• Home

World history homework help

HIS 117 Journal Guidelines and Rubric
Beginning Research

Overview: Journals are private communication between you and the instructor. They are also an opportunity to get feedback on key components of your final
project. Before submission, be sure to check your assignment against the rubric below.

Prompt: For this journal assignment, submit an assignment in which you begin your research for your final paper. You should include the following:

 Your Topic: Brainstorm reasons humans created societies, states, and empires in the premodern world. At this point, your topic should be a rough idea that
you would like to explore and refine over the next few modules. Provide reasons for your choice. Here are a few ideas to get you started:

Humans created societies, states, and empires in the late Neolithic period to 1500 CE in order to accomplish the following:
o Maintain a common defense
o Allow for the growth of individuals
o Guarantee admission to heaven

 Your Research Focus: Identify three specific empires, states, or societies that you will research and analyze in your paper. Choose three societies, states, or
empires from the following world regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas. You may want to glance through the textbook to get ideas. You will analyze
these societies, states, and empires as examples to prove your thesis. In your journal assignment, provide the reasons you chose them.

 Sources: Consider the sources of primary and secondary information you can use to begin your research by exploring the links in the Research Guide
document. Choose at least one primary and one secondary source and cite them in Turabian style. You can refer to the History webpage for the Shapiro
Library as a guide, as well as this video on primary and secondary sources.

Guidelines for Submission: Your journal assignment should be 400 to 500 words in length with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch
margins. Cite your sources using Turabian style.


Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Topic Identifies a topic related to why humans
created societies, states, and empires and
provides reasons for selection

Identifies a topic but it does not directly relate
to why humans created societies, states, and
empires; does not provide reasons to support
selection or they are incomplete, inaccurate,
or not completely developed

Does not identify a topic or provide reasons 30

Research Focus Identifies three societies, states, and empires
from Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas and
provides reasons to support this selection

Identifies three societies, states, and empires
from Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas but
does not provide reasons to support this

Does not identify societies, states, and


Sources Lists at least one primary and one secondary
source cited in Turabian style and sources are
drawn from the links provided in the Research
Guide document

Provides at least two resources drawn from
the links provided in the Research Guide
document but does not correctly identify
them as primary or secondary and/or does
not correctly use Turabian style

Does not provide resources 30


Submission has no major errors related to
grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission contains significant errors related
to grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization
that do not impact readability or articulation
of ideas

Submission has critical errors related to
grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization
that impact readability or articulation of ideas


Total 100%

  • HIS 117 Journal Guidelines and Rubric Beginning Research
    • Beginning Research

World history homework help

I. Causes of “The Great War”

“The Long Fuse”

Nationalism: Inclusion/Exclusion

Imperialist Rivalries in Africa, Asia, Europe


Militarism: German vs. British naval race; European Powers double spending, 1890-1914

Causes Continued…

Internal Dissent

France (1906-09): massive strikes held; massive electoral gains for Left in 1914

Germany: 1912 Socialists largest group in Reichstag

Russia: 1912-1914 massive wave of violent strikes

**war to calm social tensions and build unity; need our own “splendid little war”

And Yet More Causes….

Rigid Alliance system

Security in alliances—makes cost of aggression high as attacking one means attacking their allies

But only works if aggressor true fears, and makes a small war into a big war

Technology and Mobilization

Complicated schedules of troop movements

Once started, hard to stop

Fear your foe is doing so too

II. War Begins: The Long Fuse Explodes

June 28, 1914

Franz Ferdinand

Austria mobilizes against Serbia

Russia mobilizes against Austria

1914: Central Powers vs. the Entente Powers

III. The Course of the War

Both sides believed it would be a short war

Schlieffen Plan: overrun Belgium and France and return back to Germany to defeat Russia

Counterattack at Battle of Marne and speedy Russian defenses thwart ambitions

1914-1917: war would devolve into brutal, costly and futile trench warfare

(1916)Battle of Verdun each side lost over 300,000 soldiers without a conclusive victory

Battle of Somme: 500,000 die an British gain a few square miles

A Modern War

Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins

Bigger, more accurate cannons

Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas

Targeting of civilian populations

10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians

20 million wounded

58% casualty rate

Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)

1917: Turning Points

United States Enters War: Ethnic Identities, Propaganda, Economics, Submarine Warfare

Woodrow Wilson: “Make the world safe for democracy”

Russia withdraws; signs Brest-Litovsk treaty

German sailors mutiny; German economy collapses and Kaiser flees

November 11, 1918: Germany signs armistice agreement

World history homework help

you will research European colonialism and examine how the consequences were viewed differently by the colonizers and the colonized. You will also use historical evidence to analyze and explain the causes and global consequences of colonization.

Your task is to:

1. Conduct research and write a 2 paragraph response to the questions below. 

2. Make a reference to 2 sources used for your research and provide commentary on your sources.

     a)Choose one of the areas colonized by Europe (Japan, India or Africa). 

Describe how this happened (what did Europe want from this country and how did it go about taking it?) 

b)How did the people of this area respond to colonization?  Do you think people today would respond in the same way? 


A. Select the area you would like to write about (Japan, India or Africa). Review the lessons in this unit and conduct research about colonization and imperialism in this area. You will need to locate a total of 2 sources.

B. Write a 2 paragraph response to the following questions:

a)Choose one of the areas colonized by Europe (Japan, India or Africa). 

Describe how this happened (what did Europe want from this country and how did it go about taking it?) (4-5 sentences)

b)How did the people of this area respond to colonization?  Do you think people today would respond in the same way? (4-5 sentences)

· Here is a suggested format to follow: PDF: 

Cause and Consequences of Colonization – Suggested Format

Google Doc Version.

· Make sure to use proper grammar and spelling in your essay.

A. Include 2 sources at the end of your 2 paragraphs. Provide the link (URL) to each source and for each source, write 1-2 sentences describing why you selected the source. If you need to review how to analyze your sources, please review the previous lesson: 

Analyzing Sources

Follow this example for your sources:

Source 1:   


The first source I chose was…..

The reason I chose this source was because…

Source 2: 


The second source I chose was….

The reason I chose this source was because…

World history homework help

I. Germany (1918-1933):
Ripe for Radical Change

National Collapse: Military defeat, wounded national pride

Economic Collapse: Inflation, Depression, unemployment

Government Paralysis: Weimar Republic, “candle burning at both ends”; Strong sense that the system has “failed”

Revolutionary Atmosphere: Threat of communist revolution

Psychological Malaise

II. Nazism as Ideology

National Socialist German Workers’ Party founded shortly after World War I

Disgruntled army veterans


Popular among unemployed, veterans

Emphasis on organization, charisma of messenger (Hitler), and appeal of message of change

What did Nazis Believe?

Restore glory of Germany: ultra-nationalistic

Racist: “Aryan”, Teutonic superiority; blood not class unites and divides “the people”

Anti-Semitic: Jews as alien to nation; responsible for all Germany’s ills

Anti-communist: Class struggles divide the people; Jewish conspiracy; appeals to middle-class

Anti-democratic: parties, parliament divide the nation; worthless bureaucrats

Anti-rich: against Big Business; emphasis on Volk

The Appeal: Struggle, Action, Protest

Contradictions: Society not pure, Jews small population, both communists and capitalists?

Struggle: Conflict is natural; survival of the fittest; might makes right

Action: “Do something”; contradictions melt away

Protest: Depression, Communism, Greed, Foreign Powers===The Jews

Meaning, Identity, and Redemption

III. Adolf Hitler

Austria born, 1889

World War I veteran

Early leader of National Socialist Party

Failed coup in 1923

Mein Kampf (1924)

Charisma, consistency

Belonging; tribalism

Modern media: radio, film, staged rallies, book burnings

Appointed Chancellor in 1933

IV. Fascism: Marriage of Powers

1932: Fascists and Communists earn 50% of votes in Germany

“Junker” establishment: army, bureaucracy; industrialists fear revolution; Communist viewed as worse; Hitler as lesser of threats

Feb. 1933 Reichstag Fire: blame communists and socialists

March 1933: ban all parties except Nazis

Junkers, elite, wealthy side with Hitler

Needs financial support; stops talking social revolution; tones down anti-capitalist rhetoric

Revolution Solidified

1934: Hitler seized power; purged dissidents; integrated establishment

Courts middle class

Begins rapid rearmament

Ends Depression; back to work

Escalation of persecution of Jews

Challenges Versailles Treaty: right to an army, right to lost territory

“secure for the German people the land to which they are entitled”

Fascism and Communism in Comparison

Both anti-liberal

Both one-party regimes

Both one-man dictatorships

Both use secret police, terror against population

Both have radical, transformative ideology

Both have scapegoats

Fascism: focus on race, protected elites, ultimately pro-capitalist

Communism: focus on class, destroyed elites, ultimately anti-capitalist

World history homework help

I. Russia as Traditional Society

Ruled by hereditary monarch: Tsar Nicolas II; Romanov family

Tradition of autocracy: rule by one

Small land holding aristocracy

Majority are peasants

Russia behind politically, economically

1905—Duma created; comprised of loyal and wealthy

Attempt to create industrialization through autocracy

II. Early 20th Century Russia: Social and Political Discontent

Industrialize by bringing in foreign investment

Fast, influx of best technology

But leads to popular discontent

85% of peasants own half of land; 3% of nobles own other half

Peasant land hunger; Miserable working conditions

No political remedy: absolutism, no constitution, no real parliament, no democracy, no real reform,

Worker strikes; radicalization of unions; use of troops to quell discontent

Russian troops firing on Russian people to protect interests of foreigners

No political remedy—violence as means to change

Role of World War I

4 million Russians conscripted

Wages fixed, strikes outlawed, real wages fall 15% to 45%

Bolsheviks Party outlawed but continue agitation

Food shortages, rationing, prohibition of alcohol

Military defeats and stalemates

February 1917: Tsar Nicholas at Front

Coldest winter in decades

Massive food and fuel shortages

670,000 strikes across Russia, mutinies, civil unrest in capital

“Bread, Peace, Land”

Police fire on crowds, the people shoot back

Who is to blame? Nicholas II abdicates

Provisional Government

Attempt to create new, constitutional, democratic government; enact reforms

The work of liberals in Duma; members of middle class

Just as unpopular as tsar; unable to restore order; insisted on continuing World War I

Returning soldiers and workers formed soviets (councils) who would govern local affairs and form new government; rival to Provisional Government

Enter Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

Child of middle class; early revolutionary; conspired to kill tsar and exiled in 1900

Interpreter of Karl Marx

Hoped to bring revolution from top down; short circuit process to go feudalism to communism

Nationalization of land

Single national bank

Create the world’s first Marxist state

Returns in April 1917 to undermine Provisional Government

The October Revolution

Lenin agitates for armed takeover; soviets have right to takeover

Peasants want land

Soldiers want peace

Workers demands: 8 hour workday, higher wages, price controls, worker management of industry

Provisional government tells all to wait

October 1917: soldiers loyal to Lenin seize Petrograd

Soviets purged of moderates; loyal to Lenin and committed to revolution

Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Government; establish new state to be led by Communist Party

Withdraw from World War I in March 1918; Romanov family executed in July 1918

Revolution in Russia

Crisis of World War I

Futility of Provisional Government

Weakness and discrediting of moderates

Bread, Peace and Land as popular slogan

Bolsheviks put themselves at head of revolution already under way

End of traditional society

New mode of governing: one party rule, rapid industrialization directed from party, redistribution of wealth, use centralized authority to consolidate power and purge dissidents

World history homework help

I. Themes of 20th Century

Inclusion/Exclusion: nationalism, imperialism, immigration, globalization

Tradition vs. Change

Clashing visions of progress

II. Economic Antecedents: The Industrial Revolutions

First Industrial Revolution begins 1750

Machine Power and Transportation Revolution

Development of Market Economy: surplus sold for consumption by a market

Concentration and Investment of Capital

Urbanization and Concentration of Production

Available Labor Force: Wages and Immigration

The Inventions of 18th and 19th Century

Steam engine

Cotton gin

Mechanical Reaper

Interchangeable parts




Sewing Machine






III. Cultural Antecedents

Faith in Progress and Embrace of Change

1829: “technology” enters English language

Charles Darwin and “evolution”

Louis Pasteur and Germ Theory

Comforts and Pleasures of Market Economy

Einstein: demolished predictable, “clockwork” universe

Freud and Psychoanalysis

IV. Political Antecedents

Traditional Societies

Rural, agricultural

Peasants and Nobles

Power of Tradition, Custom, and Religion

Monarchies, personal rule by divine right

Kinship, blood ties over individualism

Inequality rooted in tradition

Society as a body


Challenge to Traditional Thinking

Emerge in 18th and 19th century: made the Industrial Revolution

Individualism: personal liberty above all

Competition: natural and positive

Work Ethic: thrift, temperance, perseverance

Private Property: sacred right, sign of virtue and worth

Equality: under law, of opportunity; assault on aristocracy and nobility

Liberal Politics

Free speech, civil rights, ex. Bill of Rights

Personal freedom and freedom from interference

Representative government

Equality before law

The Danger: The “Mob”: unpropertied, unfit masses seeking to redistribute wealth; threat of “unworthy”

The Solution: limited franchise, indirect elections, checks and balances, strong executives

Democratic Societies

Democrats and Radicals: The Have-Nots

Concentration of Wealth a Threat to Freedom

Leads to class domination

Rich control society and repress poor

Inequality and Injustice

State should redistribute wealth in interests of all members of society

Democratic Politics: universal suffrage, direct elections, weak executive

Liberal and Democratic Revolutions in 19th and 20th Centuries

How to organize society?

traditional; liberal; democratic

What vision of progress?

Hierarchy and order; individualism; equal societies

World history homework help


{1} This is a critical essay, not a research paper requiring additional materials. The Essay is DUE ON MONDAY, 5/9, in class. (The due dates associated with the essay are found on the syllabus.) Before that date you also must complete a related task: a 250-300 word (1-page) preliminary Abstract, containing your essay thesis and some further detail on its overall content and conclusions. This is listed on the syllabus as Thesis/Abstract, and is DUE ON MONDAY 4/25. When turning in the essay you must also include your Abstract, with my comments and the grade, and the Essay Grading Checklist (on Blackboard). Together these make up the CRITICAL ESSAY PACKET (announcement to follow).

For this assignment you need only 2 required books:

<> Jill Ker Conway ed, Written By Herself, Vol. 2

<> Robert Strayer & Eric Nelson, Ways of the World, Vol. 2

The assigned chapters from Conway are by Vera Brittain (pp. 66-116), Emma Mashinini (352-388) Vijaya Pandit (438-488) and Gloria Wade-Gayles (569-619), also listed on the course syllabus. Your Essay must discuss ALL 4 of these authors. Just as important, students also must make full use of Strayer & Nelson, Ways of the World, which explores major processes in world history experienced by the women writers. (also cf. syllabus, p.1).

An essay is a specific literary genre, in which the writer formulates a THESIS or central argument, supports it with EVIDENCE in the MAIN BODY, and offers final insights in the CONCLUSION. Your essay must be 1500-1750 WORDS (6-7 PAGES) in length. You may write some more if you wish, but not much more; part of the assignment is to stay within length limits. It must have a DISTINCT TITLE which serves as a brief summary or description of the actual thesis or content (not e.g. “Critical Essay” or “World History”). You must also include the Bibliography found at the end on the Guidelines. The following requirements comprise two further parts: {2} the questions and issues to be discussed, and {3} specifications for citations and paper format.

{2} In developing a thesis based on the readings, you must address the following questions. Your answer to these questions constitutes your thesis.

— What do these women’s lives and writings tell us about major developments in modern world history?

— What do they have in common, and how did their varied backgrounds and circumstances result in different experiences?

{3} Your essay must have AT LEAST 16 SEPARATE CITATIONS with SPECIFIC PAGE REFERENCES, an average of MORE THAN 2 PER PAGE. Footnotes (preferred) or endnotes are acceptable, but not in-text citations; notes do not count as part of the word total. You must cite each of the 4 female authors AT LEAST 3 TIMES in separate notes, though you may cite more than one in particular notes. Strayer must be cited AT LEAST 3 TIMES and only once from the sections on the women’s movement. Direct quotations are permitted in support of your thesis, but they should be minimal and brief. It is your voice that matters, and your views developed through careful attention to the sources. You may refer to other course materials, but only to SUPPLEMENT the minimum total of required references, NOT to SUPPLANT them; they are best cited along with the page references to readings. Use of Internet materials is not PROHIBITED but is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED; the point is to analyze the assigned readings. One further suggestion: you can write a stronger paper by integrating your analysis of all four authors around key themes, rather than discussing them separately and in succession.

Essays must be typed in 14 or 12-point type, and double-spaced with 1.5-inch margins at the top, bottom and sides; pages must be individually numbered at top or bottom. Please include your name, email address and course number, along with the word count. NOTE: unlike the Map Test which allowed you to work together, you must WORK INDEPENDENTLY (apart from discussing the assignment) and SUBMIT SEPARATE ESSAYS. Finally, be sure to include the Bibliography found below at the end of the Critical Essay packet.





*** DO NOT use ANY INTERNET MATERIAL without a full, verifiable SOURCE (not just URL) ***



Jill Ker Conway ed, Written By Herself, Vol. 2: Women’s Memoirs from Britain, Africa, Asia and the United States (Vintage Books, 1996)

Includes excerpts from:

— Vera Brittain, “Testament of Youth,” 66-116

— Emma Mashinini, “Strikes have Followed Me all my Life,” 352-388

— Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, “The Scope of Happiness,” 438-488

— Gloria Wade-Gayles, “Pushed Back to Strength,” 569-619

Robert W. Strayer & Eric W. Nelson, Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Vol. 2 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015)

World history homework help

I. A Modern War

Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins

Bigger, more accurate cannons

Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas

Targeting of civilian populations

10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians

20 million wounded

58% casualty rate

Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)

II. Domestic Impacts of The Great War

Greater Power for Executives

Boon to Certain Industries and Corporations

Further Decline for Landed Aristocracy

Gains For Labor Unions

Great Migration in United States

Debt, Inflations, Taxes

Women in Workforce; in Political Causes of the War


Committee on Public Information

April 1917 Woodrow Wilson creates Committee on Public Information (CPI), headed by George Creel

75 million pamphlets distributed

Ads, Posters, Movies

Four-Minute Men

Represented U.S. as beacon of freedom, juxtaposed with tyranny of Germany

Targeted war protestors, represented Germans as animals

Function of unpopularity of war and possibilities of the new mass media and technology

III.Paris Peace Conference (1919)

Immediate Impacts:

*Germany Humiliated, Punished, Forced to Accept Blame

*Loses its Colonies

*Self-Determination in Europe: Create New States (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary)

*League of Nations Created But Weak

* Mandates Established in Middle East

*Japan shut out of negotiations

*Ho Chi Minh Ignored

Versailles Treaty: A Shameful End to a Shameful War

Europe After World War I

Middle East after World War I

Question of Russia…

Not present at Paris Peace Conference

Viewed as threat to global order



Refused to honor Russian treaties or debts

The World War I Era


Course of the War

Domestic Impacts

Impacts Geopolitically

“A World Safe for Democracy”

The Lost Utopia….

World history homework help

I. Age of Empire

1880-1914: major outburst of European empire building

1875: 10% of Africa controlled by Europeans

1895: 90% under control

By 1914: 4/5 of globe under American or European control

Fueled by industrialization

Justified, normalized by attendant cultural values

Motives for Imperialism

Economic (industrialization): raw materials, markets, strategic positions


Modern, new phenomenon in late 18th, 19th century

“Imagined Community”

Language, territory, culture, history, mythology, customs

Nationalism combined with economic drives and cultural ideologies cultivated a competitive drive for command of globe

II. Social Darwinism

1859, Charles Darwin publishes, On the Origin of Species

Introduces language of “evolution”, “natural selection”, “adaptation”, “progress”

Development of social sciences in 1870s

Erroneously apply Darwin’s theories to contemporary societies in the late 19th century

Natural, scientifically demonstrable, superiority of some groups; justifies inequality at home and imperialism abroad

Herbert Spencer: “Survival of the fittest”

Inferior bound by biology, impossible to fully ameliorate

Racial Science and Eugenics

Arthur de Gobineua: father of racial science

An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)

Distinction between “yellow”; “black” and “white”

Race formed culture; whites had superior culture

Whites had traits to govern and develop world

Blacks: weak intellect, “sensual”

Asians: cruel and deceptive

Ironically de Gobineua opposed the imperialism of his era but his theories were seized by those seeking justification

Eugenics in early 20th Century: asserted traits inherited, certain groups inferior, but also society in decline but able to be redeemed through reforms in line with eugenic “truths”

Tarzan and The Fantasies of Eugenics

III. A New Era: Decline of Spanish Empire

Despite reform efforts, Spain outpaced and in decline in industrializing 19th century

Independence movements in its few remaining colonies

Cuba and the United States in 1890s

Forces driving imperialism in U.S. in 1890s

Industrialization and Markets


Culture: Social Darwinism and Modern Media

(1898): The Spanish America War, “A Splendid Little War”

American Empire in 1900

U.S.-Philippine War

Filipinos had established government in 1897

McKinley: uplift and civilize and Christianize” the Filipinos

Atrocities committed by American troops (rapes, execution of civilians, torture of prisoners of war, burning of villages)

American troops prosecuted for “water boarding”

Concentration camps—death rates of 20%

General Jacob Smith and the Samar campaign (1901)

War officially spans January 1899 to July 4, 1902

Over 4,000 Americans dead; 16,000 Filipino soldiers dead; 500,000 to 1 million civilians dead

America and Global Ideology of Empire

War and colonization justified by idea of Filipinos as “unfit” for self-government

Role of U.S. as teacher, protector, civilizer

William Howard Taft, first Philippine commissioner in 1901, “fifty or a hundred years” to exhibit “Anglo-Saxon political principles”

Sen. Albert Beveridge argued for America’s divine sanction “the mission of our race as trustees of God is the civilization of the world”

Gods demands we “govern the savage and senile”

World history homework help

Take Test: Unit IV Assessment


Top of Form

Test Information



· Weight: 10% of course grade

· Due: Tuesday, 04/26/2022 11:59 PM (CST)

You may open this assessment multiple times, but you may only submit it once. You are encouraged to print the assessment and prepare your answers offline. Alternatively, you may enter and save your answers for a portion of the assessment and continue the assessment at a later time. Once all questions have been answered, click the “Save and Submit” button. The “Save and Submit” button is located at the bottom of the exam.

Go to Unit IV Assessment »

Multiple Attempts

Not allowed. This test can only be taken once.

Force Completion

This test can be saved and resumed later.

Your answers are saved automatically.

Expand Question Completion Status:


1. Which of the following is a factor that shaped medieval society?

Adoption of Roman ideals of citizenship and rejection of wergild

The development of warrior nobility

Increasing social mobility of the less wealthy

Decreasing centralization of land ownership

2 points   


1. Which of the following is the main factor in the barbarian Clovis’s successful conquest of Gaul?

Push-pull migration

Conversion to Christianity

Adoption of Roman ways

Creation of the Merovingian dynasty

2 points   



Which of the following was not a strategy used by Justinian to strengthen the Eastern Empire?

Promotion of religious toleration

Fortification of Constantinople

Reformation of legal codes

Enforcement of religious uniformity

2 points   


1. Which of the following stories is apocryphal?

The Donation of Constantine

The Confessions of St. Augustine

The Decline and Fall of Rome

The Nicene Creed

2 points   


1. Which of the following describes “The Edict of Milan”?

The Church council establishing the belief in the Trinity

The law decriminalizing Christianity

The division of the empire into four parts

The biography of St. Augustine

2 points   


1. Which of the following is an apocryphal story about St. Patrick of Ireland?

He was a Roman citizen.

He drove the snakes out of Ireland.

He was captured by pirates.

He converted the Irish to Christianity.

2 points   



Which of the following was not a cause of the fall of Rome?

The use of barbarian mercenaries

The rejection of militarist values

The corruption of Theodora

Barbarian kinship ties

2 points   



Which of the following factors did not cause barbarian migration?

Escape from forced Christian conversion

The flight from the Huns

The search for regular sources of food

Conflicts among barbarian tribes

2 points   



Which of the following factors did not contribute to the economic difficulties of Roman citizens during the reconstruction by Diocletian and Constantine?

Rising power of the Church

Roman taxation policies

Fear of barbarian invasion and bandits

Restricted choice of profession

2 points   


1. Who was Benedict of Nursia?

Founder of a cenobitic monastery

Founder of an Eremitical monastery

Author of The Consolation of Philosophy

North African hermit

2 points   


1. Match each term to its definition












Compensatory payment for death or injury set in many barbarian law codes


A barbarian war band loyal to a barbarian chieftain


Roman historian who criticized barbarian society


Military units comprised of barbarians and Romans


Christians who abided by Diocletian’s ban on Christianity


Payment in kind for taxes

20 points   


1. Match each product or characteristic to the appropriate historical figure


Augustine of Hippo






St. Anthony


Emperor Justinian


Known for eremitical monastic life


Petrine Doctrine


Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law)


The Consolation of Philosophy


Known for cenobitic monastic life


The Confessions

20 points   


1. Did the rise of Christianity support or weaken Rome in the years 300 to 600 C.E.? In your response, compare the impact Christianity had on both Eastern and Western Rome by introducing specific developments, events, and individuals from each side of the divided Roman Empire.

Your response must be at least 300 words in length.

For the toolbar, press ALT+F10 (PC) or ALT+FN+F10 (Mac).


Open Sans,sans-serif




40 points   

Click Save and Submit to save and submit. Click Save All Answers to save all answers.


Bottom of Form

World history homework help

CSTU 101

Essay Assignment Instructions


There are 2 short essays which require you to apply the knowledge you have gained in a creative and subjective way. Please read the instructions for each essay thoroughly, so that you know the issues that need to be addressed. You do not need to do extensive research or reading to complete this assignment, although it may require a small amount of exploration. Each Essay assignment must be 200-250 words and needs to include the word count in parentheses. Use your own words as much as possible, but if you include sources, you must cite your sources in current APA format. Also, I would suggest that you look over the Grading Rubric before you submit your assignment.

You will first submit a draft of each Essay assignment to be checked through Turnitin so you can make adjustments prior to your final submission. Please note that the draft submission is optional. Submit your draft by Thursday at 11:59 P.M. (ET) before the final assignment is due in order to receive feedback on it.


Essay: Greek Pride versus the Christian View of Pride Assignment

In chapter 8 we read about the Greeks’ justifiable view of pride in superior accomplishments. Compare the Greeks’ view of pride versus the Christians’ view of pride taught in Scripture. Why did the Greeks view pride as they did? What does the Bible say about pride? What do you feel is the cause of our present day view of pride within Western Culture? What about an individual’s achievements in sports? Can pride be both good and bad? Is there a balance? Just a few of the questions you can discuss.

Essay: The Reasons for Early Christian Persecution Assignment

Review the item Watch: Dr. Francis Schaeffer: How Should We Then Live? Episode 1 of 10 in the Learn section of Module 5: Week 5, and then address the following prompt: In ancient Roman culture Christians were marginalized and in many cases persecuted. Give examples of some of this that you saw in the video. Also, answer the following: We see similar instances of this type of marginalization and persecution within America and around the world today. Please give some examples of this and also why this persecution occurs.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

World history homework help

Analyze the pyramids in Egypt in terms of what is “religious” about them. 5 scholarly
sources should be employed, and include citations and a properly formatted
bibliography. Papers must be AT LEAST 6 pages, and be double-spaced 12 point
Times New Roman font, with 1″ top and side margins. Any deviation from this
format will result in a lower grade. MLA.

– Intoduction include: history, context, who created it, what is it, where is it, why was it

Body: state which one of the 7 religious dimensions you will use to to relate to why the
pyramids are religious.


World history homework help

The Global Cold War
Proxy Wars, Coup d’états, and Revolutions
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

Late 1945

 Some countries and societies devastated.

 Europe, China, USSR in particular.

 True extent of Nazi crimes against humanity being uncovered.

 United Nations recently created.

 Imperial system in disarray.

 Rising nationalism among colonial subjects.

Post-WWII World

 Economic growth.

 Decolonization.
 And post-colonial nation-building.

 In the context of…

 The Cold War.
 Indirect USSR-USA confrontation.

 Global.

Today’s Class

 Origins and effects of the Cold War.

 Global.

 The Cuban Revolution,.

 A Cold War parable.

 Difficulties of staying out of Superpowers’ influence.

The Global Cold War

The Cold War Defined

 “The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States that followed World War II and shaped
world politics between 1945 and 1989” (textbook, 994).

 Multiple dimensions.

 Tried to show the world each had the best model.

 For modern prosperity.

 Ideology and security.

 From diplomacy to proxy wars.

 Affected Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

 Global Cold War.

Cold War Origins

 Ideological and geopolitical confrontation since earlier on.

 Mutual mistrust since 1917.

 Post-WW2.

 Both emerged as superpowers.

 Although had experienced the war differently.

 USA’s territory unharmed.

 Massive destruction in the USSR.

The USSR and Eastern Europe

 Pro-Soviet Communist regimes installed in Eastern Europe.

 Buffer zone.

 Followed Stalin’s brutal economic development blueprint.

 Collectivization of agriculture.

 State controlled heavy industry.

 Nationalization of private property.

 Soviet control of Eastern European regimes.


Soviet and American tanks face each
other in Berlin, October 1961.

The United States

 Economic and military aid to gain and
consolidate allegiance.

 Containment.

 Aid initially to rebuild Europe and

 Later to many countries in Latin
America, Asia, and Africa.

Construction in West Berlin featuring a
Marshall Plan sign, 1948.

Economic and Military Aid Collateral

 Positive effects.

 Rebuilding infrastructure.

 Improving material conditions.

 Possible collateral effects.

 U.S. influence in local politics not always positive.

 E.g. Latin American 1960s and 1970s military dictatorships.

Budapest 1956
and Prague 1968

 Examples of how difficult it was to leave the
superpowers’ influence and control.

 City of Budapest, Hungary, 1956.

 Student protest turned revolt against pro-
Soviet communist regime.

 Government ousted.

 Soviet invasion restored pro-Soviet

 City of Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1968.

 Local communist party sought liberalizing
reforms still within socialism.

 Obtained popular support.

 Soviet invasion.
A scene in Budapest, Hungary,
October 1956.

The Cuban Revolution
A Parable of the Cold War

Why the Cuban Revolution?

 What does the Cuban Revolution suggest about the Cold War context?

 How the superpowers competed for control across the globe.

 How smaller countries navigated the Cold War under constraints.

 The interaction between a global phenomenon (the Cold War) a local reality and
history (Cuba, specifically).

The Cuban Revolution’s Roots

 Go way deeper than the Cold War.

 Americans and the Cuban sugar planter elite associated since around the 1870s.

 Cuba virtually an American protectorate following independence from Spain in

Growing U.S.

 Cuban economy heavily dependent on
sugar exports and U.S. investors and traders.

 Economic fluctuations caused unrest.

 And successive U.S. interventions.

 Fulgencio Batista.

 Post-Great Depression pro-U.S. dictator,

 Entertainment, sugar, communications,
energy, and mining sectors controlled by
American investors and a few Cuban

1950s advertisement of a Cuban Hotel and Cassino to
the American public.

1950s Cuba and Fidel

 Cuban middle and working-class.

 Sought higher standards of living.

 Fidel Castro.

 Middle-class reformer, not a communist.

 Turned to armed struggle due to lack of
political openings in Batista’s dictatorship.

Guerrilla in Cuba

 Castro met Che Guevara in Mexico.

 Poverty and U.S. intervention in Latin America worried both.

 82-men guerrilla groups arrived in Cuba in 1956.

 To destabilize Batista’s regime and cause it to fall.

 International public relations campaign.

 Good relationship with the peasants in the countryside.

The Fall of
 Castro expected an urban uprising

that did not happen.

 Batista kept the cities under
control with brutal repression.

 U.S. drops support for Batista.

 August 1958, guerrilla in the offensive.

 Batista left, Castro entered Havana on
January 1st 1959.

 No Soviets in the picture so far.

Castro’s group enter Havana with a
captured tank. January 1st, 1959.

What kind of revolution?

 Cuba’s history of U.S. domination.

 Would put Castro and the U.S. in route of collision.

 When all opposition to U.S. interest was seen as a pro-Soviet communist plot.

 Most of the population shared:

 Disgust for the old political establishment.

 Sought greater social justice.

 Greater independence.

 But beyond that, how to achieve such goals? No clear blueprint.

 But lots of power in the hands of Castro.

Castro’s Early Measures and Escalating
Confrontation with the U.S.
 Took the opportunity to centralize power.

 Wage increases, price control, land reform.

 Land reform clashed with U.S. interest; seen as communist.

 Escalation of Cuba-U.S. confrontation.

 Trade agreement with the Soviet Union.

 CIA and Pentagon acted to undermine Castro.

Bay of Pigs, April 1961

 CIA-backed invasion of Cuba by an army of Cuban exiles.

 Expected an uprising to begin against Castro following the beginning of the

 Underestimated Cuba’s defense capabilities and initial popular support for the

 Disaster for the U.S.; triumph for Castro.

After Bay of Pigs

 Castro deepened ties with the
Soviet Union.

 Turned the Cuban Communist
Party as the backbone of a
single-party system.

 Declared himself a Marxist-

 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962.

Castro and Khrushchev in the 1960s in

Cuba and the Cold War

 Emergence of the Cuban socialist regime deeply connected to the Cold War.

 And to Cuba’s previous historical experience.

 Cuba’s socialism endured the Cold War; many phases.

 Legacy of some social improvement.

 But lack of freedom and economic hardship due to a combination of reasons.

  • The Global Cold War�Proxy Wars, Coup d’états, and Revolutions
  • Late 1945
  • Post-WWII World
  • Today’s Class
  • The Global Cold War
  • The Cold War Defined
  • Cold War Origins
  • The USSR and Eastern Europe
  • Germany Divided
  • The United States
  • Economic and Military Aid Collateral Effects
  • Budapest 1956 and Prague 1968
  • The Cuban Revolution�A Parable of the Cold War
  • Why the Cuban Revolution?
  • The Cuban Revolution’s Roots
  • Growing U.S. Influence
  • 1950s Cuba and Fidel Castro
  • Guerrilla in Cuba
  • The Fall of Batista
  • What kind of revolution?
  • Castro’s Early Measures and Escalating Confrontation with the U.S.
  • Bay of Pigs, April 1961
  • After Bay of Pigs
  • Cuba and the Cold War

World history homework help

History 111 – World History since 1500

Final Essay Outline Guide Sheet

Use this guide to plan how you are going to complete the final essay. I will provide feedback on this essay plan to help you successfully complete the last assignment of our course.

Make sure to read the final essay instructions before working on your essay outline.

Which document set will you write about?

i) Set 1 – Spanish America.

ii) Set 2 – Asia and Global Trade.

iii) Set 3 – The Atlantic Revolutions.

iv) Set 4 (film) – Decolonization.

Think of the course materials that will help you contextualize the documents and relate them to broader themes we have discussed.

1. List all themes/historical phenomena we have discussed during the course that you think relate with chosen set. Think broadly about the relationship between the themes; you may relate, for instance, the colonization of the Americas (set 1) with 19th century imperialism.

2. Which of themes/historical phenomena listed above will you focus on? In other words, what do you actually plan to discuss?

3. Lectures and lecture parts that will help you write the essay.

4. Textbook chapters and chapter parts that will help you write the essay.

Think through the text structure.

1. In what order will you present your discussion? Think of the division of the essay in terms of paragraphs, or at least sections.

2. What course materials will you use/cite in each paragraph or part of the essay?

3. What primary sources parts or aspects will you use/cite in each paragraph or part of the essay?

World history homework help





Instructions: “Part II”

Purpose:  Choose one of the larger themes below and develop a creative project or work around it, using what you have learned this semester.  Narrow one of these themes into a more specific thesis, question, or contestable claim. Use one of the following mediums to explore your topic:

· Researched essay of 1000+ words (or at least 4 full pages in 12 pt. font) exploring the topic pulling from primary sources of all/any types.  See 
Starting Your History Essay
 for reference. 

· Regardless of your project medium or modality, remember to check the links below for minimum requirements, as well as the examples and helpful links provided afterward.  Don’t forget to cite all of your sources (including images).  Check 
How to Cite Sources in Chicago Style
 for help with this, and ask your instructor if you have questions!

Starting Your History Essay

Starting Your Presentation

Starting Your Podcast and/or Oral History Interview(s)


Choose one of the following overarching themes:

· Democracy and diversity: How democratic is our democracy?  

· Identity: What does it mean to be an American?

· Culture: How has culture unified or divided Americans?

· Politics and Citizenship: What does it mean to be an American citizen? What is the role of the government?

Choose a medium and narrow your topic.  One may be somewhat determined by the other – if you know what you want your specific topic to be, that may inform which medium you choose, or vice versa. 

You may want to focus on the evolving timeline of a certain topic (see the 
Timeline Activity in Unit 2
 to refresh your memory on this) or you may choose to narrow your topic by limiting it to a certain time period – here are some suggestions:

· 1865-1890

· 1890-1920

· 1920-1945

· 1945-1968

· 1968-present

Think about the the claim or argument you want to make or the question you want to answer, and how best you can present your research to achieve that goal.  Make that question or argument clear in the title of your project, and remember that you will need to provide analysis for your sources, and not merely summarize facts or events

You’ll have some help developing your ideas through the 
Final Project Brainstorm Discussion
, and your instructor will “sign off” on your final chosen topic and modality via the 
Final Project: Topic, Working Thesis, and Format
 check-in assignment. 

Then, prepare your interview questions and/or collect your sources, documentation, quotes, photos, songs, etc., citing them appropriately in your bibliography or Works Cited slide (you’ll work on annotating two of your sources for your 
Final Project Part I: Topic, Working Thesis, and Format
, but for your final turn-in your bibliography doesn’t need to be annotated.)

.  For each entry, briefly summarize the source, note its credibility or bias, and state how you plan to use it in your project.  This will help you shape the project as you collect evidence.  Refer back to the pages on working with sources and the questions in the assessments throughout the course to help you frame the project.

Finally, after you’ve completed your project, write a 1 page (2-3 paragraph) reflection on how this process went for you – what came easy, what was frustrating, how you feel about your results. This will likely be a project that will push you out of your comfort zone, precisely because you have so much freedom. 

· Did this freedom feel liberating, or was it overwhelming?

· What did you learn about your topic?

· What did you learn about yourself and your process? What questions did you want to explore but didn’t? 

· How do you feel it represents your learning in the course overall?

File submissions:  Please submit your file as a DOC.X or PDF file if an essay or presentation, an MP4 file if a video, and interviews/podcasts in MP3 format.   Contact your instructor beforehand if you’re unsure or have questions.

Criteria on which you will be graded:

· Clarity/logic of your argument/claim or question

· How well your project supports that argument/claim or answers that question through analysis of your sources

· Medium fulfills the above time/page requirements

· Primary sources are used and correctly cited in 
Chicago Style – this document will show you how.

· Your correctly formatted bibliography summarizes, evaluates and communicates how each of your sources will be used – you’ll work on annotating this for your 
Final Project Part I: Topic, Working Thesis, and Format
, but for Part II it doesn’t need to be annotated.

· Originality and creativity of your work (don’t go find someone else’s photo essay and copy it – create your own!)

· Inclusion of a written reflection on your work

World history homework help

Instructions: “Part I”

Purpose:  This “Part I” assignment is essential for successful completion of your Final Project, and it alone counts for 5% of your entire grade.  This step assures you’ve reviewed the Final Project options, chosen one, and begun work on it.  You will get a jump-start by drafting an outline, annotating two scholarly sources, and submitting your theme, topic, time period, format, thesis, and a paragraph on your overall approach.

One of the biggest challenges of this project is choosing a narrower topic, era, movement, or concept to analyze within one of these broader themes:

· Democracy and diversity: How democratic is our democracy?  

· Identity: What does it mean to be an American?


· Culture: How has culture unified or divided Americans?

· Politics and Citizenship: What does it mean to be an American citizen? What is the role of the government?

For instance, you could address the broad theme of American democracy by focusing on the fight to protect voting rights during the 1960s. Or you could examine the issue of Culture by analyzing protest music of the Vietnam War era. Within the broad theme that you select from the options, it’s most helpful to narrow your focus to both a topic/concept AND a time period, i.e. voting rights/1960s, protest music/Vietnam era, women’s suffrage/Roaring Twenties, or labor wars/Age of Industrialization. This will help to keep the project a manageable size by coming in on a specific idea and limit the scope of your research to a time period.  When you’re choosing a topic, think about the things in the course so far that have struck you – events, people, or movements.  Go back to that material in the course and see what you’d like to investigate further.

Time Period Options (you aren’t restricted to the periods below, they are just general options to consider):

· 1865-1890

· 1890-1920

· 1920-1945

· 1945-1968

· 1968-present


· Research and find two scholarly sources that will provide information and context for your project.  Watch the 
How to Use GALILEO Discover Search
 video to learn more about searching in GALILEO.  Annotate your two sources (see the 
Annotating Sources: Creating Your Annotated Bibliography
 video for help on how to do this) and include information from your sources in your outline below.  Need help with this?  
Use the embedded librarians – they’re there to help!

· Write out an organizational outline of your project.  Even if you’re not writing an essay, treat this outline as if you were – bullet out topics you want to explore in your video or presentation, questions you’d like to ask in an interview, or annotations for songs you’re including in each “paragraph.”  Shoot for outlining 5-6 “body paragraphs” at this stage, in addition to your introduction and conclusion (you may add more as you go along).  The more detailed your outline, the more feedback and guidance your instructor will be able to provide to make sure you’re on the right track.  Feel free to copy the format on the 
Creating an Outline
 page to get you started.  Don’t be surprised, if, while writing your outline, you discover more about your topic and your thesis and/or other choices change as a result!  This is the very nature of learning.

· When you’re done, list the following at the top of your outline document:  your broad themenarrower topic/concept and time period, and the format or modality you’ve chosen.  Underneath that, write your refined thesis – what you’re attempting to argue or show.  Improving and refining your thesis is one of the key aspects of this project – don’t merely repeat what you submitted in the Unit 4 Brainstorm discussions.  Check the following resources:

Building a Strong Thesis Statement and Writing Advice

· the 
UNC Writing Center page on developing Thesis Statements

· Finally, after your thesis, write an informal paragraph explaining your overall approach to your project:  why your topic and format/modality go together well, and the progression of your argument or position – how do your different points/questions/songs connect and hang together?  How do the two sources you found support your thesis?  If you have specific questions for your instructor on how to do any of these, include them as well.

World history homework help

The Colonial Order in the
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

Recap ~1492-1560

 Disastrous first contact in Hispaniola and other Caribbean Islands.

 Disease, violence, encomienda.

 Conquest of the Inca and Aztec Empires.

 Disease, timing and circumstances, Spanish tactics.

 Silver.

 Portuguese Brazil.

 Coastal colony.

The “Colonial Middle”

 ~1550-1750.

 Economic and political models established.

 Decreased military conflict.

 Native Americans dealing with the new

 Enslaved Africans forming communities
and resisting.

Plan of Lima, capital of the Spanish Vice-
Royalty of Peru, 1744.

This Lecture

 Case study: Spanish America.

 Colonial Government.

 Economy.

 Aspects of society.

 Slavery and sugar.

 Brazil, Caribbean.

 Resistance.

Spanish America: Colonial


 Goals: wealth and allegiance.

 Europe to America: distance.

 Reliable but slow

 Impact how to govern.
Main Spanish and Portuguese Sea Routes.

Spanish Colonial

 Council of the Indies.

 Spanish subjects with interests in Spain in
key positions in the colonial administration.

 Viceroyalty; Provinces.

 Audiencias: high appeal court.

 Town Councils (Cabildos): controlled by
Spanish settlers.

“Two Republics”

 Survival of native communities.
 Tribute and labor.

 The “Republic of Indians.”
 Indigenous self-government at village level.
 Indigenous town councils.

 The “Republic of Spaniards.”
 Everything else.

Spanish America: Economy
and Society

Two Republics and Stability

 Traditional native elites.
 Colonizers – Natives intermediation.

 Relatively negotiated imposition of colonial rule.

 Audiencias.
 Some relief to grievances.

The Colonial

 Almost self-sufficient early on.

 Ranching and farming developed

 Favorable environment; workforce.

 Export-focused; monopolistic trade
through Seville.

 Primary activity: silver mining.

 Secondary export products: gold, cacao,
dyes, hides, and others.

Port of Seville, Spain. All trade from Spanish
America had to go through Seville.

Native Labor

 Rotational labor drafts.

 Communities forced to provide quotas of laborers for a certain amount of time.

 New Spain: repartimiento.

 Peru: mita.

 Similar to native pre-conquest labor drafts, but harsher.

 Facilitated by the “two republics” system.

Spanish America: Society,
Race, and Religion

Race and Social Hierarchy

 Race and Ethnicity in the organization of the colonies.

 Natives: tribute and servitude.

 Africans: slavery.

 Mixed-races.

 “castas.”

 Also inferior by law and discriminated in practice.

 But Complicated social hierarchization based on racial boundaries.


 Racial boundaries blurred by casta population.

 Calidad (“quality”).

 Physical.

 Cultural.

 And social attributes.

 Position in society.

Casta painting containing
complete set of 16 casta
combinations. 18th

Century Mexico. Unknown


 Provided some common

 Religious conformity expected.

 Catholicism blended with
indigenous and African
religious practices.

Coricancha (Inca’s Golden Temple) walls with the
Spanish Convent of Santo Domingo built on top of it.

Sugar and Slavery

Slavery: Where and Why?

 Slavery developed where…
 Compulsory native labor not advantageous to colonists.

 Diminished indigenous populations.

 Highly profitable activities to compensate for capital investment
(purchase and maintenance of slaves)

 More often in export agriculture.

 But also in urban settings.

Slavery in the Americas

 Mass slavery, forming slave societies.

 Mostly rural.

 Plantations.

 Some mining and ranching areas.

 Auxiliary slavery, forming societies with slaves.

 Urban centers.

 Service sector.

Sugar Plantations

 High demand in Europe for sugar.

 First in Hispaniola and Mexico.

 Thrived in Pernambuco and Bahia (Brazil), and later in the Caribbean.

 Transitioned from enslavement of natives to massive use of enslaved


 Specialized commercial enterprises.

 Large investment capital
required: machinery and slaves.

 Economic driving forces of Brazil and
the Caribbean.

 Dependent domestic economy.

 Specialization of the workforce.

 Harsh labor regime.

 Plantation owners and transatlantic
sugar merchants profited.

Early 19th century
representation of a Brazilian
sugar mill.

Gold and Slavery in

 Gold and diamonds found in the interior.

 Shaped eighteenth-century Brazil.

 Interiorization.

 Slavery in the mining district.

 Gold collected by enslaved Africans in
colonial Brazil would help fund the
industrial revolution in England.

Meanwhile, in the Caribbean

 17th and 18th centuries.

 Dutch spread the sugar plantation model in the Caribbean after occupying
sugar producing areas of Portuguese Brazil (1630-1654)

 Indentured servitude replaced by large scale slavery.

 Harsher than in Brazil.

 Racial distinction and racist hierarchies strongly enforced in colonies controlled by
northern Europeans.


 Public punishment.

 Center of towns and cities.

 Show of power of Masters
and colonial authorities.

Public Punishment. Johann Moritz Rugendas. (c. 1820s.)



 Flight to the margins.

 Refusal and rebellion.
 Faced Spaniard


 Legal action.

Page of the Codex
Tepetlaoztoc, c. 1550.

Urban Slavery

 Services, workshops, construction, transportation.

 Regional capitals and port cities.

 Increased social tension.

 Public torture and execution.

Urban Blacks and
Freedom Strategies

 Some access to money.

 Self-Purchase.

 Still, uncertainty faced
freed individuals and
urban Black communities.

Jean-Baptiste Debret. Urban Slavery, early 19th
century Rio de Janeiro.

Black Lay Brotherhoods

 Support and solidarity networks.

 From the 18th century, common in urban centers and mining districts

 Secured funds to purchase freedom.

 Additionally, sought to provide:

 Health assistance.

 Pay for decent burials.

 Legal advice.

Rural Slaves

 Self-purchase more difficult.

 Harsher labor regimes.

 Less access to monetized transactions.

 Formation of runaway communities.

 Main strategy towards freedom.

 Frequent in plantation zones.

 Quilombos in Portuguese America.

 Palenques in Spanish America.

 Maroon Communities.


 Free Black communities.

 Formed by runaway slaves
since the beginning of

 Frequent formation in
plantation zones.

 Threat to the established
colonial order.

Map of Pernambuco, Brazil, representing the maroon
community of Palmares. Frans Post, 1647.

Quilombo of Palmares

 Largest of the Americas.

 Formed during the Dutch invasion of Brazil

 Sugar-growing area.

 Confederation.

 10,000 to 20,000 people.

 Zumbi of Palmares (Leader)

 Defeated in 1694, after decades of fight
and negotiation.

Monument to Zumbi, leader of
the Parlmares maroon
Community. Downtown
Salvador, Brazil.

Native and African Resistance

 Rural zones: free maroon communities.

 Urban centers: self-purchase and lay brotherhoods.

 Indigenous Americans also resisted.

 Shaped colonial societies.

 Today: fight against the legacy of slavery, overexploitation, and

  • The Colonial Order in the Americas
  • Recap ~1492-1560
  • The “Colonial Middle”
  • This Lecture
  • Spanish America: Colonial Government
  • Colonial Government
  • Spanish Colonial Government
  • “Two Republics”
  • Spanish America: Economy and Society
  • Two Republics and Stability
  • The Colonial Economy
  • Native Labor
  • Spanish America: Society, Race, and Religion
  • Race and Social Hierarchy
  • Calidad
  • Número do slide 16
  • Catholicism
  • Sugar and Slavery
  • Slavery: Where and Why?
  • Slavery in the Americas
  • Sugar Plantations
  • Plantations
  • Gold and Slavery in Brazil
  • Meanwhile, in the Caribbean
  • Violence
  • Resistance
  • Indigenous Resistance
  • Urban Slavery
  • Urban Blacks and Freedom Strategies
  • Black Lay Brotherhoods
  • Rural Slaves
  • Maroon Communities
  • Quilombo of Palmares
  • Native and African Resistance

World history homework help

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History
Patrick Rael, Bowdoin College, 2004
http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/ 1

How to Read a Primary Source

Good reading is about asking questions of your sources. Keep the following in mind when reading
primary sources. Even if you believe you can’t arrive at the answers, imagining possible answers will
aid your comprehension. Reading primary sources requires that you use your historical imagination.
This process is all about your willingness and ability to ask questions of the material, imagine
possible answers, and explain your reasoning.

I. Evaluating primary source texts: I’ve developed an acronym that may help guide your evaluation
of primary source texts: PAPER.

C Purpose of the author in preparing the document
C Argument and strategy she or he uses to achieve those goals
C Presuppositions and values (in the text, and our own)
C Epistemology (evaluating truth content)
C Relate to other texts (compare and contrast)

C Who is the author and what is her or his place in society (explain why you are justified in

thinking so)? What could or might it be, based on the text, and why?
• Why did the author prepare the document? What was the occassion for its creation?
C What is at stake for the author in this text? Why do you think she or he wrote it? What

evidence in the text tells you this?
C Does the author have a thesis? What — in one sentence — is that thesis?

C What is the text trying to do? How does the text make its case? What is its strategy for

accomplishing its goal? How does it carry out this strategy?
C What is the intended audience of the text? How might this influence its rhetorical strategy?

Cite specific examples.
C What arguments or concerns does the author respond to that are not clearly stated? Provide

at least one example of a point at which the author seems to be refuting a position never
clearly stated. Explain what you think this position may be in detail, and why you think it.

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History
Patrick Rael, Bowdoin College, 2004
http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/ 2

C Do you think the author is credible and reliable? Use at least one specific example to explain
why. Make sure to explain the principle of rhetoric or logic that makes this passage credible.

C How do the ideas and values in the source differ from the ideas and values of our age? Offer

two specific examples.
C What presumptions and preconceptions do we as readers bring to bear on this text? For

instance, what portions of the text might we find objectionable, but which contemporaries
might have found acceptable. State the values we hold on that subject, and the values
expressed in the text. Cite at least one specific example.

C How might the difference between our values and the values of the author influence the way
we understand the text? Explain how such a difference in values might lead us to mis-
interpret the text, or understand it in a way contemporaries would not have. Offer at least
one specific example.

C How might this text support one of the arguments found in secondary sources we’ve read?

Choose a paragraph anywhere in a secondary source we’ve read, state where this text might
be an appropriate footnote (cite page and paragraph), and explain why.

C What kinds of information does this text reveal that it does not seemed concerned with
revealing? (In other words, what does it tell us without knowing it’s telling us?)

C Offer one claim from the text which is the author’s interpretation. Now offer one example of
a historical “fact” (something that is absolutely indisputable) that we can learn from this text
(this need not be the author’s words).

Relate: Now choose another of the readings, and compare the two, answering these questions:
C What patterns or ideas are repeated throughout the readings?
C What major differences appear in them?
C Which do you find more reliable and credible?

II. Here are some additional concepts that will help you evaluate primary source texts:

A. Texts and documents, authors and creators: You’ll see these phrases a lot. I use the first two
and the last two as synonyms. Texts are historical documents, authors their creators, and
vice versa. “Texts” and “authors” are often used when discussing literature, while
“documents” and “creators” are more familiar to historians.

B. Evaluating the veracity (truthfulness) of texts: For the rest of this discussion, consider the
example of a soldier who committed atrocities against non-combatants during wartime.
Later in his life, he writes a memoir that neglects to mention his role in these atrocities, and
may in fact blame them on someone else. Knowing the soldier’s possible motive, we would
be right to question the veracity of his account.

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History
Patrick Rael, Bowdoin College, 2004
http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/ 3

C. The credible vs. the reliable text:
1. Reliability refers to our ability to trust the consistency of the author’s account of the

truth. A reliable text displays a pattern of verifiable truth-telling that tends to render the
unverifiable parts of the text true. For instance, the soldier above may prove to be utterly
reliable in detailing the campaigns he participated in during the war, as evidence by
corroborating records. The only gap in his reliability may be the omission of details
about the atrocities he committed.

2. Credibility refers to our ability to trust the author’s account of the truth on the basis of
her or his tone and reliability. An author who is inconsistently truthful — such as the
soldier in the example above — loses credibility. There are many other ways authors
undermine their credibility. Most frequently, they convey in their tone that they are not
neutral (see below). For example, the soldier above may intersperse throughout his
reliable account of campaign details vehement and racist attacks against his old enemy.
Such attacks signal readers that he may have an interest in not portraying the past
accurately, and hence may undermine his credibility, regardless of his reliability.

3. An author who seems quite credible may be utterly unreliable. The author who takes a
measured, reasoned tone and anticipates counter-arguments may seem to be very
credible, when in fact he presents us with complete balderdash. Similarly, a reliable
author may not always seem credible. It should also be clear that individual texts
themselves may have portions that are more reliable and credible than others.

D. The objective vs. the neutral text: We often wonder if the author of a text has an “ax to
grind” which might render her or his words unreliable.
1. Neutrality refers to the stake an author has in a text. In the example of the soldier who

committed wartime atrocities, the author seems to have had a considerable stake in his
memoir, which was the expunge his own guilt. In an utterly neutral document, the
creator is not aware that she or he has any special stake in the construction and content
of the document. Very few texts are ever completely neutral. People generally do not go
to the trouble to record their thoughts unless they have a purpose or design which
renders them invested in the process of creating the text. Some historical texts, such as
birth records, may appear to be more neutral than others, because their creators seem to
have had less of a stake in creating them. (For instance, the county clerk who signed
several thousand birth certificates likely had less of a stake in creating an individual birth
certificate than did a celebrity recording her life in a diary for future publication as a

2. Objectivity refers to an author’s ability to convey the truth free of underlying values,
cultural presuppositions, and biases. Many scholars argue that no text is or ever can be
completely objective, for all texts are the products of the culture in which their authors
lived. Many authors pretend to objectivity when they might better seek for neutrality.
The author who claims to be free of bias and presupposition should be treated with
suspicion: no one is free of their values. The credible author acknowledges and expresses
those values so that they may accounted for in the text where they appear.

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History
Patrick Rael, Bowdoin College, 2004
http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/ 4

E. Epistemology: a fancy word for a straight-forward concept. “Epistemology” is the branch of
philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge. How do you know what you know?
What is the truth, and how is it determined? For historians who read primary sources, the
question becomes: what can I know of the past based on this text, how sure can I be about it,
and how do I know these things?
1. This can be an extremely difficult question. Ultimately, we cannot know anything with

complete assurance, because even our senses may fail us. Yet we can conclude, with
reasonable accuracy, that some things are more likely to be true than others (for instance,
it is more likely that the sun will rise tomorrow than that a human will learn to fly
without wings or other support). Your task as a historian is to make and justify decisions
about the relative veracity of historical texts, and portions of them. To do this, you need
a solid command of the principles of sound reasoning.

World history homework help

Read the question carefully. You can receive full credit only by directly answering all aspects of the question. You must answer the question in essay form. An outline or bulleted list is not acceptable. (Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These designations correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some art history resources.)

The image shows lintel 25 from Yaxchilán, created in 725 C.E., which depicts an interaction between the human and the divine in Maya culture.

Select and completely identify another work of art that depicts an interaction between an individual or individuals and the divine. You may select a work from the list below or any other relevant work from any geographic area or time period.

Describe specific visual characteristics of both lintel 25 and your selected work.

Using specific visual evidence from both works, explain at least one similarity and one difference in how lintel 25 and your selected work depict an interaction between an individual or individuals and the divine.

Explain one similarity or one difference in how lintel 25 and your selected work express the values or beliefs of the society in which each work was created. Support your explanation with an example of relevant iconographic (use of symbols) or contextual information from both your chosen work and the work shown.

When identifying the work you select, you should try to include all of the following identifiers: title or designation, name of the artist and/or culture of origin, date of creation, and materials. You will earn credit for the identification if you provide at least two accurate identifiers, but you will not be penalized if any additional identifiers you provide are inaccurate. If you select a work from the list below, you must include at least two accurate identifiers beyond those that are given.

Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

The figure presents the photograph of a sculpture.

© Werner Forman / Art Resource, NY

World history homework help

HIS101 – World Civilizations I

Unit 8 Assignment: Final Assessment

Due Date: 11:59 pm EST Friday of Unit 8
Points: 100


Throughout this course, you have studied civilizations from around the globe that span
thousands of years of human history. For this assignment, you will choose two of these
civilizations to compare.


• Choose one civilization from List A and one civilization from list B below. Please
do not choose a civilization that you included in your Unit 5 Assignment.

o List A:
 Mayans
 Incans
 Aztecs
 France (800-1400)
 England (800-1400)

o List B
 China (800-1400)
 Japan (800-1400)
 The Mongols
 Renaissance Italy

• Answer the following questions about each civilization:
o Who rules the civilization? How are the leaders chosen, and what powers

do those leaders have?
o What did people in the civilization believe? Did they worship one god or

many gods? Did they try to impose their religion on other groups, or did
they tolerate the multiplicity of beliefs?

o How was the civilization’s society organized? Did religion play a role in
defining a person’s role? Was it possible to change your position in

• To answer the questions above, return to the textbook and review the relevant

o In addition to your textbook, you should use at least two outside

• In your conclusion (approximately three paragraphs), compare and contrast the
two civilizations based on the features that you have described. Include your
opinion on why those differences arose.


• The paper should be 4-5 pages in length, not including the Title and Reference

• Submit a Word document in APA format.
• Use both your textbook and at least two outside resources for your research

(khanacademy.org or worldhistory.org are a good place to start). Be sure to use
APA formatting to cite your resources.

Be sure to read the criteria below by which your work will be evaluated before
you write and again after you write.

Evaluation Rubric for Unit 8 Assignment

CRITERIA Deficient Needs

Proficient Exemplary

(0-12 points) (13-21 points) (22-29 points) (30-35 points)
Description of

The paper
does not
answer any of
the questions
about the
that were

The paper
answers some
of the
about the
that were

The paper
answers most
of the
about the
that were

The paper
answers all of
the questions
about the
that were
chosen in a
clear and

(0-12 points) (13-21 points) (22-29 points) (30-35 points)
of the Two

The paper
does not
include a
comparison of
the two

The paper
attempts to
compare the
but fails to
address all the

The paper
includes a
comparison of
the two
but it is lacking

The paper
includes a
clear and
comparison of
the two

(0-4 points) (5-7 points) (8 points) (9-10 points)
APA Format The paper

contains no
citations and is
not APA

The paper
attempts to use
citations, but
APA formatting
is not followed.

The paper
contains some
APA formatting

The paper is
APA compliant
and uses

Resources The paper
contains no

The paper
resources, but
they are not

The paper
uses the
textbook and
one other

The paper
uses both the
textbook and at
least two
resources for

Length The paper is
less than one

The paper 2-3

The paper is 3-
4 pages.

The paper is 4-
5 pages.

  • Overview:
  • Instructions:
  • Requirements:
  • Evaluation Rubric for Unit 8 Assignment

World history homework help

Case Study – Anxiety Disorder/Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Course Competency

Assemble nursing care interventions for clients with behavioral or cognitive disorders.


Lauren has been diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder and experiences obsessive thoughts that result in compulsive behaviors. This has a major impact on her life and day to day functioning.


View the videos segments 1, 2, and 3 for Lauren.

Notice how the nurse continues to gather information to assess the extent of Lauren’s illness. The content relates to the objective that you will be able to describe the symptoms of anxiety and OCD.

Segment 1

Segment 2

Segment 3

Create a document which contains this information:

· Describe at least three clinical signs of Anxiety observed in the videos.

· Describe at least three Obsessive-Compulsive behaviors observed in the videos.

· Explain at least three therapeutic communication techniques used by the nurse in the videos.

· Discuss at least two nursing interventions appropriate for Lauren. Support your choices with rationales.

· Support your ideas with at least two credible resources.

World history homework help

History 1378 Essay #1

Professor Sbardellati

Spring 2022

Your assignment is to construct a 5-6 page essay in response to one of the following questions. This essay is worth 25% of your overall grade in this course. It is due on Blackboard by 11:59pm on Friday, March 4. Late papers will be docked 1 point (from a max of 25, meaning the penalty is 4%) for each day they are late.

Specifications and guidelines:

Your paper must be based entirely on course material from weeks 1-6. Therefore, you are expected to utilize the podcasts and course readings (Contending Voices and U.S.: A Narrative History) but forbidden from using any other sources for this exam. Papers that incorporate outside sources will automatically receive failing grades. Furthermore, you must cite your sources. When citing a podcast, if paraphrasing, a parenthetical reference to the episode number will suffice; for example: (Episode 4). If you are directly quoting a podcast, include the episode number and the time stamp when the quote begins; for example: (Episode 9, 22:50). When citing U.S.: A Narrative History, please use a parenthetical reference with lead author and page number; for example: (Davidson, 411). When citing the essays in Contending Voices, the standard author/page number will suffice; for example: (Hollitz, 87). When citing the primary documents in Contending Voices, please also include the source number; for example (Hollitz, Source 5, 108). You do not need to include a works cited page since you are utilizing only course materials for this assignment. Your paper must be double-spaced, with standard 12-point font and normal margins.

This is a formal essay assignment. It will be marked based on the strength of your argument, your analysis of course materials, and the quality of your writing. The best papers will draw from a variety of course sources, and will incorporate close analysis of at least one or two primary documents. As with any essay you would write in university, we expect to see: a strong thesis statement which communicates your core argument; a well-structured and organized body of the paper that advances your argument via analysis of course materials; and a formal conclusion that not only ties the argument together, but elaborates on its significance.

Questions (choose one):

1. The labor movements, the Populists, and the Progressives were all responding, in their own different ways, to the challenges presented by the rise of big business. Write an essay focusing on these three groups. What were the specific problems they confronted, what were the various solutions they put forward, and how successful were each of these groups in achieving their goals?

2. Assess the ways in which Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Upton Sinclair responded to the Great Depression. What assumptions and values guided each of their approaches? What were the merits and shortcomings of the solutions they each put forward? Of course no American policymaker managed to rescue the nation from the Depression, but which of these three figures, in your view, put forward the best path for dealing with the economic catastrophe?

3. In the first half of our course we have surveyed American history from the late 19th century through the Second World War. Some historians have depicted this era of U.S. history as one that was dominated by periods of reform, most notably during the Progressive Era and the New Deal. Others, however, may take a darker view of these years. What’s your view? Considering the period from the 1880s through 1945, do you see the narrative of U.S. history in these years as one of overall progress? Make sure to substantiate your argument with specific, well-chosen examples.

World history homework help

  • Page 1
  • Page 2
  • Page 3
  • Page 4
  • Page 5
  • Page 6
  • Page 7
  • Page 8
  • Page 9
  • Page 10
  • Page 11
  • Page 12
  • Page 13
  • Page 14
  • Page 15
  • Page 16
  • Page 17
  • Page 18
  • Page 19
  • Page 20
  • Page 21
  • Page 22

World history homework help

Crisis and Reform in the
Greater Mediterranean
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

The Course so Far

 Course started with the Ottomans and the European Maritime

 But then moved elsewhere.

 Americas.

 Africa.

 Asia.

 Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

 What about Europe and the Ottoman Empire?

Europe, 1500-1750

 Fragmentation and rivalries.

 Religious conflicts.

 Competing regional identities.

 New political, knowledge, and
social models.

Siege of Stralsund (1628), Thirty Year’s War.

The Ottoman Empire

 Expansion.

 Military and governance innovation.

 Incorporation.

Ottoman miniature about the Szigetvár
campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as avant-

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire

 Vast territory in the crossroads of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

 Multicultural Empire.

 Lasted 623 years (1299 – 1922).

 What explains Ottoman expansion, durability, and influence?

 Military power.

 Clever governance.

 Minimal trade restrictions.

 Relative religious tolerance.

The Ottoman

 Professional standing

 Janissary corps.

 Devshirme recruitment.

 Well trained.

 Well equipped.

 Highly loyal to the Sultan.

Land Grants and Religious Tolerance

 Timar.

 Land grants to the military personnel.

 Factor of stability in frontier zones.

 Deeply religious state (Muslim), but religiously tolerant.

 If compared to most Christian nations.

 No mass conversion.

 Still Muslims privileged.


 Most significant expansion
between 1453 and 1683.

 Ottoman Navy dominated the
Mediterranean Sea until

 Defeat in the Siege of Vienna
in 1683 marks end of


 Most rural peasants and herders.

 Urban life thrived.

 Social hierarchy based on occupation.

 Social mobility possible.

 Through education.

 And military service.

The map of Istanbul (Constantinople) by Matrakçı
Nasuh during the 16th century


 Life shaped by military campaigns and international trade.

 Strong merchant class.

 Trade with Africa, Asia, and Europe.

 Low trade taxes.

 State-maintained caravanserais.

 Patriarchal society.

 But women often engaged in export crafts.

Fractured Europe

The Protestant Reformation

 Martin Luther.

 1517 Critique of the Catholic Church.

 Corruption of the clergy.

 Purgatory and indulgences.

 Defended that people had direct access to holy scriptures and God.

 Lutheranism, Calvinism.

 Spread in central and northern Europe.

Catholic Response

 Convert people overseas.

 Reinforce the Church’s doctrines.

 Protestants labeled heretics.

 Resulting in the explosion of religious
conflict in Europe.

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
France, painting by François Dubois.

Rivalries Beyond

 Spanish, French, English, Dutch.

 Competition for overseas colonies
and trade, that is, wealth.

 Religious divisions added.

 Spain started to decline in the late
sixteenth century.

 England and the Dutch rising.

Depiction of the 1588 Spanish Armada defeat, by
Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, 1601.

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

 Ferdinand II – Attempts to re-Catholicize parts of the Holy Roman Empire.

 Civil War within the Holy Roman Empire.

 Catholic vs. Protestant.

 Spain, France, the Dutch later involved.

 Unprecedented level of destruction.

 1/3 of the population of central Europe died.

 Agricultural production disrupted.

Crisis and New Models

Crises and New

 Crises demand new models.

 Impacts of the maritime expansion.

Jacques Callot’s 1633 depiction of an
event in the Thirty Years’ War. France.

New Model of Knowledge

 Direct observation of nature.

 First, the cosmos.

 16, 17th centuries: Galilei, Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Newton.

 Mathematical Models.

 Philosophers.

 Deductive method.

 Inductive method.

 Scientific Revolution.

The Emergence of Capitalism

 Deep change in socio-economic relations.

 Commercial and Industrial stages.

 “an economic system in which private parties make their goods and services
available on an open market and seek to exploit market conditions to profit from
their activities.” (p. 708)

 Profit and market.

Capital, Land, and

 Wage labor.

 Changes in land tenure.
 Land enclosure.

 Rise of commercial agriculture in
seventeenth century Europe.
 Partially due to the Columbian


New Business Models and Capital

 East India Trade Companies.

 Banking and Insurance.

 Transatlantic slave trade.

 Profits reinvested.

 Slavery.

 Overexploitation of slave labor facilitated capital accumulation.

 Provision of raw materials.

 Therefore, maritime expansion key to the development of capitalism.

The State and

 The state was a key player in
the emergence of capitalism.

 Example of England.

 Mercantilism.

 Trade surplus.

 Benefit of the English state,
manufacturers, and

A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of

New Players

 Bourgeoisie.

 City citizens, not hereditary nobility.

 Emerging group: wealth from trade and
other capitalist activity.

 First in England and the Netherlands.

The 16th-century German banker Jakob Fugger and
his principal accountant, M. Schwarz, registering an
entry to a ledger. The background shows a file cabinet
indicating the European cities where the Fugger Bank
conducts business. (1517)

New Political Models

 Constitutionalism.

 First in England, late seventeenth century.

 Absolutism.

 France, mid-seventeenth century.

 Centralized states.


 One ruler with all power.

 Near absolutism in
sixteenth century Spain.

 But seventeenth century
France best example.

 Louis XIV.

 Military power.

 Court grandeur.

Palace of Versailles, 1668. Built for Louis XIV.


 Early modern constitutionalism: written charter defining a power-sharing
agreement between a monarch and a parliament.

 Certain subjects, certain rights.

 Which subjects? What rights?

 England.

 Tumultuous process between 1630s and 1680s.

Lecture Recap

 Ottomans.

 Military prowess and integrative policies.

 Challenged European kingdoms and empires.

 Europe.

 Religious fervor.

 Gunpowder.

 Wars.

 Seeds of change.

 Scientific Revolution.

 Capitalism.

 New political models.

  • Crisis and Reform in the Greater Mediterranean
  • The Course so Far
  • Europe, 1500-1750
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Military
  • Land Grants and Religious Tolerance
  • Expansion
  • Society
  • Society
  • Fractured Europe
  • The Protestant Reformation
  • Catholic Response
  • Rivalries Beyond Religion
  • The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • Crisis and New Models
  • Crises and New Models
  • New Model of Knowledge
  • The Emergence of Capitalism
  • Capital, Land, and Labor
  • New Business Models and Capital Accumulation
  • The State and Capitalism
  • New Players
  • New Political Models
  • Absolutism
  • Constitutionalism
  • Lecture Recap

World history homework help

Running Head: ESSAY




Confucianism and Art


Course Name



Bibliographic Summary

Mullis, E. C. (2007). The ethics of Confucian artistry. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism65(1), 99-107.

In this paper, Mullis investigates a point of convergence between the subjects of arts and ethics from a Confucian lens. Confucian thought approaches this issue by first discussing the process of artistic development undergone by artists. The practice of art is defined to be a morally stimulating activity since it invites the artist to transform themselves, find themselves a spot in a tradition, and build different relationships. Additionally, Confucianism also draws a relationship between aesthetics and ethical value. It disregards the individual morality of art and calls to incorporate the interests of societies and communities in art since it exists within those communities and societies.

The author uses Chinese calligraphy in specific and opens a discourse on the relationship between art and ritual. The discussion is extended on both moral and religious grounds. Finally, the author begins to incorporate the contributions of the Confucian approach in the contemporary discourse over the ethical critique of art.

Tceluiko, D. S. (2019, December). Influence of Shamanism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism on the development of traditional Chinese gardens. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 687, No. 5, p. 055041). IOP Publishing.

This paper is devoted to the discussion of the influence of Eastern religions on the development of landscape in China. The influence of each religion on the creations of gardens was considered. As the Focus of the topic was to examine Confucianism and art, the section where the paper discusses the influence of Confucianism on the development of Chinese gardens it is revealed that Confucianism has a huge impact on urban planning and the structure of traditional Chinese households.

Huang, S. C. (1963). Musical art in early Confucian philosophy. Philosophy East and West13(1), 49-60.

This journal article discusses the teachings of Confucianism in relation to art, and since poetry and music were the most prevalent in the time of Confucianism, they were the most frequent topics of discussion. The article discusses the importance of a poet in the ideal society that was envisioned in Confucian thought. Confucian thought places high importance on the existence of poetry and also encouraged his disciples to study poetry too.

Biao, G., & Alekseev-Apraksin, A. M. (2020). INFLUENCE OF CONFUCIANISM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE OPERA. Studia Culturae, (45), 145-156.

The influence of Confucianism on the growth of Chinese opera is examined in this research. A Chinese opera is a form of traditional Chinese art. Confucianism has a significant impact on its evolution, originality, work content, creative methods, and so on. Throughout opera performances, Confucianism’s principles are clearly communicated. Teaching philosophy pervades the psychological structure of imagery from various times, forming distinct cultural traits.

Liu, J. (2014). Art and aesthetics of music in classical Confucianism. In Dao companion to classical Confucian philosophy (pp. 227-244). Springer, Dordrecht.

This chapter discusses the interest of classical Confucianism with respect to aesthetics and art. The emphasis on music and poetry is explored, as depicted in both the Classics of Music (Yuejing) and the Classics of Poetry (Shijing) were both classified as the six fundamentals of Confucian classics.

Han, H. J. (2016). Lixue (理學 Ihak) the Lost Art: Confucianism as a form of cultivation of the mind. Educational Philosophy and Theory48(1), 75-84.

This article embarks on explaining Confucianism as the lost art of living and prompts the question of how to reembrace it. As a central approach, the cultivation of the heart-mind is discussed and it is thought to prevent us from self-oblivion and self-centeredness. Two prominent Neo-Confucians are discussed, Yi Hwang and Yi in their attempts to explain the method of Jing – being attentive and watchful.

Li, C. (2008). The philosophy of harmony in classical Confucianism. Philosophy Compass3(3), 423-435.

The concept of harmony in Traditional Confucianism is discussed in the study. The author summarizes the notion of harmony as it is evolved in several Confucian classics in first half of the article. The author describes the Confucian agenda of harmony in the second part, which ranges from inner harmony in the individual to harmony in the household, the nation, the global world, and finally harmony in the infinite cosmos.

World history homework help

Winter 2022
History 115B

Worlds of Renaissance Italy

ESSAY II: Choose

Ambiguous jokes–?
One way to understand a society’s values is to examine its humor—even when we do
not find their jokes particularly funny.

Topic I:
Source: Giovanni Sabadino degli Arienti,” Friar and Priest.”
Analyse the trick played on Friar Puzzo. What was done to him? What aspects of
contemporary culture were involved? (That is, what makes him a comic figure within
the terms of the story?)
What in your view made this comic in the Quattrocento?


Topic 2:
Source: Antonio Manetti, The Fat Woodcarver
Analyze the trick played on Grasso. What was done to him? What aspects of
contemporary culture were involved? (That is, what makes him a comic figure within
the terms of the story? How does he differ from the people (including famous artists)
who trick him? What techniques do they employ?)
What in your view made this comic in the Quattrocento?

The essay should be 1500 words and a paper copy s due in class on February 25. Be
sure to cite the source!

World history homework help

The Middle East


No part of the world is both as unstable as the Middle East and as vital of a contributor to the world economy. The industrial world is incredibly dependent on Middle Eastern oil, but due to within Arab and Muslim conflicts and the greater conflict with the entire region and the state of Israel, there is enormous instability in the region.

The countries that comprise the Middle East are:


Saudi Arabia













The Middle East is actually the cradle of civilization. The earliest civilizations were centered in what was known as the Fertile Crescent, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq. The area is also the cradle of the three largest world religions: Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Although all three religions have very different beliefs they all evolved and had influences on each other. The area is also home to a majority of the world’s oil. This makes the area economically very important and has set the stage for a lot of international interest in Middle East affairs. Most of the oil is concentrated in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait.

A Brief History Of Islam

Islam, which means submission to God, was founded by Mohammed in the 7th century. According to Islam, the angel Gabriel revealed God’s word directly to Mohammed, and this divine revelation is now known as the Koran (or Quran). Islam spread very fast throughout the Middle East. However, there was a split in the group shortly after Mohammed’s death. This schism was based on who was the rightful successor to Mohammed. The two groups became known as Sunnis and Shias, with Sunnis representing about 85% of Muslims in the world. By about the mid 700s, Islam had spread across North Africa and into Spain, and headed east to Turkey, India, and Indonesia and as far east as China.


There were several Islamic empires (the Abbasids, the Seljuk Turks, the Safavids [Iran/Persia], the Mamluk Turks, and finally the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman Turks were a major power from about the middle of the 13th century until the end of the First World War. They managed to take over Constantinople (now Istanbul) and headed west all the way to Vienna, where they were finally sent back. Their military supremacy began to wane after about the 1600s and by World War I the Ottoman Empire known as the sick man of Europe. However, they had an important, influential role in the balance of power throughout both Europe and the Middle East/North Africa.

The end of the First World War brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire. In its place, European countries either protected or outright colonized large portions of the Middle East. Following World War II, these countries began to demand and achieve independence.

A Brief Look At Some Of The Key Players In The Middle East


“Egypt is the Nile and the Nile in Egypt”

Egypt is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Modern Egypt is a highly populous, third world country that is very sophisticated in some ways. Cairo is a very refined and sophisticated world city, but poverty and ignorance is a much greater problem outside of Cairo. Egypt was once part of the Ottoman Empire. As the Empire weakened during the 19th century, Egypt managed to gain political autonomy. Its leader was intent on modernizing Egypt. He updated canals, introduced cotton to the agricultural economy, and began negotiations with France on building the Suez Canal. This growth did modernize Egypt, but wars, mismanagement, and other international affairs conspired to make Egypt very weak by the end of the 19th century. In 1882, Egypt became a protectorate of Great Gamal Abdel NasserBritain – partly to protect British investments, and partly to limit Ottoman influence in the area. However, Egyptian nationalism was very strong and resisted Great Britain’s rule from the beginning. By 1922 (only 40 years of colonialism), Egypt had, at least in theory, gained its independence. True independence didn’t actually arrive until British troops left in 1937 – only to return a couple years later during the Second World War. With Egyptian independence, the British installed a sympathetic King – Fuad. He died in 1936 and King Farouk succeeded him.

Truly modern-day Egypt began in the summer of 1952 when a group of military officers (known as the “free officers”) overthrew the King and established a new government. Their leader was named Gamal Abdel Nasser, and he became the leader of Egypt. He created a republic, but with only one viable political party – the National Democratic Party. Nasser was a beloved leader in Egypt and was completely opposed both to the creation and the existence of Israel. Nasser united with Syria and the Egypt/Syria union was known as the United Arab Republic (UAR). Nasser was known for his Pan-Arabism. He believed that all Arabs should be united (presumably under his influence), all the way from Morocco to Iraq (not actually continuing to Iran where they the people are Persians, not Arabs).

The Suez Crisis

One of the most serious crises of Nasser’s rule occurred in 1956. Nasser had planned on building a dam (the Aswan Dam) and had been promised to fund from both the United States and the World Bank. However, Nasser was considered not hostile enough to the Soviet Union, by the Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. Dulles arranged for Nasser to lose his funding for the dam. Nasser retaliated by nationalizing the Suez Canal, which was a private corporation owned by the French and the British. While controlling the canal, his animosity to Israel was demonstrated by limiting or preventing Israeli shipping from going through the canal. Israel, viewing this as an act of war, worked with both France and Great Britain and sent troops to seize the canal. This became a crisis of global proportions because the Soviet Union warned that they were willing to step in to help Egypt. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed that the troops needed to leave. The U.S. threatened Great Britain with some economic havoc (The United States had a great deal of British debt, and could destabilize the British pound). The economic blackmail worked, Britain pulled out, without warning to her allies, and the French and Israelis had little choice but to also withdraw.

· As a result of the Suez crisis, Great Britain and France were perceived as weak. This encouraged many independence movements throughout British and French colonies. The crisis also enhanced Nasser’s reputation and encouraged his pan-Arabism movement.

· Another result of the crisis was that France realized that it could not trust its allies and began working on its own nuclear program.


Israel was formed in 1948, out of what had been the British colony of Palestine. The overall, general plans for a state of Israel had been stated in the 1919 Balfour Declaration, but it was during and immediately following World War II when Great Britain and the United States supported the immediate creation of Israel. The UN plan that was passed called for creating two states within the Palestinian territory, but that plan was met with hostility by the native Palestinians and other Arab leaders in surrounding territories and countries. Immediately upon the declaration of the State of Israel, there was a war, in which the Israeli’s successfully defended their country. After a cease-fire was signed, the state of Israel, although resented, was recognized by most major countries, although none of the Arab countries.

The creation of Israel has been the center of much of the discord in the Middle East. Most Arab countries have been opposed both to Israel’s existence, and have resented the Palestinian refugees that left the Israeli part of the Palestinian territory and have ended up, mostly in Jordan and Lebanon.

In addition to the 1948 war, and the 1956 Suez Crisis, Egypt was one of the biggest and strongest opponents of Israel. Other dates in the Israeli/Egyptian conflict include:

· 1967 Six Day War

· 1973 October War

· Egypt sought peace with Israel

· Egypt shifted from Soviets to Americans

Israeli 1967 War

In 1967, a coalition of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan planned an attack on Israel. Israel hit them with a quick pre-emptive strike and won the war in about 6 days. The Israeli’s took over the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria.

Israeli Victory In The 1973 October War (Yom Kippur War)

The Yom Kippur War was a surprise attack on Israel, by Egypt, led by Nasser’s successor, Anwar Sadat. The Arabs were initially quite successful, but Israel was able to turn the tables with three key elements: calling up reserves, an influx of American aid in the form of weapons, and especially the help of American intelligence that allowed the Israeli army to concentrate their troop movements very effectively. This war, although a victory for Israel, had a strong negative effect on the United States.

As a result of U.S. aid for Israel, OPEC nations retaliated by imposing an oil embargo. This oil embargo resulted in a gasoline/energy crunch in the United States. This energy shortage was one of the main causes of both high inflation and a concurring recession in the United States in the 1970s.


Egypt and Israel: Peace

Despite some of the negative outcomes of the Yom Kippur War for the United States, there were definitely some positive results for the relationship between Egypt and Israel. Sadat won the confidence of the Arabs and his stature grew, based on his initial successes in the War. Israel and Sadat began making overtures to peace, first with a visit by Sadat to Israel, at the invitation of Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. This was followed by the 1979 Camp David Peace Accords. This treaty was brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter, who got Egypt to recognize Israel and accept its right to exist, while Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula and eventually the Gaza strip.

Sadat was a mild reformer who attempted to create a more just society. He tried to stop the number of unwarranted arrests and limit the power of the government. However, as his Presidency continued, he started to see more unrest and responded with a return to the more traditional hard-line government. In 1981, he was assassinated by the Muslim Brotherhood, both because there was a growing distrust towards his government and a resentment towards the Accords with Israel.

Following his assassination, Sadat was succeeded by his Vice-President Hosni Mubarak. Mubarak’s rule has been marked by at least 6 assassination attempts. Two fundamentalist groups were generally the force behind them. As a result, during the 1990s, Mubarak cracked down on anyone perceived to be a member of either of the groups. His methods were severe, but he has managed to continue in his role as leader of Egypt. Moreover, his strong authoritarian stance his limited the number of splinter terrorist cells in Egypt.

Today, Egypt has the most populous country in the Middle East. It has an economy based on agriculture, gas, coal, tourism and the Suez Canal. Although it has a relatively modern economy, charges of corruption continually haunt the government and are used to explain the large gap between the rich and the poor.

More recently, Mubarak was pushed out of office during the 
Arab Spring
 (in 2011).  What became known as the “Arab Spring”, started with unrest in Tunisia that overthrew the government there.  The unrest spread to Egypt, where the people demanded that the army take over the government until a new government could be formed.  There have been continuing protests in Bahrain, Yemen as well as a new government in Libya and an ongoing civil war in Syria.  The result is that the area is more unstable than ever before.  Peace treaties that Egypt signed with Israel, while still in force are more precarious.  Some countries are focused on differences between Shias and Sunnis (Bahrain), while others are focused on jobs and opportunities (Egypt), while still others are focused on distrust between leaders and their people (Libya).  This instability has led to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) that is using brutal force to attempt to impose a Sunni based theocracy in the Iraqi/Syria border areas.  They are threatening all non-Muslim, ethnic minorities, and anyone (even Sunnis) who disagree with them.  They are notable for kidnapping and beheading foreigners.


Another major player in this drama in the Middle East is Palestine. Palestine is a territory that is made up of what is known as the Levant. The broadest definition of the territory of Palestine was the territory ruled under that name by the British, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire (1918). Under British rule, Palestine included present-day Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. This area is often also known as the Holy Land as it is the cradle of the three major religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The British took over Palestine after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War. It controlled the area until 1948 when the State of Israel was formed, Jordan was granted independence in 1951, and what was to be the State of Palestine never actually formed due to the Palestinians rejection of the UN partition.

The biggest problems in the Middle East are between Israel and Palestine. The UN called for the creation of the state of Israel, and the partition of Palestine into two distinct countries. However, the Palestinians rejected that call and believed that it could prevent the formation of the State of Israel. Thus, Palestinians sided with other Arab countries in the wars with Israel. However, the two biggest allies of the Palestinians and the two largest enemies of Israel have come to peace with Israel. Both Jordan and Egypt have accepted the right of Israel to exist. This has left the Palestinians to rely on splinter groups and Syria as their allies. In recent years, there have been moves to trade land for peace, but so far these have failed.

The two main points with the greatest contention (other than accepting the existence of Israel, which is becoming slightly more mainstream), are the plight of the Palestinian refugees who were expelled from Israel in the 1948 war, and the control over what should be the Palestinian state on the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israel, following the wars in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War took over and eventually created settlements there. Israel had been forcing its residents to move and turn the areas back over to the Palestinians. However, this left Israel more vulnerable to attacks from the Palestinians, which is one reason that Israel blockaded the Gaza Strip in 2007, following rocket attacks perpetrated by Hamas.  Since then, Israel has gone back to creating more settlements in disputed areas.  The Palestinian Authority has been rendered helpless, as most of the Gaza strip is controlled by Hamas.

“Jewish villages were built in the place of Arab villages. You do not even know the names of these Arab villages, and I don’t blame you because geography books no longer exist, not only do the books not exist, the Arab villages are not there either.” – Moshe Dayan

The Palestinian Liberation Organizaton

The Palestinian Liberation Organization (The PLO) was formed in 1964 by Egypt but became an independent organization in 1974. The goals of the PLO were to eliminate Israel and have self-determination for the area. However, its military and terror operations were, for the most part, unsuccessful and shifted sympathy to Israel. The PLOs failed attempts to retake land were followed by a spontaneous revolt called the Intifada in 1987. This Intifada was both successful and unsuccessful. It successfully gained some international sympathy as this uprising was marked by unarmed, sometimes small children, against Israeli tanks. However, it was unable to make any significant gains. It also got other nations involved, and finally, its leader, Yasser Arafat, recognized Israel’s right to exist in 1993 and accepted the idea of a two-state solution.

Since 1994, the PLO created the Palestinian Authority which has the right to rule over the Palestinian occupied territories. Other groups, such as Hamas, have not accepted the PA agreements with Israel. The fighting between Hamas and the PA has kept the PA from controlling the Palestinian areas and creating a more peaceful solution to the issues.

Saudi Arabia: The Kingdom 

Saudi Arabia is a large country with a population of about 27 million people. It is the world’s largest exporter of oil, and yet, despite its oil wealth has a relatively stagnant economy and a large unemployment rate.

It is ruled by the Saud family and is a monarchy. Its laws are based on the Quran and thus it practices Sharia law. These laws apply to all citizens and foreigners, regardless of religion.

It is most famous for the two holy shrines of Mecca and Medina and has a substantial tourist industry as a result of these two holy cities. Not only is Saudi Arabia Islamic, but it practices one of the most fundamentalist types of Islam, known as Wahhabism. The wealth of the Saud family has allowed the family to promote Whahabbism throughout the world by sponsoring Whahabbi Islamic schools known as madrassas.

The Saudis are a close ally of the United States, and yet 14 of the 19 hijackers on 9/11 were from Saudi Arabia.



Iran was a close ally of the United States from 1953 until 1979. This was a result of U.S. intervention in a coup d’etat. The elected Prime Minister of Iran in 1951, Mohammed Mossadeq, began to nationalize the oil fields (which were then owned by Great Britain). The CIA and British Intelligence backed a coup to overthrow Mossadeq. The coup was successful, Mossadeq was found guilty of Treason, and the Shah was encouraged to be more engaged with the government. Iran became a very close ally of the United States. Moreover, the British still lost their monopoly on Iranian oil, but the oil was divided up among the British, Americans, Dutch, and French (sadly Iran got none of it).

Following the coup, the Shah realized that he needed to keep a tight rein on the people or there could be more interference. However, his rule became very unpopular, and there were many charges of corruption. By the late 1970s, an Ayatollah (Islamic cleric), named Khomeini, had convinced the Iranians of the evils of the corruption of the Shah and there was a Revolution in January of 1979. Iran became a theocracy ruled by Khomeini, which also enforced Sharia law.

The United States was affected by the revolution in November of that year when Iranians invaded the U.S. Embassy in Teheran and took 52 hostages. This was in response to the United States allowing the terminally ill Shah to come to the U.S. for medical treatment. The U.S. responded to the hostage crisis by seizing Iranian assets. The crisis was a disaster for Carter’s Presidency and was one of the reasons that Ronald Reagan was elected in 1980. The hostages were released after 444 days.

Interestingly, the U.S. and Iran both have reasons to distrust each other. The U.S. still thinks back to the 1979 hostage crisis, while the Iranians think back to the 1953 U.S. backed coup.

Relations with Iran have been icy since 1979. However, the new President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has been particularly anti-U.S. His strongly worded anti-Israel rants along with his professed denial of the Holocaust have also affected the U.S. view of both Iran and Ahmadinejad.

Moreover, Ahmadinejad has become even more outspoken for several reasons: his reelection in 2009 was both controversial and contested.  The protests that his re-election spurred, known as the “Green movement”, were like an early “Islamic Spring” that foreshadowed what happened in Egypt a couple years later (2011).  However, these protests were met with heavy crackdowns, and as of now, although the Iranian government seems fragile, it is still very much in power.  And, as other areas in the area have become more unstable, Iran’s power has grown.  Iran’s leaders are still very worried about the dissatisfaction of its people.  Recently, even as they pushed for Bahrain’s Shia majority to protest the ruling Sunni minority, Iran’s leaders had all of the leaders or potential leaders that had participated in the 2009 protests placed either under arrest or house arrest.


Iraq was another country born out of the dismantlement of the Ottoman Empire. The British invaded Iraq in 1915, and finally captured Bagdad in 1917. Following the end of WWI, the League of Nations gave the British a mandate to rule the area. The British created Iraq and Kuwait. The British formed a monarchy for Iraq, and the official end of the British mandate was 1936. Immediately, the Iraqi government claimed Kuwait as part of the Iraqi government, but the British had not granted independence to Kuwait and sent troops along the border.

The Iraqi King was overthrown by a coup in 1958. For several years there were power struggles between the Ba’ath party and the Iraqi generals who had instigated the coup. In addition, there were also rebellions in the Kurdish areas of Iraq. In 1969, the Ba’ath Party took control of Iraq, and Saddam Hussein became a de facto leader (he was at first only a foreign minister, but held most of the power from early on). Throughout the 1970s, the Ba’ath party secularized Iraq and embarked on an economic growth plan. However, border disputes between both Iran and Kuwait continued to cause problems.

Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988

These border disputes finally pushed the Iraqis to war with Iran. In one of the longest, bloodiest wars of the 20th century, (one million dead) Iran and Iraq fought each other to near bankruptcy. The end result was a restoration of the pre-war borders. The war was significant in its use of chemical weapons, which Hussein used both on Iranian troops and Kurdish rebels in the north. However, despite reported outrage on his use of weapons of mass destruction, the West, including the United States, continued sending Hussein arms and weapons shipments (including chemical weapons – and yes, the U.S. did provide Hussein with chemical weapons).

The result of the Iran-Iraq war for Iraq was near bankruptcy for Iraq. Furthermore, oil prices were at one of their lowest points in years. Iraq was struggling to pay back its war debts, and its largest source of income was at a low point. Worse, its neighbor Kuwait (another border dispute area), was continuing to break OPEC guidelines and overproduce its quotas, which kept the cost of oil even lower. And to add insult to injury, not only was Kuwait cheating on the quotas, it was also slanted drilling the oil in one of the border dispute areas! (So basically, Kuwait was underselling oil on the world market, keeping prices artificially low, and doing it with Iraq’s oil!) Saddam demanded Kuwait pull back and also demanded that his debt payments be put off until the dispute was settled. Although the leaders of Kuwait and Iraq met, no solution seemed likely. Hussein met with April Glaspie, the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, who told Hussein that the U.S. had no interest in border disputes between Kuwait and Iraq. Hussein believed her and followed with an attack on Kuwait. The U.S. and other international response quickly expressed outrage at the move. Hussein was ordered to back off, he responded by announcing the annexation of Kuwait. A few months later an international coalition attacked Iraq and liberated Kuwait.

The Gulf War

· Saddam’s Iraq invaded Kuwait, Aug. 1990

· U.S. coalition victory in 4 days, Feb. 1991

· Sanctions regime until 2003

· Oil prices rose

Iraq Under Sanctions, 1991-2003

After Hussein’s defeat, the United Nations put Iraq under sanctions. They ordered oil exports capped which created an economic hardship on the Iraqi people. It is estimated that somewhere between five hundred thousand and a million children died during the sanction period.

Throughout the sanctions period, there was some civil unrest, some people in the government called for regime change. However, most of those calling for regime change were quickly killed. Throughout the era, the United States and the United Nations required Iraq to undergo weapons inspections. Their cooperation was doubted and justified keeping the sanctions on. However, towards the end of the 1990s, there was an Oil for Food Program created by the UN that was designed to keep the poor in Iraq from starving.


The Second Gulf War, 2003

Following the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Bush administration decided that Hussein was too big a threat and that his lack of cooperation with the weapons inspectors meant that he was hiding a weapons program. To be sure, there is strong evidence that the Bush administration had wanted to go after Saddam even before 9/11, but following the terrorist attacks, it was much easier to convince the public of the need.

The case for war by the Bush administration was weak. It relied on outdated, shaky intelligence, it made a false claim that Hussein was tied to Osama Bin Laden, and it convinced Americans that Hussein had been able to stockpile and hide large amounts of dangerous weapons of mass destruction. The weapons inspectors, despite their frustrations with the Hussein regime, did not believe that there were any of these weapons, but armed with questionable evidence, the Bush administration was able to clear both the UN National Security Council and the American public.

Since 2003, the war has had two very different outcomes. The first attack was generally a much swifter success than even the Bush administration foresaw. However, since the quick military success, there was a long, dragged out Iraqi civil war that has prevented the U.S. from being able to establish a successful Iraqi government. Most of that civil war was controlled by a surge of U.S. forces in 2006.  The U.S. left Iraq at the end of 2011.  However, now there is civil strife as the government is staunchly Shia and allying with Iran (which the U.S. didn’t really like), but with the rise of ISIS, the U.S. is also (at least temporarily) allying with Iran to fight ISIS.  It now appears that while Hussein was indeed a dictator, he was keeping the area calm and relatively stable.

The Arab Spring

The Arab Spring refers to the protests that have swept the Middle East since December of 2010.  The three countries that have had major changes since then are Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya.  However, there have been protests throughout the Middle East, still ongoing in places like Syria and Yemen.  The first country affected was Tunisia, which had been ruled by President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali since he had engineered a coup in 1987.  In December of 2010, a protester self-immolated (set himself on fire) to protest corruption, and that set off a wave of protests, which culminated in Ben Ali fleeing for Saudi Arabia in February of 2011.

The next country to experience massive protests was Egypt (which I discuss further, above), and then Libya, which resulted in the overthrow of the Muammar Gaddafi  (also often spelled Qaddafi) in August 2011.  He was then captured and killed in October of that year.    The Yemeni president was nearly assassinated and severely injured after agreeing and then refusing to step down.  He finally fled for treatment and left the government ruled by a council.

Things in Syria are still very violent.  The president, Bashar al-Assad has refused to step down and has upped the violence against those in opposition.  According to journalists and protesters he has gone after, not only protesters but also civilians.  15 other countries have called for recognizing a government in exile and many are asking for the U.S. and NATO to provide assistance (the U.S. and NATO provided air cover in Libya last year).  So far, it appears that those governments have not been willing to do so.  The problem is that there is no clear group to support.  One of the biggest threats to Assad is ISIS, which is also a threat to both Iraq and to anything “western” or non-Sunni Muslim.

Some other leaders are hedging their bets by announcing that they will not run for re-election, most likely with the hope that by pledging to step down, people will tolerate the governments a bit longer.  Those countries include Iraq and Sudan, while the King of Jordan has had to create 2 new governments in response to various protests.



The Middle East is one of the most volatile areas in the world.  There roles of Israel and oil being probably the biggest flashpoints. The U.S. has entangled itself in many different roles within the Middle East. It is the largest purchaser of oil, the largest defender of Israel, one of the largest suppliers of weapons to Arab countries and Israel, and the biggest defender of the status quo. There are many entanglements and dangers in the area, yet it is one of the key areas to the world economy, thus its importance is assured, regardless of the number of problems in the area. Although, the U.S. has gotten involved for many reasons, do not forget that oil is probably the biggest. In regard to the first Iraq war, many people realized, even at the time, that had Iraq and Kuwait been arguing over orange groves, there would not have been any outside interference.

World history homework help

Section I — Answer any two of the following Questions:

1. After watching the video on the Suez Crisis, what are your thoughts? Specifically, how important do you think that this crisis was? Is there a legacy from it? Was the U.S. justified in convincing the British to leave? There are those who state that Eisenhower regretted not backing up Britain. If you had been President, what would you have done?

2. The Arab Spring was a hopeful time where it seemed that oppressive regimes were being overthrown for more democratic institutions. The promise has not been fulfilled. Since 2011, when Egypt, Libya, Tunisia all had a regime change, there has been a backlash in Egypt (the army took over), civil war in Syria, ongoing conflict in Yemen with Saudi Arabian involvement, and the rise of ISIS/ISIL in Syria and Iraq. What do you see as the biggest issue in the Middle East and why? How does this issue affect the world currently and what do you think are the issues that will carry over to other parts of the world or the future? How important is this issue? How do you propose the world/U.N./NATO/U.S. (choose one) should approach this issue?

3. Countries such as Egypt and Pakistan get a varied amount of aid from the U.S. Per a deal from 2009, Pakistan should get about 1.5 billion per year (which they apparently just got this year), but many years they have gotten less. It has become fashionable to criticize spending on foreign aid, so my challenge to you is to justify either spending money on aid or not spending the money. HOWEVER, regardless of which option you choose, you must weigh the spending versus what you are accomplishing. This is a critical thinking exercise and you only get full credit if you actually can justify your answer. Be sure to consider the following — the cost to the U.S. (how much is it in terms of our spending relative to our GDP and our budget? Hint: Find out how much the U.S. spends on foreign aid relative to our budget or GDP); What does the U.S. get out of giving money? What does the U.S. EXPECT to get out of spending money? Is it a good deal? — In other words, do we get our money’s worth? You must consider these types of critical thinking questions and refer to them in your answer. Answering solely on ideological or a polemic basis will not get full credit. For this instance I mentioned Pakistan, but it can apply to Egypt, Israel or any foreign aid, so if you need to refer to other countries that we assist to back up your response, that is fine.

Now that you have pretty much finished the course, I’ve got more general questions (and a few specific ones too) for you and I’d like the general questions to be based on all of the reading and research that you’ve done. If your research paper has made you an expert in a particular area, feel free to use that information. However, so as not to overwhelm you, and also to give me a chance to catch up on all of these discussion boards, you do not have to answer all of these questions (although you are always free to if you choose).

Section II — Answer one of the following three questions (your choice):

1. I wrote in one of the early modules that there was a strain of history that focused on dependency theory, which basically argued that the wealthy, successful countries have an incentive to keep poor countries poor. Now that you have read about a relatively large number of countries/governments/economies, what do you think about that concept? Is it true? Is it false? Is there room in the world for all countries to be economically successful? If not, why not? If so, are wealthy countries to blame for poor countries, or are countries responsible for themselves?

2. What do you think is the biggest challenge that the U.S. faces in the next 20 to 50 years? How about the rest of the world? What is the biggest challenge for the world as a whole?

3. We have seen several countries, notably Japan, Korea and China who have moved from various economic states to become very powerful economies. In all three cases, it took about 50 years to modernize and become an economic or world power. What do you think makes the difference? Is economic success a cultural phenomenon or a governmental phenomenon?

Section III — Answer ALL of the following three questions (but they do not have to be long answers):

1. What were the three most important things that you feel you learned by writing your research project and why? If you could have done one thing differently, what would it be?

2. What were the three most important things that you feel you learned in this class and why? List at least one thing that you learned in this class that could apply outside of this class or to your major/career. (This does not have to be academics focused).

3. What was the most interesting thing that you learned by listening to the other presentations? (Note: if you present after this discussion board due date, then please leave this blank until after your presentation and then edit your response or reply to your response.)

FINALLY — Provide a discussion question

World history homework help




Student Name



China’s Epidemic Prevention Policies

Slide 1

Title page

Slide 2

Coronavirus started in 2019 from Wuhan, China, and it is the worst nightmare in human history. China was the origin, and it had to face various difficulties to recover. The crucial waves of the virus continued for the year, and now the countries have recovered to some extent. The Chinese suffered a lot in the whole situation because the country was the first one to get affected. It made specific policies to overcome the threats of coronavirus. The policies ensure that all the people living in China will be vaccinated and free from viruses. Besides, many policies are made in the political and social aspects.

Slide 3

China’s epidemic prevention policies may be efficient, but they are hard to follow, especially in the West, where human rights seem to be at stake.

Slide 4

All the countries faced the issues of coronavirus, and the governments set their policies accordingly. As China was the first to get infected, the country made strict policies for its public and foreign countries. The only intention is to protect the country, promote social well-being, and make sure that everything is in the right direction. The post COVID policies are based on the authoritarian system. China is already an authoritarian state, and it has also adopted similar strategies in the coronavirus.

China restricted the public to follow the rules and regulations for the country’s safety, and the people are bound to manage accordingly. The centralization was the major element of the crisis policy introduced by the government. The decision-making and the innovative approaches to bring the state to recovery were included in the policies, but contactless service delivery and public emotional support were required. The country started the distance education system for the children as well.

Slide 5

China set an example for the other countries that what steps they should take to protect the public lives and how to act against the virus. All the policies elements revolve around social crisis management. The leaders of different countries learn that China shifted from the manual to the digital era. The country digitalized all the services to ensure no contact and human touch involved. The human touch is one of the biggest reasons for the spread of coronavirus. It was avoided, and China got success after the hard struggle.

Slide 6

Despite all these efforts, the centralization based governance policies created difficulties for China globally. The transparency was found in the approaches adopted by China, and media can be easily handled. The government restricted all the fields, and the media had to act according to the instructions. It was why the US accused China of hiding the exact number of cases and the deaths. However, these accuses and the blames did not disrupt the policies of China regarding the coronavirus. The people’s support was with the Chinese government, and they handled the virus efficiently.

Slide 7

The policies for coronavirus occurred in different phases. In the first phase, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, chaired the meeting and indulged all the relevant authorities to look for the cause of the unknown virus. The policies were made not to contact people, not travel, and make sure that all remain in the houses. It was observed that the first phase of policies was completed in an extreme hurry because the government was not ready for the pandemic.

Slide 8

As the epidemic enters its mid-stage, the Chinese government has laid down its policies for the next phase. The entire population is required to wear masks in public and undergo mandatory nucleic acid testing. While not wearing a mask will not result in criminal detention, police will crack down on the practice. At the same time, China has developed QR codes that show red to anyone passing through at-risk areas and green to everyone else. All Chinese entering and leaving any public place must take their temperature and show the QR code, and the red QR code is not allowed in these places, even if they are not infected with the Novel Coronavirus. It also proves that the Chinese government is monitoring everyone’s travel records.

Slide 9

The policies imposed a strict lockdown on the country and imposed travel restrictions. If we analyze China’s policy, it seems to set a remarkable example for other countries. However, western countries cannot successfully implement these policies because the human rights of their people seem to be threatened. In western countries, people seem to find it difficult to accept coercive policies and are unlikely to be willing to allow government surveillance for the sake of national security. In addition to the role of government, much of this is due to the difference between the collective consciousness of socialism and the individual interests emphasized in liberal democracy.

Slide 10

In general terms,China made the policies to prevent coronavirus, and the authoritarian interventions became successful because of the people’s support. It is seen that the West could not implement the appropriate policies because the human rights and economy was under great threat. China can restrict its people from the different issues, and it is found that human rights are at the stake in such countries and it poses a challenge to them.


Burki, T. K. (2020). Coronavirus in China. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine8(3), 238.

Chia, T., & Oyeniran, O. I. (2020). Human health versus human rights: an emerging ethical dilemma arising from coronavirus disease pandemic. Ethics, Medicine, and Public Health14, 100511.

Devlin, K., Silver, L., & Huang, C. (2020). US views of China increasingly negative amid Coronavirus outbreak. Pew Research Center21.

Qiu, Y., Chen, X., & Shi, W. (2020). Impacts of social and economic factors on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Journal of Population Economics33(4), 1127-1172.

Wei, W., Zheng, D., Lei, Y., Wu, S., Verma, V., Liu, Y., … & Han, G. (2020). Radiotherapy workflow and protection procedures during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: Experience of the Hubei Cancer Hospital in Wuhan, China. Radiotherapy and Oncology148, 203-210.

World history homework help

Project Guidelines – Oral Presentation and PowerPoint Slides

Students will present their Final Presentations on video. Save a PDF version of your Powerpoint file and upload both to the “Assignments” tool.

Recording your slide presentation to Youtube or Vimeo.  In either case you will need to provide the link of the video on the discussion board.  Make sure we can use the link and that it is not set to private.  If you do it this way also still submit your slides in the assignment.  

The final presentation is 6-8 1/2 minutes in length. Make sure that your time is well rehearsed and that the PowerPoint/PDF slides are an effective visual depiction of your main points.   As this is recorded THERE IS NO EXCUSE FOR GOING OVER TIME.  If you record yourself and are over time, that tell you that you need to edit and try again.  Oftentimes who find their presentations going overtime the first few times they do it are pleased that their presentation improved by getting it under 8 1/2 minutes.

You are required to watch 3 other presentations.  I’ll let you choose which ones you watch.  Just make sure to watch and look at the slides.  Next week you are going to be asked to answer some questions about what you watched.  These questions are of a general variety so you do not need to take detailed notes – just pay attention and you should be able to respond fine.  

PowerPoint Presentation:

The final presentation is a research based oral presentation. It was originally conceived as a (typical) research paper for a history class. However, after teaching online for several years it became apparent that it was more helpful for students to work on both presentation skills and research skills as well as to have an interactive and collaborative element to this course.

The presentations should be approximately between 6-8 1/2 minutes. The presenter should connect the presentation to the required PowerPoint slides and be comfortable with the subject matter. Because this is an oral presentation, it should not be too closely “read”, but notes, however detailed, that keep the presenter on topic and comfortable may be used.  Basically, since this is a video you want to be communicating with us.  If it feels like we are watching you read, it can be tough on the audience.  However if you are reading but it doesn’t seem like you’re reading (I think you know what I mean) – go for it.  

The presentation will still require a thesis statement and the presentation should use evidence and analysis to prove the thesis statement. Be specific in your topic. The topics listed are to get you started. You MUST be more specific than the topics themselves. You have great flexibility in how you develop your topic and your thesis statement, but be aware that the more general and broad your presentation the less effective it is.

PowerPoint presentation should include approximately 7-10 slides. You also have great latitude here, as well. Some presentations may be very visual and need 20 or more slides to make their point. Other topics may lend themselves to more abstract discussions that have fewer visual elements and only require 7 slides. Make sure the slides are not too wordy or busy. The most effective PowerPoint slides are succinct, concise and are meant to challenge and “stir” the audience to form a mental image; not to read every word that the presenter is delivering. Let me reiterate that last statement: DO NOT JUST FILL YOUR POWERPOINT WITH SENTENCES THAT YOU READ TO THE AUDIENCE.

Most of the slides that you create are completely up to you. However the following slides are required for every presentation: A title page, with your topic and your name; a Thesis statement slide where you state your thesis statement; a works cited page at the end with all of the sources that you have used. Contact your instructor if you still have questions about the slides or requirements.

Thesis Statement

10 >8.5


▪ Focused and related thesis. ▪ Clearly Stated ▪ Takes a position.

▪ Idea takes a “risk”, shows insight, may demonstrate a new way of

seeing the problem ▪ Requires higher level research



▪ Thesis generally related ▪ Very good in most categories, may not be

as complete or thorough ▪ Thesis may have argument but may be

awkward or weak. ▪ Thesis may be only partially connected to

presentation. ▪ Uses “I” or “me” statement. ▪ Uses phrases like

“the purpose of” or “this paper will…”.

7.5 >5.5


▪ Unclear or unrelated thesis ▪ May need more focus. ▪ Satisfactory

but needs improvement. ▪ May lack depth. ▪ Research may not be

challenging ▪ May not take or demonstrate a clear position ▪

May take a position but be unclear or poorly structured.

5.5 >0


▪ Thesis not relevant or restatement of an obvious point.

▪ Thesis is not really an argument, may be a topic sentence.

▪ Thesis needs improvement in many or most areas.

▪ Did not include a thesis or thesis slide.



25 >21.25


▪Defended with logic, insight, and supporting evidence.

▪ Transitions are clear. ▪ Has multiple points of information that

support thesis. ▪ Clearly original writing and analysis of issues.

▪ Key points are identified. ▪ Supports Thesis. ▪ Specific and sufficient.

▪ Precise Word Choice. ▪ Innovative approach. ▪ Appropriate length

21.25 >18.75


▪ May be lacking in depth, insight or originality. ▪ Some unclear

transitions. ▪ Supports thesis despite some minor deviations.

▪ Clearly connects issues, but information not as clear or original.

▪ Supporting examples are generally sufficient. ▪ Good word choice.

▪ May be a bit too short or too long.

18.75 >13.75


▪ Lacks supporting evidence. ▪ Sometimes off topic. ▪ Few or weak

transitions. ▪ Needs fuller development. ▪ Examples are insufficient

or vague. ▪ Word choice vague or imprecise. ▪ Inappropriate length,

insufficient to cover topic appropriately.

13.75 >0


▪ Lacks depth and supporting statements. ▪ Not connected clearly to

thesis. ▪ May be basic, obvious. ▪ Is underdeveloped. ▪ Word choice is

vague. ▪ Examples insufficient or non-existent. ▪ Cut and Paste

impressions ▪ Not original or clearly explained or understood.

▪ Connections to thesis are tenuous. ▪ Poor word choice throughout.

▪ Inappropriate length, much too short to cover topic.



15 >12.75


▪ Excellent structure. ▪ Effective introduction ▪ Logical presentation

of thought. ▪ Strong topic sentences ▪ Excellent flow and pace

12.75 >11.25


▪ Good structure ▪ Reasonably effective introduction. ▪ Generally

logical presentation of thought ▪ Strong topic sentences ▪ Natural flow,


11.25 >8.25


▪ Satisfactory structure with uneven execution. ▪ Basic introduction

▪ Logic of thought not always clear. ▪ Topic sentences may be

unfocused. ▪ Flow, pace not always smooth.

8.25 >0


▪ Basic or poor structure with uneven execution. ▪ Weak introduction.

▪ Logic unclear. ▪ Topic sentences poor or missing. ▪ Little flow or pace.


Format and Mechanics

15 >12.75


▪ Mechanics Task Points: 15 ▪ Excellent sentence structure.

▪ Good grammar throughout. ▪ Strong written and spoken English skills.

▪ Few to no spelling errors. ▪ Good syntax, word choice and style.

▪ Use of introductory paragraph, well constructed paragraphs and

conclusion. ▪Strong Conclusion with a restatement of thesis.

12.75 >11.25


▪ Good sentence structure. ▪ Good grammar, with few errors.

▪ Good written and spoken English skills. ▪ Few spelling errors

▪ Overall good syntax with a few awkward word choice and syntax

errors. ▪ Use of introductory paragraph, well written paragraphs and

conclusion with some errors or weaker paragraphs. ▪ Conclusion may

be more basic or may not re-state thesis statement.

11.25 >8.25


▪ Errors in punctuation, grammar, citation style, and/or spelling.

▪ Written and spoken English skills may demonstrate multiple errors.

▪Some syntax and word choice errors. ▪ Paragraphs not fully developed,

including a weaker introduction as well as developing paragraphs.

▪ Multiple spelling errors. ▪ Weak conclusion or no real concluding


8.25 >0


▪ Serious problems in sentence structure, grammar. ▪ Poor written

and spoken English skills. ▪ Multiple syntax or word choice errors.

▪ Paragraphs not developed. May not have a full introduction.

▪ Serious spelling errors. ▪ Poor conclusion, that does not link to

thesis or may not exist.


Presentation Skills

20 >17


▪ Holds attention of entire audience with effective speaking

skills, inflection and enthusiasm. ▪ Student displays relaxed,

self-confident nature about self, with no mistakes. ▪ Student uses

a clear voice and correct, precise pronunciation of terms so that all

audience members can hear presentation. ▪ Very organized and

obviously prepared and professionally polished. ▪ Connects thesis

to literature and research, and emphasizes its role in the presentation.

▪ Comfortable in connecting PPT slides to presentation

▪ Good use of time – not too long or too short, all relevant information

and argument is included. ▪ Serious spelling errors.

▪ Poor conclusion, that does not link to thesis or may not exist.

17 >15


▪ Good speaking skills, inflection and enthusiasm, but may have

brief pauses or minor issues with inflection, etc. ▪ Student is relatively

relaxed and self-confident. ▪ Student’s voice is clear. Student

pronounces most words correctly. Most audience members can hear

presentation. ▪ Obvious attempt to be organized, prepared, and

professionally polished, but may have a few errors.

▪ Does connect thesis to literature and research, and discusses it in

the presentation. ▪ Time is used relatively well – not too long or too


15 >11


▪ Displays fair speaking skills. May have little inflection or enthusiasm.

May sound like reading from notes. ▪ Displays mild tension; has

trouble recovering from mistakes. ▪ Student’s voice may be too low.

Student incorrectly pronounces terms. Audience members have difficulty

hearing presentation. ▪ Somewhat organized and made an attempt to be

professional. ▪ Thesis is marginally stated, may not be connected to

literature or discuss fully in presentation. ▪ Utilization of time is


11 >0


▪ Displays poor speaking skills. May sound as if entire report is read

from notes. Poor inflection and/or enthusiasm. ▪ Tension and

nervousness is obvious; has trouble recovering from mistakes.

▪ Shows absolutely no interest in topic presented. ▪ Student mumbles,

incorrectly pronounces terms, and speaks too quietly for a majority of

students to hear. ▪ Disorganized, not professional. ▪ Thesis is not stated

or connected to research or to presentation. ▪ Poor use of time.


MLA Format

10 >8.5


▪ MLA citation style ▪ Used primary source information in works cited.

▪ Use of multiple types of sources. ▪ Includes academic and scholarly,

credible sources. ▪ In text citations throughout.

8.5 >7.5


▪ Some MLA errors in citation style. ▪ May not have used enough

sources. (3) ▪ May have a number of sources, but not applicable to

presentation. ▪ Sources may be credible but not scholarly.

▪ May not have cited correctly within document. ▪ Thesis may be only

partially connected to presentation. ▪ Uses “I” or “me” statement.

▪ Uses phrases like “the purpose of” or “this paper will…”.

7.5 >5.5


▪ Several MLA errors in citation style. ▪ May not have used enough

sources. (2 or less) ▪ Sources may not be credible. ▪ May not have

cited correctly within document or at all within document, despite a

strong works cited page

5.5 >0


▪ Errors in citation style. ▪ Quotes not cited. ▪ Lack of additional

resources. ▪ There may be cut and paste from citations and too

many verbatim quotes ▪ May not have had any citations or



PowerPoint Slides

15 >12.75


▪ Very good visually ▪ Very professional, innovative or creative

and organized ▪ Skillful use of slides, well written, and effective.

12.75 >11.25


▪ May be too text heavy ▪ Generally organized and professional.

▪ Generally well written and effective

11.25 >8.25


▪ Very few visuals, reading text from slides as presentation.

▪ May not be organized ▪ May have errors and typos, not as

professional. ▪ Satisfactory use of slides.

8.25 >0


▪ Text heavy, poorly written, multiple errors on slides. ▪ Not Organized. ▪ Not professional. ▪ Poorly written and ineffective use of slides.

World history homework help

The Enlightenment
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

Late Modern Era (~1750-Today)

 Accelerated rate of change.
 Technology.

 Demographics.

 Consumerism.

 Industrial Revolution.

 New forms of government.

 Independence in the Americas, new Imperialism, World Wars, Cold War
and Decolonization, consequences of inequality.

The Enlightenment and the Atlantic

 Enlightenment.

 Enlightenment in local context.

 Revolutionary.

 Yet contradictory.

 Later: American, French, and Haitian Revolutions; Independence of Spanish and
Portuguese America.


Eighteenth Century

 Intellectual novelties.

 Scientific Revolution.

 New explanations.

 Contact with different regions and

 New perspectives and models.

 Expanded literacy and print culture.

 Broader audience/participants.
Reading of Voltaire’s tragedy of the Orphan of
China in the salon of Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin,
by Lemonnier, 1812.

The Enlightenment

 18th-Century European cultural and social movement.

 Wide-ranging reconsiderations.

 Philosophical base: people born free, equal, and rational.

 Natural rights.


 John Locke, English philosopher.

 “a government that stems from the
people, who agree to surrender a
measure of personal freedom in
return for a government that
guarantees protection of citizens’
rights and property.”

 Experience of seventeenth century
England: kings ousted,
constitutionalist regime.

Anti-Aristocracy and
the Modern Citizen

 Voltaire and Montesquieu, French

 Hereditary nobility not necessary.

 Jean-Jacques Rosseau.

 Education of the modern citizen.

 Well versed in many areas.

 Rational and independent.

Free Market

 Adam Smith, Scottish philosopher.

 The Wealth of Nations (1776)

 Laissez-faire.

 Basis for liberalism.

The Encyclopedia
 Denis Diderot and Jean D’Alambert

 Machine-based prosperity.

 Natural Rights.

 Not God-given or based on religious

 Not nobility titles.

 Some essayists defended racial and
gender equality.

Encyclopedia’s frontispiece.

Tensions and Contradictions

 Freedom and natural rights vs. colonialism and exploitation.

 Enlightened rulership.

 More efficient taxation and productivity in the colonies.

 Colonies based on slave and native draft labor.

 “Scientific racism”.

  • The Enlightenment
  • Late Modern Era (~1750-Today)
  • The Enlightenment and the Atlantic Revolutions
  • The Enlightenment
  • Eighteenth Century Europe
  • The Enlightenment
  • Contract Government
  • Anti-Aristocracy and the Modern Citizen
  • Free Market
  • The Encyclopedia (1751-1772)
  • Tensions and Contradictions

World history homework help

You will view and analyze all Five contrasting Art Works  –– the Museums are linked below (–
You can view the art in any order you wish. See original Museum Visitation Instructions

You will create a one-paragraph analysis for each of the analyzed art works (
––the Assignment Essay will include an Introductory paragraph, and will continue with total of Five complete paragraphs employing all the required selection characteristics as required by Your Museum Assignment.  The Essay will also contain a Concluding paragraph with your overall reactions to the analyzed works
).  Although you will view the Five Art objects in any order you wish, after viewing all the Art Works, ––you will then write an introductory paragraph to the Museum you chose, and at least Five  Paragraphs, one for each of the Five Art Works analyzed [WARNING: ––do NOT copy and paste any information from the Internet!].  The Virtual Museum Visitation Report will require the student to visit at least Two different  museums for the Five Art Works analyzed. 

The Students will be required to submit sketches and screenshots for each of the Five Art Works analyzed. Since no Museum Admittance Selfie and Ticket will be submitted, instead, students will take one computer screenshot for each Art Work Analyzed. Each Art Work analyzed will include a screenshot of the Art Work embedded right into each of the paragraphs for this the alternate web-based Museum Visitation Report
and the “Five” screenshots must also be submitted separately to the Virtual Museum Visitation Report screenshots dropbox as well.

Museum Visitation Sketches (–– Five Sketches; one per art work analyzed) must be submitted to the Museum Visitation Sketches dropbox.  The PURPOSE OF SKETCHING is so that you may sit quietly and contemplate each of the works you will write about. Looking at a work live is not the same as looking at an image or picture of the work (like on your phone). Explore your feelings when looking at the work. Think about how the work makes you feel. Think about what the artist may have been thinking when creating the work and the message the artist was trying to communicate. You may want to print out these 
Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art
 before you go to help you look at the art more closely.

 The instructions and assignment requirements are as follows (–Adhere to Original Museum Visitation Requirements, which are at “

https://mdc.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/HUM1020-2203-4446/_syllabus_SARAH/_syllabus/museum.html – Alternative Formats


https://mdc.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/HUM1020-2203-4446/_syllabus_SARAH/_syllabus/museum.html – Alternative Formats


Important Directions:  Please review covered course lessons to refresh the analysis of Art Works, and their applications to the surveying process. The submitted Essay should be in a formal essay format, –– but insure that all requested questions below include an educated answer.  Essays must include all questions below and correct answers – to the best of your abilities, or points will be deducted. If you cannot find some of the requested questions and information above, please provide an educated guess.  Blanks or missing assignment requirements will have points deducted.  You will analyze Five (“5“) varying Art works;  please remember to pick any single Art Work from each Museum below.

Assignment Part I: Please view and analyze one or two of any choice of Art Works from Link Below (
view the Art works several times. This Museum has many exposition salons


Or the main museum link is this one: 

(Note: You will need a great deal of  Time, since there are thousands of available Art works on display.  You can also see another Virtual Tour Here, but the Art work does not have descriptors: “


“. You can see an interactive floor pla Here: “
“. However, as stated above, –– 
WARNING: ––do NOT copy and paste any information from the Internet!

Assignment Part II: Please view and analyze one or two of any choice of Art Works from Link Below (
view the Art works several times. This Museum has many exposition salons


(Note: Spend a great deal of Time, as the Museum is quite expansive.  See a list of salons with varying Works of Art Here: “
“.  Please Read all web page’s Instructions carefully.  For a list of collections, go here: “


“.  However, again, –– 
WARNING: ––do NOT copy and paste any information from the Internet!

Assignment Part III: Please view and analyze any one or two choices of Art Works from Link Below (
view the Art works several times. This Museum has many exposition salons


(Note: The following is a List of the  Museum’s Halls, – list of scenes 


: “
“.   Although there are many Halls, not all Halls are virtual. You may have to research to find some Art work’s titles and information. However, again, –– 
WARNING: ––do NOT copy and paste any information from the Internet!

Alternate – Part IV (––possible extra-credit Wink): Please view and analyze one or two Art Works from Link Below (
view the Art works several times. These Museums have many exposition salons



. Or,  
.   Or, 
. Or, 
.  Or, 

(Note: For these Museums, you will need to spend a great deal of time exploring.  However, again, –– 
WARNING: ––do NOT copy and paste any information from the Internet!

As per the traditional face-2-face 
Museum Visitation Report
, you will include the following assignment requirements for each of five Art Work selections you have chosen from the above links (Note: since this is an Art analysis, no Artist or Art Work work biographical information is needed).  After viewing and reviewing again each of the above links in their entirety, ––you will then write an essay that includes a single paragraph analysis for a single Art Work from each of the works above, that is solely based on one–two chosen Works of Art for each Museum (–– the above Museums each have many works of Art). First, list the title of the work, artist’s name, year, genre, the museum’s name where the work is located, and a hyperlink to the work you are describing. Follow this with a detailed paragraph that analyzes the work of art both 
: one paragraph per work of art/category.  You  may have to do more research online to describe the work contextually.

 museum visitations banner

· First, you will select a museum from the class list to visit. If you live in town, you must choose from this list. All the museums are linked on the table below, so you can check their websites to see what special exhibits they are showing. For students from out of town, you must email me the name and a link to the museum you wish to visit. You must give me at least 2 weeks’ notice for approval before you go.

· You can travel to the museum on your own, with friends, or even with your group members from class.

REMEMBER to bring your student ID so that you get a discount on admission. 

· REMEMBER to keep your ticket and/or receipt as proof that you visited the museum.  Please also take a selfie, (flash off) with at least one of the works you discuss in your paper. You will upload both of these to the Museum Sketch dropbox. 

· Call the museum you have chosen to ask if they have one day a week where entrance is free. Most museums do. 

REMEMBER, when you call make sure to ask if all sections of the museum, including their traveling exhibit(s) are open, so you do not make a wasted trip.

· You may want to call or ask at the museum if they run tours. If so, you may want to do the tour to get an introduction to the museum.

· REMEMBER to print out Paper Guidelines before you go, so you know what to take notes on!

· Plan to spend at least 2 hours there so that you can complete notes to help write your paper when you return home. REMEMBER to sketch ALL FIVE OF the works you will discuss in your paper. YOU NEED A SKETCH FOR EACH SECTION A-E. I just want a rough sketch. I am not expecting a Rembrandt.

· THE PURPOSE OF SKETCHING is so that you may sit quietly and contemplate each of the works you will write about. Looking at a work live is not the same as looking at an image or picture of the work (like on your phone). Explore your feelings when looking at the work. Think about how the work makes you feel. Think about what the author may have been thinking when creating the work and the message the author was trying to communicate. You may want to print out these  

Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art 

 Click for more options 

Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art – Alternative Formats

  before you go to help you look at the art more closely.

· ONLY pick from the list of museums below. Through the years, these museums have had the highest quality exhibitions. They provide educational support through literature, videos, etc. You may not go to a museum or art gallery that is not on the list. For students from out of town, you must email me the name and a link to the museum you wish to visit. You must give me at least 2 weeks’ notice for approval before you go.

· Please don’t ask me if you can go to a science museum, a history museum, an art gallery, an arts/crafts festival, or the Body’s Exhibit instead. These art, not art museums, and thus will not qualify for this paper.


View these videos before your visit.

 printer icon   


 Click for more options Print – Alternative Formats  these directions and the Paper Guidelines out and take them with you to the museum. Also take a sketch pad to sketch the works you will discuss in your paper.

1. Begin by walking through the museum. Note that all museums have permanent collections (artwork they own) and exhibitions (traveling art shows).

2. Look at the art with care. If possible “listen” to it and hear what the artist is trying to communicate. 

3. Take notes based on Paper Guidelines.

4. THE PURPOSE OF SKETCHING is so that you may sit quietly and contemplate each of the works you will write about. Looking at a work live is not the same as looking at an image or picture of the work (like on your phone). Explore your feelings when looking at the work. Think about how the work makes you feel. Think about what the author may have been thinking when creating the work and the message the author was trying to communicate. You may want to print out these  

Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art

 Click for more options 

Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art – Alternative Formats

   before you go to help you look at the art more closely.

5.  REMEMBER to sketch ALL FIVE OF the works you will discuss in your paper. YOU NEED A SKETCH FOR EACH SECTION A-E. I just want a rough sketch. I am not expecting a Rembrandt.

Write Report (Read all directions carefully before you start!)

1. Your report should follow the guidelines stated under the  

Written Assignments


Written Assignments – Alternative Formats

 section of your syllabus. Your paper must be typed in a 10-12 point font, double-spaced with margins that are no more than 1 inch.

2. If you don’t have Microsoft Word, save your file as a .txt, .pdf, or .rtf file. Title your document with one word. For example, I might use sarah1.doc.

3. Your report must be at least 700 words. You need a sketch for each section A-E.

4. Please make sure to turn in your own work. Use your own words, not summaries of the descriptions of the artwork listed in the exhibit brochure or displayed with the objects’ titles.

5. Also, this report is an individual project. It should not be done with other students.

6. Any papers that are plagiarized will be turned back to the student and an “F” grade will be given.

7. Make sure to upload your paper to the dropbox and read your originality report. If your paper is above 5% copied (excluding quotes) make the necessary changes before re-submitting it into the dropbox. For more information on using the turnitin dropboxes   

click here


click here – Alternative Formats


8. Sketches should NOT be included when you upload your paper. They should be scanned in and uploaded to the separate Sketch dropbox or they can be faxed to the number in the syllabus. Make sure your professor’s name is on the cover sheet. The sketches can also be mailed to the address in the syllabus.

9. If you have problems getting started writing your report, take a look at  

Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art


Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art – Alternative Formats


Print these guidelines out and write on ALL of the sections Part A – Part E

 printer icon   

Click here

 Click for more options 

Print – Alternative Formats

  to print a copy of the Paper Guidelines.

Part A. The Most Beautiful Object in the Museum


1. As you walk through the museum, you should seek the most beautiful object you can find. When you have discovered it, stand or sit before it for at least two minutes.

1. Try not at first to look at the “title” or other information displayed with the object. Use your insight and imagination to understand the art before you.

1. Think about what thoughts and questions are going through your mind as you look at the object. Try to answer these questions in your paper; don’t just list questions without answers.

1. Take notes that express your feelings and thoughts plainly and simply.

1. Make a 8 x 10 sketch of the object, including the important details. (Do not worry about your artistic talent – I just want to see your impression of what you saw.)

1. This part of the paper should include:

6. the name of the museum you visited.

6. the title of the work you selected, its artist, and the country the artist is from.

6. a detailed description of the work and why you selected it. (Use  

Questions You Should Think about When Looking at Art


Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art – Alternative Formats

  if you get stuck. However, do not list the questions in your paper. Answer them.)

6. the feelings the work aroused in you.

6. your 8×10 sketch, including the important details.

Part B. The Most Interesting Non-European/Non-North American Work of Art


· Follow the directions for Part A. Make sure to list the country the artist is from. (Make sure to complete a sketch.)

Part C. The Most Disturbing Work of Art OR A Work of Art that You Disliked


· Follow the directions for Part A. (Make sure to complete a sketch.)

Part D. 2 Paragraphs about a Special Exhibition


· Please add a paragraph about a special exhibit at the museum. What was the title of the exhibit? What was the purpose of the exhibit? Give a general description of the artwork that is part of the exhibit.

· In your second paragraph, select an object you feel is the most significant of this particular exhibit. Make sure to include the title of the piece, the artist, country of origin, a description and sketch, and why you thought it was the most significant of the exhibit. (Make sure to complete a sketch.)

Part E. What Would You Take Home


1. If you could take one work home, from anything in the museum, what would you select and why? Describe the work you have selected. (Make sure to complete a sketch.)

Part F: Follow These Procedures


1. Make sure your paper has a title.


1. Make sure your paper is AT LEAST 700 words.


1. If you have trouble writing your paper, go to  
Questions You Should Think about When Looking at Art
Questions You Should Think About When Looking at Art – Alternative Formats
 . Please do not list the questions you are using. Just answer them.


1. Your paper must be typed in a 10-12 point font, double-spaced with margins that are no more than 1 inch.


1. If you don’t have Microsoft Word, save your file as a .txt, .pdf, or .rtf file. Name your document with one word. For example, I might use sarah1.doc.


1. Please make sure to turn in your own work. Use your own words, not summaries of the descriptions of the artwork listed in the exhibit brochure or displayed with the objects’ titles.


1. Also, this report is an individual project. It should not be done with other students.


1. Make sure to upload your paper to the dropbox and read your originality report. If your paper is above 5% copied (excluding quotes) make the necessary changes before re-submitting it into the dropbox. For more information on using turnitin dropboxes inside of Blackboard and understanding originality reports,  
click here

click here – Alternative Formats


1. Any papers that are plagiarized will be turned back to the student and an “F” grade will be given. You will then not be eligible to pass the course.

1. Your FIVE Sketches should NOT be included when you upload your paper. They should be scanned in and uploaded to the separate Museum Sketch dropbox.  The sketches can also be snail mailed to the address in the syllabus. Please scan in your ticket/receipt AND your selfie with one of the works you described in your paper and upload these to the museum sketch dropbox as proof of your visit.

Museum Policies and Rules of Conduct

Museums and galleries are concerned about both the exhibition and the protection of the works of art in its collection. Knowing and observing the below rules will be helpful.

1. PLEASE DO NOT TOUCH ANY WORK OF ART IN THE MUSEUM. Try to keep at least eight inches away to avoid any accidental damage. Be be prepared for a gallery attendant to to remind you if you get too close.

2. APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR. Eating, drinking, gum chewing, and smoking are not permitted in the galleries. Running, jumping, and physically fooling around are not permitted because of the hazard they create for the artwork and for other visitors. Children are welcome, but their behavior should be monitored by adult companions.

3. PHOTOGRAPHY/VIDEOGRAPHY.  ASK FIRST. Flash photography, videography and the use of tripods are almost always prohibited. You should be allowed to take a selfie with one of the works you described in your paper with your FLASH OFF.

4. HANDICAPPED ACCESSIBILITY. Reserved parking, wheel chairs, and elevators are available. Inquire at the front desk for assistance.

5. STUDENT DISCOUNTS. Ask at the front desk if student discounts are available. (Be sure to have you Student ID with you.) Or you can call ahead, to see if the museum offers free admission one day a week. Please scan in your ticket/receipt AND your selfie with one of the works you described in your paper and upload these to the museum sketch dropbox as proof of your visit.


Please submit your completed Virtual Museum Visitation Report to the TurnItIn.ComDropbox located located below these Virtual Museum Visitation Report instructions. Please upload all “Five” Museum Screenshots to the dropbox below these Virtual Museum Visitation Report instructions, and embed all “Five” Museum Screenshots inside the Virtual Museum Visitation Report essay as well.  (The Screenshots must include the art work setting; e.g.: The Art Work screenshot must be located in its Displayed Museum Setting, with full Museum Wall included inside the screenshot.  If the Screenshot (s) does not include the natural Museum complete setting, then NO CREDIT will be given for the entire Virtual Museum Visitationsubmission; –– see the Virtual Museum Visitation Report instructions).

Important  assignment details and reminders:


1. The Alternate – Virtual Museum Visitation Report will be submitted inside of this Blackboard class. 

2. Once you have chosen Art Works for each Alternate – Museum Visitation Report composition, observe and analyze the Art Work several times so that you can make an educated and informed analysis. This Alternate – Museum Visitation Report will be due by “March 8th, 2022” at before “11p.m.” online.

3. The Virtual Museum Visitation Report requires very specific instructions; read and review&nb

World history homework help

Imperialism and Modern
State Building Explode: The
Mexican Revolution
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

Early Twentieth Century

 Increased competition among nation-states and their empires.

 Tightened imperial grip.

 Challenges to imperial domination rising.
 Peaked after World War 1.

 World War 1.
 Industrial warfare, mass mobilization.

 Mass society and culture.

Today’s Class

 Conflicts not only between nations or nations and their colonial subjects, also
class conflict.

 Class-based clashes interacted with imperialism and international warfare.

 Sweeping revolutions.

 Mexico, 1910-1920.

 Nation-building and colonial legacy, imperialism, class struggle, mobilization of

 Next class: WW1, Russian Revolution, Paris Peace Agreements.

The Mexican Revolution

Mexico Between
1810 and 1876

 Caudillos.

 Turmoil, political instability.

 Imperial interventions.

 U.S. invasion of Mexico,

 French occupation, 1864-

 Porfirio Diaz takes power,

Porfirio Diaz’s cabinet, ~1900.

The Porfiriato, 1876-1911

 Dictatorship.

 Stability and economic growth.

 Modernization of the export economy.

 New technology.

 Association with U.S. business interests.

 But wealth was increasingly concentrated.

 Benefit of few families and U.S. investors.

 Peasants lost land.

 Stability through brutal repression and cooptation.

The Porfiriato’s

 Concentrated wealth caused

 Economy growth increased social

 Labor demands met with violence.

 Sectors of the elite resented Diaz
excessive political control.

Image of the 1906 Cananea Strike, at the American-owned
Cananea copper mine, in Sonora, northern Mexico. Many
workers killed for demanding better working conditions.

Francisco Madero

 Mine and landowner from northern Mexico.

 Educated in the U.S. and France.

 Modern businessmen, but resented privileges to U.S. investors.

 Ran for president in 1910.

 Arrested.

 Called for armed insurrection against Porfirio.

Broad coalition to oust Porfirio Diaz

 Conflicting additional goals would complicate the situation.

 Political reformers.

 Sectors of the landowning class, merchants, middle-class intellectuals.

 Social reformers.

 Fundamentally rural.

 Central and southern Mexico’s peasants. (Emiliano Zapata)

 Northern Mexico’s rural laborers and miners. (Pascal Orozco and Pancho Villa)

Pancho Villa

 Sharecropper family.

 Laborer in Durango, northern Mexico.

 Experienced and witnessed mistreatment
and poor conditions.

 Became a “social bandit”.

 Joined Madero’s call to arms.

Emiliano Zapata

 Feared the expansion of export-oriented
sugar plantation into his village’s land.

 Elected president of the village council in

 Sought to defend the village through legal
means but failed due to the biased Porfirian
judiciary system.

 Joined Madero’s call to end Porfirian rule.

Porfirio Ousted,
Madero President

 Porfirio Diaz renounced after Pancho Villa
defeated federal troops in Ciudad Juarez.

 Francisco Madero elected president,
November 1911.

 But ousting Diaz was just the beginning.

Madero in the 1911 electoral campaign
with Zapata’s troops.

The Mexican Revolution

Madero in Power

 From November 1911 to February 1913.

 Short reign due to political mistakes and the coalition’s diverging goals.

 Madero dismissed social demands.

 Antagonized an important sector of the coalition, mainly Zapata’s peasants.

 Madero maintained part of the Porfirian state intact.

 The army officers.

 The judiciary system.

Zapata’s Plan of Ayala

 Call to oust Madero.

 Land reform.

 1/3 of the land should return to peasants.

 Peasants’ colonial heritage.

 Trying to compromise.

 In the north.

 Also called to oust Madero and address the working class’s demands.

The Federal Army

 Madero called the Federal Army against his former allies.

 Army controlled by Porfirian officers.

 Led by Victoriano Huerta.

 Fought against Zapata and Orozco.

 But turned against Madero.

 Conspired with other Porfirian officers and the U.S. Ambassador.

Victoriano Huerta

The Tragic Ten
Days (Feb. 1913)

 Battle in Mexico City.

 Thousands killed.

 Madero assassinated.

 Porfirian regime restored with

Modern weaponry
employed in the battle.

Madero’s Coalition
Back Together

 Pancho Villa and northern
 Constitutionalist Army

 Emiliano Zapata and central
Mexico’s peasants.

 Call to oust Huerta and draft a
new constitution.

 Huerta resigned, end of
reestablished Porfirian rule.

Pancho Villa
and his troops.

Late 1914, Conference of Aguascalientes

 Meeting of all factions of the coalition.

 Villa’s rural laborers army.

 Northern elites.

 Zapata’s peasants.

 What should be the course of the revolution?

 Political?

 Social?

 Coalition split again.

vs. Conventionists

 Constitutionalist Army.

 Led by northern elites.

 Carranza and Obregón.

 Defended political reform,
opposed Zapata’s land reform.

 Conventionist Army.

 Pancho Villa and Emiliano

 Social reform.

 Conventionist Army took Mexico

Zapata and Villa’s armies enter Mexico
City, December 1914.

Constitutionalist Win

 Constitutionalist Army winning the civil war.

 Superior resources.

 U.S. support.

 Less weariness.

 Accepted part of the social reform agenda.

 Decreased battered Conventionists’ will to fight.

 Gained support of the urban middle and working class.

 Constitutional Assembly.

 New 1917 Mexican Constitution.

Mexico’s New Constitution

Social Reforms and the 1917 Constitution

 Article 27.

 Land reform.

 Nationalization of underground resources.

 Article 123.

 Workers’ rights.

Carranza’s Government, 1917-1920.

 Should follow the 1917 Constitution.

 Instead, undermined it.

 Brutal repression on labor.

 Increased persecution of peasants demanding land rights.

 Zapata kept fighting.

 Now with a weakened and weary peasant army.

 But symbolically relevant.

 Zapata executed in April 1919.

Obregón’s Response

 Carranza’s violent methods and disregard for the

 Many enemies.

 Álvaro Obregón.

 Former ally, member of the northern middle-class.

 Had led divisions of the Constitutionalist Army
against Zapata.

 But came to recognize the need for social reform.

 Ousted Carranza.

 Revolutionary process coming to an end.

 A million people died.

The Mexican Revolution and World

 Contemporary revolutions.

 China’s nationalist revolution, 1911.

 Russia’s communist revolution, 1917.

 Rise of industry and changes in social classes.

 Nation-state formation.

 Complex; colonial heritage.

 Expansion of capitalism and resulting social tensions.

  • Imperialism and Modern State Building Explode: The Mexican Revolution
  • Early Twentieth Century
  • Today’s Class
  • The Mexican Revolution Begins
  • Mexico Between 1810 and 1876
  • The Porfiriato, 1876-1911
  • The Porfiriato’s Decline
  • Francisco Madero
  • Broad coalition to oust Porfirio Diaz
  • Pancho Villa
  • Emiliano Zapata
  • Porfirio Ousted, Madero President
  • The Mexican Revolution Unfolds
  • Madero in Power
  • Zapata’s Plan of Ayala
  • The Federal Army
  • The Tragic Ten Days (Feb. 1913)
  • Madero’s Coalition Back Together
  • Late 1914, Conference of Aguascalientes
  • Constitutionalists vs. Conventionists
  • Constitutionalist Win
  • Mexico’s New Constitution
  • Social Reforms and the 1917 Constitution
  • Carranza’s Government, 1917-1920.
  • Obregón’s Response
  • The Mexican Revolution and World History

World history homework help

Purpose:  For this assignment, you’ll choose one of the topics below, evaluating Sundiata and Popul Vuh, and write a 6-10 paragraph essay arguing for and supporting your conclusions to submit as a well-developed essay.  This assignment will build your writing, analytical, and evaluative skills.

You may be able to further flush out the writing you have already done in discussions towards these goals.  If you choose a different topic than the ones on which you have already written, the discussion posts and responses may still be useful and inspiring to you.  However, be careful you don’t plagiarize your classmates’ work.  We encourage you to use the background material in the course to further develop your own original interpretations and arguments; researching other secondary sources is not required for this assignment, and plagiarism of other sources will not be tolerated. 

Bloom's evaluate


First, choose one of the following two topics:

· Topic #1:  One of the Five Great Themes of World Literature is “Sacred & Secular.” As stated in Unit 1B of this course, “We will find in our study of literary masterpieces from the past many intricate negotiations between the divine and the earthly realms.” Discuss what we learn about how divine powers and earthly beings interact in Sundiata (in an area with a syncretic religion) and Popol Vuh (which is not a sacred text but presents the Mayan cosmology).  Which values embodied by these interactions are considered significant by their societies? 

One of the passages you should quote (all or in part) and analyze is the following:

At the time when Sundiata was preparing to assert his claim over the kingdom of his fathers, Soumaoro was the king of kings, the most powerful king in all the lands of the setting sun. The fortified town of Sosso was the bulwark of fetishism against the word of Allah. For a long time Soumaoro defied the whole world. Since his accession to the throne of Sosso he had defeated nine kings whose heads served him as fetishes in his macabre chamber. . . .  So his countless sofas were very brave since they believed their king to be invincible. But Soumaoro was an evil demon and his reign had produced nothing but bloodshed. Nothing was taboo for him. His greatest pleasure was publicly to flog venerable old men (41).

World history homework help

The Industrial Revolution
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

This Week

 Industrial revolution in 18th century England.
 Global processes.

 Local processes.

 Industrial revolution elsewhere, 19th century.

 Next class.
 Social consequences.

 Changes in livelihoods globally.

The Industrial Revolution

 Transformation of production.

 From artisan labor to machine-based production.

 Energy is key.

 Started in England in the 1750s.

 But resulted from global process.

 Increased productivity, but also disruptive consequences.

Industry, Enlightenment, and the Atlantic

 Late 1700s, early 1800s.

 Enlightenment thought.

 Included free trade and free wage labor.

 Atlantic Revolutions.

 Challenged aristocracy, favored entrepreneurial bourgeoisie.

 Ended colonial trade restrictions.

The Foundations of the
Industrial Revolution

The “Industrious Revolution”

 Mid-seventeenth century onwards.

 Increasing production due to…

 Increasing population in Europe and Asia.

 Global trade demands.

 People looking for new production techniques.

 Improved shipping.


 Production of agricultural
goods and raw materials.
 Low cost.

 Overexploitation of slaves
facilitated the growth of
global trade and

 Consumer market for cheap

 Capital accumulation.

James Hopkinson’s Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes.
ca. 1862/63

Global and Local

 Global facilitators of the industrial

 The “industrious revolution” in
Asia and Europe.

 Global trade.

 Slavery.

 Why England?

 Coal and Iron reserves.

 Scientific revolution.

 Enlightenment.

 England’s global commercial

Trial and Error

 England’s culture of

 Artisans testing methods and
mechanical devices to
increase productivity.

 Copies of imported Chinese
and Indian goods.
 Chinese porcelain, big


 Huge breakthrough in the
textile sector.

Model of a 1760s spinning jenny, invented in England, one of
the key developments in the industrialization of textiles.

Industrialized Textiles

 Increased global textile demand.

 Improved looms and spinning devices in weaver’s homes and small

 The first factories: many spinning machines installed in one building,
connected to an external power source.

 Workers in the factory.

 Major change in production and livelihoods of weavers.

Steam Power
and Machinery

 Made cheaper and more
efficient in the late eighteenth

 To power factory’s machines.

 And later transportation.

 Railroad trains.

 Steamships.

 Interchangeability of parts.

Steam engine.

Industrialization Elsewhere

Industry and
 Railroads.

 Facilitated land
transportation of industrial
goods and raw materials.

 New livelihoods in the
steam powered transport

 Late nineteenth century.
 Internal combustion

 Automobile.

Industry and Energy
– Second Half of 19th

 Electricity.

 Oil.

 Heavy Industry.

 “Second Phase” of the
Industrial Revolution.

Deptford Power
Generator, London,

Industrialization in
Western Europe –

 Germany unified in 1871.

 After winning war against

 Heavy state investment in

 Annexed France’s Alsace-
 Textile and metallurgical

 Mineral deposits.

Industrialization in the United States

 End of civil war, 1865.

 Vast natural resources.

 Railroad building.

 Massive private investment in industries.

in Japan
 History of industriousness.

 Merchants, peasants, and samurais
involved in the industrialization

 Imported, adapted, and improved

 Reaction to U.S. imposition of open
ports (1853).

 Industrial and military power.

 Private and state investment.

The Tokyo Koishikawa Arsenal,
established in 1871.

Industries Elsewhere

 Latin America – 1870-1914.

 Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile.

 Consumer goods.

 Also Eastern Europe, Ottoman Empire, India.

 Industries but not full industrialization until later in the 20th century.

 Next class: Effects of the industrial revolution.

  • The Industrial Revolution
  • This Week
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Industry, Enlightenment, and the Atlantic Revolutions
  • The Foundations of the Industrial Revolution
  • The “Industrious Revolution”
  • Slavery
  • Global and Local Causes
  • Trial and Error
  • Industrialized Textiles
  • Steam Power and Machinery
  • Industrialization Elsewhere
  • Industry and Transportation
  • Industry and Energy – Second Half of 19th Century
  • Industrialization in Western Europe – Germany
  • Industrialization in the United States
  • Industrialization in Japan
  • Industries Elsewhere

World history homework help

smi49245_ch23_838-873 838 07/13/18 01:33 PM


Industry and Everyday Life


smi49245_ch23_838-873 839 07/13/18 01:33 PM

World in the Making A n artist from an elite
samurai family, K iyochika Kobayashi was so
fascinated by technolog y and industry that in 1879
he placed a train front and center in this moonlit
scene set in Takanawa Ushimachi, just outside of
Tokyo. Earlier portrayed as a slum called Oxtown
with garbage strewn about its roads, Takanawa
Ushimachi became alluring to this artist, thanks to
the arrival of the railroad. K iyochika also introduced
such elements as clocks, cameras, electric lighting,
and the massive cannons churned out by industry.
(Santa Barbara Museum of A rt, Gift of Dr. and Mrs.
Roland A. Way, 1984.31.5.)

The Industrial Revolution Begins,

FOCUS What were the main causes of the
Industrial Revolution?

Industrialization After 1830
FOCUS How did industrialization spread, and
what steps did nations and manufacturers take
to meet its challenges?

The Industrial Revolution and the World
FOCUS How did industrialization affect societies
in China, South and West Asia, and Africa?

Industry and Society
FOCUS How did industrialization affect people’s
everyday lives and livelihoods?

The Culture of Industry
FOCUS How did writers and artists respond to
the new industrial world?

COUNTERPOINT: African Women and
Slave Agriculture

FOCUS What contributions did African women
agricultural workers make to industrial

As we saw in Chapter 22, between 1750 and

1830 popular uprisings led to a revolutionary

wave across the Atlantic world. Throwing

off old political systems, revolutionaries

also aimed to unchain their economies by

eliminating stifling restrictions on manu-

facturing and commerce imposed by guilds

and governments. Free global trade advanced

further with the end of British control of the

United States and Spanish control of much

of Latin America. During the same period,

slavery came under attack as an immoral

institution that denied human beings equal

rights and prevented a free labor force from

developing. As Enlightenment ideas for good

government flourished, reformers pushed to

replace traditional aristocratic and monarchi-

cal privileges with rational codes of law. Free

trade and free labor, promoted by enlightened

laws and policies, helped bring dramatic

changes to the global economy, most notably

the unparalleled increase in productivity

called the Industrial Revolution.

840 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 840 07/13/18 01:33 PM

As a seven-year-old in 1799, Robert Blincoe started working in a cotton mill
outside the town of Nottingham, in central England. Robert was an orphan, and
with others from his London orphanage he was sent to the mill. Orphans were to
contribute to England’s prosperity, but it was not certain that Robert would even
survive to adulthood. As his group reached the mill, he heard onlookers in the town
mutter, “God help the poor wretches.”1 Robert soon found out why. He watched
as his fellow child workers wasted away from the long hours and meager food, and
he looked on as the orphan Mary Richards was caught up in the machinery: he
“heard the bones of her arms, legs, thighs, etc successively snap . . . her head ap-
peared dashed to pieces, . . . her blood thrown about like water from a twirled mop.”2
Older workers tortured small Robert, pouring hot tar into a blazing metal bowl and
placing it on his head until his hair came off and his scalp was burned. Only when
Robert reached age twenty-one, his entire body scarred for life from beatings, was
he released from his grim “apprenticeship.”

Robert Blincoe was a survivor of the Industrial Revolution—a change in the pro-
duction of goods that substituted mechanical force for human energy. Beginning
in Britain around 1750, European factories churned out machine-made products
that came to replace more expensive artisanal goods. Agriculture continued to
dominate the world economy, but in the twentieth century, industry would outstrip
agriculture as the leading economic sector.

Industrialization transformed the livelihoods of tens of millions of people in the
nineteenth century. Its course was ragged, offering both danger and advantage.
Some like Robert Blincoe were driven into factories where conditions were often
hazardous and even criminal. The efficient new weaving machines gave jobs to
some, but they impoverished artisans, such as the Indian and European handloom
weavers who continued to follow traditional manufacturing methods. Industry
influenced agriculture, as factories consumed more raw materials and as the grow-
ing number of workers in cities depended for their food on distant farmers, many
of them slaves or indentured workers. With the global spread of industry, cultural
life echoed the transformation, as writers, musicians, painters, and thinkers de-
picted their new societies. W hether a region had comparatively few factories, as
in India and South America, or a dense network of them, as in Britain, patterns of
work and everyday life changed—and not always for the better, as Robert Blincoe’s
case shows.

T h e I n d u s t r i a l Revo l u t i o n B e g i n s 175 0 –18 3 0 841

smi49245_ch23_838-873 841 07/13/18 01:33 PM

The Industrial Revolution Begins 1750–1830

FOCUS What were the main causes of the Industrial revolution?

The Industrial Revolution unfolded first in Britain and western Europe, even-
tually tipping the balance of global power in favor of the West. A lthough Britain
led in industry, the economies of Qing (ching) China and India were larger until
almost 1900, when Britain surpassed them in overall productivity. A burning ques-
tion for historians is how, in a climate of worldwide industriousness, Britain had
come to the forefront of the great industrial transformation.

The Global Roots of Industrialization
Industrialization took place amid a worldwide surge in productive activity some-
times called the “Industrious Revolution.” Industriousness rose, as people worked
longer hours and tinkered to find new ways to make goods, developing thousands of
new inventions in the process. In Qing China from the mid-1650s to 1800, produc-
tivity increased along with population, which soared from 160 million people in 1700
to 350 million in 1800. The dynamic economy improved many people’s lifestyles
and life expectancy and encouraged people to work harder to acquire the new prod-
ucts constantly entering the market. Chinese life expectancy increased to the range
of thirty-four to thirty-nine years, longer than almost anywhere else in the world,
including western Europe, where in 1800 it was thirty in France and thirty-five in
Britain. Crops from the Western Hemisphere helped raise the standard of living
wherever they were imported and grown, and awareness of such popular Chinese
products as cotton textiles and porcelain spread through international trade. Silver

1. In what ways did the

Industrial Revolution

change people’s work

lives and ideas?

2. How did the Indus-

trial Revolution benefit

people, and what prob-

lems did it create?

3. How and where did

industrial production

develop, and how did

it affect society and



The major global development in this chapter: The Industrial Revolution and its
impact on societies and cultures throughout the world.

As you read, consider:

Industrial Revolution 
A change in the
production of goods
that substituted
mechanical power
for human energy,
beginning around
1750 in Britain and
western Europe; it
vastly increased the
world’s productivity.

842 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 842 07/13/18 01:33 PM

flowed into China as Europeans purchased its highly desirable goods. As the nine-
teenth century opened, Qing China was the most prosperous country on earth.

Europe, in contrast, produced little that was attractive to foreign buyers, and in
the seventeenth century warfare, epidemics, and famine reduced its population from
eighty-five million to eighty million. After 1700, however, Europe’s population surged
like that of China, more than doubling by 1800, thanks to global trade that introduced
nutritious foods and useful know-how. Population growth put pressure on British
energy resources, especially fuel and food. With their populations rising rapidly, both
Britain and China faced the limits of artisanal productivity and natural resources. The
Industrial Revolution allowed the British to surpass those limits (see Map 23.1).

Great Britain: A Culture of Experimentation
W hy did the Industrial Revolution happen in Britain first? A fter all, many regions
have the coal, iron deposits, and other resources that went into creating the first
modern machines. It was not just resources, however, that propelled Britain to
the industrial forefront. The Scientific Revolution had fostered both new reliance
on direct observation and deep curiosity about the world. The British and other
Europeans traveled the globe, which exposed them to technological developments
from other societies. From China, for example, they learned about such imple-
ments as seed drills and winnowing machines to process grain. The widely read
Encyclopedia, composed in France during the Enlightenment, featured mechanical
designs from around the world, making them available to networks of tinkerers
and experimenters. The massive expansion in productivity was initially not about
theoretical science, but about Britain’s practical culture of trial and error.

Curious British artisans and industrious craftspeople worked to supply the surg-
ing population, to meet the shortage in energy due to declining wood supplies,
and to devise products that the world might want to buy. “The age,” wrote critic
Samuel Johnson, “is running mad after innovation.”3 From aristocrats to artisans,
the British latched onto news of successful experiments both at home and abroad.
They tinkered with air pumps, clocks, and telescopes. European craftspeople
worked hard to copy the new goods imported from China, India, and other coun-
tries. From the sixteenth century on, for example, European consumers bought
hundreds of thousands of foreign porcelain pieces, leading would-be manufactur-
ers in the Netherlands, France, and the German states to try to figure out the pro-
cess of porcelain production. They finally succeeded early in the 1700s. Despite
inventive activity across Europe, it was England that pulled ahead.

One English innovator who stands out is Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795), founder
of the Wedgwood dishware firm that still exists. Wedgwood developed a range
of new processes, colors, and designs, making his business a model for large-scale

T h e I n d u s t r i a l Revo l u t i o n B e g i n s 175 0 –18 3 0 843

smi49245_ch23_838-873 843 07/13/18 01:33 PM


0 200 Kilometers

200 Miles


Mediterranean Sea

Black SeaAdriatic Sea





























Bordeaux Lyon





















St. Petersburg





Manchester Leeds










Industrial area,
c. 1870–1900

By 1848


Coal deposit

Iron ore deposit

boundaries, 1900

in Europe, c. 1900

Major railroads

10ºW 10ºE 20ºE




30ºE 40ºE0º

MAP 23.1 Industrialization in Europe, c. 1900 Beginning in the workshops of England’s tinkerers,
industrialization spread across western Europe to Germany and then to Russia. The presence of raw materials such as
coal and iron ore sparked industrial development, albeit unevenly, but so did curiosity and inventiveness. Sweden, for
example, lacks mineral resources, so its people harnessed water power to develop electricity.

production. He grew up in a family that produced rough, traditional kinds of pot-
tery on a very small scale. As a poor, younger son with an inquisitive mind, he used
his bent for experimentation to devise many types of ceramics. Helped by his wife
and by the personal funds she invested in the company, Wedgwood kept meticulous
records of his five thousand experiments with “china” (so called because Chinese
porcelain set the standard for ceramic production). His agents searched the world
for the right grade of clay to compete with Asian products, and he copied Asian
designs unashamedly. In Wedgwood, the distinctive British culture of artisanal

844 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 844 07/13/18 01:33 PM

experimentation came together with the inspiration provided by global connec-
tions; the result was industrial innovation. Wedgwood’s vast fortune and spirit of
experimentation passed down to his grandson Charles Darwin, who proposed the
theory of evolution.

World Trade and the Rise of Industry
As population rose across many parts of the globe and as nations fought wars world-
wide over trade, global shipping increased to supply people at home and transport
far-flung armies and navies. Improved shipping brought grain from North America,
wood from Canada and Russia, cotton from Egypt and the United States, and even-
tually meat from Australia to wherever industrial growth occurred. Imports and
Europe’s own produce fed urban workers. Commodities such as tea, coffee, choco-
late, and opium derivatives, which the lower classes were coming to use in the nine-
teenth century, helped them endure the rigors of industry. Thus, dense global trade

networks and raw materials produced by workers
from around the world were critical to the Indus-
trial Revolution and urban growth.

Slaves were also crucial to industrial success.
Eleven million Africans captured on the conti-
nent were sold into slavery in the Americas, rais-
ing capital to invest in commerce and industry.
Slaves worldwide produced agricultural prod-
ucts such as sugar and rice that enriched global
traders. Cheaper foodstuffs cut the expenses
of factory owners, who justified low wages by
pointing to workers’ decreasing costs for their
everyday needs. To clothe their slaves, plantation
owners bought inexpensive factory-made textiles
pumped out by British machines, though the
rising number of slaves in West Africa also pro-
duced textiles for nearby markets. In the northern
United States, slave ironworkers were put to work
building metallurgical businesses, and across the
Western Hemisphere slaves’ skills played a crucial
role in producing copper and tin as well as cotton
and dyes for factory use worldwide. Had free labor
alone been used in these processes, some histori-
ans believe, the higher cost of raw materials and

Wedgwood China Josiah Wedgwood, the eighteenth-
century English potter-turned-industrialist who founded
a company still prosperous today, worked day and night
to figure out the ingredients, formulas, and processes
necessary to make “china”—that is, inexpensive, heat-
resistant dishware patterned after China’s renowned but
costly and fragile porcelain. Wedgwood copied designs
from around the world to brighten his dishware, but he is
best known for his “Wedgwood blue” products, which were
directly inspired by China’s famed blue-and-white patterns.

T h e I n d u s t r i a l Revo l u t i o n B e g i n s 175 0 –18 3 0 845

smi49245_ch23_838-873 845 07/13/18 01:33 PM

food would have slowed development of global trade and the pace of experiments
with factories and machines.

The Technology of Industry
Technology was a final ingredient in the effort to meet the needs of a growing and
increasingly interconnected population. In the eighteenth century, British inven-
tors devised tools such as the flying shuttle (1733) to speed the weaving of textiles
by individuals working at home. This, in turn, led to improvements in spinning to
meet the increased demand for thread created by speedier weaving. The spinning
jenny, invented about 1765 by craftsman James Hargreaves, allowed an individual
worker, using just the power of her hand, to spin not one bobbin of thread, but up
to 120 at once. At about the same time, R ichard Arkwright and partners invented
the water frame, another kind of spinning machine that used water power. W hen
hand-driven spinning machines could be linked to a central power source such as
water, many could be placed in a single building. Thus, the world’s first factories
arose from the pressure to increase production of English cloth for the growing
global market.

Still another, even more important breakthrough arose when steam engines were
harnessed to both spinning and weaving machines. Steam engines could power a
vast number of machines, which drew more people out of home textile production
and into factories. It was a pivotal piece of technology not just for textiles, but for
the Industrial Revolution as a whole. Steam engines were used first in the gold and
silver mining industry, then in textile production, and finally in driving trains and
steamboats. The steam engine had been invented earlier in China, and was used
there and elsewhere to pump water from mines. In 1765, James Watt, a Scottish
craftsman, figured out how to make the steam engine more practical, fuel-efficient,
and powerful—“cheap as well as good” was how he put it.4 In 1814, British engi-
neer George Stephenson placed the machine in a carriage on rails, inventing the
locomotive. The first steam-powered ship crossed the Atlantic soon after, in 1819.

The interchangeability of parts was another critical aspect of the Industrial
Revolution. The many wars fought for global trade and influence in the eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries produced rising demand for weapons. By 1790
French gunsmith Honoré Blanc, experimenting with tools and gauges, had pro-
duced guns with fully interchangeable parts. This lowered the cost per weapon
and made repair possible for merchants and soldiers based in any part of the world.
The goal was to “assure uniformity [of output], acceleration of work, and economy
of price,” as a government official put it in 1781.5 The idea of interchangeability in
weaponry and machinery was crucial to the unfolding Industrial Revolution.

of parts A late-
breakthrough in
which machine and
implement parts were
standardized, allowing
for mass production
and easy repair.

846 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 846 07/13/18 01:33 PM

Industrialization After 1830

FOCUS How did industrialization spread, and what steps did
nations and manufacturers take to meet its challenges?

One striking feature of industrialization is its unstoppable spread within countries,
across regions, and around the world despite resistance to it from threatened
workers and fearful rulers. Industrialization brings ongoing efficiencies, which
have proven important to meet the needs of a growing global population. From
its birth in England and western Europe, entrepreneurs across the continent
advanced the industrial system, as did innovators in the United States. Outside
of Europe and the United States, thorough industrialization generally did not
develop until the twentieth century. Even though industry developed unevenly in
different places, it affected the wider world by increasing demand for raw materials
and creating new livelihoods.

Industrial Innovation Gathers Speed
The nineteenth century was one of widespread industrial, technological, and
commercial innovation (see Map 23.2). Steam engines moved inexpensive
manufactured goods on a growing network of railroads and shipping lanes, creating
a host of new jobs outside of factory work (see Lives and Livelihoods: Builders of
the Trans-Siberian Railroad).

A lthough craftsmen-tinkerers created the first machines, such as the spinning
jenny and water frame, sophisticated engineers were more critical to later revolu-
tionary technologies. In 1885 the German engineer Karl Benz devised a gasoline
engine, and six years later France’s Armand Peugeot constructed the first auto-
mobile. Benz produced his first car two years later in 1893. A fter 1880, electricity
became more available, providing power to light everything from private homes to
government office buildings. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, constructed for the Inter-
national Exhibit of 1889 and for decades the tallest structure in the world, was a
monument to the age’s engineering wizardry; visitors rode to its summit in electric
elevators, its electric lights ablaze.

To fuel this explosive growth, the leading industrial nations mined and pro-
duced massive quantities of coal, iron, and steel during the second half of the cen-
tury. Output by the major European iron producers increased from eleven million
to twenty-three million tons in the 1870s and 1880s alone. Steel output grew even
more impressively in the same decades, from half a million to eleven million tons.
Manufacturers used the metal to build more than one hundred thousand locomo-
tives that pulled trains, transporting two billion people annually.

I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n Af t e r 18 3 0 847

smi49245_ch23_838-873 847 07/13/18 01:33 PM


0 1000 Kilometers

1000 Miles





S a h a r a

(O�oman, under
British control)

(Gr. Br.)

(Gr. Br.)
Railroads, c. 1914

Highly industrialized region

Industrializing region

�e Spread of Railroads, c. 1900

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer





30ºW 30ºE 120ºE 140ºE60ºE 90ºE60ºW















Highly industrialized
European nations

European nations

MAP 23.2 The Spread of Railroads, c. 1900 The spread of railroads throughout the world fostered
industrialization because it required tracks, engines and railroad cars, and railway stations, which were increasingly
made of iron, steel, and glass. Railroads generated economic growth beyond the building of trains and tracks, however.
Entire cities grew up around railroad hubs, which attracted new migrants—not just hard-working builders but also
professionals and service workers—to fill the needs of the growing population.

Historians sometimes contrast two periods of the Industrial Revolution. In the
first, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, innovations in textile ma-
chinery powered by steam energy predominated. The second, in the later nineteenth
century, concentrated on heav y industrial products and electrical and oil power.
This was the pattern in Britain, but industrialization was never so neat elsewhere:
textile factories and blast furnaces were built simultaneously, and small workshops
grew faster than the number of factories. Livelihoods pursued at home—called
outwork—persisted in garment making, metalwork, and such “finishing trades” as
metal polishing. In fact, factory production fostered “industriousness” more than
ever, and factory, small workshop, and home enterprise have coexisted ever since.

Industrial innovations in machinery and chemicals also transformed agricul-
ture. Chemical fertilizers boosted crop yields, and reapers and threshers mech-
anized harvesting. In the 1870s, Sweden produced a cream separator, a first step
toward mechanizing dairy farming. Wire fencing and barbed wire replaced more
labor-intensive wooden fencing and stone walls, allowing large-scale cattle- raising.
Refrigerated railroad cars and steamships, developed between the 1840s and 1870
in several countries, allowed fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and meat to be trans-
ported without spoiling, increasing the size and diversity of the urban food supply.

outwork A method
of manufacturing
in which raw or
semifinished materials
are distributed to
households where they
are further processed
or completed.

848 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 848 07/13/18 01:33 PM


Builders of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
A xes, saws, and wheelbarrows—these were the
tools that built the greatest railway project ever un-
dertaken. Stretching across Siberia from Moscow
in the west to V ladivostok on the Sea of Japan (see
again Map 23.2), the scale of the trans-Siberian
railroad was enormous by any measure: miles laid
(fifty-seven hundred), earth moved (one hundred
million cubic yards), rail installed (more than one
hundred million tons), and bridges and tunnels
constructed (sixty miles). Because this remote wil-
derness lacked roads, the endeavor was difficult and
expensive. Except for lumber, all supplies needed to
be transported. Cut stone for bridge supports and
gravel for the railbed came from quarries some-
times hundreds of miles away. Ships carried steel
parts for bridges thousands of miles across the seas,
from Odessa on the Black Sea to V ladivostok. In
winter horse-drawn sleds and in summer horse-
drawn wagons transported material to the work
sites. Cut through forests, blasted through rock,
raised over rivers and swampy lands, the project was
completed in nine sections over thirteen years from
1891 to 1904.

Hundreds of thousands of manual laborers did
the work. At the height of its construction, the
trans-Siberian employed as many as ninety thou-
sand workers on each of its original nine sections.
Many were recruited by contractors who scoured
Russian cities and villages for hefty men. Prison-
ers and soldiers were forced to work on the project.

Around the large work sites, the army and police
stood guard to prevent disruption as the grueling,
dangerous labor progressed. The government set up
state liquor stores near work camps to appease la-
borers in their off-hours.

Getting the job done quickly and cheaply was
the government’s top priority. Worker safety was
of little concern, and casualties were many among
the unskilled workforce. Cutting through forests to
lay rail and dynamiting through hills to construct

Convict Railroad Workers in Siberia, 1895 The
tsarist government of Russia mobilized hundreds
of thousands of workers to build the trans-Siberian
railroad, the main line of which took thirteen years
(1891–1904) to complete. Convicts provided essential
manpower, and this image shows their housing and
living conditions. The labor entailed moving mountains
of soil and rock and bringing in lumber and iron track,
all without benefit of machinery and in the harsh
Siberian climate.

I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n Af t e r 18 3 0 849

smi49245_ch23_838-873 849 07/13/18 01:33 PM

tunnels took thousands of lives. The anonymous
dead lived on only in poetry:

The way is straight, the embankment narrow,
Telegraph poles, rails, bridges,
And every where on both sides are Russian

bones—. . .
Brothers! You remember our reward!
Fated to be strewn in the earth.1

The only apparent safety precaution was forbidding
prisoners to work with explosives.

Minister of Finance Sergei Witte maintained
that the railroad would make Russia the dominant
global market in the world: “The silk, tea, and fur
trade for Europe, and the manufacturing and other
trade for the Far East, will likely be concentrated in
Moscow, which will become the hub of the world’s
transit movement,” he predicted.2 Long after the
line’s completion, the trans-Siberian railroad pro-
vided good jobs for railway workers in Siberia. In

settlements along the rail line, business thrived, and
cities such as Novosibirsk provided scores of new
opportunities for service workers supporting rail-
road personnel.

The trans-Siberian railroad did indeed trans-
form the livelihoods of the empire as a whole. The
government sent some five million peasants from
western Russia to Siberia bet ween 1890 and 1914.
The massive migration was intended to extend
Russian power across the empire’s vast ex panse.
The government designated millions of acres of
land— populated at the time by nomadic A sian
foragers and herders—for Russian, U k rainian,
and Belorussian settlers. Russian bureaucrats
hoped that as the peasants intermingled w ith in-
digenous peoples, the non-Russian ethnic groups
would become “Russianized ” even as they lost
hunting lands and pasturage that were the basis of
their livelihoods. The population of Siberia soared
w ith the influ x of farmers. Russia would never be
the same.

Questions to Consider

1. W hat jobs were needed to construct the trans-Siberian railroad, and how were workers treated?
2. How did the railroad affect livelihoods other than those directly connected with its construction?
3. How would you balance the human costs of building the railroad with the human opportunities it

4. W hat changes did the trans-Siberian railroad bring to Russia?

1. Nicholai Nekrasov, quoted in J. N. Westwood, A History of the Russian Railways (London: George A llen and

Unwin, 1964), 33.

2. Quoted in Stephen G. Marks, Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917

(London: I. B. Tauris, 1991), 117.

850 CH A P T ER 2 3 I n d u s t r y a n d E v Er y day L I fE 175 0 –19 0 0

smi49245_ch23_838-873 850 07/13/18 01:33 PM

Challenges to British Dominance
Other countries began to narrow Britain’s industrial advantage. The United States in-
dustrialized rapidly after its Civil War (discussed in Chapter 24) ended in 1865, and
Japan joined in after 1870. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico gaine

World history homework help

1. Using library and internet resources,

· Research the alliances formed after World War II, such as NATO and the Warsaw Pact.

· Your sources should include a variety of media, such as films and recordings.

· Present your findings in the form of a well-organized PowerPoint presentation.

2. Using library and internet resources,

· Research the causes of the Cold War. These causes will include the ideological differences between the Western powers and the communist bloc.

· Your sources should include a variety of media, such as films and recordings.

· Present your findings in a short report.

World history homework help

Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire, to 1763

Prof. Marcella Bencivenni

Hostos Community College

Copyright © 2020 W. W. Norton & Company


Lecture Topics

Slavery and Empire

Slave Cultures and Slave Resistance

An Empire of Freedom

The Public Sphere

The Great Awakening

Imperial Rivalries

Battle for the Continent

The subtopics for this lecture are listed on the screen.


Olaudah Equiano’s Narrative

The frontispiece of Olaudah Equiano’s account of his life, the best-known narrative by an eighteenth-century slave. The portrait of Equiano in European dress and holding a Bible challenges stereotypes of blacks as “savages” incapable of becoming civilized.


Sometime in the mid-1750s, Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped by slave traders and sold to a plantation owner in Virginia. He was then purchased by a British sea captain and accompanied his owner on numerous voyages on Atlantic trading vessels. While still a slave, he enrolled in a school in England, where he learned to read and write, enlisted in the Royal Navy, and served during the Seven Years’ War. In 1763, however, Equiano was sold once again, but three years later, he was able to purchase his freedom. After vast travels, Equiano eventually settled in London, and in 1789 he published The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. In the book, he condemned the idea that Africans were inferior to Europeans and therefore deserved to be slaves. The book became the era’s most widely read account by a slave of his own experiences.

Equiano’s rich variety of experience was no doubt unusual, but his life illuminates broad patterns of eighteenth-century American history, including colonial growth and the development of the Atlantic world. Further, as European powers jockeyed for advantage in North America, colonists were drawn into an almost continuous series of wars with France and its Indian allies, which reinforced their sense of identification with, and dependence on, Great Britain. Equiano’s life also underscores the greatest irony or contradiction in the history of the eighteenth century—the simultaneous expansion of freedom and slavery. This was the era when the idea of the “freeborn Englishman” became powerfully entrenched in the outlook of both colonists and Britons. More than any other principle, liberty was seen as what made the British empire distinct. Yet the eighteenth century was also the height of the Atlantic slave trade, a commerce increasingly dominated by British merchants and ships. Although concentrated in the Chesapeake and areas farther south, slavery existed in every colony of British North America. And unlike Equiano, very few slaves were fortunate enough to gain their freedom.

Discussion Question:

How did Olaudah Equiano’s experiences both illustrate the norms of British colonial life and defy them?

Slavery and Empire

Focus Question:

How did African slavery differ regionally in eighteenth-century North America?



Atlantic slave trade

vital part of world economy

Triangular trade routes moved people and goods around Atlantic

Slavery becoming more entrenched

African rulers involved in the slave trade

The Middle Passage


The Atlantic slave trade flourished in the 1700s. In this century alone more than half of the estimated 7.7 million Africans transported to the New World between 1492 and 1820 arrived. The immensely profitable slave trade was a vital part of world commerce. In the eighteenth-century British empire, slavery, not wage labor, was the norm. Slave plantations contributed greatly to British economic development, and the first mass consumer goods in international trade, namely, sugar, rice, coffee, and tobacco, were produced by slaves and stimulated the growth of the slave trade.

Though the Caribbean continued to be the British empire’s commercial center and the crown’s major revenue producer, slave-grown products from the mainland increased as a share of Atlantic trade. The Atlantic Ocean’s triangular trading routes carried British manufactured goods to Africa and the colonies, brought colonial products including tobacco, indigo, sugar, and rice to Europe, and shipped slaves from Africa to the Americas. Most colonial vessels went back and forth from the mainland to the West Indies, however, shipping agricultural and other goods that the islands couldn’t produce in exchange for plantation crops and slaves. Even merchants from New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island participated in, and profited from, the slave trade. In Britain, the slave trade also stimulated the rise of port cities such as Liverpool and Bristol, fostered the growth of banking, shipbuilding, and insurance, and helped finance the early industrial revolution. As slavery became more and more entrenched, so too, as the Quaker abolitionist John Woolman commented in 1762, did “the idea of slavery being connected with the black color, and liberty with the white.”

In the eighteenth century, slavery in West African societies shifted from being a minor institution to a central one. Most African rulers participated in the slave trade, often in ways most beneficial to them. The slave trade made Africa a major market for European goods, especially textiles and guns. This disrupted relations within and among African societies in ways that encouraged the growth of the slave trade and exacerbated conflict among African societies competing for power, goods, and access to slaves. Of course, the loss of tens of thousands of men and women to the slave trade weakened and distorted West Africa’s economy and society.

The voyage across the Atlantic, known as “the Middle Passage,” was a harrowing experience for slaves. Since slaves could be sold in America for twenty or thirty times their price in Africa, slave traders crammed them on the ships as tightly as possible. Given such conditions, including the spread of disease, about one in five slaves died before the ships reached the Americas. Of those who survived, only a small percentage were sold and stayed in the North American colonies, which had a lower death rate than colonies in the West Indies and Brazil, where slave plantation conditions and work were more brutal. The British colonies of North America imported between 400,000 and 600,000 slaves, and by 1770, due to slaves’ natural reproduction, one-fifth of the 2.3 million people in the English colonies (not including Indians) were Africans and their descendants.

Discussion Question:

What was the role of the slave trade in the Atlantic economy?

We often consider the impact of the slave trade only on the United States, but its impact extended much further. How did it affect West African nations and society, other regions of the New World, and the nations of Europe?

Atlantic Trading Routes


A series of trading routes crisscrossed the Atlantic, bringing manufactured goods to Africa and Britain’s American colonies, slaves to the New World, and colonial products to Europe.

Atlantic World Slave Trade


The Atlantic slave trade expanded rapidly in the eighteenth century. The mainland colonies received only a tiny proportion of the Africans brought to the New World, most of whom were transported to Brazil and the West Indies.

Slave Trading Vessel

The cargo carried in barrels, generally guns, cloth, and metal goods, were to be traded for slaves. The third image from the left depicts the conditions under which slaves endured the Middle Passage across the Atlantic. The ship carried over 300 slaves. The broadside also included a calculation of the profit of the voyage.


Slave Systems in British North America

Chesapeake Slavery

Tobacco plantation system

The Rice Kingdom, Carolina and Georgia

Ironically, Africans taught English settlers how to cultivate rice

“Task” system

Assigned daily jobs

If completed, allowed time for leisure or to cultivate their own crops


By the mid-eighteenth century, there were three distinct slave systems in British North America: tobacco-based plantation slavery in the Chesapeake, rice-based plantation slavery in South Carolina and Georgia, and non-plantation slavery in New England and the Middle Colonies.

The tobacco plantations of the Chesapeake, where nearly half the region’s population in 1770 consisted of slaves, was the largest and oldest of the three systems. Extending deep inland, slavery in Virginia existed on large plantations and many small farms. Slavery had created the Chesapeake elite, a landed gentry who dominated the region’s society and politics in conjunction with merchants in the tobacco trade and lawyers defending the interests of slaveholders. Slavery transformed Chesapeake society into an elaborate hierarchy of degrees of freedom: large planters at the top, lesser planters and landowning yeomen below them, and a large population of indentured servants, tenant farmers, convicts, and slaves at the bottom.

Though planters made more laws enhancing the power of masters over their slave property, violence, such as whipping, was at the center of the institution and its perpetuation. As slavery became entrenched, race became a more significant line of social division. Whites increasingly saw free blacks as dangerous and unwanted and restricted the rights that had been given earlier, such as gun ownership for blacks and the vote for free landowning blacks. Because by law, Virginia required freed slaves to leave the colony, free blacks remained a very small part of the population. The concepts of “free” and “white” had become virtually identical.

Rice cultivation in the low country of South Carolina prompted the importation of African slaves there and led to a growing racial divide between whites and blacks. South Carolina was the first colony to have a black majority. By the 1730s, when North Carolina became its own colony, two-thirds of its population was black. Indigo, used for blue dye, also became a staple crop there in the 1740s and was cultivated on slave plantations. Africans were familiar with the crop at home and actually taught the colonists how to grow rice. As opposed to the Chesapeake, where slaves worked constantly in gangs, slaves on the rice plantations worked according to the “task” system, under which they were assigned daily jobs. Once the jobs were completed, they had time for leisure or for growing crops of their own.

Discussion Question:

How did slavery transform the law and society of the Chesapeake?

How did the difference between rice and tobacco cultivation lead to differing plantation systems?

Slavery in the North

Less central to the economy, but not marginal to northern colonial life

lower numbers of slaves made them less of a threat in the eyes of whites

Skilled labor and domestic workers


Rice cultivation also developed in Georgia, having been commenced in 1733 by philanthropists led by James Oglethorpe, a wealthy reformer who favored the abolition of slavery. Oglethorpe wanted to create a colony in which the “worthy poor” of England could find economic opportunity; the British government wanted the colony as a defensive barrier against the Spanish and their Indian allies in Florida. Although the colony initially banned liquor and slaves, many of its settlers wanted both, and by the 1740s, colonists were appealing for the English liberty of self-government in order to have slaves. In 1751, Georgia’s proprietors surrendered the colony to the crown, which repealed the ban on slavery and liquor. Georgia quickly came to resemble South Carolina, with large rice plantations supporting a wealthy planter class that dominated the colony.

Compared to the plantation areas, New England and the Middle Colonies were mostly areas of small farms where slavery was not central. Slaves were only a small percentage of the population, and even wealthy families rarely owned more than one slave. Slaves worked as farm labor, in artisan shops, on the docks, and as personal servants. Slaves in the North sometimes had more legal rights than their southern counterparts; in New England, slaves could not be severely physically punished, slaves could bring suits in court, and slave marriages were recognized. A significant number of slaves were present in New York and Philadelphia, although many employers of slave labor turned to wage labor in the years before the American Revolution.

Discussion Question:

What role did slavery play in northern society?

Colonial Slave Population, 1770


This table shows the slave population as percentage of the total population of the original thirteen colonies.

Ayuba Diallo

a Muslim merchant in Senegal who became a victim of the slave trade in 1731 and was transported to Maryland. He escaped in 1733 and with the help of wealthy patrons regained his freedom. Because of Diallo’s unusual talents—he knew both English and Arabic—he became a celebrity in England, which he visited in 1733. He sat for two portraits by the noted artist William Hoare. This is the earliest known painting of an African who experienced slavery in Britain’s North American colonies. Diallo returned to his homeland in 1734


Slave Cultures and Slave Resistance

Focus Question:

What factors led to distinct African-American cultures in the eighteenth century?



Slave Cultures

Becoming African-American

Slavery became the bonding experience among different Africans

New identity forged from a mix of African traditions, European elements, and new conditions in America

African-American Cultures

Family – Religion – Gullah


Africans brought to the mainland colonies in the eighteenth century were very diverse, coming from different African cultures with different languages and religions. For most of the eighteenth century, the majority of American slaves were born in Africa, and a truly “African-American” people with a cohesive culture shaped by African, European, and American influences emerged only very gradually, through the common experience of slavery.

One of the most difficult transitions for enslaved Africans was the forced change from traditional religions to that of Christianity—the dominant religion of their colonial captors. While many of the forced migrants believed in a universal creator, the similarities between the various African religious practices seemed to resemble certain Native American communities more than Christianity. While some enslaved individuals were familiar with Christianity and/or Islam, most who ended up in British North America came from the more isolated forest regions of West Africa. Even in the eighteenth century many continued to practice traditional African religious or melded them with Protestant forms of Christianity or with Roman Catholicism—depending on the dominant religion in the region of the Americas.

The three different slave systems in British North America produced distinct African-American cultures. In the Chesapeake, a healthy climate led to the natural reproduction of the slave population, allowing for a balanced sex ratio that created family-centered slave communities. Slaves were continuously exposed to white culture, so they learned English and were influenced by religious revivalism. In South Carolina and Georgia, however, the harsh rice plantations created a very different culture. Their low birthrate led to continuous slave imports, and since slaves seldom encountered whites and had more autonomy than those on other kinds of plantations, they were able to create a more African culture. In the northern colonies, where slaves were a small part of the population and dispersed as individuals or small groups throughout the white population, a distinctive African-American culture developed slowly.

Discussion Question:

Three distinct slave systems were well entrenched in Britain’s mainland colonies. Describe the main characteristics of each system.

The Old Plantation

slaves dancing in a plantation’s slave quarters, perhaps at a wedding. The musical instruments and pottery are African in origin while much of the clothing is of European manufacture, indicating the mixing of African and white cultures among the era’s slaves.


Slave Resistance

Resistance to Slavery

Desire for freedom

Runaway slaves

Slave uprisings

New York City, 1712

Louisiana, 1731

Stono Rebellion


Despite differences between African-American cultures, all were linked by the experience of slavery and hopes for freedom. The most common form of slave resistance was to run away, and in some colonies, fugitive slaves found it easy to assume the identity of free black individuals. Much less common were slave uprisings. The first occurred in New York in 1712, in which a group of slaves burned buildings, killed whites who arrived, and were later executed, with some being tortured and burned alive as a warning to the city’s slave population. Imperial wars in the 1730s and 1740s opened the door for slave resistance in Louisiana and the West Indies.

In 1739, the War of Jenkins’ Ear, between England and Spain, prompted a group of South Carolina slaves to seize arms at Stono. They marched toward the safety of Spanish Florida, which offered security to escaped British slaves, killing whites and shouting “Liberty!” as they went. The Stono Rebellion was crushed by colonial militia and led to the tightening of South Carolina’s slave laws.

In 1741, in New York City, a panic induced by a series of fires led to rumors that slaves were planning to mount a rebellion with white allies and turn the city over to the Spanish. More than 150 blacks and a few whites were arrested, and thirty-four people, including four whites, were executed.

Discussion Question:

How was an African-American collective identity created in these years, and what role did slave rebellions play in that process?

Runaway Slaves

An advertisement seeking the return of four runaway slaves from New York City. Note the careful description of the fugitives’ clothing. The reward offered is a substantial amount of money in the colonial era.


An Empire of Freedom

Focus Question:

What were the meanings of British liberty in the eighteenth century?


The Evolving British Empire

British Patriotism

The British Constitution

Liberty central to British identity

Rule of the common law

Representation in government

Rights, including trial by jury

Restraints on political authority


Although slavery was vital to the British empire, the British people in the eighteenth century believed theirs was the most free and advanced nation in the world. Great Britain was the world’s greatest commercial and naval power and had a complex government with a powerful Parliament representing the interests of a landed aristocracy and merchant class. London, the political, cultural, and economic capital of the empire, was the largest city in Europe, with nearly 1 million residents. The empire enjoyed a common law, common language, and, despite small numbers of Catholics, Jews, and Africans, a common devotion to Protestantism. Britain often found itself at war with France, which replaced Spain as its European Catholic rival. This stimulated a large military establishment, high taxes, and a Bank of England to help finance its wars in Europe and the empire. These wars helped develop a sense of national identity forged against common foes. Britain was celebrated by its people as a nation with a rapidly expanding economy that united both Britons and colonists. Especially in contrast to France, individual liberty, the rule of law, and the Protestant faith were all points of British pride.

Liberty, especially as it was embodied in what came to be called the British Constitution, was central to this emerging British identity. Britons believed that the legacy of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution had bestowed upon them a unique and ideal political order of institutions that guaranteed their freedoms: the rule of law, legislation consented to by representatives, restraints on arbitrary authority, and individual rights such as trial by jury, enshrined in the common law. Writers in mainland Europe looked to England as a model government, and thinkers such as French political philosopher Baron Montesquieu praised Britain for its “balanced constitution,” in which the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the king checked one another’s power. In Great Britain, no man, not even the king, was above the law, and Britons believed their political system prevented the tyranny, “popery,” and barbarism that they believed “enslaved” others elsewhere in Europe and the world.

On both sides of the Atlantic, every political cause, it seemed, wrapped itself in the language of liberty and claimed to be defending the “rights of Englishmen.” With the presence of slavery in the empire and large portions of the population disenfranchised, liberty was hardly universal within the British realm. But British notions of liberty were practiced through various forms of participation beyond the directly political, whereby even those who could not vote influenced public life. Ideas of British liberty expanded beyond the “political nation”—those who voted, held office, and engaged in structured political debate—to all members of British society, including laborers, sailors, artisans, and even slaves. Liberty came to mean more than just privileges derived from membership in a distinct social class. It became defined as a general right to resist arbitrary government, and ordinary people invoked liberty and critiqued tyranny in collective actions, sometimes against merchants charging above a “just price,” or officers of the Royal Navy engaged in “impressment”: kidnapping poor men in public for service on the navy’s ships.

Discussion Question:

How did the notion of liberty affect British relations with each other and other Europeans in the eighteenth century?

British Patriotism and Liberty, 1770

Paul Revere illustrates the association of British patriotism and liberty. Britannia sits with a liberty cap and her national shield, and releases a bird from a cage


Liberty and Freedom


participation in public life as essence of liberty


Strong association btw. property rights and liberty

Economic independence key to freedom


Individual and private


Liberty was central to two sets of political ideas in the Anglo-American world. Today, they are called “republicanism” and “liberalism” by scholars, but these terms were not used in this way at the time. Republicanism celebrated participation in public life by economically independent citizens as the basis of liberty. Republicans believed that only citizens who owned property had “virtue,” defined as the willingness to subordinate self-interest to a common public good. In eighteenth-century Britain, this body of thought about freedom was most closely associated with a group of critics of the established political order known as the “Country Party” because much of their support arose from the landed gentry. “Country Party publicists John Trenchard, Thomas Gordon, and others had little impact in Britain, but their ideas were heavily favored by the elites of the American colonies who associated land ownership with liberty and political power as a danger to that liberty.

Liberalism in the eighteenth-century British empire meant something quite different from “liberalism” as it is defined today. While republicanism had a public and social quality, liberalism was individual and private. John Locke was liberalism’s leading philosopher, and his Two Treatises of Government, written in 1680, were very influential in the 1700s. Locke argued that governments were constituted through a “social contract” mutually agreed to by equals (here, male heads of households), in which these individuals surrendered part of their right to govern themselves in order to enjoy benefits of the rule of law: security of life, liberty, and property. Protecting these spheres required limiting the interference of the state in religious, family, and economic life. Lockean ideas of individual rights, the consent of the governed, and the right to rebel against unjust or oppressive government became familiar in Britain and its colonies. Nevertheless, Locke’s idea of liberty as a universal right seemed to exclude many from its benefits, as its imagined free individual was, in both theory and practice, the propertied white man.

Republicanism and liberalism, while distinct bodies of thought, overlapped and reinforced each other, and both came to influence and inspire Americans, who came to resist the rule of the British empire.

Discussion Question:

How did the ideas of republicanism and liberalism differ in eighteenth-century British North America?

Two Treatises of Government

John Locke’s influential book that introduced the ideas of a

“social contract”

Individual rights,

consent of the governed,

right of rebellion against oppressive government

Notion of natural rights opened the door to marginalized people although that was not Locke’s intention


The Public Sphere

Focus Question:

What concepts and institutions dominated colonial politics in the eighteenth century?


Eighteenth-Century Colonial America

The Right to Vote

Property qualification

Larger percentage of men in colonial America voted than in Britain

Political Cultures


In some ways, politics in eighteenth-century colonial America seemed more democratic than in Britain. As in Britain, property ownership was the qualification for voting, ensuring that men with an economic stake in society and the independence of judgment that came with property determined government policies. Dependents, who lacked their own will—such as slaves, servants, adult sons living in their parents’ homes, the poor, and women—were all ineligible to vote. But the wide distribution of landownership in America meant that a far higher percentage of the population had the right to vote than to Europe: an estimated 50 to 80 percent of adult white men in colonial America could vote, as opposed to fewer than 5 percent in Britain. In some colonies, free blacks with property could vote. Some colonies also denied the vote to religious minorities such as Jews, Catholics, and dissenting Protestants, while Indians everywhere were generally prohibited from voting.

However, in colonial America, “the people” existed only on Election Day. Competitive elections were rare, and those who voted usually deferred to their social betters in their community, who expected voters to support them because of their patronage, reputation, or social status. Real power resided in officials who were appointed, not elected. Governors and councils were appointed by the crown or proprietors everywhere except Rhode Island and Connecticut, where they were elected. In some colonies, such as South Carolina, the property qualification for holding office was far higher than that for the franchise, ensuring that only the wealthy could be elected. Few ordinary Americans pursued elective office or were active in public affairs. An ingrained tradition of “deference”—the assumption among ordinary people that wealth, education, and social prominence carried a right to public office—limited choices in elections, and often meant leadership roles went to the wealthiest landowners frequently in a generational cycle within the same families.

Discussion Question:

Explain the purpose behind the property qualification requirement and why it differed for voting and officeholding.

Colonial Government

The Rise of the Assemblies

Politics in Public

Expansion of the “public sphere”

Clubs provide public discussion of public affairs

The Colonial Press

Widespread literacy

Political broadsides, pamphlets, newspapers



Concerned with events in Europe and imperial rivalries, British governments in the first half of the eighteenth century followed a policy of “salutary neglect,” allowing the American colonies to mostly govern themselves. This, in effect, gave large landowners, merchants, and lawyers more power to control local colonial politics, while elected representatives in colonial assemblies believed they represented the popular will, and used their power over colonial finance and taxes to influence policy and appointed officials.

In the eighteenth century, as economic development increased the power of American elites, colonial assemblies became more assertive and insisted that they controlled local affairs in the colonies as much as the House of Commons did in Britain. The most successful governors accommodated the ascendant assemblies and used patronage, such as land grants, to win support. Eliminating the governor’s council, Pennsylvania’s legislature was most powerful, but New York, Virginia, South Carolina, and especially Massachusetts also had powerful assemblies. Colonial representatives invoked liberal and republican notions of liberty in making their claims on colonial and imperial officials.

This language gradually reached beyond the “political nation,” which was dominated by a wealthy and educated American gentry. Particularly in colonial towns and cities, the “public sphere” expanded. This was the space in which political organization and debate independent of the government took place, in which an informed citizenry openly discussed questions previously addressed only by officials. In Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, clubs emerged that debated literary, philosophical, scientific, and political issues. The best known was a club known as the “Junto,” founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1727, which later became the American Philosophical Society.

Compared to other European colonies in the Western Hemisphere, British North America had a very literate population and a vibrant press. Newspapers and circulating libraries were especially important in spreading information and ideas and expanding the public sphere, and by the 1730s, political commentary was prevalent in American newspapers. The best-edited newspaper was

World history homework help

smi49245_ch22_796-837 800 07/13/18 01:32 PM


Atlantic Revolutions and the
World 1750–1830


smi49245_ch22_796-837 801 07/13/18 01:32 PM

The Promise of Enlightenment
FOCUS What were the major ideas of the
Enlightenment and their impacts?

Revolution in North America
FOCUS What factors lay behind the war
between North American colonists and Great

The French Revolution and the
Napoleonic Empire

FOCUS What changes emerged from the
French Revolution and Napoleon’s reign?

Revolution Continued in the Western

FOCUS What were the motives and methods
of revolutionaries in the Caribbean and Latin

COUNTERPOINT: Religious Revival in a
Secular Age

FOCUS What trends in Enlightenment and
revolutionary society did religious revival

Rising global trade and maturing slave systems
brought wealth to merchants and landowners
in many parts of the world during the seven-
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Emboldened
by this newfound wealth, they joined bureau-
crats and aristocrats in the struggle for more
influence, not only in the great land-based
empires such as the Qing, Mughal, and
Ottoman states but also in some of the small
states of Europe. Except for Spain, these small
European states had developed overseas
coastal trading posts, which after several
centuries they hoped to exploit more efficiently
and turn into true empires. They had also built
their military capability and gained adminis-
trative experience as they fought one another
for greater global influence. Maintaining this
influence was costly, however. Simultaneously
the Scientific Revolution (see Chapter 19)
and the beginnings of a movement to think
more rationally about government were
causing some critics in Europe to question the
traditional political and social order.

World in the Making Simón Bolívar, the
“Liberator,” traveled the Atlantic world, gaining
inspiration from the Enlightenment and
revolutionary events. On his return to South
A merica, he helped spearhead the movement for
independence there. No democrat, Bolivar learned
from hard experience that success demanded support
from South A merica’s rich variety of slaves and other

802 CH A P T ER 2 2 AT l A n T i c R e vo lu T i o n s A n d T h e W o R l d 175 0 –18 3 0

smi49245_ch22_796-837 802 07/13/18 01:32 PM

Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) began life as the privileged son of a family that in the
sixteenth century had settled in Caracas, a city in Spanish-controlled South America.
His early years were full of personal loss: his father died when he was three, his
mother when he was five, and his grandfather, who cared for him after his mother’s
death, when he was six. Bolívar’s extended family sent him to military school and
then to Spain to study—typical training for prominent “creoles,” as South Americans
of European descent were called. Following the death of his young wife, the
grieving Bolívar traveled to Paris, where his life changed: he saw the military hero
Napoleon crown himself emperor in 1804 and witnessed crowds fill the streets of
the capital with joy. “That moment, I tell you, made me think of the slavery of my
country and of the glory that would come to the person who liberated it,” he later
wrote.1 After a visit to the newly independent United States, Bolívar returned to
Caracas in 1807, determined to free his homeland from the oppressions of Spanish
rule. He, too, took up arms, leading military campaigns, which along with popular
uprisings eventually ousted Spain’s government from much of Latin America. For
his revolutionary leadership, contemporaries gave him the title “Liberator.”

The creation of independent states in Latin America was part of a powerful
upheaval in the Atlantic world. North American colonists successfully fought a war
of independence against Britain in 1776. The French rose up in 1789 against a mon-
archy that had bankrupted itself, ironically in part by giving military support to the
American rebels. In 1791 a massive slave revolt erupted in the prosperous French
sugar colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the creation of the independent state of
Haiti. The independence of Latin American states was globally inspirational. The
English poet Lord Byron named his yacht Bolivar and in the 1820s went off to liber-
ate Greece from the Ottomans.

These upheavals were connected with a transformation of thought and everyday life
in the West called “the Enlightenment.” Traders in Asia, Africa, and the Americas
had brought ideas and goods to Europe. The arrival of new products such as sugar,
coffee, and cotton textiles freed many Europeans’ lives from their former limits, and
this newfound abundance led to new thinking. Both ordinary people and the upper
classes proposed changing society. Ideas from Enlightenment thinkers and global
contact affected North American politicians, Caribbean activists, and creole re-
formers like Simón Bolívar, transforming them into revolutionaries. The impulse for
change extended beyond the Atlantic world. In Ottoman-controlled Egypt, French
revolutionary forces under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded, claiming
to bring new political ideas of liberty. A determined leader, Muhammad Ali, helped
drive out the French and then promoted reform himself. Thus, global connections

T h e Pr o m i s e o f En l i g h t e n m e n t 803

smi49245_ch22_796-837 803 07/13/18 01:32 PM

of different kinds played a key role in creating the conditions that sparked the devel-
opment of new ideas and in providing pathways for the spread of those ideas.

By 1830, when the revolutionary tide in Latin America ended, the map of the world
had changed, but that change came at a great cost. Alongside the birth of new
nations and a growing belief in political reform, there had been widespread hardship
and destruction. Soldiers died by the hundreds of thousands; civilians also perished
because political and social change set them against one another. The breakdown of
established kingdoms was the work of the warriors, the masses, and determined lead-
ers, but this age of revolution crushed many. Napoleon Bonaparte was condemned
to exile, and even so privileged a revolutionary as Bolívar died of utter exhaustion in
1830 just as the new nations of Latin America began their independent existence.


The major global development in this chapter: The Atlantic revolutions and
their short- and long-term significance.

As you read, consider:

1. What role did the

Scientific Revolution

and expanding global

contacts play in the

cultural and social

movement known as the


2. Why did prosperous

and poor people alike

join revolutions in the

Americas and in France?

3. Why were the Atlantic

revolutions so influential,

even to the present day?

The Promise of Enlightenment

FOCUS What were the major ideas of the enlightenment and
their impacts?

Europeans in the eighteenth century had a great deal to think about. The scien-
tific revolution had challenged traditional views of nature and offered a new meth-
odology for uncovering nature’s laws. Reports from around the world on foreign
customs, ways of conducting government, alternative techniques in agriculture,

804 CH A P T ER 2 2 AT l A n T i c R e vo lu T i o n s A n d T h e W o R l d 175 0 –18 3 0

smi49245_ch22_796-837 804 07/13/18 01:32 PM

and trade practices fueled discussion worldwide but especially among Europeans.
Moreover, participation in this intellectual ferment was not limited to the politi-
cal and social elite. As literacy, already advanced in Chinese and Japanese cities,
spread in Europe, ever more people were caught up in the debate over social, po-
litical, and economic change. These wide-ranging reconsiderations are collectively
called the Enlightenment.

A New World of Ideas
Some Enlightenment writers hammered away at the abuses of monarchies and
proposed representative rule based on the consent of the governed—a proposal that
later became the foundation of many states. The will of a monarch is not the best
basis for government, English philosopher John Locke wrote late in the seventeenth
century. Rather, he maintained, governments should be established rationally, by
mutual consent of the governed. The idea of compact or contract government grew
from Locke’s philosophy that people were born free, equal, and rational, and that
natural rights, including personal freedoms, were basic to all humans. In Locke’s
view, governments were formed when people made the rational choice to give up
a measure of freedom and create institutions that could guarantee natural rights
and protect everyone’s property. If a government failed to fulfill these purposes, the
people had the right to replace it. Locke’s ideas justified the situation in seventeenth-
century England, where citizens and the Parliament had twice ousted their king.

In contrast to Locke, French writers Voltaire and Baron Louis Montesquieu
criticized their own society’s religious and political abuses by referring to prac-
tices in China and elsewhere beyond Europe. They set their widely read writings in
faraway lands or used wise foreigners to show Europe’s backwardness. A wealthy
trained jurist, Montesquieu in The Persian Letters (1721) featured a Persian ruler
visiting Europe and writing back home of the strange goings-on. The continent was
full of magicians, Montesquieu’s hero reports, such as those who could turn wine
and wafers into flesh—a mocking reference to the Christian sacrament of commu-
nion. Voltaire, a successful author thrown several times into jail for insulting the
authorities, portrayed worthy young men cruelly treated by priests and kings in
his rollicking novels Zadig (1747) and Candide (1759). Voltaire asked for a society
based on merit, not on aristocracy of birth: “There is nothing in Asia that resembles
the European nobility: nowhere in the Orient does one find an order of citizens
distinct from all the rest . . . solely by their birth.”2 Voltaire did not have the story
quite right, but other Enlightenment thinkers joined his call for reason, hard work,
and opportunity in both economic life and politics.

Swiss-born Jean-Jacques Rousseau took up the theme of freedom and opportu-
nity in many influential writings. In The Social Contract (1762) he claimed that “man

contract government 
A political theory that
views government
as stemming from
the people, who
agree to surrender a
measure of personal
freedom in return for
a government that
guarantees protection
of citizens’ rights and

T h e Pr o m i s e o f En l i g h t e n m e n t 805

smi49245_ch22_796-837 805 07/13/18 01:32 PM

is born free,” but because of despotic government “he is every where in chains.”
As for the process of shaping the modern citizen, Rousseau’s best-selling novel
Emile (1762) describes the ways in which a young boy is educated to develop many
practical skills. Instead of learning through rote memory, as was common, Emile
masters such skills as carpentry and medicine by actually working at them, and he
spends much time outdoors, getting in touch with nature by living away from cor-
rupt civilization. Like China’s Kangxi emperor (the fourth of the Qing dynasty),
whom Enlightenment thinkers held up as a model, Emile becomes a polymath—
that is, someone with a knowledge of many subjects and numerous skills, especially
those that could earn him a livelihood. Emile thus becomes a responsible citizen
who can fend for himself following natural laws, not despotically imposed ones.

Enlightenment thinkers also rethought the economy. In 1776, Scottish philoso-
pher Adam Smith published one of the most influential Enlightenment documents,
On the Wealth of Nations. Citing China as an important example throughout,
Smith proposed to free the economy from government monopolies and mercan-
tilist regulations. This idea of laissez faire (French for “let alone”) became part
of the theory called liberalism, which endorsed economic and personal freedom
guaranteed by the rule of law. Smith saw trade as benefiting an individual’s charac-
ter because it required cooperation with others in the process of exchanging goods.
The virtues created by trade were more desirable than the military swaggering and
confrontation of aristocratic lives, and he continually stressed that alongside in-
dividualism there needed to be concern for the well-being of the community as
a whole. Slavery, he argued, was inefficient and ought to be done away with. Still
other Enlightenment writers said that a middle-class way of life promoted sensibil-
ity, love of family, thrift, and hard work—again, in stark contrast to the promiscu-
ous and spendthrift habits these reformers saw in the nobility.

Enlightenment thinkers explicitly drew on the knowledge acquired through
global economic connections. Such connections also made it possible for Enlight-
enment ideas to spread around the world. Some Japanese thinkers and officials
wanted to learn about recent Western breakthroughs in practical subjects as well
as scientific practices based on rational observation and deduction. Chinese schol-
ars, though not directly influenced by Enlightenment thought, were reflecting on
issues of good government and the capacities of the individual within the impe-
rial system. Future nation builders in the North American colonies—Benjamin
Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson—were steeped in both the practical
and political sides of the Enlightenment, running businesses, designing buildings,
conducting scientific experiments, and writing political documents.

Enlightenment thought reached many in Western society—high and low, male
and female. Population growth in cities such as Paris opened neighborhoods and

laissez faire 
A n economic doctrine
that advocates
freeing economies
from government
intervention and

A political ideology
that emphasizes free
trade, individual
rights, and the rule
of law to protect
rights as the best
means for promoting
social and economic

806 CH A P T ER 2 2 AT l A n T i c R e vo lu T i o n s A n d T h e W o R l d 175 0 –18 3 0

smi49245_ch22_796-837 806 07/13/18 01:32 PM

work life, allowing new ideas to flourish. Women of the wealthier classes conducted
salons—that is, meetings in their homes devoted to discussing the latest books and
findings. German Jewish women, often kept at a distance from Christians, made a
name for themselves by forming such groups. Along with coffeehouses in European
and colonial cities, modeled on those in the Ottoman Empire, salons created a public
sphere in which people could meet outside court circles to talk about current affairs.
Together with the new public libraries, reading groups, and scientific clubs that
dotted the Atlantic world, they built new community bonds and laid the groundwork
for responsible citizenship. Instead of a monarchical government single-handedly
determining thought and policy, ordinary people in Europe and its colonies, relying
on knowledge gained from public discussion, could express their opinions on the
course of events and thereby undermine government censorship.

public sphere 
A cultural and political
environment that
emerged during the
Enlightenment, where
members of society
gathered to discuss
issues of the day.

Eighteenth-Century English Drawing Room W hen drinking their tea imported from Asia, middle- and upper-
class Europeans aimed for elegance, inspired by Asian tea rituals. They used porcelain, whose production European
manufacturers had recently figured out, and wore sparkling white muslin, probably imported from India, which produced
high-quality cloth that Europeans valued above cotton from anywhere else.

T h e Pr o m i s e o f En l i g h t e n m e n t 807

smi49245_ch22_796-837 807 07/13/18 01:32 PM

The ideals of the Enlightenment were well represented in the Encyclopedia
(1751–1772) of France’s Denis Diderot. This celebrated work contained dozens
of technical drawings of practical machinery that could advance prosperity. The
Encyclopedia described the freedoms and rights nature endowed on all people, not just
aristocrats. Like Rousseau, Diderot maintained that in a natural state all people were
born free and equal. French writer Olympe de Gouges further proposed that there was
no difference among people of different skin colors. “How are the Whites different from
[the Black] race? . . . Why do blonds not claim superiority over brunettes?” she asked in
her “Reflections on Negroes” (1788). “Like all the different types of animals, plants,
and minerals that nature has produced, people’s color also varies.”3 Essayists in the
Encyclopedia added that women too were born free and endowed with natural rights.

Many of the working people of Europe’s growing towns and cities responded en-
thusiastically to the ideas set forth by Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire
and Rousseau. The French glassworker Jacques Ménétra, for example, acquired
and also distributed these new antireligious and egalitarian ideas as he moved from
city to town and village, installing glass windows. With some religious schooling
and then an apprenticeship in his trade, Ménétra, like his fellow journeymen arti-
sans, led this kind of mobile life as a young man before establishing his own shop
in Paris. During his travels, he provided news of the Parisian thinkers to artisans
along his route. Young journeymen like Ménétra helped make the Enlightenment
an affair not only of the well-born but also of many average people.

Enlightenment and the Old Order
Despite its critique of monarchs, church officials, and the aristocracy, “Enlighten-
ment” was a watchword of some of Europe’s most powerful rulers. “Enlightened”
rulers came to sense that more rational government could actually strengthen their
regimes, for example by increasing governmental efficiency and tax revenues. In-
stead of touting his divine legacy, Prussian king Frederick the Great (r. 1740–1786)
called a ruler someone who would “work efficiently for the good of the state” rather
than “live in lazy luxury, enriching himself by the labor of the people.”4 A musician
and poet, Frederick studied several languages, collected Chinese porcelain, and
advocated toleration. For him, Enlightenment made monarchs stronger. Spread-
ing to Russia, the Enlightenment moved Catherine the Great (r. 1762–1796) to
sponsor the writing of a dictionary of the Russian language, to correspond with
learned thinkers such as Diderot, and to work to improve the education of girls.
Additionally, Catherine’s goal was to put a stop to aristocrats’ “idle time spent in
luxury and other vices corrupting to the morals,” as she put it, and instead trans-
form the nobility into active and informed administrators of her far-flung empire
and its diverse peoples (see Seeing the Past: Portrait of Catherine the Great).5

808 CH A P T ER 2 2 AT l A n T i c R e vo lu T i o n s A n d T h e W o R l d 175 0 –18 3 0

smi49245_ch22_796-837 808 07/13/18 01:32 PM


Portrait of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great was a monarch of towering

ability and ambition. Although her regime was

known for smashing peasant uprisings and territo-

rial conquests, it also promoted the arts and knowl-

edge. Catherine commissioned the first dictionary

of the Russian language and communicated with

the greatest thinkers of the Enlightenment. While

sponsoring education, she tried to reform her

government to increase its power. In this regard,

Enlightenment was not just about the fine arts but

also about generally raising the economic and po-

litical profile of the monarchy through rationally de-

vised policies.

Enlightenment thinkers often referred to the

excellent customs and the rational policies of non-

Western monarchs of their day—especially those

in China—but also prized classical Greece and

Rome for their democratic and republican forms

of government. For this image, a skilled Parisian

craftsperson of the 1760s chose Minerva—Roman

goddess of both war and wisdom—as the figure

closest to the celebrated Catherine. The luxurious

detail on this round box assures us that it was

destined for an aristocratic palace, perhaps that of

the monarch herself.

Examining the Evidence

1. W hat does this depiction of the empress as Minerva tell you about the society over which Catherine ruled?

2. How does this image of leadership compare with others you have seen, including those of U.S. presidents?
How do you account for the differences? For the similarities?

Catherine the Great as the Roman Goddess Minerva
(Hillwood Estate, Museum & Gardens;
Photo by Ed Owen.)

T h e Pr o m i s e o f En l i g h t e n m e n t 809

smi49245_ch22_796-837 809 07/13/18 01:32 PM

The Spanish monarchy in the eighteenth century likewise instituted a series of
policy changes called the Bourbon Reforms, named after the ruling “Bourbon”
family of monarchs. They aimed to make the monarchy financially sound by
taxing the colonies more efficiently. Spain’s rulers also attempted to limit the
church’s independence. Often opposing slavery and promoting better treatment of
native peoples, the Jesuit order, for instance, had many followers in Spain’s “New
World” empire. Thus the order was an alternate source of allegiance: the monarchy
outlawed it.

Leaders of the Spanish colonies adopted many Enlightenment ideas, including
scientific farming and improvements in mining—subjects dear to forward-looking
thinkers who read the Encyclopedia. In Mexico, reformers saw the education of
each woman as central to building responsible government. As one journalist put
it, under a mother’s care the young citizen “grows, is nourished, and acquires his
first notions of Good and Evil. [Therefore] women have even more reason to be
enlightened than men.”6 In this view, motherhood was not a simple biological act
but a livelihood critical to a strong national life.

European prosperity depended on the productivity of slaves in the colonies,
and wealthy slave owners used Enlightenment fascination with nature to
devise scientific explanations justifying the oppressive system. Though many
Enlightenment thinkers such as Olympe de Gouges wanted equality for “noble
savages,” in slave owners’ minds A fricans were by nature inferior and thus
rightly subject to exploitation. Scientists captured A fricans for study and judged
racial inferiority to be a “scientific fact.” Others justified race-based slavery in
terms of character: blacks were, one British observer explained, “conceited,
proud, indolent and very artful” in contrast to the egalitarian and hard-working
European.7 Thus, some strands of Enlightenment thought helped buyers and
sellers of A fricans and native Americans argue that slavery was useful and rational,
especially because slaves could produce wealth and help society as a whole
make progress.

Popular Revolts in an Age of Enlightenment
Popular uprisings in many parts of the world, including in slave societies, showed
the need for improved government. In Russia, people throughout society came
to protest serfdom’s irrationality and unfairness. In 1773 the discontent of many
serfs crystallized around Emel’ian Ivanovich Pugachev, once an officer in the
Russian army, who claimed to be Peter III, the dead husband of Catherine. Tens
of thousands of peasants, joined by rebellious workers, serf soldiers in Catherine’s
overworked armies, and Muslim minorities rose up, calling for the restoration of

810 CH A P T ER 2 2 AT l A n T i c R e vo lu T i o n s A n d T h e W o R l d 175 0 –18 3 0

smi49245_ch22_796-837 810 07/13/18 01:32 PM

Pugachev, alias Peter, to the throne. Promised great riches for
their support, serfs plundered noble estates and killed aristocrats.
They justified revolt in slogans and songs: “O woe to us slaves
living for the masters. . . . how shameful and insulting / That an-
other who is not worthy to be equal with us / Has so many of us
in his power.”8 The rebellion was put down only with difficulty.
Once Catherine’s forces captured Pugachev, they cut off his arms
and legs, then his head, and finally hacked his body to pieces—
just punishment, nobles believed, for the crimes of this “monster”
against the monarchy and upper classes.

Uprisings among the urban poor, farmworkers, and slaves also
occurred in the Caribbean and other parts of the Western Hemi-
sphere. Slaves fled their masters to Maroon communities far from
plantations. Native peoples in Latin America protested harsh con-
ditions, which only grew worse with Spain’s demand for more rev-
enue. Some envisioned the complete expulsion of the Spaniards
or the overthrow of the wealthy creoles, who owned estates and
plantations. Between 1742 and 1783, several different groups in
Peru attempted to restore Inca power and end the tax burden in-

flicted by the Bourbon Reforms. Backed by his determined, talented wife Michaela
Bastida, charismatic trader and wealthy landowner Tupac Amaru II (TOO-pack
a-MAH-roo), an indigenous leader who took his name from the Inca leader of the
late sixteenth century, led tens of thousands against corrupt government. Eventually
captured by Spanish authorities, Tupac Amaru II had his tongue cut out, was drawn
and quartered by four horses, and finally was beheaded—after first watching the ex-
ecution of his family. Rebellions continued amid the complexities of Enlightenment.

Revolution in North America

FOCUS What factors lay behind the war between north
American colonists and Great Britain?

The Atlantic world was part of a global trading network. A Boston newspaper in the
1720s advertised the sale of Moroccan leather, Indian chintz and muslin fabrics,
South American mahogany, and Asian tea. The global livelihoods of merchants,
fishermen, and sailors enabled the British colonies to grow prosperous and cosmo-
politan, engaged in all facets of Enlightenment and commercial growth.


0 200 Kilometers

200 Miles



ain Sea


Pugachev Uprising
in Russia, 1773

Area of rebellion
Pugachev’s route

Ural R


Don R.


Pugachev Uprising in Russia, 1773

Revo l u t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a 811

smi49245_ch22_796-837 811 07/13/18 01:32 PM

The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis 1764–1775
In the eighteenth century European states waged increasingly costly wars to boost
global power. The expense of the Seven Years’ War of 1756–1763 was enormous
as Europeans also fought to gain influence in South Asia, the Philippines, the
Caribbean, and North America. Ultimately beating both the French and the
Spanish, Britain received all of French Canada and Florida at the end of the war
(see Map 22.1). It wanted higher colonial taxation to recoup its expenses and pay
the costs of administering its empire.

In 1764 the British Parliament raised taxes on molasses with the Sugar Act, on
printed material and legal documents with the Stamp Act (1765), and on useful
commodities such as paper, glass, and paint with the Townshend Acts (1767)—all
of them important to colonists’ everyday lives. Tapping England’s own history of
revolution and the new political theories, colonial activists protested, insisting that
if they were going to be taxed, they needed direct representation in the English
Parliament. This argument followed Locke’s theory of the social contract: a gov-
ernment where citizens were not represented had no right to take their property in
taxes. With a literacy rate of 70 percent among men and 40 percent among women
in the North American colonies, new ideas about government and reports of Brit-
ish misdeeds spread easily.

The Birth of the United States 1775–1789
W hen yet another ta x was placed on prized imported tea, a group of Bostonians,
disguised as native A mericans, dumped a load of tea into the harbor in Decem-
ber 1773. The British government responded to the “Boston Tea Party” by clos-
ing the seaport’s thriving harbor. As tensions escalated, colonial representatives
gathered for an all-colony Continental Congress that resulted in a coordinated
boycott of British goods. In April 1775 artisans and farmers in Lex ington and
Concord fought British troops sent to confiscate a stockpile of ammunition from
rebellious colonists. On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress issued its “Decla-
ration of Independence,” a short, dramatic document written largely by Thomas
Jefferson that aimed—like the Enlightenment itself—to convert its readers to
the side of reason in matters of government. The Declaration argued that the
monarchy was tyrannical and had forfeited its right to rule. It went on to artic-
ulate an Enlightenment doctrine of rights—the famous rights of “ life, liberty,
and the pursuit of happiness.” Some of the rebel colonists likened themselves to
“slaves” lack ing individual freedom, drawing a parallel—even though some of
them, including Thomas Jefferson, were slave owners—with slave rebels across
the Western world.

smi49245_ch22_796-837 812 07/13/18 01:32 PM

90ºW 80ºW





0 150 Kilometers

150 Miles


Gulf of Mexico

io R





i R






Lake H









L. O



Court House


New York



















A�er 1783)





British territory, c. 1750

British gains a�er the
Seven Years’ War, 1763

Indian territory, 1763

Boundaries of the �irteen Colonies, 1763

American victory

British victory

Boundaries of the United States, 1795

Colonial Crisis and Revolution
in North America, 1754–1789

Key ba�les of the Revolutionary
War, 1775–1781

MAP 22.1 Colonial Crisis and Revolution in North A merica, 1754–1789 The Seven Years’ War left Great Britain
with a hefty war debt and the threat of Native A merican clashes. To prevent the latter, the Proclamation of 1763
forbade colonists’ settlement west of the Appalachians. Taxation to fund the debt affected all colonists, from northern
merchants to owners of southern plantations, sparking resistance until the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781.


Revo l u t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a 813

smi49245_ch22_796-837 813 07/13/18 01:32 PM


World history homework help

HIS101 – World Civilizations I

Unit 2 Assignment: Exploring Early Civilizations

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Due Date: 11:59 pm EST Sunday of Unit 2
Points: 100


In this unit, we learned about three of the world’s earliest civilizations: Egypt,
Mesopotamia, and China. For this assignment, you will compare and contrast two of
these civilizations.


• Research the two civilizations that you did not describe in this week’s Discussion

• First, discuss why you think the two civilizations developed where they did.
o For example, why would civilization develop in the northeast corner of

Africa but not farther west?
o What role did rivers play in the development of civilization?
o Was climate a factor in early civilizations?

• Compare and contrast the two civilizations you have chosen in these three areas:
political structures, writing, and the organization of their society.


• The paper should be 2-3 pages in length, not including the Title and Reference

• Submit a Word document in APA format.

• Use both your textbook and outside resources for your research
(khanacademy.org or worldhistory.org are a good place to start). Be sure to use
APA formatting to cite your resources.

Be sure to read the criteria below by which your work will be evaluated before
you write and again after you write.

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Evaluation Rubric for Unit 2 Assignment

CRITERIA Deficient Needs

Proficient Exemplary

(0-12 points) (13-21 points) (22-29 points) (30-35 points)

Analysis of

The paper
does not
include an
analysis of why

The paper
attempts to
analyze why
one of the

The paper
analyzes why
developed, but
the analysis is
lacking detail.

The paper
contains a
clear and
analysis about
why both

(0-14 points) (15-23 points) (24-33 points) (34-40 points)

Analysis of
of Political
Writing and

The paper
does not
include an
analysis of the
intersection of
any of the
three topics.

The paper
attempts to
analyze the
but does not
address all
three topics.

The paper
analyzes the
intersection of
all three topics,
but it is lacking
in detail.

The paper
contains a
clear and
analysis of the
intersection of
all three topics.

(0-4 points) (5-7 points) (8 points) (9-10 points)

APA Format The paper
contains no
citations and is
not APA

The paper
attempts to use
citations, but
APA formatting
is not followed.

The paper
contains some
APA formatting

The paper is
APA compliant
and uses

Resources The paper
contains no

The paper
resources, but
they are not

The paper has
one resource.

The paper
uses both the
textbook and
resources for

(0-1 point) (2-3 points) (4 points) (5 points)

Length The paper is
less than half a

The paper is
one page.

The paper is
between one
and two pages.

The paper is 2
or more pages.

World history homework help

Name: _______________________________

06.02 Graphic Organizer

Complete the graphic organizer to plan your argument. The claim has been provided.

Claim: While the Industrial Revolution had both positive and negative effects on society and the economy, the positive effects outweighed the negative.

Write three logical arguments that support the claim. Be sure to include evidence to support each argument.

Arguments that support the claim

Evidence (Be sure to include the source.)




Write a counterclaim related to the claim. Hint: the counterclaim is often the opposite of the claim.


Write one logical argument to support the counterclaim. Be sure to include evidence to support the argument.

Argument that supports the counterclaim

Evidence (Be sure to include the source.)


Explain why the arguments and evidence that support the claim are stronger than the argument and evidence that support the counterclaim.

World history homework help

a. After researching this topic, prepare a chart on a separate sheet of paper, of the following statistics for the nations of Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Uganda.

· Statistics to be charted:

· People living with HIV/AIDS

· Children (ages 0-14) with HIV/AIDS

· Orphans due to AIDS

· Total population

b. Then write a report in the space provided below, on what conclusions can be made from the facts about HIV/AIDS in Sub Sahara Africa.

c. Needs to have a legend to clearly define and be neat.

d. Needs 3 resources listed at the bottom.

World history homework help

HIS101 – World Civilizations I

Unit 5 Assignment: Civilizations on Three Continents

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Due Date: 11:59 pm EST Sunday of Unit 5
Points: 100


In the past three units, you have learned about ancient Greece and Rome, the rise of
Islam and the Byzantine Empire and the diversity of trade-based empires in Africa. For
this assignment, you will explore one of these civilizations in more detail.


• Choose one of the civilizations that interests you the most.

• Research the civilization and answer the following questions:
o Where is the civilization located?
o What factors lead to the civilization’s success? (such as military strength,

trade, religion)
o What relationships did the civilization have with other civilizations?
o What led to the civilization’s fall?


• The paper should be 2-3 pages in length, not including the Title and Reference

• Submit a Word document in APA format.

• Use both your textbook and outside resources for your research
(khanacademy.org or worldhistory.org are a good place to start). Be sure to use
APA formatting to cite your resources.

Be sure to read the criteria below by which your work will be evaluated before
you write and again after you write.

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Evaluation Rubric for Unit 5 Assignment

CRITERIA Deficient Needs

Proficient Exemplary

(0-12 points) (13-21 points) (22-29 points) (30-35 points)

Analysis of
the Rise of a

The paper
does not
include an
analysis of the

The paper
attempts to
analyze the
rise but fails to
fully answer
the questions.

The paper
includes an
analysis of the
rise of the
civilization but
is lacking

The paper
contains a
clear and
analysis of the
rise of the

(0-12 points) (13-21 points) (22-29 points) (30-35 points)

Analysis of
the Fall of a

The paper
does not
include an
analysis of the

The paper
attempts to
analyze the
civilization’s fall
but fails to fully
answer the

The paper
includes an
analysis of the
rise of the
civilization but
is lacking

The paper
contains a
clear and
analysis of the
rise of the

(0-4 points) (5-7 points) (8 points) (9-10 points)

APA Format The paper
contains no
citations and is
not APA

The paper
attempts to use
citations, but
APA formatting
is not followed.

The paper
contains some
APA formatting

The paper is
APA compliant
and uses

Resources The paper
contains no

The paper
resources, but
they are not

The paper has
one resource.

The paper
uses both the
textbook and
resources for

Length The paper is
less than half a

The paper is
one page.

The paper is
between one
and two pages.

The paper is 2
or more pages.

World history homework help



HPS100 Research Report


Student Number:


Time and Place

Short Description of Proposed Project

People’s Beliefs About the Subject in that Time and Place

Tools and Materials

Rough Research Plan

Justification of Project to the Community

There are no sources in the current document.


Research Report Rubric


· Are the sentences grammatical and properly spelled?

· Are paragraph breaks used appropriately?

· Is the writing clear and simple?


· Are the important historical claims cited properly?

· Are the citations formatted in the specified way (Chicago Manual Style)?

· Are there sufficient sources to cover the major claims in the research?

· Are there at least 5 scholarly citations used?


· Is the project described in enough detail to understand and evaluate it?

· Are the relevant tools and materials identified?

· Is there enough information about people’s beliefs in that time and place to tell whether they would find the proposal appealing?

Viability of the Proposal

· Does the justification to the community sound like it would be convincing to them?

· Does the project sound within the realm of possibility, assuming the community buys in?

· Does the proposal draw on materials and tools that would be available in that time and place?


This is a sample provided to students to get a sense of what a good research report can look like. Please do not use any part of it as your own! It is meant as inspiration only. Also please note that it may not have citations formatted in Chicago Manual Style, which is required this semester.

HPS100 Research Report

Time and Place: 1520s in Tenochtitlan, Central Mexico.

Short Description of Proposed Project:

In the early 1520s, the Spanish introduced smallpox into Aztec society. The seriousness of this virus coupled with a lack of immunity, (Aveni, 1991) left the Aztec population decimated by an estimated 15 million casualties (Schneider & McDonald, 2003). The immunity promised by variolation would have been very valuable at this time considering the fact that the Aztecs had no effective defence against smallpox (Bungum, 2003).

Variolation, also known as inoculation, is the deliberate infection of an individual with the variola virus (Cunha, 2003). A survivor of this procedure would not only experience a less severe case of smallpox but would also be rendered permanently immune (Cunha, 2003). Variolation’s 1-2% case fatality rate as opposed to the 25% rate of natural infection (Fenner, 2006), provides a viable path towards immunity (Schneider & McDonald, 2003), and would have been especially beneficial to the Aztecs.

Through a small-scale medical trial funded by a noble (pipiltin), this project will attempt to prove the effectiveness of variolation in increasing survival rates and reducing the effects of smallpox. The results of this trial would then begin the process of the mass implementation of variolation among the general population of Tenochtitlan.

People’s Beliefs About the Subject in that Time and Place:

Variolation, with roots in ancient China, India and Egypt is a relatively ancient procedure (Cunha, 2003). The Chinese, for example, are known to have used variolation for smallpox in the 11th century (Bungum, 2003). This specific procedure would not have been known to the Aztecs.

Although the Aztecs had a well-structured medical and surgical system (Guerra, 1966), they did not have any effective treatments for smallpox (Hopkins, 2002). Smallpox may have been treated by herbs and skin remedies or religious rituals (Guerra, 1966), which would not have been effective due to the disease’s viral nature.

Although they were not familiar with variolation, they would have been familiar with epidemics (Guerra, 1966). This understanding of the devastating power of disease would be immensely beneficial to the justification of my project.

Tools and Materials:

For funding, I would appeal to a member of the noble class (pipiltin). This individual would not only have the means to fund the experiment, but also the ability to present a case for mass inoculation before the emperor who would have the power to implement my plan (Avalos, 1995). In return, the noble and his family would be offered primary access to variolation and extensive medical care after the medical trial.

The nearby cities of Tepeca and Tlaxcala would have experienced a wave of smallpox months before Tenochtitlan (McCaa, 1995) and fifty infected people would be procured from there by the noble. They would be transported to Tenochtitlan in the very early non-contagious stages of their illness (Bungum, 2003) so as not to cause widespread infection. Fifty healthy subjects would also be procured by the benefactor and kept separate from the infected subjects.

I would also enlist the aid of ten Aztec doctors such as the texoxola (general surgeon) and the tezoc (phlebotomist) (Guerra, 1966) who would be very helpful in the care of the inoculated and infected subjects. Their upkeep would be provided by the noble.

Surgical tools such as the Aztec’s lancets (tecouani), flint and obsidian instruments, knives (itzli), and suture materials (tzontli) (Guerra, 1966) would prove beneficial to the overall procedure. The texoxola and tezoc (Guerra, 1966) would also be helpful with guidance on the use of these instruments.

Observations such as the health of each patient, at each stage of their illness, as well as charts, diagrams, and drawings would be painted on amate (bark paper) which would have been used extensively during this time (Binnqüist, Quintanar-Isaías, & Vander Meeren, 2012).

Rough Research Plan:

My specific plan would proceed in three phases. Firstly, the Aztec doctors and I would be variolated to ensure immunity in our work. Recovery would be followed by the inoculation of the fifty healthy subjects. Material from the ripe pustules of the already infected patients, would be threaded into minor incisions on the arms of the healthy subjects (Dimsdale, 1767). The tecouani and the itzli would be used for the incisions and the tzontli would be used for the threading. After inoculation, the variolated subjects as well as the originally infected subjects would be closely observed over a two-four-week period (Dimsdale, 1767). Zero to one deaths will be expected among the fifty who were inoculated, while twelve to thirteen deaths will be expected from the subjects who got the disease naturally (Fenner, 2006). The overwhelming success of this trial would propel it to the next phase.

Secondly, the benefactor would be briefed on the results of the trial. This should lead to the presentation of a case for the inoculation of the general public at the Tlacditlán Courts (appellate courts). The high success rate of the trial will provide sufficient evidence of the effectiveness of variolation. An appeal to the emperor (Avalos, 1995) would follow. Moctezuma II, the emperor at the time, would have the unlimited power (Avalos, 1995), and resources to implement variolation throughout the city.

Following approval, the final phase would be the mass implementation of variolation among the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. Following Catherine the Great’s example, clinics would be set up (Schneider & McDonald, 2003) in every calpulli where people would be variolated by trained Aztec doctors. The variolation of farmers and the army would be prioritized in order to avoid famine and maintain a strong defense against the Spanish (Hughes, 2000). The remaining population would be variolated in stages in order to avoid mass spread.

Justification of Project to the Community:

As described above, the small-scale trial would show the legitimacy of inoculation. The drastic lowering of the death rate from 25% to 1-2% (Fenner, 2006) should constitute sufficient evidence for the convincing of my benefactor, the courts, and the emperor. The lack of any effective treatments for smallpox (Hopkins, 2002) would also create a strong interest in variolation.

It is believed that Tenochtitlan experienced its wave of smallpox months after other surrounding cities (McCaa, 1995). Evidently, the people of Tenochtitlan would have had some understanding of the severity of smallpox which would make the prospect of immunity very appealing. With the threat of the Spanish on the horizon (Hughes, 2000), the people of Tenochtitlan would be in dire need of a strong and immune army and workforce which would make this project all the more important.

Avalos, F. (1995). An Overview of the Legal System of the Aztec Empire. Law Library Journal, 86(2), 259-276.
Aveni, A. V. (1991). Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano. “Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition” (Book Review). Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 65(4), 582-583.
Binnqüist, C. L., Quintanar-Isaías, A., & Vander Meeren, M. (2012). Mexican Bark Paper: Evidence of History of Tree Species Used and Their Fiber Characteristics. Economic Botany, 66(2), 138-148.
Bungum, T. J. (2003). Smallpox: A Review for Health Educators. American Journal of Health Education, 34(5), 278-283.
Cunha, B. E. (2003). Preparing for Smallpox: Occupational Health Nursing Update. AAOHN Journal, 51(5), 227-235.
Dimsdale, T. (1767). The Present Method of Inoculating for the Small-Pox. London.
Fenner, F. (2006). Smallpox and its Eradication, 1969 to 1980. In F. Fenner, Nature, Nurture and Chance: The Lives of Frank and Charles Fenner (pp. 137-158). Canberra: ANU Press.
Guerra, F. (1966). Aztec Medicine. Medical History, 10(4), 315-338.
Hopkins, D. R. (2002). The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hughes, J. D. (2000). The European Biotic Invasion of Aztec Mexico. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 11(1), 105-112.
McCaa, R. (1995). Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 25(3), 397-431.
Schneider, C. P., & McDonald, M. D. (2003). “The King of Terrors” Revisited: The Smallpox Vaccination Campaign and Its Lessons for Future Biopreparedness. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31(4), 580-589.


This is a sample provided to students to get a sense of what a good research report can look like. Please do not use any part of it as your own! It is meant as inspiration only. Also please note that it may not have citations formatted in Chicago Manual Style, which is required this semester.

HPS100 Research Report

Time and Place

Greece, 300 C.E.

Short Description of Proposed Project and its Benefits

For my project I will invent the sealed-glass liquid thermometer as a medical instrument. The purpose of my research would be to develop a device to measure the relative body temperatures of sick and healthy individuals.

This project presents the challenges of finding the tools and materials required to build a thermometer, introducing the abstract idea of quantifying body heat, and justifying the idea that liquids expand and contract due to changes in temperature.

The main benefit of measuring the average human body temperature is that comparing somebody’s body temperature to the average could give an indication of how ill they are.

People’s Beliefs About the Subject in that Time and Place

The idea of the relationship between body temperature and health had already been established at this time.

Galen, a physician who lived from roughly 130 – 210 C.E., believed that individual differences, including the difference between sickness and health, arose out of the “proportions” of Aristotle’s four essential qualities (heat, cold, moisture, and dryness) within a person (Wisniak, 2000). Galen had even developed a concept of “degrees” of hot and cold to attempt to measure the proportions of these qualities within the body (Wisniak, 2000).

The Hippocratic Corpus also contained ideas about how diseases were the result of an excess of either hot or cold and dry or wet within the body (Lloyd, 1964). While the idea that these qualities were the sole cause of disease would be criticized by the author of On Ancient Medicine, this should not be an issue as all that matters for the purpose of my project is that the correlation between temperature and health is understood (Lloyd, 1964).

Tools and Materials

My required tools and materials are a thin, sealed glass tube with a bulb at one end and some fluid which will expand or contract with a change in temperature.

The discovery of glass blowing turned glass into a common place product in the Mediterranean area, and the process had been known as early as the first century B.C.E. (Grose, 1977). It should then be possible to actually construct the thermometer using the tools available at the time.

Early liquid thermometers used water or alcohol as the measurement fluid (Barnett, 1941). While mercury became very popular for use in thermometers in the 18th due to the high levels of purity it was available in, I will choose to use wine due to its greater expansion with change in temperature than water or mercury (Wisniak, 2000). Since I am running this project relatively early in the history of glass blowing, I will not have access to extremely fine glass tubes. The higher the expansion of the material, the better.

Rough Research Plan

My research plan would be to first calibrate my thermometers and then to measure an average human body temperature.

Since it would be impossible to manufacture identical thermometers at this time, I believe it would be simplest to calibrate my thermometers using the “two-point calibration” method used in Florence during the early days of thermometry. Pick two different, convenient temperatures, for example that of snow and melting butter, and set the difference between these temperatures to be a convenient number of degrees. For example, the temperature of the snow could be marked as 0 degrees and that of melting butter could be 100 degrees (Boyer, 1942). Then, all other temperatures are measured relative to these.

Using this two-point calibration method, I could calibrate a new thermometer by heating or cooling it to my reference temperatures along with a previously calibrated thermometer. This way, the two non-identical thermometers would return similar measurements.

After solving the calibration problem, I would use my thermometer to measure the temperature of a large number of healthy individuals, and roughly make a marking of the height of the liquid in my thermometer each time. I would take the average of these markings as the natural body temperature.

From there, the thermometer could be used to measure people’s body temperatures in an attempt to “measure” their health.

Justification of Project to the Community

Given how the relationship between body heat and health was already firmly established by Galen and the Hippocratic corpus, so it should not be hard to convince the people at this time that the thermometer is a useful medical instrument. As I had stated above, Galen had come up with the idea of quantifying heat using degrees so even my abstract measurement scale should pass.

What would be difficult is justifying this notion that fluids expand when heated and contract when cooled. I would justify this by taking advantage of the Greek belief that the Earth was made up of four elements: fire, earth, water, and air. Aristotle had postulated that these elements were each characterized a particular combination of four properties: hot, cold, wet, and dry. Water was believed to be wet and cold, while air was believed to be wet and hot (Bolzan, 1976). I would argue that as water is heated, it becomes more “air-like”, and thus takes up more space, since air spreads itself out.


Barnett, M. K. (1941). A Brief History of Thermometry. Journal of Chemical Education, 358-364.
Bolzan, J. E. (1976). Chemical Combinaiton According to Aristotle. Ambix, 134-144.
Boyer, C. B. (1942). Early Principles in the Calibration of Thermometers. American Journal of Physics, 176-180.
Grose, D. F. (1977). Early Blown Glass: The Western Evidence. Journal of Glass Studies, 9-29.
Lloyd, G. E. (1964). The Hot and the Cold, the Dry and the Wet in Greek Philosophy. The Journal for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 92-106.
Wisniak, J. (2000). The Thermometer—From The Feeling To The Instrument. The Chemical Educator, 88-91.


This is a sample provided to students to get a sense of what a good research report can look like. Please do not use any part of it as your own! It is meant as inspiration only. Also please note that it may not have citations formatted in Chicago Manual Style, which is required this semester.

HPS100 Research Report

Time and Place

Egypt, 171 CE.

Short Description of Proposed Project & Benefits

I propose to prove the law of refraction as it is known today in modern optics to solidify people’s understanding of the concept of refraction in the year 171 CE, Egypt.

My project revolves around proving an accurate formula for refraction represented today by Snell’s Law, which states that the sines of the angles of refraction and incidence are proportional (Mihas, 2008). Refraction is an important property of light, and understanding the mathematics behind it can speed the development of various tools that were not widely available at the time, such as correction lenses for the eyes, which only became available in the 13th century (Enoch, 1998). Lenses are essentially refracting surfaces that were developed using the law of refraction to change the bending of light and consequently fix impaired vision (Enoch, 1998).

To carry out this project, I would use Ptolemy’s experiment as a template. Ptolemy was unsuccessful in deducing the law of refraction because he had another hypothesis in mind and was not expecting his predictions to be refuted (Riley, 1995). However, I would perform my project open-mindedly because I am aware of the modern Snell’s Law and can apply it accordingly.

People’s Beliefs About the Subject in that Time and Place

One of the main figures in Alexandria, Egypt that influenced the study of optics and refraction was Claudius Ptolemy, who lived in the second century CE (Feke, 2018). Refraction is a concept that explains the bending of light as it encounters different mediums, such as water, in relation to the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. By the time Ptolemy died in 170 CE, people were still not aware of the Snell’s Law due to the failure of Ptolemy’s experiments to deduce the relationship between the two angles accurately (Smith, Ptolemy’s Search for a Law of Refraction: A Case-Study in the Classical Methodology of “Saving the Appearances” and its Limitations, 1982).

Therefore, it is expected that in the context of Egypt in the year 171 CE, after the death of Ptolemy, people’s beliefs about refraction were limited and were based on the experiments that Ptolemy published and left behind. A major experiment he performed resulted in his proposal of a formula that described a direct proportionality between the angles of incidence and refraction, which is deemed as an incorrect relationship today (Riley, 1995). However, this was the most accurate experiment at the time, and his observations were considered the up-to-date beliefs.

Tools and Materials

My project would require simple tools/materials that would be readily available in Egypt in 171 CE. Similar to Ptolemy’s experiments, I will need a plaque, water, and a glass semicylinder to observe refraction in two different mediums (Smith, Ptolemy and the Foundations of Ancient Mathematical Optics: A Source Based Guided, 1999). The tool that Ptolemy used to measure his angles was similar to a protractor, and he constructed it himself to approximate angles (Riley, 1995). Therefore, I would have to justify to my community after his death to lend me this device for use in my experiments.

Other than physical tools, I would need some notes that record Snell’s Law, which will be key to calculating the relationship between the angles I observe (Mihas, 2008). Since no calculators were available, I will need notes on the properties of the sine function to do these calculations by hand.

Rough Research Plan

My plan consists of recreating the three refraction experiments of Ptolemy, which involve testing refraction from air to water, air to glass, and water to glass (Smith, Ptolemy and the Foundations of Ancient Mathematical Optics: A Source Based Guided, 1999). A plaque would be placed on the medium of interest each time, and a sighting rod is used to mark the position of the ray without refraction (Smith, Ptolemy and the Foundations of Ancient Mathematical Optics: A Source Based Guided, 1999). After this rod is immersed into water, I would then mark the real position of the ray with refraction, and calculate the angle of refraction from there using Ptolemy’s instrument (Riley, 1995). To gain more accurate results, I will place the rod at angles that are multiples of 5 (0o, 5o, 10o, 15o..), rather than the multiples of 10 (0o, 10o, 20o…) like Ptolemy did, so I can have more data to work with at the end (Riley, 1995).

After the experiments, I should have a table with my angles of incidence, each one with a corresponding angle of refraction. The novel approach I will implement that Ptolemy didn’t is calculating the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction, which should give me almost constant values for every medium, proving proportionality and Snell’s law of refraction (Riley, 1995) (Mihas, 2008).

Justification of Project to the Community

Ptolemy was known to be a reputable figure in science, so implementing aspects of his experiment into mine would be the best way that the community in Egypt would allow me to carry out the project and take my findings into consideration in their society. If I came up with my original experiment, I may not be given as much attention compared to if I built up on the work of previous reputable scholars.

The concept of refraction was explored not only by Ptolemy, but also by scientists before him. Euclid, for example, reported some observations he had about how light refracts as it enters different mediums (Mihas, 2008). Ptolemy was the first to carry out an experiment testing this phenomenon, inferring that people did not know much about the property of refraction, and society was awaiting a mathematical explanation for this (Mihas, 2008). Even after Ptolemy’s experiments, he was unable to come up with a solid law to explain his observations (Mihas, 2008). Therefore, my project explores a topic that needed clarification at the time, making my research meaningful and justifiable in that context.

Enoch, J. M. (1998). The Enigma of Early Lens Use. Technology and Culture, 273-291.
Feke, J. (2018). Ptolemy’s philosophy: mathematics as a way of life. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Mihas, P. (2008). Developing Ideas of Refraction, Lenses and Rainbow Through the Use of Historical Resources. Science & Education, 751-777.
Riley, M. T. (1995). Ptolemy’s Use of His Predecessors’ Data. Transactions of the American Philological Association, 221-250.
Smith, A. M. (1982). Ptolemy’s Search for a Law of Refraction: A Case-Study in the Classical Methodology of “Saving the Appearances” and its Limitations. Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 221-240.
Smith, A. M. (1999). Ptolemy and the Foundations of Ancient Mathematical Optics: A Source Based Guided. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 1,3,49,51,77,79,147,149-172.

World history homework help

The Great Depression
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella (jminella@umass.edu)

Post-World War One

 Total war had become a reality.

 Mass mobilization.

 Postwar.

 Democratic potential.

 Economic recovery.

 Expectation of enduring peace.

Optimist 1920s, but…

 Fascism in Italy.

 Totalitarianism on the horizon.

 Continued unrest in the colonies.

 Great Depression coming up.

 Would lead millions into unemployment and poverty.

This Class

 Great Depression, 1929 to late 1930s.

 Causes.

 Social Effects.

 Political outcomes.

 Road to war.

The Great Depression

Economic Crises

 Interconnected economies.

 Global supply and consumer chains.

 Collateral effects.

 1870s Long Recession.

 Known as The Great Depression until the 1930s crisis came by.

 What caused the 1930s Great Depression?

 Started with the November 1929 stock market collapse in the United States.

The U.S. Stock Market
 1920s stock market party.

 Investors took loans to buy stock.

 Excessive credit restricted in 1929.

 Banks collecting outstanding loans.

 Investors selling stock to pay back loans.

 Stock prices plumet.

 Investor lose money; many can’t pay back

A solemn crowd gathers outside the NY Stock
Exchange after the crash. 1929.

Global Effects

 U.S. banks had financed postwar economic growth abroad.

 Sought to collect debt abroad following the crash.

 Businesses unable to pay back.

 Bankruptcy and workers laid off.

 Massive unemployment.

 Particularly in Europe.


 Agricultural overproduction.

 Prices collapse.

 Rural areas across the globe severely

 Which decreased demand for
manufactured goods.

 Many industries affected.

 Bankruptcies and unemployment.

Soup kitchen to feed the unemployed in
Chile, 1932.

Ineffective or Costly
Early Responses

 Currency depreciation,
protectionism, budget cuts.

 No results, or worsened the

 Increased taxation of the colonies.

 Efforts of industrialization in Latin
America and Eastern Europe.

 Government purchase of excess

Burning of excess coffee grains in Brazil, 1931.

Social Effects

 Not all negative: people with jobs could benefit from lower prices.

 Hardship, poverty, hunger.

 Disruption of family ties.

 Rising protests.
 Communist parties grew.

 Unions took to the streets.

 Government and private repression.

In the Colonies…

 More taxation and repression.

 More protest.

 E.g. Mohandas Gandhi Salt March,
India, 1930.

 Non-Violent Civil Disobedience.

 General strikes in Palestine and India.

 Peasant Uprising in Indochina.

 Harsh repression against demands of
colonial subjects.

Gandhi during the Salt March, March

Political Outcomes of the
The Great Depression

General Political Changes

 Fall of representative governments.

 Countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

 New authoritarian regimes.

 New totalitarian regimes.

 Fascist, Nazi, Communist regimes in the 1930s.

 Sought to establish total state control of society.

Fascist Italy

 Established before the Great
Depression (1922)

 Fascism.

 Primacy of the state over the

 Violence and warfare to make
nations strong.

 Mussolini.

 Blamed the parliament.

 “Blackshirt” army.

Blackshirts with Benito
Mussolini during the March on Rome,
28 October 1922.

The Nazi Party in Germany

 Facilitated by the defeat in WW1 and the Great Depression.

 Resentment.

 Unemployment and poverty.

 Youth, white-collar workers, and lower middle class as early supporters.

 Jews blamed for Germany’s problems.

 All the opposition to totalitarianism labeled “Bolshevik”.

The Nazi Rise to Power

 Support of military, industrial, and sectors of the political elite.

 Saw the Nazis as a defense against communism.

 Shared Nazi anti-Semitism.

 Adolf Hitler chancellor by 1933.

 Totalitarian escalation.

 Targeted Jews, Communists, homosexuals, labor activists, political opposition.

Nazi Racism

 Major component of Nazi Ideology.

 Superiority of “Aryans”.

 Everyone else seen as an obstacle
to “pure” German growth.

 Particularly Jews and Slavs.

 1935 Nuremberg Laws (Anti-Jewish

 1938 Night of Broken Glass.

Passersby and a damaged Jewish-owned shop following the Night of
Broken Glass. Magdeburg, Germany, 1938.

Support for the Nazi
Totalitarian Regime

 Economic recovery.

 Jobs and property taken from Jewish

 Heavy public investment in infrastructure
and military industry.

 Decreased unemployment.

 Widespread propaganda.

 Demonized Jews, Communists, labor
activists, and others.

 Many Germans convinced Nazism was
saving Germany from evil-doers.

Nazi Propaganda Poster,
“He is to blame for the
war!” by Hans Schweitzer.


 Earthquake + Effects of the Great Depression.

 Military leaders and Emperor Hirohito.

 Militarization.

 Expansionism.

 Built support by claiming Japanese superiority over neighboring nations.

 Particularly China.

 Manchuria taken in 1931; League of Nations did not help China.

Democracies’ Alternatives

 Bold social and economic experiments in response to the Great Depression.

 United States.

 Public economic relief, price support, and investment in infrastructure.

 Social Security.

 Sweden.

 Universal Social Welfare State.

 Policies that sought to rescue people from desperation, therefore strengthening

  • The Great Depression
  • Post-World War One
  • Optimist 1920s, but…
  • This Class
  • The Great Depression
  • Economic Crises
  • The U.S. Stock Market Crash
  • Global Effects
  • Overproduction
  • Ineffective or Costly Early Responses
  • Social Effects
  • In the Colonies…
  • Political Outcomes of the The Great Depression
  • General Political Changes
  • Fascist Italy
  • The Nazi Party in Germany
  • The Nazi Rise to Power
  • Nazi Racism
  • Support for the Nazi Totalitarian Regime
  • Japan
  • Democracies’ Alternatives

World history homework help

On September 11, 2001, four commercial planes were hijacked. Two were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. One was flown into the Pentagon Building in Washington, D.C., and one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. All on board the planes were killed. Thousands on the ground died.

The United Nations called the orchestrated attacks a “crime against humanity.” Then United States President George Bush, and other world leaders condemned the perpetrators as terrorists. Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden, asserted the attacks were part of a holy war, done in the name of the Islamic god, Allah.

The Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001, were not the first acts of terrorism committed in the United States or on the world scene. Terrorist attacks have been used by political and religious extremists to achieve their goals for the past several decades. In Ireland, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) has killed thousands of people in Great Britain and Ireland. In Palestine, the PLO has attacked Israeli leaders and their supporters, causing a tremendous amount of loss of life and property.

According to postmodernism, there is no absolute moral standard by which any act of terrorism can be condemned as wrong. Likewise, no terrorist act can be said to be just or good.

To understand the influence of postmodernism on our culture, use the internet to find statements by political leaders and/or cultural figures condemning or condoning the attacks of September 11, 2001.

  • Find two statements by those condemning (against) the attacks.

  • Find two statements by those condoning (for) the attacks.

  • List the 4 quotes in the box below. Beside each quote identify and explain whether or not the judgment was made according to an absolute moral standard or not.

Your research should be in complete sentences and have no grammar, punctuation, or spelling mistakes. Cite the reference for each statement.

World history homework help


HISU 360 Final Research Paper

The major assignment in this course fulfills UMass Global’s Instructional Learning Outcome (ILO), for “Global Cultures,” ILO 4, which

requires that students are able to “explain the relationship between a global issue and the history, values, politics, economy,

communication styles, or beliefs and practices of one or more cultures affected by that issue.”

Prior to completing this paper, you will submit a topic proposal in Week 2 and a first draft in Week 5. This preliminary work will

serve as the foundation for your final paper, and your work will benefit from the feedback you receive from your instructor

regarding the topic proposal and the first draft.

For your final research paper, you will examine at least two cultures from the time range of antiquity to 1800. The examination can

be across international and/or geographical boundaries, such as comparing the Roman Empire to the Han Dynasty of China.


It could be an internal comparison across time periods, such as how Catholics and Protestants interacted in England prior to coming
to the New World and how they interacted after their migration to British North America.

Your topic will be approved at the topic proposal stage.

Your final paper is a polished version of the draft you submitted earlier in the term. It must include:

• Cover page with the title of the paper, your name, course number, instructor’s name, and date.

• Introductory paragraph in which you describe the two cultures/groups you will study. This paragraph should be an expansion
of the introductory sentence from your topic proposal and include an explanation of why you chose these groups and why
your topic is important.

• Thesis in which you explain the historical similarities or differences between each of the populations.

• Body in which you support the thesis with research from a minimum of four scholarly sources (to include books and/or
journal articles). The body must also include graphics/photos/statistics/charts/newspaper clippings/music tracks as needed,
as well as an explanation why you selected this support.


• Conclusion which is a discussion of why your research is important. Specifically, you should include a reflection of insights
you gained, such as lessons you learned about the two populations. You should also include a discussion about how these
two populations shaped other historical events.

• Working bibliography***

The research paper needs to be 10-12 pages in length plus a bibliography and needs to incorporate a minimum of 4 scholarly

***Anyone who uses websites like Wikipedia, Ask.com, eHow, or any K-12 educational website will, at the discretion of the
instructor, automatically be deducted a letter grade on the first offense. Subsequent offenses will receive harsher penalties , with
a maximum of a 0 on the project. This is to protect the academic integrity of this course, which is held to University-level

Also, make sure to follow the proper guidelines for citing sources for your paper. You can use either MLA or APA, whichever i s
required by your instructor.








ILO Introductory


(20 points)
Clearly describes in
detail the two
Thoroughly expands
upon the introductory
sentence from the
topic proposal and
includes a thoughtful
explanation of why
these groups were
chosen and why the
topic is important.

(16 points)
Describes the two
Expands upon the
introductory sentence
from the topic proposal
and includes an
explanation of why
these groups were
chosen and why the
topic is important.

(14 points)
Describes the two
cultures/groups but lacks
clarity. Does not clearly
expand upon the
introductory sentence from
the topic proposal. Includes
an explanation of why these
groups were chosen and
why the topic is important;
however, the explanation is
vague and lacks clarity.

(12 points)
Minimally describes the
two cultures/groups or
describes only one group.
Does not expand upon the
introductory sentence
from the topic proposal.
Includes little to no
explanation of why these
groups were chosen and
why the topic is important.

(0 points)
No Introduction is

ILO Thesis (40 points)
Clearly explains the
historical similarities
or differences
between each of the

(32 points)

Explains the historical

similarities or

differences between

each of the


(28 points)

Vaguely explains the

historical similarities or

differences between each

of the populations.

(24 points)
Minimally explains the
historical similarities or
differences between each
of the populations.

(0 points)
Thesis is not present.

ILO Body (90 points)
Clearly supports the
thesis with research
from a minimum of
four scholarly sources
(to include books
and/or journal
articles). Includes

(80 points)
Supports the thesis
with research from a
minimum of four
scholarly sources (to
include books and/or
journal articles).

(70 points)
Lacks clear support of the
thesis. Includes fewer than
four scholarly sources (to
include books and/or
journal articles). Includes
clippings/music tracks but
lacks an explanation why

(60 points)
Does not support the

thesis. Includes fewer than

four scholarly sources (to

include books and/or

journal articles). May

include sources that are

not scholarly.

(0 points) Body is not


clippings/music tracks
as needed, as well as
an explanation why
this support was

clippings/music tracks
as needed, as well as
an explanation why this
support was selected.

this support was selected.

ILO Conclusion (25 points)
Thoroughly discusses
why this research is
important. Includes a
thoughtful reflection
of insights gained,
such as lessons
learned about the two
populations. Includes
a discussion about
how these two
populations shaped
other historical

(18 points)
Discusses why this
research is important.
Includes a reflection of
insights gained, such as
lessons learned about
the two populations.
Includes a relevant
discussion about how
these two populations
shaped other historical

(16 points)
Vaguely discusses why this
research is important.
Includes a basic reflection
of insights gained, such as
lessons learned about the
two populations. Includes a
basic discussion about how
these two populations
shaped other historical

(14 points)
Minimally discusses why
this research is important.
Includes little to no
reflection of insights
gained, such as lessons
learned about the two
populations. Includes little
to no discussion about
how these two populations
shaped other historical

(0 points)
No Conclusion is





(25 points) Proper

formatting for citations

is applied flawlessly

throughout paper. The

ideas are clear, well

organized, and have a

logical flow. Word

choice is precise and

accurate. The paper is

free of mechanical

errors including

grammar and spelling.

The paper is 10-12

pages in length plus a

bibliography and

(18 points)

Proper formatting for

citations is applied

throughout paper. The

information is clear,

ideas make sense, and

the word choice is

consistent. The paper

has occasional errors in

grammar, spelling, or

mechanics, but it does

not distract from the

presentation of ideas.

The paper is 10-12

pages in length plus a

(16 points)

paper contains one or more

errors in formatting for

citations. The information is

vague or confusing at times,

and the ideas lack

connections. Word choice is

limited or lacks precision.

The mechanical errors

distract from the ideas.

The paper is less than 10-12

pages in length. It may lack a

bibliography and/or cover


(14 points)

The paper contains a

significant number of errors

in formatting for citations.

The information and ideas

are minimally effective and

lack a logical flow. The

frequent errors in word

choice, grammar, spelling,

and mechanics make the

ideas difficult to


The paper is less than 10-12

pages in length. It may lack

(0 points)

The paper is not

submitted or does not

use any appropriate


organization, or



includes a cover page.

A minimum of 4

scholarly sources are

incorporated effectively

and properly


bibliography and

includes a cover page.

A minimum of 4

scholarly sources are

incorporated effectively

and properly referenced.

A minimum of 4 scholarly

sources are not incorporated

effectively and properly


a bibliography and/or cover


A minimum of 4 scholarly

sources are not

incorporated effectively and

properly referenced.

  • HISU 360 Final Research Paper
    • Rubric

World history homework help

Take Test: Unit II Assessment


Which of the following was an early civilization associated with an established vibrant culture on the island of Crete?






Hellenistic art included all of the following innovations and changes from the Classical period except:

critique of authority.

expression of emotion.


human frailty.


The descendants of this early mainland culture are assumed to have been affiliated with the Sea Peoples, leading into their integration into Canaanite regions and development into the Philistines.






This ancient language has yet to be deciphered but is generally understood to be unaffiliated with any Greek dialect.

Linear A

Linear B




All of the following are examples of Archaic period legislative bodies except:






Which of the following is the noted Athenian aristocrat who became chief magistrate and was known for freeing slaves, canceling debts, and allowing non-nobles to vote for magistrates?






The school of philosophy that encouraged participating in politics, living in accordance with nature, and developing the concept of natural law was inspired by which of the following?






This mathematician’s lessons on the fundamental principles of geometry became the standard method for thousands of years.






Who is the author credited with the poems Theogony and Works and Days?






The school of philosophy that acknowledged the gods but taught that they had no influence on human life and that the principle goods of human life were contentment and pleasure, meaning a life free from fear and suffering, was inspired by which of the following?






Match each government structure to its closest definition.







A religious-based political corporation that ensured autonomy on religious matters


Rule specifically of people conquered by Alexander


Translates to “city-state” and includes both a city and countryside component


Rule specifically of property-owning citizens; translates to “the rule of the few”


Translates as “the power of the people”—a government ruled by citizens


The takeover of an existing government by an individual who often used wealth for political gain


Match each era to its defining characteristics.

Helladic Period

Dark Age

Archaic Age

Classical period

Hellenistic Period


Era in which the polis structure spread throughout the Mediterranean


Considered a period of cultural and population decline


Period of Athenian domination of the Mediterranean regions


A Greek era dominated by early settlement, taking place during the Bronze Age


Period plagued with external conflicts, beginning with wars against Persia and ending with the Macedonian takeover of Greece


Era ushered in by the death of Alexander the Great


Define Hellenic and Hellenistic Greece. Choose three cultural elements that are prominently found across both eras among political, social, and/or economic characteristics, and compare them. In your comparison, identify what influenced these changes and discuss what these changes show about the overall evolution of one period to the next.

Your response must be at least 300 words in length.




40 points

Click Save and Submit to save and submit. Click Save All Answers to save all answers.

World history homework help

Paisano, David
HISU 360
Professor Bingley

Research Topic Proposal

I would like to do research paper on the Greeks.

I want to do my research paper on the Greeks because I find it interesting on how they were a resource

poor country. They were dependent on the access to the foreign markets, and raw materials. It was

because of certain situations that the greeks were forced to venture out.

I also find it interesting that it was composed of over 1400 islands that made up Greece. Due to

having 1400 islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the greeks were able to trade and bing new ideas to their

culture. Sailors and mercenaries would trade for goods and ideas being on the Mediterranean Sea.

Greece was also one of the most advanced civilizations of their time. The greeks achieved an

unparalleled achievements than western civilization.

And how the islands helped develop the country.

World history homework help

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

· Textbook: Chapter 4, 5, 6

· Lesson

· Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, select and address one of the following:

· Option 1: Examine Marx’s writings on communism and socialism and compare them to how they manifested in reality? What worked and what didn’t? What misconceptions do we have about his original intent based on what we see in past or current governments?

· Option 2: Compare and contrast communism and fascism. Select one example for each to examine the origins of the governments, their accomplishments, and their failures. What accounts for the fact that the masses mobilized to support these movements? Elaborate.

· Option 3: Examine Depression-Era social programs (select one or more to examine in detail). Were the fears of a communist take-over based on the implementation of these programs grounded in reality? Why or why not? How do they compare to social programs in place today?

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

· Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)

· Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

· APA format for in-text citations and list of references

World history homework help


Exercise 4: Individual Culture Case Study [10 points]

Please work on this exercise individually.

Your names and student ID numbers:

Your names

Student ID numbers

: The purpose of this exercise is for you to apply the Hofstede culture dimensions to understand employee’s service behaviors.


Image result for shangri-la hotel

The Shangri-La story began in 1971 with our first deluxe hotel in Singapore. Inspired by the legendary land featured in James Hilton’s 1933 novel, Lost Horizon, the name Shangri-La encapsulates the serenity and service for which our hotels and resorts are renowned worldwide. Today, Hong Kong-based Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts is Asia Pacific’s leading luxury hotel group. They are also regarded as one of the world’s finest hotel ownership and management companies. Owning and/or managing over 95 hotels and resorts throughout the Asia Pacific, North America, the Middle East, and Europe, the Shangri-La group has a room inventory of over 40,000.

One thing special about Shangri-la Hotels is their service standard – they ask their employees to serve guests tea/ menu kneeling down. Kneel down service is a service style practiced across all Shangri-La’s as it is reminiscent of our Chinese roots on how tea is served. Guests love this special treatment. Shangri-La has implemented this service in China. However, Shangri-La faced a problem of asking their employees to implement this service standard when they first open their hotel in Australia.

Image result for kneel  service

Consider one Hofstede culture value, explain why Australia employee, compare to Chinese employees, are more likely to resist and refuse to implement the kneel-down service.

Check culture value score at


1. Pick ONE cultural value – you will focus on applying this cultural value to this case for this exercise

Individualism/ Collectivism

Power distance


Uncertainty avoidance

Short term/ Long term orientation

2. Define the culture value in Q1. (1 points)

3. What is the cultural value score for China and Australia, respectively? (2 points)





4. Does China or Australia have a higher cultural value score? (1 point)



5. What is the implication of the cultural value in Q3 for Chinese and Australian, respectively (2 points)

6. Based on the cultural difference in Q3, explain Australia employees’ and Chinese employees’ differential attitudes towards kneel-down service? (4 points)

World history homework help





Art History Criticism





Last Supper by Leonard da Vinci:

It is a work of painting by Leonard Da Vinci. Being 15th century work, Last Supper is regarded as one of the most famous paintings in the world. According to historical iconographers, the work is said to have commenced between 1494 and 1945. Leonard da Vinci’s patrons Duke of Milan and Ludovico commissioned it as one of the plans of renovating the church buildings. The work portrays the scene of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples as how the story is told in the Gospel of John 13:21 (Wansink, B., & Wansink, 2010).

In his work, Leonard was trying to depict the consternation that happened among the disciples when Jesus asserted that one of them would betray him. Owing to the environmental factors, methods uses and intentional damage, the original painting has been defaced and destroyed. Although, various attempts have been made to restore the painting, its originality has been destroyed (Steinberg, 2013).

According to the iconographers, the Last Supper has been said to be portraying expressive reactions by the apostles after Jesus’ assertion that one of them would betray him,. Taking a close look at the painting, one will note that everyone among the disciples have varying reactions to the news with others showing degrees of shock and anger (Wansink, B., & Wansink, 2010). As a common practice of this period, Leonardo depicts the diners seating on one side of the table. However, the prior depictions were excluding Judas where he was being placed alone on the other of table. Leonardo had Judas leaning back into shadow. This is a suggestive prediction by Jesus that the betrayer would have to take bread. Disgusted by the intense conversation of Peter and John, Judas reach out for a different bread without noticing that Jesus too is reaching for it (a reference can be found in Mathew 26:23).

The Last Supper painting contains various references of number 3. For clarification, number 3 is an important figure in Christianity belief since it portrays the Holy Trinity. The disciples are seated in grouping of three. In addition, behind Jesus there are three windows also the shape of Him resemble a triangle. It is speculated that they might have been other references, which have lost with deterioration of the painting. To date, only two main copies of Last Supper exist. These copies are speculated to have been worked by the assistants of Leonardo. The copies are of same size as the original painting. For long time, these copies have survived destruction and they have all the details of the original painting. For instance, one of the precise copy by Giampietrino is kept at “Royal Academy of Arts in London. The other one wby Cesare da Sesto contains various alterations. It is installed in the St. Ambrogio Church, Ponte Capriasca, Switzerland (Steinberg, 2013).

Working on this painting, Leonardo was seeking a great luminosity and detail, of which could be achieved by using the then traditional fresco. Leonardo avoided using wet plaster, instead painted the Last Supper on dry wall such that it was anyway reflecting true fresco. Since it is impossible for the fresco to be modified as work of art, Leonardo sealed the stone wall with the double layer. Using the techniques of panel painting, he white lead undercoat, this enhanced the brightness of the tempera and oil. This method had been discovered earlier by Cennino Cennin during 14th century. However, according to iconographers, Cennino was recommending the usage of secco to enhance a final touch. Leonardo applied these techniques since he wanted to work on the painting slowly. This gave him adequate time in developing the gradual chiaroscuro or shading (Heydenreich, 2012).

However, the painting did not adhere properly to the wall according to how Leonardo intention. This is because the painting was done on thin exterior wall, and thus, humidity as intense. Few decades after the completion of the painting, it began to deface and deteriorate. In the beginning of 1517 the painting had began to flake. Sixty years after it was completed, in 1556, the biography of Leonardo, Giorgio Vasari reported the painting to have ruined to an extend that all the figures could not be recognized. In the second half of sixteen century, the painting had completely ruined. By 1768, to protect the painting, a curtain was hung over it. However, the curtain trapped moisture and when it was pulled back, the painting was scratched. In 1726, Michelangelo Bell, who tried to fill in the missing sections using oil paint, made restoration attempts. However, after a short period the repair deteriorated and in 1770, unknown artist, Giuseppe Mazza made another attempt of restoring it. Mezza involved in stripping off work of Bellotti and repainted the painting. He had already redone everything but three faces when he was stopped following public outrage (Wansink, B., & Wansink, 2010).

During the French revolution in 1796, troops, who were opposing clerics, turned the refectory as armory. They destroyed the painting where they scratched out disciples eyes. The refectory was later on used as a prison and it is hardly known whether the prisoners may have further damaged the painting. Stefano Barezzi, who was a experienced expert in removing frescoes, was given the task of removing the painting to safe location. However, he severely destroyed many section of the painting before he realized that the painting was not fresco. Using glue, Barezzi tried to reattach the damaged sections. From 1900 to 1907, Luigi Cavenaghi had through with studying the painting structure and started cleaning it. Oreste Silvestry in 1925 made further cleaning and tried to stabilize some of its parts. In 1943, during the World War II, the refectory was damaged by the allied bombing. The painting was protected with sandbagging, hence it was not struck by splinters of the bomb. However, the bomb vibrations damaged it (Wansink, B., & Wansink, 2010).

From 1952 and 1951, Mauro Pelliccioli undertook to restore the painting. In the late 1970s, the appearance of the painting had deteriorated. From 1979 to 1999, Pinin Brambilla undertook a major of painting restoration. The aim of the project was to enhance stabilization of the painting and repair damages that had had been caused by pollution and dirt. Because it was practically impossible to relocate the painting to a secure place, Brambilla tried to seal the refectory by bricking the windows. A study was carried out with an aim of determining the original form of painting. The researchers used microscopic and reflectoscopy core-sample in their study. However, some of the sections of the painting could not be restored and they were repainted with watercolor (Hall, 2012).

It took 21 years to complete the restoration process and by 1999, the painting was fully restored. To view the painting, it is requirement of the visitors to book ahead and they are only allowed 15 minutes of stay. After being unveiled, the painting attracted widespread controversy with many critics arguing that its tones, color and facial shapes had been altered. For instance, James Beck, who is the professor of visual art at the Columbia University, criticized the restoration of the painting. Michael Daley, who is the ArtWatch International director, has been complaining that the version of the painting is severely altered. For instance, he has been highly critical of right arm of Christ, which he argues has been disguised (Steinberg, 2013).

Overall, the Last Supper painting has elicited much debates and controversies around the world. It has been frequently reproduced, referenced and parodied in Western world. For instance, one of the painting copies is conserved in Antwerp, Belgium. It contains various details than the original. Salvador Dali, in 1955, worked on “The Sacrament of the Last Supper” paint where Jesus is depicted as clean-shaven and blonde with the disciples gathering around the table with their heads bowed. This painting is credited as one of most significant art works in the “National Gallery of Art”. In 1987, Andy Warhol was given the task of producing various series of paintings basing on “The Last Supper”. Marisol Escobar, a sculptor, involved in rendering “The Last Supper” as three-dimensional, life-size, sculptural assemblage by using drawn and painted wood, brownstone, plywood and plaster. This work is preserved in “Metropolitan Museum of Art” in New York (Steinberg, 2013).

Last Supper by Tintoretto:

Last Supper Painting by Tintoretto:

Contrary to Leonard da Vinci, Tintoretto is said to have portrayed the “Last Supper Painting” many times during his career. For instance, some of his earlier paintings including “Chiesa di San Felice” and the “Chiesa di San Marcuola” portrays the last supper scene in its frontal perspective where the painting figures seem seating at the table. this is followed by the convention that is evidently in many of the Last Supper paintings. The later 1480s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci is perhaps the best example. However, his final paintings between 1592 and 1994 departed from his drastic earlier formula. Secondary characters including women who are carrying dishes with the servants clearing dishes from the table begun now preoccupied most of his painting scenes (Levey, 2015).

Further, the apostles’ table seems receding deep into space. In addition, Tintoretto involves usage of light, which emanates from both the ceiling and the aureole of Jesus. The Last Supper as painted by Tintoretto is arguably radically and asymmetrical. The painting is dynamistic and emphasizes mostly quotidian. In other word, its setting is the same as the Venetian inn where it is pointing to the Baroque (Levey, 2015).


Hall, M. B. (2012). Color and meaning: practice and theory in Renaissance painting (pp. 94-95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heydenreich, L. H. (2012). Leonardo-‘The Last Supper’. Lane, Allen.

Levey, M. (2015). Tintoretto and the Theme of Miraculous Intervention. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 113(5109), 707-725.

Plesters, J., & Lazzarini, L. (2012). Preliminary observations on the technique and materials of Tintoretto. Studies in Conservation, 17(sup1), 153-180.

Steinberg, L. (2013). Leonardo’s Incessant Last Supper. Zone Books, New York, 00.

Wansink, B., & Wansink, C. S. (2010). The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium. International journal of obesity, 34(5), 943-944.

World history homework help


Exercise 5: Team Culture Case Study [10 points]

Please work on this exercise as a team. If you are not in class today, you can submit this exercise individually.

Your names and student ID numbers:

Your names

Student ID numbers

: The purpose of this exercise is for you to apply the Hofstede culture dimensions to understand employee’s attitudes.


Hostage and manager. These two words that you would not usually expect to hear spoken in the same breath. However, during the first few months of 2009, workers at manufacturing facilities of 3M Company, Sony Corporation, and Caterpillar Inc. in France took managers as hostages. French workers have long been known for their aggressive and radical responses to what they feel is wrong or harsh treatment. Although kidnapping your boss isn’t legal, a French sociologist who surveyed 3,000 companies found that 18 of them had experienced an “executive detention” in the prior three years. These french employees took their managers as hostages because 1) they are angry with the layoff decision, 2) they want to negotiate better severance (separation) packages and benefits for laid-off employees.

Yet, these hostage situations are rarely seen in China. Even when employees face layoff, they move on without taking aggressive actions.

Consider one Hofstede culture value, explain why French employee, compare to Chinese employees, are more likely to take extreme actions when they are being laid-off.

Check culture value score at



1. Pick ONE cultural value – you will focus on applying this cultural value to this case for this exercise

Individualism/ Collectivism

Power distance


Uncertainty avoidance

Short term/ Long term orientation

2. Define the culture value in Q1. (1 points)

3. What is the cultural value score for China and French, respectively? (2 points)





4. Does China or France have a higher cultural value score? (1 point)



5. What is the implication of the cultural value in Q3 for Chinese and French, respectively (2 point)

6. Based on the cultural difference in Q3, explain French employees’ and Chinese employees’ differential reactions towards laid-off? (4 points)

World history homework help

ANT 3241- Beyond My Cultural Comforts Assignment Guidelines (20% Of GRADE)

You are given two options to choose from to complete this project.


This research project requires you to visit a worship service in your local community. You will be observing a religious ritual. Then you will write a research project based on your observation (both online and offline) by combining it with what you have learned from class and with the articles found. See step by step guidelines.

1. Choose a religiously significant ritual event where you can participate or discreetly conduct observations and where your presence will not be inappropriate or interrupt the flow of events. See the handouts below to get prepared for your visit and note-taking during/after observation.

2. In addition to your observation, you will find and watch a documentary/a video of an actual service on the ritual you have observed (see websites below to find an appropriate one to watch).

This website has videos of actual religious services.


This website has several video databases that you can search to find a documentary on your topic.


You can use YouTube to find documentaries. However, you need to be careful in choosing a video on YouTube. Try to look for trustable sources, i.e. National Geographic, History Channel, University-based sources, etc.

3. You need to find two academic articles that are on your topic or related to your discussion.

4. You need to choose two articles we have discussed in class and use them in your discussion as a way to frame your analysis.

Finding articles on FIU library website. Click on the link below. Then from the search box choose Article. Then type your key words and click on search.


5. How to write your research article:

a. Your first paragraph should be an introduction to the project. Start with a more general focus (i.e. the significance of myth and ritual in religion) then narrow down to focus on your topic choice.

b. Second paragraph will be a brief review of the religion itself. The origin of the religion, key beliefs, rituals, symbols, etc.

c. By third paragraph you will start discussing the ritual of your choice in this religious tradition. The rest of the paper will be on the ritual itself. First start describing your observation like an anthropologist. Then you will link it to the video you watched and the articles you found. You have to talk about:

-The type of the ritual (periodic vs. occasional, social rites of intensification, and/or a rites of passage)

-The significance of this ritual for this group

-The myth behind this ritual

-The structure of the ritual, how it is performed

-The symbols used, their meaning, and their use to convey certain messages

-The purpose and the function of this ritual

-Actors (what type or religious specialists involved), Participants, Scene, Altars, etc.

d. d. In your analysis/discussion of the ritual, you are required to use two in-class articles (see article folder on Blackboard) and two other academic articles. You are required to cite them in-text (Author, Year) and you will create a separate reference page at the end of your paper.

e. The written project must be typed,
5-6 double-spaced pages of written content
, with 12-point font and 1-inch margins all around excluding the reference page and notes. 7-8 pages with all references and notes.

f. You can use two non-academic sources if you want to supply your discussion with additional information on the group. It is not required. However, if you would like to use two additional non-academic sources make sure to find reliable sources. i.e. the Official Website of a Religious group.


This research project requires you to watch one documentary on a religious ritual of your choice in addition to finding 8 sources (4 academic articles and/or books, 2 popular sources, 2 in-class articles). You will be observing a religious ritual online (Either a documentary and/or a video recording of a full religious service/ritual). Then you will write a research project based on your online observation by combining it with what you have learned from class and with the articles found. See step by step guidelines.

1. Find a documentary that describes and shows a religiously significant ritual event. Conduct online observations on the ritual by watching a documentary (and/or an actual recording of a religious ritual). See the handouts below to take notes while/after completing your online observation.

To find and watch a documentary/a video of an actual service on the ritual you have chosen (see websites below to find an appropriate one to watch).

This website has videos of actual religious services.


This website has several video databases that you can search to find a documentary on your topic.


You can use YouTube to find documentaries. However, you need to be careful in choosing a video on YouTube. Try to look for trustable sources, i.e. National Geographic, History Channel, University-based sources, etc.

2. You need to find four academic articles that are on your topic or related to your discussion.

Finding articles on FIU library website. Click on the link below. Then from the search box choose Article. Then type your key words and click on search.


3. You need to choose two articles we have discussed in class and use them in your discussion as a way to frame your analysis.

4. How to write your research article:

a. Your first paragraph should be an introduction to the project. Start with a more general focus (i.e. the significance of myth and ritual in religion) then narrow down to focus on your topic choice.

b. Second paragraph will be a brief review of the religion itself. The origin of the religion, key beliefs, rituals, symbols, etc.

c. By third paragraph you will start discussing the ritual of your choice in this religious tradition. The rest of the paper will be on the ritual itself. First start describing your online observation like an anthropologist. Then you will link it the articles you found/you read in class. You have to talk about:

-The type of the ritual (periodic vs. occasional, social rites of intensification, and/or a rites of passage)

-The significance of this ritual for this group

-The myth behind this ritual

-The structure of the ritual, how it is performed

-The symbols used, their meaning, and their use to convey certain messages

-The purpose and the function of this ritual

-Actors (what type or religious specialists involved), Participants, Scene, Altars, etc.

d. In your analysis/discussion of the ritual, you are required to use
sources (four academic articles, two in-class articles (see article folder on Blackboard) and two other non-academic sources (i.e. the official website for the religious group, museum website, etc.). You are required to cite them in-text (Author, Year) and you will create a separate reference page at the end of your paper.

e. The written project must be typed,
5-6 double-spaced pages of full written content
, with 12-point font and 1-inch margins all around excluding the reference page. 7-8 pages including reference and notes.


· Your Final Project will be submitted as an attachment through Blackboard. It is strongly suggested you save a digital copy of your work until it has been graded.

· The topic chosen should not be a familiar ritual to you. It should be out of your own cultural comfort zone.

· Your paper will be written in an essay format, with an introduction, body (multiple paragraphs), and a conclusion. Introduction should not be longer than ½ page. The focus should be on the discussion/analysis of the ritual.

· Make sure you use a cultural relativistic approach and etic and emic perspectives during your observation and analysis.

· See the link below to get prepared for your visit to the site.


· See the link below to take notes to improve your online/offline observation.