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T H E N O R T O N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O

Literature
S H O R T E R T H I R T E E N T H E D I T I O N

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T H E N O R T O N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O

S H O R T E R T H I R T E E N T H E D I T I O N

Literature

Kelly J. Mays

B
W . W . N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N e w Y o r k , L o n d o n

U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E V A D A , L A S V E G A S

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

W.  W. Norton & Com pany has been in de pen dent since its founding in 1923, when William
Warder Norton and Mary  D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s
Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded
its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from Amer i ca and
abroad. By mid- century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and
college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the
com pany to its employees, and today— with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of
trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Com pany stands as
the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

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Editor: Sarah Touborg
Proj ect Editor: Christine D’Antonio
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Media Editorial Assistants: Alexander Lee, Joshua Bianchi
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Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2016, 2013, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1995, 1991, 1986, 1981,
1977, 1973 by W. W. Norton & Com pany, Inc.

All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of Amer i ca

Permission to use copyrighted material is included in the permissions acknowl edgments
section of this book, which begins on page A27.

Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication Data
Names: Mays, Kelly J., editor.
Title: The Norton introduction to lit er a ture / [edited by] Kelly J. Mays,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Description: Shorter thirteenth edition. | New York : W. W. Norton & Com pany, 2018. |
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018004891 | ISBN 978-0393664942(pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Lit er a ture— Collections.
Classification: LCC PN6014 .N67 2018 | DDC 808.8— dc23

LC rec ord available at https:// lccn . loc . gov / 2018004891

W. W. Norton & Com pany, Inc., 500 Fifth Ave nue, New York, N.Y. 10110

www . wwnorton . com

W. W. Norton & Com pany Ltd., Castle House, 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS

v

Brief Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors xxviii
Introduction 1

PA RT   ON E Fiction
1 Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing 16

U N DER STAN DING TH E TE X T 75

2 Plot 75

3 Narration and Point of View 169

4 Character 210

5 Setting 282

6 Symbol and Figurative Language 380

7 Theme 429

E XPLOR ING CONTE X TS 512

8 The Author’s Work as Context: Flannery O’Connor 512

9 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in
Turn- of- the- Century Amer i ca 564

10 Critical Contexts: Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” 607

R E ADING MOR E FIC TION 643

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v i BR IeF TA BLe oF CoN T eN T S

PA RT  T WO Poetry
11 Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing 730

U N DER STAN DING TH E TE X T 769

12 Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear? 769

13 Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When? 795

14 Theme and Tone 830

15 Language: Word Choice and Order 854

16 Visual Imagery and Figures of Speech 866

17 Symbol 884

18 The Sounds of Poetry 899

19 Internal Structure 930

20 External Form 951

E XPLOR ING CONTE X TS 984

21 The Author’s Work as Context: Adrienne Rich 986

22 The Author’s Work as Context: William Blake’s
Songs of Innocence and of Experience 1055

23 Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Harlem
Re nais sance 1065

24 Critical Contexts: Sylvia Plath’s “ Daddy” 1102

R E ADING MOR E POE TRY 1131

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BR IeF TA BLe oF CoN T eN T S v i i

PA RT   T H R E E Drama
25 Drama: Reading, Responding, Writing 1194

U N DER STAN DING TH E TE X T 1221

26 Ele ments of Drama 1221

E XPLOR ING CONTE X TS 1332

27 The Author’s Work as Context:
William Shakespeare 1332

28 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Lorraine
Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun 1496

29 Critical Contexts: Sophocles’s Antigone 1600

R E ADING MOR E DR AMA 1665

PA RT   FOU R Writing about Lit er a ture
30 Basic Moves: Paraphrase, Summary, Description 1914

31 The Lit er a ture Essay 1918

32 The Writing Pro cess 1938

33 The Lit er a ture Research Essay 1951

34 Quotation, Citation, and Documentation 1962

35 Sample Research Essay 1992

Critical Approaches A1

Permissions Acknowl edgments A27

Index of Authors A45

Index of Titles and First Lines A52

Glossary/Index of Literary Terms A61

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ix

Contents

Preface for Instructors xxviii
Introduction 1

What Is Lit er a ture? 1

What Does Lit er a ture Do? 3

John K eat s, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer 4
What Are the Genres of Lit er a ture? 4

Why Read Lit er a ture? 6

Why Study Lit er a ture? 9

H a i- Da ng Ph a n, My Father’s “Norton Introduction to Lit er a ture,”
Third Edition (1981) 10

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Hai- Dang Phan 12

John Crow e R a nsom, Bells for John Whiteside’s Daughter 13

PA RT   ON E Fiction
1 Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing 16

a non y mous, The Elephant in the Village of the Blind 17
Reading and Responding to Fiction 20
linda brew er, 20/20 20

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Annotation and Notes on “20/20” 21

Reading and Responding to Graphic Fiction 23
jules feiffer, Superman 23
Writing about Fiction 27
r ay mond ca rv er, Cathedral 28

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Reading Notes on “Cathedral” 39

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Response Paper on “Cathedral” 42

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Essay on “Cathedral” 45

Telling Stories: An Album 49
gr ace pa ley, A Conversation with My Father 50

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Grace Paley 54

a n ton chek hov, Gooseberries 55
t im o’brien, The Lives of the Dead 63

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x CoN T eN T S

U N DER STAN DING TH E TE X T 75

2 Plot 75
Plot versus Action, Sequence, and Subplot 75
Pace 76
Conflicts 76
ga ry t rudeau, Doonesbury 77
jacob a nd w ilhelm grimm, The Shroud 77
The Five Parts of Plot 78
Common Plot Types 82
r a lph ellison, King of the Bingo Game 83
ja mes ba ldw in, Sonny’s Blues 91
joyce ca rol oat es, Where Are You Going, Where Have You

Been? 114
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Joyce Carol Oates 126

v iet t h a nh Ngu y en, I’d Love You to Want Me 127
S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Essay on “King of the Bingo Game” 141

Initiation Stories: An Album 144
toni ca de ba mba r a , The Lesson 146

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Toni Cade Bambara 152

a lice munro, Boys and Girls 152
john updik e, A & P 163

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : John Updike 168

3 Narration and Point of View 169
Types of Narration 170
Tense 171
Narrator versus Implied Author 171
edga r a ll a n poe, The Cask of Amontillado 173
george saunders, Puppy 179

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : George Saunders 186

v irgini a woolf, The Mark on the Wall 186
a da m johnson, In ter est ing Facts 192

4 Character 210
Heroes and Villains versus Protagonists and Antagonists 211
Major versus Minor Characters 212
Flat versus Round and Static versus Dynamic Characters 212
Stock Characters and Archetypes 213
Reading Character in Fiction and Life 213
w illi a m faulk ner, Barn Burning 217
toni morrison, Recitatif 230

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CoN T eN T S x i

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Toni Morrison 244

dav id fost er wa ll ace, Good People 245
a lissa nu t t ing, Model’s Assistant 250

Monsters: An Album 259
m a rga ret at wood, Lusus Naturae 260
k a ren russell, St. Lucy’s Home for Girls Raised by Wolves 265
jorge luis borges, The House of Asterion 277

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Jorge Luis Borges 280

5 Setting 282
Temporal and Physical, General and Par tic u lar Setting 282
Functions of Setting 282
Vague and Vivid Settings 283
ita lo ca lv ino, from Invisible Cities 284
m a rga ret mitchell, from Gone with the Wind 284
Traditional Expectations of Time and Place 285
a lice r a nda ll, from The Wind Done Gone 286
ja mes joyce, Araby 288
a m y ta n, A Pair of Tickets 293
judit h ort iz cofer, Volar 306
a nnie proul x , Job History 308

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Annotation and Close Reading on “Araby” 314

The Future: An Album 317
w illi a m gibson, The Gernsback Continuum 318

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : William Gibson 327

r ay br a dbury, The Veldt 328
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Ray Bradbury 339

octav i a E. bu t ler, Bloodchild 340
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Octavia E. Butler 354

jennifer ega n, Black Box 355
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Jennifer Egan 378

6 Symbol and Figurative Language 380
Literary Symbolism 381
Figures of Speech 382
Interpreting Symbolism and Figurative Language 383
nat h a niel h aw t horne, The Birth- Mark 385
a. s. byat t, The Thing in the Forest 397
edw idge da n t icat, A Wall of Fire Rising 412

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Comparative Essay on “The Birth- Mark ” and

“The Thing in the Forest” 425

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x i i CoN T eN T S

7 Theme 429
a esop, The Two Crabs 429
Theme(s): Singular or Plural? 430
Be Specific: Theme as Idea versus Topic or Subject 430
Don’t Be Too Specific: Theme as General Idea 431
Theme versus Moral 431
st ephen cr a ne, The Open Boat 433
ga briel ga rcÍ a m Á rquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings:

A Tale for Children 451
ya suna ri k awa bata , The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket 456
junot dÍ a z, Wildwood 459

Cross- Cultural Encounters: An Album 477
bh a r at i muk herjee, The Management of Grief 478

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Bharati Mukherjee 491

jhumpa l a hiri, Interpreter of Maladies 491
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Jhumpa Lahiri 507

dav id seda ris, Jesus Shaves 508

E XPLOR ING CONTE X TS 512

8 The Author’s Work as Context: Flannery O’Connor 512
Biographical Approaches to Lit er a ture 513
Implied Author or Narrator 514
Style and Tone 515
Three Stories by Flannery O’Connor 516
A Good Man Is Hard to Find 516
Good Country People 527
Every thing That Rises Must Converge 540
Passages from Flannery O’Connor’s Essays and Letters 550
Critical Excerpts 554
m a ry gordon, from Flannery’s Kiss 554
a nn e. reum a n, from Revolting Fictions: Flannery O’Connor’s

Letter to Her Mother 557
eileen poll ack , from Flannery O’Connor and the

New Criticism 560

9 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in
Turn- of- the- Century Amer i ca 564
Women at the Turn of the Century: An Overview 565
Women Writers in a Changing World 567
k at e chopin, The Story of an Hour 568
ch a rlot t e perk ins gilm a n, The Yellow Wall paper 571

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CoN T eN T S x i i i

susa n gl a spell, A Jury of Her Peers 582
Contextual Excerpts 599
ch a rlot t e perk ins gilm a n, from Similar Cases 599
from Women and Economics 600
ba rba r a boy d, from Heart and Home Talks: Politics and Milk 601
mrs. a rt hur ly t t elton, from Women and Their Work 601
rheta childe dorr, from What Eight Million Women Want 602
The New York Times, from Mrs. Delong Acquitted 603
The Washington Post, from The Chances of Divorce 603
ch a rlot t e perk ins gilm a n, from Why I Wrote “The Yellow

Wall – paper” 604
The Washington Post, The Rest Cure 604
The Washington Post, from Egotism of the Rest Cure 604

10 Critical Contexts: Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” 607
t im o’brien, The Things They Carried 609
Critical Excerpts 622
st ev en k a pl a n, from The Undying Uncertainty of the Narrator in

Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried 622
lorrie n. smit h, from “The Things Men Do”: The Gendered Subtext

in Tim O’Brien’s Esquire Stories 627
susa n fa rrell, from Tim O’Brien and Gender: A Defense of

The Things They Carried 637

R E ADING MOR E FIC TION 643
louise erdrich, Love Medicine 643
w illi a m faulk ner, A Rose for Emily 658
ernest hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants 665
fr a nz k a fk a , A Hunger Artist 669
ja m a ica k inca id, Girl 675
bobbie a nn m a son, Shiloh 677
gu y de m aupa ssa n t, The Jewelry 687
herman melv ille, Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street 693
eudor a w elt y, Why I Live at the P.O. 719

PA RT   T WO Poetry
11 Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing 730

Defining Poetry 731
ly di a dav is, Head, Heart 732

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R C R A F T: Billy Collins 733

Poetic Subgenres and Kinds 734

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x iv CoN T eN T S

edw in a rlington robinson, Richard Cory 735
robert frost, “Out, Out—” 736
t hom a s h a rdy, The Ruined Maid 737
w illi a m words wort h, I wandered lonely as a cloud 738
fr a nk o’h a r a , Poem [Lana Turner has collapsed!] 739
phillis w heat ley, On Being Brought from Africa to Amer i ca 741
emily dick inson, The Sky is low— the Clouds are mean 742
billy collins, Divorce 742
bruce springst een, Nebraska 743
robert h ay den, A Letter from Phillis Wheatley 744
Responding to Poetry 746
a phr a behn, On Her Loving Two Equally 746
Writing about Poetry 753

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Response Paper on “On Her Loving Two Equally” 755

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Essay on “On Her Loving Two Equally” 757

The Art of (Reading) Poetry: An Album 761
howa rd nemerov, Because You Asked about the Line between Prose

and Poetry 761
a rchiba ld m acleish, Ars Poetica 762
czesl aw milosz, Ars Poetica? 763

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Czeslaw Milosz 764

eliz a bet h a lex a nder, Ars Poetica #100: I Believe 764
m a ri a nne moore, Poetry 765
juli a a lva rez, “Poetry Makes Nothing Happen”? 766
billy collins, Introduction to Poetry 767

U N DER STAN DING TH E TE X T 769

12 Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear? 769
Narrative Poems and Their Speakers 769
et heridge k night, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital

for the Criminal Insane 769
Speakers in the Dramatic Monologue 771
a. e. sta llings, Hades Welcomes His Bride 771
The Lyric and Its Speaker 773
m a rga ret at wood, Death of a Young Son by Drowning 773

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R C R A F T: Billy Collins and Sharon Olds 775

w illi a m words wort h, She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways 776
dorot h y pa rk er, A Certain Lady 776
Poems for Further Study 777
wa lt w hitm a n, I celebrate myself, and sing myself 777

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CoN T eN T S x v

l a ngston hughes, Ballad of the Landlord 778
e. e. cummings, next to of course god amer i ca i 779
gw endoly n brook s, We Real Cool 779

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Gwendolyn Brooks 780

lucille clifton, cream of wheat 781
Exploring Gender: An Album 783
rich a rd lov el ace, Song: To Lucasta, Going to the Wars 784
m a ry, l a dy chudleigh, To the Ladies 784
w ilfred ow en, Disabled 785
eliz a bet h bishop, Exchanging Hats 786
dav id wagoner, My Father’s Garden 787
judit h ort iz cofer, The Changeling 788
m a rie how e, Practicing 789

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Marie Howe 790

bob hicok , O my pa- pa 791
t err a nce h ay es, Mr. T— 792
stacey wa it e, The Kind of Man I Am at the DMV 793

13 Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When? 795
Situation 796
rita dov e, Daystar 796
denise duh a mel, Humanity 101 797
t r ac y k. smit h, Sci- Fi 798
Setting 799
m at t hew a rnold, Dover Beach 799
One Poem, Multiple Situations and Settings 801
li- young lee, Persimmons 801
One Situation and Setting, Multiple Poems 803
christopher m a rlow e, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love 803
sir wa lt er r a leigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd 804
The Occasional Poem 805
m a rt Ín espa da , Litany at the Tomb of Frederick Douglass 806

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Martín Espada 807

The Carpe Diem Poem 807
john donne, The Flea 807
a ndrew m a rv ell, To His Coy Mistress 808
The Aubade 809
john donne, The Sun Rising 810
ja mes rich a rdson, Late Aubade 811
Poems for Further Study 811
t err a nce h ay es, Carp Poem 811
nata sh a t ret hew ey, Pilgrimage 812

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x v i CoN T eN T S

m a hmoud da rw ish, Identity Card 814
y ehuda a mich a i, On Yom Kippur in 1967 . . . 816
y usef komun ya k a a , Tu Do Street 817

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Yusef Komunyakaa 818

Homelands: An Album 821
m aya a ngelou, Africa 821

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Maya Angelou 822

derek wa lcot t, A Far Cry from Africa 822
AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Derek Walcott 824

judit h ort iz cofer, The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica 825
cat h y song, Heaven 826
agh a sh a hid a li, Postcard from Kashmir 827
a drienne su, Escape from the Old Country 828

14 Theme and Tone 830
Tone 830
w. d. snodgr a ss, Leaving the Motel 831
Theme 832
m a x ine kumin, Woodchucks 832
a drienne rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers 833

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Adrienne Rich 834

Theme and Conflict 834
a drienne su, On Writing 835

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Adrienne Su 836

Poems for Further Study 836
paul l aurence dunba r, Sympathy 836
w. h. auden, Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone 837
k ay rya n, Repulsive Theory 838
m aya a ngelou, Still I Rise 838

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Response Paper on Auden’s “Stop all the clocks,

cut off the telephone” 841

Family: An Album 845
simon j. ort iz, My Father’s Song 845
robert h ay den, Those Winter Sundays 846
ellen brya n t voigt, My Mother 846
m a rt ín espa da , Of the Threads That Connect the Stars 848
emily grosholz, Eden 848
philip l a rk in, This Be the Verse 849

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Philip Larkin 850

jimm y sa n t i ago baca , Green Chile 850

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CoN T eN T S x v i i

paul m a rt ínez pompa , The Abuelita Poem 851
ch a rlie smit h, The Business 852
a ndrew hudgins, Begotten 853

15 Language: Word Choice and Order 854
Precision and Ambiguity 854
sa r a h cleghorn, The golf links lie so near the mill 854
m a rt h a collins, Lies 855
Denotation and Connotation 855
wa lt er de l a m a re, Slim Cunning Hands 856
t heodore roet hk e, My Papa’s Waltz 857
Word Order and Placement 857
sh a ron olds, Sex without Love 859

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Sharon Olds 860

Poems for Further Study 860
w illi a m bl a k e, London 860
ger a rd m a nley hopk ins, Pied Beauty 861
w illi a m ca rlos w illi a ms, The Red Wheelbarrow 861
This Is Just to Say 862

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : William Carlos Williams 862

k ay rya n, Blandeur 863
m a rt h a collins, white paper #24 864
a. e. sta llings, Shoulda, Woulda, Coulda 865

16 Visual Imagery and Figures of Speech 866
dav id bot toms, Hubert Blankenship 867
cl aude mck ay, The Harlem Dancer 868
ly nn pow ell, Kind of Blue 868
Simile and Analogy 869
todd boss, My Love for You Is So Embarrassingly 869
Meta phor 870
w illi a m sh a k espea re, That time of year thou mayst in me

behold 870
linda pa sta n, Marks 871
Personification 871
emily dick inson, Because I could not stop for Death— 872
Metonymy and Synecdoche 872
w illi a m words wort h, London, 1802 873
t r ac y k. smit h, Ash 874
emm a bolden, House Is an Enigma 874
Allusion 875
a mit m ajmuda r, Dothead 875
pat rici a lock wood, What Is the Zoo for What 876

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x v i i i CoN T eN T S

Poems for Further Study 878
w illi a m sh a k espea re, Shall I compare thee to

a summer’s day? 878
a non y mous, The Twenty- Third Psalm 878
john donne, Batter my heart, three- personed God 879
r a nda ll ja rrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 879
joy h a rjo, The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor

Window 880
john brehm, Sea of Faith 882

17 Symbol 884
The In ven ted Symbol 884
ja mes dick ey, The Leap 885
The Traditional Symbol 887
edmund wa ller, Song 887
dorot h y pa rk er, One Perfect Rose 888
The Symbolic Poem 889
w illi a m bl a k e, The Sick Rose 889
Poems for Further Study 890
john k eat s, Ode to a Nightingale 890
robert frost, The Road Not Taken 892
howa rd nemerov, The Vacuum 893
a drienne rich, Diving into the Wreck 894
roo borson, After a Death 896
bri a n t urner, Jundee Ameriki 896

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Brian Turner 897

sh a ron olds, Bruise Ghazal 898

18 The Sounds of Poetry 899
Rhyme 899
Other Sound Devices 901
a lex a nder pope, from The Rape of the Lock 902
Sound Poems 903
helen ch a sin, The Word Plum 903
a lex a nder pope, Sound and Sense 903
Poetic Meter 905
sa muel tay lor coleridge, Metrical Feet 907
a non y mous, There was a young girl from St. Paul 910
a lfred, lord t enn yson, from The Charge of the Light Brigade 910
ja ne tay lor, The Star 911
a nne br a dst reet, To My Dear and Loving Husband 911
jessie pope, The Call 912

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 18 8/29/18 1:04 PM

CoN T eN T S x i x

w ilfred ow en, Dulce et Decorum Est 913
Poems for Further Study 914
w illi a m sh a k espea re, Like as the waves make towards

the pebbled shore 914
ger a rd m a nley hopk ins, The Windhover 914
a mit m ajmuda r, Ode to a Drone 915
wa lt w hitm a n, A Noiseless Patient Spider 915
k ev in young, Ode to Pork 916

Word and Music: An Album 919
t hom a s ca mpion, When to Her Lute Corinna Sings 920
a non y mous, Sir Patrick Spens 920
dudley r a nda ll, Ballad of Birmingham 922
august us mon tague topl a dy, A Prayer, Living and Dying 923
robert h ay den, Homage to the Empress of the Blues 924
bob dy l a n, The Times They Are A- Changin’ 924
linda pa sta n, Listening to Bob Dylan, 2005 925
mos def, Hip Hop 926
jose b. gonz a lez, Elvis in the Inner City 928

19 Internal Structure 930
Dividing Poems into “Parts” 930
pat mor a , Sonrisas 930
Internal versus External or Formal “Parts” 932
ga lway k innell, Blackberry Eating 932
Lyr ics as Internal Dramas 932
sea mus hea ney, Punishment 933
sa muel tay lor coleridge, Frost at Midnight 935
sh a ron olds, The Victims 937
Making Arguments about Structure 938
Poems without “Parts” 938
wa lt w hitm a n, I Hear Amer i ca Singing 938
Poems for Further Study 939
w illiam shakespeare, Th’ expense of spirit in a

waste of shame 939
perc y bysshe shelley, Ode to the West Wind 940
philip l a rk in, Church Going 942

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Philip Larkin 944

k at ie ford, Still- Life 945
k ev in young, Greening 945

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Essay in Pro gress on “Church Going” 947

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 19 8/29/18 1:04 PM

x x CoN T eN T S

20 External Form 951
Stanzas 951
Traditional Stanza Forms 951
robert frost, Acquainted with the Night 952
rich a rd w ilbur, Terza Rima 952
Traditional Verse Forms 953
Fixed Forms or Form- Based Subgenres 954
Traditional Forms: Poems for Further Study 955
dy l a n t hom a s, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night 955
nata sh a t ret hew ey, Myth 956
eliz a bet h bishop, Sestina 957
a. e. sta llings, Sestina: Like 958
The Way a Poem Looks 959
e. e. cummings, l(a 959
Buffalo Bill’s 960
Concrete Poetry 960
george herbert, Easter Wings 961
m ay sw enson, Women 962

The Sonnet: An Album 965
fr a ncesco pet r a rch, Upon the breeze she spread her

golden hair 966
henry consta ble, My lady’s presence makes the roses red 966
william shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun 967
Not marble, nor the gilded monuments 967
Let me not to the marriage of true minds 968
john milton, When I consider how my light is spent 968
w illi a m words wort h, Nuns Fret Not 969
The world is too much with us 969
eliz a bet h ba rret t brow ning, How Do I Love Thee? 970
christ ina rosset t i, In an Artist’s Studio 970
edna st. v incen t mill ay, What lips my lips have kissed,

and where, and why 971
Women have loved before as I love now 971
I, being born a woman and distressed 972
I will put Chaos into fourteen lines 972
gw endoly n brook s, First Fight. Then Fiddle. 973
gw en h a rwood, In the Park 973
june jordan, Something Like a Sonnet for Phillis Miracle Wheatley 974
billy collins, Sonnet 974
h a rry et t e mullen, Dim Lady 975

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 20 8/29/18 1:04 PM

CoN T eN T S x x i

Haiku: An Album 977
Traditional Japa nese Haiku 977
chi yojo, Whether astringent 977
ba shō, A village without bells— 978
This road— 978
buson, Coolness— 978
Listening to the moon 978
One Haiku, Four Translations 978
l a fca dio hea rn, Old pond— 978
cl a r a a. wa lsh, An old- time pond 978
ea rl miner, The still old pond 979
a llen ginsberg, The old pond 979
Con temporary English- Language Haiku 979
ezr a pound, In a Station of the Metro 979
a llen ginsberg, Looking over my shoulder 979
rich a rd w right, In the falling snow 979
et heridge k night, Eastern guard tower 980
The falling snow flakes 980
Making jazz swing in 980

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Etheridge Knight 980

m a rk ja rm a n, Haiku 981
soni a sa nchez, from 9 Haiku (for Freedom’s Sisters) 981
sue sta nding, Diamond Haiku 981
linda pa sta n, In the Har- Poen Tea Garden 982
Twaiku 983

E XPLOR ING CONTE X TS 984

21 The Author’s Work as Context: Adrienne Rich 986
The Poetry of Adrienne Rich 987
Poems by Adrienne Rich 990
At a Bach Concert 990
Storm Warnings 990
Living in Sin 991
Snapshots of a Daughter- in- Law 991

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : Adrienne Rich 995

Planetarium 996
For the Rec ord 997
My mouth hovers across your breasts 998
History 998
Transparencies 999

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 21 8/29/18 1:04 PM

x x i i CoN T eN T S

To night No Poetry Will Serve 1000
Passages from Rich’s Essays 1001
From When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re- Vision 1001
From A Communal Poetry 1002
From Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts 1003
From Poetry and the Forgotten Future 1006
A Poem for Adrienne Rich
Joy H A RJO, By the Way 1010

S A M P L E W R I T I N G : Comparative Essay on Sonnets by Shakespeare

and Millay 1015

Emily Dickinson: An Album 1021
Poems by Emily Dickinson 1022
Wild Nights— Wild Nights! 1022
“Hope” is the thing with feathers— 1023
After great pain, a formal feeling comes— 1023
I heard a Fly buzz— when I died 1024
My Life had stood— a Loaded Gun— 1024
I stepped from Plank to Plank 1025
Tell all the truth but tell it slant— 1025
Poems about Emily Dickinson 1026
w endy cope, Emily Dickinson 1026
h a rt cr a ne, To Emily Dickinson 1026
billy collins, Taking Off Emily Dickinson’s Clothes 1027

W. B. Yeats: An Album 1031
Poems by W. B. Yeats 1033
The Lake Isle of Innisfree 1033

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : W. B. Yeats 1034

All Things Can Tempt Me 1034
Easter 1916 1035
The Second Coming 1037
Leda and the Swan 1038
Sailing to Byzantium 1038
A Poem about W. B. Yeats 1040
w. h. auden, In Memory of W. B. Yeats 1040

AU T H O R S O N T H E I R WO R K : W. H. Auden 1042

Pat Mora: An Album 1047
Elena 1048
Gentle Communion 1049

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 22 8/29/18 1:04 PM

CoN T eN T S x x i i i

Mothers and Daughters 1049
La Migra 1050
Ode to Adobe 1051

22 The Author’s Work as Context: William Blake’s Songs
of Innocence and of Experience 1055
Color Insert: Facsimile Pages from Songs of Innocence and of Experience
William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience
Songs of Innocence 1057
Introduction 1057
The Ecchoing Green 1057
Holy Thursday 1058
The Lamb 1058
The Chimney Sweeper 1059
Songs of Experience 1059
Introduction 1059
The Tyger 1060
The Garden of Love 1061
The Chimney Sweeper 1061
Holy Thursday 1061

23 Cultural and Historical Contexts:
The Harlem Renaissance 1065
Poems of the Harlem Re nais sance 1070
a rna bon t emps, A Black Man Talks of Reaping 1070
coun t ee cullen, Yet Do I Marvel 1071
Saturday’s Child 1071
From the Dark Tower 1072
a ngelina grimk É, The Black Fin ger 1072
Tenebris 1073
l a ngston hughes, Harlem 1073
The Weary Blues 1073
The Negro Speaks of Rivers 1074
I, Too 1075
helene johnson, Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem 1076
cl aude mck ay, Harlem Shadows 1076
If We Must Die 1077
The Tropics in New York 1077
Amer i ca 1077
The White House 1078
Contextual Excerpts 1078
ja mes w eldon johnson, from the preface to The Book of American

Negro Poetry 1078

nintrlit13esht_9pp_ch00_i-xxxiv.indd 23 8/29/18 1:04 PM

x x iv CoN T eN T S

a l a in lock e, from The New Negro 1080
rudolph fisher,

anthology

Student 1

Literature Student

Professor Kimberly Carter

LIT2000

12/14/20

Introduction

This anthology will provide a summary of different poems by different authors to help facilitate
understanding of the relationship between parents or guardian and their children. These are all
poems and the concept of family ties them together.Family is a vital component of our society
and as such, it is worth noting that proper conservation of family must be done. Family is
important to any individual because it helps molds them to an outstanding citizen and human.
This will help them decide what decisions to make in life and what path to choose when in a
difficult situation. Family has a plays a heavy role in someone’s life. In the poems that are
summarized below, it is shown that family goes through whatever obstacle to help and connect
with family. There may be some problems and fights, but at the end of the day everything that is
learned is through our parents and family members.

Anthology of Family Poems

Baca, Jimmy Santiago. “Green Chile.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J.

Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.850-851.

In this poem, Baca narrates how his grandmother cooked green chile. The poem focuses
on memories and Baca uses this to rekindle the memories of his grandmother cooking green
chile, in appreciation of his cultural background. The chile is used to show maturity. Baca’s
parents abandoned him at the age of two, and therefore, he lived with his grandparents until he
was thirteen. This means that his grandparents acted more or less like parents to him. This poem
is relevant to my anthology because it describes family life problems and the relationship
between children and foster parents or guardians. Baca compares the youth in this poem with the
unripe green chile. The red chile represents maters of maturity and the author also highlights the
significance of the age difference between red and green chile.

Student 2

Collins, Martha. “Lies.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J. Mays. 13th ed.

New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.855.

In this poem, Martha employs wordplay and diction to illustrate that it is better, to tell the
truth than a lie. This poem is relevant to my anthology because it helps to instill moral beliefs in
the individuals. The art of telling the truth originates from primary to secondary and tertiary
institutions and is normally linked to the role of parents and their relationship to the children. She
depicts the story of an affair between a man and a woman. For instance, in the line “ but it is a lie
for her to say she laid him when we know he wouldn’t lie still long enough” (p.855). There is a
play of words with “lie” in that line, but it all originates from how the individual was taught to
carry out such actions.

Espada, Martin. “Of the Threads That Connect the Stars.” The Norton Introduction to Literature.

Edited by Kelly J. Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.848.

In this poem, Espada gives an account of how three generations of his family finally got
what provides meaning to their lives. The poem is relevant to my anthropology because it
focuses on family and the interactions between the lives of the three men who have a common
origin. The poem celebrates the three men and their different ways in which they visualize and
interact with the world. The poem also highlights the changes in our lives which occur without
even being realized. The speaker notes that they “never saw the stars” which had been asked by
his father, probably because “the sky in Brooklyn was full of some.”

Grosholz, Emily. “Eden.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J. Mays. 13th

ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.848-849.

In this poem, Grosholz describes a situational relationship that normally exists between a
teen growing up and a mother. Normally, teenagers believe that their mothers can fix everything
that has gone wrong and this is evident by the repetitive remarks of the narrator that “his mommy
going to fix it.” This also shows the youthful optimism in teenagers over their parents. This poem
is important and relevant to my anthology because it illustrates the relationship between parents
and children especially child-mother relationships. The mother, however, adopts an apologetic
tone explaining to the child that she is “powerless,” although she may appear to be omnipotent
like God and fix any minor problems arising with band-aids, masking tape, and pills. The mother
explains that in this world “full of fabulous great and curious small inhabitants,” there is also
some pain, corruption, and evil that not even she could protect him from.

Student 3

Hayden, Robert. “Those Winter Sundays.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by

Kelly J. Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.846.

This poem by Robert Hayden focuses on memory and the relationship between a father
and his son, which makes it relevant to my anthology. The father is concerned about the welfare
of his son and therefore wakes up early every Sunday to dutifully make fire and polish the good
shoes for his son, before making his way to church. Later in life, the child becomes aware of the
hardships and sacrifices his father made for him to shape his future. The speaker unveils to us
just how typical his Sundays were those days and it is evident that his father made a lot of
sacrifices to shape his future. The farther bears a cross. The phrase “then with cracked hands that
ached from labor in the weekday weather” (p. 846), demonstrates how enduring the farther was
and how he strived to make ends meet.

Hudgins, Andrew. “Begotten.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J. Mays.

13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.853.

In the poem “Begotten” by Andrew Hudgins, Hudgins describes how best he knows he
belongs to his family. In the poem, he says “I saw my face in cousin’s faces” (p.853). In this
context, Hudgins reaffirms to us that he hails from the right family. He further expresses that he
can see a resemblance between him and his cousins. The author further reaffirms his membership
to the family when he says, “as in a myth or novel, return and claim me” (p.853). This is to
means that there would be nobody looking for him because he is where he belongs.It shows how
good family can make us feel. In the poem he accepts that this is “family”. This poem is included
in the anthology because it shows that a relationship and/or a connection amongst family is
important. It makes us feel wanted and helps us in the future with our own family.

Larkin, Philip. “This Be the Verse.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J.

Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.849.

The poem “This Be the Verse,” was published in 1971 and highlights the avenues
through which parents pass their shortcomings and emotional complications to their children
who again pass their misery and problems to their filial generations. This poem is relevant to my
anthology since it tackles the very complex life scenarios in relationships between parents and
their siblings. The narrator suggests that the only safer way to get out of the circle is by “failing
to give birth”. However, parents only pass it down to the generation because they had been

Student 4

emotionally damaged during their childhood by their parents and as such cannot own up to the
blame.

Ortiz, Simon J. “My Father’s Song.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J.

Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.845-846.

In this poem, Ortiz gives us a glimpse of a world that is far from our own. The father’s
song in the poem refers to his vast knowledge in the cornfield and the care of life as a whole.
This poem illustrates the relationship between a father and a son. It is focused on the idea of the
value of all living creatures and the responsibility when growing up. The father is teaching his
son how to survive by gaining experience in working on cornfields. Additionally, the poem
highlights the importance of the life of other creatures to a man. This is shown by the care taken
by the father as he moves the mice to a safer place. The phrase “and my father saying things…”
(Ortiz,2019, p. 846) shows how the father talks to and educates his son on the things that he must
know as a man when he grows up. This poem is relevant to my anthology because it talks about
family relationships between parents and their children. This poem shows how the son
remembers his father’s actions and words.

Smith, Charlie. “The Business.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J. Mays.

13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.852.

In this poem, Smith narrates the shaky relationship between his father and his uncle. The
narrator notes that the two did not get along easily and this went on for decades. The phrase “for
years, they kept at it.” shows how persistent these misunderstandings had lasted. This poem is
vital and important to my anthology in that it addresses the relationship situation between two
siblings who should come together in accord. The author notes that it is her grandfather who
caused more problems between the two brothers. In this poem it states that this feud seemed to
be more important than living life itself. The only thing that helped was family trying to make
them realize what they are doing. Family can be tricky to get along with, but the memories last a
lifetime.

Voigt, Ellen Bryant. “My Mother.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Edited by Kelly J.

Mays. 13th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2019. p.846-847.

This poem is also based on memory. The narrator showcases how her mother struggled
and endured hardships to provide for the children. This poem is relevant to my anthropology in
that it focuses on family relationships between a mother and her children. In this poem the theme

Student 5

of resistance and female power is strong. It shows that the mother would do anything to get to
her goal and that was a great example for the kids to watch.This poem also shows all the events a
mother would do on a daily basis. It shows the relationship between mother and child. The
mother could do anything and so she did. Anything to help her family.

anthology

Obama 1

Michelle Obama Comment by Kimberly Carter: Include heading in MLA format

Dr. Kimberly Carter

LIT 2000

April 13, 2020

Introduction

Write an introduction to your anthology. The introduction should state explicitly the topic/theme of your collection. The introduction should also show that you are knowledgeable about the subject. If you cite any information (i.e. quote, summarize, or paraphrase) in your introduction, be sure to include the full bibliographic information on a work cited page at the end of your anthology. 

Health Anthology

Mandair, Dalvinder, et al. “Prostate Cancer And The Influence Of Dietary Factors And Comment by Kimberly Carter: Include FULL bibliographic information in MLA format.

Supplements: A Systematic Review.” Nutrition & Metabolism 11.1 (2014): 1-23. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 July 2015.

Four to five sentence summary of the article. For example, this article summarized the effects of a study to determine the impact of food and supplements on prostate cancer. The results were… the study was conducted in 2000… This article is related to my anthology because blah, blah, blah. Comment by Kimberly Carter: Each annotation should be a minimum of 100 words. The annotation is 40% summary and 60% analysis (Why is this literary work included in your anthology)?

Prostate Cancer Screening. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2009. Web. 9 July 2015.

<http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=12207&xtid=47744>.

Four to five sentence summary of the film. Another four to five sentences explaining why it is included in this anthology.

Rohrmann, Sabine, Elizabeth A. Platz, Claudine J. Kavanaugh, Lucy Thuita, Sandra C. Hoffman, Comment by Kimberly Carter: The sources should be in alphabetical order by the author(s) last name.

and Kathy J. Helzlsouer. “Meat and Dairy Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Us Cohort Study.” Cancer Causes & Control. 18.1 (2007): 41-50. Print.

Four to five sentence summary of the article. Another four to five sentences explaining why it is included in this anthology. Comment by Kimberly Carter: Your anthology will have a minimum of ten sources.

Works Cited Comment by Kimberly Carter: Only include this page if you cited something in the introduction.

Be sure to include full bibliographic information in alphabetical order in MLA format for any information that was cited in the introduction only. This includes quotes, summarize and/or paraphrased information. Summarizing and paraphrasing someone else’s thoughts requires an in-text citation and the full bibliographic information on the works cited page!!!