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discussion

This discussion board includes a video and a math question.

· Post by answering course related questions and doing as directed: 

0. Watch the 
Mindset Theory 
video Practice

· List a skill that you learned that required a great deal of practice. Could you have learned that skill without practice? How can you apply this to your math course?

1. Probability evolved out of practical application, and as noted in our textbook, probability arose from the gaming rooms of western Europe!  Additionally, it is noted that probability is practically found in every field.  Find how probability will play a role in your chosen career path and share with the class.

· Use the web to do your investigation and post should be shared in paragraph form with a minimum of 50 words, and insert a photo(s) within the post (not a link) referencing your discovery.

discussion

Main Post

· Reflect on strategies that you can pursue in developing portfolios or portfolio elements that focus on academic achievements.

· Review one or more samples from your own research of resources focused on portfolio development.

Post an explanation of at least two strategies for including academic activities and accomplishments into your professional development goals. Then, explain how those goals may align with the University’s emphasis on social change. Be specific and provide examples.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources. Apa format

Then peer responses:

apa and two credible sources

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ posts by offering additional ideas regarding academic achievements to include or offering alternative ways of presenting the current achievements.

Peer 1

An academic portfolio is a snapshot of one’s research, accomplishments, licensures, and professional work.  The portfolio is a way to house many important aspects of our career in one central place.  This is important while seeking initial employment or when you are looking for advancement (Phillips, 2022).  A resume is only a quick summary of your history and accomplishments while a portfolio can give potential employers a more intimate look at your success.  Portfolios can include things like actual competencies and certificates as well as letters of recommendation.  This gives you a much larger platform to introduce yourself and set the stage for how you would really fit the position that is open.  In a world where competition is fierce, anything that gives you a leg up is certainly worth pursuing. 

Things to include in my own academic portfolio would be my academic progression.  I have advanced from LPN to Associate of Art’s degree to Bachelor of Science in Health and Wellness to Registered Nurse to BSN and now onto MSN.  I have created a focus on health maintenance and disease prevention within the community by doing several things: First, I have established a working relationship between our clinic and the schools by creating health-based classes that I teach during after school programs.  Second, I have advertised health promoting behaviors such as skin checks, sunscreen use, and tick identification at local health fairs. 

I believe that all of my own accomplishments align with Walden’s view on social change.  The basis of social change is creating change within your community through education (Walden University, n.d.).  My pursuit of further education has given me the opportunity to network with people and create these educational events within my own community.

Peer 2

Having a professional portfolio is essential. The professional portfolio showcases the nurse’s skills, achievements, and professional experience (Burns, 2018). Having a solid academic foundation is critical and helps determine placement for competitive jobs. Having a well-rounded portfolio shows academic achievements and accomplishments in professional development.

Academic Strategies

A strategy to build a strong portfolio is to start with academic accomplishments. Academic achievements are a reflection of the skill transferred from the classroom to clinical practice (McMillan et al., 2014). As nurses, we dedicate a great deal of time to our education, so showcasing our educational accomplishments in our portfolio is critical. Adding educational achievements such as academic awards, diplomas, and degrees gives us an advantage and proves that learning has occurred and educational requirements have been met (Casey & Egan, 2013).

Professional Goals  

When your dream job is on the line and your application is within several other candidates, it is vital to stand out. Showing evidence of past professional experiences is critical in achieving professional developmental goals. Your professional portfolio represents you as a practitioner and exhibits your skills and past experiences during your nursing career. This information can land you the job or make you stand out from other applicants. Providing evidence of skills, knowledge, and experience is a strategy that can support career changes and meet professional requirements (Casey & Egan, 2013).

Social Change. Walden University caught my attention because of its strong focus on social change. Walden’s goal is to empower students to make a difference by providing several opportunities for professionals to transform themselves into scholar-practitioners to contribute to positive social changes (Walden University, 2022). Walden’s emphasis on social change aligns with my goals because it gives us the platform, education, and experience to prepare ourselves to be strong and successful professionals. Walden university’s (2022) mission is to transform professionals into scholar-practitioner with the ultimate goal of affecting positive social change. Positive social change has always been a goal of mine. I genuinely enjoy helping others and making the world a better place.

discussion

rnsg

Explain how the body receives and circulates oxygen.  Identify one disease process that interrupts this exchange or circulation of oxygen.  

300 words

discussion

To write about self

· Reason why I chOse the school for my masters

· Still currently enrolled

· Been in medical field for over 17 years

· Worked as volunteer during covid outbreak

· Getting my masters in order to open an outpatient clinic to give back to my community YOU CAN ADD GOOD STUFF ALSO

discussion

To prepare for this discussion, read the instructor guidance, Chapter 12 by Levitt (2016), and Sections 
3.1

3.2
, “Pros and Cons of Observational Research” and “Types of Observational Research” in 
Section 3.4
 of the Newman (2016) textbook. View the following videos: 

Different Qualitative Approaches

 (Links to an external site.)
 and 

When to Use a Qualitative Research Design? Four Things to Consider

 (Links to an external site.)
.

Then, determine from the list below your assigned qualitative research design based on the first letter of your last name:

· A-F: Ethnography

· G-L: Grounded theory

· M-R: Narrative research

· S-Z: Phenomenology

Using the 
Research Methods (Links to an external site.)
 research guide’s list of suggested articles, look for information about your assigned qualitative research design. You may also search the Library databases for articles about the research design. In your initial post:

· Evaluate the features of the design and what kinds of research topics it is suitable for.

· Explain the data collection and data analysis methods used in the design.

· Cite at least one scholarly/peer-reviewed article about the design and one published research study that used the design, for a total of at least two scholarly/peer-reviewed journal articles.

discussion

Prompt: Take the opportunity to engage with classmates on all matters regarding Java. Asking for and providing assistance are solid ways to build your coding skills. You are required to provide at least one of the following:

· A question regarding how to accomplish a certain task from this week’s assignment or NEXT WEEK’s project (look ahead as there are no extensions beyond the last day of class).  Start planning your project now.

· A response that aids a student’s aforementioned question

· An interesting article with a brief synopsis that details an interesting aspect or capability of Java

· A link to, and a short description of a tool, technique, plug-in, IDE, and any other useful resource you run across

discussion

Each student has been assigned to a group and each group is to research an industry. The group will then pick two publicly traded companies within the industry to investigate, noting both the similarities and the differences of the companies.  The companies must provide a similar type of product.  Please note how the industry influences these similarities and differences.  

Example:  you might choose the oil industry and pick Exxon-Mobil and Chevron.  These are both major oil companies.  You might choose the Auto Industry and choose GM and Toyota.  Both are publicly traded companies on US stock exchanges.

Your companies MUST be publicly traded.  There are a number of resources online that can help you find publicly traded companies.  Some of these are Yahoo Finance, CNN money, CNBC, Bloomberg and many more.  The library has an assignment guide to help you with your research.



No two groups may use the same industry. Industries will be assigned on a first requested, first assigned basis. SO, send me an email with your group’s choice of industry as soon as you decide and I will let the rest know what is no longer available.

You and your group decide which companies within your industry to analyze. The two companies must provide similar products or services, but may be different in size. In other words, compare apples to apples and oranges to oranges.

Some suggested industries are below, but there are many more you can choose from:

1. Airline

2. Oil

3. Pharmaceutical

4. Auto

5. Computer/Information Technology

6. Steel

7. Retail

8. Entertainment

9. Agriculture

10, Banking/Finance

11. Health Care

12. Trucking

13. Railroads

14. Communications

15. Defense/Aerospace

Each group will turn in a written paper of five to ten pages.  The paper must to cover all 14 points listed below. (first 12 and two from second list).  Each paper must include a cover page and a works cited page in addition to the five to ten pages required.  Grammar and spelling are important and will be considered in your grade, but your paper will be assessed based on how well you explain the material.  Remember that all work should be in your own words—NO QUOTES or COPYING.   

Each group should include a power point presentation of 5 to 10 slides that supports your paper with bullet points, graphs, or pictures – NO PARAGRAPHS on the slides.   If you do something creative and innovative in your presentation, you and your group can earn extra credit.

REQUIRED FOR ALL PROJECTS:

Briefly explain the importance of each item.   Some items can be covered in one or two sentences; some will require more detail. 

1. An explanation of the industry and the companies within it, as they exist currently.

2. A brief history of the industry and the companies you are investigating.

3. The type of product/products that is provided by this industry/companies and the type of customers. 

4. What influence the industry/companies have on the US economy and conversely, the influence of the economy on the industry/companies.

5. How the industry/companies and their decisions have a bearing on the lives of the average American.

6. The form of competition found in this industry (pure competition, monopolistic, oligopoly, monopoly)

7. The published mission or vision statement of each corporation.

8. The most recent fiscal year’s sales, expenses, and net profit for each company and how those figures compare with the industry as a whole.

9. The price per share of common stock for each corporation at the end of the fiscal year and for the first 2-3 quarters of the current fiscal year. Be sure to compare the same time periods. 

10. Pick at least three financial ratios and compare each company to the industry standards.  Are the companies better or worse than the industry standard? 

11. A brief discussion on the amount of government regulation for this industry.

12. The types of jobs or careers most frequently found in this industry and the amount of education/training needed for those jobs/careers.

PICK AT LEAST TWO OR MORE ITEMS from the following list to include in your presentation.  It is preferable to use those items that best apply to your industry or companies.  These items need to be discussed in more detail than those above. 

1. Any serious ethical problems/questions faced by the industry.  Explain how each company dealt with those problems/questions.

2. Whether or not the industry/companies are involved in international trade and global business – in what way?  and with which countries?

3. Any major mergers or diversifications that have/had a serious bearing on the industry.

4. A comparison of the levels of management within the two companies and the styles of management of the two companies.

5. The use of a Total Quality Program or a Just in Time Inventory system within the companies.

6. An overview of the production/operations process within the companies.

7. The development and implementation of the human resource process.

8. The presence and importance of unions in the industry.

9. The presence and importance of small business in the industry and any use of franchising.

10. The importance and use of technology within the industry and how each company uses technology. 

11. Marketing strategies used by each company and the industry including the research and development of new products, how each arrives at pricing decisions, and how products are distributed.

12. The importance and type of advertising and promotions used by the companies/industry.

13. The governmental agencies (other than IRS) that have a bearing on this industry and how each company deals with this regulation.

14. Any other major issue that applies to your industry.  (TO USE THIS CATEGORY AS ONE OF YOUR TWO, YOU MUST CLEAR IT WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR).


In order to make an A, groups need to do something creative or add extra value to the paper or presentation.  All basic requirements for the paper and presentation must be completed before added value will be considered.  See your instructor for more information.

Your group should: 

· Set a goal that is Realistic; Measurable; Specific

· Develop a time frame for work due.

· Develop rules for what to do if someone does not turn in work to the group on time.

· Exchange contact information outside of the classroom.

· Pick an industry with at least two publicly traded companies 

discussion

2

Melis

Risk management is a vital part of any healthcare setting, typically in a healthcare setting, there is a position dedicated to risk management practices. Effective risk management includes identifying areas where various types of risks may occur and identifying what outcomes may occur. If needed plans will be put into action – in my facility we call it a plan of action. When an item is deemed high risk – either something that could affect patient safety or noncompliant with federal and state regulations – a plan is put together with steps outlined to minimize the risk. Identifying risks comes from “near misses & good catches” (Catalyst), these are things that occur over the course of a workday that could have resulted in some kind of negative impact. Risk management professionals will use this information to decide if action needs to be taken. A common example of this is needlestick injuries. There are safety devices that can be implemented to limit the number of needlestick injuries within the healthcare setting. So if there are a few reports of near misses – meaning it almost happened – where a staff member may have sustained a needlestick injury, then the management team should implement some of these safety devices to limit that risk – this is also in compliance with OSHA (federal regulations). An example that I have come across was the placement of a paper towel machine, it was across the bathroom. Meaning patients are walking across the bathroom to get paper tows dripping water that they could potentially slip on – RISK!! So to eliminate this I worked with our facilities director to move all the paper towel holders by the sink. In addition, risk management has a lot to do with federal and state regulations, which outline acceptable and unacceptable actions. So risk management professionals have to understand these guidelines and apply them to their healthcare setting. There is a legal risk for noncompliance, as well as a safety risk. The idea around risk management is that you are making the setting a safer place for patients and staff and ensuring compliance with regulations. 

Catalyst, N. E. J. M. (n.d.). What is risk management in healthcare? NEJM Catalyst. Retrieved from https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.18.0197 

Healthcare executives’ role in emergency management. American College of Healthcare Executives. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ache.org/about-ache/our-story/our-commitments/policy-statements/healthcare-executives-role-in-emergency-management

Lisa

· Risk Management: Risk management in healthcare includes both the clinical and administrative systems and their processes and reports which are used to detect, monitor, assess, mitigate, and prevent risks. By utilizing risk management, healthcare organizations proactively and systematically safeguard patient safety as well as the organization’s assets, market share, accreditation, reimbursement levels, brand value, and community standing (Catalyst, 2018).

· Terms-The American College of Healthcare Executives believes healthcare executives should actively participate in disaster planning and preparedness activities. In doing so they ensure their emergency operations plan fits within the overall community plans and anticipates the approach to risks an organization might face (Catalyst, 2018).

To be prepared management needs to:

· Maintain a Relevant/Current Emergency/Disaster Plan- Using the National Response Framework and Hospital Preparedness Program

· Address the Safety of Staff/Patients/Families

· Focus the Plan to Address the Most Likely Scenarios

· Develop an Incident Command System

· Assess Resource Availability

· Plan for Continuity of Operations

· Develop Protocols to Ensure Appropriate Resource Allocation

· Design Appropriate Communication and Coordination Protocols for Both Internal and External Audiences

· Enhance Disease Surveillance and Reporting

· Planning -Managers acknowledge that anticipating uncertainty is challenging to recognize. By using data and industry knowledge, and including all stakeholders, healthcare risk managers can uncover threats and potentially compensatory events that otherwise would be hard to guess (Healthcare executives’ role in emergency management. 2020). This is where reporting comes in handy so that we can learn from mistakes.

· Patient safety – When mistakes or adverse events are avoided due to luck or intervention, “near misses” and “good catches” occur. These are often the best way to identify and prevent risk. Healthcare providers should develop a culture that encourages reporting so that prevention measures and best practices can be instituted (Healthcare executives’ role in emergency management. 2020).

· Regulations.- Regulatory bodies, such as The Joint Commission, Federal, state, and other oversight bodies mandate reporting of certain types of incidents including sentinel events, medication errors, and medical device malfunctions. Incidents such as wrong-site or patient surgery, workplace injuries, and medication errors need to be documented and reported (Healthcare executives’ role in emergency management. 2020).

Resources

Catalyst, N. E. J. M. (2018). What is risk management in healthcare? NEJM Catalyst. Retrieved April 22, 2022, from 
https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.18.0197
 

Healthcare executives’ role in emergency management. American College of Healthcare Executives. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2022, from 
https://www.ache.org/about-ache/our-story/our-commitments/policy-statements/healthcare-executives-role-in-emergency-management

discussion

Walden 2

Leila Walden

Dr. Christie Rinck

HUN 1020

3/28/2022

Looking Deeper- Contextual Analysis 2

Kara Walker is an artist known for her paper silhouettes based on topics in race, gender, sexuality, and violence. Kara was born in Stockton, California in 1969, but was raised in Atlanta, Georgia from 13 years old. She attended the Atlanta College of Art where she received an Bachelor’s in Fine Arts, and then Rhode Island School of Design where she received a Master’s in Fine Arts (Biography).

Kara was introduced to art at a very young age by her father, Larry Walker, who became a big motivator to her future career. “Walker says some of her earliest memories were watching her father draw and thinking that she also wants to be able to do that for her job,” (Rinck, 2022). Larry Walker was an artist and a chair in the art department at the University of the Pacific, although he was not the only inspiration to Kara’s artistic ambitions. When she and her family moved to Atlanta, she began to recognize issues of race, and after receiving art degrees, she began working on art forms that would raise awareness of slavery, violence, and sex (Britannica).

In this contextual analysis, I will discuss one particular piece of art by Kara Walker called A Subtlety. This was Kara Walker’s first large scale public project, and one that she notes to be one of her most ambitious. A Subtlety was built in an abandoned Domino Sugar factory. This factory was dripping in molasses. It seeped through the wood and pillars of the building, and at other times in the year, molasses would come out from under the floor and the walls. This was the result of the sugar from the refining process leaking into the air and into the wood of the factory. Kara does not focus her project on any of the factory’s recent history, but instead focuses on the overall troubled history of the sugar industry especially relying on slave labor (Rinck, 2022). The factory displaying A Subtlety was in Williamsburg, New York and was demolished only months after Kara Walker created this thought-provoking piece.

A picture containing colonnade  Description automatically generated

https://www.npr.org/2014/05/16/313017716/artist-kara-walker-draws-us-into-bitter-history-with-something-sweet

As one might be able to guess, A Subtlety was a sculpture built from a form of sugar called Marzipan, or sugar paste. Its creation was much more complicated than just sugar, however. A Subtlety is considered a full round sculpture, or a three-dimensional piece. This means that the viewer could walk around the piece, seeing different proportions, articulations, focal areas, and dimensions. She created the three-dimensional look by adding layers of foam, shaving them, and then adding sugar to the surface (Rinck, 2022). A Subtlety sculpture is around 70 feet long and 35 feet tall, and it depicts a “mammy sphinx” completely naked except for a scarf around her head, with bare breasts and genitalia exposed. The term mammy means mother, or protector, but it also was a derogatory term used for black nannies in charge of white children in the early Southern U.S. Walker created this piece to represent this idea of an over-dramatized and sexualized African woman’s body, and the body that would have been laboring in the Southern sugar plantations. Kara goes on to add this same symbolism in the left hand of the sculpture, where the “mammy sphinx” is holding a thick sign, or a symbol of fertility and ridicule in some cultures.

This figure also disrupts the idea that black woman can’t be sexual on their own terms, and that they need to suppress their right to be sexual. Walker not only creates this to be fierce symbolism of oppression and sexuality, but she also adds symbolism of power and strength. The “mammy sphinx” is both political and complex. It has been a representation of sexuality throughout history, but Walker also uses it in a way to show the difference between what is considered the ideal white woman and the unattractive black woman, showing the oppression that women have seen for years and the power and strength they possess (Rinck, 2022).

A picture containing person, outdoor, standing  Description automatically generated

https://www.npr.org/2014/05/16/313017716/artist-kara-walker-draws-us-into-bitter-history-with-something-sweet

The social angle that I most apply to this sculpture is colonialism. A Subtlety incorporates this theme of race, sex, and history throughout every aspect of the sculpture, including the materials used to build it. Sugar was a luxury product, and the “backbreaking toil and dangerous labor” required to manufacture refined sugar was given to slaved laborers. The factory workers who worked in the assembly-line were generally slave children, who had to work night and day to keep up sugar production at its highest efficiency (Muhammad, 2019). Sugar itself was even highly racially stigmatized, and the kind of sugar you used would be tied to your race. It was seen that Europeans would consume crystallized white sugar, whereas brown sugar was consumed by dark-skinned, usually African, people (Rinck, 2022).

Kara Walker created A Subtlety inspired by her own experience as an African American woman living in the Southern U.S, which goes to show that the piece contains many social, cultural, and historical implications. This piece has major historical implications in the way that it represents the dark history of sugar and slavery. It reminds people about what was and what never should be again. It also contains major cultural and social implications, especially for African American women, as it raises awareness to the idea that women today are still sexualized, still powerful and still strong. Although the sculpture was only up for a few months, it had a major impact on the way people view sugar production not only as racial, but also a reminder on how humans should treat each other moving forward.

The aspect of A Subtlety that I will go more into depth on is the full round technique that Kara Walker uses. As mentioned before, a full round sculpture is one that is created to be three-dimensional and can be looked at from any angle. This also means that the viewer has to walk all the way around in it order to see the whole piece, as well as see how different aspects of the piece play with the overall theme. Artists may use this technique to encourage the viewer to follow the parts of the sculpture that seem to disappear or lead to the next aspect (Rinck, 2022).

Kara Walker had many aspects of A Subtlety that could not be seen at a first glance, including the brown sugar babies surrounding the sculpture, the importance of the exposed genitalia, bare breasts, and sphinxlike structure of the main sculpture. The full round technique played important roles in pushing the viewer to become a part of the piece, experiencing it in real life and not just from one angle. I think this full round technique could also symbolize looking for a deeper meaning. While the piece is of a “mammy sphinx” it also represents history, race, and sex, things that may not be recognized at first glance.

The second piece I chose to compare to A Subtlety was The Statue of Liberty. This statue is one that I’m sure most have heard of and many have seen. I chose this piece as another example of a full-round sculpture technique, but also as a representation of forgotten history and deeper meaning.

Statue Of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)

https://www.nps.gov/stli/index.htm

The Statue of Liberty was created by French sculptor Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. It was given to the United States as a gift of friendship and was dedicated by President Cleveland in 1886. This statue is on a small island, Liberty Island, in Upper New York Bay. It is known to symbolize freedom and democracy, although many forget its true origin and first symbol (History.com Editors).

The Statue of Liberty was given as a gift from the French towards the end of the American Civil War to celebrate the United States building an efficient democracy. It was a joint effort, as the French built the statue, and the Americans built the pedestal- creating a symbol of friendship between the French and Americans. It’s not often that we speak about this Franco-American friendship, but I thought this symbol was an interesting one to bring up as a comparison to other forgotten history (Symbolism).

I think the Statue of Liberty can represent postcolonialism, the opposite of A Subtlety. The Statue of Liberty represents new times, liberty, and freedom, and I find it interesting that it was also created towards the end of the war that also began the end of slavery in the United States, another definition of a new time. I see it as representing new friendships, that with the French, and the African Americans.

Post colonialism refers to changes in culture, which I believe the Statue of Liberty represents perfectly. Not only was this statue created at the end of the Civil War, but it was also created at the same time as the centennial of the Declaration of Independence, another major contributor to the changes in culture for America. We all know that the American Civil War had major social, cultural, and historical implications. The first being the beginning of the end of slavery, which was social, cultural, and historical. While the Statue of Liberty was not created because of the end of slavery, it still represents the idea that new friendships, freedoms, and liberties can be created through the combined efforts of people with different backgrounds.

Statue of the Liberty

https://www.wonders-of-the-world.net/Statue-of-Liberty/Photos-of-statue-of-Liberty.php

The Statue of Liberty represents the opposite of what A Subtlety does, and I think that’s why both have such major impacts today. The Statue of Liberty represents what should be, what could be, and the history that change is entirely possible. A Subtlety, on the other hand, shows that just because change happened once, doesn’t mean that the issue was resolved, or that it can’t be resolved further.

Both impact the idea of postcolonialism, and that there should be a change of culture. Women of all races should be treated with respect and should be allowed to express themselves in whatever way they want. Friendships should be built across races and peoples, and the history of those friendships should not be forgotten. This symbolism contained in art has such an incredible impact on people and how they view history as well as how they move forward in their being. It inspires people to change their behaviors and thoughts for the better and pushes those who experience things like racism and sexism to take a stand or reach out. In the case of these two art pieces, both symbols, one of friendship and one of slavery, represent times in American history where times changed. Hopefully both pieces can be a reminder to us to remember our history and make some not so subtle changes going forward in standing united with all peoples.

Word Count: 1772

References:

“Biography.” Kara Walker, http://www.karawalkerstudio.com/biography.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Kara Walker”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 22 Nov. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Kara-Walker.

History.com Editors. “Statue of Liberty.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2 Dec. 2009, https://www.history.com/topics/landmarks/statue-of-liberty.

Muhammad, Khalil Gibran. “The Barbaric History of Sugar in America.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Aug. 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/sugar-slave-trade-slavery.html.

Rinck, Christie. “Representation and Power in Art.” Kara Walker’s “A Subtlety”: Lectures and Readings, 2022, https://usflearn.instructure.com/courses/1643138/pages/kara-walkers-a-subtlety-lectures-and-readings?module_item_id=24621757.

“Symbolism of the Statue of Liberty.” Wonders of the World, https://www.wonders-of-the-world.net/Statue-of-Liberty/Symbolism-of-the-statue-of-Liberty.php.

Discussion

Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the Middle Manager Best Practices Arc

Maturity Stages

1. Technology implementation competence and recognition: This first stage represents the middle manager’s capacity to learn, conceptualize, and articulate key issues relating to cogni- tive business technological skills, organizational interactions, management value systems, project management ethics, and management presence.

2. Multiplicity of business implementation of technology: Indicates the middle manager’s ability to integrate multiple points of view during technical project implementations. Using these new perspectives, the middle manager augments his or her skills with business implementation with technology career advancement, expands his or her management value system, is increasingly motivated to act ethically during projects, and enhances his or her management presence.

3. Integration of business implementation of technology: Maturing middle managers accumulate increased understand- ing of how business and technology operate together and affect one another. They gain new cognitive skills about technology and a facility with how the organization needs to interact, expand their management value system, perform business/technology actions to improve ethics about busi- ness and technology, and develop effective levels of manage- ment presence.

4. Stability of business/technology implementation: Middle manag- ers achieve stable integration when they implement projects using their cognitive and technological ability; have organi- zation interactions with operations; have management values with their superiors, peers, and subordinates; possess project ethics; and have the management presence appropriate for performing job duties, not only adequately, but also competi- tively (with peers and higher-ranking executives in the orga- nization hierarchy).

5. Technology project leadership: Leadership is attained by the middle manager when he or she can employ cognitive and technological skills, organization interactions, management, a sense of business ethics, and a sense of management presence to compete effectively for executive positions. This middle manager is capable of obtaining increasingly executive-level positions through successful interviewing and organization performance.

Performance Dimensions

1. Business technology cognition: Pertains to skills specifically related to learning, applying, and creating resources in busi- ness and technology, which include the necessary knowledge of complex operations. This dimension essentially establishes the middle manager as “operationally” proficient with tech- nology and forms a basis for movement to more complex and mature stages of development when managing technology projects.

2. Organizational interactions: This focuses on the middle man- ager’s knowledge and practice of proper relationships and management interactions during technology projects. This pertains to in-person interactions, punctuality of staff, work completion, conflict resolution, deference, and other protocols in technology projects.
3. Management values: Measures the middle manager’s ability

to articulate and act on mainstream corporate values credited with shaping technology project work ethic: independent ini- tiative, dedication, honesty, and personal identification with technology project goals, based on the philosophy of manage- ment protocol of the organization.

4. Project ethics: Reflects the middle manager’s commitment to the education and professional advancement of other persons in technology and in other departments.

5. Management presence: Involves the middle manager’s view of the role of a project-based manager during a technology project implementation and the capacity to succeed in tandem with other projects. Aspects include a devotion to learning and self-improvement, self-evaluation, the ability to acknowl- edge and resolve business conflicts, and resilience when faced with personal and professional challenges during technology implementations.

Figure 12.7 shows a graphic view of the middle management tech- nology best practices arc. Each cell in the arc provides the condi- tion for assessment. The complete arc is provided in Table 12.4. The challenge of the middle management best practices arc is whether to emphasize executive management concepts (more organizationally intended) or event-driven concepts (project oriented). This arc focuses on project implementation factors and deals with best practices that can balance executive pressures with implementation realities. I sug- gest that senior middle managers, at the director level, who do not participate in implementation, set their best practices, based on the CEO maturity arc. Indeed, creating a separate arc for upper manage- ment would contain too many overlapping cells.

Summary

The formation of best practices to implement and sustain ROD is a complex task. It involves combining traditional best practice methods (i.e., what seems to work for proven organizations and individuals)

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with developmental theory on individual maturation. The combina- tion of these two components provides the missing organizational learning piece that supports the attainment of ROD. Another way of comprehending this concept is to view the ROD arc as the over- arching or top-level model. The other maturity arcs and best practices

towArd best prACtICes333

represent the major communities of practice that are the subsets of that model. This is graphically depicted in Table 12.5.

Thus, the challenge is to create and sustain each community and, at the same time, establish synergies that allow them to operate together. This is the organizational climate created at ICAP, where the execu- tive board, senior and middle managers, and operations personnel all formed their own subcommunities; at the same time, all had the abil- ity for both downward and upward communication. In summary, this particular model relies on key management interfaces that are needed to support ROD.

discussion

May 2

Andrea May

Dr. Rinck

Introduction to Humanities

14 March 2022

Not So Subtle

Kara Walker was from Stockton, California and was born in 1969. She was inspired by her father to become an artist while also being inspired by obstacles on who she was as a person. One of her works, entitled A Subtlety, especially expressed her views on the obstacles she faced when she moved to Georgia. The statue I have chosen is called Attendant to the King of Hell by an unknown sculptor in Korea to compare it to A Subtlety by Kara Walker. A Subtlety explored the social angles of colonialism, post-colonialism, race and ethnicity and gender and sexuality.

Growing up, Kara Walker’s father was a painter and a professor. From witnessing this, Kara was inspired to take on becoming an artist as a part of her daily life as a career. However, because of the work that her father encountered, her family moved to Atlanta, Georgia when she was 13 years of age. There, she witnessed the profound impact of racism that became prevalent in the American South. She encountered moments of what is now known as the Klu Klux Klan around the years of the 1980s. In school, she was called profanities due to her race. As she grew as an artist, she became particularly interested in showcasing her experiences and standpoint on the racism she faced and read about. For her masters in art, she received the MacArthur Genius Grant in 1997 and used it to express more of herself through her art and along with it, her views on racism. An idea standing beside the works she created was the thoughts of other people being full of fears and longings, and that people were trying to steal the power that other people held within them. The ongoing theme of her work was that of melodrama, outrageous characters, pain, guts, glory, research and histeria (Fig. 4). In past works these themes went from silhouettes expressing racism’s effects to her creation called A Subtlety (“A Subtlety”).

Kara Walker’s A Subtlety explores the social angles involving colonialism, post-colonialism, race and ethnicity, and gender and sexuality. The work incorporated a sugar paste that was from sugar cane as well as corn syrup. The sugar paste, called marzipan, that was holding up the large sculpture was a symbol of slave trade. Marzipan was devoured in the medieval era after the main course as a fondant during the time of King Henry II. The piece was made out of 35 tons of sugar. The sugar was harvested by child workers during the slave trade, which were presented at the bottom of A Subtlety with children made out of brown sugar into statue form. The children at the bottom of the work dripped and oozed as a result of the sun in the Domino Sugar Factory (Fig. 1). The work was made to be ephemeral, which means that it would only last a short while for the exhibition. This was due to Kara Walker’s intention of showing how black lives had been neglected in the presence of slave owners in history. The sphinx was a representation of how women’s bodies were not their own and was a large reason as to why Kara had overly sexualized it based in the form of the body A Subtlety (Fig. 2). The formation of the body was inspired by the sphinxes in Egypt. Kara had researched many different components on sugar prior to the building of the statues. For example, the type of sugar that a person would consume back when slave labor was occuring had to do with their race. Europeans would consume crystal white sugar, while dark skinned people would consume brown sugar. The head of the Sphinx was inspired by the Mammy character which stood for a woman that would be political, asexualized, a protector, but would be an undesired woman on top of that. It was manifested in the movie called “Gone with the Wind.” Putting the Mammy character on the sphinx’s body expressed that they can be sexual as well, according to Kara. (“A Subtlety”) The meaning of A Subtlety to me meant that being oppressed for the meaning of the color of skin only leads to destruction of people, and does not lead to peace. It may lead to feelings of shame between individuals, and maybe an extreme frustration within to bridge the gap between the misunderstandings of people who may still think of colored skin as something to be segregated when there should be unity.

In comparison to the work that I chose, which was called Attendant to the King of Hell, and A Subtlety both had their similarities and differences. For instance, in A Subtlety and Attendant to the King of Hell (Fig. 3) both show an ephemeral quality. For example, the sugar in A Subtlety only lasted for a short amount of time for the exhibition for Kara, but in Attendant to the King of Hell, it held the message for the short lives that people lead because it discusses what may happen to someone after they die. Physically, both statues depict their eyes being open as well as front facing. Although the ethnicities are different between the two works, both have the social angles of race and ethnicity as well as gender playing a part in the messages they are trying to express. A Subtlety discusses slave trade and it’s impact while Attendant to the King of Hell discusses the after life and is based in Korea. On another note, the attendant figure from Attendant to the King of Hell physically doesn’t last a brief time like A Subtlety does because it is made of wood. There is no known artist for the attendant statue, but it was created in the 19th century. The full description of Attendant to the King of Hell comes from Buddhist beliefs such as trying to mitigate the punishments of the people who had passed away by the usage of prayer. On top of the usage of the statues in the subsidiary halls for Buddhists, paintings of the King of Hell would hold the same meanings for them. In the wooden figure depicted in figure 3, he is holding a scroll. Within the scroll holds the names of humans and how they are judged and it is recorded. The demographic background of the statue dates back to Korean folk sculpture artwork. It contains a mixture of religion with the beliefs held, is dressed in robes, and lacquered hat of a Confucian scholar official. (Korea) I discovered the artwork of Attendant to the King of Hell on a website called Jstor. What spoke to me about the artwork was that I am interested generally in Asian culture and different beliefs held. I think that having the belief of helping to save a passed beloved family member by prayer helps them to have peace afterwards.

In summary, A Subtlety depicts the social angles of race and ethnicity, post-colonialism, colonialism, and gender and sexuality and it thoroughly goes over the impacts of slave trade. Slave trade even lasted years after slavery ended and had an impact on Kara when she moved to Georgia. The inspiration from her father of being an artist drove Kara to become an artist and helped to express these firmly held beliefs she had on the topic of oppression against people who were black. Attendant to the King of Hell was another statue discussed and had many similarities as well as differences. Both shared the same social angles like that of gender, race and ethnicity being held in the messages. Both had an ephemeral quality, but it was not a physical quality, in the Attendant to the King of Hell it was in the message of life not lasting forever that made it brief, while in A Subtlety the physical statue was brief in how long it lasted because it was made of sugar that would soon ooze and turn into molasses.

(Word Count: 1309)

Figure 1:
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/12/arts/design/a-subtlety-or-the-marvelous-sugar-baby-at-the-domino-plant.html

Figure 2:
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/12/arts/design/a-subtlety-or-the-marvelous-sugar-baby-at-the-domino-plant.html

Figure 3:
https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/stable/community.15649675?searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dattendant%2Bto%2Bthe%2Bking%2Bof%2Bhell%26so%3Drel&ab_segments=0%2Fbasic_search_gsv2%2Fcontrol&refreqid=fastly-default%3Adb5776a20049dac1c8781012dff70af8&seq=1

Figure 4:
https://studiomuseum.org/article/silhouettes-relieved-kara-walkers-new-drawings

Works Cited

“Kara Walker ‘A Subtlety.’” https://usflearn.instructure.com/courses/1643138/pages/kara-walkers-a-subtlety-lectures-and-readings?module_item_id=24621757. Accessed 14 Mar. 2022.

Korea. Attendant to the King of Hell. https://jstor.org/stable/community.15649675. The Minneapolis Institute of Art;Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA;Gift of funds from Fred and Ellen Wells;97.122.2;http://www.artsmia.org/.

discussion

Fleming Mwashako Mwalugho

Sheffield Hallam

Research

Introduction

High sodium content is a global issue. Most countries have enacted laws to help curb the sodium content in food. However, some of the enactments are not fully enforced exposing the food industry to high food sodium especially in processed food and in certain cuisines. It is now established that high salt content leads to an increase in blood pressure and greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases. According to (Du et al., 2022) cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in most western countries accounting for more than 30% of the deaths. It is widely accepted that the consumption of high sodium foods is above the Food Standard Agency (FSA) recommended levels in the United Kingdom.

The WHO targets a 30% of salt reduction by 2025 with an adult consumption recommendation of fewer than 5 grams of salt per day. The United Kingdom set a target to reduce salt content for more than 85% of food categories ten years ago and this resulted in more than 20% reduction in high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related deaths. In China, intake of sodium is very high ranging from 12-14g/d, this is accompanied by the increase in the consumption of sauces like soy sauce which account for the highest rates, and processed food that also has high sodium content. This is also witnessed in the UK where most urban populations indulge in foreign cuisines. In developed countries, it is estimated that processed foods account for more than 75% of the salt consumed (Tan et al., 2019). Studies have shown that Chinese food, ingredients, and accompaniments in the United Kingdom contain higher levels of sodium than recommended by the FSA 2024 (Tan et al., 2019). Further in a study that was conducted in 2017 most UK products met the FSA standards but only 13% of Chinese products met the recommended FSA standards for sauces and Ingredients. Studies have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce salt content in Chinese food. Following the enactment of policies in past on salt regulation in the UK, there is a substantial decrease in the sodium content in Chinese cuisines this is in comparison to china where the same products are consumed. The most important strategy in reducing salt consumption is identifying the amount of salt consumed and how it is consumed. The aim of the study was to establish the sodium content in Chinese meal components, ingredients, and sauces and to determine if they are in line with the FSA 2024 standards. The final report provides actual values of salt content and helps in reviewing targets and informing consumer decisions. This was achieved by systematically collecting data on sodium levels on the UK processed Chinese products and comparing the sodium values against the UK FSA 2024 standard on salt content.

Literature review

He & MacGregor (2018) in a research on the relationship between high salt intake and cardiovascular diseases propose that a high level of sodium in food is highly detrimental and takes a toll on the life of a person. They explain that high sodium in foods increases the risk of hypertension which is dangerous, especially for people with comorbidities. The above argument is further supported by Bandy et al (2021) in research on U.K food safety and sodium levels found that high sodium levels increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, renal diseases, and stroke by 55% in a sample population of 1045 on a study conducted between 2019 and 2021. A study conducted by (Barton et al., 2011) raised blood pressure accounted for 47% of strokes and this is linked to evidence that high consumption levels of salt consumed in diets is the leading cause for high blood pressure.

Elsewhere Rippin et al., (2019) in a research on the effects of high sodium levels in energy foods in the UK by use of urinary sodium surveys, also found that the risk of hypertension and stroke was increased by 49% in a study sample size of 2200 drawn from various age groups. Additionally, the study also revealed, that 76% of the sodium taken was drawn from processed foods. The above therefore creates the need to investigate sodium levels in foods in the UK if they are in line with the F.S.A 2024 standards.

Antúnez et al., (2019) in a research on the F.S.A guidelines and standards on foods, explains various standards. Among the main findings is that there are various subcategories of targets to be met by food manufacturers by 2024. For instance, slices of bacon are set at 1035 sodium (2.59g of sodium) per 100 grams of bacon and 430mg sodium (1.08g sodium) per 100 grams of sausages. Tan et al., (2019) in research on the same, support the above findings by further giving more targets as set out by the F.S.A. further, the author lists and explains the targets like meat pies with a target of 370 mg sodium (0.93 sodium) per 100 gram of meat pie and standard of 320mg sodium (0.8g salt) for meat-based pasties by 2024.

Menyanu, Russell & Charlton (2019) further in their discussion they expound more on the above standards by discussing several standards and their anticipated importance. Among the foods standards the writers discuss are the above and more such as pizza, soups, crisps, snacks and biscuits. Sampling the standards, the target for biscuits is 220 mg sodium (0.55g salt) and for children’s main meals is 685 mg sodium (1.71g salt) per 100 mg of their food. The authors further posit that the above targets are part of the campaign started in 2003 by the F.S.A to reduce salt intake to 6mg per day per person by 2024.

Zhang et al., (2020) in research on Chinese processed foods, argues that Chinese processed foods are among the most popular cuisines in the U.K. additionally the writer argues that Chinese foods are four-fold saltier and higher in sodium in the U.K. Tan et al., (2019) further agree with the above by discussing that Chinese foods have high salt levels with an average of 13 g per day. Additionally, he explains that Chinese products such as sauces account up to 6% of total salt levels.

He et al., (2018) in their research reaffirms the above findings through research on Chinese salt and sodium levels research conducted in 2018-2019. In the study findings, the Chinese cuisine had more salts than the U.K foods. Specifically, from the researcher’s findings on instant noodles, of 10 sampled, 4 had more salt levels as compared to 2 of the U.K noodles. Additionally, 8 out of 11 food groups in China had more salt and sodium content compared to the same sampled in the UK. On average the writer affirms that Chinese products mostly non-processed had 4.5 times more salt than those from U.K. The comparison was done largely on non-processed and large groups of processed foods with little focus on processed foods.

In the longitudinal study conducted by (Ni Mhurchu et al., 2010) there was high sodium content in the food served in UK households. More than 50% of the salt consumed was added as table salt (Ni Mhurchu et al., 2010). The other 50% was mainly salt added at the point of processing ready meals. With the increase in ready meal consumption, there has been a substantial increase in dietary sodium levels in the UK (Ni Mhurchu et al., 2010). The intake of Chinese food from supermarkets has also increased over time reducing the gains that were instituted by the FSA in 2004.

In the UK the FSA recommends the reduction of salt intake to 6 grams in adults, it is also estimated that 75% of salt intake is derived from the consumption of processed foods retailed in supermarkets such as Tesco and Sainsbury with 27.5% and 16% respectively. This project was aimed at assessing the salt content in Chinese food, sauces, ingredients, and accompaniments sold in the above supermarkets.

Methodology

Data collection

The chosen method for this study was a systematic sampling of main Chinese food from two outlets, Tesco and Sainsbury. The outlets were chosen based on the number of Chinese cuisines available on their menu. One of the advantages of using systematic sampling is its convenience and the ability to single out samples and access the desired sample size and characteristics (Elfil & Negida, 2017). However, this is limiting as it may not be representative of the entire population. Further, there was a risk of data manipulation which was countered by ensuring the data was collected randomly (Elfil & Negida, 2017)..

A systematic survey was conducted in Tesco and Sainsbury with a primary goal of establishing the mean average sodium concentration in the main Chinese cuisine categories that contribute to salt in the diet bearing in mind most Chinese food uses soy products and other refined oils (Diez-Simon et al., 2020). Data was collected to include mainly Chinese cuisines, however, there was data from Thai and Japanese cuisines that had similar formulations. The data include quality ranges from top middle and bottom, this also included chilled, frozen, and ambient cuisines from across all the categories. For each cuisine, the data also included the weight of the product, price, brand name, serving size, and the amount of salt/100g. Not all products had salt contents, therefore, those that had nil or missing data were rounded up to zero for consistency.

Data analysis

The data was collected and stored in an excel datasheet. It was then imported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26, where descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted. Out of the 49 observations surveyed, the Chinese ready meal was 82 % followed by the Chinese ready sauces which were 8% of the total product category, and lastly, the Japanese ready sauces and Thai ready meal sauces had 2% each. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the mean value, frequency, standard deviation, and median.

An independent t-test was used to investigate if the mean of the two unrelated groups statistically differed where Salt g/100g was used as the dependent variable and the product subcategory was used as the independent variable. Seven observations were used to conduct the T independent t-test which produced 46 observations as the degrees of freedom. The total number of observations in Tesco was 23 while the total number of observations in Sainsbury’s was 25.

ANOVA test was used to determine the analysis of variance where more Chinese products were selected (89%) as compared to other products from Japan and Thai cuisines. Further, the One-way ANOVA analysis involved three groups that include the complete Chilled meal, complete ambient meal, and complete frozen meal. The product subcategories were used as the independent variable and the Salt g/100g was used as the dependent variable. A subsequent post hoc test was done to detect any significant difference in means between the groups. The average salt content was measured against the FSA 2024 guidelines on sauce-based foods (≤6 g/100 g). (Reference)

Results

Below are the results as analyzed using the SPSS 26 statistical tool. They included descriptive and inferential analysis.

Statistics

Product category

Product sub-category

Outlets

Product Name

Brand name

Brand type

Quality range

N

Valid

49

49

49

49

49

49

49

Missing

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 1.1: frequencies product category

The total number of valid observations was 49 with 0 missing values for all product categories.

Product category

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Chinese ready meal

42

85.7

85.7

85.7

Chinese ready sauces

4

8.2

8.2

93.9

Japanese ready sauces

1

2.0

2.0

95.9

Japanese ready meals

2

4.1

4.1

100.0

Total

49

100.0

100.0

Table 1.2: frequencies product subcategory

There were four categories of Chinese cuisine processed foods products (n=4). There were 8.2% (n=4) Chinese ready sauces, 85.7% (n=42) Chinese ready meals, 4.1% (n=2) Japanese ready meal and 2% (n=1) Japanese ready sauces.

Table 1.3: product subcategories

Product sub-category

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

chilled meal , complete

27

55.1

55.1

55.1

Ambient meal complete

20

40.8

40.8

95.9

frozen meal complete

2

4.1

4.1

100.0

Total

49

100.0

100.0

There were three subcategories of the product which included Chilled meal, ambient meal, and frozen meal. There were 55.1% (n=27) Chilled meals, 40.8% (n=20) ambient meals, and 4.1% (n=2) frozen meals.

Table 1.3: frequencies_ Brand name

Brand name

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

25

51.0

51.0

51.0

2

24

49.0

49.0

100.0

Total

49

100.0

100.0

There were two brand names included Sainsbury’s and Tesco. There were 25 Sainsbury’s outlets accounting for 51% and 24 Tesco outlets representing the other half.

Table 1.4: frequencies quality range

Quality range

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Basic

2

4.1

4.1

4.1

Middle

46

93.9

93.9

98.0

Top

1

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

49

100.0

100.0

Across all products, 4.1% (n=2) were basic range quality, 93.9% (n=46) mid-range quality and 2% (n=1) top range quality product.

Table 2: independent T test _ product category

Group statistics

Independent sample t Test

Group Statistics

Brand name

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Salt g/100g

1

23

1.488696

1.9117681

.3986312

2

24

.971563

.9326120

.1903686

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Salt g/100g

Equal variances assumed

4.027

.051

1.186

45

.242

.5171332

.4358778

-.3607698

1.3950361

Equal variances not assumed

1.171

31.606

.250

.5171332

.4417545

-.3831310

1.4173973

The independent T-test indicated a difference in the salt content t (46) =1.253, p=0.043. The salt g/100g did not differ significantly between Tesco branded products (M=1.49, SD=1.91) and Sainsbury’s branded products (M=0.97, SD=0.93).

Further, the independent sample t-test was run where Salt g/100g was used as the dependent variable while product-subcategory was used as the independent variable. The total number of observations in Tesco was 23 while the total number of observations in the Sainsbury’s is 25. The mean of Tesco is 1.49 with a standard deviation of 1.91, while the mean of is 0.0953 with a mean of 0.953 with a standard deviation of 0.918 (Refer to table 2).

Table 3: One-way Anova

Descriptive

Salt g/100g

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

chilled,meal ,complete

27

.994352

.9232977

.1776887

.629107

1.359596

.0800

4.6000

Ambient meal complete

18

1.645000

2.1124289

.4979043

.594514

2.695486

.2000

8.0000

frozen meal complete

2

.550000

.0707107

.0500000

-.085310

1.185310

.5000

.6000

Total

47

1.224628

1.5003789

.2188528

.784100

1.665155

.0800

8.0000

ANOVA

Salt g/100g

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

5.523

2

2.761

1.239

.299

Within Groups

98.029

44

2.228

Total

103.552

46

Results for One-Way ANOVA for the measure of salt content g/100g

The Chilled meal, ambient meal and frozen meal identified were not significant F (2, 44) = 1.24, p = 0.299. The degree of freedom between the groups is 2, and the degree of freedom within the group is 45. The mean of the Chilled meal is 0.99g and the standard deviation is 0.923. The mean of the ambient meal is 1.65g and the standard deviation is 2.11.

The mean of the frozen meal was 0.55g and the standard deviation is 0.07. The sum of squares between the groups is 5.52 and the sum of squares within the group was 98.03. The p-value is 0.26 which is greater than 0.05 thus we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no significant difference in the means of the salt content across the three product subcategories.

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: Salt g/100g

Tukey HSD

(I) Product sub-category

(J) Product sub-category

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

chilled,meal ,complete

Ambient meal complete

-.6506481

.4541927

.333

-1.752284

.450988

frozen meal complete

.4443519

1.0938409

.913

-2.208740

3.097443

Ambient meal complete

chilled,meal ,complete

.6506481

.4541927

.333

-.450988

1.752284

frozen meal complete

1.0950000

1.1125404

.591

-1.603447

3.793447

frozen meal complete

chilled,meal ,complete

-.4443519

1.0938409

.913

-3.097443

2.208740

Ambient meal complete

-1.0950000

1.1125404

.591

-3.793447

1.603447


A subsequent Tukey post hoc test demonstrated that the subcategories of the products were more likely to have a high salt content in the Ambient meal (M = 1.65, SD = 2.11) than in the chilled meal (M = 0.99, SD = 0.92). However, there were no significant differences in the amount of salt intake in Frozen meals (M = 0.54, SD = 0.06) and either Ambient meals or chilled meals.

Moreover, there was no significant difference between the three subcategories. There was no significant difference in the amount of salt in chilled meals and Ambient meals (p=0.33), there was no difference between the chilled milled and the Frozen meal (p=0.91) and there was no difference between Ambient meals and the Frozen meal (p=0.59).

Table 4: Salt

Salt g/100g

Tukey HSDa,b

Product sub-category

N

Subset for alpha = 0.05

1

frozen meal complete

2

.550000

chilled,meal ,complete

27

.994352

Ambient meal complete

18

1.645000

Sig.

.479

Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.

a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 5.063.

b. The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

As represented in the table above, there is one subset. The Ambient meal (M = 1.645), chilled milled (M = 0.994) and frozen meal (M=0.55) fall under one subset. Therefore, the three conditions did not differ from each other.

Figure 1: histogram

Table 5: Pearson test

Correlations

Product category

pack size g

Product retail price £

Salt g/100g

salt grams per serving

Weight of serving g

Product category

Pearson Correlation

1

-.054

-.048

.192

.229

.109

Sig. (2-tailed)

.713

.745

.197

.126

.476

N

49

49

49

47

46

45

pack size g

Pearson Correlation

-.054

1

.201

-.316*

-.005

.272

Sig. (2-tailed)

.713

.166

.031

.974

.071

N

49

49

49

47

46

45

Product retail price £

Pearson Correlation

-.048

.201

1

-.069

-.067

-.052

Sig. (2-tailed)

.745

.166

.646

.659

.733

N

49

49

49

47

46

45

Salt g/100g

Pearson Correlation

.192

-.316*

-.069

1

.473**

-.211

Sig. (2-tailed)

.197

.031

.646

.001

.165

N

47

47

47

47

46

45

salt grams per serving

Pearson Correlation

.229

-.005

-.067

.473**

1

.409**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.126

.974

.659

.001

.006

N

46

46

46

46

46

44

Weight of serving g

Pearson Correlation

.109

.272

-.052

-.211

.409**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.476

.071

.733

.165

.006

N

45

45

45

45

44

45

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The coefficient of correlation

According to the Pearson test table above, the coefficient of correlation between the product category and the salt was 0.192, between the product category and the salt in grams was 0.229 and between the weight of serving and the product category was 0.109. The coefficient of correlation between the pack size and the product retail price was 0.201, between the pack size and the weight of serving was 0.272. The coefficient of correlation between the product category and the pack size was -0.54. The coefficient of correlation between the product category and the product retail price was – 0.048. The coefficient of correlation between the salt and the pack size was -0.316, between pack size and salt grams per serving was -0.005. The coefficient of correlation between the pack size and the weight of serving was 0.272. The coefficient of correlation between the product retail price and the salt was 0.069, between product retail price and the salt per serving was -0.067.

Figure 2: scatter plot between the salt g/100g and the weight of serving g.

According to the figure above, the line depicts a negative slope thus there was an inverse relationship between the amount of salt and the pack size.

Figure 3. scatter plot between the salt g/100g and the weight of serving g.

According to the figure above, the line depicts a negative slope thus there was an

discussion

3.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Chapter 1 explained that researchers generally take one of two broad approaches to answering their research questions. Quantitative research is a systematic and empirical approach that attempts to generalize results to other contexts, whereas qualitative research is a more descriptive approach that attempts to gain a deep understanding of particular cases and contexts. Before we discuss specific examples of descriptive designs, it is important to understand that these can represent either quantitative or qualitative perspectives. This section contrasts the two approaches in more detail.

Chapter 1 used the analogy of studying traffic patterns to contrast qualitative and quantitative methods—a qualitative researcher would likely study a single busy intersection in detail. This example illustrates a key point about this approach: Qualitative researchers are focused on interpreting and making sense out of what they observe rather than trying to simplify and quantify these observations. In general, qualitative research involves a collection of interviews and observations made in a natural setting. Regardless of the overall approach (qualitative or quantitative), data collection in the real world results in less control and structure than it does in a laboratory setting. But whereas quantitative researchers might view reduced control as a threat to reliability and validity, qualitative researchers view it as a strength of the study. Conducting observations in a natural setting makes it possible to capture people’s natural and unfiltered responses.

As an example, consider two studies of the ways people respond to traumatic events. In a 1993 paper, psychologists James Pennebaker and Kent Harber took a quantitative approach to examining the community-wide impact of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (near San Francisco). These researchers conducted phone surveys of 789 area residents, asking people to indicate, using a 10-point scale, how often they “thought about” and “talked about” the earthquake during the three-month period after its occurrence. In analyzing these data, Pennebaker and Harber discovered that people tend to stop talking about traumatic events about two weeks after they occurred but keep thinking about the event for approximately four more weeks. That is, the event is still on people’s minds, but they decide to stop discussing it with other people. In a follow-up study using the 1991 Gulf War, the same researchers found that this conflict leads to an increased risk of illness, measured via an increase in visits to the doctor (Pennebaker & Harber, 1993). The goal of the study was to gather data in a controlled manner and test a set of hypotheses about community responses to trauma.

Contrast Pennebaker and Harber’s approach with the more qualitative one taken by the developmental psychologist Paul Miller and colleagues (2012), who used a qualitative approach to study the ways that parents model coping behavior for their children. These researchers conducted semistructured interviews of 24 parents whose families had been evacuated following the 2007 wildfires in San Diego County and an additional 32 parents whose families had been evacuated following a 2008 series of deadly tornadoes in Tennessee. Because of a lack of prior research on how parents teach their children to cope with trauma, Miller and colleagues approached their interviews with the goal of “documenting and describing” (p. 8) these processes. That is, rather than attempt to impose structure and test a strict hypothesis, the researchers focused on learning from these interviews and letting the interviewees’ perspectives drive the acquisition of knowledge.

A mother and daughter sit on a couch talking to a therapist with a clipboard.

Lisafx/iStock/Thinkstock

Paul Miller’s research, which involved a series of semi-structured, qualitative interviews, attempted to document and describe a phenomenon rather than test a theory.

Qualitative and quantitative methods also differ quite strikingly in how they approach analyses of the data. Because all quantitative methods have the goal of discovering findings that can be generalized—that apply across different contexts—all quantitative studies must translate phenomena into numerical values and conduct statistical analyses. So, for example, Pennebaker and Harber’s (1993) study of coping with trauma measured the concrete value of “visits to the doctor,” and then compared changes in this number over time. In contrast, because qualitative methods have the goal of learning and interpreting phenomena from the ground up, qualitative studies focus on discovering the underlying meaning of phenomena in their own right. So, for example, Miller and colleagues’ 2012 study of coping focused on “documenting and describing” the ways that parents teach children to cope and learning from a critical evaluation of the interview content. At risk of oversimplifying: Quantitative methods gloss over some of the richness of experience in order to discover knowledge that can be generalized, while qualitative methods sacrifice the ability to generalize in order to capture the richness of experience.

As one final example of this contrast, consider the way that each approach would analyze the content of an interview. Interviewing people can be a very effective way to understand their experiences and can form the basis for many of the descriptive designs we cover in this chapter. A qualitative researcher would likely conduct a smaller number of interviews (perhaps only one, for a case study), due to the time required for analysis. The researcher would read each interview in depth and then start to identify themes that appeared across the entire set. These themes would serve as the basis for understanding people’s experiences. (For an excellent deep dive into different theoretical approaches to interview analysis, see Smith [2008].) By comparison, a quantitative researcher would conduct a larger number of interviews, because quantitative text analysis can be very fast. Rather than read each interview, the researcher could input the text of these interviews into a software program, which could count and categorize the overall sentiment of the language people used. These counts and categories would then serve as the basis for quantifying people’s experiences on a larger scale.

The following three sections examine three specific examples of descriptive designs—case studies, archival research, and observational research. Because each of these methods has the goal of describing attitudes, feelings, and behaviors, each one can be used from either a quantitative or a qualitative perspective. In other words, qualitative and quantitative researchers use many of the same general methods but do so with different goals. To illustrate this flexibility, each section concludes with a paragraph that contrasts qualitative and quantitative uses of the particular method.

discussion

3.2 Case Studies

At the 1996 meeting of the American Psychological Association, James Pennebaker—now chair of the psychology department at the University of Texas—delivered an invited address, describing his research on the benefits of therapeutic writing. Rather than follow the normal approach to an academic conference presentation, showing graphs and statistical tests to support his arguments, Pennebaker told a story. In the mid-1980s, when Pennebaker’s lab was starting to study the effects of structured writing on physical and psychological health, one study participant was an American soldier who had served in the Vietnam War. Like many others, this soldier experienced difficulty adjusting to what had happened during the war and consequent trouble reintegrating into “normal” life. In Pennebaker’s study, he was asked to simply spend 15 minutes per day, over the course of a week, writing about a traumatic experience—in this case, his tour of duty in Vietnam. At the end of this week, as might have been expected, this veteran felt awful, revisiting unpleasant memories over a decade old. But over the next few weeks, amazing things started to happen: The soldier slept better; he made fewer visits to his doctor; he even reconnected with his wife after a long separation.

Pennebaker’s presentation was a case study, which provides a detailed, in-depth analysis of one person over a period of time. Although this case study was collected as part of a larger quantitative experiment, case studies are usually conducted in a therapeutic setting and involve a series of interviews. An interviewer will typically study the subject in detail, recording everything from direct quotes and observations to his or her own interpretations. We encountered this technique briefly in Chapter 2 (2.1), in discussing Oliver Sacks’s case studies of individuals learning to live with neurological impairments.

Pros and Cons of Case Studies

Case studies in psychology are a form of qualitative research and represent the lowest point on our continuum of control. Because they involve one person at a time, without a control group, case studies are often unsystematic. That is, the participants are chosen, rather than selected randomly, because they tell a compelling story or because they represent an unusual set of circumstances. Studying these individuals allows for a great deal of exploration, which can often inspire future research. However, it is nearly impossible to generalize from one case study to the larger population. In addition, because the case study includes both direct observation and the researcher’s interpretation, a researcher’s biases run the risk of influencing the interpretations. For example, Pennebaker’s personal investment in demonstrating that writing has health benefits could have led to more positive interpretations of the Vietnam veteran’s outcomes. However, in this particular case study, the benefits of writing mirror those seen in hundreds of controlled experimental studies involving thousands of people, so we can feel confident in the conclusions from the single case.

Case studies have two distinct advantages over other forms of research. First is the simple fact that anecdotes are persuasive. Despite Pennebaker’s nontraditional approach to a scientific talk, the audience came away utterly convinced of the benefits of therapeutic writing. And although Oliver Sacks studied one neurological patient at a time, the collection of stories in his books sheds very convincing light on the ability of humans to adapt to their circumstances. Second, case studies provide a useful way to study rare populations and individuals with rare conditions. For example, from a scientific point of view, the ideal might be to gather a random sample of individuals living with severe memory impairment due to alcohol abuse and conduct some sort of controlled study in a laboratory environment. This approach could allow us to make causal statements about the results, as Chapter 5 (5.4) will discuss. But from a practical point of view, such a study would be nearly impossible to conduct, making case studies such as Sacks’s interviews with William Thompson the best strategy for understanding this condition in depth.

Examples of Case Studies

Throughout the history of psychology, case studies have been used to address a number of important questions and to provide a starting point for controlled quantitative studies. For example, in developing his theories of cognitive development, the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget first studied the way that his own children developed and changed their thinking styles. Piaget proposed that children would progress through a series of four stages in the way that they approached the world—sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational—with each stage involving more sophisticated cognitive skills than the previous stage. By observing his own children, Piaget noticed preliminary support for this theory and later was able to conduct more controlled research with larger populations.

Perhaps one of the most famous case studies in psychology is that of Phineas Gage, a 19th-century railroad worker who suffered severe brain damage. In September of 1848, Gage was working with a team to blast large sections of rock to make way for new rail lines. After a large hole was drilled into a section of rock, Gage’s job was to pack the hole with gunpowder, sand, and a fuse and then tamp it down with a long cylindrical iron rod (known as a “tamping rod”). On this particular occasion, it seems Gage forgot to pack in the sand. So, when the iron rod struck gunpowder, the powder exploded, sending the 3-foot long iron rod through his face, behind his left eye, and out the top of his head. Against all odds, Gage survived this incident with relatively few physical side effects. However, everyone around him noticed that his personality had changed—Gage became more impulsive, violent, and argumentative. Gage’s physician, John Harlow, reported the details of this case in an 1868 article. The following passage offers a strong example of the rich detail that is often characteristic of case studies:

He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well-balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was “no longer Gage.” (pp. 339–342)

Different angles of Phineas Gage’s skull, with an iron rod going through it.

Everett Collection

Various views show an iron rod embedded in Phineas Gage’s (1823–1860) skull.

Gage’s transformation ultimately inspired a large body of work in psychology and neuroscience that attempts to understand the connections between brain areas and personality. The area of his brain destroyed by the tamping rod is known as the frontal lobe, now understood to play a critical role in impulse control, planning, and other high-level thought processes. Gage’s story is a perfect illustration of the pros and cons of case studies: On the one hand, it is difficult to determine exactly how much the brain injury affected his behavior because he is only one person. On the other hand, Gage’s tragedy inspired researchers to think about the connections among mind, brain, and personality. As a result, we now have a vast—and still growing—understanding of the brain. The story illustrates a key point about case studies: Although individual cases provide only limited knowledge about people in general, these cases often lead researchers to conduct additional work that does lead to generalizable knowledge.

Qualitative versus Quantitative Approaches

Case studies tend to be qualitative more often than not: The goal of this method is to study a particular case in depth, as a way to learn more about a rare phenomenon. In both Pennebaker’s study of the Vietnam veteran and Harlow’s study of Phineas Gage, the researcher approached the interview process as a way to gather information and learn from the bottom up about the interviewee’s experience. However, a case study can certainly represent quantitative research. This is often the case when researchers conduct a series of case studies, learning from the first one or the first few and then developing hypotheses to test on future cases. For example, a researcher could use the case of Phineas Gage as a starting point for hypotheses about frontal lobe injury, perhaps predicting that other cases would show similar changes in personality. Another way in which case studies can add a quantitative element is for researchers to conduct analyses within a single subject. For example, a researcher could study a patient with brain damage for several years following an injury, tracking the association between deterioration of brain regions with changes in personality and emotional responses. At the end of the day, though, these examples would still suffer the primary drawback of case studies: Because they examine a single individual, researchers find it difficult to generalize findings.

Research: Thinking Critically

Analyzing Acupuncture

Follow the link below to a press release from the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry. This short article reviews recent research from the college, suggesting that acupuncture treatment might be of benefit to patients suffering from “unexplained” symptoms. As you read the article, consider what you have learned so far about the research process, and then respond to the questions below.


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110530080513.htm

Think about it:

1. In this study, researchers interviewed acupuncture patients using open-ended questions and recorded their verbal responses, which is a common qualitative research technique. What advantages does this approach have over administering a quantitative questionnaire with multiple-choice items?

2. What are some advantages of adding a qualitative element to a controlled medical trial like this?

3. What would be some disadvantages of relying exclusively on this approach?

discussion

3.4 Observational Research

A baby asleep in his mother’s arms.

Rayes/Photodisc/Thinkstock

Observational research can be used to measure an infant’s attachment to a caregiver.

Moving further along the continuum of control, we come to the descriptive design with the greatest amount of researcher control. Observational research involves studies that directly observe behavior and record these observations in an objective and systematic way. Your previous psychology courses may have explored the concept of attachment theory, which argues that an infant’s bond with his or her primary caregiver has implications for later social and emotional development. Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian developmental psychologist, and John Bowlby, a British psychologist and psychiatrist, articulated this theory in the 1960s. They argued that children can form either “secure” or a variety of “insecure” attachments with their caregivers (Ainsworth & Bell, 1970; Bowlby, 1963).

To assess these classifications, Ainsworth and Bell developed an observational technique called the “strange situation.” Mothers would arrive at their laboratory with their children for a series of structured interactions, including having the mother play with the infant, leave him alone with a stranger, and then return to the room after a brief absence. The researchers were most interested in coding the ways in which the infant responded to these various episodes (eight in total). One group of infants, for example, was curious when the mother left but then returned to playing with toys, trusting that she would return. Another group showed immediate distress when the mother left and clung to her nervously upon her return. Based on these and other behavioral observations, Ainsworth and colleagues classified these groups of infants as “securely” and “insecurely” attached to their mothers, respectively.

Research: Making an Impact

Harry Harlow

In the 1950s, U.S. psychologist Harry Harlow conducted a landmark series of studies on the mother–infant bond using rhesus monkeys. Although contemporary standards would consider his research unethical, the results of his work revealed the importance of affection, attachment, and love on healthy childhood development.

Prior to Harlow’s findings, it was believed that infants attached to their mothers as a part of a drive to fulfill exclusively biological needs, in this case obtaining food and water and avoiding pain (Herman, 2007; van der Horst & van der Veer, 2008). In an effort to clarify the reasons that infants so clearly need maternal care, Harlow removed rhesus monkeys from their natural mothers several hours after birth, giving the young monkeys a choice between two surrogate “mothers.” Both mothers were made of wire, but one was bare and one was covered in terry cloth. Although the wire mother provided food via an attached bottle, the monkeys preferred the softer, terry-cloth mother, even though the latter provided no food (Harlow & Zimmerman, 1958; Herman, 2007).

Further research with the terry-cloth mothers contributed to the understanding of healthy attachment and childhood development (van der Horst & van der Veer, 2008). When the young monkeys were given the option to explore a room with their terry-cloth mothers and had the cloth mothers in the room with them, they used the mothers as a safe base. Similarly, when exposed to novel stimuli such as a loud noise, the monkeys would seek comfort from the cloth-covered surrogate (Harlow & Zimmerman, 1958). However, when the monkeys were left in the room without their cloth mothers, they reacted poorly—freezing up, crouching, crying, and screaming.

A control group of monkeys who were never exposed to either their real mothers or one of the surrogates revealed stunted forms of attachment and affection. They were left incapable of forming lasting emotional attachments with other monkeys (Herman, 2007). Based on this research, Harlow discovered the importance of proper emotional attachment, stressing the importance of physical and emotional bonding between infants and mothers (Harlow & Zimmerman, 1958; Herman, 2007).

Harlow’s influential research led to improved understanding of maternal bonding and child development (Herman, 2007). His research paved the way for improvements in infant and child care and in helping children cope with separation from their mothers (Bretherton, 1992; Du Plessis, 2009). In addition, Harlow’s work contributed to the improved treatment of children in orphanages, hospitals, day care centers, and schools (Herman, 2007; van der Horst & van der Veer, 2008).

Pros and Cons of Observational Research

Observational designs are well suited to a wide range of research questions, provided the questions can be addressed through directly observable behaviors and events. For example, researchers can observe parent–child interactions, or nonverbal cues to emotion, or even crowd behavior. However, if they are interested in studying thought processes—such as how close mothers feel to their children—then observation will not suffice. This point harkens back to the discussion of behavioral measures in Chapter 2 (2.2): In exchange for giving up access to internal processes, researchers gain access to unfiltered behavioral responses.

To capture these unfiltered behaviors, it is vital for the researcher to be as unobtrusive as possible. As we have already discussed, people have a tendency to change their behavior when they are being observed. In the bullying study by Craig and Pepler (1997) discussed at the beginning of this chapter, the researchers used video cameras to record children’s behavior unobtrusively. Imagine how (artificially) low the occurrence of bullying might be if the playground had been surrounded by researchers with clipboards!

If researchers conduct an observational study in a laboratory setting, they have no way to hide the fact that people are being observed, but the use of one-way mirrors and video recordings can help people to become comfortable with the setting. Researchers who conduct an observational study out in the real world have even more possibilities for blending into the background, including using observers who are literally hidden. For example, someone hypothesizes that people are more likely to pick up garbage when the weather is nicer. Rather than station an observer with a clipboard by the trash can, the researcher could place someone out of sight behind a tree, or perhaps sitting on a park bench pretending to read a magazine. In both cases, people would be less conscious of being observed and therefore more likely to behave naturally.

One extremely clever strategy for blending in comes from a study by the social psychologist Muzafer Sherif et al. (1954), involving observations of cooperative and competitive behaviors among boys at a summer camp. For Sherif, it was particularly important to make observations in this context without the boys realizing they were part of a research study. Sherif took on the role of camp janitor, which allowed him to be a presence in nearly all of the camp activities. The boys never paid enough attention to the “janitor” to realize his omnipresence—or his discreet note-taking. The brilliance of this idea is that it takes advantage of the fact that people tend to blend into the background once we become used to their presence.

Types of Observational Research

Several variations of observational research exist, according to the amount of control that a researcher has over the data collection process. Structured observation involves creating a standard situation in a controlled setting and then observing participants’ responses to a predetermined set of events. The “strange situation” studies of parent–child attachment (discussed above) are a good example of structured observation—mothers and infants are subjected to a series of eight structured episodes, and researchers systematically observe and record the infants’ reactions. Even though these types of studies are conducted in a laboratory, they differ from experimental studies in an important way: Rather than systematically manipulate a variable to make comparisons, researchers present the same set of conditions to all participants.

Another example of structured observation comes from the research of John Gottman, a psychologist at the University of Washington. For nearly three decades, Gottman and his colleagues have conducted research on the interaction styles of married couples. Couples who take part in this research are invited for a three-hour session in a laboratory that closely resembles a living room. Gottman’s goal is to make couples feel reasonably comfortable and natural in the setting to get them talking as they might do at home. After allowing them to settle in, Gottman adds the structured element by asking the couple to discuss an “ongoing issue or problem” in their marriage. The researchers then sit back to watch the sparks fly, recording everything from verbal and nonverbal communication to measures of heart rate and blood pressure. Gottman has observed and tracked so many couples over the decades that he is able to predict, with remarkable accuracy, which couples will divorce in the 18 months following the lab visit (Gottman & Levenson, 1992).

Naturalistic observation, meanwhile, involves observing and systematically recording behavior in the real world. This can be conducted in two broad ways—with or without intervention on the part of the researcher. Intervention in this context means that the researcher manipulates some aspect of the environment and then observes people’s responses. For example, a researcher might leave a shopping cart just a few feet away from the cart-return area and track whether people move the cart. (Given the number of carts that are abandoned just inches away from their proper destination, someone must be doing this research all the time.) Recall an example from Chapter 1 (the discussion of ethical dilemmas in section 1.5) in which Harari et al. (1995) used naturalistic observation to study whether people would help in emergency situations. In brief, these researchers staged what appeared to be an attempted rape in a public park and then observed whether groups or individual males were more likely to rush to the victim’s aid.

The ABC network has developed a hit reality show that mimics this type of research. The show, What Would You Do?, sets up provocative situations in public settings and videotapes people’s reactions. An unwitting participant in one of these episodes might witness a customer stealing tips from a restaurant table, or a son berating his father for being gay, or a man proposing to his girlfriend who minutes earlier had been kissing another man at the bar. Of course, these observation “studies” are more interested in shock value than data collection (or Institutional Review Board [IRB] approval; see Section 1.5), but the overall approach can be a useful strategy to assess people’s reactions to various situations. In fact, some of the scenarios on the show are based on classic studies in social psychology, such as the well-documented phenomenon that people are reluctant to take responsibility for helping in emergencies.

Alternatively, naturalistic studies can involve simply recording ongoing behavior without any attempt by the researchers to intervene or influence the situation. In these cases, the goal is to observe and record behavior in a completely natural setting. For example, researchers might station themselves at a liquor store and observe the numbers of men and women who buy beer versus wine. Or, they might observe the numbers of people who give money to the Salvation Army bell-ringers during the holiday season. A researcher can use this approach to compare different conditions, provided the differences occur naturally. That is, researchers could observe whether people donate more money to the Salvation Army on sunny or snowy days, or compare donation rates when the bell ringers are different genders or races. Do people give more money when the bell-ringer is an attractive female? Or do they give more to someone who looks needier? These are all research questions that could be addressed using a well-designed naturalistic observation study.

Finally, participant observation involves having the researcher(s) conduct observations while engaging in the same activities as the participants. The goal is to interact with these participants to gain better access and insight into their behaviors. In one famous example, the psychologist David Rosenhan (1973) was interested in the experience of people hospitalized for mental illness. To study these experiences, he had eight perfectly sane people gain admission to different mental hospitals. These fake patients were instructed to give accurate life histories to a doctor but lie about one diagnostic symptom. They all claimed to hear an occasional voice saying the words “empty,” “hollow,” and “thud.” Such auditory hallucinations are a symptom of schizophrenia, and Rosenhan chose these words to vaguely suggest an existential crisis.

Once admitted, these “patients” behaved in a normal and cooperative manner, with instructions to convince hospital staff that they were healthy enough to be released. In the meantime, they observed life in the hospital and took notes on their experiences—a behavior that many doctors interpreted as “paranoid note-taking.” The main finding of this study was that hospital staff tended to view all patient behaviors through the lens of their initial diagnoses. Despite immediately acting “normally,” these fake patients were hospitalized an average of 19 days (with a range from 7 to 52) before being released. All but one was diagnosed with “schizophrenia in remission” upon release. Rosenhan’s other striking finding was that treatment was generally depersonalized, with staff spending little time with individual patients.

A nurse distributing treatments to patients in a psychiatric hospital.

RENARD/BSIP/Superstock

Psychologists David Rosenhan’s study of staff and patients in a mental hospital found that patients tended to be treated based on their diagnosis, not on their actual behavior.

In another example of participant observation, Festinger, Riecken, and Schachter (1956) decided to join a doomsday cult to test their new theory of cognitive dissonance. Briefly, this theory argues that people are motivated to maintain a sense of consistency among their various thoughts and behaviors. So, for example, a person who smokes a cigarette despite being aware of the health risks might rationalize smoking by convincing herself that lung-cancer risk is really just genetic. In this case, Festinger and colleagues stumbled upon the case of a woman named Mrs. Keach, who was predicting the end of the world, via alien invasion, at 11 p.m. on a specific date six months in the future. What would happen, they wondered, when this prophecy failed to come true? (One can only imagine how shocked they would have been had the prophecy turned out to be correct.)

To answer this question, the researchers pretended to be new converts and joined the cult, living among the members and observing them as they made their preparations for doomsday. Sure enough, the day came, and 11 p.m. came and went without the world ending. Mrs. Keach first declared that she had forgotten to account for a time-zone difference, but as sunrise started to approach, the group members became restless. Finally, after a short absence to communicate with the aliens, Mrs. Keach returned with some good news: The aliens were so impressed with the devotion of the group that they decided to postpone their invasion. The group members rejoiced, rallying around this brilliant piece of rationalizing, and quickly began a new campaign to recruit new members.

As these examples illustrate, participant observation can provide access to amazing and one-of-a-kind data, including insights into group members’ thoughts and feelings. This approach also provides access to groups that might be reluctant to allow outside observers. However, the participant approach has two clear disadvantages over other types of observation. The first problem is ethical; data are collected from individuals who do not have the opportunity to give informed consent. Indeed, the whole point of the technique is to observe people without their knowledge. Before an IRB can approve this kind of study, researchers must show an extremely compelling reason to ignore informed consent, as well as extremely rigorous measures to protect identities. The second problem is methodological; the approach provides ample opportunity for the objectivity of observations to be compromised by the close contact between researcher and participant. Because the researchers are a part of the group, they can change the dynamics in subtle ways, possibly leading the group to confirm their hypothesis. In addition, the group can shape the researchers’ interpretations in subtle ways, leading them to miss important details.

Another spin on participant observation is called ethnography, or the scientific study of the customs of people and cultures. This is very much a qualitative method that focuses on observing people in the real world and learning about a culture from the perspective of the person being studied—that is, learning from the ground up rather than testing hypotheses. Ethnography is used primarily in other social-science fields, such as anthropology. In one famous example, the cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead (1928) used this approach to shed light on differences in social norms around adolescence between American and Samoan societies. Mead’s conclusions were based on interviews she conducted over a six-month period, observing and living alongside a group of 68 young women. Mead concluded from these interviews that Samoan children and adolescents are largely ignored until they reach the age of 16 and become full members of society. Among her more provocative claims was the idea that Samoan adolescents were much more liberal in their sexual attitudes and behaviors than American adolescents.

Mead’s work has been the subject of criticism by a handful other anthropologists, one of whom has even suggested that Mead was taken in by an elaborate joke played b

discussion

9:26 AM (CT)

Assignment Details

Assignment Description

Graduate Programs Discussion Boards

Discussion Boards (DB) are a key component of online learning. They foster active participation of learners and dialog with fellow learners and instructors. Graduate­level courses
require learners to create original posts to course DBs and to engage in dialogue by responding to posts created by others throughout the course. Original posts and responses
should be substantive, and if references are made to the works of others, APA guidelines for in­text citations and references apply.

Minimum Weekly DB Expectations

Post an original and thoughtful Main Post to the DB prompt.
Respond to at least 2 other posts from learners and/or the instructor (Response Posts).
The first contribution (Main Post or Response Post) must be posted before midnight (Central time) on Friday of each week.
Two additional responses are required after Friday of each week.
For DB assignment prompts with a Part One and Part Two, Part One should be addressed in the first week of the unit with a Main Post and minimum of 2 Response
Posts, and Part Two should be addressed in the second week of the unit with a Main Post and a minimum of 2 Response Posts.

More on DBs

At the end of each unit, DB participation is assessed based on level of engagement and the quality of the contribution to the discussion. DBs allow learners to learn through
sharing ideas and experiences as they relate to course content. Because it is not possible to engage in two­way dialogue after a conversation has ended, no posts to the DB are
accepted after the end of the unit. Learners must demonstrate an appropriate depth of understanding of course content to receive credit for having submitted substantive posts.
Typically, this is achieved with 3–4 strong paragraphs for Main Posts and 2–3 strong paragraphs for Response Posts.

Watch the following LinkedIn Learning Videos to help you with the assignments in this Unit.

Library Research Assignment

Describe in your own words, what is a directory service (such as Microsoft Active Directory, Novell, e­Directory, etc.)?
Under what circumstances would you recommend its implementation for a client?
Why do you think an organization would continue to use directory services that have known security flaws?
What is LDAP and what are its security vulnerabilities?

The following grading rubric will be used for this assignment. 

In your own words, post a substantive response to the Discussion Board question(s) and comment on other postings.  Your response should address the DB
question(s) and move the conversation forward.  You will be graded on the quality of your postings, including mastery of the concept as well as critical thinking. 
If asked for your opinion, do not simply state that it is a good or bad idea; elaborate on your reasons and argument. Include enough detail to substantiate your
thinking as well as your position on the questions or comments.

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Reading Assignment
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 3 (Threats and Attacks on Endpoints)
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 4 (Endpoint and Application Security)

Assignment Objectives
Compare internal and external information security solutions for a given situation

Other Information
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Extra Credit View Assignment Rubric

Unit 2 ­ Discussion Board 

Assignment Overview

Unit:  Vulnerabilities
Due Date:  Tue,5/3/22
Grading Type:  Numeric
Points Possible:  60
Points Earned: 
Deliverable Length:  See Assignment Details

Type:  Discussion Board

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Assignment Details
Learning Materials
Reading Assignment

My Work:

Online Deliverables: Discussion Board

9:26 AM (CT)

Assignment Details

Assignment Description

Graduate Programs Discussion Boards

Discussion Boards (DB) are a key component of online learning. They foster active participation of learners and dialog with fellow learners and instructors. Graduate­level courses
require learners to create original posts to course DBs and to engage in dialogue by responding to posts created by others throughout the course. Original posts and responses
should be substantive, and if references are made to the works of others, APA guidelines for in­text citations and references apply.

Minimum Weekly DB Expectations

Post an original and thoughtful Main Post to the DB prompt.
Respond to at least 2 other posts from learners and/or the instructor (Response Posts).
The first contribution (Main Post or Response Post) must be posted before midnight (Central time) on Friday of each week.
Two additional responses are required after Friday of each week.
For DB assignment prompts with a Part One and Part Two, Part One should be addressed in the first week of the unit with a Main Post and minimum of 2 Response
Posts, and Part Two should be addressed in the second week of the unit with a Main Post and a minimum of 2 Response Posts.

More on DBs

At the end of each unit, DB participation is assessed based on level of engagement and the quality of the contribution to the discussion. DBs allow learners to learn through
sharing ideas and experiences as they relate to course content. Because it is not possible to engage in two­way dialogue after a conversation has ended, no posts to the DB are
accepted after the end of the unit. Learners must demonstrate an appropriate depth of understanding of course content to receive credit for having submitted substantive posts.
Typically, this is achieved with 3–4 strong paragraphs for Main Posts and 2–3 strong paragraphs for Response Posts.

Watch the following LinkedIn Learning Videos to help you with the assignments in this Unit.

Library Research Assignment

Describe in your own words, what is a directory service (such as Microsoft Active Directory, Novell, e­Directory, etc.)?
Under what circumstances would you recommend its implementation for a client?
Why do you think an organization would continue to use directory services that have known security flaws?
What is LDAP and what are its security vulnerabilities?

The following grading rubric will be used for this assignment. 

In your own words, post a substantive response to the Discussion Board question(s) and comment on other postings.  Your response should address the DB
question(s) and move the conversation forward.  You will be graded on the quality of your postings, including mastery of the concept as well as critical thinking. 
If asked for your opinion, do not simply state that it is a good or bad idea; elaborate on your reasons and argument. Include enough detail to substantiate your
thinking as well as your position on the questions or comments.

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Reading Assignment
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 3 (Threats and Attacks on Endpoints)
Ciampa, Part 2 (End Point Security), Module 4 (Endpoint and Application Security)

Assignment Objectives
Compare internal and external information security solutions for a given situation

Other Information
There is no additional information to display at this time.

Legend
Extra Credit View Assignment Rubric

Unit 2 ­ Discussion Board 

Assignment Overview

Unit:  Vulnerabilities
Due Date:  Tue,5/3/22
Grading Type:  Numeric
Points Possible:  60
Points Earned: 
Deliverable Length:  See Assignment Details

Type:  Discussion Board

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Looking for tutoring? Go to Smarthinking

Assignment Details
Learning Materials
Reading Assignment

My Work:

Online Deliverables: Discussion Board

discussion

using formal APA writing convention, using the 7th Edition.


Plagiarism free work…. Thank you

To Prepare:

· Review the Resources and reflect on the various strategies presented throughout the course that may be helpful in disseminating effective and widely cited EBP.

· This may include unit-level or organizational-level presentations, poster presentations, and podium presentations at organizational, local, regional, state, and national levels, as well as publication in peer-reviewed journals.

· Reflect on which type of dissemination strategy you might use to communicate EBP.

By Day 3 of Week 9

Post: two dissemination strategies you would be most inclined to use and explain why. Explain which dissemination strategies you would be least inclined to use and explain why. Identify at least two barriers you might encounter when using the dissemination strategies, you are most inclined to use. Be specific and provide examples. Explain how you might overcome the barriers you identified.

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Top of Form

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 27000 is diverse. In simple terms, the ISO 27000 Suite of Security Standards is developed to help enterprises manage the risks of cyber-attacks and internal data security threats. There are additional vulnerabilities in technology solutions as a business expands, and these weaknesses may not be visible at first. All firms that use networked technology face a constant threat from cybercriminals, and securing your data may be difficult. 

As it stands, Companies may also use the ISO 27000-series standards to help develop effective and economical solutions that can help secure personal information, business information, and intellectual property. ISO 27001 is now the only standard that can be audited, making it the most popular of the other measures. A company does not have to rely only on ISO 27001 to improve its operations’ security (Alexei, 1). For example, ISO 27005 advises on performing risk assessments for your information security, and ISO 27032 provides general guidelines on ways to enforce cyber security measures as effectively as possible. It creates a foundation for the safe sharing of information and protecting personal data, compassionate data. As a result, accidents will be less likely to occur, saving both time and money in reacting to them.

Source List

· ALEXEI, A. (2021). Ensuring information security in public organizations in the Republic of Moldova through the ISO 27001 standard.

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Discussion

The CEO Best Practices Technology Arc

Similar to the chief IT executive arc, the CEO best practices arc is an instrument for assessing the technology best practices of CEOs. The arc evaluates a CEO’s strategic uses of technology and leader- ship by using a grid that charts competencies ranging from conceptual knowledge about technology to more complex uses of technology and business and how they are integrated in strategic business planning.

As with all arc models, the CEO version measures five principal stages of a CEO’s maturity with respect to business applications of technology: conceptual, structural, executive values, executive eth- ics, and executive leadership. Each dimension or sector is measured in five stages of maturation that guide the CEO’s executive growth managing technological dynamism. The first stage is being reflec- tively aware about their conceptual knowledge of technology and what it can do for the organization. The second is other centered- ness, by which CEOs become aware of the multiplicity of business uses of technology and the different views that can exist inside and outside the organization. The third is integration of business use of technology; a CEO can begin to combine how business plans foster the need for technology. The fourth is implementation of business/ technology process, meaning that the CEO understands how busi- ness applications and technology are used together and is resilient to nonauthentic sources of emerging technologies. Stage four rep- resents an ongoing commitment to implementing both technology and business applications. The fifth refers to strategic uses of tech- nology; CEOs have reached a stage at which their judgment on using technology and business is independent and can be used to self-educate. Thus, as CEOs grow in knowledge of business uses of technology, they can become increasingly more understanding of the multiplicity of uses, can become more integrated in how they conceptualize technology, can manage its implementation from an executive position, and can apply strategies to support new applica- tions of technology in the organization.

Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc

Maturity Stages

1. Conceptual knowledge of technology: This first stage represents the CEO’s capacity to learn, conceptualize, and articulate key issues relating to business uses of technology, organizational structures available, executive value methods, executive ethi- cal issues surrounding technology, and leadership alternatives that are needed to be successful with technology applications.

2. Multiplicity of business perspectives of technology: This stage indicates the CEO’s ability to integrate multiple points of view from management, staff, and consultants about technol- ogy applications in business. Using these new perspectives, the CEO augments his or her conceptual skills with technol- ogy, has an expanded view of what organizational structures might work best, expands his or her executive values about technology uses, is increasingly aware of the ethical dilemmas with technology, and enhances his or her leadership abilities.

3. Integration of business uses of technology: Maturing CEOs accu- mulate increased understanding of how technology can sup- port the business, provide more competitive advantage, and have a more integrated understanding of how to use their conceptual skills about technology, of the alternative organi- zational structures available, of how to combine their business executive value and ethical systems, and how to develop effec- tive levels of executive leadership.

1. Implementation of business/technology process: CEOs achieve integration when they can regularly apply their conceptual knowledge of technology, organization structures, executive values and ethics about technology, and executive leadership, appropriate for performing their job duties, not only ade- quately, but at a level that provides a competitive advantage for the organization.

2. Strategic uses of technology: Leadership is attained by the CEO when he or she can employ conceptual skills, develop new organizational structures as necessary, establish new values and ethics that are appropriate for the organization, and create a sense of executive presence to lead the organiza- tion strategically. This CEO is capable of having new vision about how business and technology can be expanded into new endeavors.

Performance Dimensions

1. Technology concepts: Concerns conceptual skills, specifically related to understanding how technology can be used in the business. This dimension essentially establishes the CEO as technically proficient, conceptually, and forms a basis for movement to more complex and mature stages of business/ technology development.

2. Organizational structures: The knowledge of the alternative organizational structures that can support the application of emerging technology in corporate settings with regard to roles, responsibilities, career paths, and organizational report- ing alternatives.

3. Executive values: Measures the CEO’s ability to articulate and act on mainstream technological values credited with shaping the work ethic: independent initiative, dedication, honesty, and personal identification with career goals, based on the philosophy of the management protocol of the organization.

4. Executive ethics: Reflects the CEO’s commitment to the edu- cation and professional advancement of the behavior of the organization as it relates to business uses of technology.

5. Executive leadership: Involves the CEO’s view of the role of an executive in business, and the capacity to succeed in tan- dem with his or her organizational resources. Aspects include a devotion to organizational learning and self-improvement, self-evaluation, the ability to acknowledge and resolve busi- ness/technology conflicts, and resilience when faced with per- sonal and professional challenges.

Figure 12.6 shows a graphic view of the CEO technology best practices arc. Each cell in the arc provides the condition for assess- ment. The complete arc is provided in Table 12.2.

Middle Management

Middle management, which comprises a number of tiers, is perhaps the most challenging of best practices to define. In Chapter 3, I strati- fied the different types of positions that make up middle managers into three tiers: directors, line managers, and supervisors. What is most important at this point is to determine the set of technology best practices for managers so that they can effectively operate under ROD. That is, technology best practices must be designed to contain the insights and skills for effective management of technology. This must include

1. Working with IT personnel

2. Providing valuable input to the executive management team,

including the CEO

3. Participating and developing a technology strategy within

their business units

4. Effectively managing project resources, including technical

staff

5. Leading innovative groups in their departments

6. Incorporating technology into new products and services

7. Developing proactive methods of dealing with changes in technology

8. Investigating how technology can improve competitive advantage.

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As with CEO research, there are myriad best practices that have been offered as a method of dealing with the subject of technology management. Unfortunately, these practices usually are vague and intermingle management levels and departments; that is, it is diffi- cult to know whether the best practice is for the chief IT executive, the CEO, or some other level of management. We know from the research from Bolman and Deal (1997) that middle managers feel torn by conflicting signals and pressures they get from both senior management and the operations that report to them: “They need to understand the difference in taking risks and getting punished for mistakes” (p. 27). According to Bolman and Deal (1997), best prac- tices for middle managers need to cover the following areas:

1. Knowledge management
2. Alignment
3. Leadership and commitment 4. Organization
5. Human resources
6. Opportunity management

7. Leveraging
8. Performance assessment

Their study covered more than 400 companies in the eight areas of concern. I extracted 10 middle management-related best practices from their study results and concluded that middle managers need to

1. Understand how to take a strategy and implement it with technology; that is, they need to create tactics for completing the project.

2. Establish team-building measures for linking technology with daily operations of the staff.

3. Foster the aggregation and collaboration of business unit assets to form peer groups that can determine joint efforts for implementing new technologies.

4. Stimulate their staffs using innovative strategies of value propositions and reward systems.

5. Create multifunctional teams that can focus on particu- lar aspects of how technology affects their specific area of expertise.

6. Follow common project management practices so that mul- titier and department projects can be globally reviewed by senior management.

7. Form project teams that can respect and perform on an action basis; that is, teams that are action oriented.

1. Understand how to communicate with, and use, IT staff on projects.

2. Have a systematic process for gathering intelligence relating to pertinent technology developments.

3. Understand that customers are the drivers for technology tools provided by the organization.

On reviewing the different aspects of middle manager best practices with technology research, it appears that there are two focal points: (1) those best practices that address the needs of senior management, the CIO, and the CEO; and (2) those that are geared toward the management of the staffs who need to implement emerging technol- ogy projects.

This makes sense, given that the middle manager, notwith- standing whether a director, line manager, or supervisor, needs to deal with executive productivity-related issues as well as staff implementation ones. They are, as Bolman and Deal (1997) state, “torn” by these two competing organizational requirements. Table 12.3 represents the combined list of technology-based best practices organized by executive best practices and implementation best practices.

Table 12.3 exemplifies the challenge that middle managers have in balancing their priorities. In accordance with the research, the best practices mentioned are implemented using methods of knowledge management, alignment, leadership and commitment, human resources, opportunity management, leveraging, and per- formance assessment. As with the other best practices, the middle manager technology best practices are limited because they do not address the specific needs of ROD, particularly organizational learning theories (with the exception of knowledge management). This shortfall is integrated into another developmental arc model that combines these theories with the preceding definitions of best practices.

discussion

Week 2 – Discussion Forum

2727 unread replies.2727 replies.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Sentinel Event [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 5]

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read through the following webpages and resources to understand the purpose of documenting sentinel events as well as methods and reporting requirements:

·
Sentinel Event Policy and Procedures (Links to an external site.)

·
PSNet Search (Links to an external site.)

· Sentinel Events


Download Sentinel Events

·
Sentinel Events (SE) (Links to an external site.)

·
Topic 6: Understanding and Managing Clinical Risk (Links to an external site.)

Your initial discussion post must be a minimum of 250 words. All referenced materials must include citations and references in APA format. Please see directions for including APA Style elements on these Writing Center pages:
APA: Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)
and
Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)
.

Sentinel events occur in nearly all health care organizations. According to the Maine Department of Human Services,

facilities that are vigilant about identifying and reporting errors…foster an organizational culture where staff members feel comfortable reporting patient safety concerns without fear of reprisal. Healthcare facilities that embrace this safety-focused culture look at adverse events as opportunities to learn and improve. (2018, p. 5)

You are assigned a sentinel event topic based on the first initial of your last name (see table below). Based on your assigned topic, research a sentinel event, or create your own scenario. You will use this sentinel event for other assignments later in class.

Operation/post-operation complication events

From a health care provider perspective (e.g., hospital, physician’s practice, long-term care, hospice, home health, surgery center, etc.), write a brief description of the sentinel event in your own words.

In addition, address the following:

· Identify the sentinel event, who was involved, what occurred, and where it occurred.

· Describe the applicable accrediting agency’s requirements for reporting the event (e.g., OSHA, ACHA, CMS, CDC, CLIA, The Joint Commission [TJC], AHCA, state agencies).

· Discuss the probable cause that may have contributed to the sentinel event (e.g., process failure, human error, policy error, systems error, technology failure, etc.).

· Create a recommendation that will reduce the risk of future events from occurring.

Guided Response: By the end of Day 7, review your classmates’ posts and respond to two of your fellow classmates. Choose two different topics from the one you were assigned. Recommend one quality improvement process that you would put into place to avoid future occurrences and explain its use. Your responses to your classmates should be substantive and a minimum of 100 words.

Reference

Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Licensing and Certification. (2018).
Sentinel events CY2018: Annual report to the Maine State Legislature (Links to an external site.)
[Report]. https://www.maine.gov/dhhs/dlc/medical-facilities/sentinelevents/documents/Sentinel-Event-Annual-Report-2018-3-19.pdf

Discussion

Pressure Injury Management

©2020 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
doi:https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2020810

Background Hospital-acquired pressure injuries dispropor-
tionately affect critical care patients. Although risk factors
such as moisture, illness severity, and inadequate perfu-
sion have been recognized, nursing skin assessment data
remain unexamined in relation to the risk for hospital-
acquired pressure injuries.
Objective To identify factors associated with hospital-
acquired pressure injuries among surgical critical care
patients. The specific aim was to analyze data obtained
from routine nursing skin assessments alongside other
potential risk factors identified in the literature.
Methods This retrospective cohort study included 5101
surgical critical care patients at a level I trauma center and
academic medical center. Multivariate logistic regression
using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator
method identified important predictors with parsimonious
representation. Use of specialty pressure redistribution
beds was included in the model as a known predictive
factor because specialty beds are a common preventive
intervention.
Results Independent risk factors identified by logistic
regression were skin irritation (rash or diffuse, nonlocal-
ized redness) (odds ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.404-2.274; P < .001),
minimum Braden Scale score (odds ratio, 0.858; 95% CI,
0.818-0.899; P < .001), and duration of intensive care unit
stay before the hospital-acquired pressure injury devel-
oped (odds ratio, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.003-1.004; P < .001).
Conclusions The strongest predictor was irritated skin, a
potentially modifiable risk factor. Irritated skin should be
treated and closely monitored, and the cause should be
eliminated to allow the skin to heal.(American Journal of
Critical Care. 2020;29:e128-e134)

Risk FactoRs FoR
Hospital- acquiRed
pRessuRe injuRy in
suRgical cRitical
caRe patients
By Jenny Alderden, PhD, APRN, CCRN, CCNS, Linda J. Cowan, PhD, APRN,
RN, FNP-BC, CWS, Jonathan B. Dimas, BSN, RN, CCRN, Danli Chen, MSTAT,
Yue Zhang, PhD, Mollie Cummins, PhD, RN, and Tracey L. Yap, PhD, RN,
WCC, CNE

1.0 HourC E
This article has been designated for CE contact
hour(s). See more CE information at the end of
this article.

e128 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 www.ajcconline.org

www.ajcconline.org AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 e129

The relationship between
hospital-acquired pressure
injuries and skin status
remains mostly unexamined
in the critical care population.

P
atients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are twice as likely as other acute care
patients to have a hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI) develop.1 A pressure injury
(PI) is defined as localized damage of the skin or underlying tissue as a result of pres-
sure or pressure in combination with shear.2 Patients who undergo surgery and who
are older than 65 years have a higher risk than younger patients of acquiring a PI in the

hospital.3,4 In the United States, PI costs attributed to patients exceed $26.8 billion annually,5
and having a HAPI develop results in a median 4-day increase in the length of stay.6

Determining the factors associated with HAPI
development in critical care patients is necessary to
enable risk-based preventive measures. Although
HAPIs are associated with known risk factors such
as decreased mobility, surgery duration, vasopressor
infusion, excessive moisture, altered perfusion, and
history of a prior PI, the relationship between HAPIs
and skin status remains mostly unexamined in the
critical care population.4,7-18 Assessing skin status
(including turgor, excessive dryness, irritation, skin
tears, and the loss of subcutaneous tissue) to iden-
tify potential HAPI prevention interventions is
particularly essential when caring for older patients
because of age-related changes. Such changes include
thinning skin, decreased subcutaneous tissue, flatten-
ing of the dermal-epidermal junction (decrease in rete
ridges), structural disorganization of collagen fibers
in the dermis, loss of vertical capillary loops, and
loss of elasticity.2

Using informatics to analyze the vast amounts
of electronic health record (EHR) data, such as skin
assessment data, routinely produced during care
delivery is an excellent way to identify risk factors
for HAPI development. Critical care nurses routinely
conduct head-to-toe skin assessments every 12 hours
and document changes in condition in the EHR. How-
ever, these large-scale real-world data have not been
fully examined in relation to HAPIs in the surgical
critical care setting.

The unprecedented quantities and diverse sources
of data collected during care delivery make this an
opportune time to conduct HAPI research. The pur-
pose of our study was to identify factors associated
with HAPI development among surgical critical care
patients. Our specific aim was to examine data
obtained from routine nursing skin assessments along
with other previously reported HAPI risk factors.

Methods
Design and Sample

This was a retrospective cohort study. We included
data from surgical critical care patients admitted con-
secutively to the surgical ICU (SICU) or cardiovascu-
lar surgical ICU (CVICU) at our study site, an urban
level I trauma center and academic medical center,
from 2014 through 2018. We included patients with
a PI present on
admission to the
hospital because
patients with prior
PIs are at increased
risk for subsequent
HAPIs.16 We did not
count community-
acquired PIs as
HAPIs because they
were not acquired in the hospital. However, if patients
with a community-acquired ulcer had a HAPI develop,
that subsequent PI was included in the analysis because
it was hospital acquired. The exclusion criterion was
a stay of less than 24 hours because of inadequate time
for a HAPI to be considered a facility-acquired PI.

Data Collection
Data were obtained via EHR query and retrieved

from our institution’s enterprise data warehouse for
critical care data. For patients with multiple hospital
admissions, we limited data collection to the first
SICU or CVICU admission. A biomedical informat-
ics team performed the query. Query results were
validated by a critical care nurse who verified infor-
mation obtained (including date and time stamps)

About the Authors
Jenny Alderden is an assistant professor and Mollie
Cummins is a professor, University of Utah College of
Nursing, Salt Lake City. Linda J. Cowan is associate
director, VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, James
A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital and Clinics, Tampa, Florida.
Jonathan B. Dimas is a PhD candidate, University of Utah
College of Nursing, and a clinical nurse and analyst,
University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City. Danli Chen is
a biostatistician II and Yue Zhang is an associate profes-
sor, Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt
Lake City. Tracey L. Yap is an associate professor, Duke
University School of Nursing, Durham, North Carolina.

Corresponding author: Jenny Alderden, PhD, APRN, CCRN, CCNS,
University of Utah College of Nursing, 10 S 2000 E, Salt Lake
City, UT 84112 (email: Jenny.Alderden@Nurs.Utah.Edu).

e130 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 www.ajcconline.org

Data from more than
5000 consecutive sur-

gical critical care
patients were analyzed

retrospectively.

via the human-readable system EHR for 30 patients,
including 15 patients with HAPIs. A practicing criti-
cal care nurse and a certified wound nurse also man-
ually reviewed medical records, including data from
the notes and images, to obtain data that were miss-
ing or unclear in the query.

Outcome Variable
The outcome variable was the development of a

HAPI of any stage (stages 1 through 4, deep tissue
injury, or unstageable) according to the National Pres-
sure Injury Advisory Panel staging guidelines.2 We
included stage 1 HAPIs in our outcome because prior
studies showed that one-third of stage 1 HAPIs detected
among surgical critical care patients worsen to stage

2 or greater.19 A certified
wound nurse verified the PIs
in our sample to differentiate
potential cases of moisture-
related skin breakdown from
true HAPIs. In cases in which a
HAPI might be confused with
another source of injury, the
certified wound nurse made
the final decision as to the

presence or absence of the HAPI. We were able to
differentiate between community-acquired PIs and
HAPIs because each PI in our EHR has a unique
identification number with a date and time stamp.

Predictor Variables
We conducted a systematic review of the litera-

ture to identify predictor variables of interest.4 Possi-
ble predictor variables included vasopressor infusions
and their durations,17 blood gas and laboratory val-
ues,18,19 surgical time,20 levels of sedation and agita-
tion,21 and total score on the Braden Scale (a common
tool used by nursing staff to assess the risk of PI devel-
opment by examining moisture, mobility, sensory
perception, and friction/shear).22

We included comprehensive nursing skin assess-
ment data. At our facility, nurses undergo annual train-
ing in head-to-toe skin assessment and PI staging.
Nurses at our facility conduct a global head-to-toe skin
assessment twice daily and document the following
changes: excessively moist skin, excessively dry skin,
thin epidermis with loss of subcutaneous tissue, and
the presence of irritation (defined as a rash or diffuse,
nonlocalized, blanchable redness). Nurses also doc-
ument the presence of a skin tear. Table 1 lists the
predictor variables included in our analysis.

For patients who had a HAPI develop, we col-
lected data only for events occurring at least 24 hours

before HAPI detection. We chose this time frame to
capture events predictive of a HAPI rather than events
occurring at the same time as a HAPI.

Analysis
Analysis was conducted with R, version 3.6.1

(R Foundation for Statistical Computing).23 We sum-
marized and compared the distributions of potential
prediction factors by HAPI status with a χ2 test for
categorical factors and a 2-sample t test (or its non-
parametric alternative, the Mann-Whitney U test)
for continuous and ordinal variables. We performed
multivariable logistic regression analysis with the least
absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)24
to identify the subset of potential predictors most
informative for predicting the likelihood of a HAPI
developing. The final model for outcomes was based
on the optimal penalty term using 10-fold cross-
validation criteria.

By imposing some penalty in the regression
model fitting, the LASSO approach can shrink the
coefficients of unimportant predictors to 0 while
retaining prominent predictors. A predictor has
predictability on the outcome only if its coefficient is
nonzero. The final models, therefore, include all
important predictors with parsimonious representa-
tion, enhanced interpretability, and improved pre-
diction precision. In this study, the variable specialty
bed was forced into the model as a known predic-
tion factor (even though our general SICU and
CVICU bed is a low-air-loss mattress) because some
of our patients were placed on other types of specialty
rental beds (eg, bariatric beds or specialty prone
positioning beds) because of body habitus or clini-
cal condition.25

Results
Sample

The initial query produced 5102 patients. We
excluded 1 patient from the analysis because of incom-
plete demographic data, so the final sample size
was 5101. Demographic data are shown in Table 1.

Pressure Injury Outcomes
Of the 5101 patients in our sample, 399 (8%) had

at least 1 HAPI develop. Of the 399 patients with a
HAPI, 110 (28%) had a stage 1 HAPI develop; 182
(46%), stage 2 HAPI; 6 (2%), stage 3 HAPI; 1 (< 1%),
stage 4 HAPI; 33 (8%), unstageable HAPI; 62 (16%),
deep tissue injury; and 5 (1%), mucosal PI. Of the
110 stage 1 HAPIs, 44 (40%) worsened to a more
severe stage during the SICU or CVICU stay. The
most common PI location was the coccyx (n = 153

www.ajcconline.org AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 e131

Pull quote

[38%]), followed by the buttocks (n = 62 [16%]),
sacrum (n = 47 [12%]), extremity excluding heel
(eg, arms or legs; n = 46 [12%]), head or face
(n = 40 [10%]), other location (n = 32 [8%]), back
(n = 10 [3%]), and heel (n = 9 [2%]).

Pressure Injury Predictors
Univariate relationships between potential pre-

dictor variables and HAPI development are presented
in Table 1. From the soft-thresholding property of the

LASSO in linear models, the estimated regression
coefficient is biased toward 0. To mitigate these bias
problems, we report a more unbiased estimation of
regression coefficients from unpenalized multivari-
ate logistic regression using the selected factors in
the LASSO (Table 2).

Discussion
The purpose of our study was to identify risk fac-

tors for HAPI development among SICU and CVICU

Variable

No. (%) of patientsa

P
All

(N = 5101)
With no HAPI

(n = 4702)
With a HAPI

(n = 399)

Table 1
Potential predictor variables and development of
hospital-acquired pressure injury

Abbreviations: HAPI, hospital-acquired pressure injury; ICU, intensive care unit.
a Unless otherwise indicated in first column.
b Irritated skin is defined as a rash or diffuse, nonlocalized, blanchable redness, not over a bony prominence.
c Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale.
d Calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

Demographic data
Age, mean (SD), y 58 (17) 59 (16) 58 (16) .24
Sex, male 3302 (65) 3040 (65) 262 (66) .73
Race, White 4256 (83) 3934 (84) 322 (81) .14
Ethnicity, non-Hispanic 4452 (87) 4112 (87) 340 (85) .17
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD), d 12 (11) 11 (9) 28 (20) <.001
Length of ICU stay before HAPI, mean (SD), d 5 (7) 5 (6) 13 (13) <.001
Laboratory data, mean (SD)
Maximum lactate, mg/dL 4.0 (3.7) 3.9 (3.6) 5.6 (4.8) <.001
Maximum serum creatinine, mg/dL 1.9 (1.9) 1.8 (1.9) 2.7 (2.1) <.001
Maximum serum glucose, mg/dL 231 (148) 227 (141) 280 (210) <.001
Minimum hemoglobin, g/dL 8.9 (2.6) 9.1 (2.6) 7.7 (2.2) <.001
Minimum albumin, g/dL 3.1 (0.8) 3.2 (0.8) 2.7 (0.7) <.001
Minimum Pao

2
, mm Hg 54 (40) 55 (41) 47 (32) <.001

Minimum arterial pH 7.27 (0.11) 7.27 (0.10) 7.23 (0.13) <.001
Maximum Paco

2
, mm Hg 52 (14) 52 (13) 55 (16) <.001

Skin status
Thin epidermis/subcutaneous tissue loss 888 (17) 792 (17) 96 (24) <.001
Excessively dry skin 351 (7) 296 (6) 55 (14) <.001
Skin tear 641 (13) 534 (11) 107 (27) <.001
Excessively moist skin 816 (16) 712 (15) 104 (26) <.001
Irritated skinb 1394 (27) 1176 (25) 218 (55) <.001
Community-acquired pressure injury present at

admission
167 (3) 120 (3) 47 (12) <.001

Duration of surgery, mean (SD), h
Longest single surgery 3.0 (2.6) 3.0 (3.2) 3.3 (2.5) .08
Total surgical time 3.7 (3.4) 3.6 (3.3) 4.6 (4.7) <.001
Duration of vasopressor infusion, mean (SD), h
Norepinephrine 9 (36) 7 (33) 30 (62) <.001
Epinephrine 8 (35) 7 (31) 23 (61) <.001
Phenylephrine 1 (8) 1 (14) 2 (20) .01
Dopamine 1 (14) 6 (13) 23 (19) .12
Vasopressin 11 (55) 9 (51) 37 (86) <.001
Other potential predictors
Minimum Braden Scale score, mean (SD) 13 (3) 13 (3) 12 (3) <.001
Minimum Riker score,c mean (SD) 2.8 (1.2) 2.87 (1.19) 2.15 (1.22) <.001
Admission body mass index,d mean (SD) 30.1 (12.4) 30.1 (12.5) 30.2 (10.7) .89
Nonstandard bed (eg, bariatric bed or other) 1390 (27) 1234 (26) 156 (39) .73
Comorbid diabetes 1756 (34) 1579 (34) 177 (44) <.001

e132 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 www.ajcconline.org

patients. Identifying risk factors is useful to improve
our understanding and care planning for patients
considered high risk and to recognize factors that
are potentially modifiable. In our study, candidate
predictor variables included the duration of vaso-
pressor infusion, blood gas values, surgery duration,
Braden Scale scores, nursing skin assessment data, and
laboratory values. In multivariable LASSO regression,
the most informative predictors for HAPI risk were
length of SICU or CVICU stay, the minimum Braden
Scale score, and skin irritation (defined as a rash or
diffuse, nonlocalized, blanchable redness).

A longer hospital stay is an established risk fac-
tor for HAPI because patients with longer stays gen-
erally experience a higher severity of illness and
longer exposure times than do patients with shorter
stays.9,10,14 Consistent with the results of prior stud-
ies, in our study the duration of ICU stay before HAPI
was an independent predictor for HAPI development,
although the effect was small.7,17,26

The Braden Scale, developed in 1987 for residents
of long-term care facilities,22 was found in a recent
meta-analysis to be a poor predictor of HAPI among
surgical patients.27 In our study, patients with lower

Braden Scale scores (ie, at
greater risk) were 14%
more likely to have a
HAPI develop than were
patients with higher Bra-
den Scale scores. The
clinical relevance of this
finding is uncertain
because the mean (SD)
minimum Braden Scale

score was 13 (3) in patients without a HAPI and
was 12 (3) in patients with a HAPI. On a scale with
possible scores ranging from 6 to 23, this absolute
difference is relatively small and the corresponding

standard deviation is large, so this finding may not
be actionable at a clinical level.28 Black29 specu-
lated that the lack of clinical utility of the Braden
Scale in this population is because of the dynamic
and evolving nature of critical care patients’ physio-
logical status. In the critical care population, a risk
assessment would need to be completed contem-
poraneously with changes in patient condition,
which would be difficult because of time and
workflow constraints.

The strongest predictor of HAPI was skin irrita-
tion, a potentially modifiable risk factor. In our study,
patients with skin irritation were 79% more likely
than those with no skin irritation to have a HAPI
develop. Skin irritation indicates an alteration in
skin integrity and therefore a decrease in tissue toler-
ance to mechanical and shearing forces, such as
those responsible for HAPI development.16,30 Skin
irritation may be caused by excessive skin dryness,
allergic reactions to medications, or prolonged expo-
sure to caustic substances acting as irritants, includ-
ing urine, feces, strong soaps, laundry chemicals,
and latex gloves. In all cases, skin irritation should
be treated and closely monitored and the cause
should be eliminated to allow the skin to heal.

Potential predictor variables not included in our
LASSO model merit consideration as well. Clinically
and statistically significant differences at the univari-
ate level were noted in variables measuring aspects
of perfusion, defined as the delivery of oxygen-rich
blood to tissue. The mean serum lactate level in the
HAPI group was markedly elevated, indicating tissue
hypoperfusion and hypoxia.31 Serum albumin (which
affects perfusion via colloid osmotic pressure) and
hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying capacity) were also
decreased in the HAPI group. In addition, patients
with HAPIs had clinically and statistically signifi-
cantly longer infusion durations for all vasopressors
than did patients without HAPIs.

Consistent with the results of a prior study,32
patients with HAPIs in our study experienced longer
surgical times, highlighting the importance of con-
sidering intraoperative events in HAPI risk. How-
ever, although surgical critical care patients are at
elevated risk for HAPI,3 little is known about intra-
operative factors associated with HAPI risk in the
surgical and cardiovascular surgical critical care pop-
ulation. In a study of patients undergoing urologic
procedures, duration of anesthesia and a diastolic
blood pressure of less than 50 mm Hg were predic-
tive of HAPI development, indicating that perfusion
during surgery may influence HAPI risk.33,34 Research
is urgently needed to identify intraoperative risk

Predictor variable Odds ratio (95% CI) P

Table 2
Results of LASSO logistic regressiona

Abbreviation: LASSO, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator.

a A total of 5019 patients (98%) were included in the logistic regression; 82
patients’ data were excluded from the analysis because of missing data.

b Irritated skin is defined as a rash or diffuse, nonlocalized, blanchable redness,
not over a bony prominence.

c Included in the model as a control factor because specialty beds were used
inconsistently.

Intercept 0.278 (0.147-0.523) <.001
Irritated skinb 1.788 (1.404-2.274) <.001
Minimum Braden Scale score 0.858 (0.818-0.899) <.001
Duration of stay in intensive care unit

before hospital-acquired pressure injury
1.003 (1.003-1.004)

<.001

Specialty bedc 0.816 (0.634-1.044) .11

Of the 110 stage 1 HAPIs,
44 (40%) worsened to a

more severe stage during
the patient’s stay in the

intensive care unit.

www.ajcconline.org AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 e133

factors in surgical critical care patients33 and to
identify potentially modifiable risk factors.

Limitations
Our study was limited by its retrospective design

because we accessed only data available in the EHR.
The subjectivity of clinician interpretation is also
a limitation; individual nurses’ definitions of skin
irritation may not exactly coincide. Furthermore, we
did not differentiate medical device–related HAPIs
from other HAPIs. Other predictor variables that
have been associated with HAPI in this population
were not selected because these variables could not
be obtained from the EHR. We did not include com-
pliance with PI prevention protocols (eg, repositioning
schedules) because the EHR is not a reliable source
of information about preventive interventions. For
instance, every 2 hours our EHR prompts nursing staff
to document a position change. However, the changes
might be faithfully documented every 2 hours but not
always performed.35 Finally, our sample was from a sin-
gle site with a predominantly White population, which
may also affect the generalizability of our results.35,36

Conclusions
Our results indicate that nursing staff should

consider changes in the epidermal layer, especially
skin irritation, to be influential risk factors for HAPI.
Skin irritation should be promptly treated by elimi-
nating the cause. The SICU and CVICU patients who
had HAPI develop in our study also exhibited poor
perfusion and longer surgical times. Future research
is needed to elucidate the relationship between per-
fusion, intraoperative events, and HAPI risk.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES
This research was funded by an American Association of
Critical-Care Nurses–Sigma Theta Tau Critical Care Grant.
This study was also supported by the University of Utah
Population Health Research Foundation, with funding in
part from the National Center for Research Resources and
the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences,
National Institutes of Health (grant UL1TR002538).

SEE ALSO
For more about hospital-acquired pressure injuries,
visit the Critical Care Nurse website, www.ccnonline.org,
and read the article by Schroeder and Sitzer, “Nursing Care
Guidelines for Reducing Hospital-Acquired Nasogastric
Tube–Related Pressure Injuries” (December 2019).

REFERENCES
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factors for pressure ulcers early in the hospital stay: a nested
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408-413.

2. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, National Pressure
Injury Advisory Panel, Pan Pacific Injury Alliance. Prevention

and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers/Injuries: Clinical Practice
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sory Panel, Pan Pacific Injury Alliance; 2019.

3. Chen HL, Chen XY, Wu J. The incidence of pressure ulcers
in surgical patients of the last 5 years: a systematic review.
Wounds. 2012;24(9);234-241.

4. Alderden J, Rondinelli J, Pepper G, Cummins M, Whitney J.
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5. Padula WV, Delarmente BA. The national cost of hospital-
acquired pressure injuries in the United States. Int Wound
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6. Graves N, Birrell F, Whitby M. Effect of pressure ulcers on
length of hospital stay. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;
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7. Tayyib N, Coyer F, Lewis P. Saudi Arabian adult intensive
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doi:10.1111/iwj.12406

8. Slowikowski GC, Funk M. Factors associated with pressure
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WON.0b013e3181f90a34

9. O’Brien DD, Shanks AM, Talsma A, Brenner PS, Ramachandran
SK. Intraoperative risk factors associated with postoperative
pressure ulcers in critically ill patients: a retrospective obser-
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CCM.0b013e318298a849

10. Manzano F, Navarro MJ, Roldán D, et al. Pressure ulcer
incidence and risk factors in ventilated intensive care
patients. J Crit Care. 2010;25(3):469-476. doi:10.1016/j.
jcrc.2009.09.002

11. Bly D, Schallom M. Sona C, Klinkenberg D. A model of pres-
sure, oxygenation, and perfusion risk factors for pressure
ulcers in the intensive care unit. Am J Crit Care. 2016; 25(2):
156-164.

12. Nijs N, Toppets A, Defloor T, Bernaerts K, Milisen K, Van Den
Berghe G. Incidence and risk factors for pressure ulcers in
the intensive care unit. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(9):1258-1266.

13. Theaker C, Mannan M, Ives N, Soni N. Risk factors for pres-
sure sores in the critically ill. Anaesthesia. 2000;55(3):221-224.

14. Cox J, Roche S. Vasopressors and development of pressure
ulcers in adult critical care patients. Am J Crit Care. 2015;
24(6): 501-510. doi:10.4037/ajcc2015123

15. He M, Tang A, Ge X, Zheng J. Pressure ulcers in the intensive
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16. Coleman S, Nixon J, Keen J, et al. A new pressure ulcer con-
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doi:10.1111/jan.12405

17. Cox J. Predictors of pressure ulcers in adult critical care
patients. Am J Crit Care. 2011;20(5):364-375.

18. Serra R, Caroleo S. Buffone G, et al. Low serum albumin level
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19. Alderden J, Zhao YL, Zhang Y, et al. Outcomes associated
with stage 1 pressure injuries: a retrospective cohort study.
Am J Crit Care. 2018;27(6):471-476.

20. Tschannen D, Bates O, Talsma A, Guo Y. Patient-specific and
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Am J Crit Care. 2012;21(2):116-125.

21. Lima Serrano M, González Méndez MI, Carrasco Cebollero
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22. Bergstrom N, Braden BJ, Laguzza A, Holman V. The Braden
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e134 AJCC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, November 2020, Volume 29, No. 6 www.ajcconline.org

1.0 Hour Category AC E
Notice to CE enrollees:

This article has been designated for CE contact hour(s). The evaluation demonstrates your knowledge of the
following objectives:

1. Identify independent risk factors for hospital-acquired pressure injuries.
2. Describe potential treatments for skin irritation.
3. Determine the clinical relevance of stage 1 pressure injuries in the surgical and cardiovascular surgical

population.

To complete the evaluation for CE contact hour(s) for this article #A2029062, visit www.ajcconline.org and
click the “CE Articles” button. No CE evaluation fee for AACN members. This expires on November 1, 2022.

The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional
development by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation, ANCC Provider Number
0012. AACN has been approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by the California Board of Regis-
tered Nursing (CA BRN), CA Provider Number CEP1036, for 1.0 contact hour.

26. Sayar S, Turgut S, Doğan H, et al. Incidence of pressure ulcers
in intensive care unit patients at risk according to the Water-
low scale and factors influencing the development of pressure
ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(5):765-774. doi:10.1111/j.1365-
2702.2008.02598.x

27. He W, Liu P, Chen HL. The Braden Scale cannot be used alone
for assessing pressure ulcer risk for surgical patients: a
meta-analysis. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012;58(2):34-40.

28. Anthony D, Papanikolaou P, Parboteeah S, Saleh M. Do risk
assessment scales for pressure ulcers work? J Tissue Viabil-
ity. 2010;19(4):132-136.

29. Black J. Pressure ulcer prevention and management: a dire
need for good science. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(5):387-388.

30. Yap TL, Rapp MP, Kennerly S, Cron SG, Bergstrom N. Com-
parison study of Braden Scale and time-to-erythema mea-
sures in long-term care. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
2015;42(5):461-467.

31. Antinone R, Kress T. Measuring serum lactate. Nurs Crit Care.
2009;4(5):56.

32. Lu CX, Chen HL, Shen WQ, Feng LP. A new nomogram score
for predicting surgery-related pressure ulcers in cardiovas-
cular surgical patients. Int Wound J. 2017;14(1):226-232.

33. Chello C, Lusini M, Schilirò D, Greco SM, Barbato R, Nenna
A. Pressure ulcers in cardiac surgery: few clinical studies,

difficult risk assessment, and profound clinical implications.
Int Wound J. 2019;16(1):9-12.

34. Connor T, Sledge JA, Bryant-Wiersema L, Stamm L, Potter P.
Identification of pre-operative and intra-operative variables
predictive of pressure ulcer development in patients under-
going urologic surgical procedures. Urol Nurs. 2010;30(5):
289-305.

35. Yap TL, Kennerly SM, Simmons MR, et al. Multidimensional
team-based intervention using musical cues to reduce odds
of facility-acquired pressure ulcers in long-term care: a paired
random

Discussion

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

· Textbook: Chapters 15 and 16

· Lesson

· Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Introduction
The Cold War ended over a decade before the 21st century began. What was supposed to be a “Brave New World” free of the threat of nuclear conflict and a long period of peace and prosperity has been less than what was expected. Yes, communism as a threat to the world and to the dominance of the United States and capitalism has come to pass, but even though the threat of war from the USSR never materialized (thankfully) a new threat did rise up to challenge the U.S. and the West for control. The rise of radical Islamic groups bent on destroying those they call infidels, especially the United States and Western Europe have caused more than a little death, destruction, and despair to a world hoping those threats had ended.

Instructions
For the initial post, address one of the following:

· Option 1: Why wasn’t the U.S. and its vastly superior intelligence and military able to stop these attacks? How effective are current measures in dealing with attack prevention? Have we really learned from past mistakes?

· Option 2: What new problems did the Iraqi War cause for the U.S. and its allies around the world? What effects has it had on the U.S. economy?

· Option 3: How much more difficult is it to battle an idea or faith, even a violent one, skewed and brutal than to defeat a nation in war like the U.S. and its allies did during World War II? Consider the role technology plays in the dissemination of faith.

· Option 4: Compare European imperialism to current globalism. How has each changed society, both in industrialized nations and developing nations? Is the claim that globalism is a form of imperialism valid?

· Option 5: Where do we go from here? Who will the best friends and the worst enemies of the United States be in the coming decades? Will we really, finally achieve that peace and prosperity we all hoped would come to pass?

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

· Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)

· Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

· APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

· Link (webpage): 
Discussion Guidelines (Links to an external site.)

Course Outcomes (CO): 6, 7, 8

discussion

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Discussion

Project 4: Argumentative Essay

WHAT WE’RE DOING
Writing a essay that argues about
the ethical considerations of high-
tech multi-domain weapons

HOW WE’RE DOING IT
An essay of at least 1100 words
which uses at least four sources
from which you draw information

WHY WE’RE DOING IT
To practice research skills in
finding information
To practice developing your ideas
with information you’ve
gathered
To discover and critically think
about important ideas
To develop ethical thinking and
responsibility 
To synthesize ideas from
material you’ve read
To practice argumentation and
thesis-based writing
To communicate your thinking in
a clear and effective way

WHEN WE’RE DOING IT
Writing Center Draft – 11:59 pm,25
March 
Teacher Draft – 11:59 pm, 1 April
Final Draft – 11:59 pm, 15 April

WHAT IT HAS TO DO
Answer the following question
using an argumentative thesis: Are
the weapons of multi-
domain warfare,
specifically, unmanned drones,
artificial intelligence, and online
manipulation, ethical for use?
Explain the criteria you are using to
decide whether or not something is
ethical
Explain why you believe these types
of weapons are/are not ethical (you
might think some are and some
aren’t) 
Explain when use of these types
of weapons would/would not be
ethical. 
Be at least 1100 words long (you
can have more).
Use at least four sources in the
essay – these sources must be
explicitly referenced and cited in-
text. (You may use more.)
Have a works cited page – all
sources must be put on the works
cited page.

HOW I’LL GRADE IT

40 points

WHAT IT’S WORTH
200 points, or 20% of your course
grade.

40 points

30 points

40 points

Assignment features an argumentative thesis statement and
an argument that answers the question of ethics with high-
tech multi-domain weapons, considering all aspects of the
assignment sheet.
Assignment is organized in a clear, straightforward, and
logical manner, following an appropriate organization
pattern, and without losing focus from the overall topic.

Assignment conforms to standard edited American English
and MLA standard guidelines of citation and formatting.

NOTES TO SELF

A FEW NOTES
Drafts submitted to the Writing
Center and to me are worth 10
Low-Risk Writing points each.
Late papers are penalized 10%
for each day late, including the
day it was due.
Assignments not following the
instructions will receive an
automatic zero.

Assignment uses appropriate academic style, relying on
formal language and tone, while still remaining
understandable to the reader. 

Assignment relies on credible sources that are well-
integrated and which are appropriately attributed and cited,
clearly showing where ideas came from. 

25 points

Rather than having a revision
opportunity, you’ll submit a
draft to me for feedback
before it is graded for a final
draft. 

25 points
Assignment works toward clarity of language, ensuring that
each topic and each sentence are easily understandable 

Tip: Don’t just look for sources that talk about these new kinds
of weapons.  Look for sources that can give you some guidance
about ethics and ethical considerations, even if they don’t
mention these weapons. 

Tip: This isn’t about
whether or not these
weapons are ethical for
the United States to use.
It’s whether they’re
ethical for any country to
use; remember, these
weapons could be used
against you too.

Discussion

 In chapter 16, Jacobs et al. address problem situations that may cause conflict in a group and get it off track. Choose one of these and shed further light on why this is a common issue and why/how it may lead to conflict by drawing upon Forsyth, chapter 13. In your replies, add insights to your classmates’ post, both from your personal experience and from the course materials. 

Problem situations: chronic talker, the dominator, distracter, rescuing member, negative member, resistant member, member who tries to “get the leader”, dealing with silence, dealing with sexual feelings, dealing with crying, dealing with mutually hostile members, asking a member to leave, dealing with prejudices, narrow-minded, or insensitive members.

    • 20

    Discussion

    Total word count must be 250 to 300 words in your posting. (20 points)

    Please also respond to at least two of your classmates with a meaningful reply of 150 words or greater each. (5 points each)

    Do not cut and paste, please post original work.

    Please provide references for your original postings in APA format.

    Describe three of the key principles that are a focus of the Business Continuity Institute certification.

    Discussion

     How are Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Personal Health Records (PHR) similar? How are they different? What are the benefits and challenges of each? 

    Discussion

    Discussion 1:

     

    As we close out our time together, and with Easter celebrations among Christians just concluding, the importance of Jesus Christ is at the forefront.  So I thought it interesting to mention Christmas in April.  Christians celebrate His birth.  (Even non-Christians celebrate it!)  Tim Keller is a prolific writer for believers of Christ.  Nonbelievers also like his writings as they stir thought and perspectives.  For this final time, select one of these statements from Hidden Christmas: The Surprising Truth Behind the Birth of Christ (Viking, 2016) [interview] (https://www.amazon.com/Hidden-Christmas-Surprising-Behind-Christ/dp/0735221650/?tag=thegospcoal-20) and reflect on what they mean to you, especially as you’ve been exposed to the principles of Christ and the Virtuous Business Model:

    “He is a Light for us when all other lights go out.” (15)

    “Christmas is not simply about a birth but about a coming.” (20)

    “The gospel, because it is a true story, means all the best stories will be proved, in the ultimate sense, true.” (28)

     

    “When you say, `Doctrine doesn’t matter; what matters is that you live a good life,’ that is a doctrine. It is called the doctrine of salvation by your works rather than by grace. It assumes that you are not so bad that you need a Savior, that you are not so weak that you can’t pull yourself together and live as you should. You are actually espousing a whole set of doctrines about the nature of God, humanity, and sin. And the message of Christmas is that they are all wrong.” (131)

    “If Christmas is just a nice legend, in a sense you are on your own. But if Christmas is true, then you can be saved by grace.” (133)

    • Discuss specific biblical perspectives that can be applied within the Virtuous Business Model.

    Discussion 2:

    • How would you evaluate the potential for organizational success of certain emerging technologies, and why did you select the evaluation criteria used in your answer?

    Discussion

    What is a controversial issue in the field you are studying or considering?

    Analyze this controversy using Toulmin’s terms: claim, support, and warrant.

    Does the controversy involve a claim of fact, value, or policy? What evidence do people use to support their claims regarding this controversy?

    The field you should study is ” Finance”.

    Toulmin Theory:  https://prezi.com/yur2esdpeusm/argumentative-writing/

      • 14

      Discussion

       

      The current motivation in the department I work in is low related to inadequate staffing and poor teamwork. There have been a lot of call outs over the past few months which leads to staff being mandated to stay over in order to take care of the patients that are scheduled for a procedure that day. The mandated overtime has caused a lot of stress because the nurses have already worked 10 hours and have responsibilities outside of work that are neglected because of having to stay beyond the end of their shift. The state of California has mandated patient to nurse ratios which allow us to provide the best care to our patients but with the short staffing it has forced the nurses to work beyond their scheduled time which is not abide by the rule of no mandated overtime per our union contract. I understand the patients need to be treated, but the non-emergent cases should be delayed until staffing can meet the demand. An exhausted nurse or healthcare worker can be a risk to public health and patient safety (Marquis & Huston, 2021, p. 455). 

      Poor communication in a team can lead to low morale from the team. In the department I work in there is good communication and team work only amongst certain staff members. There are certain nurses that are willing to help each other and there are other team members that want to function independently and not offer help to others. In research from Weaver et al. (2014), “Patients are safer and receive higher quality care when providers work as a highly effective team.” The communication and teamwork needs to be initiated and guided by the managers, by implementing team building skills and scenarios on how a team can function better together. There needs to be communication from the manager and leader so the staff knows what is expected from them. 

        • 10

        Discussion

        Discussion post instructions:

        Each student will be required to post two times in each discussion. The initial (first) post must be an original contribution to the conversation, with the second post being a response to something written by a classmate. A quality written post is at least 200 words without grammatical errors. A response post needs to be thoughtful, respectful and at least 100 words.

        Remember basic elements of grammar, including beginning sentences with capital letters. Avoid the casual writing style often found on social media and write on an academic level instead. Grammar is major component of this discussion course grade, as you are expected to communicate your understanding of the material and your opinions on the subject in a thoughtful, organized manner.

        The initial post is due Sunday, February 27 and the response post is due Wednesday, March 2. The discussion will automatically close at 11:59pm, March 2 and no further submissions will be allowed.

        This is worth 20 points, which are awarded after you’ve completed both components of the discussion and will be determined on how well you followed the above criteria. Remember that these have firm close dates and late submissions are not allowed.

        In your own words, and thoughtfully answer ONE of the question prompts below:

        1. What did Madison consider a faction to be and how could a faction be dangerous to a republic? How does Madison propose to deal with factions? How do you feel he would assess factions in our modern society?

        2. Given that more women than men are registered to vote and turn out to vote, why are women so underrepresented in Congress? What causes this phenomenon?

        3. Would you ever want to be president? Why or why not? Is being the President the hardest job in the world? Why or why not?

        4. Now that you’ve learned about Congress and the President, which of these institutions should take the lead in terms of crafting public policy? Which of these is a more democratic institution? Make sure to justify your answer.

        5. Thinking back to fiscal federalism, what are unfunded mandates and why are they controversial? Give some examples of these kinds of policies? Why do you think unfunded mandates proved so difficult to eliminate?

        6. Generally speaking would you rather live in a government with strong states and a weak national government or vice versa? Would you feel better represented by one over the other? 

        7. What is impeachment and why is it a critical check on the power of the executive branch? In what ways are the standards unclear? How would you define “high crimes and misdemeanors”? Have we overused the process of impeachment, and does it still mean anything today?

        We have students who represent a broad spectrum of political values, beliefs, and leanings. Be considerate and respectful when writing your response post. Acknowledge in your response post to a classmate, what you do agree with and what suggestions you would include. Even if you disagree entirely, find something positive to acknowledge!! No demeaning someone else’s politics, point of view, etc. (This is a college course with intentional civil discourse.) Civil discourse means we are thoughtfully engaging and sharing our ideas with one another. For the record, there is no “wrong” opinion in this class. I don’t expect you to have all of the answers, but I do expect you to base your conclusions for this discussion post on your recent chapter readings & lectures.

        Initial posts should be a minimum of 200 words.

        Response posts should be a minimum of 100 words. 

        discussion

        Running head: RESEARCH REPORT

        1

        RESEARCH REPORT

        4


        Children learn social skills through dramatic play

        Latoria Johnson

        EEC6678

        February 11, 2022

        Children learn social skills through dramatic play

        Introduction

        There exists a relationship of misconceptions about play-based learning. There is Criticism that academic work and play must not be mixed. Others suggest that all plays must be structured and goal-directed, not free and open-ended. Research suggests that academic work and play can be melded into a “play-based” learning curriculum.

        Moreover, experts advised that the “child-initiated” free play strategy must be used for more effective outcomes. The report would evaluate the relationship between these variables to understand how socio-dramatic play helps in social development in children.

        Problem Statement of the research

        The impact of play activities on developing social skills has been long neglected in the education system. There has been a lot of Criticism that play should not be mixed with academic work, but research shows that play helps with social skills in children.

        Literature Review

        In Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory, play plays a significant role in early childhood development and social skills. Vygotsky believed that play promotes social and cognitive development in children. However, Vygotsky’s perception that sociodramatic play is the opposite of the prevailing belief that play is just a free activity that must be done in free time. Therefore, Vygotsky’s theory differs from other play theories, including constructional play, object-oriented exploration, and games with rules.

        According to Vygotsky’s real play activities include (a) acting and taking out rules, (b) creating an imaginary situation, and (c) following specific rules while playing a role. According to scholars, socio-dramatic play facilitates children in developing social skills, especially language and problem-solving skills (Schärer, 2017). The literature shows that young children show significant problem-solving knowledge while participating in socio-dramatic play. The literature also shows that children who participate in sociodramatic play experience a high level of engagement in their brain because it includes language, emotions, cognitive, and sensory-motor actions. Thus, it develops an effective synaptic connection.

        Social knowledge is very important to participate in play activities. Children can learn skills and attitudes needed for play by watching their teachers, parents, and other children. Similarly, playing with peers has a crucial role in social development by offering content. Children may adopt several important social skills such as sharing, talking, cooperation, and understanding their Peer’s perceptions, thoughts, and emotions (Abraham, 2015).

        It can be seen that literature shows play to be a source of enculturating mechanisms. Children learn norms, societal roles, and values. The author has argued that the context of the play is influenced by the development of sequence and the socio-cultural environment of play. Through socio-dramatic play, children also learn social values such as sharing, love, respect, etc. In addition to this, self-regulations become possible in play because children would need to follow the rules constantly monitored by others (Goldstein, 2017).

        Purpose of the Study

        The research aims to identify socio-dramatic play’s role in developing social skills in children. The research would include a systematic approach to the relationship between socio-dramatic play and social skills in children to achieve this purpose. The study would also discuss the valued shows by children while performing in socio-dramatic play. In addition to this, the literature aims to discuss the relevant literature and theories on the concerned research problem.

        Research question

        The research question is ” How does socio-dramatic play help children develop social skills?” The methodology of the research would answer this question.

        Hypothesis

        Following are hypotheses from the research papers.

        Ho: There is a direct and positive relationship between children’s sociodramatic play and social skills.

        H1: Children-directed and free play are more impactful in developing children’s problem-solving and language skills (social skills).

        References

        Abraham, J. (2015). Socio Dramatic Play: A case study. Conference: Third International Conference on Early Childhood Development.

        Goldstein, T. R. (2017). The dramatic pretend play games uniquely improve emotions. Development Science.

        Schärer, J. H. (2017). Supporting Young Children’s Learning in a Dramatic Play Environment. Journal of Childhood Studies.

        discussion

        COMMUNICATE MONOGAMY 2

        Discussion 1 ( 260) words

        Discuss some of the ways in which social policy affects what we can and cannot do in practice. Do people who work with vulnerable populations have a responsibility to advocate on behalf of the people they serve?

        Reply 1 ashley (60 words)

        Social policy has created alot of limitations on what we can and cannot do in practice.  Social policies have created laws that make things illegal to do but that dosen’t mean that people can’t be prudicje it just means that they can’t discriminate. “It may be illegal to refuse to hire a qualified woman to work on a construction crew, but once she gets there she may not be welcomed by her coworkers.”(Segal, 2015, 389) They can make relgations but those don’t mean it our beliefs change. We can still think a certain way but our actions can’t show it.

        People who work with vulnerable populationsdo have a responsibility to advocate on behalf of the people they serve but it a calm and professional way.

        Reply 2 amberlin (60 words)

        Social Policy is the foundational framework that is used to advocate on behalf of others. Without civic engagement, especially the participation of educated individuals, social change can never be achieved. The duty of social welfare advocates to rally for reform of unjust policies is an ethical obligation. According to The National Association of Social Workers’ Code of Ethics, social workers “should engage in social and political action that seeks to ensure that all people have equal access to the resources, employment, services, and opportunities they require to meet their basic human needs and to develop fully” (2021).  Social work policy advocacy is one of the means for upholding that standard.

         

        One of the ways this is accomplished is through the practice of empathy, lobbying, civic engagement and social action. Organizing letter-writing campaigns, communications with state and federal legislators, and exercising your right to vote are just a few ways to promote policy changes (Segal, 2015). While our country is founded upon the democratic values, not everyone’s voice is heard equally. Those who are born with privilege have a responsibility to support the voices and needs of minority groups. According to our textbook, “There are numerous examples of those who are privileged and powerful supporting laws that are not in their own best interests” (Segal, 2015). These practices promote social empathy, deepen understanding and create unique opportunities to strengthen the fairness of our legislative system. While there is no universal approach to correctly addressing social justice and policy issues, attempting to understand every individual’s point of view can benefit and unify communities.

        discussion

        Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

         Generational Work Expectations [WLOs: 2, 3, 4] [CLOs: 4, 5, 6]

        Prior to beginning this activity, read Chapter 10 in the course text and review the weekly Instructor Guidance. Also review any relevant announcements.

        Chapter 10 addresses employee attitudes, beliefs, and differing cultures, as well as suggests that an increase in job performance is reliant on job satisfaction. The authors of our text suggest that highly satisfying jobs are more complex, requiring the worker to utilize a variety of skills and to deal with unpredictable situations (i.e. teaching, managing, engineering, etc.), unlike jobs where the work is repetitive and less thought-provoking (general laborers, factory workers, and the like). However, complex jobs, often include diverse employees. In addition, the work and life-balance expectations are suggested to differ based on generations, which may likely also affect job satisfaction as well as working effectively as a team. For this discussion: 

        · Identify the generation you fall into, based on the text:  

        · The Traditionalists or Matures

        · The Baby Boomers

        · Generation X

        · Generation Y or the Millennials

        · Generation Z

        · Consider your own expectations and beliefs. Do they align with what our content suggests about the characteristics of your identified generational group?

        · Research one generation that differs from your identification and share some of the events that have shaped this generation, including their beliefs and behaviors.

        · Discuss the relationship between events within your generation versus your researched generation.

        · How might these events, that have developed our ideologies, affect a work environment that includes both generations?

        · Identify one generation that could potentially be more difficult for someone in your identified generation to effectively work with.

        · What variables may create this challenge (e.g. communication style, wellness, life balance, etc.)?

        · How does an increase in awareness, of the factors that affect what differing generations believe, positively support a healthy and productive work environment?

        Your initial post should be between 300 and 400 words. You must use at least one scholarly, peer-reviewed source that was published within the past five years. Refer to the 
        Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)
         resource for guidance. Cite all information from your sources according to APA guidelines and list each of your sources at the end of your post according to APA style as shown in the 
        APA: Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)
         resource. Visit the 
        Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
         for support and examples.

        Guided Peer Responses: Review several of your classmates’ posts. Respond substantively to at least two of your peers’ original postings that align with a differing generation (if available).

        · What differences do you note between your generation and theirs?

        · Do you see areas within your own expectations that could be reconsidered based on your peers’ expectations?

        Discussion

         

        1. Evaluate the discussion section of the article attached and identify if the following was addressed. (Note, you need to show evidence, do not just say yes or no. Post what the researcher indicated that supports that these elements were addressed in the discussion section. Add the page number where you found them)

        a) limitations and strengths of the study variable(s) 

        b)hypothesis(es)/research questions 

        c) theoretical framework

        d) design

        e) sample  

        f) data collection procedures

        g) data analysis 

        h)generalizations 

        i)conclusions

        j)recommendations for future research 

        2. After reviewing and evaluating the  “Discussion” section of the article, discuss the strength of the evidence supports a change in current practice (If you think it does, support your answer with evidence based literature. You describe what the article indicated and find another source to support why the strength of evidence support a change in current practice). 

        3.  What is your cosmic question? (This should be based on chapter of the week. Pose a research question on discussion section of a research)

        Discussion

         Discussion: Based on your research topic, discuss one potential method you can use to collect qualitative data, even if you plan to use a quantitative design. What type of sampling would you use ( pg. 206-207). What type of qualitative data would you collect? Refer to Creswell pg 212 Figure 7.3 for data collection approaches. Based on the approach you select, discuss your methods (ie: observation checklist for observations, interview guide for interviews etc..). Provide reasoning for selecting these methods. How do you plan on analyzing this qualitative data? Refer to Creswell pg 240-252 for assistance. Lastly, provide two methods you would use to support the accuracy of your findings. Refer to Creswell pg. 258-259 for validation measures in qualitative research. 

        *SEE FILES

        • 2 months ago
        • 5

        Discussion

         

        Discussion Question 1

        No unread replies.No replies.

        Describe the sequence and give the rationale for putting on and taking off PPE.

        150 word

        Discussion

        Step 1: ReviewReview the W1 and W2 Literary Analysis Tools modules. Part of your grade is based on selection, integration, and citation of quotations.

        Review the “Critical Reading Skills” section of the W1 Literary Analysis Tools module.
        Read “The Moment Before the Gun Went Off” (Vol. 2, pp. 1459-1462).
        Refer to the grading rubric for this assignment using the link in the Gradebook.
        Step 2: ReflectThe story is set in South Africa during apartheid rule. You can learn about apartheid from History.com’s article “Apartheid.” It was a time of systemic racism by the all-white government. On the surface, the story clearly shows what we expect–that racism is wrong. When we dig a little deeper, we can see some perhaps unexpected moments where we may begin to sympathize with Van der Vyver. As you review the story, look for ways that Gordimer presents Van der Vyver as a sympathetic character. What conflicting emotions do you experience as you read this story?Step 3: RespondPost 1: In your response, address eachof the following:What do you make of the fact that Lucas’s mother is the daughter of parents who worked for the elder Van der Vyver? Although the story does not give us the details of the intimate relationship between the mother and Marais Van der Vyver, how would you describe it? What clues does Gordimer give us about their relationship?Criteria:300 words minimum (excluding quotations and citations)
        Include at least one properly integrated and cited quotation to support your claims. You may use either direct or paraphrased quotes. See the Literary Analysis Tools Modules in Weeks 1 and 2 for information about integrating and citing quotes.

        Discussion

         Module 3: Strategies for SuccessDiscussion Topic Task: Reply to this topic

        Think back on this week’s readings about habits, metacognition, and the hidden curriculum. Which strategies and approaches will be most useful to you as you move forward with your coursework at NLU? How will you ensure that you make time for these considerations? As you write this week’s post, be sure to follow the principles of writing effective discussion posts from this week’s readings.

         The Hidden Curriculum. In College Success. https://openstax.org/books/college-success/pages/2-7-the-hidden-curriculum 

         Metacognition. In College Success. https://openstax.org/books/college-success/pages/7-6-metacognition 

        around 200 words

          • 5

          Discussion

          1. Explain why interpersonal perceptions are important in organizational communication.
          2. List and explain the three dimensions of source credibility. 

          325 words 

          APA citations and references are required for quotes and/or paraphrased ideas. Please remember that I am looking for you to cite material from the textbook in your initial post, each week.

          All in text citations must include page number 

          Discussion

          After reading Chapters 15-17, respond to the prompt below:

          Prompt: Consider the poems about roses (pages 887-889), and write a paragraph about each poem showing how it establishes specific symbolism for the rose. What generalizations can you draw about the rose’s traditional meanings in poetry? If you can, find other poems about roses outside of this textbook to determine if your generalizations still apply. Don’t forget to include a thesis to tie each poem together!

          • 2 months ago
          • 10

          Discussion

           

          Provide a brief summary of the delegation guidelines in your state. Describe at least three strategies nurse managers can use to reduce legal risks and overcome the barriers to delegation to strengthen the efficiency of the health care team.

          Support your discussion and opinions with facts, relevant examples from personal nursing practice, and at least two citations from the reading or peer-reviewed professional nursing literature.

          See the Nursing Syllabus Standards & Policies Document for Discussion Participation Guidelines & Grading Criteria. 

            • 15

            Discussion

              

            Talia Johnson, whom you met briefly in HBSE I, is a young adult who has experienced a sexual assault. How might the concept of resiliency apply to her? For this Discussion, you explore resiliency and integrate it in social work practice using Talia’s case.

            Post a discussion that includes the following:

            · An explanation of how you, as Talia’s social worker, might apply the concept of resiliency to Talia and her situation

            · Use examples from Talia’s case and the resources to support your strategy

            · An explanation of how you might apply the concept of resiliency more generally to social work practice

            Resources:

            Please see uploaded documented 

            https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/resilience/

            • 6

            discussion

            Chapter 10: Do you think it is possible for an outsider to accurately discern about the underlying cultural values of an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture in comparison to an insider with several years of work experience? Select a percentage (e.g., 10%, 70%, etc.) and explain your reasoning.

            Chapter 11: A noted organization theorist once said, “Pressure for change originates in the environment. Pressure for stability originates within the organization.” Do you agree?

            Chapter 12: If managers frequently use experience and intuition to make complex, non-programmed decisions, how do they apply evidence-based management (which seems to suggest that managers should rely on facts and data)?

            Chapter 13: In a rapidly changing organization, are decisions more likely to be made using the rational or political model of organization?

            What biblical implications should be included/addressed?

            How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

            Discussion

            Exercise Content

            Top of Form

            Exercise Content

            Topic #1

            Topic: Partner Violence

            The research paper must have a minimum of 2000 words – main body (does not include the title page, abstract, or reference pages). Times New Roman, Size 12, and 5 references about that topic (4 of them most be research articles). The criteria exposed in your paperwork must be exclusively based on peer reviewed article, and I will be very fussy in confirming the reliability of your statements. A formal paper using APA format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.).2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5 will be submitted via Exercise Submission. This paperwork must be submitted on week # 3 (Sunday, 1/23 at 11:59 PM EST), so that you have plenty of time to start collecting literature.

            Question Guide

            The paper should include the following: 

            · What is Partner Violence ?

            · Statistics / Incidence

            · Dynamics of Partner Violence (Psychosocial and Cultural)

            · Psychological Factors

            · Cycle of Violence

            · Interventions Strategies / Treatments (pharmacological and non-pharmacological)

            · Other considerations in the management of Partner Violence (including but not limited to management of behaviors, family considerations, challenges in the care of patients with this social issue.

             Examine evidence-based practice guidelines / research, nursing theories that support the identification of clinical problems, implementation of nursing skills in the care of adults with this social issue.

            Grading Criteria:

            · What is Partner Violence? – 2%

            · Statistics / Incidence – 2%

            · Dynamics of Partner Violence (Psychosocial and Cultural) – 2%

            · Psychological Factors – 2%

            · Cycle of Violence – 2%

            · Interventions / Treatments (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) – 2%

            · Other considerations in the management of Partner Violence (including but not limited to management of behaviors, family considerations, challenges in the care of patients with this disorder – 2%

            · References: At least 5 reference sources – 4 of them most be research articles – 3%

            · APA style – 3 %

            MAXIMUN POINTS – 20%

            It accounts for 20% of your final grade

            Bottom of Form

            Discussion

             

            Standards are designed to ensure consistency. Without them, no structure would exist.

            Go to Basic Search: Strayer University Online Library  to locate and integrate at least two quality, academic resources (in  addition to your textbook) on the purpose of the ISO/IEC 27000 Suite of  Security Standards. You may also use government websites, such as Cybersecurity from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

            Please respond to the following in a post of at least 200 words:

            • Describe the purpose of the ISO/IEC 27000 Suite of Security Standards.
            • Justify the value they bring to cybersecurity.
            • Provide full citations and references, formatted according to Strayer Writing Standards. 
              • For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing  Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your  professor for any additional instructions.

            In 60 to 75 words, please respond to at least one other post. Choose to respond to those who have few or no responses 

            Discussion

            Sheet1

            Age Requested Amount Male / Female
            51 90 M
            25 50 M
            22 75 M
            58 80 F
            60 150 F
            21 35 F
            34 40 M
            63 190 F
            31 55 F
            24 60 M
            49 75 M
            52 70 F
            33 40 F
            27 45 F
            54 50 F
            45 55 F
            38 45 M
            55 75 M
            49 70 M
            53 75 M
            61 70 M
            63 85 M
            59 65 F
            46 30 F
            22 30 M
            21 50 M
            36 45 F
            31 55 M
            47 45 M
            50 65 M
            21 45 F
            26 45 F
            25 45 F
            45 45 F
            51 60 M
            50 55 F
            34 45 M
            37 60 M
            30 45 M
            54 50 M
            57 60 F
            60 70 F
            61 80 M
            49 75 M
            39 45 M
            55 75 F
            47 45 F
            51 55 F
            38 60 M
            44 65 F
            58 45 M
            60 70 F
            51 60 F
            43 60 F
            30 45 M
            21 30 M

            Discussion

            1.  What are your thoughts about the current pay for nurses today?

            2.  Do you think the nurse pay is comparable to other medical specialty salaries? 

            3.  Discuss what tips you.ve gained from the reading and salary estimator that you would use in negotiating your next salary or pay raise? 

            Discussion

            In your own words, explain what CSR is. Name two examples of socially responsible companies you know and explain why you consider them so.

            It is important for companies to incorporate social responsibility into their strategic plans. Give a brief summary of the company you chose in Week 1. What aspects of corporate social responsibility would you recommend they incorporate into its strategic plan? Support your rationale from your research.

            (NOTE: Incorporate the feedback you receive from your instructor and save your work. It will be part of your Strategic Plan Final Project for this course).

            Discussion

            • Review the W1 and W2 Literary Analysis Tools modules. Part of your grade is based on selection, integration, and citation of quotations.
            • Review the “Critical Reading Skills” section of the W1 Literary Analysis Tools module.
            • Read Spenser’s Sonnet 75 (Vol. 1, p. 490) and Shakespeare’s Sonnet 60 (Vol. 1, pp. 559-560).Both of these poems seem to seek the same result–immortality through poetry. In other words, the object of the poet’s affection lives on because we are still reading the poem hundreds of years later. It is a flattering way to pay tribute to someone, isn’t it? This idea of homage is often used in other places, such as art and song lyrics. See this music video of Elton John performing “Your Song” and Heben Nigatu’s article on BuzzFeed describing works of art paying tribute to Treyvon Martin, for example. The idea, of course, is to share a person’s memory with the world so that he or she is never forgotten. Now reflect on these two poems and determine how each of the writers works to preserve the object of their affection in his poetry.Perform a close reading of each sonnet and address each of the following in your response:
            How is the idea of time important in each sonnet?
            Describe Spenser’s reason(s) for wanting the object of his affection to live on through the poem and compare it to Shakespeare’s reason(s). How are they different?300 words minimum (excluding quotations and citations)
            Include at least two properly integrated and cited quotations (at least one from each work) to support your claims. You may use either direct or paraphrased quotes. See the Literary Analysis Tools Modules in Weeks 1 and 2 for information about integrating and citing quotes.

            Discussion

             Module 1: Self-Advocacy & Student SuccessDiscussion Topic Task: Reply to this topic

            In this module, we’ve explored a variety of strategies for self-advocacy and asking for help, as well as support systems that are available to you as a student here at NLU. Now, let’s consider how you might apply those strategies as a student. First, choose one of the following scenarios. Then, create a new discussion thread and write a post that explains what this student could do in order to advocate for themselves. Be specific and use examples from readings or  NLU resource pages that you reviewed this week. Address the following questions as well: What challenges might the student encounter, and how might these challenges be addressed?

            Scenarios (Choose one to discuss in your post):

            1. Amara is in their second term at NLU and wants to change her major from Education to Business. She’s not sure what to do or if it’s too late to withdraw from her courses and take new ones instead.

            around 200 words

              • 5

              Discussion

              Consider the Following Scenario: It has been brought to the attention of the HR Director that the Chief Operating Officer is planning to hire his brother-in-law as the Director of Procurement, without consideration of the candidates which have been screened by HR based upon criteria the Chief Operating Officer established for the job search and notified of pending interviews. As the HR Director in this situation:

              • Identify a critical first step Human Resources must take when legal risks arise in such compromising situations.
              • Explain the critical role of Human Resources in ensuring the organization’s regulatory compliance as an important component in the overall risk management program.
              • Explain at least two risks of failing to recognize potential legal risks in this scenario.
              • What additional risk is there in the HR Director failing to act once the situation has been identified?
                • 5

                Discussion

                1. Why do upper socioeconomic status and lower socioeconomic status class individuals behave unethically? 

                2. What role does the police subculture play if any in fueling law enforcement misconduct? Defend your position.

                250 words minimum for each question and 1 reference per question.

                Need by 8 pm est 2/24/2022

                cant be late please

                  • 15

                  Discussion

                   

                  One of the most fundamental issues in business law involves the question of when a company can be held liable for the acts of an individual person, whether this involves a contractual obligation or a personal injury (meaning a tort). Choose one of the scenarios below and explain whether you think the business is liable for the acts under the principles of agency law.

                  • A real estate agent hires a handful of local kids to do the landscaping of homes that he is trying to sell. In addition to the general payment, he reimburses them for the cost of gasoline for lawnmowers and other equipment. While mowing a lawn, one of the kids loses control of a lawnmower and it mows down a neighbor’s very expensive collection of lawn gnomes.
                  • In a hurry to get his apartment complex painted, a homeowner hires three people he meets at the local home improvement store to do the work. Since they are not professional painters, he provides all the equipment and paints needed to do the work. While at the apartment complex, one of them breaks into an apartment, assaulting the resident and stealing a wallet.
                  • An entrepreneur decides to open up his own car-for-hire business and creates an app allowing anyone to connect with people who need a ride. The passengers pay the entrepreneur, who in turn pays a percentage to the driver. Other than the app, the entrepreneur has no involvement between the driver and the passenger. One night, a driver who is intoxicated picks up a passenger and then gets into an accident, resulting in the passenger being severely injured.
                    • 20

                    Discussion

                     

                    1. First: Watch the following two videos in the order listed:
                      1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD5f8GuNuGQ
                      2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N0acvkHIiZs
                    2. Second: Revisit the 2 privilege assessments you did prior (attached here again)
                      1. Privilege Assessment 1.pdf
                      2. Privilege Assessment 2.pdf
                    3. Third: For your initial post, answer the following questions
                      1. In your own words share your thoughts about the two videos and define what privilege is.
                      2. Reflecting on the two videos and worksheet:
                        1. what privileges do you have and how can you use those to positively impact those that do not have similar privileges (are disadvantaged) and
                        2. how can awareness of this privilege now influence how you interact with individuals who are disadvantaged in those areas? (ex: if privilege is due to speaking English, how does that shape your interaction with non-English speakers?)
                      3. Think about the profession you are going into, discuss why it is important for those working in similar professions to understand and assess their privilege when interacting with a diverse population (Ex: Social Work major/ student; why is this important for social workers interacting with and providing resources  to diverse populations?)

                    FOr QUESTION NO 2 I have attached my worksheet please do according to that

                    And also for the last part my major is public health 

                    • 2 months ago
                    • 10

                    Discussion

                     

                    Discussion:  There are 8 Discussion Questions on Canvas, basically one bi-weekly.  These are to be answered in roughly 300 words.  They are your thoughts (after reviewing the material).  Once an initial answer is posted, you will have access to others’ posts.  Please reply to at least one other student’s post with a follow-up question, additional thought, disagreement, etc.  Please respond if I ask you a question in your thread.  For each discussion question, you will get 12 points for the initial post of adequate size and thought and 6 points for adequate replies.  If you feel that you’d like to pad your grade, replying to your replies will certainly be noted if there are ever those “Can you round my 89.1% to a 90%?” questions.  Initial posts are due on Fridays, all responses are due by Sundays.

                    Choose one of the pages from this module to write about (Final Thoughts & Movie).  Ask any questions you have, share your thoughts, discuss your insecurities.

                    To get you started.  What do you think of America now, after all this?  Did anything change for you this course?  What aspects seemed most “foreign” in the film?  What lingering questions do you have that I can answer about this HUGE subject of American Government that we had to fit in only a few short weeks?

                      • 10

                      Discussion

                       TOPIC IS ABOUT SOCIALCULTURAL OF HOME DEPOT

                      Based on our roundtable discussion, which emerging opportunity or threat do you believe is the most important for the firm we discussed to act upon? Why? Why is this idea or issue deserving of the firm’s resources (i.e. explain how it links to the firm and what impact it could have)? How should this firm respond? (i.e. suggestions for action)

                      • You may not select the opportunity/threat you researched and pitched
                      • Format your response as a formal note to the VP of Strategic Planning, Dr. Julie Sharek (i.e. include date, greeting, body of text, closing, signature)
                      • Use the hyperlink function to embed at least one link to further information
                      • Include a chart or graph  to support  your  position. If the chart or graph is not created by you, be sure to include a hyperlink to its source. 
                      • Refer to Roundtables: Reflection Formatting Guide for further details.

                        Following roundtable discussions, you will complete an individual written reflection assignment. This assignment is formatted as an email to the VP of Strategic Planning for our focal firm  

                      Hyperlinks

                      Embedding website links in text — like this (Links to an external site.) — directs your reader to sources of further information (Links to an external site.) without disrupting the flow of your message. Any snippet of text within your message can be turned into an active hyperlink. Here’s what you need to do:

                      • Highlight the text you want to link
                      • Click the chain link icon on the top row of the toolbar.
                        This will open the Insert Hyperlink dialog box
                      • Copy and paste the web address to which you want to link
                      • Click Ok

                        

                      Data Visualizations

                      Embedding an interesting data visualization directly into the flow of your text allows your reader to see a visual representation of information without having to click through to another site. For the purposes of this course, we will embed links to credible sources of factual information and embed charts, graphs, or other types of infographic images to enhance the reader’s understanding of your position

                      You may create your own data visualization or use one created by someone else as long as you provide proper attribution. Because the urls for images on external servers often change, it is important that you follow the process below to correctly embed data visualizations for your assignments. Here’s how:

                      • Save the image you plan to embed to your computer
                      • Open a new Webcourses tab in your web browser
                      • Click on Account in the lefthand navigation bar (where you see your profile pic)
                      • Click Files
                      • Click the Upload button
                      • Select your saved image in the dialog box that appears
                      • Click Open / Ok
                      • Return to your message and click on the down arrow to the right of the image icon
                      • Select “User Images”
                      • Navigate to the image file you saved and select it
                        • 10

                        Discussion

                         

                        find an article written within the past six months that is about saving, budgeting, and/or insurance (i.e. car, home, business, etc.). This article may come from the internet, newspaper, or a magazine. As with previous discussions involving articles, you may find it helpful to look for more than one in order to fully cover the topics listed above.

                        1. Summarize the main points of the article.
                        2. Include the name of the article, publication name, and author’s name. Again, citations and references would cover this requirement.
                        3. Explain how you budget and save money.
                        4. Explain how you budget for insurance (i.e. car, home, business, etc.).
                        5. How will your habits change as a result of researching these topics?

                        Requirements: 400

                        Discussion

                        Answer the following questions, and reply to at least two fellow students’ posts for five points extra credit.

                        1. Do opposites attract? Why or why not? Are there some ways in which we are attracted to differences and some ways we are attracted to similarities?
                        2. What has been your experience with this? Does it support or contradict what you learned in class?
                        3. How does the concept of online dating support or contradict the research on attraction?
                        • Your initial and overall response should be 8 – 10 sentences in length, touching on each of the three questions above.
                        • Reply to at least two classmates’ posts. Your response to your classmate’s post should be at least 5 – 8 sentences (each) and add to the discussion (i.e. reflecting on their response, asking questions, etc.). 

                        Things to Remember

                        • Before posting on the discussion board, check for correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Answers that do not demonstrate a college-level writing ability will not receive credit.
                        • As always, please be respectful in your initial post and interactions with fellow students.

                        Discussion

                         Find a two-minute clip on any debate aired on the news in the last year.

                        1) Provide a link to the clip and address the following:

                        2) What is the context of the argument being made?

                        3) Identify at least two or three rhetorical devices used during this debate and explain their effect on the audience. Do you think the speakers use these intentionally? If so, for what purpose? If not, explain your reasoning.

                        Discussion


                        Week 3: Paper #1 Due

                        Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly common in the United States and the rest of the western world. Most of nursing education in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australia—often referred to as Western countries—has been under the umbrella of biomedicine, and thus Western nurses are familiar and comfortable with its beliefs, theories, practices, strengths, and limitations. Fewer nurses have studied alternative medical theories and practices and as a result may lack information or even harbor misinformation about these healing practices. Unlike the profession of medicine in general, however, the profession of nursing has traditionally embraced two basic concepts embodied by alternative therapies—holism and humanism—in its approach with clients. Your assignment is to write a 2-3 page paper discussing how nurses can incorporate alternative medicine into a holistic approach to patient care. Please use references within the last 5 years and submit the work in APA format.

                        Discussion

                         Discussion: Based on your research topic, discuss one potential method you can use to collect quantitative data, even if you plan to use a qualitative design. Refer to Creswell pg 155 for suggestions based on your research area. After describing a feasible method, discuss two ways to support that your data collection method is valid and two ways to support that your data is reliable.  Refer to table 5.3 (pg 159) and table 5.4 (pg 161) for sources of reliability and validity. Briefly discuss how you would analyze this quantitative data (CH 6).

                        • 2 months ago
                        • 5

                        Discussion

                         

                        • Provide a brief description of the type of trafficking.
                        • Locate statistics regarding the type of trafficking and summarize them (include magnitude, cost, etc.).
                        • Answer the following questions:
                          • Based on the information covered in this class regarding the mindset of criminals, do you think that the offenders are aware of the magnitude of their crimes?
                          • Why do you think that human trafficking is such an enormous “business”?
                          • How has the vastness of the Internet contributed to the issue of human trafficking?
                        • Explain using evidence.

                         

                        • Do a search on your state or county laws regarding human trafficking.
                        • Choose a “type” of human trafficking (avoid choosing those types that are relatively common; think outside the box).

                        Discussion

                        Course name: Managerial Accounting 

                        Please answer below in 1000 word limit

                        Write a critical evaluation of your learning outcome. In your response, consider:

                        1. Your managerial accounting skills/knowledge prior to taking this class

                        2. Base on the course content, discuss the new skills you acquired from this class? How relevant are the new skills in your profession?

                        3. How would you apply your new knowledge?

                        discussion

                        Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables – Titles

                        Original provided by Dr. Gilroy, MTSU.
                        Modified somewhat by Dr. Kendrick, MTSU

                        Below are the titles of a number of studies. You can often identify the independent (IV) and
                        dependent (DV) variables from these titles. For example, the terms, “the effect of…” or, “the influence
                        of..” typically point to the IV whereas the terms following “on”, point to the DV. So, a general
                        statement would be something like, “The effects of the IV on the DV”, but it’s not always so clear cut.
                        Also, IV’s require more than one level, so identify two or more possible levels of each IV. DV’s require
                        a measurement or score, so for each DV identify a possible method of measurement.

                        Identify the independent and dependent variables in each of the studies.

                        1. Aggression toward minorities as a function of racial attitudes.

                        2. The effect of reinforcement on learning.

                        3. Stimulus attractiveness and memory in high and low sensation seekers.

                        4. The effect of independence training on creativity.

                        5. The effect of hunger on learning

                        6. Frustration leads to aggression

                        7. School performance as a function of intelligence

                        8. The relationship between self-esteem and school success among elementary school children

                        9. The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group

                        10. The perceived size of coins in normal and hypnotically induced economic states

                        11. The effect of complexity and novelty in visual figures on orienting responses

                        12. Pupil response of hetero- and homosexual males to pictures of men and women

                        13. The influence of associative value upon the difficulty of nonsense syllable lists

                        14. Delay of feedback on the acquisition and retention of verbal materials in the classroom

                        15. Effects of motivating instructions and reports of failure on verbal learning

                        16. Effects of intensity of audio stimulation on directional eye movements in the human neonate

                        17. The relation of childhood training in independence to achievement motivation

                        Answers:

                        1.
                        IV attitude (survey/questionairre that creates three categories: negative, positive, neutral)
                        DV aggression (facial expression when shown pictures of different races)

                        2.
                        IV reinforcement (one group receives positive reinforcement during coaching and a second group
                        does not)
                        DV learning (number of golf balls hit into cup, more = better learning)

                        3.
                        IV High and low sensation seekers (as determined by scores on a survey)
                        DV Attractiveness of stimuli and memory for stimuli (as determined by self-report ratings and a
                        recognition memory test)

                        4.
                        IV Independence Training (one group gets the training and a second group does not)
                        DV Creativity (measured by a standard creativity test)

                        5.
                        IV Hunger (one group does not eat for 12 hours, a second group eats whenever they want)
                        DV Learning (number of attempts to correctly negogiate a maze)

                        6.
                        IV Frustration (One group is told to go to room 103 on the second floor but it does not exist, other
                        group told to go to room 303 on third floor which does exist – both groups to find forms and bring
                        them back)
                        DV Aggression (number of “bad words” uttered when asked to hand over forms)

                        7.
                        IV Intelligence (students asked to sit on left if very smart, on right if not so smart, and in the middle if
                        average – thus creating three groups based on self-reported level of intelligent)
                        DV School performance (self-reported GPA)

                        8.
                        IV Self-esteem (Score on survey of self-esteem)
                        DV School success (GPA)

                        9.
                        IV Severity of initiation (three groups, one getting congratulatory initiation, one having to jump in cold
                        lake water, and one having to jump in cold lake water and staying for five minutes)
                        DV Liking the group (self-report survey with questions regarding the importance of membership in
                        the group)

                        10.
                        IV Normal or hypnotic state (self-explanatory…two groups, one hypnotized and one not)
                        DV Perception of coin size (self reported estimates in inches and tenths of inches)

                        11.
                        Note there are two IV’s in this one.
                        IV Complexity (three stimuli differing in complexity – simple figure, complex figure, very complex
                        figure)
                        IV Novelty (three stimuli differing in novelty – common figure, unusual figure, very unusual figure)
                        DV Number of orienting responses (count the number of times people look at stimuli)

                        12.
                        Two IV’s in this one too.
                        IV Sexual Orientation of person (homosexual and heterosexual males)
                        IV Sex of picture (male and female pictures)
                        DV size of pupil (as measured by pupilometer)

                        13.
                        IV associative value (three levels: high, medium, low)
                        DV difficulty of memorizing (number of times repeated to reach 100% correct memorization of list)

                        14.
                        This one has two DV’s
                        IV Delay of Feedback (three groups: no delay, short delay, long delay)
                        DV acquisition of verbal materials (number of times repeated to reach 80% or better)
                        DV retention of verbal materials (memory test after 30 days)

                        15.
                        Two IV’s here
                        IV Type of instructions (motivating and nonmotivating)
                        IV Reports of failure (one group is told they failed on previous tests of verbal learning, a second
                        group told nothing, a third group told they did really well)
                        DV Verbal learning (scores on a verbal learning test)

                        16.
                        IV Intensity of audio stimulation (intense, less intense, and mild)
                        DV directional eye movements (measured by eye movement detector)

                        17.
                        IV Child training (one group trained in independence, another group not trained)
                        DV Acheivement motivation (as measured by self-report questionairre)

                        Discussion

                        Provide examples of informal processes of social control. How could such processes increase acts of crime and delinquency, according to a labeling theorist?

                        How would a conflict theorist explain impulsive and irrational criminal acts that are unrelated to different interest-group battles?

                        300 MAX

                        Discussion

                         Module 5: The Research and Writing ProcessDiscussion Topic Task: Reply to this topic

                        This week, we’ve learned about two processes that will become important in your college career: the research process and the writing process. In your own words, explain what each process is, and how they  complement one another. When and why might you need to conduct research for a project? Where will you go to conduct this research? How will you incorporate and build upon others’ ideas in your work? Use specific examples from your field, career, or area of expertise to illustrate your points.

                        around 200 words

                          • 5

                          Discussion

                          • Identify a critical first step Human Resources must take when legal risks arise in such compromising situations.
                          • Explain the critical role of Human Resources in ensuring the organization’s regulatory compliance as an important component in the overall risk management program.
                          • Explain at least two risks of failing to recognize potential legal risks in this scenario.
                          • What additional risk is there in the HR Director failing to act once the situation has been identified?
                            • 5

                            discussion

                            1. 1. List and explain the five types of personality that are related to organizational communication.
                              Provide a real-life example of at least one.
                            2. 2. Explain what workers should do to deal with the traits of their supervisors and subordinates.

                            APA citations and references are required for quotes and/or paraphrased ideas. Please remember that I am looking for you to cite material from the textbook in your initial post, each week.

                            325 words

                            Discussion

                            1.  Reflect on what you’ve learned in regards to requesting or needing a recommendation or the use of the term Resiliency.

                            2. Reflect on your use of the STAR Model to tell your story when interviewing.  

                            post the discussion based on the questions above and also reply two posts below

                            post 1

                            Recommendation letters can really help confirm to an outside person the qualities, characteristics, values, etc. you claim to have from a trusted source (manager, employer, clinical instructor, etc.) who has had to opportunity to work with you. With recommendation letters we want them to be relevant to the position we are applying for and further solidify our qualities that resonate as a potential employe of the company. When requesting one I’ve learned that if it’s denied you shouldn’t assume that your intended writer doesn’t like you or thinks you’re a bad student/employe. It could just be that they haven’t had enough experience around you to feel like they could write an effective letter or they may feel like you’re suited else where. It’s important to not feel discouraged or take it to heart. If your request is denied still thank them for their time regardless. 

                            I think the STAR model is a great starting point and tip given when it comes to answering interview questions. I’ve found it to be helpful when practicing mock interviews. In order to give an effective interview like last week’s LLM indicated, you want to be able to take your interview panel along a story line. For there to be an impactful story there has to be a character arc which in this case is obviously you. It all very much giving me flashbacks of a similar concept I’m sure we’ve all had to learn in grade school called “hamburger” writing (intro (bun), body (meat), pickles (details), lettuce (details), and bun (ending)). But with the STAR method we are telling the situation of our story, the tasks and actions involved, and lastly the end resolution. 

                            post 2

                            This module was very helpful at identifying key aspects of a well written letter of recommendation. The first takeaway that I will make sure to incorporate as I begin asking for letters of recommendation includes choosing a member of faculty or employer that knows me well. Having someone that knows you well write a letter of recommendation allows them to provide more specific examples about your work ethic, which is more likely to get you noticed over generic praise. Another important aspect to include when asking for a letter of recommendation is to include information about the position you are applying for so the letter can be tailored to the specific audience. Lastly, it is important to bring the supplies needs like the pre-addressed envelope with postage stamps, and make sure the faculty has enough time to write a thoughtful letter.  

                            I think that the STAR model is very helpful since it helps you organize your ideas, and it allows you to provide evidence to back up the strengths that you want to highlight. This would be a good method to use when job recruiters ask behavioral interview questions because it gives them an idea about how you think and resolve problems. As a nurse, it is important to develop resiliency because it allows you to better adapt to difficult circumstances and develop critical thinking skills. Developing resiliency starts with developing a growth mindset that allows you to take on challenges and learn from them instead of having a fixed mindset.

                              • 12

                              Discussion

                               

                              Discussion 7

                              No unread replies.No replies.

                              Discussion:  There are 8 Discussion Questions on Canvas, basically one bi-weekly.  These are to be answered in roughly 300 words.  They are your thoughts (after reviewing the material).  Once an initial answer is posted, you will have access to others’ posts.  Please reply to at least one other student’s post with a follow-up question, additional thought, disagreement, etc.  Please respond if I ask you a question in your thread.  For each discussion question, you will get 12 points for the initial post of adequate size and thought and 6 points for adequate replies.  If you feel that you’d like to pad your grade, replying to your replies will certainly be noted if there are ever those “Can you round my 89.1% to a 90%?” questions.  Initial posts are due on Fridays, all responses are due by Sundays.

                              Choose one of the pages from this module to write about (Immigration & Frankenstein Veto).  Ask any questions you have, share your thoughts, discuss your insecurities.

                              To get you started.  Those immigration facts are totally accurate.  Kind of boggles the mind, right?  “Cross the right way” and “Wait in line” have different meanings now?  What is up with being so inhospitable? Land of opportunity, land of immigrants, of huddled masses…no more.  And what about social policies?  Did you know the realities of welfare? Funny how that word has a negative connotation in the USA…kind of like needing help is un-American?  What about income inequality?  What are your thoughts on that often talked about 1% issue?  Kind of strange to note that working herder will not make a difference in the harsh reality of class in the USA….huh?

                                • 10

                                Discussion

                                For this week’s discussion, I chose to research Schizophrenia. I chose this psychological disorder because of the extreme impact it can have on individuals and their families. Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects how people think, feel, and behave. It’s most commonly diagnosed during late adolescence in males, but for females it’s normally diagnosed in their early twenties to early thirties. While it is possible for Schizophrenia to occur in young children, it’s rare. The symptoms include delusions, disorganized speech, catatonia, as well as additional secondary symptoms that are associated with brain disease. Patients with schizophrenia are seen as struggling with mistrust as well as the expectation that others will harm them. Their relationships are marked by uncertainty, involving both a longing for merger and withdrawal based on the fear of closeness.

                                The most common treatment for patients with schizophrenia is a combination of prescription antipsychotic medication, such as clozapine, and some form of individual psychotherapy. Most treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive counseling, and routine care. The CBT focuses on teaching patients’ methods of coping with their symptoms, providing training in problem solving, and teaching strategies to reduce risk of relapse. (Tarrier N, 1998) After the research I’ve done up to this point regarding CBT, I think that this is a great option to help patients retain some feeling of normalcy and routine to their lives.

                                The most comprehensive treatment options for an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia requires a consistent and potentially lifelong treatment plan. However, individuals are still able to live productive and healthy lives, which can include a family and work-life balance. A major investment has been made in Recovery Paradigm; which places the person at the center of their care and ensures the focus is to help them achieve their life goals. (David J. Castle, 2015)

                                References

                                Tarrier N, Yusupoff L, Kinney C, McCarthy E, Gledhill A, Haddock G, Morris J: Randomised controlled trial of intensive cognitive behaviour therapy for patients with chronic schizophrenia. British Medical Journal 1998; 317:303–307

                                Fenton WS: Evolving perspectives on individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2000; 26(1):47–72

                                Castle, David J., and Peter F. Buckley. Schizophrenia, Oxford University Press, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/fit/detail.action?docID=1924921

                                  • 10

                                  Discussion

                                   

                                  1. Explain the importance of systematic review and meta-analysis for evidence-based practice.
                                  2. What are the limitations or challenges of a systematic review?
                                  3. How can one overcome such limitations or challenges?
                                  4. Offer an example of a situation when a systematic review and meta-analysis were one of the defining points in the decision-making process, and when without it the decision might have been incorrect. 
                                    • 7

                                    Discussion

                                    2/24/22, 6:47 PMRubric Assessment – CSIA 485 6380 Practical Applications in Cybe… Management and Policy (2222) – UMGC Learning Management System

                                    Page 1 of 3https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_assessm…4&d2l_body_type=5&closeButton=1&showRubricHeadings=0&viewTypeId=3

                                    50/50 Discussion Par!cipa!on with Cri!ques and Follow-ups
                                    Course: CSIA 485 6380 Prac!cal Applica!ons in Cybersecurity Management and Policy (2222)

                                    Timeliness of Ini!al Pos!ng On Time Late Very Late No Submission

                                    Timeliness of Response to

                                    Discussion Paper

                                    Assignment

                                    5 points

                                    Posted response to topic

                                    assignment before 11:59 PM ET

                                    on Sunday.

                                    4 points

                                    Posted response to topic

                                    assignment before 11:59 PM ET

                                    on Monday.

                                    3 points

                                    Posted response to topic

                                    assignment before 11:59 PM ET

                                    on Tuesday.

                                    0 points

                                    Did not post response to topic

                                    assignment before 11:59 PM ET

                                    on Tuesday.

                                    “Short Paper”

                                    (Response to Topic

                                    Assignment)

                                    Excellent Outstanding Acceptable Needs Improvement
                                    Needs Significant
                                    Improvement

                                    Missing or No Work
                                    Submi!ed

                                    Introduc!on

                                    Analysis

                                    Summary

                                    Use of Authorita!ve

                                    Sources

                                    7.5 points

                                    Provided an excellent

                                    introduc!on to the

                                    deliverable which clearly,

                                    concisely, and accurately

                                    addressed the topic of

                                    the short paper.

                                    Appropriately

                                    paraphrased informa!on

                                    from authorita!ve

                                    sources.

                                    6.5 points

                                    Provided an outstanding

                                    introduc!on to the

                                    deliverable which clearly

                                    and accurately addressed

                                    the topic of the short

                                    paper. Appropriately

                                    paraphrased informa!on

                                    from authorita!ve

                                    sources.

                                    5.5 points

                                    Provided an acceptable

                                    introduc!on to the

                                    deliverable which

                                    addressed the topic of

                                    the short paper.

                                    Appropriately

                                    paraphrased informa!on

                                    from authorita!ve

                                    sources.

                                    4.5 points

                                    Provided an introduc!on

                                    to the deliverable but the

                                    sec!on lacked some

                                    required details.

                                    Informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources was

                                    men!oned.

                                    2 points

                                    A”empted to provide an

                                    introduc!on to the

                                    deliverable but this

                                    sec!on lacked detail

                                    and/or was not well

                                    supported by informa!on

                                    drawn from authorita!ve

                                    sources (too many

                                    quota!ons or improper

                                    paraphrasing).

                                    0 points

                                    Introduc!on was missing

                                    or no work submi”ed.

                                    17.5 points

                                    Provided an excellent

                                    analysis of the issues for

                                    the required topic.

                                    Addressed at least three

                                    separate issues and

                                    provided appropriate

                                    examples for each.

                                    Appropriately used and

                                    cited informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources.

                                    15.5 points

                                    Provided an outstanding

                                    analysis of the issues for

                                    the required topic.

                                    Addressed at least two

                                    separate issues and

                                    provided appropriate

                                    examples for each.

                                    Appropriately used and

                                    cited informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources.

                                    14.5 points

                                    Provided an acceptable

                                    analysis of the issues for

                                    the required topic.

                                    Addressed at least one

                                    specific issue and

                                    provided an appropriate

                                    example. Appropriately

                                    used and cited

                                    informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources.

                                    12.5 points

                                    Addressed the required

                                    topic but the analysis

                                    lacked details or was

                                    somewhat disorganized.

                                    Appropriately used and

                                    cited informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources.

                                    6.5 points

                                    Men!oned the required

                                    topic but the analysis

                                    was very disorganized or

                                    off topic. OR, the analysis

                                    did not appropriately use

                                    informa!on from

                                    authorita!ve sources (too

                                    many quota!ons or

                                    improper paraphrasing).

                                    0 points

                                    Analysis was missing or

                                    no work was submi”ed.

                                    10 points

                                    Included an excellent

                                    summary sec!on for the

                                    short paper which was

                                    on topic, well organized,

                                    and covered at least 3

                                    key points. The summary

                                    contained at least one

                                    full paragraph.

                                    9 points

                                    Included an outstanding

                                    summary paragraph for

                                    the short paper which

                                    was on topic and covered

                                    at least 3 key points.

                                    8 points

                                    Included a summary

                                    paragraph for the short

                                    paper which was on topic

                                    and provided an

                                    appropriate closing.

                                    5 points

                                    Included a summary

                                    paragraph but, this

                                    sec!on lacked content or

                                    was disorganized.

                                    1 point

                                    Included a few summary

                                    sentences for the short

                                    paper.

                                    0 points

                                    Did not include a

                                    summary for the short

                                    paper.

                                    5 points

                                    Included and properly

                                    cited three or more

                                    authorita!ve sources

                                    with complete

                                    publica!on or retrieval

                                    informa!on. No

                                    forma$ng errors.

                                    4 points

                                    Included and properly

                                    cited three or more

                                    authorita!ve sources

                                    (minor errors allowable).

                                    Reference list entries

                                    contain sufficient

                                    informa!on to enable the

                                    reader to find and

                                    retrieve the cited

                                    sources.

                                    3 points

                                    Included and cited two or

                                    more authorita!ve

                                    sources (minor errors in

                                    cita!ons or reference

                                    entries). Reference list

                                    entries contain sufficient

                                    informa!on to enable the

                                    reader to find and

                                    retrieve the cited

                                    sources.

                                    2 points

                                    Included and cited at

                                    least one authorita!ve

                                    source (minor errors in

                                    cita!ons or reference

                                    entries). Reference list

                                    entries contain sufficient

                                    informa!on to enable the

                                    reader to find and

                                    retrieve the cited

                                    sources.

                                    1 point

                                    Men!oned at least one

                                    authorita!ve source but,

                                    the cita!ons and/or

                                    reference list entries

                                    lacked required

                                    informa!on (not

                                    sufficient to retrieve the

                                    correct resource).

                                    0 points

                                    References and cita!ons

                                    were missing. Or, no

                                    work submi”ed.

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                                    Professionalism
                                    5 points

                                    No forma$ng, grammar,

                                    spelling, or punctua!on

                                    errors. Submi”ed work

                                    shows outstanding

                                    organiza!on and the use

                                    of color, fonts, !tles,

                                    headings and sub-

                                    headings, etc. is

                                    appropriate to the

                                    assignment type.

                                    4 points

                                    Work contains minor

                                    errors in forma$ng,

                                    grammar, spelling or

                                    punctua!on which do

                                    not significantly impact

                                    professional appearance.

                                    Work needs some

                                    polishing to improve

                                    professional appearance.

                                    3 points

                                    Errors in forma$ng,

                                    spelling, grammar, or

                                    punctua!on which need

                                    a”en!on / edi!ng to

                                    improve professional

                                    appearance of the work.

                                    2 points

                                    Submi”ed work has

                                    numerous errors in

                                    forma$ng, spelling,

                                    grammar, or punctua!on.

                                    Substan!al polishing /

                                    edi!ng is required.

                                    1 point

                                    Submi”ed work is

                                    difficult to read and/or

                                    understand. OR, work

                                    has significant errors in

                                    forma$ng, spelling,

                                    grammar, punctua!on, or

                                    word usage which

                                    detract from the overall

                                    professional appearance

                                    of the work.

                                    0 points

                                    No submission.

                                    First Cri!que Excellent Acceptable Needs Significant Improvement Missing or No Work Submi!ed

                                    Analysis

                                    Professionalism

                                    10 points

                                    The cri!que pos!ng provided

                                    three or more sugges!ons for

                                    improvement in content which

                                    were based upon an analysis of

                                    the short paper (how well it met

                                    the content requirements).

                                    Provided examples which could

                                    be incorporated into the short

                                    paper to improve or refine it.

                                    Authorita!ve sources were cited

                                    as appropriate. The pos!ng

                                    addressed the peer author by

                                    name.

                                    8.5 points

                                    The cri!que pos!ng provided at

                                    least three sugges!ons for

                                    improvement in content which

                                    were based upon an analysis of

                                    the short paper (how well it met

                                    the content requirements).

                                    Authorita!ve sources were cited

                                    as appropriate. The pos!ng

                                    addressed the peer author by

                                    name.

                                    6 points

                                    The pos!ng did not provide a

                                    cri!que of the short paper. The

                                    pos!ng may have included

                                    compliments or “good job” type

                                    comments.

                                    0 points

                                    The analysis was missing (or not

                                    submi”ed before 11:59 PM ET

                                    Tuesday night). OR the submi”ed

                                    cri!que was copied (not the

                                    student’s own original work).

                                    5 points

                                    The cri!que was wri”en in an

                                    appropriate tone of voice for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on. No

                                    forma$ng, grammar, spelling, or

                                    punctua!on errors. Authorita!ve

                                    sources were appropriately cited.

                                    Submi”ed work shows

                                    outstanding organiza!on and the

                                    use of color, fonts, !tles, headings

                                    and sub-headings, etc. is

                                    appropriate to the assignment

                                    type.

                                    4 points

                                    The cri!que was wri”en in an

                                    appropriate tone of voice for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on.

                                    Authorita!ve sources were

                                    appropriately cited. Work

                                    contains minor errors in

                                    forma$ng, grammar, spelling or

                                    punctua!on which do not

                                    significantly impact professional

                                    appearance. Work needs some

                                    polishing to improve professional

                                    appearance.

                                    3 points

                                    The tone of voice used in the

                                    cri!que was not appropriate for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on in

                                    the workplace. OR, there were

                                    errors in forma$ng, spelling,

                                    grammar, or punctua!on which

                                    need a”en!on / edi!ng to

                                    improve professional appearance

                                    of the work.

                                    0 points

                                    No submission (or not submi”ed

                                    before 11:59 PM ET Tuesday

                                    night). Or, the cri!que was

                                    copied (not the student’s own

                                    original work).

                                    Second Cri!que Excellent Acceptable Needs Significant Improvement Missing or No Work Submi!ed

                                    Analysis

                                    Professionalism

                                    10 points

                                    The cri!que pos!ng provided

                                    three or more sugges!ons for

                                    improvement in content which

                                    were based upon an analysis of

                                    the short paper (how well it met

                                    the content requirements).

                                    Provided examples which could

                                    be incorporated into the short

                                    paper to improve or refine it.

                                    Authorita!ve sources were cited

                                    as appropriate. The pos!ng

                                    addressed the peer author by

                                    name.

                                    8.5 points

                                    The cri!que pos!ng provided at

                                    least three sugges!ons for

                                    improvement in content which

                                    were based upon an analysis of

                                    the short paper (how well it met

                                    the content requirements).

                                    Authorita!ve sources were cited

                                    as appropriate. The pos!ng

                                    addressed the peer author by

                                    name.

                                    6 points

                                    The pos!ng did not provide a

                                    cri!que of the short paper. The

                                    pos!ng may have included

                                    compliments or “good job” type

                                    comments.

                                    0 points

                                    The analysis was missing (or not

                                    submi”ed before 11:59 PM ET

                                    Tuesday night). OR the submi”ed

                                    cri!que was copied (not the

                                    student’s own original work).

                                    5 points 4 points 3 points 0 points

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                                    Total

                                    Overall Score

                                    The cri!que was wri”en in an

                                    appropriate tone of voice for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on. No

                                    forma$ng, grammar, spelling, or

                                    punctua!on errors. Authorita!ve

                                    sources were appropriately cited.

                                    Submi”ed work shows

                                    outstanding organiza!on and the

                                    use of color, fonts, !tles, headings

                                    and sub-headings, etc. is

                                    appropriate to the assignment

                                    type.

                                    The cri!que was wri”en in an

                                    appropriate tone of voice for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on.

                                    Authorita!ve sources were

                                    appropriately cited. Work

                                    contains minor errors in

                                    forma$ng, grammar, spelling or

                                    punctua!on which do not

                                    significantly impact professional

                                    appearance. Work needs some

                                    polishing to improve professional

                                    appearance.

                                    The tone of voice used in the

                                    cri!que was not appropriate for a

                                    peer-to-peer communica!on in

                                    the workplace. OR, there were

                                    errors in forma$ng, spelling,

                                    grammar, or punctua!on which

                                    need a”en!on / edi!ng to

                                    improve professional appearance

                                    of the work.

                                    No submission (or not submi”ed

                                    before 11:59 PM ET Tuesday

                                    night). Or, the cri!que was

                                    copied (not the student’s own

                                    original work).

                                    Contribu!ons to Discussion Excellent Acceptable Needs Improvement Missing or No Work Submi!ed

                                    Follow-up Reply or

                                    Comment #1

                                    Follow-up Reply or

                                    Comment #2

                                    10 points

                                    Posted a follow-up reply or

                                    comment which demonstrated

                                    cri!cal thinking and added value

                                    to the discussion.

                                    8.5 points

                                    Posted an acceptable follow-up

                                    reply or comment which added

                                    some value to the discussion.

                                    6 points

                                    Posted a follow-up reply or

                                    comment but added li”le value to

                                    the discussion.

                                    0 points

                                    Pos!ng was missing (or not

                                    submi”ed before 11:59 PM ET

                                    Tuesday night). Or the pos!ng did

                                    not add value to the discussion.

                                    10 points

                                    Posted a follow-up reply or

                                    comment which demonstrated

                                    cri!cal thinking and added value

                                    to the discussion.

                                    8.5 points

                                    Posted an acceptable follow-up

                                    reply or comment which added

                                    some value to the discussion.

                                    6 points

                                    Posted a follow-up reply or

                                    comment but added li”le value to

                                    the discussion.

                                    0 points

                                    Pos!ng was missing (or not

                                    submi”ed before 11:59 PM ET

                                    Tuesday night). Or the pos!ng did

                                    not add value to the discussion.

                                    Do Not Use This Box
                                    0 points minimum

                                    Discussion

                                    Talos Rules 2022-02-22

                                    This release adds and modifies rules in several categories.

                                    Talos has added and modified multiple rules in the and server-webapp rule sets to provide coverage for emerging threats from these technologies.

                                    Change logs

                                     29190

                                     29181

                                     29171

                                    2022-02-23 00:33:36 UTC

                                    Snort Subscriber Rules Update

                                    Date: 2022-02-22

                                    This is the complete list of rules modified and added in the Sourcefire VRT Certified rule pack for Snort version 2091701.

                                    The format of the file is:

                                    gid:sid <-> Default rule state <-> Message (rule group)

                                    New Rules:

                                    * 1:59083 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP D-Link router httpd server directory traversal attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:59084 <-> DISABLED <-> FILE-PDF Adobe Acrobat PDF buttonGetIcon use-after-free attempt (file-pdf.rules)

                                    * 1:59082 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Zoho ManageEngine OpManager GetGraphData Alarms section SQL injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:59085 <-> DISABLED <-> FILE-PDF Adobe Acrobat PDF buttonGetIcon use-after-free attempt (file-pdf.rules)

                                    * 1:59080 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Zoho ManageEngine OpManager GetGraphData Alarms section SQL injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:59081 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Zoho ManageEngine OpManager GetGraphData Alarms section SQL injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:59078 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro Deep Discovery Email Inspector Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:59079 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro Deep Discovery Email Inspector Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    Modified Rules:

                                    * 1:58679 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro InterScan Web Security Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:58680 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro InterScan Web Security Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:58681 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro InterScan Web Security Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    * 1:58682 <-> DISABLED <-> SERVER-WEBAPP Trend Micro InterScan Web Security Virtual Appliance command injection attempt (server-webapp.rules)

                                    Discussion

                                    Module 6 Discussion Forum I: A Carp’s Michiyuki – A Carp’s Michiyuki 3


                                    From 
                                    ENGL 2331.701 (13669)

                                    No unread replies.No replies.

                                    Rationale

                                    Whereas Module 5 Discussion Forum I introduced you to a preliminary or broadened notion of close reading, both Forum I and Forum II will ask you to perform a kind of collective version of a more traditional close reading, one of the foundational techniques of literary criticism, especially as literary criticism developed into an academic discipline in college English departments in the early twentieth century. In brief, a close reading is an analysis of the language of a quoted passage from a literary work in order to flesh out or complicate an argument (usually an argument about how to answer an interpretive question). 
                                    Please review the page on close reading, especially the section on its “technical sense.”

                                    A word of caution: Typically, a close reading of this sort would be most effective and persuasive in analyzing the actual language of the work, not a translation of it. In fact, many scholars would insist that one ought not close read a translated version of a literary work for this reason. But, after all, the translation is what we will use to base all of our other interpretive claims and evaluative judgments on anyway, so I don’t see a justification for necessarily excluding this form of analysis insofar as we bear in mind that what we are really analyzing is, in this case, Chamber’s representation or, even, interpretation of Akinari’s language. For our purposes (since we aren’t writing for scholarly publication), I don’t think you need to belabor this point in your own written analysis of any of our works in translation, but you are certainly welcome to gesture to it in phrases such as “the translated language suggests x” or “the use of this word in the translation seems key,” etc.

                                    Both Forum I and Forum II will also serve as potential pre-draft exercises for one of the options on the Five-Paragraph Writing Exercise that will be due in Module 13.  

                                    Forum Instructions

                                    The class will divided into small groups with no more than four members per group. How does the following passage help us to better understand part of the ecotheology in Akinari’s story, its conception of the value of nature? In other words, identify and analyze specific details in this michiyuki–the way it describes and seems to value Kōgi’s experience as a carp–in order to help us to flesh out the story’s conception of why the natural world or, more specifically, animal life, has value that we should honor.

                                    [I looked at myself, and found that I had acquired glowing, golden scales and turned into a carp.] Not thinking this particularly strange, I swished my tail, moved my fins, and rambled about as I pleased. First I rode the waves that were raised by the wind blowing down from Mount Nagara, and then, wandering along the edge of the Great Bay of Shiga, I was startled by people strolling back and forth, so close to the water that their skirts got wet, and so I tried to dive in the depths where high Mount Hira casts its reflection, but I found it hard to hide myself when the fishing flares of Katada at night drew me as though I were dreaming. The moon resting on the waters of the berry-black night shone clear on the peak of Mount Kagami and drove the shadows from the eighty corners of the eighty ports to case a lovely scene. Okino Isle, Chikubu Isle–the vermillion fence reflected in the waves startled me. Soon I was awakened from my dreams among the reeds as the Asazuma Boat rowed out in the wind from Mount Ibuki; I dodged the practiced oar of the Yabase ferryman and many times was driven away by the bridge-guard of Seta. When the sun grew warm, I rose to the surface; when the wind was strong, I swam in the depths.” (Akinari 116-117) 

                                    Please Order Post in the Following Way:

                                    1. Open your comment, if you aren’t the first to post on that particular story in your group, by relating it to at least one preceding post using the argumentative twist technique. Make a claim about whether you agree or disagree with the inference made in the preceding post about the work’s ecotheology or its conception of the value of nature. If you are the first to post, you can simply begin with step two.  (1-2 sentences)

                                    2. Building on the position that you staked out in step 1, develop a close reading that quotes particular words, phrases, or sentences from the above passage that you think have implications for how we understand non-human life in the story. What does this language reveal about the work’s ecotheology or its conception of the value of nature? Aim to be insightful but not comprehensive in your response so that your fellow group members have material they can analyze. Try to analyze language from the passage that no one in your group has commented on yet or, failing that, to offer your own gloss (i.e. interpretation) of that language. (2-4 sentences)

                                    3. Draw an inference based on the close reading you’ve performed about the work’s ecotheology or its broader conception of the value of nature or animal life. (1-3 sentences)

                                    Additional Instructions

                                    · Be sure to write with clarity and collegiality (i.e. be respectful of those who have a different opinion)

                                    · Length: Your post should be at minimum 200 words.

                                    · Format: You will post your comment directly in the appropriate discussion forum, so use the default formatting (font type, etc.) for the discussion board.

                                    · Citations: Use
                                     MLA in-text citations (Links to an external site.)
                                     for textual evidence that refers to the page numbers in the assigned editions of the standalone texts or the PDF/Word documents posted to Canvas. If you cite a different edition or another source, include an MLA Works Cited at the end of your post. 

                                    Discussion

                                    Note: The 3 questions must include full Introduction, Analysis, and Summary paragraphs. Must be written in APA format. Provide 4 references for each question. 400 words each.

                                    1. Take a look at the US-CERT (United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team) web site at https://kb.cert.org/vuls/id/796611 , https://kb.cert.org/vuls/id/930724 , https://kb.cert.org/vuls/id/287178 ” Use this sources of information, and explain in your own words how threat agents and risk affects information security and whether cryptographic techniques can provide countermeasures to these threats.

                                    2. Using the link https://www.snort.org/talos. Snort can be downloaded https://snort.org/downloads/#rule-downloads

                                    Pick one of the named rules files, open it, and choose a rule. If this is your first exposure to Snort rule syntax, please note that the rules are the sometimes-cryptic looking items starting with the word “alert”. Copy the rule you pick and describe what the rule means in your own words.

                                    3. There are two basic categories of ciphers: secret key (symmetric) and public key (asymmetric).

                                    For one of the cipher categories, describe a possible key management system, i.e., a method for creating, distributing, and storing cryptographic keys for the cipher category that you’ve picked. The key management system that you describe can either be a system in use (with appropriate citations), or a system of your own invention.

                                    Discussion

                                    200 words. Correct APA format of in-text citations (within the body of the posting) and references (in the list). Both are required to earn any points. And at least 2 references.

                                    (Question) Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, age-related disorder of synovial joints.  Describe the pathophysiology and provide the treatment options.  Do you know anyone with this disease?

                                    Discussion

                                    How important is successful Reentry to the criminal justice system as a whole.  Discuss how Parole has gone from a privilege to a release valve, based on budget constraints. 

                                    300 words

                                    Discussion

                                    Comment from Brian Holdsworth on You Tube:

                                    “There’s this narrative out there that says that science arose in Christian Europe in spite of the antagonism of the religious authorities against reason. It portrays the scientific revolution as the inevitable triumph of reason over superstition. So that sounds nice enough, but how true is it? Well, one of the first things that stands out for me in considering that is that the rigors of the scientific method did not appear anywhere else in history. No other culture or civilization was able to provide for and encourage the scholarly disciplines enthusiastically enough to produce something as rich as the scientific method. Really think about that. We’re told that human beings have been employing cognitive thinking for about 50,000 years and it wasn’t until about 500 years ago that we make the last major strides towards something like the scientific method. And don’t misunderstand that. There had been scientific like inquiry from long before that, but it isn’t the same as a systematic approach to gathering observations and then interpreting that data in a consistently logical way. Other civilizations had mathematics, natural philosophy, and technology, but none of those things amount to anything as complete or rigorous as the scientific method, which only appeared in Christian Europe during the renaissance aided significantly by the Catholic scholastic forerunners. Based on that knowledge, it should be easy to see that science has not always been some inevitable outcome but, rather, a very elusive step in intellectual inquiry. If Christianity is so incompatible with scientific reason, then how can something that has managed to elude humanity for so long, eventually explode out of backwards, dark age promoting, Christian Europe? Not only is that a really glaring and uncomfortable refutation of the faith vs science narrative, but it is further frustrated by the fact that the list of people that were essential to the advent of the scientific method, in Europe, were pretty much all Christians working under the patronage of… Church institutions.”

                                    1.According to the video “How Christianity Led to Science”, what does Christianity provide that pantheism does not? Discuss.(250 words)

                                    2. After watching the video “How Christianity Led to Science”, explain and discuss how the Scientific method “came from” Christianity.  Include in your discussion whether you think this is taught today and why or why not.(250 words)

                                    discussion

                                    Read/review the following resources for this activity:

                                    · Textbook: Chapter 2, 4

                                    · Lesson

                                    · Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

                                    Initial Post Instructions
                                    World War I is different from most other wars in that it was not a direct result of aggression by one entity towards another, notwithstanding the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian elements. Instead, it was the consequence of a number of forces amidst a disruption of the tenuous balance of power in Europe.

                                    For the initial post, select and address one of the following:

                                    · Option 1: Identify two forces that lead to WWI. Examine how they contributed to the outbreak of war.

                                    · Option 2: Select a major battle such as Verdun, Marne, Ypres, or the Somme and chronicle that battle. Add further details about the battles.

                                    · What was the main strategy? What were they trying to accomplish?

                                    · How did leaders influence and mobilize troops?

                                    · What were the main consequences of the result?

                                    Follow-Up Post Instructions
                                    Respond to at least one peer. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

                                    Writing Requirements

                                    · Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)

                                    · Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

                                    · APA format for in-text citations and list of references

                                    Guidelines

                                    Purpose

                                    Threaded discussions are designed to promote dialogue between faculty and students, and students and their peers. In the discussions, students will do the following:

                                    · Demonstrate understanding of concepts for the week.

                                    · Integrate scholarly resources.

                                    · Engage in meaningful dialogue with classmates.

                                    · Express opinions clearly and logically, in a professional manner.

                                    Participation Requirements

                                    · Post a minimum of 2 substantive posts in each graded discussion: 1 initial post and 1 follow-up post.

                                    · These 2 posts must be on 2 separate days Monday through Sunday. (Initial posts made before Monday will not be graded.)

                                    · The number of graded discussions may vary depending on the course.

                                    · Week 1-7 discussions must be completed by end of week, Sunday, 11:59 p.m. Mountain Time (MT).

                                    · Week 8 discussion must be completed by end of week, Saturday, 11:59 p.m. Mountain Time (MT).

                                    Notes

                                    *Credited means stating where the information came from (specific article, text, or lesson). Examples: our text discusses…., The information from our lesson states…, Smith (2010) claimed that…, Mary Manners (personal communication, November 2017)…

                                    **Assigned readings are those listed on the syllabus or assignments page as required reading. This may include text readings, required articles, or required websites.

                                    ***Scholarly source – per APA Guidelines, only scholarly sources should be used in assignments. These include peer-reviewed publications, government reports, or sources written by a professional or scholar in the field. Wikipedia, Wikis, .com websites or blogs should not be used as anyone can add information to these sites. For the discussions, reputable internet sources such as websites by government agencies (.gov) and respected organizations (.org) can be counted as scholarly sources. Outside sources do not include assigned required readings.

                                    Score: A zero is the lowest score a student can be assigned.

                                    Discussion

                                    Running Head: CYBERSECURITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 1

                                    CYBERSECURITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 17

                                    The senior leadership of your organization is preparing for its annual three day meeting. During these meetings, one day is devoted to current events / issues which the company finds itself needing to address. For this year’s meeting, you have been asked to give a presentation on Cybercrime as a strategic threat to the organization.

                                    To prepare for your presentation, you should find a recent news report or law enforcement press release about a specific instance of a cybercrime which impacted the financial services industry (or customers). Analyze the report / press release and then write a background paper containing your analysis and findings.

                                    In your background paper, include a summary of the report or press release that addresses the crime, the perpetrator, motive (if known), methods, the victim(s), the object of the crime (systems, data, networks, etc.), and the outcome of the investigation / prosecution.  (Who did what to whom? What happened?)

                                    Should the company take actions or develop strategies to protect itself from similar crimes? What are your recommendations in this regard?

                                    Post your 5 to 7 paragraph background paper as a reply to this topic. Remember to cite your sources and include a reference list at the end of your posting.

                                    Discussion

                                    Required Resources
                                    Read/review the following resources for this activity:

                                    · Textbook: pp. 510-523.

                                    Initial Post Instructions

                                    Main Post Part 1: Read and Respond
                                    After thoroughly reading the Week 8 lesson and the required textbook pages, go back and re-read, specifically, the articles from the assigned Week 8 textbook pages. Ask yourself: In the textbook readings, which statements in these articles inspire me? How and why? Do any statements bother me? How and why?” Take careful notes, jotting down quotations and your reactions to them, based on those questions. After you have given good time and attention to this process, you will begin writing Part 1 of your discussion post.

                                    A note: Keep in mind that your actual post will require that you express yourself openly. While correctness is always important, try to steer away from obsessing over strict “rules” so that you may focus on you and your feelings and passions. It is absolutely crucial that we step away, at times, from intellectualizing and dive, instead, into pure gut reaction, to what our heart says about what we are reading and into writing about that freely. This is the fertile soil for those big ideas that might turn into dreams, then into realities, in our future.

                                    Instructions for Part 1:
                                    Identify two specific direct quotations from two separate readings in your assigned Week 8 textbook pages that you noted having a gut/heart reaction to. Be sure to use signal phrases and to cite these in-text and in an end reference.

                                    In at least one full paragraph, write about one quotation at a time. Identify the first quotation, then truly let yourself go. Let your heart and gut speak. Why did you choose this first quotation? How did it make you feel? Why? Then, in the same paragraph, identify the second quotation. Finally, as with the first quotation, truly let yourself go. Let your heart and gut speak. Why did you choose this second quotation? How did it make you feel? Why?

                                    Main Post Part 2: So…What Are You Inspired to Do?
                                    In another full paragraph minimum, still sticking to your heart and gut, freely write about what your reactions in Part 1 inspire you to do.

                                    Note: Before composing this part of your post, you should brainstorm separately, in your own notebook or on a “brainstorming Word doc,” generating many possibilities: large, small, local, global, at home, in the community, with one person, with a thousand people, whatever occurs to you. Let yourself “go” and list, list, list everything that comes to mind as an action you might take in response to your feelings in Part 1. Some of your ideas may seem far-fetched; don’t be afraid to express them. Do not limit yourself to sharing just the practical, smart, reasonable actions. Have fun! Then, turn that into a good paragraph for your post.

                                    Follow-Up Post Instructions
                                    Respond to at least one peer. Here, in reading others’ posts and replying to them, you will be exposed to reactions that may be very similar to your own and reactions that may be quite different from yours. You will hopefully also see some wonderful and eye-opening ideas for application. So, in your reply post, please focus on sharing similarities and differences in your reactions and help your classmates brainstorm for more actions that might be taken based on your classmates’ gut and heart reactions and on your own.

                                    Writing Requirements

                                    · Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)

                                    · Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)

                                    · APA format for in-text citations and list of references

                                    DISCUSSION

                                    QUESTIONS: Eplains your personal nursing philosophy, your view of health, your growth in critical thinking, and your future role as a nurse. Include your view of health and your thoughts on your future role as a nurse.

                                    Discussion

                                    Review the section on the definitions of maturity stages and dimension variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc.  Define each of the maturity stages and performance dimensions.  What are the key concepts from each section?  (Article Attached)

                                    Page – 1
                                    additional Scholarly source
                                    Strict APA 7 format

                                    Discussion

                                     Module 4: Academic Integrity in PracticeDiscussion Topic Task: Reply to this topic

                                    Consider this week’s readings and course content about academic integrity. Then, craft a new discussion post that addresses the following questions. What does academic integrity mean to me? How can I participate in the scholarly conversation and write with integrity as a student? What challenges might I encounter, and how will I address them? What support will you need from your instructors and support network, and how will you access that support?

                                    Then, consider your current or future career. How do concepts of academic integrity and the scholarly conversation translate to your career and the workplace? What about your personal life?

                                    Around 200 words

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                                      Discussion

                                      This week you have learned about common Dermatology disorders in the Adult and Geriatric patient. For the purpose of this discussion please answer the following questions on herpes zoster. 

                                      • Common Signs and symptoms seen
                                      • Screening assessment tools
                                      • Recommended diagnostic tests (if any)
                                      • Treatment plans both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic based on current clinical practice guidelines

                                      Please use spa style reference and use articles no later then five years ago