stats on drug abuse

• Extent of substance abuse
• Alcohol abuse in USA national high school studies: approximately 52%

• Binge drinking – 5x once per month 23%

• Heavy drinking – 5 per night 5 x per month 6%

• NHS surveys show:
• Drug abuse declined between 1970-1990

• Increased until 1996

• 2007 till now marijuana rose to an all time high

• Major issues: K2 and spice is synthetic marijuana (not plant based)

• Overall drug used peaked in 1970s, decreased till 1990s and now steady.
• Exceptions: Marijuana and Heroin (US epidemic) has increased since 2011

Drug abuse linked to crime

• Substance abuse appears to be heavily linked to crime.
• Adolescents who use illegal drugs engage in more fights and theft.
• 40% incarcerated adults for violence crimes used alcohol before arrest.
• Alcohol reduces restraint on aggression
• Alcohol reduces awareness of consequences

• Drunk driving

• There are different kinds of drug users but not all commit crimes.

• There are differences in criminality among drug users.
• Sometimes drug use leads to crime.
• Sometimes crime is needed to finance drug addiction
• Sometimes drugs are need to commit crime
• Sometimes drug use and crime coincide

11/3/2017

3

Criminality and global issues of drug addiction

• Money laundering: concealing illegally obtained money

• Catastrophic political impact on drug producing countries.
• High incidence of corruption and crime

• Government instability and coups

• Alliance of drug dealers with terrorist groups.

Legislative Acts Regulating Drug Use in the US
• Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

• List habit forming drugs on labels. Prohibited opiates.

• Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)
• Prohibit import, manufacture, and sale of narcotics.

• Marijuana Tax Act (1937)
• Registration and tax of $100 for one once.

• Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (1970)
• Set up unified categories of drugs.
• Set specific punishments for sales, manufacture and possession.

• Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1986) – increased penalties
• 10 years for trafficking kilo of heroin (one year for simple possession)

• Title 21 of US Code updated Amendments passed since 1970
• Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1988)

• Bush 1st admin added death penalty for drug related killings.

Drug Control Strategies

• Treatment approach through:
• Self-help groups and psychotherapy (AA and NA)

• Detoxification

• Community social action efforts

• Residential therapeutic communities
• In patient out patient therapy. Cost and requires self motivation.

• Methadone maintenance programs.

• Education problems – DARE

• Drug Testing – at work and possible welfare qualifications

• Drug court.

11/3/2017

4

Legalization of Alcohol
• Ratification in 1971 of the twenty-sixth Amendment of the US Constitution

lowered the minimum drinking age.
• Later raised it back to 21 state by state.

• Legalization of all drugs
• Some say it should create an epidemic of drug dependents.
• War on drugs cost more than $500 billion in past 20 years.
• More people die each year from legal drugs than illegal.
• No commodity sales are more lucrative than drugs.
• Historically people have always used drugs. – adult choice.
• Prohibition of alcohol increased crime.
• legalized government control and regulation.

• Cheaper = less crime to pay for habit
• No need for drug cartels decreasing violence.
• Gov. would rap large tax profits.
• Netherland did it and still relatively crime free.

Deviant sexual Intercourse/paraphilias

• Outlaws paraphilias or deviant sex acts.
• Frotteurism – rubbing or touching non consenter

• Voyeurism

• Exhibitionism

• Sodomy (past)
• 2003 Lawrence v Texas made sodomy legal

• Pedophilia
• Form of deviant sex acts that most concern the general public

• Statutory Rape –Debra Lafave

Prostitution Hierarchy

• Types of Prostitutes
• Streetwalkers – lowest paid in plain sight

• Bar girls –B girls % of drinks waiting for pickup

• Circuit travelers – few girls service labor camp

• Cyber prostitutes – meet online “adult friend finder”

• Brothel prostitutes – cathouse. Bunny ranch
• Madam vs pimp.

• Pos: safety, no minors, adult choice $300-1,500 per night

• Call girls – highest paid Aristocrats of prostitution

• Escort services/call houses
• Client calls madam (123 listing in NY city yellow pages)

Gov. Eliot Spitzer

11/3/2017

5

Prostitution

• Becoming a Prostitute
• Dangers of sex work

• Beaten, robbed and rapped by pimp or client
• Abused youth maybe lured into trade, lack father figure
• Older women – need money for survival or drugs.

• Controlling Prostitution
• Brothels were regulated before WWI in US
• Moral crusaders painted pimps as immigrants luring American girls into trade.
• Mann Act (1925) – $5,000 fine up to five years prison

• Prohibit transport of women into country and across state lines.

• Today prostitution is a misdemeanor and is punishable by a fine or short jail
sentence.

Prostitution

• Legalize Prostitution?
• Free choice – legal makes safer environment

• $300-1,500 per night

• Sexual equality – seen as gender exploitation
• Abuse –brothels worker may still be abused

• Harassed, exploited and raped by security and madam
• 40% of earnings.

• Long-lasting victimization
• May have life of social stigma leading to drug abuse

• If you really want to stop prostitution
• Focus on criminalizing the johns.
• Prostitutes should be seen as victims not jailed & fined

Pornography

• Pornography – legal
• Sexually explicit books, magazines, films, and DVDs intended to provide sexual

titillation and excitement for paying customers.

• Obscenity – illegal
• Material that violates community standards of morality or decency and has

no redeeming social value.
• If it is deemed harmful to people or society its illegal

• Who decides what is obscene?

• What is obscene shifts across time between states

11/3/2017

6

Pornography

• Is pornography harmful?

• Does pornography cause violence?
• Some studies say it reduces violence by satisfying impulses

• 1984 study show increased exposure leads to decreased arousal and aggression.

• Some argue porn leads to sexist unhealthy ideas.
• Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography (1986)

• Leads to acceptance of rape myths and violence against women.

• Diana Russell argues hatred of women is common theme in porn (violence, rape,
aggression) (Siegal, 2015).

Pornography and the law

• Miller v. California (1973) its obscene when:
• The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find

that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient (lewd) interests.

• The work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct
specifically defined by the applicable state law.

• The work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or
scientific value.

• Pope V. Illinois – later supreme court ruling
• Obscene if a reasonable person applying objective (national) standards would find the

material to lack any social value.

Internet, Technology and Pornography

• Communications Decency Act (1996)
• Felony to:

• Knowingly use telecommunications devices to send and indecent communication to a
child.

• Use a computer to display indecent material in a manner accessible to a child.

• Violations punishable by up to two years imprisonment and fine of $250,000

• Legislation on pornography varies around the world making it easier to be
sent across borders.

• Distinction between eroticism and child pornography.
• Child Pornography – issues with tech. and kids sexting

• Illegal to possess and or distribute even virtual images of children

final

3/28/22

1

TH E FAM ILY AN D TH E
C H ILD :

A PSYC H O LO G IC AL VIEW

UMass Boston

Psych 441

Peggy Vaughan

Transition to Adulthood

Love, Relationships and Attachment

Links to Couplehood and Marriage

1

TOPICS

• Transition to Adulthood
• Adult attachments; family attachment

• Couple subsystem/Marital subsystem:
Couple and marital tasks

• Communication and intimacy: Adam
video – one “chapter”

• Note: These slides include several key
attachment concepts, which we will
review briefly before focusing on family
attachment and adult attachment

2

YO U N G A D U LT H O O D
( WA L S H , 2 0 1 6 )

§ All stages have individual and interpersonal factors

§ Is the ideal a self apart from others or in relation to others?

§ Tasks of young adulthood

§ Coming to terms with family of origin

§ Entering the adult world of work

§ New forms of relationships

§ Ideally forming or becoming a “self ” before joining with another – a partner – to
form a new family subsystem.

§ W hile separation and autonomy are valued in different ways, caring and
connections have strong values as well, as demonstrated by the work of Carol
Gilligan.

3

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2

AT TAC H M E N T R E V I E W

Key concepts from John Bowlby
and M ary Ainsworth

• attachment in the making
• proximity-seeking
• felt-security
• secure base
• balance of safety and

exploration
• reaction or response to

separation, stress and
reunions

• internal working model

4

B OW L B Y ’ S E T H O L O G I C A L
T H E O RY O F AT TAC H M E N T

• Begins with innate signals that keep parent nearby

• Affectionate bond forms over time:

• Preattachment (birth to six weeks)

• Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months

• Clear-cut attachment;
separation anxiety (6–8 months to 18 months–2 years)

• Formation of reciprocal relationship (18 months to 2
years and continuing on through childhood)

• Internal working model:
expectations about availability of attachment figures

5

ATTACHMENT IN THE MAKING

6

3/28/22

3

J O H N B O W L B Y
( A T T A C H M E N T
A N D L O S S , 1 9 6 9

& 1 9 8 2 )

• Child develops an internal working
model of their caregiver linked to a set
of expectations and beliefs as to how
caregiver (s) will care and respond.

• The child’s expectations transfer to
other relationships in life: teachers,
friends, adult partners/spouses.

7

M A RY A I N S WO RT H

• Mary Ainsworth: In the 1970’s Ainsworth developed a procedure
for assessing child attachment in the Strange Situation.

• Styles: 1) Secure; 2) Insecure-Avoidant; 3) Insecure-Anxious/Ambivalent
(a fourth pattern of disorganized was added and defined later.)

• In the attachment research and literature, these patterns are viewed as
prototypes for later attachments.

8

M E A S U R I N G AT TA C H M E N T S E C U R I T Y :
R E S P O N S E S TO T H E S T R A N G E S I T U AT I O N

§ Secure attachment: Baby uses parent as secure base,
expresses clear pleasure when parent returns.

§ Three Insecure patterns:

§ Avoidant attachment: Baby seems unresponsive to parent, slow
to greet parent on reunion.

§ Insecure-resistant attachment: Baby seeks closeness to parent,
is distressed or angry when parent returns.

§ Disorganized/disoriented attachment: Reflects greatest
insecurity; baby shows confused, contradictory behaviors.

9

3/28/22

4

A D U LT- A D U LT AT TAC H M E N T

• A major difference between adult-adult attachment and the
parent-child relationship attachment is that the attachment
behavior system in adults is reciprocal: adult partners are not
assigned to or set in the role of “attachment figure/caregiver” or
“attached individual/ care receiver”.

• Both attachment behavior and serving as an attachment figure
should be observable in individuals, and the two roles may shift
rapidly between the partners.

10

A N E W U S E O F AT TAC H M E N T I N
T H E A P P ROAC H TO PA R E N T I N G

• The term attachment parenting was coined by Sears and
Sears to refer to a parenting approach that emphasizes
responding sensitively to the needs of babies and children.
Many of their ideas come from parenting their own eight
children, as well as from their pediatric practice; some are
from anthropologists’ observations of indigenous
childrearing practices (thought to be more “natural”); and
some (like emotional responsiveness) are consistent with
research findings.

• This approach is not the same as the attachment models
and categories developed from the attachment research
work of Bowlby, Ainsworth and others.

• We will talk more about parenting styles in the discussion
of parenthood Week 8.

11

ADULT-ADULT ATTACHMENT

12

3/28/22

5

AT TAC H M E N T S T Y L E S I N
A D U LT S

• What are adults’ capacity for intimacy and emotional
attachment?

• The need for and the role of felt security and internal working
model in adult relationships (Feeny & Noller,1990; Crowell, Treboux,
et al, 2002).

• There are equivalent counterparts to the three original child
attachment styles in the attachment styles of adults.

• Secure
• Avoidant
• Anxious-Ambivalent

13

A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with secure attachment styles

• report positive early family
relationships.

• describe trusting attitudes towards
others.

• view themselves as friendly and
likeable.

• find it easy to get close to others.

• feel comfortable with dependence on
others and others depending on them.

• Feeny & Noller (1990); Hazen
& Shaver (1994); Bretherton
(2002)

• http://labs.psychology.illinois.e
du/~rcfraley/attachment.htm

14

A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with an
anxious/ambivalent attachment
style..
• view others as unreliable and

unable to commit.

• see their relationships as having
less interdependence, trust and
satisfaction when compared to
the securely attached.

• experience others as being
reluctant to get as close as they
would like them to be.

• worry that their partners don’t
really love them.

15

3/28/22

6

A D U LT
AT TA C H M E N T

S T Y L E S

• Adults with an avoidant
attachment style..

• view relationships as less than
satisfying and intimate as
compared to those who are
securely attached.

• feel uncomfortable being close to
others.

• find it difficult to trust and depend
on others.

• become nervous when others are
too close.

16

R E S E A R C H :
AT TAC H M E N T H I S TO R I E S

• Dating Couples
• Individuals with a securely attached style are generally attracted

to securely attached.

• Individuals with insecurely attached style tend to match up with
insecurely attached.

• Married Couples
• Securely attached report higher relationship satisfaction, higher

trust, greater supportiveness and positive self-disclosure.

• Securely attached also discuss conflicting goals more openly and
maintain constructive communication.

17

R E C E N T R E E A R C H

• A recent study in which romantic couples were randomly assigned to
touching or nontouching conditions demonstrated the positive effect of
touch for producing feelings of emotional security (Jakubiak & Feeney,
2016). Repeated intimate contact surrounding caregiving in infancy and
sexual encounters in adulthood is rewarding, and at least partly
responsible for the development of emotional interdependence
(Zeifman & Hazan, 2016).

• As a result of repeated, soothing physical contact, one hallmark feature
of attachment relationships is that they are mutually physiologically
regulating (Zeifman, 2019).

• Infants use their caregivers as a source of comfort, the person to
retreat to in times of distress. Similarly, adults seek partners to reduce
aversive arousal.

18

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7

H E T E RO S E X UA L A N D S A M E – S E X
C O U P L E S

• Research has suggested that the similarities between same-
sex and heterosexual couples far outweigh the differences,
both in relationship quality and the processes regulating
satisfaction and commitment (Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007). A
few studies have supported this view with respect to
attachment, given findings that attachment security is
associated with same-sex relationship satis faction (Elizur &
Mintzer, 2003; Kurdek, 2002; Ridge & Feeney, 1998),
commitment (Kurdek, 1997, 2002), and communication
quality (Gaines & Henderson, 2002).

19

F I N D I N G S O N A N X I E T Y A N D
AVO I DA N C E I N C O U P L E

• Consistent with research on heterosexuals, results from a
large community sample of same-sex couples indicated that
attachment anxiety and avoidance in both partners are
linked with less positive relationship evaluations and
experiences. (Mohr, Selterman, &. Fassinger, 2013).

20

FA M I LY AT TAC H M E N T

21

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8

SEC U RITY IN TH E FA M ILY:
TH E C O N C EPT O F A SEC U RE

FA M ILY B A SE

• From a family systems perspective, Byng-Hall suggests that
the family contributes to attachment by providing a secure
family base.

• Definition of secure family base: “a family that provides a
reliable and readily available network of attachment
relationships, and appropriate caregivers, from which all
members of the family are able to feel sufficiently secure to
explore their potential” (Byng-Hall, 1999, p. 627).

22

SYSTEMS THEORY:
FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING

ABOUT ATTACHMENTS

• Family interaction cycles influence attachment.
• Circular causality (e.g., feedback loops) in family systems influences

mutuality.

• Family rules and organizational structures influence aspects of
attachment (e.g., caregiving behavioral system, exploratory
behavioral system, and attachment behavioral system).

• Distance Regulation in the Family System
• “Too Close – Too Far” Couple and Family Systems

• Triangulation of Others as Distance Regulators
• Illnesses and Emotional Problems that Become Distance Regulators

23

W H Y F O C U S O N AT TAC H M E N T ?

• Attachment relationships between adults often serve a
wide variety of other functions, including sexual bonds,
companionship, sense of competence, and shared purpose
or experience.

• Family attachments strengthen and support families when
facing stressors and at times of adaptation and potential
growth.

24

3/28/22

9

ADULT RELATIONSHIPS

Stages of Relationships

Communication and Intimacy

25

T H O U G H T Q U E S T I O N S

What are the common
definitions of relationship

commitment, marriage and
marriage-like

relationships/couplehood?

How do the tasks learned
and understood as a child

and adolescent (family- based
and psychological tasks) link
to the transition to couple

and/or marital tasks?

26

PA RT N E R I N G
A N D M AT E
S E L E C T I O N
C O N C E P T S

A N D E R S O N &
S A B AT E L L I ,

C H . 7 ( 2 0 1 1 )

• Selection
• Negotiation
• Tests and filters
• Reciprocity
• Comparisons, attraction, turning points
• Family and past experiences
• Values and expectations

• Love
• Commitment

• Attachment theory and styles
• Intimacy
• Communication

27

3/28/22

10

M AT E O R C O M PA N I O N
S E L E C T I O N

• Mate selection as a journey or the active unfolding of
expectations and partner seeking.

• All the expectations are present and active.
• Factors for the discussion of mate selection
• Focus on commitment; beliefs about cohabitation; commitment

and marriage; delayed partnering – adults remaining single longer
(postponing due to education or other life plans and goals);
deciding to parent without committed relationship; deciding
not to have children.

28

R E L AT I O N S H I P T H E O R I E S

• Relationships have a developmental sequence.
• Relationships have stages/phases (Anderson and Sabatelli, 2011.)
• Initial, intermediate, later stages

• Stimulus, Value, Role (Murstein)

• Theory of Dyadic Formation (Lewis)

• Social Exchange Perspectives
• Economic metaphor–extended markets

• Costs and rewards and the process of filtering

• Interdependence is needed for satisfaction and having needs met;
mutuality needed for trust and commitment.

29

C O M M U N I C A T I O N
I N C L O S E

R E L A T I O N S H I P S

• Styles and levels of disclosure
• Thinking together
• Private message system in

partnerships

• Overt and covert (intent) messages
(Day, 2010)

• Verbal and non-verbal
• Content and mood messages; facial

cues, and expressions

• Decoding

30

3/28/22

11

L I N G U I S T I C S A N D I N T I M AC Y

• Conversation is made up of linguistic features.
• repetition

• dialogue

• imagery

31

C O N V E R S AT I O N A L S T Y L E S

• Deborah Tannen’s Highly Discussed Research (1990). You Just
Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation

• There are goals and efforts in conversation and
communication with heterosexual and same-sex couples.

• Focus on positive aspects: congruence, listening, healthy
dialogue and understanding.

• Self-esteem is linked to the capacity for expression and
understanding.

• Rules within an intimate relationship; couples have a
private message system.

32

TA N N E N :
PA RT N E R C O N V E R S AT I O N A N D

C O M M U N I C AT I O N G O A L S / I N T E N T I O N S

• Independence vs. Intimacy
• Advice vs. Understanding
• Information vs. Feelings
• Orders vs. Proposals
• Conflict vs. Compromise

33

3/28/22

12

QUESTI ONS
TO

CONS I DER

• What impact do styles and histories have
on forming and continuing relationships
and commitments?

• What other individual characteristics and
factors and variables guide healthy and
viable relationships? Do personality,
temperament, beliefs, etc. have influence?

• What else can facilitate or impact
relationship development and
communication?

• View and discussion of Adam film clip.

34

A DA M ( 2 0 0 9 ) V I D E O C L I P

• A romantic character study examining the obstacles to intimacy and
the compromises we make in the name of love, Adam stars Hugh
Dancy as a man living with Asperger’s syndrome who does his best to
reach out to his pretty new upstairs neighbor.

• Due to his condition, Adam isn’t the best when it comes to
communicating. He is lonely and frequently escapes interactions by
submersing himself in the world of the intellect as with his knowledge
of space exploration.

• Adam senses an opportunity for a real human connection after Beth
(Rose Byrne) moves into the apartment just upstairs.

• As Adam attempts to gain control of his off-kilter, sometimes
embarrassing social skills, he discovers that with a little patience and
understanding, developing a meaningful relationship might not be as
hard as he previously thought.

35

COUPLES/UNIONS
MARITAL SUBSYSTEMS

Healthy Couples/Unions, Healthy Families

36

3/28/22

13

C O U P L E / M A R I TA L S U B S YS T E M

• Key Language
• Marriages, couplehood, unions and commitment

• Factors to consider
• Patterns of interactions

• Regulating distances

• Themes

• Roles and responsibilities

• Conjugal identities

37

T Y P E S O F M A R R I AG E S O R
M A R R I AG E L I K E – C O U P L I N G S

• Relationships on a continuum
• Intimate relationships; levels and length of commitment.

• Long term partners and intimate companions

• Traditional marriages ——-Experimental marriages

• Types: Arranged, open, others?

38

M A R R I AG E

Marriage in Psychology (APA Definition)

The social institution in which two (or, less frequently, more)
people commit themselves to a socially sanctioned
relationship in which sexual intercourse is legitimated and
there is legally recognized responsibility for any offspring as
well as for each other. Although there are exceptions, the
marital partners typically live together in the same residence.

39

3/28/22

14

C O M M O N – L AW M A R R I AG E

• A relationship between an unmarried but long-term
cohabiting couple that is considered legally equivalent to
marriage. Most states in the United States do not recognize
common-law marriages, although cohabitees may be
regarded as equivalent to married partners for some
purposes.

40

D O M E S T I C PA RT N E R S H I P

• Two people who live together in a stable, intimate
relationship and share the responsibilities of a household in
the same way that a married couple would. Some states
and companies in the United States and some other
countries provide legal and economic rights to domestic
partners (e.g., insurance and death benefits) that are similar
to those granted to married couples.

41

S A M E – S E X M A R R I AG E

A long-term, intimate, stable, and legally recognized
relationship between two people of the same sex (in the
United States*). It is less frequently called homosexual
marriage. Also called gay marriage.

*On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all
state bans on same-sex marriage, legalized it in all fifty states,
and required states to honor out-of-state same-sex marriage
licenses in the case Obergefell v. Hodges.

42

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15

M A R R I AG E D E F I N E D I N S YS T E M S
T H E O RY

• A specific family subsystem comprising of adults from two
different families of origins who have bonded together to
form what they intend to be a stable and long-term
cohabitating relationship (Anderson and Sabatelli, 2011).

• What is missing in this definition?

43

A N T H RO P O L O G I C A L A N D
S O C I E TA L / C U LT U R A L V I E W S

Marriage

• All societies have customs governing how and under what
circumstances sex and reproduction can occur–generally
marriage plays a central role in these customs.

• Marriage is a socially approved union that united two or more
individuals as spouses. Implicit in this union is that there will be
sexual relations, procreation, and permanence in the
relationship.

• Sample Functions: 1. Marriage regulates sexual behavior. 2.
Marriage fulfills the economic needs of marriage partners. 3.
Marriage perpetuates kinship groups. 4. Marriage provides one
institution for the care and enculturation of children.

44

Final

11/16/2015

1

American Policing and Court
Systems

-Slides and data in this outline are from Siegel
(2015); Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007); and

modified by Manning (2007, & 2015).

The Criminal Justice System overview

• The Process of Justice
– From initial contact, through post-release

• Crime committed – investigation

• Police make arrest based on probable cause

• Booking (custody) fingerprinting and investigation

• Grand jury hands down its indictment

• Arraignment: formal charges & rights read to defendant

• Bail or detention

• Plea bargaining

• Trial process/adjudication

• Sentencing/disposition

• Appeals

• Correctional treatment

• Release

• Post release/aftercare. if early release on parole.

England’s Policing History

• 1829, Sir Robert Peels created the
Metropolitan Constabulary in London.

– So successful all counties were required to have
them by 1856.

– Police officers must have a perfect command of
temper.

– Critics said these agencies were created to control
the poor.

11/16/2015

2

American Policing History

• Colonial America

– Used system like England’s

• America’s first uniformed police

– Boston in 1838 and New York in 1844

• Progressive Era – lead by T. Roosevelt

– 1895—tried to reform police by removing them from
politics.

• Today more than 20,000 separate agencies in US

– 708,022 sworn officers

Federal Law Enforcement

• First Federal police force 1790
– US Coast Guard.

• Federal Bureau of Investigation
– Investigate domestic terrorism, white collar crime,

organized crime, public corruption.
– Named FBI in 1935 under J. Edger Hoover
– Chief investigative branch of Depart of Justice.

• Captured Baby Face Nelson, Pretty Boy Floyd.

– Image tarnished
• 1960s wire tapping, opening mail
• 1993 handling of WACO TX Branch Davidians.

Federal Policing cont’d

• Drug Enforcement Administration DEA

• Immigration and Naturalization Service

– INS largest group of federal police.

– Now called ICE:

• US Immigration and Customs Enforcement

• United States Marshall Service

– Witness protection, federal court security

• Treasury Department: Secret Service

11/16/2015

3

Department of
Homeland Security

• Five divisions created after 911:

– Border and Transportation Security

– Emergency Preparedness & Response

• Make sure were prepared and able to recover from
terrorism

– Science and Technology

– Information Analysis and Infrastructure

– Management

State, County and Municipal Law
Enforcement

• State Police
– 1st was Texas Ranger 1835
– Today only Hawaii without state police

• Highway Patrol
• County Police (Sheriff’s Department)

– Tax assessment & collection, court duty, run jails,
serve court orders, oversee public buildings, highways,
bridges and parks.

• City Police
– 24 hour service not the norm in small town
– New York City has over 72,000 officers operating at a

cost of about $2.5 trillion

Special Purpose Policing
and Private Police

• Special Purpose Police
– Transit Police
– Public Housing Police
– Airport Police
– Public School and College Police
– Park Police

• In past considered inferior now highly recruited & trained.

• Private Police Are there any ethical issues?
– Guard and Patrol Services
– Private Investigators
– Alarm Companies and Computer Security Systems
– Armored-car and Courier Services

11/16/2015

4

City Police Functions

• Line Functions
– Patrol Division -1st on crime scene

• Maintain order, block off crime scene, interview
• Visual presence deters crime

– Investigation Division
• Detectives hold more prestigious positions

– Specialized Unites – mostly larger cities
• Traffic Units –investigate accidents, meter maids
• Vice Squad –enforce gambling laws, drug, prostitution
• Undercover agents often work with informants.
• Issue of Entrapment

• Non-Line Functions – Support
– Planning, research, admin. & training, budgeting, purchasing,

public relations, inspections,
– Support line functions with high tech services.
– All police have some training (3-16 weeks)

Police Functions

• Law Enforcement
– Control crime. In past police were evaluated by the number of felony arrest

made.
– Past effectiveness meant depersonalized one officer patrol cars and rotation of

beats.
– But 1960s taught us that police must do more than enforce laws.

• Order Maintenance
– Today—peacekeeping and conflict management
– Greater discretion in deciding if a crime was committed

• Community Service
– Respond to social problems and emergencies
– Police aid gunshot/knife wounds, diabetic reactions, teen runaways

Civil Right issues and the Rule of Law

• Constitutional Due Process (14th Amendment)
– Protection against unreasonable search & seizures.
– Protection against self-incrimination
– The right to counsel

• Use of Deadly Force & Police Brutality
– Before Tennessee v. Garner the law had always been that police could shoot to

kill anyone fleeing a felony—even unarmed
– Today, force can only be used when necessary to prevent escape of suspect

believed to be a significant threat.
– While physical force maybe needed. Police brutality is no longer tolerated in

America.

• Abuse of Discretion
– Officially regulated but police have considerable autonomy.

• Corruption
– Meat eaters: police who solicit bribes or cooperate w/criminals for gain.
– Grass eaters: police who accept payoffs for services or looking the other way.

11/16/2015

5

Police Officer Life and Subculture

• Qualifications
– Today new recruits must be in good shape.
– With no criminal record, and at least have high school diploma.

• Minority Groups In Policing
– Civil Rights lead to increased police diversity
– Women first obtained patrol officer status in 1960s.
– Are women police officer fully accepted today?

• Subculture issues:
– High job related stress.
– Self isolation with other police and family.
– Characterized by chronic suspiciousness, authoritativeness, and

cynicism.
– High risk of marital problems, physical ailments, alcoholism, issues

with children, and drug abuse.

America’s Dual Court System

State Supreme Court

State Appellate Court

State Trial Court

-Limited Jurisdiction – minor

-General Jurisdiction – major

U.S. Supreme Court

-how many justices?

U.S. Circuit Courts

of Appeals (13)

U.S. District Court (94)

State System Federal System

Federal Magistrates
-minor fed offences
-issue warrants

Terminology
I want to appeal

• Writ of certiorari – an order issued by a higher
court directing a lower court to send to it the
records of a case.

• Habeas corpus – a request to produce the
prisoner before the reviewing judge and to
explain by what lawful authority the prisoner
is being detained.

11/16/2015

6

Roles People Fill

• Prosecutor – DA works for the state
– Collection agent dispenser of justice
– Political enforcer and overseer of police

• Defense – works for defendant
• Judges deals with matter of law

– Jurist instructed to focus on matters of fact

• Grand Jury
– Decide if case will go to trail or not

• Arraignment
– Grand jury hands down its indictment
– Defendant pleads
– Plea Bargen opportunity – has pros and cons

Jury Selection and Trial Proceedings

• Voir dire: the process by which lawyers and the judge examine a
prospective juror to determine his or her acceptability.

• Peremptory challenge: objections to potential jurors for which no
explanation is required.

• Challenges for cause: objections to potential jurors for which a
reason is given.

• Proceedings of People v. John Doe
1. Opening statement of the prosecutor
2. Opening statement of the defense (may be waived until the

defense’s case in chief)
3. Prosecutor’s case in chief
4. Motions
5. Defense’s case in chief
6. Motions
7. Closing argument of the prosecutor
8. Closing argument of the defense

Sentencing Hearing

– Death penalty – 36 states
– Incarceration
– Probation
– Restitution
– Community Service
– Fine combo or split sentencing

• Punishment Philosophies
– Incapacitation – protect society from offender
– Deterrence (general and/or specific)
– Retribution – eye for an eye
– Rehabilitation – early to mid 1970s
– Just Deserts – back to eye for an eye
– Restorative Justice

11/16/2015

7

Exploring the Death Penalty

• First—Daniel Franks in 1622, VA

• Six Forms – in USA
– Firing Squad, Lethal Gas, Hanging, Decapitation,

Electrocution, Lethal Injection

– Which is the only form never used in US?

• Deterrence Argument

• Discrimination Argument

• Cost Benefit Argument

• Global Trends

Final

 est your Assumptions!  Do a SWOT Analysis.

  1. This assignment must include:
    1. Realistic information based on research on the regions/countries in your supply chain.  Identify their strengths and weaknesses relating to an uninterrupted, effective, and efficient supply chain.
    2. Realistic information based on research on the materials that will be used for your products. Are they:
      • available,
      • design quality,
      • plentiful, and
      • cost effective?
    3. The results of your realistic examination of your shipping lanes:
      • What mode(s) will you use?
      • Is/Are it/they reliable, cost-effective, and available?
      • If inherent drawbacks exist, what are they?
    4. SWOT analysis for each channel (it is okay for you decide that a channel is too risky; this is the purpose of this exercise).
    5. Incorporation of social and environmental factors with monetary ones.:
  2. Cite your research.
  3. Use APA format and MS WORD.
  4. Your paper (content portion) must be a minimum of three pages.
  • 2 months ago
  • 15

Final

For the Final Portfolio, the student will provide a letter to me reflecting on the course and a letter to yourself reflecting on their experience (yes, you are writing a letter to yourself – imagine your week eleven self is writing back to your week one self). Letters should follow standard business letter format – if you’re uncertain what this entails, here’s a helpful guide from Purdue OWL.

Letters should be 100-250 words.

Here are the questions you should answer in your letters:

Letter to Instructor

What portions of the class were interesting/compelling to the student?

What portions of the class were less interesting/not compelling to the student?

What delivery or materials might have helped a student in this class?

Letter to Yourself/Reflection:

What aspects of scholarship, study, reading, writing, or responding did the student do well?

What aspects of scholarship, study, reading, writing, or responding could the student improve upon?

In addition to the letters, your portfolio will include the following items, revised based on my feedback and that of your peers:

1) One written assignment of your choice, revised as needed.

2) Your completed APA reference list, revised as needed. [Note: not the annotated list, but just the list of sources, properly formatted.]

3) Your video podcast, revised if needed.

Your portfolio is a largely reflective activity: it is designed to help you reflect on the work you’ve completed this semester, consider weaknesses and strengths, and determine where you’d like to improve. With that in mind, it will be assessed based on completion: there are five items (two letters, three revisions) listed above, each worth 30 points if complete and 0 points if not complete.

Revised my proposal  

final

Question 1

Identify and discuss any changes that have taken place in your thought processes that will affect the manner in which you deal with clients (if counseling is your goal) and/or with those in your world of experience now or in the future. If there has been no change discuss “why.”

Question 2

Cite specific examples of the sexual diversity that exists among various subcultures within the United States. What factors should be taken into account when explaining differences within various subcultures?

final

Week 6: International Transracial Adoptions

Week 6: ASEM 2696:

Communication & Adoption

Course Learning Objective #5:
Feel a sense of connection, community, and belonging with the professor and students in this course, continuing to learn from and with each other as DU students and alumni long after this course is over. [human dimension learning goal]

Please Place your Name Card

Internal Weather Report

Close Eyes,

Hand over Heart,

Find Breathe,

How are you feeling?

Choose 2 emotions,

Open eyes  Circle of Voices

Midterm Evaluations

Course Learning Objective #6: Develop metacognitive abilities around inclusion, diversity, equity, and access to enhance student learning that can be applied to learning in other courses during college and trainings after graduation. [learning-how-to-learn learning goal]

Midterm Evaluations

Prof Suter Comments

Thank you for honesty and willingness to invest enough in your own learning to provide suggestions that will improve our learning community

1. What’s going well?
Key Themes

Interactive, discussion nature of course and my peers’ willingness to engage

Inclusive, open & safe classroom environment

Interesting, diverse Pre-Class Learning Activities: readings, documentaries

Differing perspectives and interpretations of classmates

2. What’s not going so well?
Key Themes

Change up groups for small group discussion to gain other perspectives

The course load and material has been hard to keep up with

Shyness to speak in group discussions

3. What can you (the student) do about #2?
Key Themes

Organize my time better

Better use my time between classes

Plan ahead more (e.g., create a weekly plan for what I what to accomplish)

Take more from the class and others’ experiences to connect better to the material as an individual

4. What can Professor Suter do about number 2?

Rotate discussion groups to provide more opportunities to discuss with all classmates*OKAY with everyone given COVID?*

Continue encouraging class discussion as it helps make personal connections from others’ perspectives

Dr. Suter facilitate discussion more: Hear more from Professor Suter a little more. I know students find discussion more engaging however I would love to hear a little lecture because I feel like she has a vast amount of knowledge that I would love to get

More structure sometimes (if i clearly knew what question was asked, if it was clear if we were jumping in or raising hands, etc.) I would be more comfortable doing so

If materials are significantly long, maybe break them up into different assignments?

Be mindful that people come from a variety of backgrounds and some of us are less exposed to this content than others

4. What can Professor Suter do about number 2?

Experiments today—Pls provide me feedback afterward

1. Experiment #1: Rotated Peer Groups: Pls let me know if more than 2 people are together again in the same group

2. Begin with Lecture

3. More structured prompt for write-to-learn and small group discussion

4. Clearer raise hand protocol for whole group discussion

Any other comments, questions, or feedback?

Your item or learning needs not addressed today?

Please come to office hours Thursday 12:30-1:30

OR

Email to set up a meeting at a time that works for both of us

Pre-Class Learning Activities

1. Chapter 5, The Practices of Transnational Adoption (pp. 94-122) Making Families Through Adoption

2. https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/Intercountry-Adoption/adopt_ref/adoption-statistics.html (Links to an external site.)

·      Exploration of Patterns.  

3. Afifi, W. A., & Guerrero, L. K. (2000). Motivations underlying topic avoidance in close relationships.

4. Adopted documentary

5. Adopted viewing guide

The Practices of Transnational Adoption

Why Riley & Van Vleet use term, “transnational” adoption

“to signal the importance of the ways that the flow of children from sending to receiving countries—like the flow of other people, things, capital, or ideas—mirrors pathways of power, authority, and inequality, this time on a global scale” p. 94

To signal their complexity, as “best understood as the result of complex and sometimes contradictory processes at all levels—local, national, and global” p 94

Why Transnational Adoption?

No single answer, complex

Early adoptions from Europe, Asia humanitarian

Followed crises of war, poverty in sending countries

Birth mother rights in US

Ortiz & Briggs argue media and public policies constructed poorer children of other countries as “savable”

Declining international adoption

Reasons contributing to the Decline:
Explanations come from multiple perspectives

Decline attributed to two largest causes by scholars:

Increased standards for ethical adoptions

Shifts in social, economic and political concerns of some of the largest sending countries

Certainly, now we have the effects of Covid but even prior to Covid.

South Korean government been encouraging in-country adoptions,

began to see increase in domestic, decrease in international since 2007.

China slowdown started mid 2000’s

Stricter rules for foreign adoption, Stricter requirements around couples qualifying for adoption

Global Transfer of Children

U.S. Department of State “promotes intercountry adoption as a viable option for children in need of permanency when it is in the best interest of the child and when placement within the country of origin has been appropriately considered but ruled out as a viable option.”

FY 2020 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption July 2021

Topic Avoidance: What is it?

Strategic

Decision

To NOT disclose info on particular topic

Avoidance of “taboo topics”: examples..

teen avoids topics of sex, risky behavior with parent;

info from previous relationships with new partner

Motivations for Topic Avoidance:

Relationship Protection: avoid out of fear of harm to rel that might be brought by disclosure

Relationship Destruction: avoid topics to deescalate rel; to decrease intimacy

Identity Management: avoid to save face; to protect image; to protect self from punishment, criticism, embarrassment

Identity Management Example

Desire to “fit in” or “blend in” with White family and community overrides desire to share racialized experiences with parent

“my parents didn’t bring [race] up and I think the other factor was that I didn’t know how to voice that, either, because I didn’t have anyone around me that could voice it, despite the fact that my [Korean adopted] sister was there. I think that we were very similar in the sense that we don’t have other people telling us it’s okay to talk about being different, especially when people are telling you ‘’you should be the same.’ You kind of feel like it’s your fault.”

Motivations for Topic Avoidance (cont)

4. Privacy: avoid to maintain autonomy; to carve out private sense of self

5. Quality of Expected Information/Partner unresponsiveness: e.g., avoid b/c feel other will think topic trivial, won’t understand

e.g., Docan-Morgan’s research with Korean Adoptees: avoided disclosing racial derogation because instinctually felt White parents could not understand or had disclosed in past and parental response unhelpful

6. Futility of Discussion: avoids b/c feel like talking about issue is pointless, won’t produce any useful result (e.g., topic of birthmother or searching)

In-Class Writing and Discussion
Modified Jig Saw:
Reflecting on the film Adopted, free write for 10 minutes about what was most striking to you in relation to…

Group 1: …adoption and biological normativity

Group 2 … adoption and identity

Group 3 …. Adoption and topic avoidance

Group 4 ….. Adoption and race

Post and Shut Laptop when completed.

Discussion Post #2
Write-to-Learn

Due Date

ENGAGEMENT EXPECTATIONS

Write and Respond with the heart. Emotions are okay in this class; no need to bifurcate the mind and body

Write & Respond intentionally

Go Frolic

See You Next Week!

final

links:

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rights-human/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/

final

1

Final Paper Assignment: ASEM 2696: Communication & Adoption
(100 points)

Assignment Description: The purpose of the final essay is to promote student integration and application of course
materials to advance their own thinking. Starting with their introductory essays, students have been charting their
own learning trajectory in this course. Across discussion posts, peer responses, and reflections, students have been
writing about not only how they understand the theories and concepts introduced in this course, but also how these
materials have challenged them to think differently. In this final essay, students choose one of the major topic areas
covered in this course as their focus: a) public and private discourses of adoption, b) communication and adoption,
or c) identity and adoption. Integrating their writing in this course with curricular materials, students explicate how
this course has allowed them to think in new and more informed ways about their own identity(ies), relationships,
community(ies), family(ies), and/or adoption in the broader U.S. or international context. Formatting expectations:
5 pages of double-spaced text with 1” margins and page numbers, using 12 pt. Times New Roman Font, plus title
page (no page number).

At the beginning of this course, I asked you to reflect upon and write about what you knew and felt about adoption
coming into this course. I asked you not to do outside research or read any course materials prior to completing
that essay. I asked you two questions.

In the first question, I asked you to tell me what you knew, thought, or felt about adoption coming into
this class. To answer that first question, I asked you to rely solely on your pre-existing knowledge and
feelings of adoption. Some of you drew upon adoption coverage in the media and pop culture, others
drew upon stories you had heard about adoption told by friends, family, or community members, while
others drew upon your own, friends or family members’ lived experiences of adoption.

For the second question, I provided a visual model of your learning. The graphic provided a course
overview, painting a picture of what the course looks like. I asked you to reflect on the ASEM 2696 visual
model of student learning, describe to me what you the knowledge you expected to gain from this course,
and how you expected the curriculum might challenge you to think differently about your identity(ies),
relationships, community(ies), family(ies), adoption, and/or family in the broader U.S. or international
context.

Since that time . . .

We’ve been studying theories and concepts that have expanded your knowledgebase about a) public and private
discourses of adoption, b) communication and adoption, and c) identity and adoption. You have been writing not
only about how you understand those theories and constructs, but also how you can use them to think in new and
more informed ways.

For the final paper . . .

You will be writing about your own learning trajectory in this course, drawing on any and all writing you’ve done
and feedback you’ve received from Prof Suter and your peers as well as course materials.

2

Prior to writing your paper, you need to do the following:
1. Gather all the writing you’ve done for this course in one place (you might cut and paste from intro essay,

discussion boards, professor-student check-ins, written in class formative writing, notes, etc.). Also collect
feedback you’ve received from Prof. Suter and classmate responses offered to you.

2. Now you have your writing in this course collected, using your introductory essay as your starting point,
examine your writing for evidence of how your thinking has changed and developed as a result of
participating in this course, focusing specifically on times you indicate shifts in your thinking about your
identity(ies), relationships, community(ies), family(ies), adoption, and/or family in the broader U.S. or
international context.

3. Engage in the Peer Review Sequence.
4. Make appointment(s) with the Writing Center to discuss your “writing” at any stage(s). This can include:

understanding this final paper assignment prompt, planning and outlining, thesis development, using
evidence, integrating texts, analyzing and synthesizing, drafting, revising, building an argument, learning
to use a citation style, making decisions about code-meshing and language use, and much more.
Remember, writing center consultations are collaborative, non-evaluative, and learning oriented. Writing
center consultants work with students in live sessions. They do not edit student work for the student or
provide comments on drafts by email. Expect to be an active participant in all sessions.

In this paper, you need to do the following….

1. Address at least one of the major topic areas we’ve studied: a) public and private discourses of adoption,
b) communication and adoption, and c) identity and adoption.

2. Apply the course curriculum to your own thinking and understanding: how do these materials allow you
to understand or think in new and more informed ways about your identity(ies), relationships,
community(ies), family(ies), adoption, and/or family in the broader U.S. or international context?

3. Explicitly address your own learning, drawing on writing you’ve done in this course to show changes in
your thinking over time.

4. Draw on 3-5 course curricular materials in concrete and specific ways. Concrete and specific ways mean
integrating specific terms/lines/concepts and/or a specific instances/examples/stories from the course
curriculum you select.

5. Organize your paper around one clear thesis statement. Include your thesis statement at the top of your
paper. Write an introduction that frames the paper around that thesis statement.

6. Writing Expectations
o Well-organized, coherent paper, written from an outline (outline must be submitted with final

paper—thesis statement at top of outline and final essay)
o 5 pages of double-spaced text with 1” margins and page numbers, using 12 pt. Times New Roman

Font, plus title page (no page number).
o Grammatically correct, No spelling errors, Times New Roman font, 12 pt., 1-inch margins, and page

numbers.

Grading Rubric (100 points in total, broken down as follows)

1. (40 Points) Context and Purpose of Assignment:
Degree to which the essay demonstrates a thorough understanding of the context, audience,
purpose, and the assigned task(s) of the assignment

2. (40 Points) Development of Ideas:

Degree to which the essay demonstrates a thoughtful, evidence-based, and organized approach
to developing the proposed ideas

3. (20 points) Grammar, Mechanics, and Style:
Degree to which the essay demonstrates an engaging and consistent style and voice, free of
errors in grammar and mechanics, and adheres to length and formatting expectations

final

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

1

This guidebook was created to help parents and children in transracial homes learn how to thrive in and celebrate
their bicultural family; and for children to gain a strong sense of racial identity and cultural connections.

Elizabeth Suter

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

2

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

3

INTRODUCTION 4

A TRANSRACIALLY-ADOPTED CHILD’S BILL OF RIGHTS 5

TRANSRACIAL PARENTING PLEDGE 6

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A TRANSRACIAL FAMILY? 7

HOW FAR HAVE WE COME? THE HISTORY OF TRANSRACIAL FAMILIES 8 – 10

GENERAL PARENTING TASKS FOR TRANSRACIAL PARENTS 11 – 14

HOW TO CONNECT YOUR CHILD TO THEIR CULTURE – 15 – 16

AND HOW TO BECOME A BICULTURAL FAMILY

THE VOICES OF ADULT TRANSRACIAL ADOPTEES 17 – 24

RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION – FOSTERING RACIAL COPING SKILLS 25 – 28

ANSWERING TOUGH QUESTIONS 28 – 29

SKIN CARE & HAIR CARE 30 – 32

RESOURCES 33 – 46

General Transracial Resources

Online Help, Books, Videos, Toys & Dolls

Organizations & Internet Resources

Cultural Camps

African American Resources

Asian American Resources

Native American Resources

Hispanic Resources

European American Resources

Arab American Resources

Language & Self-assessment tools

Table of Contents: Page #

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

4

INTRODUCTION

This booklet will help you understand the importance of race and culture for your family; and share

helpful hints, parenting tips and resources for you on the culturally rich journey of transracial

parenting. Building your child’s sense of racial identity, connecting your child to his or her culture and

race, and preparing your child to deal with discrimination are important and often intimidating

parenting tasks. It is okay to be uncomfortable. Knowledge is key to helping you navigate the path of

transracial parenting effectively. Ask questions, seek information, and forge through the discomfort

and anxiety. This is an exciting and eye-opening journey, full of ups and downs, full of laughter, and full

of heart-warming experiences. Parenting a child of another race and creating a bicultural home

environment will be the foundation for success in your family.

As a transracial parent, have you ever asked yourself the following questions?

• Am I doing enough to help my black child feel a sense of belonging in our family?

• How can I better connect my Latino child to his culture, his racial roots?

• How can I prepare my daughter for the impending discrimination she will experience because she is

black?

• How can I prepare my family to experience racism now that we are a transracial family?

• What do I need to do to meet my Korean child’s needs around race and culture?

• How can I advocate for multicultural educational materials in the schools?

Or, have you ever been too embarrassed to ask questions about culture, afraid of saying the wrong

thing or embarrassed about not knowing the answer?

To understand the “how-to’s” of parenting transracially, it is necessary to visit the past and understand

the historical foundation of race and white privilege in society. Though racism today is not usually as

overt as it was in decades past, it is still very present on a more subtle and institutionalized level. To

best help your children develop a healthy racial identity, it is necessary to educate yourself about

racism yesterday and racism today. For more information on any topic in this manual, we have

included an extensive resource section in the back of this book.

According to transracial adoption expert Joseph Crumbley, all foster children, whether in a

transracial placement or not, worry “Will I be accepted in this home, even if I am from a

different (biological) family?”

Children in transracial homes also worry “Will I be accepted even if I’m from a different

race?”

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

5

A Transracially-Adopted Child’s Bill of Rights
Adapted by Liza Steinberg Triggs from “A Bill of Rights for Mixed Folks,” by Marilyn Dramé

• Every child is entitled to love and full membership in her family.

• Every child is entitled to have his culture embraced and valued.

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that this is a race conscious society.

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that she will experience life differently than they do.

• Every child is entitled to parents who are not looking to “save” him or to improve the world.

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that being in a family doesn’t depend on “matching.”

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that transracial adoption changes the family forever.

• Every child is entitled to be accepted by extended family members.

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that, if they are white, they benefit from racism.

• Every child is entitled to parents who know that they can’t transmit the child’s birth culture if it is

not their own.

• Every child is entitled to have items at home that are made for and by people of his race.

• Every child is entitled to opportunities to make friends with people of her race or ethnicity.

• Every child is entitled to daily opportunities of positive experiences with his birth culture.

• Every child is entitled to build racial pride within her own home, school, and neighborhood.

• Every child is entitled to have many opportunities to connect with adults of the child’s race.

• Every child is entitled to parents who accept, understand and empathize with her culture.

• Every child is entitled to learn survival, problem-solving, and coping skills in a context of racial

pride.

• Every child is entitled to take pride in the development of a dual identity and a multicultural/

multiracial perspective on life.

• Every child is entitled to find his multiculturalism to be an asset and to conclude, “I’ve got the

best of both worlds.”

Copyright ©1998-2008 by Pact, An Adoption Alliance

http://www.pactadopt.org

info@pactadopt.org

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

6

Transracial Parenting Pledge

As one committed to parenting cross-culturally, transracially, and or internationally,

I pledge the following:

1) To recognize the added value that diversity brings to my life, even outside of my children

2) To create a diverse home environment and family life that is reflective of our multicultural family

3) To prepare my child with survival skills to successfully navigate a race conscious society

4) To help my child to develop pride in his or her racial, ethnic identity and group membership

5) To confront racial, ethnic and cultural intolerance within my family, friends, and community

6) To seek and develop friendships that reflect my commitment to multiculturalism

7) To engage multicultural communities in order to learn, grow and share

8) To learn what matters to the racial/ethnic group of my child and why

9) To see ourselves as a multiracial family, a family of color and to embrace what that means in

today’s and tomorrows society

10) To move beyond the limits of my comfort, knowledge, and biases (to a place of cultural

competence and responsiveness within my family and community through words and action)

11) To not ascribe to the notion of color blindness, but to color appreciation

12) To recognize that love is not enough, that it is necessary, but not sufficient in and of itself

_________________________________________ ________________________

Parent’s Signature Date

_________________________________________ ________________________

Parent’s Signature Date

Copyright 2007 by Robert O’Connor

www.transracialadoptiontraining.com

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

7

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A TRANSRACIAL FAMILY?

How are transracial foster and adoptive families defined?

Transracial foster and adoptive families consist of children of one race or culture being raised by

parents of a different race or culture. Transracial families are considered families of color.

How is “culture” defined?

Culture is defined in many different ways; however, most definitions contain the following elements:

shared language, race, customs, beliefs, values, social status, religious beliefs, gender, sexual

orientation, and others. Given this broad definition, every person is a part of several different cultures.

Interacting with people from a different culture than one’s own can create discomfort and anxiety.

Interacting with people of one’s own culture brings comfort and a sense of belonging.

What do these definitions mean when it comes to parenting children of other cultures and races?

White parents of children of color have the responsibility to help their children define themselves as a

member of their own genetic racial community. Whether of a single race or a mixed race, (biracial),

children either feel “a part of” or “separate from.” Without connection to their own roots, a black

child being raised in a white world will feel “separate from” the white people surrounding him who

look different than him. He will also feel “separate from” the black people he looks like, who have the

same cultural background, but he has no connection to. He needs connection to those that have

shared culture and race. This is vital to his healthy development. No matter how he is raised, society

will assign him to the race and culture of being black, and without connection, he will feel lost and

isolated, not fitting in with the white culture he was raised in and not fitting in with his own racial

culture. By connecting your children to their own race and culture, they will learn to grow in their

roots while incorporating what they are learning from you about their identity in a transracial home.

They become bicultural, bridging the gap between the two worlds.

Knowing this, it is important to evaluate your own beliefs about other cultures and other races before

parenting transracially. Every person has biases, and uncovering them is a lesson in self-awareness and

an opportunity for personal growth.

Here are questions to ask yourself before deciding to parent transracially:

• How many friends do you have of another race or culture?

• What types of things do you seek to know about other cultures?

• Do you attend multi-cultural events and celebrations?

• What do you know about specialized skin and hair care for children of color?

• Have you incorporated other races and cultures into your home life?

• Are the schools in your area diverse with children of many cultures?

• What cultures are represented in your church?

• How do your extended family members view people of different races?

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

8

HOW FAR HAVE WE COME?

The History of Transracial Foster Care and Adoption

In the mid 1950’s, the Child Welfare League of America reported that African American children were

the largest group of children in need of adoptive homes. Public and private agencies stepped up efforts

to place these children by opting to include more kin, single female and foster parents in the pool of

prospective adoptive parents. The next alternative for adoptive placement was to cross racial lines and

transracially place children.

At the time, racial matching became one of many matching criteria that was considered to be good

social work practice and in the best interest of the children. Children and families were matched on

physical characteristics, including skin color, as well as social status and religious preference. While

most of these other matching criteria were abandoned in the 1970’s and 1980’s in favor of matching

criteria that focused on the ability of families to parent children with specific needs, racial matching

was still an often used criteria of workers. The field was divided and the National Association of Black

Social Workers voiced concern about children in transracial placements being at risk for racial identity

issues and a disconnect from their cultural roots.

Because many black children lingered in care too long while waiting for a black foster or adoptive

home, the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) of 1994 was signed into law. MEPA prohibits denying or

delaying placement of a child based on the race, color or national origin of the child or of the foster/

adoptive parent. MEPA was enacted to decrease the length of time that children waited to be placed in

homes; to focus on recruitment and retention of foster parents who can meet the unique needs of

children waiting to be placed; and to eliminate discrimination based on race, color or national origin.

However, this version of MEPA contained a stipulation that racial and ethnic background could still be

considered in making a placement. The Interethnic Adoption Provisions Act (also known as MEPA II)

was then passed in 1996. This version amended the language of the original MEPA to prohibit

discrimination on the basis of race in placement. Race was now to be excluded from placement

guidelines. Under MEPA II, race may only enter into the placement decision when race issues are a

matter of the best interest for the particular child in question.

Transracial Foster Care and Adoption Today

Currently there is a disproportionate number of African American children in foster care. In the general

population, African American children represent 15% of all children. In foster care, African American

children represent 32% of the 510,000 children. In addition to these findings, African American and

Native American children have lower rates of adoption than other races (U.S. DHHS, 2008a; U.S. GAO,

2007).

In May 2008, the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute released findings on Families for African

American Children: The Role of Race & Law in Adoption from Foster Care to address these disparities.

The recommendations of this report are supported by the North American Council on Adoptable

Children, the Child Welfare League of America, the Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption, the

Adoption Exchange Association, the National Association of Black Social Workers, Voice for Adoption,

the Foster Care Alumni of America and the National Association for Social Workers.

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

9

This report details the results of 35 years of research on transracial adoption, concluding the following

3 key issues:

1. Transracial adoption in itself does not produce psychological or social maladjustment

problems in children.

2. Transracially adopted children and their families face a range of challenges, and the

manner in which parents handle them facilitates or hinders children’s development.

3. Children in foster care come to adoption with many risk factors that pose challenges for

healthy development. For these children, research points to the importance of adoptive

placements with families who can address their individual issues and maximize their

opportunity to develop to their fullest potential.

Though there is limited research on the topic of transracially adopted children, recent findings

reported by the Evan B. Donaldson Institute have detailed the following issues common to children in

transracial homes:

1. Transracially adopted children face challenges in coping with being “different.”

2. Transracially adopted children may struggle to develop a positive racial/ethnic identity.

3. A key life skill for transracially adopted children is the ability to cope with discrimination.

What is “white privilege” and what does it mean in transracial foster care and adoption?

What is white privilege? It is being in the majority group in society, having power, and benefiting as a

result. Think of a time when you were not in the majority group and you will quickly understand how

difficult it is to be a minority in any group.

• Being the only female in a male group, or vice versa.

• Being the only overweight person in a group of non-overweight people.

• Being the only foster parent in a group of social workers.

• Being the only married person in a group of single people.

To summarize the conclusions of recommendations made by the Evan B. Donaldson

Institute, it is recommended that children of color are placed with families who can meet

their long-term needs, through supporting connection of the child to his or her own culture,

fostering a healthy and positive racial identity, and preparing the child to deal with

discrimination.

To read the entire report by the Evan B. Donaldson Institute, log onto:

www.adoptioninstitute.org/research/2008_05_mepa.php

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

10

Peggy McIntosh, Associate Director of the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, said that

white privilege is “like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, code

books, visas, clothes, tools, and blank checks.” McIntosh has written several articles on the issue along

with the book “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” that address this cultural

phenomenon.

Some of the items on McIntosh’s White Privilege Checklist include:

• “I can arrange to be in the company of people of my race most of the time.”

• “I can go shopping alone most of the time, pretty well assured that I will not be followed or

harassed.”

• “I can turn on the television or open to the front page of the paper and see people of my race

widely represented.”

• “I am never asked to speak for all of the people of my racial group.”

• “I can take a job or enroll in a college with an affirmative action policy without having my co-

workers or peers assume I got it because of my race.”

• “I can easily buy posters, postcards, picture books, greeting cards, dolls, toys, and children’s

magazines featuring people of my race.”

• “I can walk into a classroom and know I will not be the only member of my race.”

These are only a few of the items on McIntosh’s White Privilege Checklist. These items are a stepping

off point for discussion and for discovering more about how white privilege impacts all families,

including transracial families.

White parents of minority children must educate themselves about white privilege to better

understand their children’s experience in the world, to help their children navigate a world of being in

the minority group, and to begin advocating on behalf of equality for their children.

When minority children are surrounded by people of their own culture, it is usually a needed “break”

from being stared at for being different, from feeling like they don’t belong because of their race, from

wondering who is and isn’t making assumptions about them for their race, from being watched by

store security, and from being lumped together into one broad and inaccurate stereotype. Surrounded

by people of their own culture, children will feel a sense of belonging and a freedom to be themselves

not otherwise felt in the majority culture. This “break” is what children need on a regular basis.

To further understand how a person of a minority race feels in this society of white privilege, challenge

yourself to go somewhere where you are in the minority race. Suddenly you are thinking about things

that normally you might take for granted.

Imagine walking down the sidewalk as a white person in a

predominantly black community. How do you think you would

feel? Would you feel like you fit in? Would you be acutely aware

of the fact that you are the only white person in the area….are you

feeling alone? Would you know how to “fit in” if you lived here?

Would you need to talk differently to fit in? Or dress differently?

Would you be in danger of being attacked for not looking like most

of the people here or for being different? Would you be treated

the same way in the neighborhood stores, or cautiously watched

because of your different-ness? Where would you feel like you fit

in? What would you want to know if you were transplanted to this

neighborhood to live long-term? And how would you find out?

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

11

GENERAL PARENTING TASKS FOR TRANSRACIAL PARENTS:

Children living in transracial homes need parents who recognize their need to know their cultural roots.

Experts recommend that parents do the following things to meet the cultural needs of their children :

The Culture of Children in Foster Care and Adoption

Trauma, Grief, and Attachment

Before looking at the above parenting tasks, it is important to recognize the culture of children in care

that impacts their growth and well-being. Because children in foster and adoptive homes often have a

background of abuse and neglect, along with separation from their parents, it is necessary to briefly

outline how the many layers of trauma and grief impact a child’s sense of identity, belonging and

general well-being. When children experience trauma through abuse, neglect, and/or separation from

birth parents, they must deal with trauma and grief. Your first task is to provide them with a safe

environment to heal.

If there are attachment issues present, as there often are with children in foster and adoptive homes,

it is important to seek out the professional help of an attachment-trained therapist. Without healthy

attachment, the traumatized brains of these children will stay stuck in a flight or fight response,

experiencing parental nurturing from you as pain and sometimes terror. Intimacy hurts for children

with attachment issues. Specialized parenting techniques are necessary to help them heal.

One of the most common things parents and professionals hear from transracial adoptees is that

they want friends or brothers and sisters that look like them (eyes, skin color, etc.).

1. Interact with people of your child’s race – form friendships with people

of all cultures, valuing diversity.

2. Live in a diverse, integrated neighborhood.

3. Recognize multiculturalism is an asset and valued.

4. Seek out mentors within your child’s culture – for yourself and for your

child.

5. Choose integrated schools that offer unbiased educational materials.

6. Stand up to racism and discrimination. Have a no tolerance policy for it.

7. Provide the appropriate hair and skin care for your child.

8. Make your home a bicultural home.

9. Talk about race and culture often.

10. Go to places where your child is surrounded by people of his/her same

race and culture.

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

12

Again, a trained therapist can assist in this process. In general, the earlier the intervention occurs on a

developing brain, the better the results.

In addition to the issues of attachment, trauma, grief and loss, children in transracial homes experience

an additional layer of struggle to find their racial identity in a home that doesn’t represent their own

race. Building a child’s racial identity is an important task for parents in transracial homes.

Self-Esteem and Positive Racial Identity
Robert O’Connor, adult transracial adoptee, therapist and trainer has said, “if you are the only one, you

are alone.” If you are the only one who doesn’t look like the others, you are alone. Feeling different

from others can create low self-esteem, especially if a child views “different” as “bad”.

What is Self-Esteem?
Self-esteem is a person’s feeling of self-worth or a feeling of being of value – in their family, in their

circle of friends, in the world.

High self-esteem creates a foundation to go out into the world with confidence and resiliency; with a

willingness to take necessary risks and persevere through challenges. Self-esteem is built through

repeated small successes, through a sense of belonging and feeling safe at home, and through being

valued within the family and in broader society.

Low self-esteem robs a person of the courage to step out into the world with confidence. A child with

low self-esteem might struggle with the ability to take necessary risks or form new relationships, or go

after a dream. Low self-esteem also sets a child up to lack resilience to stress and can set him or her up

to be vulnerable to others. This can play itself out in situations of peer pressure, or an inability to

defend oneself against bullies or perpetrators, or many other possible scenarios. People with low self-

esteem don’t always have the ability to stay in touch with who they are on the inside, and instead they

are susceptible to yield to what is around them – including unhealthy people or circumstances.

Additionally, when a person suffers from low self-esteem, it can be very difficult to try new things,

work toward goals, persevere through challenges, or learn new skills. They have an intense fear of

failure, and a generalized belief that they ARE a failure as a person. The good news is that self-esteem

can be taught.

How to Build Self-Esteem
Create a sense of safety for your child – physical and emotional safety. Children need a safe place to

live, free of abuse, and a safe place to talk about their thoughts and feelings – ALL of their thoughts and

feelings. This creates a sense of being valued, a belief that he or she has the right to exist, to think, and

to feel; and the knowledge that he or she is important.

Create a sense of belonging. Children need to feel a sense of belonging in their families.

Acknowledging similarities helps children feel like they belong. It is also important to acknowledge and

celebrate differences as well. Let children’s voices be heard and respected, so that they feel valued in

the context of family.

Transracial Parenting in Foster Care & Adoption – Strengthening Your Bicultural Family

13

Point out your child’s strengths and abilities often. As they learn new skills in a certain subject (how

to multiply or divide; how to solve complicated word problems; how to play a musical instrument; how

to shoot a basketball…), acknowledge these small successes. Small successes provide the foundation

for building self-esteem in children.

There are many resources for parents on how to build self-esteem in children. Check out your local

library, book store, or Internet for resources on this topic.

What is racial identity? How can parents instill it?

In addition to understanding what it means to be in foster care or to be adopted, children in transracial

homes need to know what it means to be a member of their own minority group. Having positive

experiences within their own cultures creates a strong racial identity and sense of belonging, along

with a resiliency against negative stereotypes that are portrayed in the media and that are experienced

in society through racism and discrimination.

Children in transracial homes will also need to learn what it means to be a member of a minority group

while living in a family of the majority culture. These children have the additional challenge of learning

how to live “bi-culturally,” walking in two worlds; the world of their own culture and the world of the

culture they are living in. Parents who make it a priority to become a bicultural home will help their

children develop a strong sense of racial identity and self-esteem. There are many suggestions for

helping children connect to their own cultures on pages 14-15, to provide a great foundation of success

for your child.

A child’s self-esteem and racial identity are strengthened when his or her cultural differences a

final

Week 4: Public/Private Interpenetrations in the Adoptive Family; LGBTQ+ Families and Adoption

Week Four: ASEM 2696 Communication & Adoption

Course Learning Objective #5:
Feel a sense of connection, community, and belonging with the professor and students in this course, continuing to learn from and with each other as DU students and alumni long after this course is over. [human dimension learning goal]

Please create a Name Card

Circle of Voices:

Restate your name for your peers

Answer:

What is your major?

If that wasn’t your major, what would your major be?

Professor Suter leads the circle

Week 1-3 Class Critical Incident Questionnaire ASEM-2
Student Summary Report, Jan. 26, 2022

Professor Suter Provides Summary

Pre-class learning activities

Deepen

Deepen understandings of how public discourses, norms, and institutions shape the “private” family

Read

Read: Ch. 3: Adoption: Private Decisions, Public Influences (pp. 55-72) in Making Families Through Adoption

Focus on

Focus on issues related to sexuality and the adoptive family

Read

Read: Suter, E. A. (2014). Communication in lesbian and gay families. In L. H. Turner & R. West (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of family communication (pp. 235-247). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (in Files)

View

View: Daddy & Papa Documentary (56 minutes) (Course Reserves) with viewing guide (files)

Engage

Engage with gay adoptee voices

Read “Finding the universal: Reflections on a multi-prismed identity” by Mark Hagland (files)

Week 4 In Class Reflection: Sentence completion Exercise
Think-Pair-Share Format

Learning Objective: To ensure Week 4’s discussion connects to student concern.

1. THINK

Toggle to Canvas, Find Week 4 In Class Reflection.

Reflect on the sentences.

Choose whichever seems appropriate.

Complete the sentence (free-write 5 mins)

Post reply

When finished close laptop

2. PAIR

Triads discuss

Group chooses one concern, question, or insight

3. SHARE

Representative writes on board

Further whole group discussion

Professor Suter’s Mini Lecture

Family as both a private
& public institution

duality of families as both private (intimate) and public (influenced by law, economy, etc.) predominant in adoptive families

Adoptions pass through courts, sending/receiving governments

“Visible difference” blurs p/p boundary

E.g., Racial differences;

e.g. Two parents of same sex

 “heightened visibility”; “intrusive interactions”

Examples from Daddy & Papa?

Who Adopts?

“What has not changed is that a large majority of adoptive parents are white, older, well-educated, and relatively affluent.”

Influencing factors

Home Study: examples from Daddy & Papa?

Adoption Qualifications: e.g, prove have income and savings to pay adoption expenses & costs of child rearing

Systemic, socio-historical inequities in race, education, and class in U.S.

Characteristics of adopted children

Shift: until mid-twentieth century USonly children considered mentally and physically healthy adoptable.

Today:

all children considered adoptable in U.S.

US: “Age out” of the foster care system at 18

Increasing # of states allow children to stay in foster care after 18 up to 19, 20, 21

“special needs”

determined state by state

Special Needs as determined by
state of Colorado

Physical disability (such as hearing, vision, or physical impairment; neurological conditions; disfiguring defects; and, heart defects).

Mental disability (such as developmental delay or mental retardation, perceptual or speech/language disability, or a metabolic disorder).

Developmental disability resulting in educational delays or significant learning processing difficulties.

Educational disability that qualifies for section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973 or special education services

Emotional disturbance (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, bi-polar disorder and other diagnoses).

Hereditary factors that have been documented by a physician or psychologist

High risk children (such as HIV-positive, drug-exposed, or alcohol-exposed in utero).

Other conditions that act as a serious barrier to the child’s adoption. Conditions may include, but are not limited to:

a healthy child over the age of seven

sibling group that should remain intact

medical conditions likely to require further treatment.

Ethnic background or membership in a minority group which may be difficult to place

US ADOPTION LAWS Impacting LGBTQ Families

States range in protections against discrimination in adoption based on sexual orientation

Currently 28 States, 1 Territory = D.C.: prohibits discrimination (57% of US LGBTQ families reside here)

Currently 11 states: permits state-licensed child welfare agencies to refuse to place and provide services to children and families, including LGBTQ people and same-sex couples, if doing so conflicts with their religious beliefs (20% reside here)

Learn about your state:

Movement Advancement Project. “Equality Maps: Foster and Adoption Laws.” https://www.lgbtmap.org/equality-maps/foster_and_adoption_laws (January 21, 2022).

Public Discourses
of lesbian & Gay Adoption

Discourse of Heteronormativity

Narrates

natural, normative, family ties created through heterosexual sex between child’s parents

Discourse of Homophobia

More fear-based than heteronormativity

Narrates fears such as:

LGBTQ parents

“unfit”

“untrustworthy around children”

“will turn their kids queer”

How voiced in Daddy & Papa?

Discourse of Doing Family

Narrates

Family is created by:

“doing”: ordinary family interactions

“acting” e.g., care & support

“loving”: mutual exchanges of love

Invites external recognition of family status

e.g., validates 2 daddies

private Discourses
of LGBTQ Adoption

Discourse of Internalized Heteronormativity

Internalized marginalization of LGBTQ+ parents “lesser-than” heterosexual parents,

“gay” & “father” as incompatible

heightened self-scrutiny of parenting

Internalized sense of having to prove themselves as parents

Ex’s from Daddy and Papa?

Discourse of Polymaternalism

Children can have more than one authentic mother

Denaturalizes biological motherhood

Meaning allows for motherhood outside genetic ties

Transformative potential

radical potential for kinship

creativity in envisioning best-interests of the child

Forecasting: Thursday’s Assignment Disc board Post 1

CanvasAssignmentsDiscussion Post 1

final

235

Communication in
Lesbian and Gay Families

Elizabeth A. Suter
University of Denver

L esbian and gay families represent a grow-ing population in the United States today. Approximately 2 million U.S. children are
currently growing up with a lesbian or gay parent
(Movement Advancement Project [MAP], 2011).
This number is predicted to rise in coming years
as one third of lesbians and over one half of gay
men without children plan to parent (MAP, 2011).
No longer concentrated in large metropolitan
areas, lesbian and gay families can be found in
96% of U.S. counties (MAP, 2011). In fact, in 12
U.S. states, more than 25% of same-sex couples are
raising children (Gates & Cooke, 2011). Moreover,
lesbian and gay families are racially and ethnically
diverse. Same-sex couples are less likely to identify
as White as compared to their different-sex coun-
terparts and these non-White same-sex couples
are more likely to have children than White same-
sex couples (MAP, 2011).

Thirty years of social scientific research dem-
onstrates that this growing, diverse family form
promotes the well-being of its children (Biblarz

& Savci, 2010). Yet, in the face of strong evidence
of high family functionality and positive parent-
ing outcomes, lesbian and gay parents and their
children still face social stigma. Stigmatization of
lesbian and gay families is rooted in the domi-
nant cultural ideology of heteronormativity.
Heteronormativity narrates that the natural, nor-
mative, preferred manner in which families are
connected is through heterosexual ties (Oswald,
Blume, & Marks, 2005). Although the number of
lesbian and gay families continues to rise, the
powerful normalizing force of heteronormativity
frequently positions these families on the mar-
gins, as decentered, and as less “natural” than
heterosexually-headed families.

As a culturally less-valued family form, lesbian
and gay families face a myriad of challenges. Yet,
in the face of challenge, lesbian mothers, gay
fathers, and their children often demonstrate
resilience. The primary goal of this chapter is to
review and synthesize the current body of schol-
arship on lesbian and gay families. As such, the

CHAPTER 15

236———PART III. Family Forms

first section of this chapter examines extant litera-
ture on lesbian and gay families organized within
a challenge and resiliency framework. Despite the
insights of past scholarship, there is still much to
learn about this growing family form, particularly
from a communicative perspective. Gay and les-
bian families have been primarily studied in allied
fields, such as psychology (e.g., Johnson &
O’Connor, 2002) and family studies (e.g.,
Goldberg, 2010) and remain understudied in the
field of communication studies. Hence, a second-
ary goal of this chapter is to stimulate research on
the communicative practices and processes of
lesbian and gay families. In pursuit of this goal,
this chapter concludes by articulating an agenda
for future communication-based research on les-
bian and gay families. Review and Synthesis of
Extant Literature: Challenges

Lesbian and gay families experience a myriad
of challenges. This section reviews and synthe-
sizes the extant literature in terms of: (a) chal-
lenges to gay and lesbian parents; (b) challenges
to children with gay and lesbian parents; (c) chal-
lenges in legal and social services contexts; and
(d) communicative challenges.

Challenges to
Gay and Lesbian Parents

The negative cultural positioning of gay and
lesbian parenthood represents a significant chal-
lenge to gay fathers and lesbian mothers.
Ideologically, U.S. society still positions gay and
father as incompatible constructs. Fatherhood
continues to be conceived in heteronormative
terms (Giesler, 2012). Gay fathers contend with
negative social messages (e.g., perceptions that
they are unfit parents and untrustworthy around
children) associated with their three overlapping
identity categories: gay, male, and father (Wells,
2011). Gay adoptive fathers depict themselves as
“‘unwanted fathers’ adopting ‘unwanted chil-
dren’” (i.e., hard-to-place, mainly older children
of color with mental, physical, and/or emotional
difficulties) (Broad, Alden, Berkowitz, & Ryan,

2008, p. 513). Likewise, dominant cultural dis-
courses position lesbians as inept mothers,
lesser-than their heterosexual counterparts
(Broad et al., 2008).

Gay fathers and lesbian mothers internalize
their negative cultural positioning to lesser or
greater degrees. Some believe that coming out
negates their potential for parenthood
(Berkowitz & Marsiglio, 2007). For those who
do become parents, internalized marginaliza-
tion troubles the transition to parenthood
(Brinamen & Mitchell, 2008). For instance, gay
fathers report coping with a heightened sense
of visibility and vigilance upon becoming par-
ents (Gianino, 2008), and lesbian mothers
experience more internalized homophobia
than lesbians without children (Demino,
Appleby, & Fisk, 2007). Internalized marginal-
ization also leads to a decreased internal sense
of parental competency. For instance, when
comparing gay fathers and heterosexual fathers,
Bos (2010) found no significant differences on
emotional involvement and parental concern in
the father-child relationship, parental burden,
or children’s well-being. However, gay fathers
reported feeling significantly less competent in
their child-rearing role. Moreover, internalized
marginalization leads to more parenting stress.
For instance, in addition to stress factors shared
with heterosexual adoptive parents (e.g., lower
levels of perceived social support), gay father’s
stigma sensitivity significantly adds to their
parenting stress (Tornello, Farr, & Patterson,
2011). Gay fathers’ higher levels of parental
justification (needing to externally justify and/
or defend one’s role as a gay father) and lived
experiences of societal rejection are signifi-
cantly related to higher levels of parental stress
(Bos, 2010). Gay- and lesbian-headed families
have been identified as highly discourse depen-
dent. More reliant on communication for iden-
tity building, maintenance, and repair as
compared to heterosexually-headed families,
gay- and lesbian-headed families are more
often called upon to explain, justify, and defend
themselves (Galvin & Patrick, 2009).

Chapter 15. Communication in Lesbian and Gay Families ——237

Challenges to Children
With Gay and Lesbian Parents

Stigmatization is challenging not only for gay
and lesbian parents but also for their children.
Children with gay fathers routinely experience
peer homophobic teasing and bullying
(Berkowitz & Kuvalanka, 2013). Moreover,
teachers and school staff reportedly fail not only
to intervene when overhearing antigay remarks
but also perpetuate antigay comments them-
selves (Berkowitz & Kuvalanka, 2013). Similarly,
adolescents growing up in lesbian families report
peers as the main perpetrators of bullying behav-
iors and school as the primary context for bully-
ing (van Gelderen, Gartrell, Bos, van Rooij, &
Hermanns, 2012). Studies find that today’s early
childhood teachers and staff remain unprepared
to work with gay and lesbian families (Kitntner-
Duffy, Vardell, Lower, & Cassidy, 2012) and
continue to report low levels of personal comfort
in working with gay and lesbian parents (Averett
& Hegde, 2012).

Challenges in Legal
and Social Services Contexts

Stigmatization extends beyond the challenges
experienced by children in the educational con-
text to legal and social services contexts. In the
legal context, the lack of a legal and culturally
recognizable term for lesbian parents whose
partners give birth to their child both discon-
firms the legitimacy of their motherhood and
impedes lesbian comother maternal identity for-
mation (Miller, 2012). In a poignantly concrete
example, formal support systems’ tendency to
invalidate same-sex family relations undermines
the formal help-seeking behaviors of lesbian
mothers experiencing intimate partner violence
(Hardesty, Oswald, Khaw, & Fonseca, 2011).
Relatedly, bereaved lesbian mothers have been
found to experience a double disenfranchise-
ment wherein “chronic invalidation—socially,
legally, psychologically—of their relationship

(and thus implicitly, the grief experience) further
ostracizes them,” rendering the bereavement pro-
cess more difficult (Cacciatore & Raffo, 2011, p.
175). In the social services context, the dominant
cultural discourses of gender and sexuality
invoked in the everyday discourse of social work-
ers positions gay parenthood and caregiving as
unnatural, and maternal gay men as deviants
who present problematic models of gender
(Hicks, 2006). Lesbian and gay adoptive parents
identify perceived discrimination during the
adoption process as the greatest barrier faced in
becoming parents (Brown, Smalling, Groza, &
Ryan, 2009).

Communicative Challenges

These institutional, cultural, and interper-
sonal challenges become embodied in specific
discursive practices. Lesbian and gay parents
interacting with school systems and other exter-
nal others experience difficult conversations
ranging from complicated (emanating from out-
siders’ misunderstandings about the nature of the
parent’s relationship) to annoying or frustrating
(manifesting in response to external expectations
that the same-sex family adapt to heteronorma-
tive assumptions about family relations) to pain-
ful (arising from direct challenges to the
authenticity of the familial relations) (Galvin,
Turner, Patrick, & West, 2007). Likewise, lesbian
mothers have been found to encounter four main
types of discursive legitimacy challenges: com-
parison questions (e.g., definitional or role-based
confusions arising from default comparisons to
different-sex families), direct questions (e.g.,
direct rebukes of the lesbian family form, non-
verbal challenges (e.g., silence, ignoring, nonver-
bally hostile behaviors), and master narrative
challenges (e.g., grounded in conservative reli-
gious or political sanctions of homosexuality).
Legitimacy challenges range from direct attacks
to silence to legalized discrimination and ema-
nate from community members, friends, and
even family (Koenig Kellas & Suter, 2012).

238———PART III. Family Forms

Review and Synthesis of
Extant Literature: Resilience

Countering persistent cultural assumptions that
same-sex families are dysfunctional and some-
how deviant, a growing body of literature reports
strengths and resiliency factors of the lesbian and
gay family form. Lesbian and gay families are
highly functioning, bound by close relationships
(Johnston, Moore, & Judd, 2010; Leddy, Gartrell,
& Bos, 2012). These close, positive relationships
foster resilience (Bos & Gartrell, 2010), promote
positive coping with stigmatization of parents
and children (Ryan & Brown, 2011), and facili-
tate positive adolescent adjustment and well-
being (Patterson & Wainright, 2011).

Resilience Factors Unique
to Gay and Lesbian Families

Not only do lesbian and gay families function
at comparable levels to heterosexual families
(Ryan & Brown, 2011), lesbian and gay families
also manifest strengths and resilience factors
unique to their family form. Gay fathers may
actually have an easier time managing work-
family demands than heterosexual fathers, as gay
fathers’ departure from hegemonic masculine
gender norms facilitate prioritizing family over
work (Richardson, Moyer, & Goldberg, 2012).
Furthermore, research finds positive gay and
lesbian parenting with the hardest-to-place chil-
dren in the U.S. foster care system. Child welfare
workers view lesbian and gay prospective parents
as more willing than heterosexual parents to raise
children with serious physical, emotional, or
behavioral problems. Additionally, lesbian and
gay parents are viewed as better equipped to par-
ent these more challenging children due to higher
levels of parental resourcefulness and stronger
support systems of extended networks of family
and friends (Brooks & Goldberg, 2001). Not only
are gay men and lesbians perceived as more open
and better equipped, but they also produce higher
family functioning outcomes than heterosexuals

for more difficult-to-place foster children,
namely sibling groups, older children in general,
and older children who have been abused (Erich,
Leung, Kindle, & Carter, 2005).

Adding to their unique strengths and resil-
iency factors, gay men and lesbians’ experiences
of heterosexist stigmatization promote resiliency
for adopted children experiencing racism or feel-
ings of exclusion. Gay and lesbian parents’ expe-
riences of heterosexist oppression promote
sensitivity to their minority child’s racial dis-
crimination and increase parental capacity to
facilitate children’s positive coping (Ausbrooks &
Russell, 2011). Furthermore, a mutual sense of
marginalization between parent and child has
been found to redress adopted children’s feel-
ings of exclusion and promote positive attach-
ment between parent and child (Rootes, 2013).
Gay fathers’ marginalization as a sexual minor-
ity and as a man in a caregiver’s role connects
with their foster and adopted children’s sense of
marginalization and difference from peers with
biologically connected families. Gay fathers’
marginalization heightens their empathy, attun-
ement, and sensitivity to the child, which in turn
bolsters the child’s empathy and attunement,
forming a close attachment between father and
child (Rootes, 2013).

Communication Resilience

A number of communicative processes have
been found to promote resiliency in lesbian and
gay families. Disclosure is one such process. Gay
men and lesbians have a uniquely challenging
task of disclosing their sexual orientation to
their children. These disclosures, though, have
been linked to positive learning and relational
outcomes. Parental disclosure of sexual orienta-
tion teaches children about tolerance and the
need to honor individual differences (Bigner,
2000). Father-child relationships have been
found to increase in intimacy after parental disclo-
sure of sexual orientation (Benson, Silverstein,
& Auerbach, 2005), and lesbian mothers’

Chapter 15. Communication in Lesbian and Gay Families ——239

coming out has been found to promote family
identity-building (Breshears, 2010). Parental
disclosures also positively influence youth dis-
closure processes—both within and outside the
family. In terms of within the family, children of
gay and lesbian parents have been found to be
more likely to discuss their sexuality with their
parents as compared to children of heterosexual
parents (Tasker & Golombok, 1997). In terms of
outside the family, conversations in early child-
hood about family structure and heteronorma-
tivity have been found to positively influence
youth disclosure processes to peers about family
form (Gianino, Goldberg, & Lewis, 2009).
However, the age of the child when the parent
discloses matters. Golding (2006) found that
children whose parents disclosed their lesbian-
ism during childhood or late adolescence were
more receptive of their mother’s lesbianism,
reported more positive coping with social stig-
matization, and were more likely to assert resil-
ient behavior as compared to children who
received the information during early or middle
adolescence or early adulthood. Children who
were more open about their mothers’ lesbian-
ism reported higher levels of self-esteem and
lower levels of feelings of isolation and unique-
ness from other children.

As a discourse dependent family form (Galvin
& Patrick, 2009), lesbian and gay families face
not only internally challenging conversations,
such as discussing a parent’s sexual orientation,
but they are also subject to challenging outsider
remarks on family difference that contest the
validity and morality of their family form
(Breshears, 2011). Koenig Kellas and Suter (2012)
found that in response to discursive legitimacy,
lesbian mothers account for family difference
both in ways similar to heterosexual parents (i.e.,
by offering refusals, justifications, and conces-
sions) and in ways unique to the experiences of
lesbian mothers. Leading by example constituted
a unique lesbian family response strategy in
which mothers’ responded to outsider skepticism
and challenge by modeling a happy and well-
functioning family.

These discourse dependent families promote
their own resiliency by both verbal and nonverbal
means. Internal family discussions about external
challenges promote resiliency. By explicitly dis-
cussing the homophobia underlying outsider
remarks and helping children understand the love
between same-sex parents and their decision to
parent as morally ethical, lesbian mothers have
been found to actually use intrusive interactions as
a way to build family identity (Breshears, 2011).
Parental discussions of challenging remarks not
only redress the negative identity implications of
homophobic comments but also assist children in
better handling later peer discrimination.
Nonverbally, lesbian and gay parents employ ritu-
alistic and symbolic bids to negotiate external
affirmation. For instance, as efforts toward secur-
ing external identity affirmation for both the fam-
ily as a unit and the nonbiological mother as a
legitimate mother, lesbian mothers have been
found to enact patterned interactions similar to
those of heterosexual families, assign parallel
address terms for both biological and nonbiologi-
cal mothers, share a common family last name, and
choose sperm donors that look like the nonbio-
logical mother (Bergen, Suter, & Daas, 2006; Ryan
& Berkowitz, 2009; Suter, Daas, & Bergen, 2008).

Children’s Resilience

Recent examinations of children with same-
sex parents redress long-held negative stereotypes
and demonstrate resilience. In the wake of the les-
bian baby boom, children raised by lesbian moth-
ers from infancy are now old enough for researchers
to examine these children—now adolescents—
on their own terms. Bos, Goldberg, van Gelderen, &
Gartrell (2012) redress a long-held stereotype that
the lack of a different gender role model negatively
impacts the well-being of children reared in
same-sex households. Comparing adolescents
with and those without a male role model raised
by lesbian mothers, Bos and colleagues found that
the absence of a male role model did not nega-
tively impact the psychological adjustment of

240———PART III. Family Forms

adolescents. Furthermore, recent research refutes
cultural presumptions that these adolescents
would manifest significant adjustment difficul-
ties. Measuring quality of life, a positive aspect of
psychological adjustment, van Gelderen, Bos,
Gartrell, Hermanns, and Perrin (2012) found no
difference between adolescents raised by lesbian
mothers and adolescents raised by heterosexual
parents. As they write, “This finding supports
earlier evidence that adolescents reared by les-
bian mothers from birth do not manifest more
adjustment difficulties (e.g., depression, anxiety,
and disruptive behaviors) than those reared by
heterosexual parents” (van Gelderen et al., 2012,
p. 65). These adolescents score high on ratings of
well-being, quality of friendships and familial
relationships, academic performances, activity
involvement, and aspirations (Gartrell, Bos,
Peyser, Deck, & Rodas, 2012).

In fact, research documents that adolescents
raised by same-sex parents demonstrate resilience
in the face of the cultural stigmatization of their
families. Homophobic stigmatization has not
been found to be associated with lower life satis-
faction ratings or substance abuse (Goldberg,
Bos, & Gartrell, 2011). Furthermore, the dis-
course of lesbian and gay identity as acceptable
has been found to occupy the centered position in
adult children’s talk about their parents coming
out as gay or lesbian, while the discourse of les-
bian and gay identity as wrong occupies the more
marginalized position (Breshears & Braithwaite,
in press). These results suggest that relational
discourses may be more salient that the stigmatiz-
ing cultural discourses surrounding lesbian and
gay families and provide further evidence of chil-
dren’s resilience from stigmatization of their fam-
ily’s identity (Breshears & Braithwaite, in press).

Fostering Gay and
Lesbian Parents’ Identities

Not only has gay and lesbian parenting been
found not to harm children as often culturally
assumed, gay and lesbian parenting leads to

positive outcomes for both parents and their
children. The decision to become a parent has
been found to foster gay and lesbian parents’
individual, relational, and familial identities. The
transition to parenting has been found to pro-
mote closeness in parents’ families-of-origin
(Brown et al., 2009) and increase parents’ sense
of familial validation (Bergman, Rubio, Green, &
Padrón, 2010). On the individual level, becoming
parents strongly increases parents’ sense of self-
esteem, increases both positivity and pride,
brings greater meaning to life, and facilitates
identity growth (Bergman et al., 2010; Gianino,
2008). The gay fathers in Brinamen and Mitchell’s
(2008) study described how the process of
becoming a parent forced them to confront nega-
tive cultural messages that positioned their gay
male identities as incongruent with their pro-
spective father identity. As one participant
described this process, “There a line in Moby
Dick where the captain is searching for the great
white whale, admiring in astonishment the
whale’s capacity . . . He says ‘Be thou like the
whale’. . . You can be more than you suspect—
more than you ever thought is possible”
(Brinamen & Mitchell, 2008, pp. 539-540).
Likewise, motherhood allows lesbians to negate
heteronormative-based cultural discourses that
position lesbians as inept at mothering (Broad
et al., 2008).

Restructuring the Gender Order

Gay and lesbian parenting disrupts tradi-
tional, hegemonic understandings of sexuality
and of gender. As such, gay and lesbian parenting
holds the potential to restructure the gender
order in the present and in the future. For their
sons, gay fathers serve as a model of androgyny,
offering an alternative to traditional masculine
role development (Bigner, 2000). Children of gay
fathers exhibit increased empathy, tolerance, and
acceptance of difference. Lesbian mothers func-
tion as positive role models of women’s financial
and emotional independence from men and

Chapter 15. Communication in Lesbian and Gay Families ——241

egalitarianism in domestic life that their hetero-
sexual daughters have transferred to their own
relations with men (Saffron, 1998). Gay and les-
bian parenting also engenders a future restruc-
turing of current hierarchies (Broad et al., 2008).
Scholars expect that it is reasonable to assume
that children raised in same-sex families will
positively influence future generations’ negotia-
tions of gender inequality (Berkowitz, 2011b).

Race, Ethnicity and
Social Location Matter

Strengths, resilience, and positive outcomes
may not be same across all same-sex families,
however. Research findings demonstrate that
race, ethnicity, and social location matter. For
some, the intersection of class and racial privilege
with sexual marginalization promotes positivity
in adoption processes and experiences. For
instance, Berkowitz (2011a) found that gay
adopting fathers’ social location as White eco-
nomically privileged men positively shaped their
adoptive experiences, allowing them to success-
fully navigate adoptive racial and class hierar-
chies in ways inaccessible to gay men with
non-White bodies and less economic power.
However, the intersections of race, ethnicity, and
social location with sexual marginalization are
not always positive. For instance, Rincon and
Trung Lam’s (2011) examination of perceptions
of Latina mothers towards Latina lesbian parents
found that more than one fourth of participants
perceived Latina lesbian parenting as abnormal
and remained concerned that the children would
be confused about their own sexual preference,
miss having a father, and be subjected to peer
teasing and be socially ostracized.

Context Matters

Research finds that in addition to race, eth-
nicity, and social location, context matters. One
aspect of context—community climate—weighs

significantly. Community climate is defined as
the degree of community support for homosexu-
ality as measured by religious and political affili-
ations, legal rights, workplace opportunities and
policies, and the presence of gay, lesbian, bisex-
ual, and transgender (GLBT) community mem-
bers and services and ranges from hostile to
supportive (Oswald, Cuthbertson, Lazarevic, &
Goldberg, 2010). Affirmative social environ-
ments have been found to counter the negative
impact of homophobia on the well-being of
children raised in same-sex families. For
instance, inclusion of LGBT school curriculum
and mothers’ higher levels of identification with
a lesbian community have been found to serve as
protective factors and foster resilience in young
children (Bos, Gartrell, Peyser, & van Balen,
2008). Community climate has also been found
to predict the well-being of adult children of gay
and lesbian parents. Whereas some social poli-
cies (e.g., lesbian and gay hate-crime policies)
have been found to predict positive well-being,
population characteristics, such as residing in a
densely populated area with a high-proportion of
same-sex couples, are the strongest predictor of
positive well-being (Lick, Riskind, & Patterson,
2012). Same-sex prospective parents residing in
small metropolitan areas report barriers unique
to their communities. Yet, living without gay-
friendly adoption agencies in their communities,
same-sex adopting couples have been found to
manifest resourcefulness, such as seeking out
informal support to cope with the minority stress
and limited support in their communities
(Kinkler & Goldberg, 2011).

Beyond community climate, legal and social
climates are two other significant aspects of con-
text. Comparisons of U.S. same-sex family mem-
bers to family members outside the United States
find that U.S. legal and social contexts negatively
impact both parents and children. For instance,
research suggests that perceived discrimination
and marginal legal status is correlated with more
mental health problems for U.S. lesbian mothers.
U.S. lesbian mothers report more family worries
about legal status and discrimination and more

242———PART III. Family Forms

depressive symptoms as compared to Canadian
lesbian mothers (Shapiro, Peterson, & Stewart,
2009). Nonaffirming legal and social climates
have also been found to negatively impact U.S.
children. As compared to their counterparts in
the Netherlands, who live in a social climate
more accepting of same-sex marriage and par-
enting, U.S. children are less open with peers
about growing up in a lesbian family and experi-
ence greater levels of homophobia (Bos, Gartrell,
van Balen, Peyser, & Sandfort, 2008). Higher
levels of anticipated homonegativity have been
found to negatively predict children’s disclosures
about their parents’ sexual orientation (Tasker &
Granville, 2011). Furthermore, the lack of c-parent
adoption has been found to decrease the psycho-
logical well-being of adolescents with same-sex
parents. For instance, adolescents whose mothers
are not recognized as legal coparents report
lower levels of family closeness and a lower sense
of felt security (Gartrell, Bos, Peyser, Deck, &
Rodas, 2011).

Future Research

As evidenced by this review and synthesis of the
extant literature on lesbian and gay families,
the communication discipline is rather late to the
study of gay and lesbian parenting. With the excep-
tion of West and Turner (1995), communication
scholars did not begin contributing to the conver-
sation until the mid to late 2000s. Since then, com-
munication research remains limited. For instance,
less than 15% of the studies synthesized for this
chapter were conducted by communication
scholars. Currently, knowledge on lesbian and
gay families is largely indebted to research in
allied fields, such as family studies, sociology,
and psychology. However, there is no doubt that
work to date is foundational. Yet, continued
research by communication scholars is needed to
contribute to our knowledge about lesbian and
gay-headed families.

In the most recent decade, communica-
tion scholars have issued calls for research on

nontraditional families’ communication patterns
and processes. For instance, a special issue on
“Communication and Diversity in Contemporary
Families” (Turner & West, 2003) appearing in
The Journal of Family Communication included
an agenda for communication research on adop-
tive families (Galvin, 2003). Prior to the publica-
tion of Galvin’s (2003) research agenda, like
lesbian and gay families, adoptive families had
been historically studied in allied fields, most
notably psychology. Coupled with Galvin’s (2006)
articulation of discourse dependent families’
internal and external boundary management
processes, Galvin (2003) stimulated a now rather
large body of communication-based knowledge
on adoptive family communication.

However, no such communication research
agenda has yet been articulated for the study of
lesbian and gay families. As such, the aim of this
section is stimulate much-needed research to
begin to redress the relative dearth of communi-
cation research on lesbian and gay families.
Moving toward a communication research agenda
for the study of lesbian and gay families, this sec-
tion outlines ideas for the articulation and exten-
sion of communication constructs and theory
highly relevant to lesbian and gay family commu-
nication processes.

Communication research to date has begun to
use the constructs of discourse dependence and
family boundary management processes (Galvin,
2006) as well as the theory of relational dialectics
(RDT) (Baxter, 2011), all developed in the field of
communication studies, to fruitfully frame
examinations of lesbian and gay family commu-
nication processes. The question remains as to
how future research might further articulate and
extend the notions of discourse dependency,
family boundary management processes, and
relational dialectics. For instance, in the case of
communication research on adoptive families,
research framed by discourse dependency and
boundary management processes effectively
shifted adoption research from a focus on adop-
tion outcomes toward a focus on the interac-
tional and meaning-making processes inherent

Chapter 15. Communication in Lesbian and Gay Families ——243

in adoptive family members’ communication
encounters. Research to date on lesbian and gay
families has been very similarly outcome-
focused. This current body of research has done
tremendous work to redress long-standing nega-
tive cultural assumptions about gay and lesbian
parents and the welfare of their children. Not
only have lesbian and gay families been shown to
function at comparable levels to heterosexual
families (Ryan & Brown, 2011), but they have
also been shown to exhibit unique strengths and
resilience factors (e.g., Ausbrooks & Russell,
2011). Similarly, children raised by gay and les-
bian parents have been shown to not only fare as
well as children raised by heterosexual parents
(van Gelderen e

final

International Adoptions from Russia & the Tough Love Podcast, adoptee collaboration: Welcoming Glenna boggs, ASEM 2696 Alum, DU alum

Week 8: ASEM 2696: Comm & Adoption

Pre-Curriculum Materials

The Dark Matter of Love: Science can Change the Way you Love & Viewing Guide

Interview with the creators of Tough Love Podcast: Adoptees’ Perspectives on Relationships: https://du.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01UODE_INST/1gq64ta/alma991042178135502766

Episode 6 “In or Out of the Adoption Fog, with Natalie Boggs:

Welcoming adoptee guests:
Spotlight – Glenna Boggs

In Week 8, we are fortunate to be welcoming our first adoptee guest speaker: Glenna Boggs. Glenna was adopted into the US from Russia in 1999 at 9 months of age with her biological twin sister, Natalie. Glenna graduated with a Bachelor of Music with a focus on Bassoon Performance. Glenna is completing her Master’s of Music Education at the University of Pacific. After taking ASEM 2696, Glenna co-created the Tough Love Podcast: Adoptees’ Perspectives on Relationships with Lauren Fishbein (international, transracial adoptee from Chile in reunion with birth family and adoption therapist) and Deontae Boswell (transracial adoptee, born and raised in Austin, TX, in an open, domestic adoption).

Please share with our guest why you enrolled in ASEM 2696: Communication & Adoption

Circle of Voices

5 minute free write—post on canvas

What connections did I make while listening to Glenna’s talk today that I want to remember?

The Dark Matter of Love: Science can Change the Way you Love

Pull out Documentary Viewing Guide

The Dark Matter of Love:
Communicating attachment & love in Relationships

“Professor Emeritus Dr. Robert Marvin has spent a lifetime developing a scientific intervention to help children learn to love. His framework draws on experiments into the attachment patterns of monkeys, birds, and animals. This is a story of a family going through his program.”

Lluba: “Masha came to us when she was very young. I felt we were immediately tied together. She sometimes stayed with me and we were very happy. Why didn’t I adopt her myself? My house is too small, and the authorities wouldn’t give her to me. She used to say, ‘I’m not going anywhere. I want to stay with you. But she always wants to be part of a family. She always wanted a mother and father. So, I hope it will work out fine.”

Dr. Marvin: “There’s a real possibility for Masha that her early relationship with Lluba may provide her some underlying patterns of being within a relationship that could really help her as she goes through this process of becoming a member of this new family.”

For More, See The Dark Matter of Love viewing guide

The Dark Matter of Love: Science can Change the Way you Love

Documentary asks the questions . . .

What is love?

Can Love be Learned?

Discussion Post 3: Aesthetic, Art to Learn

Centers Course Learning Goal #2:

Integrate course curriculum to think in new and more informed ways about your own identity, relationships with others, adoption, and/or family structures in the broader culture [application and integration learning goals]

Aesthetic Discussion Post: Art to Learn

Prompt: Create a visual that paints a picture of how curriculum from Week 7, 8, or 9 deepens your thinking about your own identity, relationships with others, or broader cultural conversations about the family or adoption.

Include a handcrafted visual (Can be created a sidewalk chalk drawing, sketch, painting, textile)

Photographed by the student

Posted to the course discussion board

Look at online images of Chalk Art for inspiration, use your own creativity, imagination, and artistic sense

Create a 250-word narrative

Create a 250-word narrative that unpacks how the visual depicts deepened thinking about your own identity, relationships with others, or broader cultural conversations about the family or adoption.

**refer to specific design elements in your visual (e.g., colors, graphics, lines, sizes of elements in relationships to other, etc.) and tell us specifically what they symbolize. What do they represent? What are you trying to convey?

**Get FEEDBACK before you post – show to roommate, friend, significant other and see if you need to clarify your explanation

Logistics of discussion Post 3

Due Thursday, March 03 by 11:59 pm: Visual and Narrative

Peer Response, due Friday, March 04 by 11:59 pm

Grading Criteria

Effort (Visual demonstrates student investment of time, labor, & thought)

Photograph Quality (intentional, clear)

Description (Clearly and specifically demonstrates how specific design elements of the visual represents how Week 7, 8, or 9 curriculum deepens student thinking about identity, relationships, and/or broader cultural conversations about the family or adoption)

Peer Response expectations

Centers Course Learning Goal #5: Feel a sense of connection, community, and belonging with the professor and students in this course, continuing to learn from and with each other as DU students and alumni long after this course is over. [human dimension learning goal]

Respond with the heart. Emotions are okay in this class; no need to bifurcate the mind and body​

Respond intentionally​

Center our course Ground Rules when you respond (on Canvas if you need a reminder)

Past Student Examples

Joy* introduced herself as “adopted from China at 11 months old by my single White mom and my older sister, not blood-related, was adopted when she was 6 months old.” Joy situated her lower-middle class, single parent, transracial family upbringing as privileged, having:

“grown up in very diverse, accepting communities (race, SES, religion, etc.) regarding both neighborhood and schools which are typically labeled as places that should be avoided. This has privileged me both in learning from people with all different types of backgrounds and shielded me from more explicit forms of racism as a person of color”

Depicting a large, smiling mouth with the corners held up by two fingers, the image visualizes Masha’s statement within The Dark Matter of Love (McCarthy, 2012), “Sometimes I feel bad, but I don’t want to confide in anyone, then they would also become sad. I want everyone to think that I am happy.” The documentary follows the Diaz family’s adoption of three orphans from Russia. Masha was eldest of the three, having spent her life (11 years old at adoption) growing up in a sterile, underfunded Russian orphanage. Masha arrives in the Diaz family stoic, hiding her vulnerabilities and fears, unwilling at first to show her emotions, give and receive love, and unable attach to her new adoptive family. Joy explained how her chalk art envisions the week’s curriculum deepening of her understanding of adoptee identity:

This week’s material reminded me of how we as humans perform emotion management, especially as a shield . . . adoptees tend to have hidden emotions about their adoption and hidden traumas of abandonment that they either may not have been aware of or actively try to hold inside . . . adoptees may try to manage their emotions because of their desire to be loved yet have a fear of being abandoned again. Because attachment was disrupted at an early age, it can be difficult to create a new attachment to another person. However, appearing ungrateful or being vulnerable may lead to fear that the adoptive parents may not want you anymore . . . [and] may lead them to feel that they have to constantly put on a happy face in fear of being abandoned once again.

Gabriela identifies as a documented, Mexican-Puerto Rican American who takes pride in her Latina identity. Gabriela joined the course having attending heritage camps for adoptive families for 15 years, first as a presenter’s daughter, but having “grown to love and belong to this community,” she continued to attend as a camp counselor. “Passionate about this topic,” she positioned her entry into the course as: “hopeful [that] with my anthropological lens, I can better understand the culture of adoptive families . . . and see the ‘hidden’ world of adoption.” Gabriela took the course to “make an effort as a non-adoptee to educate myself to be a better mentor” and “learn to be an ally and supporter to all my adopted friends and continue to help educate others who don’t know much about adoption.”

Gabriela’s chalk art depicts how the The Dark Matter of Love (McCarthy, 2012) deepened her understanding of adoptee identity: “From the documentary I learned that we develop our identity slowly. Masha initially has a disconnection with her emotions yet towards the end we find out she was able to cry. This is a way of Masha growing and adding a ‘tile’ which advances her as a person.” Representing an adoption mosaic, Gabriela’s drawing shows the complex and multifaceted nature of adoptive identity (represented by the various individual tiles), but when brought together creates a beautiful, interconnected whole (represented by the mosaic). Relating this concept to her own identity as a Mexican-Puerto Rica Latina woman, Gabriela writes:

In my “mosaic” I added tiles of things I have developed and grown in . . . The center is me and there are parts that I have actively worked to develop, one being understanding my culture. I represent this by coloring flags and places I have been. I left some tiles blank as I am in the process of developing.

Mia* was interested in the course having grown up with her family-friend’s adopted daughter from China. Positioning her background as one “of privilege being White and an educated individual,” Mia hoped the course would increase understanding “of myself and others around me, especially in regard to the adoption process . . .  By learning more about adoption and marginalized groups in this class, I hope to broaden my own lens to be more inclusively intelligent.”

Mia’s image illustrates an adoptee in the adoption fog (Lifton, 2002), which likens adoptees’ suppression of adoption-related trauma and dissociation of feelings of loss, grief, and anger to atmospheric fog. The concept was introduced by the week’s adoptee guest who talked frankly about how the course initiated her journey of processing her adoption , suppressed trauma, work with an attachment therapist, and ultimately lifted her own adoption fog.

final

Week 7

International Adoptions from China

Internal Weather Report

Pre-Class Learning Activities

Read: Johnson, K. A. (2009). Adoption. In D. Pong (Ed.), Encyclopedia of modern China (Vol 1, pp 3-8). (in Files)

Read: Johnson, K. A. (2004). Chapter Four: Infant abandonment and adoption in China, 1996-2000. (pp. 75-134). *Separated into 3 files

Engage with Chinese adoptee voices: Read: “Precious Jade” by Jenna Cook, Chinese adoptee(files)

Historical background on Chinese Adoption

Western discourse of Chinese adoption erroneously presumes no tradition of adoption in China due to:

A) influence of Confucianism on Chinese culture and its emphasis on patrilineal biological ties

B) Normative Chinese texts argue against adoption

C) Traditional Chinese law prohibited adoption outside patrilineal surname lines

In reality: Adoption documented as quite common for hundreds of years

Strains of Confucianism as well as pop culture support adoptive ties outside as well as inside blood lines—of both boys and girls—to build family and kinship

Earlier in history: Law Versus popular practice

Dates back to 18th century, late imperial times and earlier–Practices varied by region, class ethnicity

Only legal legitimated purpose was to obtain a male heir for the patrilineal family

Supposed to be obtained from close male relatives, ideally, if not exclusively from a brother

BUT in popular practice …. Many purposes:

1. Obtain a “little daughter in law,” adoption of future bride for son

2. Adopt girl believing this would overcome infertility and lead to birth of son

3. Sonless couples might adopt daughter’s husband to provide a male heir (thus, could involve an adult)

4. Provide homes for orphans (parents dead) or foundlings (abandoned children)

Contemporary China & Adoption
Impact of the One child Policy

Adoption of little daughters-in-law virtually disappeared

Most common, adopting girls as daughters, nonrelative adoption more common than adoption from relatives

Adoption increased in 1980’s and 1990’s

Vast majority not registered

Most girls

Direct result of high-pressure birth-planning campaigns beginning with start of one-child policy in 1979

1 child birth limit, largely successful in urban areas by early 1980’s; rural resistance, government loosened limit to 2 children in countryside if first birth was a girl

Impacts of the one child policy (cont)

Adoption used to hide and keep second and third daughters and try again for son

Birth planning officials closed loophole of using adoption to have more children  new birth planning regulations forbade adoption except by childless couples over thirty-five

Birth parents who hid a child by adopting the child out would not be allowed an additional birth if caught

Adoptive parents who had another child or were too young subjected to stiff birth-planning penalties

In 1991 these birth planning regulations became the nation’s first adoption law

Waves of female-infant abandonment

Strict, often coercive birth planning campaigns

+

highly restrictive one-child adoption regulations

= waves of female infant abandonment

Spontaneous adoption continued of these foundlings

Most in violation of the law and so unregistered

Numbers of abandoned children reaching orphanages unprecedented, orphanages overcrowded, underfunded, shortage of medical care and staffing

International Adoption

Introduction of International Adoption

Having already severely restricted the pool of legally qualified domestic adoptees to bolster population-control policies, government turned to international adoption, limited entirely to children in orphanages

Goals: 1) limit overcrowding; 2) provide source of funding for orphanage upkeep, medical supplies, staffing

Peaked mid 2000s

Improved conditions of orphanages

But further financially incentivized orphanage directors to favor international over domestic adoption

In 2000 government slightly eased restrictions on domestic adoption but financial bias toward international adoption, domestic adoption remained difficult

Decreasing international adoption, increasing domestic adoption

Dearth of healthy babies began to fall after 2000 due to decreased abandonment in the context of increasing wealth, lowered fertility rates (also correlated with wealth) and increased domestic adoption

Much of domestic adoption happens before abandoned children reach the orphanage and remains unregistered

Scandals of baby trafficking & forcible removal of over quota children emerge

Orphanage composition changing at this time to children with moderate to severe special needs

Enactment of Hague Convention governing international adoption

Mandates domestic adoption should always take precedence over international adoption

Since its start in 1991, China’s international adoption program has violated this principle

China’s international program born of coercive government population-control policies that both stocked child abandonment but also intentionally restricted domestic adoption

China signed Hague Agreement in 2005

Today adoptions from China primarily special needs adoptions

Go Frolic

See You Next Week!

final

Week 6 final

In preparation for your research, select an individual currently in a leadership position. The person must be responsible in some capacity for other employees, and the person must be an individual that can be researched.

Overview
In your overview of the leader, include:

· The leader’s name and title.

· His or her specific role or position and responsibilities.

· The name, industry, and description of the organization, including the culture of the organization.

· The length of time the leader has been in his or her current position.

· A brief history of the leader’s background and career path to his or her present day leadership position.

Analysis
Your analysis should:

· Describe, assess, and analyze the person’s leadership style. Be sure to provide specific examples.

· Identify and describe three significant challenges they faced as a leader.

· Identify and describe their greatest achievement, to date, as a leader.

· Apply and correctly cite a minimum of three leadership concepts from the course to this leader’s roles and responsibilities within the organization, their relationships with others, etc.

· Use these concepts to help describe the person’s leadership style and assess what makes it effective or ineffective.

· Reflect on what you learned about leadership from your research.

· Reflect on the implications for your personal leadership style.

Writing the Final Paper:
The Final Paper:

· Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.

· Must include a title page with the following:

· Title of paper

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

· Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.

Final

Select any example visualization or infographic and imagine the contextual factors have changed:

  1. If the selected project was a static work, what ideas do you have for potentially making it usefully interactive? How might you approach the design if it had to work on both mobile/tablet and desktop?
  2. If the selected project was an interactive work, what ideas do you have for potentially deploying the same project as a static work? What compromises might you have to make in terms of the interactive features that wouldn’t now be viable?
  3. What about the various annotations that could be used? Thoroughly explain all of the annotations, color, composition, and other various components to the visualization.
  4. What other data considerations should be considered and why?  
  5. Update the graphic using updated data, in the tool of your choice (that we’ve used in the course), explain the differences.

Be sure to show the graphic (before and after updates) and then answer the questions fully above.  This assignment should take into consideration all the course concepts in the book.  Be very thorough in your response.  The paper should be at least three pages in length and contain at least two-peer reviewed sources.

Final

  • Provide a minimum of three (3) pages but no more than five (5), double spaced, using 12pt font and one inch margins. 
  • Be sure to cite your work (APA Style) and provide a reference page.
  • Title and/or Reference Page is not included in the three (3) page minimum.

  • write a three to five page (3-5)  paper to demonstrate your proficiency and understanding.  You will discuss at least one of the course objectives.

Course objectives are as follows:

1.      Identify the main components of the criminal justice system and explain their contributions to the administration of justice. 

2.      Explain the 12 steps of the criminal justice process.

3.      Summarize the history of policing and explain the various law enforcement procedures.

4.      Describe the nature of due process and the specific constitutional amendments that guarantee these rights.

5.      Examine the makeup of the American court system.

6.      Evaluate modern correctional practices and the philosophies guiding both institutional and community corrections.

7.      Discuss contemporary criminal justice issues.

Final

Title of Paper (include both theorist names)

(Introduction paragraph(s))

Remember you are starting with an attention getting topic sentence, then providing a little foundation information, then preview the content for the reader / provide guidance to the reader what they will read

X Theory Overview

Summary of Theory, brief discussion of theorist (not a biography), evolution of the theory itself

Theory Details

-conceptual level (mid range, model etc) – brief identification of what that means

– Describe in detail the content and concepts of the theory – also how it is applied

Metaparadigms

-Define metaparadigms (don’t copy verbatim from text)

– Identify the metaparadigms as they relate to your theory )person, environment, health and nursing (describe if these are defined or implied)

Analysis of Theory

-What areas is the topic concerned with ? etc caring, adjustment … etc

– Does the theory generate areas for future research?

-Evaluate if the theory is clear, simple and generalizable?

-Does it contribute to nursing knowledge?

-Is the theory still current and relevant?

-Is it significant and will it make a difference in what areas of nursing?

Y NonNursing Theory Overview

Summary of Theory, brief discussion of theorist (not a biography), evolution of the theory itself

Theory Details

-conceptual level (mid range, model etc) – brief identification of what that means

– Describe in detail the content and concepts of the theory – also how it is applied

Analysis of Theory

-What areas is the topic concerned with ? etc caring, adjustment … etc

– Does the theory generate areas for future research?

-Evaluate if the theory is clear, simple and generalizable?

-Does it contribute to nursing knowledge?

-Is the theory still current and relevant?

-Is it significant and will it make a difference in what areas of nursing?

Comparison of Theories

Compare/Contrast

Compare and contrast the similarities and difference of each theory

Application of Theory

Create a scenario and demonstrate the application of each theory to the SAME scenario

Conclusion

Wrap up the content for the reader (similar to the introduction in reverse)

Final

I attached the first 2 assignments

Introduction

This final assignment is the culmination of the research paper and a continuation of the first two assignments.  Specifically, you will finish your research paper and provide your analysis in a fully completed project. 

Content

Your paper will contain:

1)  All previous sections turned in with Assignment #1 and Assignment #2 but corrected and modified to incorporate the critiques from the first and second assignments.

2) A 2-3-page analysis and/or discussion section discussing the results of your research. 

3)  An appropriate conclusion which should discuss future research surrounding your topic.

Format

The format of your research proposal including the literature review should:

1) Be a total of 13-15 pages in length not including title page and references (this is the length of the previous assignment plus the addition of a literature review).  In intelligence writing, succinctness counts so points will be deducted if your proposal is longer than 18 pages (not including title page or references).

2) Include a title page, proposal body, and a reference page (title and reference page are not included within the page count). You do NOT need an abstract or table of contents.

3) Have a 1-inch border on all four sides, use Times New Roman-12 point font, be double spaced, and not have an extra space in between paragraphs.

4) Have all references and citations are in the Chicago author/date format. This information is from the Master’s Capstone Manual and it should help you develop your research proposal.

  • a month ago
  • 50

FINAL

 

Cash Flows and Bad Debts – Part 1

[WLOs: 1, 2, 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 5]

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Case 9-1 and review the Cash Flow Statement Student Input Sheet Download Cash Flow Statement Student Input Sheet. Your cash flow statement should be completed using the Cash Flow Student Input Sheet. Several book numbers have been changed, so use the column on the Cash Flow Statement Student Input Sheet that corresponds to your class start date.

Complete the Cash Flow Statement Student Input Sheet, and then write a five- to seven-page paper completing Case 9-1. Submit both the final paper cash flow input sheet and the final paper using the instructions provided below.

Required:

  • Solve for the unknowns in the preceding schedule. (Hint: Use T-accounts.)
  • Make all entries related to the Allowance for credit losses account for 20X0–20X2.
  • Make all entries for bad debts for 20X0–20X2 assuming that Garrels did not accrue for estimated bad debt losses but instead recorded its bad debt provisions once receivables were determined to be uncollectible. (This is called the direct write-off method.)
  • Why does GAAP require the allowance method over the direct write-off method?
  • Calculate the cumulative difference in reported pre-tax income under the allowance and direct write-off methods over the 20X0–20X2 period.

Assume that it is the end of 20X3 and Garrels management is trying to decide on the amount of the bad debt provision for 20X3. Based on an aging of accounts receivable, the accounting department believes that a $400,000 provision is appropriate. However, the company just learned that a customer with an outstanding accounts receivable of $300,000 may have to file for bankruptcy. The decision facing Garrels management is whether to increase the initial provision of $400,000 by $300,000, by some lesser amount, or by nothing at all. What is your recommendation?

Continuing the scenario from requirement 6, now consider the following additional information:

  • Assume that you are a member of the company’s compensation committee.
  • Assume further that the company’s chief financial officer (CFO) is solely responsible for deciding the amount of the credit loss expense to record and that the CFO has a cash bonus plan that is a function of reported earnings before income taxes.
  • Specifically, assume that the CFO receives an annual cash bonus of zero if earnings before income taxes are below $17 million and 10.0% of the amount by which earnings before income taxes exceed $17 million and up to a maximum bonus of $1 million (that is, when net income reaches $27 million, no further bonus is earned).

Your final paper should have the paragraph headings and address the corresponding directives for Case 9-1: Garrels Company: Analyzing Allowances.

In your paper,

  • What adjustment to the initial $400,000 credit loss expense might the CFO make in each of the following scenarios? Assume that the following earnings before income taxes include the initial $400,000 provision for bad debts.
    • $11 million
    • $18.2 million
    • $38.25 million
    • $27.15 million
  • What other scenarios can you identify in which managers might use the provision for bad debts to accomplish some contract-related strategy?
  • Identify other items in the financial statements (besides the bad debt provision) that managers have the ability to “manage.”

The Cash Flows and Bad Debts final paper

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

    • a month ago
    • 25

    FINAL

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 1 of 8

    Annual Operating Review

    How well did you meet your commitments? (Pre-tax Income Variance to

    plan), and where did the growth come from? (Pre-tax Income Variance to

    prior year)

    From an annual operating review perspective, there were several areas of the business that Hisco did

    well to meet commitments. The planned taxable income was $343.2K; hence the after-tax income

    would be 50% of the $343.3k. The after-tax income is $171.65k. Compared with the actual pre-tax

    income of $176k, this gives the real after-tax gain of $88k. When compared with each other, these

    two values, the exact after-tax amount was lower than the planned income. This result was a drop in

    the income tax, which is attributable to the reduced funding in marketing. Even though the income tax

    growth was by $1.8m, the market share, on the other hand, was reduced by $1.8m. the reduction in

    the market share resulted from intensified competition whereby the competitors boosted their market

    penetration. The number of sales should always tally the available inventory. Otherwise, you cannot

    sell goods that have not been manufactured yet. The available inventory consists of inventory carried

    forward from the previous quarter into the current quarter. When planning for production, the amount

    of output should be equal to the human resource capacity available. This is a key factor employed in

    determining the quantity available for sale. The correct pricing of products is key to the amount of

    revenue received. When the prices are too low, the revenue targets may not be achieved at all.

    How well did your initial strategy work and did you maintain that strategy

    throughout the year?

    The initial strategy for Hisco was to take advantage of what it did well, which was in its skilled

    engineering capabilities. By knowing what Hisco did well, the plan was to focus time, effort, and

    resources on its weaknesses, which was developing skills in manufacturing and marketing to become

    competitive in the medical device industry. With the skills in engineering, Hisco would have been

    able to hone those skills and improve its efficiencies within the product development process. A

    greater than average allocation was made to the manufacturing and marketing areas of the business,

    in a way to hone those skills to catch up with the market. There are cases when the first draft of your

    marketing strategy works somewhat well, yet there’s still room for improvement.

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 2 of 8

    What revisions would you make to your original SWOT analysis going

    forward over the next 2 to 3 years?

    I think that the strengths and weaknesses were pretty accurate in describing Hisco Corporation. There

    are elements of the business that it does well and is efficient at, which is engineering. None of the staff

    has changed from the beginning of the year and the plan is to maintain the same resources for the next

    2 to 3 years. Similarly, the opportunities of improving manufacturing and marketing are still the same

    as well since not enough time and resources were put into those areas this year. Additional notes would

    be made regarding the notes, however, since we were able to gather a year’s worth of competitive data

    and analysis regarding Hisco’s primary competitors, Matek and Redex. To produce affordable, smart,

    and high effective mobile devices that will revolutionize the world of mobile phone technology today,

    tomorrow and the future, for the growth and expansion of Business. •Effective innovation process and

    shaped by marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy and performance, current and

    anticipated organizational resources, and cultural and structural issues. The strategic goal is to increase

    product expansion into the untapped markets and increase the firm’s market share through market

    expansion and penetration

    What inference can you draw about your competitor’s strategy?
    Both competitors, Matek and Redex, focused their strategy on optimizing their sales and gross

    margins.

    The competitors continue to dominate the market in two ways. The product quality and the product

    marketing. The companies have maintained their standards high which requires that this company take

    stern measures to get any inch closer to the two competitors. the need to increase marketing penetration

    was a contributing factor to the need to have a new project launch. The project is aimed at increasing

    the research and development needs of the company. this will ensure that it improves production,

    affordability, and quality. adding this new improvement, it is expected to increase the usage of the

    products translating them to profits. Getting to match the competitor is advantageous especially when

    targeting an already defined niche, more investment into marketing, research, and development is

    ideal now.

    Q1

    It was important to make the company increase its market share. through intensive marketing, the

    sales were expected to skyrocket. there was an amount set for marketing and advertising. However,

    due to the need of reaching more customers, I made a tough decision of increasing the

    amount of money set for marketing. another tough decision was to increase the product

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 3 of 8

    price. Even though the sales were impressive, I believed that additional marketing funding was not

    going to be effective in the short run. I, therefore, increased the price of the products for the current

    loyal customers in a bid to meet the targets of the owner. The results were amazing as we were able

    to surpass the targets. The need to have better sales led to uncontrolled funding for the marketing

    activities.

    From both a qualitative and quantitative perspective, how would you value

    your business relative to Redex and Matek?

    As the executive in charge of Hisco’s overall business, I was responsible for several concurrent

    projects to compete against competitors, Redex and Matek. Those various initiatives allowed the value

    creation metrics for each company at the end of the year, Hisco ranked 2nd across most of those

    categories.

    And

    while the time, effort, and funds were invested in the organization from the beginning of the quarter,

    not enough strategic action was put in place to be declared the overall winner of the campaign. Most

    importantly, because quantitative research is mathematically based, it’s statistically valid. This means

    you can use its findings to make predictions about where your business is headed. Qualitative research

    isn’t so much about numbers as it is about people – and their opinions about your business.

    Typically conducted by asking questions either one-on-one or to groups of people, qualitative

    research. The qualitative approach concentrates on the quality of the company. Emphasis is put on the

    company’s products, services, management, competitors, etc. Special attention is given to finding

    companies with sustainable competitive advantages. Qualitative investing requires assumptions about

    the future that are made based on quality. The analyst will make judgements on the prospects of the

    stock based on the qualitative attributes of the company.

    Were you surprised by the final team rankings in the value creation winning?

    Why or why not?
    I was surprised by the final team rankings in the value creation winning. The entire goal and

    purpose of this campaign was to win by outperforming competitors, Redex and Matek. The former

    manager that oversaw running the operations for Hisco laid out a robust strategy and action plan. But

    the reason I was brought into the role was to take it to the next level and increase the net income for

    the business. However, a poor performance for Q1, the strategies shifted, and we were focused more

    on getting back below the credit line. During that time, the other competitors made

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 4 of 8

    improvements to their manufacturing and marketing strategies that put them ahead and difficult to

    catch up to. Theory and empirical research show only a shaky connection between value creation and

    two of the most popular performance measures: earnings per share (EPS) growth and sales growth.

    hat are the key ingredients needed to develop winning teams and a winning environment? Managers

    and the executive team employ regression analysis as it entails statistical equations that can predict

    the significance of one variable on another. Businesses will utilize data mining where programming

    skills and statistical methodologies are applied. Several corporations have sufficient resources. Linear

    programming is a quantitative technique employed to ensure increased productivity using the least

    resources. When analyzing business components, there are qualitative methodologies utilized.

    Managers can use interviews to ensure that the product is placed in the market and exceeds the clients’

    expectations (Mosteanu et al., 2019). Managers can also employ observations and opinions about

    other people to make the business effective and efficient.

    Where will organic growth come from over the next 2 to 3 years? What is

    potential new market/product/service opportunities?

    Growth is top of mind at many companies, according to respondents: 93 percent say theirs have

    pursued at least one strategy to generate organic growth in the past three years, and nearly two thirds

    agree or strongly agree that organic growth is at the top of their executive teams’ agendas. But

    regarding the three strategies of growth, we explored (investing, creating, and performing However,

    the end of year outlook shifted, and budgets needed to be cut across various departments with

    marketing and advertising taking the biggest hit for the company. New budgets and allocation

    strategies will allow Hisco to focus its efforts on increasing brand awareness and sales from those

    channels.

    How will you create economic value for your customers going forward?
    The cost of taxation can be described in terms of the effects on consumer and producer surplus. Tax

    is a form of government intervention in the economic market. The absence of tax in the market causes

    an equilibrium in the market and an increase in the producer and consumer surplus. Taxation leads to

    the shift of the supply curve upwards in the amount of tax paid thus leading to an equal decrease in

    the producer and consumer surplus and this is referred to as the cost of taxation. The loss that is

    experienced in the decrease in the consumer and the producer surplus because of imposing taxes on

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 5 of 8

    the supplier is called the deadweight loss and the government does not benefit from the taxation.

    The benefits of international trade in terms of consumer and producer surplus are because of the

    benefits or the losses that are experienced when there are importation and exportation. When a country

    exports it can reduce the prices for consumers in the country and suppliers are able to sell their

    products at a high price, therefore, leading to an increase in producer and decrease in consumer surplus

    Buyer Willingness to Pay Carlos $10 Quilana $15 Wilbur $35 Ming-la $45 Refer to Table 7-3. If there

    is only one unit of the good and if the buyers bid against each other for the right to purchase it, then

    the consumer surplus will be A. $0 or slightly more. Financial services had become so commoditized,

    only an engaging experience would expose customers to its financial offerings Similarly, Hisco can

    offer a similar experience but create a showroom for interested customers to try and test out the

    medical reader.

    What are 4 to 5 risks to Hisco’s continued growth over the next 2 to 3 years,

    and what options would you pursue to mitigate those risks? Are these risks

    controllable or non-controllable?

    Although it can seem like a good problem to have, a risk for Hisco as an organization is growing too

    big, too fast. If there became a greater demand for the medical reader device, then Hisco has no choice

    but to ramp up production to meet those growing demands, which result in hiring of employees across

    the board from sales to manufacturing to marketing and customer service. But if not planned

    accordingly, that growth can come to a halt at any point and put Hisco in a difficult position regarding

    Being in a market that is oversaturated. We saw firsthand how a new competitor in Eastern

    Electronics that can come up out of nowhere. Who knows how many of those types of companies will

    be a threat in 2-3 years? It is important for Hisco to constantly update its SWOT analysis and keep an

    eye on the potential competitors in the market.

    4. Having a product that is outdated. Technology advances very quickly, if Hisco does not keep up,

    they will be left behind. It is important for Hisco to maintain its R&D budget to be aware of up-and-

    coming technology systems that can be integrated into the reader. Determine a consistent cadence of

    updating the reader and refreshing it completely to meet the high technology standards the consumers

    are already used to. Falling behind the competition is a whole lot easier than you might previously

    have thought. With that in mind, here are some things that you can do to keep your business ahead of

    the game. Over the past 20 years, I have observed 10 recurring risks for growing business and have

    helped clients address them.

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 6 of 8

    How did you use role play to create value over the year? Going forward?
    The Role play segment was an important feature that happen to be in this simulation. One of the

    advantages of this is that I was able to practice a real negotiation. This made me understand that in

    Page 3 of 3 Student: Nicholas Redden any business conversation, it must be done in a manner that

    there is an agreement or a balance between the two parties. It has effects on each other’s financial

    position, the negotiation must ensure that each party’s needs are considered so that the parties feel

    contended. this experience gave me a glimpse into what it is about working with stakeholders in a

    business environment. This, therefore, prepares me to sharpen my negotiation skills to get the best of

    deals from the suppliers and service providers. The use of role-playing in this quarter was very much

    enticing business-wise. In this quarter Q3, the deal that I sealed was with Lona lines. The deal included

    an expedition of three lines worth $17000 each. This Enhanced the throughput by 275 per line at a

    $14,250 upgrading fee for 15 existing lines another deal included Discounted Pricing for Long-Term

    Commitment: in Q3’22 for five lines and Q4’22 for five lines with a 5.0% discount on leasing price.

    One of the most complex decisions in this quarter included the deal that Sloane assisted. He facilitated

    the purchase of the conversion into Page 3 of 3 Student: Nicholas Redden a solar-powered business.

    Solar Panels Purchased: $150,000 cash for new solar panels

    What were the 3 toughest decisions made during the year?
    The company is in horrible shape regarding the cash flows. The shaping saw during the quarter the

    bad debts’ likelihood to go higher if some purchases are made using the current cash—also, the need

    to increase productivity through the improvement of the efficiency and production processes. The

    first decision was to overlook the impending cash crisis and do solar panels procurement. The

    purpose of the change to solar power is due to the attempt to reduce electricity costs and support our

    sustainability mission. The second difficult decision is the purchase of 3 lines to enhance production.

    The third most tough decision I made was to increase the number of staff despite the condition of the

    business being so unaffordable to doing business.

    It was important to make the company increase its market share. through intensive marketing, the

    sales were expected to skyrocket. there was an amount set for marketing and advertising. However,

    due to the need of reaching more customers, I made a tough decision of increasing the amount of

    money set for marketing. another tough decision was to increase the product price. Even though the

    sales were impressive, I believed that additional marketing funding was not going to be effective in

    the short run. I, therefore, increased the price of the products for the current loyal customers in a bid

    to meet the targets of the owner. The results were amazing as we were able to surpass the targets.

    The need to have better sales led to uncontrolled funding for the marketing activities.

    What are 5 key learnings from the year?

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 7 of 8

    2. Sales volumes are still an important factor in business operations, so the production limits must

    remain high as the demand for sales remains high enough. The costs associated with business

    productivity, manufacturing costs, expansion costs, and goods and services must be minimized to

    increase the net profit. When business marketing has been effectively done before, the wave of good

    sales performances will be experienced much later, even when the business is not actively conducting

    marketing campaigns. This is because the information remains with the target customers who make a

    busy decision later. In the line of operations, a business should increase its line efficiency by acquiring

    new efficiency assets and increasing employees and increasing price per unit improves production.

    On a similar note, don’t get discouraged with one poor quarter. Sometimes things don’t go exactly as

    they are planned, no one can accurately predict the future. We must simply use our best judgement

    and hope for the best.

    3. The number of sales should always tally the available inventory. Otherwise, you cannot sell

    goods that have not been manufactured yet. The available inventory consists of inventory carried

    forward from the previous quarter into the current quarter. When planning for production, the amount

    of output should be equal to the human resource capacity available. This is a key factor employed in

    determining the quantity available for sale.

    4. The correct pricing of products is key to the amount of revenue received. When the prices are

    too low, the revenue targets may not be achieved at all. Product pricing is very dependent on labor

    available, the market demand, and the marketing intensity. Low labor will not meet the mare demand,

    high prices will reduce the sales volumes, less human resources will lead to underproduction. Don’t

    be afraid to ask for help or advice, particularly, the role play option. One area that several SMEs don’t

    consider when looking at significant growth is the internal structural changes which need to be made.

    A larger business won’t be able to operate in the same way that a much smaller one can; quite often

    smaller businesses have ways of managing employees and dealing with HR in ways that aren’t

    scalable.

    It is dangerous to go beyond the credit line limits. when the debt goes beyond the credit limit line, the

    business must cut some costs just to ensure that the debt equals the credit limit or is below the credit

    limit. one of the methods of adding more cash float into the business is by cutting rental and leases

    costs, cutting marketing costs, and research costs. By doing the costs cuts, makes it possible to have

    some cash to redeem the credit limit. When working on credit, always pay attention not to exceed the

    limit. This is in terms of the cash sales as well as the cash receivables as this is likely to put the

    business’ transactional accounts in jeopardy.

    If you could re-play, what would you do differently? Why?

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Page 8 of 8

    It can help you decide what strategies to use in the future so that you see continued success. Let’s

    break down SWOT analysis a bit more. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and

    threats. It helps you to build on what you do well, address what you’re lacking, and minimize risks.

    Use a SWOT Analysis to assess your organization’s position before you decide on any new strategy.

    Start by assessing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, with a team of people from

    a range of functions and levels in your organization. When the business was performing badly due to

    bad debt, it was very difficult to operate. All the other departments were locked from transacting

    business. After fixing the budget cuts, still, the credit limit was low, that is the available cash could

    not offer smooth transactions, with the use of role-playing, I was able to negotiate for additional

    investment. I relinquished 7% of the company stake to an investor who offered $110k. This is an

    amount that will be able to pay the company. s existing loan while also providing extra cash for

    research and development, marketing, and advertising. to increase the company’s effectiveness in the

    labor sector, I was able to also negotiate for additional New Hired Effectiveness that was increased to

    70.00% for $5,000.00

    FINAL

    Prior to gaining access to the Summary Annual through the 

    Growing Your Business

     simulation, all previously assigned simulation work must be completed. After all previously assigned simulation work has been completed, the 

    Summary Annual Template




     
     Download Summary Annual Template

    will be accessible through the Annual tab.

    The summary annual is a scaled down version of a full annual report. You will simply not have enough detail to complete the typical nine sections. For example, you are not responsible for the Auditor’s Report. Naturally, you are encouraged to review real world annual reports which can be used as a strawman in preparation. Your recently completed Annual Operating Review in Week 5 should be aligned with your Annual Report.

    Preparing your HISCO summary annual will be one of the most comprehensive assignments you will have completed during your MBA. You will gain an appreciation for the complexity and responsibility the senior executives continually face. Hopefully, you have experienced the holistic and competitive environment from the simulation. Your recently completed Annual Operating Review will provide the basics.

    The information, qualitative and quantitative, in an annual should provide current and prospective investors (as well as any stakeholder) a complete insight into the company’s historic performance and its plans for growth and improvement over the next few years as defined by its strategy. Publicly traded companies are required by law to prepare and submit to many constituencies a variety of filings.  The most well-known is the Annual to Shareholders and related Form 10-K. An annual is technically an unofficial document. The Form 10-K will typically provide the most comprehensive summary of the company’s history, financials, risks and opportunities, and current operations. The Form 10-K is submitted annually to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).  Technically, HISCO is a private company (you may have sold equity to the venture capitalist) and only if it had publicly trades debt would be required to file a Form 10K.

    As a future leader of a public or private company, you will learn the integrative nature of any business while you complete the HISCO summary annual report.  This document can become an important part of your e-portfolio in the program.  Your owner, Stanley Sloane, looks forward to reading your HISCO summary annual report.  While details may vary state by state, even if your career leads to growing a small private business, you will need to file an annual with The Secretary of State in your jurisdiction, another benefit to learning from our final activity.

    The following identifies specifics instructions for preparation of each required section.  The required sections to be completed will be found the word document from the model. Please remember to periodically save your work.  An online search will reveal innumerable sites devoted to annual reports.

    The HISCO Summary Annual Report

    · Must be completed using the template provided through the 

    Growing Your Business

     simulation.

    · For technical help with the simulation, please email 
    HelpDesk@tri-sim.com
     

    · Follow the 

    Summary Annual Template




     
     Download Summary Annual Template

    as a guide to formatting your work. 
    Standard APA formatting will not apply to this assignment.

    · Must include the following:

    · Cover Page

    · You can design your own cover page. Should be reflective of your corporate image and may include a picture and/or logo. At a minimum, it will include the name, [simulation year] HISCO Summary Annual Report, as well as your name and date. The cover page can only be 1 page.

    · CEO Letter

    · The CEO Letter is designed to share the Strategy, Financial Highlight Summary, and Business Overview of the past year. Evaluate quantitative and qualitative techniques for business analysis and decision-making. It will typically also include the future growth outlook for the business (detailed in the Sales, Marketing and Industry pages below). The CEO Letter can be a maximum of 3 pages.  

    · The “Stan Sloane Letter”

    · HISCO’s owner, Stan Sloane, is very happy that he decided to hire you to help turn the company around. He is interested in having you stay on with the company. However, he will need assurance from you that you are committed to continuing to grow HISCO. Explain to Stan how you plan on running the company over the next two years. You should discuss the majority of the items you developed when you first came on with the company, including: whether you would make any changes to the SWOT analysis, whether you would change the company strategy, negotiations you would make with company stakeholders, future technology suggestions, growth expectations in general for the industry and specifically for HISCO over the next two years, any concerns that occurred in the past year that you would address, and any other information you believe would be relevant in order to reassure Stan that he has placed the company in the right hands. You will add this letter at the end of the standard Annual Report. This letter is not part of a traditional Annual Report. The “Stan Sloane Letter” can be 2-3 pages.

    · Sales, Marketing, & Industry

    · This section should detail all aspects of HISCO’s Value Chain, from supplier to manufacturing to the customer. Products, NPIs, Pricing, in an industry perspective of competition should be elaborated on. Utilize tools from marketing to manage the profitability of overall business operations. A review of your SWOT would probably help as well as your recently completed Annual Operating Review. An essential element is for current and prospective investors to understand how HISCO makes money and will be able to create growth and deal with risks. The Sales, Marketing & Industry section can be a maximum of 3-5 pages.

    · Financial Statements

    · Financial statements are the heart and soul of the annual report. This is a quantitative section that provides current and prospective investors a look into HISCOs financial performance. The financial statements consist of the Income Statement, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow. We suggest you show a minimum of 4 Qtrs. for each of the past two years for the Income Statement, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow. Utilize tools from finance management to manage the profitability of overall business operations. Consider expanding the lines within each statement in the model. You will need to provide details on the Credit Line. The Financial Statements section can be a maximum of 4-6 pages.

    · Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A)

    · The Management Discussion and Analysis section provides the real detail on year to year performance. In your case, this will be simulation year vs. prior simulation year. Topics will be both qualitative and quantitative in all aspects of simulation year relative to prior simulation year. MD&A will certainly include a complete variance analysis of performance and the successes and failures of your decisions for the year.  It is the time you will delve into the details of your operating decisions. The MD&A section is typically devoted to the past (your future was described in prior sections). Reference to the Financial Statements is crucial as well as your recently completed Annual Operating Review. Graphics from your Business Intelligence Dashboard and your Variance walks on Income and Cash can provide visual insight into your performance. The Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) can be a maximum of 3-6 pages.

    · Notes, Appendices, and References

    · Any supporting documents, comments, information, a glossary of terminology, and/or clarifications you deem relevant to your annual to assist current and prospective investors. The Notes, Appendices, and References are required and can be a minimum of 1 page.  References can be in a bulleted or numbered format.

    FINAL

    HISCO Annual Report

    HISCO Summary Annual Template

    This HISCO summary annual template needs to be completed as part of your year-end activities. The due date is no later than Day 7 of Week 6 and is your final deliverable in BUS696. The HISCO summary annual is worth 20% of your overall grade.

    Our goal is to capture the essence of the “Major” sections of an annual and provide an opportunity to synthesize your learnings from the simulation. This is the reason we refer to it as a summary annual report. You will simply not have enough detail to complete the typical nine sections. For example, you are not responsible for the Auditor’s Report. Naturally, you are encouraged to review real-world annual reports, which can be used as a strawman in preparation. Your HISCO Annual should be your own original work. Your recently completed Annual Operating Review in Week 5 should be very aligned to your Annual Report.

    Preparing your HISCO summary annual will be one of the most comprehensive assignments you will have completed during your MBA. You will gain an appreciation for the complexity and responsibility the senior executives continually face. Hopefully, you have experienced the holistic and competitive environment from the simulation. Your recently completed Annual Operating Review will provide the basics.

    The information – qualitative and quantitative – in an annual should provide current and prospective investors (as well as any stakeholder) a complete insight into the company’s historic performance and its plans for growth and improvement over the next few years, as defined by its strategy. Publicly traded companies are required by law to prepare and submit to many constituencies a variety of filings. The most well-known are the Annual to Shareholders and related Form 10-K. An Annual is technically an unofficial document. The Form 10-K will typically provide the most comprehensive summary of the company’s history, financials, risks and opportunities, and current operations. The Form 10-K is submitted annually to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Technically, HISCO is a private company (you may have sold equity to the venture capitalist) and only if it had publically trades debt would be required to file a Form 10-K.

    As a future leader of a public or private company, you will learn the integrative nature of any business while you complete the HISCO summary Annual Report. This document can become an important part of your e-portfolio as you continue throughout the program. Your owner, Stanley Sloane, looks forward to reading your HISCO summary Annual Report. While details may vary state by state, even if your career leads to growing a small private business, you will need to file an Annual with The Secretary of State in your jurisdiction; another benefit to learning from our final activity.

    The following page identifies specifics instructions for preparation for each required section. Please remember to save your work frequently. An on-line search will reveal innumerable sites devoted to annual reports.

    Required Sections in HISCO Summary Annual Report

    We leave to your imagination, creativity, and perusal of real world Annual Reports as to what Financial Statements, Graphics (e.g., from the Business Intelligence Dashboard, Variance Walks, and all others in your model), Pictures, etc., to copy and paste (or alt-print screen, paste and crop) from the simulation model into the Word document below.

    The minimally required sections are as follows:

    Cover Page

    You can design your own cover page. It should be reflective of your corporate image and may include a picture and/or logo. At a minimum, it will include the name, [simulation year] HISCO Summary Annual Report, as well as your name and date. The cover page can only be 1 page.

    CEO Letter

    The CEO Letter is designed to share the Strategy, Financial Highlight Summary, and Business Overview of the past year. It will typically also include the future growth outlook for the business (detailed in the Sales, Marketing and Industry pages below). The CEO Letter can be a maximum of 3 pages.

    The “Stan Sloane Letter”

    HISCO’s owner, Stan Sloane, is very happy that he decided to hire you to help turn the company around. He is interested in having you stay on with the company. However, he will need assurance from you that you are committed to continuing to grow HISCO. Explain to Stan how you plan on running the company over the next two years. You should discuss the majority of the items you developed when you first came on with the company, including: whether you would make any changes to the SWOT analysis, whether you would change the company strategy, negotiations you would make with company stakeholders, future technology suggestions, growth expectations in general for the industry and specifically for HISCO over the next two years, any concerns that occurred in the past year that you would address, and any other information you believe would be relevant in order to reassure Stan that he has placed the company in the right hands. You will add this letter at the end of the standard Annual Report. This letter is not part of a traditional Annual Report. The “Stan Sloane Letter” can be 3-4 pages.

    Sales, Marketing, & Industry

    This section should detail all aspects of HISCO’s Value Chain, from supplier to manufacturing to the customer. Products, NPIs, Pricing, in an industry perspective of competition should be elaborated on. A review of your SWOT would probably help as well as elements of your recently completed Annual Operating Review. An essential component is for current and prospective investors to understand how HISCO makes money and will be able to create growth and deal with risks. The Sales, Marketing & Industry section can be a maximum of 5 pages.

    Financial Statements

    Financial statements are the heart and soul of the Annual Report. This is quantitative section that provides current and prospective investors a look into HISCOs financial performance. The financial statements consist of the Income Statement, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statement. We suggest you show a minimum of the past two years for the Income Statement, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow. Consider expanding the lines within each statement in the model. You will need to provide details on the Credit Line. The Financial Statements section can be a maximum of 6 pages.

    Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A)

    The Management Discussion and Analysis section provides the real detail on year-to-year performance. In your case this will be simulation year vs. prior simulation year. Topics will be both qualitative and quantitative around all aspects of simulation year relative to prior simulation year. MD&A will certainly include a complete variance analysis of performance and the successes and failures of your decisions for the year. It is the time you will delve into the details of your operating decisions. The MD&A section is typically devoted to the past (your future was described in prior sections). Reference to the Financial Statements and your recently completed Annual Operating Review is crucial. Graphics from your Business Intelligence Dashboard and your Variance walks on Income and Cash can provide visual insight into your performance. The Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) can be a maximum of 6 pages.

    Notes, Appendices and References

    Any supporting documents, comments, information, glossary of terminology, and/or clarifications you deem relevant to your Annual to assist current and prospective investors should be included. The Notes, Appendices and References can be a maximum of 2 pages.

    Cover Page

    CEO Letter

    The “Stan Sloane Letter”

    Sales, Marketing, & Industry

    Financial Statements

    Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A)

    Notes, Appendices and References

    final

    EDUC 302

    Final Paper Assignment Instructions

    Overview

    It is incredible to think how much has been learned over the past eight modules. The Final Paper Assignment is a cumulative review of all chapters studied in the textbook. Take time to reflect back over all of the information and knowledge you have gained throughout this course.

    Instructions

    You will choose two
    of the following prompts to successfully complete your Final Paper Assignment. Each response needs to be at least 350 words. The prompt must be typed out in bold before the answer, and you must reference the textbook and/or presentations for each prompt using current APA formatting. Be sure to include your references on a separate page.

    These are the prompts from which you may choose:

    1. Pretend you are a teacher in a diverse classroom. Explain what you would do to encourage students to learn English but still not abandon their own cultures.

    2. You were asked to address the Young Parents Club in your community. The club members would like you to present information about parents reading aloud to their children. As part of your presentation, you were also asked to share a list of do’s and don’ts for reading aloud. What information will you share with the parents? Discuss the do’s and don’ts list. Be sure to explain why you generated the list.

    3. Most five-year-olds are not aware that what is said can be written, that written language is made up of sentences, or that reading involves directionality, attending to the space between words, and other conventions of print. Explain how you will develop the relationship between speech and print with beginning readers.

    4. Write a letter to parents explaining at least four ways (two informal and two formal) of how you will assess your students. Justify your response.

    5. A student in your class hesitates between words while she reads. You notice that she looks around the page while she hesitates. Discuss your intervention plans in order to develop reading fluency.

    6. Name and explain three strategies you would use to help struggling readers develop vocabulary knowledge and concept development.

    7. Why is it important to develop readers’ awareness of story structures? What do students need to know about the elements of a story? Explain at least three strategies for teaching story structures.

    8. What is individualized instruction in reading? When should it be implemented? Explain how it can be carried out to meet diverse learners’ needs in a class of 25–30 students. Then give a specific example of a differentiated lesson plan that you will teach.

    FINAL

    Page 1 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Q1-22 QBR

    5 Key Learnings from Quarter
    The number of sales should always tally the available inventory. Otherwise, you can not sell goods

    that have not been manufactured yet.

    The available inventory consists of inventory carried forward from the previous quarter into the

    current quarter.

    When planning for production, the amount of output should be equal to the human resource capacity

    available. This is a key factor employed in determining the quantity available for sale.

    The correct pricing of products is key to the amount of revenue received. When the prices are too

    low, the revenue targets may not be achieved at all.

    Product pricing is very dependent on labor available, the market demand, and the marketing

    intensity. Low labor will not meet the mare demand, high prices will reduce the sales volumes, less

    human resources will lead to underproduction.

    Pre-tax NI Walk: Plan to Actual
    The number of sales should always tally the available inventory. Otherwise, you can not sell goods

    that have not been manufactured yet.

    The available inventory consists of inventory carried forward from the previous quarter into the

    current quarter.

    When planning for production, the amount of output should be equal to the human resource capacity

    available. This is a key factor employed in determining the quantity available for sale.

    The correct pricing of products is key to the amount of revenue received. When the prices are too

    low, the revenue targets may not be achieved at all.

    Product pricing is very dependent on labor available, the market demand, and the marketing

    intensity. Low labor will not meet the mare demand, high prices will reduce the sales volumes, less

    human resources will lead to underproduction.

    Cash Flow Work for this Quarter
    The annual planned tax income was $28.6k. This would result in a $14.4k after-tax income. The

    after-tax revenue is 50% of the revenue. this was not within the rage of the owner. The actual tax

    Page 2 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    income is $91.8k, the after-tax actual net income is $45.9k. This is also below the owner’s range.

    Getting the difference, the company lost a further $17.3k worth of its target revenue. The reason for

    these tax characteristics is because of low sales that were recorded during the quarter. Looking at the

    growth, there was a $93.2k growth in tax income. This was way above the planned income tax. the

    growth in the market share was as a result of launching project 3. Additional funding of the

    marketing kitty also improved the sales.

    3 Toughest Decisions Made and Why
    It was important to make the company increase its market share. through intensive marketing, the

    sales were expected to skyrocket. there was an amount set for marketing and advertising. However,

    due to the need of reaching more customers, I made a tough decision of increasing the amount of

    money set for marketing.

    another tough decision was to increase the product price. Even though the sales were impressive, I

    believed that additional marketing funding was not going to be effective in the short run. I,

    therefore, increased the price of the products for the current loyal customers in a bid to meet the

    targets of the owner. The results were amazing as we were able to surpass the targets. The need to

    have better sales led to uncontrolled funding for the marketing activities.

    Competitor Analysis
    The competitors continue to dominate the market in two ways. The product quality and the product

    marketing. The companies have maintained their standards high which requires that this company

    take stern measures to get any inch closer to the two competitors. the need to increase marketing

    penetration was a contributing factor to the need to have a new project launch. The project is aimed

    at increasing the research and development needs of the company. this will ensure that it improves

    production, affordability, and quality. adding this new improvement ts is expected to increase the

    usage of the products translating them to profits. Getting to math the competitor is advantageous

    especially when targeting an already defined niche, more investment into marketing, research, and

    development is ideal at the moment.

    Use of Role Play for Information and Negotiation
    The Role play segment was an important feature that happen to be n this simulation. One of the

    advantages of this is that I was able to practice a real negotiation. This made me understand that in

    Page 3 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    any business conversation, it has to be done in a manner that there is an agreement or a balance

    between the two parties. It has effects on each other’s financial position,the negotiation has to ensure

    that each party’s needs are considered so that the parties feel contended. this experience gave me a

    glimpse into what it is about working with stakeholders in a business environment. This, therefore,

    prepares me to sharpen my negotiation skills to get the best of deals from the suppliers and service

    providers

    Is your Original Strategy Working as you Planned?
    As stated before, my initial strategy was not executed to its best expectations. The income or the

    sales volumes were impressive, the biggest challenge was the huge allocations that were put into the

    operations costs. I will change a few allocations and put more into marketing and evaluate the

    performance with regards to sales. With constant improvements into ey areas and making effective

    role calls, I believe that the next improved strategy will bring in more sales. this will entail adding

    the workforce, buying more raw material units, and increasing the marketing budget. If the

    production is more, the pricing will be slightly lower to attract more customers while improving the

    overall sales. Business approaches are dynamic until a blend of tweaks is identified that will make

    predictions more visible.

    Are we on track to meet Annual Net Income Commitment? Provide explanation
    Yes, the road to meeting the annual net income commitment is on. in the first quarter, first quarter,

    there was a few trials or combination of metrics to come up with the optimum levels of production

    and sales that would guide the working extents. In the other quarters, it will be a matter of plugging

    in metrics based on their likelihood effect to come up with a blend of activities that will see the

    company meet its target. In the first quarter, the desired portion of revenue was not met, however, in

    the subsequent quarters the road to the owner’s target will be possible. New allocations of operations

    money and reduction of recurring expenses will see the company save more and earn more.

    FINAL

    Page 1 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Q2-22 QBR

    5 Key Learnings from Quarter
    I realized that at all times, a business has to utilize its funds very well. It is dangerous to go beyond

    the credit line limits. when the debt goes beyond the credit limit line, the business has to cut some

    costs just to ensure that the debt equals the credit limit or is below the credit limit.

    one of the methods of adding more cash float into the business is by cutting rental and leases costs,

    cutting marketing costs, and also research costs. By doing the costs cuts, makes it possible to have

    some cash to redeem the credit limit. When working on credit, always pay attention not to exceed

    the limit. This is in terms of the cash sales as well as the cash receivables as this is likely to put the

    business’ transactional accounts in jeopardy.

    Pre-tax NI Walk: Plan to Actual
    The planned NI pretax income was $80.4k, this was a favorable or money that was added to the

    account. this hence accounts for an after-tax NI of $40.2. The actual Pretax NI was $110.2k, this

    translated to an after-tax NI of $55.1k. Looking at the two values, this means that the business

    surpassed its targets by over $25k which is a positive indicator. Looking at the growth, the business

    had a growth of $128.4k. However, the market share was drastically reduced by $133.8k. The

    factors that resulted in the positive performance of the tax NI is due to the reduction in the amounts

    of the debts. cutting costs led to more disposable income that was used to offset bad debt levels.

    Cash Flow Work for this Quarter
    The business was running on a very bad debt level, this affected the other transactions as I was

    required to reduce the risk levels. When the costs cuts were done, the cash flows had a negative

    effect. The debts led to cash being paid out of the business. however, as this was unfavorable, the

    debt at the start of the quarter was $479.2k. on cutting costs and repaying the debt, the ending debt

    was $374k, this was a $105 reduction in the debt. On a positive note, additional equity was received

    worth $110k for a 7% stake. This improved the state of the business cash .however, this was in

    exchange for the stake which has its mix of advantages and disadvantages to the business given that

    it is performing this dismally.

    Page 2 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    3 Toughest Decisions Made and Why
    The business started on a high note with restrictions on transactions. The case was a result of the

    high debt overstretching beyond the credit limit. Because of the limitations, I was forced to make

    budget cuts. The businessman functions were halted since no or very little was allocated to serve in

    the respective areas. Some of the costs that were greatly affected included the research and

    development funds were all diverted into the business cash. The advertising and marketing funds

    were also changed to cash to offset the credit limits. To add more cash, I exchanged 7% of the

    company’s stake with $110k. As the companies ownership reduced, however, the company’s cash

    increased to aid in further daily business operations financing.

    Competitor Analysis
    The competitors still dominated the market with very positive indexes. They both invested more in

    research and development keeping them ahead with super quality product presentation and mass

    targeting. With the budget cuts especially in regards to advertising and marketing, the competitors

    had a comparative advantage. With the new injection of equity, the need to reinvest in the market to

    reduce the competitive effect of the other competitors is an important step towards improving the

    desired volumes of sales. To offer a matched competition atmosphere. Looking at their effective

    results or performance, comparing it with the company’s performance, it is easy to catch up with

    each one of them and probably outdo the two competitors. Smart marketing pieces will give the

    company an advantage over the two competitors.

    Use of Role Play for Information and Negotiation
    When the business was performing badly due to bad debt, it was very difficult to operate. All the

    other departments were locked from transacting business. After fixing the budget cuts, still, the

    credit limit was low, that is the available cash could not offer smooth transactions, with the use of

    role-playing, I was able to negotiate for additional investment. I relinquished 7% of the company

    stake to an investor who offered $110k. This is an amount that will be able to pay the company.s

    existing loan while also providing extra cash for research and development, marketing, and

    advertising. to increase the companies effectiveness in the labor sector, I was able to also negotiate

    for additional New Hired Effectiveness that was increased to 70.00% for $5,000.00

    Is your Original Strategy Working as you Planned?

    Page 3 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    the original strategy is not working as intended, I was not sure of transactions of the business that

    involved credit limits or debts. therefore at no point was I aware that I should also be regularly

    checking on the aspects of the company’s debts. This has made the whole strategy take a whole new

    direction. I still believe that the manageable transactions will bring back the intended results even

    though the company has more current liabilities that are directly affecting the delivery of the

    strategy. in the next work, am going to get more I settling debts so that the cash flows may be

    positive. With positive cash flows, am likely to attain the strategy with regards to the post-tax

    income.

    Are we on track to meet Annual Net Income Commitment? Provide explanation
    The whole of this business transaction is intended to bring a profit to the owner of the desired

    revenue limits. However, there are quite a few things that seem not to work so well. They are likely

    to compromise the target towards attaining the $300k revenue mark. having encountered issues o do

    with the credit limit as well as the need to pay for the operations as it was set before, this quarter

    may not be a goal attainment one as planned. I will however continue to monitor other areas of the

    business transactions and identify how best to realize the revenue goals as required. Am still

    evaluating the key production metrics and other aspects of transactions including the effectiveness

    of the human resource and inventory levels to ensure the target income is achieved by the end of the

    year.

    FINAL

    Page 1 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    Q3-22 QBR

    5 Key Learnings from Quarter
    Sales volumes are still an important factor in business operations, so the production limits must

    remain high as the demand for sales remains high enough.

    The costs associated with business productivity, manufacturing costs, expansion costs, and goods

    and services have to be minimized to increase the net profit.

    When business marketing has been effectively done before, the wave of good sales performances

    will be experienced much later, even when the business is not actively conducting marketing

    campaigns. This is because the information remains with the target customers who make a busy

    decision later.

    In the line of operations, a business should increase its line efficiency by acquiring new efficiency

    assets and increasing employees and increasing price per unit improves production.

    Pre-tax NI Walk: Plan to Actual
    The planned taxable income was $343.2K; hence the after-tax income would be 50% of the

    $343.3k. The after-tax income is $171.65k. Compared with the actual pre-tax income of $176k, this

    gives the real after-tax gain of $88k. When compared with each other, these two values, the exact

    after-tax amount was lower than the planned income. This result was a drop in the income tax,

    which is attributable to the reduced funding in marketing. Even though the income tax growth was

    by $1.8m, the market share, on the other hand, was reduced by $1.8m. the reduction in the market

    share resulted from intensified competition whereby the competitors boosted their market

    penetration.

    Cash Flow Work for this Quarter
    The beginning quarter debt was substantial, amounting to $374k. However, the ending quarter debt

    increased to $426.6k. The bad deb6 was a terrible indication in terms of the business outlook. The

    need to have more obligation was necessitated by the need to do actual savings on the energy

    consumptions. Thus, the company acquired solar panels that depended on the debt depths. However,

    this is intended to foster savings in the near future on electricity. Also, I increased the efficiency in

    production while increasing the staffing. The net income, on the other hand, grew to $88k. The sales

    Page 2 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    were attributed to increased efficiency in the production process. The common stock also increased

    to $150 k. with such an income, the funding of the business marketing needs will be implemented to

    improve the cash flows in the next season.

    3 Toughest Decisions Made and Why
    The company is in horrible shape regarding the cash flows. Theshapinhg saw during the quarter the

    bad debts’ likelihood to go higher if some purchases are made using the current cash—also, the need

    to increase productivity through the improvement of the efficiency and production processes. The

    first decision was to overlook the impending cash crisis and do solar panels procurement. The

    purpose of the change to solar power is due to the attempt to reduce electricity costs and support our

    sustainability mission. The second difficult decision is the purchase of 3 lines to enhance

    production. The third most tough decision I made was to increase the number of staff despite the

    condition of the business being so unaffordable to doing business.

    Competitor Analysis
    For some time now, the performance of the current business has been continuously affected by the

    competition. The competitors seemed to continue funding their business to have a more significant

    customer reach. In advertising, more funds are dedicated to marketing and reach. Given that

    currently, I have continuously cut with significant margins the marketing budgets, the marketing has

    been low, which is slowly translating to low sakes. During the next quarter, there is the need to

    adequately fund the marketing departments so that the product sales may start improving. one of the

    methods to achieve this is through the incentivizing of the consumer offers while ensuring that

    customer feedbacks adequately collet data or key metrics on whether their product variances need to

    be introduced for a wide choice to the customer.

    Use of Role Play for Information and Negotiation
    The use of role-playing in this quarter was very much enticing business-wise. In this quarter Q3, the

    deal that I sealed was with Lona lines. The deal included an expedition of three lines worth $17000

    each. This Enhanced the throughput by 275 per line at a $14,250 upgrading fee for 15 existing lines

    another deal included Discounted Pricing for Long-Term Commitment: in Q3’22 for five lines and

    Q4’22 for five lines with a 5.0% discount on leasing price. One of the most complex decisions in

    this quarter included the deal that Sloane assisted. He facilitated the purchase of the conversion into

    Page 3 of 3

    Student: Nicholas Redden

    a solar-powered business. Solar Panels Purchased: $150,000 cash for new solar panels.

    Is your Original Strategy Working as you Planned?
    My initial strategy has not been as fully effective as desired. The margins with which the net income

    is being generated tell that much has been missed. However, the best thing about it is that this

    method has totally changed the face of the income statement for the company. This is based on the

    fact that previous quarters have never had a positive income balance. However, after I introduced

    the method, the company was able to recover from the deficit. Currently, the net income has started

    taking a positive trajectory. This means that the method is working fine; given more time, I find that

    this method could be tweaked to result in more revenues for the company and the achievement of

    the revenue targets.

    Are we on track to meet Annual Net Income Commitment? Provide explanation
    The purchase of the solar panels and the lines were very much intentional. One of the high costs that

    the company has been swallowing includes the high costs of power. On the other hand, one of the

    ways to increase the revenues to such an extent is through cutting such expenses. This, together with

    another measure like the increase in production efficiency, is part of the road to meeting the annual

    net income. Looking at the history of the income standings, in Q1, the company performed dismally,

    resulting in ($45,916.35) loss. In the second quarter, the net income was $55,080.76. Currently, the

    net income is standing at $87,992.59. Well, this means that we may not likely achieve the target in

    Q4, but rather, the process is gradual, and it is possible to achieve the target from the next trading

    period.

    final

    Instructions: Portfolio Final Paper

    Portfolio Assignment Instructions

    Please be sure to read all of this assignment description carefully. It’s very detailed. It describes two separate things. However, all items will be submitted in ONE Word document.

    The portfolio that contains elements you have been working on throughout the course; and

    The final paper (problem analysis) that you will include as part of the portfolio.

    Let’s look at the BIG picture first, the final portfolio.

    What is a portfolio?

    A portfolio is a collection of items organized in a notebook, file, or a similar format. By collecting this information throughout a course, you can clearly see the connections among assignments as well as the progress you have made. In ENGL110, your portfolio will reflect the work you have done in a specific discipline or topic, ending with the analysis of a problem you have explored. Here are the required elements of the portfolio. The required sections are included in the template.

    Title Page

    Table of Contents

    Item 1 of the Portfolio – Description of Discourse Community in Your Field

    This is the assignment you submitted in week 2. You are to submit a final version of the description, including any changes recommended to you in the instructor’s feedback.

    Item 2 of the Portfolio – Annotated Bibliography for your Final Paper

    This is the assignment you submitted in week 4. You are to submit a final version of the annotated bibliography, including any changes recommended to you in the instructor’s feedback.

    Item 3 of the Portfolio – Final Paper – Analysis of a Problem

    This is the final problem analysis paper that is the culmination of all the work you have done in the course. Please see the complete description of the paper below.

    Final Paper (Problem Analysis)

    Assignment Instructions

    This analysis project requires you to tackle a problem within your field of study by first exploring it, its causes, and its impacts. Then, if you want, you can recommend one or more practical solutions to solve the problem.

    After deciding on the problem you wish to tackle, begin building questions about it. Your goal for the analysis is to answer the questions through your sources. Finding multiple angles and perspectives is ideal so that you explore those possibilities in the final paper before settling on your recommendation. Be sure to identify what is at stake.

    Here are questions to help guide your analysis:

    What is the problem being addressed (explain, describe, and “prove” that it exists)?

    Who is affected by this problem?

    Why does this problem exist (identify the root causes)?

    Why does the problem persist (identify the major factors that contribute to the problem’s ongoing presence)?

    What is at stake if the problem is not solved?

    If you decide to include a solution, use these questions to guide you:

    Who can take action?

    What should they do, exactly?

    Why would this help?

    What are the positive and negative aspects of your solution(s)?

    PURPOSE: To analyze a problem and possibly provide a solution

    AUDIENCE: Classmates, others interested in the field

    LENGTH: 900 – 1,000 words (Times New Roman font). Please do not go significantly under or above the word count requirement.

    SOURCES: 5 (five) sources from the APUS Library (These may include sources you used in previous assignments. Going under this number will cost points in grading.)

    FORMAT: The citation style that is appropriate for your discipline

    Submit your assignment as a Word document attached to the assignment link so it can be automatically processed through Turnitin. Use the template provided. You can save the template with a title like this: Your Name Portfolio Final Paper.

    Please note that the template is in MLA style. If your field of study uses APA style, set up your paper (cover page, parenthetical citations, etc.) as shown in the guide linked here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_sample_paper.html.