• Home

Conflict Resolution part 2 lit review .



Literature and Conceptualization on Conflict Resolution


Helm School of Government, Liberty University


CJUS 830- Criminal Justice Organizational Conflict

September 7, 2021

Author Note


I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to


Email: xxxxxxxx

Literature and Conceptualization on Conflict Resolution

Conflict resolution is one of the very noble activities that should take place in society today. This is the only avenue through which people should restore peace once disagreement arises in society. With many organizations being run by different kinds of people, many disagreements arise among the people who work together. An amicable solution should therefore be put in place to settle the differences among such people. Restoring peace helps in nourishing the image of the company. Eventually, it leads to the growth of such companies hence accounting for their success in society. The above explanation can therefore give a background for a better definition for conflict resolution. It refers to the nice ways people who have differences find the best possible ways to settle such differences.

Conflict can arise because of many reasons. One reason could be dishonesty among the employees in the society; employees can be very corrupt to the extent that they steal many resources from the management. This can cause immense tension among such individuals. Conflict can be solved among people in society in many ways; arbitration, avoidance, negotiation, mediation, and the rest. The purpose of this essay is to give an extensive literature review about conflict resolution in society. Doing so gives a literary analysis into the cause of problems between employers and their employees; a good example of an organization that experiences this problem is the Mubaraka Agency Limited Company.

Resolution of Inter-Group Conflict at Mubaraka Agencies Limited Company

Employees and employers are the good images of the company. Their peaceful coexistence is believed to be the source of success for the company. In the scenario where the employer does not respect the employee or does not respect the employer, much conflict arises. In instances where any of these patties do not want to listen to the plea of the others, the conflicting party that feels belittled or offended feels they should not be in any form of agreement with such a partner. In the end, a war can arise between these two groups (Katz, 2010). At Mubaraka agency, the employers and the employees have been complaining about similar problems. Comment by leo reid: Read this sentence again Comment by leo reid: Any should be none Comment by leo reid: Patties? Comment by leo reid: Take out the second feels. You can use believes Comment by leo reid: You have used such too many times already

Conflict may appear in two forms; functional conflict or dysfunctional conflict. In functional conflict, the researcher identifies the weakness of a project that is being carried out in the particular organization. Once the weakness is identified, it is easy to rectify it and realize the best way that can be put in place in order for the growth of such a company (Raines, 2020). Such mechanisms improve the output and the quality of the project being implemented. Comment by leo reid: Sentence corrected Comment by leo reid: corrected Comment by leo reid: this needs fixing

Another type of conflict in a company may be the mechanism that some individuals in the organization try to implement to derail the company’s goals and objectives. For example, the management or the employees may not work as per the organization’s objectives and strategies (Raines, 2020). It is deviating from the previously set goals and objectives results in losses to that company. It means that such a company is setting up new standards that may result in its downfall. Comment by leo reid: resulting Comment by leo reid: for

The United Nations is one of the agencies in the world that stands for a solution to conflict among the conflicting groups. It aims to ensure that peace is sustained among all parties in the world. According got the United Nations’ secretariat, intergroup conflicts range from political, economic, social, religious, and work-related reasons (Barsky, 2014). The united nation advises that when conflict arises from the intergroup organization, it is important to first identify the cause of the problem. When looking at the cause, the parties should dig deep to find what led to the disagreement. The cause should be specific and elaborate in order to provide the roadmap to the solution. Upon identifying the cause, the conflicting parties may identify the potential setback of conflict among the people (Reidinger & Miller, 2013). The conflict should be treated with the range of urgency that it possesses; those traits that seem to be having the potential of causing severe consequences should be solved earliest as opposed to those that do not show a higher degree of consequences among the conflicting groups. Comment by leo reid: corrected Comment by leo reid: do not understand use of words
Comment by leo reid: to Comment by leo reid: word inserted Comment by leo reid: Capitalize – proper noun Comment by leo reid: Order of words changed Comment by leo reid: Words removed Comment by leo reid: Not sure about use of wrod Comment by leo reid: Word inserted Comment by leo reid: I inserted this as idk if that is what you were trying to say

The final step in conflict resolution is to plan to provide absolution among these warring partners. Planning involves finding a neutral ground that may accommodate these people so that they may address their grievances. There should be a set of people that listens to each party giving their side of the argument. The committee in charge may then identify the party found on the wrong side of the law (Raines, 2020). The party may be compelled to make peace with the wronged partner; at times, the consequences may befall the party found on the wrong side. This leads to an increased level of discipline among the conflicting parties. Comment by leo reid: them Comment by leo reid: changes made

Causes of Conflict at Areas of Work

As mentioned earlier, conflict in an organization does not just exist on its own; there must be a reason that leads to an eruption of various forms of conflict in organizations. The causes of these problems result in big problems to such organizations. From the scholarly and research analysis (Raines, 2020), the following factors may be the leading cause of conflicts in various organizations: Comment by leo reid: word removed

a) Lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities.

b) Clashes in personality and values.

c) Poor management.

d) Scarcity of resources and overwhelming workload assigned to the employees.

e) Poor communication

f) Sexual harassment

g) Mental health problems.

h) Unpredictable policies in the workplaces.

Lack of Clarity in Roles and Responsibilities

In a well-set-up organization, when an employee is given a contract to sign, there must be clear guidelines that lay down the roles and responsivities. These roles and responsibilities set up the job description. A clear job description gives an employee the range of tasks he or she should be taking up in an organization. This guides the employee and drives them towards the path of success (Nikmah et al., 2021). The clarity in roles and responsibilities results in conflict in the organization because people find themselves stepping into one another’s responsibilities. After all, nobody knows the limits of their roles. Comment by leo reid: responsibilities Comment by leo reid: not sure I like this Comment by leo reid: words removed Comment by leo reid: is this statement really so? Comment by leo reid: is this statement really so?

Additionally, one may assume the role that he is supposed to be doing for another person. Doing this may result in a lack of flow of activities in the organization (Nikmah et al., 2021). Organizations that work like this do not have a vision for success; employees quarrel with the management because each person blames one another for lack of completion of the tasks. Comment by leo reid: fix Comment by leo reid: word changed

This scenario is the replica of what occasionally takes place at the Mubarak Agency. The management hires employees at a very high rate. Not all of them are given the guidelines for the roles that they should do. One may find a record keeper being given the duties that are supposed to be done by the sweeper (Nikmah et al., 2021). They may not perform it as effectively as required. Employees at times are blamed for what is may not be their fault. Comment by leo reid: fix

Clashes in Personality and Values

Personality plays a key role in an individual’s performance. It refers to the uniqueness in terms of feeling, characteristics, pattern of thinking, and behavior. Values refer to the wrathfulness and usefulness of a person within an organization. When people in an organization do not respect the uniqueness of others in an organization, peace does not successfully prevail. It is important that employees and the organization’s management respect each other despite the differences in their personalities (Israel, 2021). People should only focus on the common goals and values that bring the, mm together in the work environment. Comment by leo reid: what does this mean? Comment by leo reid: remove Comment by leo reid: words replaced Comment by leo reid: them?

Poor Management

Management refers to the government of an organization; governing an organization requires a lot of intellectual capacity and skills in the management. Poor management can result in instances when decision-making only comes from few individuals from an organization; for example, only a few individuals decide what they want to do at the apex of management. Some of these people decide on the decision to make without involving junior employees. At the Mubarak Limited Agency, the manager at one point decided to implement a new marketing strategy for their products without consulting the marketing team (Samad et al., 2015). This made the team clash with the administration. They complained that since they are the ones who understand the marketing environment better, they ought to have been consulted on some issues. Comment by leo reid: remove Comment by leo reid: where

Proper management boosts the employees’ morale; when there is a good relationship between the workers and the management, it is very encouraging and it gives the employees the enthusiasm to work hard and achieve higher objectives. Poor management leads to poor coordination among the employees (Raines, 2020). In the end, it translates to poor productivity and low turnover among the employees. In the end, this vice can lead to work-related stressful complications among the employees. Many people have left well-paying jobs for the lower paying ones just because of poor management. They prefer to better go for jobs that are low paying and are well managed compared to those that are paying well but have a poor management structure. Comment by leo reid: Remove Comment by leo reid: fix

Scarcity of Resources and Overwhelming Workload Assigned to the Employees

Resources are very fundamental factors in organization management. Availability of resources enables organizations to produce more products conveniently. When the company has limited resources, the employees find it difficult to do their jobs accordingly. They may scramble for the few machines available to do the task. For example, at Mubaraka Company, many people are forced to share few computers for data entries and monitoring of the company’s progress (Snaubar, 2020). This aspect has limited the chances for growth of the company. The time that the employees spend scrambling for the limited computers would have been used in doing reasonable jobs.

Limited resources do not give the employees a chance to complete the task at the required time. They will always have many workloads to complete. Nonetheless, they may not be able to complete them within the required period. Some employees feel that they are set up for failure since they do not succeed as per their planned objectives. Unmanageable workload results in much pressure on the employees from the employers. The less reasoning employers may not feel that the fault is on them. Instead, they usually pressure the employees to work hard to meet their goals (Snaubar, 2020). This unnecessary pressure breeds conflict between the management and the employees; in the end, the employees can resort to strikes to manage these differences. Comment by leo reid: use a different word

Poor Communication

Communication is the conveyance of information in the organization. Communication can be of various types: vertical communication or horizontal communication. In vertical communication, the information can come from the top management to the junior employees and vice versa. In horizontal communication, the information can flow among people of the same rank within the organization. The way information is conveyed among people working together in the organization matters a lot. Some people have poor communication skills or ways of passing information to others (Wallensteen, 2019). For example, a top-rank officer may pass information to the junior employee in a very disrespectful and commanding manner. The way the junior employee may perceive such kind of communication may be very heartbreaking. The employee may develop a negative attitude towards such a boss. Comment by leo reid: replace with either

Some junior employees also communicate so poorly to their employers; they do not consider that the person they are addressing is their boss. Such individuals may create a frosty relationship between themselves and their managers. The manager may decide to take very stern action against that employee (Wallensteen, 2019). This can be done to instill discipline in such employees. Improper communication leads to poor understanding of one another. When people do not understand one another, no set goals can succeed. This could result in stalling of development projects within the organization. Comment by leo reid: u are overusing the word such Comment by leo reid: such removed

Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment refers to a situation where an employee may want to use his or her influence to abuse or subdue the junior employee sexually. Most victims, in this case, are women. Some men in higher managerial positions prefer to use the employees in the lower chains to satisfy their conjugal rights (Singh, 2012). In some instances, women in higher positions decide to use young men in the lower ranks to satisfy their conjugal rights. Having a relationship with a work partner is against the code of ethics. According to the international labor organization, there are about 13,000,000 cases of sexual harassment recorded among employees every year across the world (Singh, 2012). This shows how much sanity needs to be done to rectify this vice in society. Having a sexual relationship with a working partner reduces the chances of growth in an organization. People with a sexual affair in the organization may not concentrate on the job; they consider the working hours to have a good time and develop their relationship. Comment by leo reid: What is this sentence saying? Comment by leo reid: Word removed

In some organizations, many employees go into loggerheads with such people who ask for sexual give-ins. This has brought many disagreements. Such people view such scenarios as actions of demeaning the work (Singh, 2012). It eventually results in hatred and conflict among these groups of people. An organization may regrettably stumble to its knees based on such acts. Comment by leo reid: Overuse of word such

Mental Health Problems

The state of mental health is very important at the workplace; people who have unstable health conditions in their work environment are likely to cause conflict. This is because the way they associate with others is questionable. Employees or employers undergoing depression and anxiety disorder present with weird symptoms such as trembling, sweating, restlessness, tiredness, panic, and increased heart rate. Other symptoms include increased palpitation, mood swings, increased swear tings, and bipolar disorder (Sareen, 2017). On some occasions, when they are asked about something very simple, they complicate it to something violent. In such an environment, associating with other employees become very difficult. People may keep on quarreling with one another over petty issues. Comment by leo reid: Word replaced Comment by leo reid: Not sure what this is

Mental health concerns lower the rate at which employees socialize with one another; it lowers self-esteem and the energy input at the workplace. The mental health status should be addressed before they are given a job to do (Sareen, 2017). This would let people know how to associate with people who have psychological problems.

Unpredictable Policies in the Work Places

Organizations that keep on changing their policies and rules may confuse the employees on the rules to follow. For instance, if the company keeps changing employees, reporting time may find itself on the wrong end. Nobody among the employees is likely to adhere to changing policies at workplaces. It leads to total demoralization of the employees. Conflict can breed in such an environment because the changed policies lead to misunderstanding. Rules are to be the regulating standards at the workplaces (Rickman & Diehl, 2017). Rules set up should be those that can favor both employees and employers. The employer should know that when the rules keep changing, several employees decide to restrict themselves to older rules they are aware of.

Effects of Conflict at Work Places

Conflict in workplaces has many consequences. These effects can derail the performance of a company in one way or another. The following are some of the consequences of conflict at the workplace: Comment by leo reid: Punctuation changed

a) Decreased productivity

b) Project failure

c) Increased absenteeism

d) Eroded trust

Decreased Productivity

An increase in conflict among the employees lowers the rate at which the employees do their work. People will always involve themselves in many wrangles instead of doing their assigned duties. This eventually decreases work productivity (Perez et al., 2015). In the end, such accompany makes huge losses and collapses. Comment by leo reid: fix

Project Failure

Conflict leads to failure of the project; when employees and the management or the employees themselves conflict, they hardly join their efforts to do the required job. This hardly leads to the completion of the targeted projects. When started projects are not completed, even the customers relying on the products may pull out to buy goods from the other competitors (Rispens, & Thatcher, 2017). This can be a huge setback to the organization. Its profit is likely to be drastically affected as a result of this situation. Comment by leo reid: words removed

Increased Absenteeism

Conflict lowers the employee’s morale to work; the majority of the employees would therefore prefer to stay at home rather than get to work and face unnecessary conflict. Employees’ absenteeism led to work backlog and hindered the flow of work (Age et al.,2018).

Eroded Trust

When there is much conflict in work areas, trust diminishes; people do not get to trust one another because they believe everybody is an enemy. Trust is one of the most important things that people should always be mindful of. Lack of trust may hinder people from sharing their secrets in the work setup because they believe that these people will spill or share their secrets with others (Yoo & Lee, 2018). This kind of doubt and mistrust makes people keep quiet with many secrets that would otherwise help the organization move forward. Comment by leo reid: words corrected

Ways of Solving Conflict in Workplaces

Having known more about the causes and consequences of conflict at workplaces, it is now very important to know how conflict can be solved. This is one of the ways of restoring peace and tranquility in various organizations that may be facing any of those challenges. The following are some of the ways that can be used to solve the intergroup conflict at workplaces.

a) Improving on the management strategies.

b) Respecting each other despite someone’s social status. Comment by leo reid: corrected

c) Collaborating with those who are prone to conflict.

d) Avoidance of conflicting situations.

e) Improving employee’s welfare.

f) Mediation.

Improving On the Management Strategies

Employers need to improve on their management strategies. This includes the way they handle their employees. Good management should understand the employees when they have a problem. When the management understands their employees properly, they are likely to share the source of conflict with them and get to the quick and long-term solution (Barsky, 2014). A good management strategy is the engine of success in an organization.

Respecting One Another Despite Someone’s Social Status.

When people respect each other in the employment setup, peace prevails. People coexist feely and share ideas. Respect is a two-way traffic that every person must observe. The management and the employees should give one another the respect they deserve (Boulding, 2016). It should not only be coming from one side. When respect becomes the paramount goal, every person can coexist freely. Respect for one another reduces the chances of sexual harassment that some employees face from their bosses. Comment by leo reid: corrected

Collaborating with Those Who Are Prone to Conflict

Collaboration is one of the best ways to solve conflict. For instance, if someone realizes that a person is too prone to conflict, the best way to accommodate such a person is to collaborate with them. They should always know that you are on his side. It makes such controversial people feel honored (Dijkstra et al., 2019). This approach aha quelled a lot of conflicting issues in several organisations. Comment by leo reid: overuse of word such Comment by leo reid: has

Avoidance of Conflicting Situations

People should avoid situations that they feel are too much conflicting. This creates peace rather than people getting into loggerheads. If one knows that coming to work late is a source of quarrels between him and his employer (Dijkstra et al., 2019), he should try to get to work on time; this shows improved discipline level also shows competency in work. Comment by leo reid: remove word

Improving Employee’s Welfare

The management should try as much as possible to put their employees as their number one priority. Employees’ welfare includes promoting those who work hard, taking employees for vacations and trips to enjoy their holidays, rewarding the employees who perform better, and giving them preferred medical care (Nikitina & Tskhovrebova, 2020). Improved welfare improves the psych of people to work together and get improved work productivity. When people are happy about how they get treated, there are limited chances of complaints and wrangles within an organization.


Whenever there is an intergroup conflict, mediation should be implemented to ensure that the conflict is solved. Mediation involves bringing the conflicting parties together in the presence of a neutral person who will listen to the parties’ complaints. The mediator advises the parties after listening to their pleas (Oesterreicher, 2017). In the long run, the conflicting parties forgive one another. Forgiveness ensures that people accommodate one another despite the faults and mistakes that they might have committed. Comment by leo reid: each other

Biblical Integration

The bible recommends that people should resolve conflict at workplaces. It advises that if someone wrongs you, it is advisable to involve other parties to get a solution to the problem. In Mathew 18:15-17, “If your brother sins, go and show him his fault in private; if he listens to you, you have won your brother. However, if he does not listen to you, take one or two more with you so that by the mouth of two or three witnesses, every fact may be confirmed. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector” (King James Bible,1769/ 2021).


Conflict is very common in workplaces; intergroup conflicts hinder the growth of the organization. People should ensure that they solve the conflicting cases very amicably to provide room for the prosperity of both parties. This is the only avenue through which people should restore peace once disagreement arises among people in society. Causes of conflict within the workplace include; lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities, clashes in personality and values, poor management, scarcity of resources and overwhelming workload assigned to the employees, poor communication, sexual harassment, mental health problems, and unpredictable policies in the workplaces. Conflicts in workplaces have many consequences. These effects can derail the performance of a company in one way or another. Consequences of conflict within an organization include; decreased productivity, project failure, increased absenteeism, and eroded trust. When solving conflict, it is essential to know the source of conflict, the contributing factor, and the way they can be quelled to avoid such occurrences in the future. There are several ways of addressing intergroup conflict at workplaces such as improving management strategies, respecting one another despite someone’s social status, collaborating with those prone to conflict, avoiding conflicting situations, improving employee welfare, and mediation. Comment by leo reid: remove Comment by leo reid: word changed Comment by leo reid: future occurencess


Allan Edward Barsky. (2014). Conflict resolution for the helping professions. Oxford University Press.

Allan Edward Barsky. (2014). Conflict resolution for the helping professions. Oxford University Press.

Boulding, K. E. (2016). Organization and conflict. Conflict Resolution, 1(2), 122–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200275700100203

Dijkstra, M. T. M., Beersma, B., & Evers, A. (2019). Reducing conflict-related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy. Work & Stress, 25(2), 167–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2011.593344

Druckman, D., & Paul Francis Diehl. (2017). Conflict resolution. Sage Publ.

Nikmah,F., Indrianti, T., & Pribadi, J. D. (2021). The Effect of Work Demand, Role Conflict, and Role Ambiguity on Work-Family Conflict (Impact of Work from Home due to The Covid-19 Pandemic). Journal of Family Sciences, 5(2), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.29244/jfs.v5i2.32644

Israel, E. O. (2021). Causes and Effects of Marital Conflict in Agbado Oke Odo and Ifako Ijaye Local Council Development Areas in Lagos State. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3820075

Jehn, K. A., Rispens, S., & Thatcher, S. M. (2017). The effects of conflict asymmetry on workgroup and individual outcomes. Academy of Management Journal53(3), 596-616.

Katz, D. (2010). Win at work! The everybody wins approach to confliction resolution. Wiley.

King James Bible. (2021). King James Bible Online. https://kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769).

Leon-Perez, J. M., Medina, F. J., Arenas, A., & Munduate, L. (2015). The relationship between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Nikitina, A., & Tskhovrebova, Y. (2020). WORK MIGRATION OF THE LABOUR FORCE: PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF SOLVING EMIGRATION IN UKRAINE. Market Infrastructure, 43. https://doi.org/10.32843/infrastruct43-14

Oesterreicher, M. (2017). Mediation. Cornelsen.

Öge, E., Cetin, M., & Top, S. (2018). The effects of paternalistic leadership on workplace loneliness, work-family conflict, and work engagement among air traffic controllers in Turkey. Journal of Air Transport Management66, 25-35.

Raines, S. (2020). Conflict management for managers: resolving workplace, client, and policy disputes. Lanham; Boulder; New York; London Rowman Et Littlefield Publishers.

Reidinger, R. F., & Miller, J. E. (2013). Wildlife damage management: prevention, problem-solving, and conflict resolution. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Samad, A., Reaburn, P., & Ahmed, E. (2015). An investigation of work-life conflict in regional Australia: Empirical evidence from an Australian regional university. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(4), 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1353/jda.2015.0131

Sareen, R. (2017). Work Place Violence – Health Care. Public Health Open Access, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.23880/phoa-16000116

Scott, V. (2015). Workplace conflict resolution for dummies. Richmond, Vic. John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd.

Singh, P. (2012). Sexual Harassment at Work Place. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2118899

Snaubar, Y. (2020). Violation of Women’s Rights in Conflict Areas: A Study from a Social Work Perspective. Journal of International Social Research, 13(71), 999–1005. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.10688

Wallensteen, P. …