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Week 8 Question 1 and 2

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 2

Do Black Women Change Social Identity to Progress into Leadership Positions?

Asha Dozithee

Grand Canyon University

RES 820: The Literature Landscape

Dr. Renee Winter

April 18, 2022

Black Women in Leadership- Annotated Bibliographies

Allen, A. (2020). The Black woman’s math problem: Exploring the resilience of Black women who lead in the United States federal government. Journal of African American Studies, 24(4), 530–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-020-09498-z

Allen (2020) describes the resilience of Black women who have taken on leadership positions in the United States despite institutional racism and years of injustice The paper focuses specifically on the U.S. history of White men as the dominant figures in government positions and the political arena as a whole. Black women have historically faced barriers to entry with respect to leadership positions across the fields of business, especially for senior leadership roles. The article highlights the empowerment of Black women and aims to raise awareness of the importance of Black women as being fully qualified for leadership positions. Further, the article describes the history of Black women as leaders despite employers not utilizing them as such and describes the history of limitations on Black women’s civil liberties, including barriers to education and employment.

The article also discusses the synergistic challenges Black women face as a result of their gender and skin color, both of which are highly embedded in prejudice. Discrimination based on these factors has significantly limited leadership opportunities for Black women. In the face of both racism and sexism, the article proposes that Black women must maintain three critical abilities: agility, sincerity, and emotional intelligence. Finally, the paper offers insight into the ways in which Black women are overcoming these challenges and emphasizes the need for a better understanding of these topics in order to open up leadership positions to more Black women.

Corpuz, E., Due, C., & Augoustinos, M. (2020). Caught in two worlds: A critical review of culture and gender in the leadership literature. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 14(12), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12571

Corpuz et al. (2020) discuss the impact of culture and gender as important in influencing the roles of women in leadership and the workforce; specifically, these factors are likely to negatively impact opportunities for growth, especially for women in leadership positions. The paper utilizes the common metaphor of the glass ceiling as a way of describing the ubiquitous challenges faced by women in obtaining and maintaining leadership positions. However, the paper goes on to describe the fundamental differences between the challenges faced by Black and White women and the circumstances underlying their success. This motivates the critical analysis of the diversity of women in leadership positions, especially with respect to culture and linguistics. An example of clear case bias is the term “angry Black female,” which clearly demonstrates the links between gender, culture, and perceptions of women. Maintaining their identities while navigating professional relationships can be a challenge for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women. This requires a strong sense of self-identity and self-concept but is essential to withstanding the discriminatory and even hostile situations they are likely to encounter in the process of taking on leadership roles. It can be complicated for CALD women to maintain their identities while assuming leadership roles.

Morris, T.-N., & Stevenson, H. C. (2020, Fall). Building up: Changing gender and racial disparities in independent school leadership will involve examining the pipeline of upcoming leaders. New and advanced research concludes that sponsorship is among the best strategies used in ensuring Blacks are appointed to lead also, Independent School, 80(1), 86–93.

This article proposes strategies to involve more people of color in leadership positions. Proposed methods include career sponsorship, affinity-based mentorship, and leadership programs as useful strategies to do so and to help people of color expand their professional networks by establishing connections. Currently, the majority of leadership positions in independent schools are held by white men, as are the majority of career sponsors, which results in a cycle preventing the promotion of people of color. The burden of improving this situation lies on the white sponsors who are in a position of power to amplify Black voices and challenge prejudice to elevate people of color into leadership positions. The article highlights the role of race and gender in influencing relationships with sponsors, also recognizing that these are two of many factors that affect promotion to leadership roles.

Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M., Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a White man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing Black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233

Roberts et al. (2020) highlight the obstacles faced by Black women in attempting to advance their careers and move into top leadership positions. The paper recognizes the long history of white males as the dominant demographic in leadership positions and the oppressive effect this has had especially on Black women. The paper highlights the tradition of Black women being excluded from leadership positions in their places of employment despite their history of acting as leaders in other aspects of their lives. The article acknowledges limitations on participation in educational and work opportunities faced by Black women, arguing that institutionalized discrimination that is deeply ingrained in our culture has stood in the way of the advancement of Black women. Withstanding these conditions requires agility, sincerity, and emotional intelligence to make sense of the history and circumstances and to establish a professional identity that is compatible with leadership success. The article highlights specific barriers standing in the way of Black women advancing to leadership positions.

Sales, S., Galloway Burke, M., & Cannonier, C. (2020). African American women leadership across contexts: Examining the internal traits and external factors on women leaders’ perceptions of empowerment. Journal of Management History, 26(3), 353–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmh-04-2019-0027

This article the empowerment of Black women as well as the many barriers they face in ascending to administrative leadership seats. Historically, Black women have been excluded from upper management, as this has been dominated by White men. The article highlights barriers faced by Black women even beyond those faced by White women. These include restrictions to civil liberties as well as internal forces limiting empowerment. Institutionalized racism and gender biases have long excluded women from leadership positions in a range of fields. Additionally, internalized biases resulting from a long history of oppression stand in the way of Black women’s empowerment. Black women have long held leadership positions in their families and communities, yet as part of the workforce, they are consistently underestimated and thus underrepresented. These struggles differ from the experiences of White women and women of other ethnic backgrounds. In this way, Black women, as dual minorities, face an increased likelihood of being marginalized, overlooked, or unappreciated even today.

Regarding leadership, Black women continue to be underrepresented in historical discourses and literature compared to Black males of the same ethnic background. However, being a Black woman comes with a unique set of experiences. Gender and race are cultural and societal notions that have been deeply ingrained in prejudice for centuries. As a result, to overcome these difficult conditions and build their professional identities and perspectives on the world, women of African ancestry in leadership positions must first make sense of their past and their own experiences in the present. In leadership development, self-authorship is critical for leaders who are also women of color because they have the knowledge, confidence, and skills concerning the same. This allows them to make successful decisions while actively participating in their organizations (Sales et al., 2020). Therefore, this article has relevance to the topic of discussion, as it highlights the significance that self-authorship contributes to the development of a Black woman’s professional and social identity.

Motro, D., Evans, J. B., Ellis, A. P. J., & Benson, L. III. (2022). Race and reactions to women’s expressions of anger at work: Examining the effects of the “angry Black woman” stereotype. Journal of Applied Psychology, 107(1), 142–152. 
https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000884
.

This article focuses on how the black woman has experienced bias and is likely not to gain promotion in her workplace due to anger. It discusses how anger emanates internally from the black woman and is expected to influence her leadership capabilities negatively. First, it is observed that people understand an angry black woman from two perspectives: stereotypes and observed behavior. The study also suggests that an angry black woman is treated more negatively than an angry black man because the role expectation of an angry black woman is different from an angry black man. One of the considered stereotypes of an angry black woman, which usually comes out through being self-assertive, is when she declines to follow the norms of the society of being a hardworking and submissive woman. Therefore it is argued that when the cause of anger from a black woman comes internally from her personality, her anger is viewed negatively. When anger comes from a trait and not from external factors such as the environment, it might lead to abusive leadership and low performance. The article also adds to the workplace’s emotions that are viewed differently according to gender, as men who cry are considered weak, but when a woman cries, it’s not perceived as weakness. It also argues that not all women are treated the same when it comes to expressing anger as white women’s anger is likely to be caused by external factors, whereas black women’s anger is likely to be their personal trait.

Goodman, M. (2000). Wearing my clown to work: The crown act as a solution. To shortcomings of title VII for hair discrimination at the workplace.

This article highlights the challenges that black women face in their respective job positions. According to Goodman (2000), color is one of the bases used to judge the personality traits and the qualifications of people in various job places around the world. Therefore, the article states that most black women are often overlooked during job recruitment due to their color. On the other hand, the report also notes that the few women who manage to secure their jobs are often subjected to very harsh working conditions. It may include low payments and very few promotions. Therefore, Goodman (2000) questions the integrity and accountability of most leaders. Furthermore, she notes that many talents are wasted due to racism and discrimination because qualified women are often denied opportunities while the less qualified are given these jobs.

The article also focuses on the hair act policy in the United States. According to this article, the color of a woman’s hair matters a lot and determines whether or not a woman may secure a job in any organization in the US. Goodman (2000) notes that justice institutions such as courts need to intervene and save the country from this mess. The article notes that although the constitution advocates for equality, very few measures have been put in place to address the menace of racism and bias against black women and other minorities who present with different hair colors and other perceived or actual cultural differences.

Lee, H.-W., Robertson, P. J., & Kim, K. (2019). Determinants of Job Satisfaction Among U.S. Federal Employees: An Investigation of Racial and Gender Differences. Public Personnel Management, 009102601986937.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026019869371

The author employed a comparatives model of job satisfaction which allowed a complaint term of individual factors as overall patterns of the priorities given to the individual facts. The study looks at how the determinants of job satisfaction varied by ethnicity and gender among subgroups of federal employees in the United States. Gender and ethnicity are dominant features that lead people to think, feel, and act differently. However, the difference may be mitigated in the organizational environments. An organization can generate strong situational forces that influence the context considerably; therefore, the individual distinction becomes less important. For instance, the difference in the behavior of women and men results mainly from the difference in the way they are treated in the organization compared to any inherent differences among them.

This article is an excellent source for addressing the bias and racism that affects social identity among minorities in leadership positions and employment. In the United States, women’s dual obligations are common, resulting in work-life conflict, which leads to lower job satisfaction and well-being. Therefore, the article is relevant as it has contributed meaningful and core arguments. It is also reliable because it does not show bias but provides more than one viewpoint (Lee et al., 2019).

Beatty Moody, D. L., Waldstein, S. R., Leibel, D. K., Hoggard, L. S., Gee, G. C., Ashe, J. J., … & Zonderman, A. B. (2021). Race and other sociodemographic categories are differentially linked to multiple dimensions of interpersonal-level discrimination: Implications for intersectional, health research. PloS one16(5), e0251174.

The main objective of the author of the article is to find out the connection between the causes of various levels of race and other issues and biased issues between the African Americans and Whites. In the United States, the issue of discrimination is still on the higher level between the whites, which are known as the dominant group, and the black Americans, who are nondominant. Therefore, the race is the most affecting sociodemographic category. According to the research, black Americans are the most affected by the issue of racial discrimination in the United States. It is due to the following factors: various unique experiences in the United States, excessive responsibility for poor health, and the issue of enslavement and persecution. On the other hand, the United States’s dominant racial group, known as the Whites, also experiences discrimination at an interpersonal level related to poor health.

In most cases, people experience discrimination against a race which goes together with other personal attributes such as gender, socioeconomic status, and age. Such characteristics have various meanings, and they have a more significant influence on people’s perceptions of the level of interpersonal interactions. According to the author, racism is every day worldwide; it is also part of America. Being a black America is not that easy since African Americans are continuous in the United States. According to the author’s findings, African Americans went through discrimination compared to whites. Additionally, the older African American men, together with the poor ones, experienced discrimination at a very high rate in contrast to the younger African Americans. The article is relevant to how the effects of social identity among minorities progress into leadership positions because it outlines the impact of racism can hinder identity expression and general health.

Hickox, S. A., & Kaminski, M. (2021). Arbitrators’ Review of Bullying in the Workplace. ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law35(3), 399-448.

This article analyzes bullying in the workplace. According to Hickox & Kaminski (2021), workplace bullying can include threats, physical assault, persistent verbal attacks, and interference with work. It takes a heavy toll on targeted employees and contributes to higher absenteeism, increased healthcare usage, reduced productivity, reduced organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. Hickox & Kaminski (2021) also indicates that workplace bullying can cause mental problems, such as post-traumatic stress, anxiety, clinical depression, burnout, and panic attack. Workplace bullying can also cause sleep disruption, mood swings, loss of concentration, and anger among targeted employees. Besides that, workplace bullying can lead to a higher turnover and negatively affect the company’s ability to recruit new talent due to a bad reputation. Research indicates that internal organizational processes in most companies are not sufficient to stop or prevent bullying. Therefore, targets of bullying need other platforms to address their claims. This article is relevant to the struggles of minorities in leadership positions and how their physical bodies and social identity can be severely harmed.

Robinson, N. C., Williams-Black, T., Smith, K. V., & Harges, A. (2019). It All Started with a Picture: Reflections on Existing as Women of Color in a PWI. Multicultural Perspectives21(1), 41-52.

The paper “It All Started with a Picture: Replications on Current as Women of Color in a PWI” is written by Robinson C. Nichelle et al. the authors are centered on the purpose of scrutinizing replications of a woman of color in a predominately white organization (PWI). The authors worked on the article by gathering the viewpoints of three facility followers and one ex-student learner of color. In their paper, these women shared distinct expressions and highlighted that they were no longer distinct but equivalent but have changed into an equivalent but reasonable culture. They are demanding to find ways to be in a position to fix this problem.

According to their findings, the authors found that the real-life outcomes discovered that these faculty followers and the learner had encountered challenges grounded on implied prejudice and impartiality at PWI. Additionally, the results of the article specified that impartiality is only attained when everybody desires to confess that it does not occur, and significant that this can change the ethos and copy togetherness.

This article is relevant to the effect of social identity expression and perception on minority progression in leadership. It sheds light on what black women and other women of color endure in their leadership positions in America.

Jackson, L. C., & Bouchard, M. M. (2019). Mentoring: a key success factor for African American women in the US Federal Senior Executive Service. SAM Advanced Management Journal84(4), 35.

According to numerous reports by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), government-wide SES appointments in the United States remain in the low percentages for African American Women (AAW) when compared to the percentages of AAW in comparable positions in the civilian labor force (CLF). Within a national context, this paper analyses the views held by AWW in the SES, GS-15, and GS-14 concerning the lack of sufficient representation of women and minorities in the SES. Published in 2019, the paper reveals the obstacles and challenges that AAW faces in their determination to achieve career success in SES and cites mentoring as the key success factor that can help AAW to achieve career progression to senior management positions. The article provides an extensive overview of AAW’s perceptions of the success factors that empowered or would empower them to accomplish SES-level careers. The article serves the purpose of filling the gap in scholarly studies on the issues of AAW, which has been under-researched in past studies as researchers have mainly focused on all minorities, all women, or women of color. The authors of the article cited numerous references. One of the authors (Lynda C. Jackson) is a professor at Trinity Washington University, while the other (Marcia M. Bouchard) is a professor at the University of Maryland University College. This article is relevant to the social identity of minorities in leadership. It exposes the main reasons why there are few African American Women, a minority group, in the SES and what can be done to increase these numbers.

Phillips, L. T., & Jun, S. (2021, September 13). Why Benefiting From Discrimination Is Less Recognized as Discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000298

The authors of this article explain the benefits of discrimination as discrimination. The authors theorized that the objective discrimination decision is described as being less likely to be acknowledged as discrimination. Therefore, they supported this hypothesis using the relevant eight studies. According to the article, discrimination continues to plague the general society.

The study’s findings reveal that despite reduced possibilities of human resource workers recognizing the discrimination when it is described as favoring, it affects the reporting behaviors. It means they have lower chances of reporting the potentially discriminatory decisions for the review. The other finding shows that individuals support the lawsuit less when the discrimination utilizes a favoring frame than disfavoring. This is basically due to the inequity frames that shape the perceived intentions instead of the perceived harm. The results also reveal that inequality frames about the discriminatory decision conducted by the firm might impact the candidate’s job pursuit behaviors.

The article is essential in addressing the issue of bias and racism against minorities in leadership and employment because the winning frame of the discrimination as disfavoring results in excusing the favoring-based discrimination and worsening the inequality situation.

Kennedy, C. (2021). The Strained Relationship between Hair Discrimination and Title VII Litigation and Why It Is Time to Use a Different Solution. Notre Dame JL Ethics & Pub. Pol’y35, 401.

The article discusses the challenges that individuals belonging to the African American community face as employees and leaders of different organizations. According to the write-up, some of the difficulties black women can experience as leaders and employees include discrimination based on their appearances. The author explains that the appearance of African American women is a significant aspect that can deny them the opportunity to secure employment or get the promotions they need to serve in leadership positions. This aspect includes having natural African American hair, which individuals belonging to other races considered unkempt. The author elucidates that it is unfair for members of this population to be compelled to alter their appearances to conform to that of other communities to be accepted as part of the workforce. The author posits that black women should not be denied the opportunity to serve as influential leaders and workers because of trivial factors such as appearances. It explores significant aspects such as the provisions in the constitution that forbid the practice of discriminating against individuals based on their appearances and identity and the need to give individuals the same opportunity irrespective of their physical looks.

The article is a significant source of information because it contains essential information about the challenges that African Americans, the largest minority group in America, face as employees and leaders. For example, it addresses the difficulties encountered by African American women whose natural hair is often considered unkempt and not neat enough for individuals serving in corporations. Therefore, they are often compelled to transform their appearances to resemble those of other races to become accepted in the corporate world, attributing to the causation of changing social identities.

Kozlowski, D., Murray, D. S., Bell, A., Hulsey, W., Larivière, V., Monroe-White, T., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2022). Avoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches. Plos one17(3), e0264270.

The source expounds on some of the challenges faced by black people because of racism and bias. The authors seek to provide a solution on how prejudice can be avoided using the name-based strategies. The authors have acknowledged that racial disparity is one of the biggest problems, especially for the Black community. Therefore, excellent solutions are incorporated in ensuring that they have eliminated that great challenge. The author discovers that the name inference has created a significant bias between Blacks and Whites. For instance, many Black authors with black native names have been underrated and White authors appraised. That bias has a negative outcome, especially for Black people with a vast potential to spread positive influence.

The authors have used different pieces of evidence to indicate the total population that has been affected by racial bias. They have also included a quotation that approximates the total influence that the name-based approach will contribute. The US is the leader in racial disparity cases, as indicated from the evidence provided in the sources. However, the method might not work for the American-Indian groups. The authors suggest the need for further research that would benefit all populations affected by racial disparities. The challenges mentioned in the article are proportionate to what minorities have experienced in their leadership duration.

Degree

The degree being pursued is the Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership with an emphasis in Organizational Development.

Research Focus

Black women are continually navigating their social identities, modifying their positions, and adjusting their circumstances to avoid being restrained in their leadership development, resulting in Black women being underrepresented in upper-level management and executive positions.

Feasibility of Research Problem

It is feasible for the researcher to identify the personal and professional characteristics that influence the empowerment of black women in leadership and executive roles by utilizing qualitative methods to explore the lived experiences of black women.

Problem Statement

The main problem addressed by this research is to highlight and emphasize the limitations placed on minority women when taking leadership and executive roles, as well as the challenges they face in a society marked by widening racial inequality (Sales et al., 2020).

Need for Study

This study is needed to understand the effect of social identity on Black women’s progression into leadership positions. The Social Identity Theory explains that people’s identities are comprised of their social groups and outside groups. This theory is the critical theory behind discrimination of minorities as people in outside member groups are often feared or disliked (Brown, 2000). For example, Sugimoto (2022) and Kennedy (2021) explain how names and hair that differ from the assumed standard white, American expectations, lead to discrimination in the workplace and even hinder upward mobility within a company. Names and hair are a crucial part of identity expression. Therefore, if these are factors that hinder access to leadership positions, the social groups are restricted and seen as unfavorable (Brown, 2000). Few studies are looking at the correlation between social identity and Black women moving into leadership positions. However, Morris & Stevenson (2020) examine discrimination and racial barriers in the sequence leading to leadership positions. They found that offering equitable mentoring programs and racial visibility for minorities can assist in overcoming such obstacles. The goal is to further Morris & Stevenson’s (2020) research, exploring the social identity system and how it affects Black women entering or in leadership positions, therefore rendering this study necessary for the advancement of equity for minorities.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

This study manifests its framework using Social Identity Theory, which refers to the concept that our social identity is comprised of our social groups or group memberships (Brown, 2000). The theorists behind Social Identity Theory, Tajfel & Turner (2004) explain that the theory is rife with bias and discrimination within a social group. Studies conclude that members of a group are likely to discriminate against people outside of such a group as it makes them feel better and more superior, even if it is not something that they would consider doing as an individual (Tajfel &Turner, 2004). Another biased-based consequence of Social Identity Theory can be explained by Brown (2000). Brown (2000) uses an example of French fishermen blockading a group of English ferry passengers – the French fishermen are perceived as mean to the English passengers. As such, the English passengers now perceive all French people unfavorably while feeling better about themselves. This story also illustrates how xenophobia and discrimination were fostered (Brown, 2000). This study is based on the outcomes Social Identity Theory enacts against those perceived as the outsiders or others, in this case, minorities seeking leadership positions. Social Identity Theory will allow us to understand and analyze how minorities are perceived in leadership positions and how those leaders remain empowered within their groups and with other groups.

Significance

In the paper, “Caught in two worlds: A critical review of culture and gender in the leadership literature,” Corpuz et al. (2020) discuss the roles of culture and gender in determining women’s roles in leadership and the workforce. The authors argue that gender and culture limit women’s opportunities and growth in leadership positions, leading to a destructive cycle that prevents current and future women from attaining leadership positions. The authors report that have that women comprised approximately 48.5% of the world’s workforce in 2018, but significantly fewer women attain executive positions than their male counterparts (Corpuz et al., 2020). However, the authors highlight that black and white women hit “the glass ceiling” for fundamentally different reasons and the circumstances that create their success stories are fundamentally different. This article is particularly significant to the research topic chosen because it not only sets a foundation for the disparities between women and men in the workplace but also highlights the disparities between black women and white women in achieving leadership positions. Importantly, this article sets a foundation upon which this research study will build, to emphasize the limitations placed on minority women when taking leadership and executive roles, as well as the challenges they face in a society

Week 8 Question 1 and 2

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 2

How Do Employees View the Leadership Styles and Effectiveness of Black Male Leaders?

Tyrone Olive

Grand Canyon University

RES-820: The Literature Landscape

Dr. Renee Winter

April 19, 2022

Leadership Styles in Black Male Leaders: Annotated Bibliography

Brooms, D. R., Franklin, W., Clark, J. S., & Smith, M. (2021). ‘It’s more than just mentoring’: Critical mentoring Black and Latino males from college to the community. Race Ethnicity and Education, 24(2), 210–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2018.1538125

The study by Brooms et al. (2021) includes a case study of 12 Black and Latino male college students who come from a Hispanic background, focusing on their involvement in a mentoring program and leadership experiences. The stories of these students serve as a backdrop for a discussion of social capital and demonstrate the effects of receiving mentoring support in building leadership skills. The article presents community engagement and education as vehicles through which to enact changes and contrasts the stereotypical perception of Black male adolescence as problematic. The paper describes how the availability of educational opportunities and encouragement of student agency helps support minority students, but many colleges are not organized in a way to facilitate this. These interactions facilitate students’ self-image and future ambitions – the act of mentoring younger students demonstrated to the individuals in the study that they possessed important value and social capital that made them worthwhile. This also brought them closer to their communities and facilitated a sense of purpose. The study acts as a foil to the traditional mentality of Black and Latino men as domineering and troublesome, demonstrating that many of these individuals are eager to serve their community and find the experience rewarding and validating.

Haynes, C., Taylor, L., Mobley, S. D., Jr., & Haywood, J. (2020). Existing and resisting: The pedagogical realities of Black, critical men and women faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 91(5), 698–721. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2020.1731263

Haynes et al. (2020) describe how the many identities that an individual might relate to including racial, ethnic, gender, sexual, and socioeconomic influence the experiences of Black men in higher education. These identities are extremely influential during adolescence and other developmental periods, continuing to play a role in the experiences of Black men as they navigate the social, cultural, and psychological barriers associated with existing as a Black man in higher education. Many Black men who achieve academic success may identify as intelligent, educated, and insightful, despite these identities being in conflict with the historical perception of Black men as incapable of such success that remains pervasive despite its inaccuracy.

Most literature on this topic focuses on faculty experiences in general, giving consideration to the effects of race, diversity, and gender, but there is a gap in the literature pertaining to the specific experiences of Black faculty in higher education and how this is affected by pervasive derogatory stereotypes. While historically Black colleges and universities have long fought against stigmatization and acted as examples of Black excellence, it remains critical to actively acknowledge the significance of Black faculty members in higher education as being important role models in counteracting negative biases and as having a lived experience that is affected by their race. These individuals can play an important role in improving student performance as well as their outlook and motivation.

Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M., Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a White man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing Black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315.
https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233

This research demonstrates the pitfalls associated with the movement towards increasing representation in school leadership. Substantial efforts have been directed towards the goal of leadership reflecting the demographics of the population they serve; however, many schools have had difficulty implementing this initiative. Many K-12 schools are made up primarily of students of color; for these schools it would realistically be appropriate to hire administrative staff that reflects the student population demographics. Independent school leaders must be aware of these factors when making hiring decisions, despite many career sponsors being themselves White. It is important that leaders of color build trusting relationships with these White sponsors in order to facilitate meaningful cross-cultural discourse and promote learning.

Women of color are particularly underrepresented among leadership in independent schools, a statistic that has not significantly changed over the last two decades despite pressure for gender and racial equality. This figure brings up concerns about the potential for career advancement and barriers faced by people and especially women of color. Career sponsorship has been proposed as a means to mitigate racial disparities and increased upward career mobility for people of color. This process, executed well, can also lead to increased representation among leadership positions. Sponsorship may help Black men in particular to overcome gender and racial discrimination with respect to their position in education and allow them better opportunities to advance towards leadership positions.

Robinson, D. (2020). “We got y’all!”: Leading and supporting Black male teacher trajectories. Peabody Journal of Education, 95(5), 532–548. https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956x.2020.1828688

Despite efforts towards increasing diversity in education, Black male instructors still only make up less than 2% of all active teachers in the United States. This is unfortunate, as Black men have been shown to act as critical role models to all students but especially to Black male students. Average test scores are higher in classes with Black male instructors, and students show increased discipline. For Black boys in particular, having a Black male instructor is critical to intellectual and social development, yet these instructors are difficult to hire and retain. This is likely due to stereotypes about the roles of both men and racial minorities in education. Black men do not fit the stereotype of teachers and other educational staff, and often feel pressure to conform to specific standards set by White school leaders. The study utilizes a qualitative narrative approach to tell the stories of Black men in education, highlighting how school administrators can better support these employees to improve their chance of success and ability to advance their careers.

Woodson, A. N., Jones, J., & Gowder, S. (2020). ‘The world they’ve been born into’: Black male teachers on Blackness, masculinities and leadership. Race Ethnicity and Education, 23(3), 307–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2019.1663964

Here, Woodson et al. (2020) consider how preconceptions about Black men affect their efforts towards achieving greatness. Black men in teaching roles specifically face substantial barriers to career advancement and even employment in general due to stereotypes about Black masculinity. Significantly, despite many Black individuals having performed noteworthy accomplishments, these have historically been overlooked. The authors describe the struggle many Black men have experienced in order to get recognition for their accomplishments, and the inequities associated with stereotypes about Black leadership.

The article uses a narrative framework to share the stories of several Black male social studies teachers who are actively involved in interrogating and challenging the implications of Black masculinity. The authors conclude that these individuals have a nuanced and occasionally contradictory view of Black masculinity that is consistently evolving in response to their experiences and actively challenging the institutionalized beliefs they have been brought up with. The authors describe this internal debate as being especially critical for social studies teachers who are tasked with educating the next generation about the history of systemic marginalization and prejudices faced by people of color.

Randolph Jr, B. W., & Nisbett, K. (2019). Mentoring leaders across race and gender lines: Insight from US Army officers. Global Business and Organizational Excellence38(4), 16-25.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joe.21931

The journal article explores the strategies to overcome gender and racial bias in organizational mentorship. Randolph and Nisbett emphasize that although mentoring is integral to career development, organizations mentor leaders based on race and gender, hindering minorities and women from leadership positions. The number of African Americans and women in executive positions in organizations is limited. The authors’ theoretical framework holds that mentoring cross-race and gender enable African American women to express themselves and access career advancement opportunities. Biased mentorship leads to inadequate resources and reduced performance among minorities and women. Minorities and women in leadership positions often feel excluded from organizational activities and events. For example, Randolph and Nisbett note that while African Americans are mentored for about twenty minutes, Caucasians are mentored for at least sixty minutes, indicating the disparities in mentorship. Similarly, the authors note that the mentorship programs for women are not available, and in organizations where they exist, these programs are insufficient. There are no women in executive leadership positions to mentor their subordinates.

The journal article is a credible resource published in 2019 and offers current and reliable insights from leaders from different leadership positions and career fields. The authors are forthcoming in their research and supplement it with scholarly research from academic and government sources. The insights from the research could be adapted to contemporary organizations to eliminate bias against POC in leadership positions in America.

Motro, D., Evans, J. B., Ellis, A. P., & Benson III, L. (2021). Race and reactions to women’s expressions of anger at work: Examining the effects of the “angry Black woman” stereotype. Journal of Applied Psychology.

The article explores significant ways which can be used to address the issue of bias and racism against black men in leadership positions and employment. According to the authors, the impressions that people have on a group of individuals depend on aspects such as the stereotypes that are formed about them and the traits that they observe in them. Therefore, these aspects have been fundamental in the perspectives formed about the abilities of black men as employees and leaders of organizations. For example, their identification as highly illiterate people reduces their chances of being selected for leadership positions. Subsequently, the categorization of black individuals as being too loud or forceful creates an impression that they cannot be effective leaders. The authors study different elements that can be used to determine the effectiveness of individuals as employees and leaders in an organization that can be used to address the issue of racism against black men in leadership and employment. These factors include evaluation of the performance of the black men in enterprises, the ability to control their emotions, and their capabilities when given leadership positions.

The article is relevant to the process of examining and looking for solutions to the struggles of black men in leadership positions in America because it highlights the reasons why black men and other POC are discriminated against in workplaces and denied leadership positions in various organizations and agencies. Subsequently, it provides significant strategies that can be used to investigate and prove that the assumptions that are made about black men and other POC and their capabilities as leaders and employees are untrue, hence addressing the issue by acknowledging that they are competent workers who can serve effectively in different organizational positions, including leadership.

Cassidy, B. S., Harding, S. M., Hsu, K. Y., & Krendl, A. C. (2019). Individual Differences Correspond with Attention to the Eyes of White Versus Black Faces. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior43(4), “435-449.

The article demonstrates how non-Black perceivers respond more towards the eyes of White versus Black faces and made numerous more additions. First, this impact extended across two characteristic scenarios: trustworthiness and dominance. The authors argue that perhaps a tendency to concentrate mostly on the eyes of White than Black individuals originates in two important characteristics of impression management throughout face perception that has severe repercussions for discriminatory practices. Second, the paper revealed two individual variables which link to the amount of such a difference: internal motivation to react without prejudice (IMS) and implicit racial bias. IMS is negatively connected to this discrepancy, but unconscious racial prejudice is significantly connected to it. Besides IMS effects, the current investigation revealed that implicit racial prejudice significantly connects to race inequality in concentration to the eyes. These observations expand studies demonstrating greater levels of implicit racial prejudice connected to less pleasant nonverbal conduct toward Blacks and that White and Black appearances are considered different as a factor of implicit racial discrimination. Since the data reported by the paper are correlational, we cannot identify whether motive or prejudice causes racial inequalities in focus. Nevertheless, such discrepancies moderate a link between being motivated (vs not) to attention to Black faces and discriminatory conduct. Future motivation and bias modifications may address causality. The article claims IMS and unconscious racial prejudice are both linked to race inequality in focus to the eyes. This article is important in understanding the attention that is displayed when individuals see the whites and the black and can be used as literature for future review.

Kozlowski, D., Murray, D. S., Bell, A., Hulsey, W., Larivière, V., Monroe-White, T., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2022). I am avoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches. Plos one, 17(3), e0264270.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0264270

Kozlowski et al. (2022) conducted a research analysis that aimed to investigate the elimination of prejudice when inferring race using name-based approaches. According to the author, racial imbalance in academics is a well-known problem. A more equitable research system necessitates a quantitative understanding of systemic disparities based on race. However, few large-scale analyses have been undertaken due to unreliable information on the writers’ race. In this work, the author used self-declared race/ethnicity from the 2010 U.S. Census and mortgage applications to predict race from author names on scientific publications indexed in the Web of Science database. As one possible answer, the researchers turned to algorithms that use already existing data on writers, such as their names, to determine their perceived race. Racial bias can arise when an algorithm is applied without proper scrutiny. This sparked an interest in how the algorithm works and how it can be utilized in the future. The study assessed the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. According to the author, using a point to infer racial categories will lead to biased results since the familiar names of one racial group are more informative and hence more easily me2et the threshold than those of another. For a 0% threshold, the autos ratio of each race group’s proportion for multiple entries indicates fractional counting and the closest we can get to ground facts with the available information. This figure’s depiction of inferred races is affected by the assignment threshold used. Some names aren’t expressive enough when the barrier rises, resulting in fewer overall individuals returning. It’s rare for a family name to be in the 90 percentile of all words. Thus, the outcomes of this study indicate how race/ethnicity affects the validity of name-based inference and how threshold techniques underestimate Black authors while overestimating white authors. At the study’s conclusion, recommendations are made for avoiding biases that may exist. This report establishes the framework for future research into racial inequity in science that is methodical and bias-free.

Hameed, I., Ijaz, M. U., & Sabharwal, M. (2021). The Impact of Human Resources Environment and Organizational Identification on Employees’ Psychological Well-Being. Public Personnel Management, 00910260211001397.

In this article, Hameed claims that many leaders have found it difficult to address the issue of racism and discrimination in the workplace and they don’t know how to talk about race and at the same time might end up avoiding the issue. Studies have shown that black employees who feel free to talk about racial bias at the workplace are 13 times more likely to be disengaged than those who feel like talking about the same. There are several suggestions that leaders can use to have meaningful conversations about the issue of race in the workplace. For instance, it would be important to do research and relevant training. This means that it is essential to spend time researching relevant topics that concern racism.

Secondly, the article describes that it is very important to create a safe working environment for everyone in the workplace. An important component of a work environment that is supportive is psychological safety. Another important aspect is to ask questions with genuine curiosity. Questions will help in knowing the issues that may be affecting employees at the workplace and in that case, one will be able to know the measures to take to control the cases of racism from happening over and over again. Additionally, leaders should be able to listen carefully to everything being said in the organization. This is important since it helps in getting the fine details of the various issues that might be affecting individuals at the workplace. It is very essential to understand employees and actively listen to them over time in order to foster positive perceptions of leaders and employees of diverse backgrounds.

Weber, H. (2020). The educational divide over feelings about ethnic minorities: does more education really lead to less prejudice? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-20. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1810540

Weber examines whether educational expansion results in inter-ethnic attitudes towards minority communities, especially in Europe and North America. Weber contends that despite previous research claiming that more education leads to less prejudice among ethnic minorities, he finds no compelling evidence to prove these theories. In this study, Weber tracks a cohort of students from the age of 15 who transition from lower or intermediate schools to higher education institutions such as college in German and the attitudes they express towards Turks as compared to their fellow German students. The study findings show that in contrast to the stylized facts established in previous research, no link correlates higher education to low levels of prejudice against ethnic minorities. The author argues that higher education itself does not result in greater levels of tolerance; however, he adds that these findings cannot be validated by the data available. Weber provides some limitations to this study that future research can take into consideration. He states that the respondents already had descriptive differences towards views of ethnic minorities and thus it was impossible to capture the time when these differences unfolded. Weber suggests that the common practice in research that applies education as a control variable by default in explaining prejudice towards minorities must be reconsidered.

Henkel, T. G., Marion Jr, J. W., & Bourdeau, D. T. (2019). Project manager leadership behavior: Task-oriented versus relationship-oriented. Journal of Leadership Education18(2), 1.

The article talks about the management behavior of executives when handling a simulated project with a team concerning task-oriented and relationship-oriented conduct to efficiently realize the success of a project. The article could help in solving racism and bias against POC in leadership and employment. Project managers tend to be responsible for fulfilling various roles and meeting budgets and schedules to enhance the completion and success of projects. To effectively complete a project, managers need to have the needed skills and tools of quality project management. Some organizations tend to discriminate against POC when offering employment opportunities and leadership positions.

The article ascertains that project managers need to effectively lead teams, interact effectively, and influence other stakeholders in realizing the success of the project. Therefore, people should not be discriminated against considering their color and racial status. Organizations need to select project managers who are proactive and could lead to the success of the project. Two leadership behavior exist for project managers and they are leadership and relationship-oriented. Leadership conduct entails the degree to which a manager ascertains where the scheme would be fulfilled and the people who would be in the squad. Relationship conduct entails how the leader engages successfully in compound communication processes. Organizations need to select leaders with such behaviors and skills and avoid racial discrimination. POC with good project management qualities needs to be given equal opportunities for project management leadership positions. Racial discrimination often leads to the failure of projects as sometimes competent people tend to be denied chances of engaging in project management leadership.

Triana, M. D. C., Gu, P., Chapa, O., Richard, O., & Colella, A. (2021). Sixty years of discrimination and diversity research in human resource management: A review with suggestions for future research directions. Human Resource Management60(1), 145-204.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hrm.22052

The authors conduct a close study of articles obtained through bibliographic and manual searches to explain the extent of discrimination and diversity in human resource management (HRM). The authors acknowledge that since the passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the study of race, gender, and religion-based discrimination has gained popularity in recent literature. The use of discriminative language has declined with the increasing use of inclusive and diversity-focused HRM practices. These changes in the representation of diversity have also led to an increased number of women in the American labor force and leadership positions. However, the authors note that gender discrimination is still prevalent as evidenced by unequal pay, recruitment, and performance appraisal of women and minority populations in organizations. POC face discrimination in HRM practices and are often denied access to social support systems in an organization. Elderly workers also face workplace discrimination because they are perceived as incompetent and less innovative compared to young workers. Members of the LGBTQ communities also face discrimination in the recruitment and hiring process. The authors agree that diversity is important to eliminate discrimination in an organization.

The findings from the articles provide valuable insights into the extent of discrimination and diversity, offering the context for analyzing the degree of minorities’ discrimination in the US. The authors significantly broaden the populations considered targets of discrimination, which could be used to develop strategies for specifically eliminating discrimination and unfavorable perception among these groups. This article is an insightful tool for understanding the discrimination faced by POC in the workplace and how they may be perceived by their peers or coworkers.

Drake, C. Y., Stapleton, D. H., & Yasui, N. Y. (2019). Strengths-Based Undergraduate Rehabilitation Education Model: Preparing Minority Leaders for Diverse Workforce. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling50(2), 129-137.

Drake et al. (2019) discussed the strengths-based undergraduate rehabilitation education model (SBURE). The authors capitalized on their experience in teaching at a historically black university (HBCU). They created a program to suit students’ strengths and prepare the minority to take leadership positions—the black community composed of the minority who struggled in leadership positions in America. The article explains how to prepare minority leaders for a diverse workforce. The authors proposed the strength-based model (SBM) for URE to ensure concentrations, leadership roles, responsibilities, and rehabilitation core curriculum are incorporated in students’ learning programs. The pillars, through service learning, would create a competent, rehabilitated professional leader. Minority students of low socioeconomic status and less academically prepared require the support of the URE program to allow them to cultivate their strengths. The authors adopted two principles; personalizing the learning experience by practicing individualism and actively seeking out novel experiences to prepare minority students for leadership positions. Career exploration and development activities promote the evolution of competent rehabilitation professionals. This article is important because it demonstrates that black leads have struggled to obtain and maintain leadership positions. Moreover, this article does not explore the perception of the people working for the minority leaders, suggesting a gap in the literature.

Allen, K (2017). Black and Asian workers more likely to have insecure jobs, says TUC; employers and policymakers urged to tackle bias and racism in the workplace. The Guardian (London, England)

This article examines the systematic racism that affects Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) workers in the United Kingdom. These workers, according to the Trades Unions Congress (TUC), are more likely than white employees to have lower earnings and job instability. When compared to white workers with the same degree or training, BAME employees are more likely to be jobless or underemployed. The TUC is pushing for a ban on zero-hour contracts as well as increased transparency in corporations’ recruiting and management practices.

After reading this essay, it is clear that workplace racism exists outside of the United States and is not limited to black people. White employees are not aware of the difficulties faced by nonwhites in the workplace. We still live in a culture that prioritizes race above aptitude, which, if left unchecked, may, unfortunately, become the norm. I admire the TUC’s efforts to battle institutional racism, and I hope that the color of a person’s skin will soon be irrelevant in deciding whether or not they are paid equally or even given the chance to try.

Dewey, C. (2013). Creating an anti-racism environment in the workplace. Grand Rapids Business Journal, 31(5).

This article focuses on the efforts that have been made to fight racism in the workplace. The Institute for Healing Racism was formed by Robert Woodrick, a former D&W CEO in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He’s collaborating with the Grand Rapids Chamber of Commerce to introduce this program to area companies as a means to start a conversation about race in the workplace. They hold summits and seminars on racism to promote free discourse in an environment that does not label people as racists when they raise questions or discuss this delicate topic.

When it comes to confronting racism in the workplace, the author of the piece takes a different approach. This article discusses the importance of focusing on the solution. Racism exists, and that is a truth, but if we can find methods to face the elephant in the room rather than whispering about it in the shadows, we can see a world free of racial tension in the workplace. The Institute for Healing Racism, for example, is a solid start toward a much-needed solution to help stop workplace racism. This article was chosen for study because it applies to racial tension in the workplace, which is the main topic that will be addressed by this research.

Degree

The degree that is being pursued is the Doctorate of Education in Organizational Leadership with an emphasis in Organizational Development.

Research Focus

The focus of this research is to determine how employees view and value the leadership style, capacity, and effectiveness of leaders of different races, in the hope of developing suggestions for better leadership practices.

Feasibility of Research Problem

Utilizing qualitative methods to explore the lived experiences of employees who work for leaders of a different race, it is feasible for the researcher to identify what leadership characteristics and styles of leadership are valued in mixed-race situations, as there are many industrial and corporate situations where employees are managed by someone of a different race.

Problem Statement

It is presently unknown how employees view the leadership styles and capacities, as well as the leadership effectiveness, of leaders whose race or ethnicity is different from their own.

Need for Study

People of color (POCs) in leadership positions are negatively affected by institutionalized sociocultural variables between POC and White people (Allen, 2017; Haynes et al., 2020). These variables are manifested as racism which according to Woodson et al., (2020), can lead to poor physical, mental, and social health, not only among black males, but among children, families, and entire communities. For example, black males are often hindered from advancing in their careers due to the negative stereotypes of male males being aggressive, emotionally stunted, immature, or having too much sexual power (Woodson et al., 2020). Henkel et al., (2019) explain that racial discrimination can hinder and even deny POCs opportunities to advance in the workplace. It is imperative that racism in the workplace continues to be addressed, studied, and strategies implemented in the workplace to counteract these effects (Dewey, 2013). Furthermore, POC leaders are viewed with a critical lens, therefore their leadership styles are also viewed as such, however, there is li

Week 8 Question 1 and 2

Submission Ide: 8eff4b71-8223-48e3-8ab6-ddaa74ded4c6

14% SIMILARITY SCORE 22   CITATION ITEMS 55   GRAMMAR ISSUES 0   FEEDBACK COMMENT
Internet Source   4%
Institution   14%

Tyrone Olive

Dissertation Development

Summary

 6097 Words  

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 2

Leadership Styles in Black Male Leaders: Annotated Bibliography

Brooms, D. R., Franklin, W., Clark, J. S., & Smith, M. (2021). ‘It’s more than just mentoring’:

Critical mentoring Black and Latino males from college to the community. Race

 Self: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

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How Do Employees View the Leadership Styles and Effectiveness of Black Male Leaders?

Tyrone Olive

Grand Canyon University

RES-820: The Literature Landscape

Dr. Renee Winter

April 19, 2022

Ethnicity and Education, 24(2), 210–228.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2018.1538125

According to Brooms et al. (2021), a case study of 12 African American and Latino male

university students of Hispanic origin is presented, with particular emphasis on their

participation in a mentoring program and their leadership experiences. The stories of these

students provide context for a discussion of social capital and demonstrate the value of

mentoring in developing leadership skills. The article presents community engagement and

education as vehicles through which to enact changes and contrasts the stereotypical perception

of Black male adolescence as problematic. The paper describes how the availability of

educational opportunities and encouragement of student agency helps support minority students,

but many colleges are not organized in a way to facilitate this. These interactions facilitate

students’ self-image and future ambitions – the act of mentoring younger students demonstrated

to the individuals in the study that they possessed important value and social capital that made

them worthwhile. This also brought them closer to their communities and facilitated a sense of

purpose. The study acts as a foil to the traditional mentality of Black and Latino men as

domineering and troublesome, demonstrating that many of these individuals are eager to serve

their community and find the experience rewarding and validating.

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 3

Haynes, C., Taylor, L., Mobley, S. D., Jr., & Haywood, J. (2020). Existing and resisting: The

pedagogical realities of Black, critical men and women faculty. The Journal of Higher

Education, 91(5), 698–721. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2020.1731263

Haynes et al. (2020) describe how the many identities that an individual might relate to

including racial, ethnic, gender, sexual, and socioeconomic influence the experiences of Black

men in higher education. These identities are extremely influential during adolescence and other

developmental periods, continuing to play a role in the experiences of Black men as they

navigate the social, cultural, and psychological barriers associated with existing as a Black man

in higher education. Many Black men who achieve academic success may identify as intelligent,

educated, and insightful, despite these identities being in conflict with the historical perception of

Black men as incapable of such success that remains pervasive despite its inaccuracy.

A significant gap exists in the literature on faculty experiences in general, taking into

account factors such as race, gender, and ethnicity. Despite this, little is known about the unique

experiences of Black professors in higher education and how these are impacted by widespread

negative perceptions about the race. While historically Black colleges and universities have long

fought against stigmatization and acted as examples of Black excellence, it remains critical to

actively acknowledge the significance of Black faculty members in higher education as being

important role models in counteracting negative biases and as having a lived experience that is

affected by their race. These individuals can play an important role in improving student

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 Self: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

performance as well as their outlook and motivation.

Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M.,

Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a White man: A psychological barrier to

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 4

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 5

Robinson, D. (2020). “We got y’all!”: Leading and supporting Black male teacher trajectories.

Peabody Journal of Education, 95(5), 532–548.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956x.2020.1828688

Despite efforts towards increasing diversity in education, Black male instructors still only

make up less than 2% of all active teachers in the United States. This is unfortunate, as Black

men have been shown to act as critical role models to all students but especially to Black male

 Student: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

 Self: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

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 Self: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

 Passive voice: have been shown

conceptualizing Black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality

and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233

This research demonstrates the pitfalls associated with the movement towards increasing

representation in school leadership. Substantial efforts have been directed towards the goal of

leadership reflecting the demographics of the population they serve; however, many schools

have had difficulty implementing this initiative. Many K-12 schools are made up primarily of

students of color; for these schools it would realistically be appropriate to hire administrative

staff that reflects the student population demographics. Independent school leaders must be

aware of these factors when making hiring decisions, despite many career sponsors being

themselves White. It is important that leaders of color build trusting relationships with these

White sponsors in order to facilitate meaningful cross-cultural discourse and promote learning.

Women of color are particularly underrepresented among leadership in independent

schools, a statistic that has not significantly changed over the last two decades despite pressure

for gender and racial equality. This figure brings up concerns about the potential for career

advancement and barriers faced by people and especially women of color. Career sponsorship

has been proposed as a means to mitigate racial disparities and increased upward career mobility

for people of color. This process, executed well, can also lead to increased representation among

leadership positions. Sponsorship may help Black men in particular to overcome gender and

racial discrimination with respect to their position in education and allow them better

opportunities to advance towards leadership positions.

students. Average test scores are higher in classes with Black male instructors, and students show

increased discipline. For Black boys in particular, having a Black male instructor is critical to

intellectual and social development, yet these instructors are difficult to hire and retain. This is

likely due to stereotypes about the roles of both men and racial minorities in education. Black

men do not fit the stereotype of teachers and other educational staff, and often feel pressure to

conform to specific standards set by White school leaders. The study utilizes a qualitative

narrative approach to tell the stories of Black men in education, highlighting how school

administrators can better support these employees to improve their chance of success and ability

to advance their careers.

Woodson, A. N., Jones, J., & Gowder, S. (2020). ‘The world they’ve been born into’: Black male

teachers on Blackness, masculinities and leadership. Race Ethnicity and Education,

23(3), 307–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2019.1663964

Here, Woodson et al. (2020) consider how preconceptions about Black men affect their

efforts towards achieving greatness. Black men in teaching roles specifically face substantial

barriers to career advancement and even employment in general due to stereotypes about Black

masculinity. Significantly, despite many Black individuals having performed noteworthy

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 6

accomplishments, these have historically been overlooked. The authors describe the struggle

many Black men have experienced in order to get recognition for their accomplishments, and the

inequities associated with stereotypes about Black leadership.

The article uses a narrative framework to share the stories of several Black male social

studies teachers who are actively involved in interrogating and challenging the implications of

Black masculinity. The authors conclude that these individuals have a nuanced and occasionally

contradictory view of Black masculinity that is consistently evolving in response to their

experiences and actively challenging the institutionalized beliefs they have been brought up with.

The authors describe this internal debate as being especially critical for social studies teachers

who are tasked with educating the next generation about the history of systemic marginalization

and prejudices faced by people of color.

Randolph Jr, B. W., & Nisbett, K. (2019). Mentoring leaders across race and gender lines:

Insight from US Army officers. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 38(4),

16-25. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joe.21931

The journal article explores the strategies to overcome gender and racial bias in

organizational mentorship. Randolph and Nisbett emphasize that although mentoring is integral

to career development, organizations mentor leaders based on race and gender, hindering

minorities and women from leadership positions. The number of African Americans and women

in executive positions in organizations is limited. The authors’ theoretical framework holds that

mentoring cross-race and gender enable African American women to express themselves and

access career advancement opportunities. Biased mentorship leads to inadequate resources and

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reduced performance among minorities and women. Minorities and women in leadership

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 7

positions often feel excluded from organizational activities and events. For example, Randolph

and Nisbett note that while African Americans are mentored for about twenty minutes,

Caucasians are mentored for at least sixty minutes, indicating the disparities in mentorship.

Similarly, the authors note that the mentorship programs for women are not available, and in

organizations where they exist, these programs are insufficient. There are no women in executive

leadership positions to mentor their subordinates.

The journal article is a credible resource published in 2019 and offers current and reliable

insights from leaders from different leadership positions and career fields. The authors are

forthcoming in their research and supplement it with scholarly research from academic and

government sources. The insights from the research could be adapted to contemporary

organizations to eliminate bias against POC in leadership positions in America.

Motro, D., Evans, J. B., Ellis, A. P., & Benson III, L. (2021). Race and reactions to women’s

expressions of anger at work: Examining the effects of the “angry Black woman”

stereotype. Journal of Applied Psychology.

The article explores significant ways which can be used to address the issue of bias and

racism against black men in leadership positions and employment. According to the authors, the

impressions that people have on a group of individuals depend on aspects such as the stereotypes

that are formed about them and the traits that they observe in them. Therefore, these aspects have

been fundamental in the perspectives formed about the abilities of black men as employees and

leaders of organizations. For example, their identification as highly illiterate people reduces their

chances of being selected for leadership positions. Subsequently, the categorization of black

individuals as being too loud or forceful creates an impression that they cannot be effective

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 8

leaders. The authors study different elements that can be used to determine the effectiveness of

individuals as employees and leaders in an organization that can be used to address the issue of

racism against black men in leadership and employment. These factors include evaluation of the

performance of the black men in enterprises, the ability to control their emotions, and their

capabilities when given leadership positions.

The article is relevant to the process of examining and looking for solutions to the

struggles of black men in leadership positions in America because it highlights the reasons why

black men and other POC are discriminated against in workplaces and denied leadership

positions in various organizations and agencies. Subsequently, it provides significant strategies

 Three successive sentences begin wit…: The

 Spelling mistake: Motro  Motor

 Student: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

 people + 3rd person verb: reduces

that can be used to investigate and prove that the assumptions that are made about black men and

other POC and their capabilities as leaders and employees are untrue, hence addressing the issue

by acknowledging that they are competent workers who can serve effectively in different

organizational positions, including leadership.

Cassidy, B. S., Harding, S. M., Hsu, K. Y., & Krendl, A. C. (2019). Individual Differences

Correspond with Attention to the Eyes of White Versus Black Faces. Journal of

Nonverbal Behavior, 43(4), “435-449.

The article demonstrates how non-Black people react more positively to White people’s

eyes than to Black people, as well as several additional updates. Trustworthiness and dominance

were the first areas to feel the effects of this change. White people’s eyes are preferred above

black people’s, according to study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

A second finding was that the amount of the disparity may be attributed to both IMS (internal

motivation for non-prejudice) and unconscious racial bias. Despite the fact that IMS is negatively

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 9

correlated with this difference, unintentional racism has a strong association with it.

Additionally, the current study found a strong correlation between race discrepancy in ocular

attention and unconscious racial bias. Studies have shown that implicit racial prejudice is linked

to less pleasant nonverbal behaviour toward Blacks, and that White and Black looks are

perceived different as a component in the perception of implicit racial bias. We can’t tell from the

correlational nature of the data whether racial discrepancies in attention are the result of purpose

or prejudice. It’s important to remember that disparities in motivation to pay attention to African-

Americans’ appearance and discriminatory behavior are not mutually exclusive. Future changes

in motive and prejudice may address the issue of causation. It is claimed in the paper that IMS

and unintentional racial bias are both associated to racial disparities in ocular focus. If you’re

interested in learning how people react to seeing white and black people together, this article is a

great resource.

Kozlowski, D., Murray, D. S., Bell, A., Hulsey, W., Larivière, V., Monroe-White, T., &

Sugimoto, C. R. (2022). I am avoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches.

Plos one, 17(3), e0264270.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0264270

Name-based strategies for inferring racial identity are the subject of an investigation by

Kozlowski and colleagues (2022). As stated by the author, academics are plagued by a lack of

diversity. Systemic racial disparities must be quantified for a more equitable research system.

The lack of adequate data on the race of the authors has prevented many comprehensive

assessments from being carried out. Based on self-reported race/ethnicity from 2010 census data

and mortgage application data, this study analyzed author names in Web of Science databases to

predict race. Algorithms that examine data about writers, such as their names and ethnicity, were

 Student: Submitted to Grand Canyon University

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DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 10

used as a viable answer by academics. Using an algorithm without proper scrutiny may lead to

racial bias. This sparked interest in the algorithm’s workings and prospective uses. The

researchers looked at the effects of imputation, thresholds, and continuous distributions, as well

as given names and family names. This study’s findings were shown to be skewed since the well-

known names of one ethnic group are more informational and so simpler to achieve the threshold

than those of another, as per the author’s assertions. We can only get as near to ground truth as

possible with this data by using an autos ratio that accounts for fractional counting of each race

group’s proportion of multiple entries. This figure’s portrayal of inferred races is affected by the

assignment threshold. People are less likely to return when the barrier is raised since some names

aren’t expressive enough. There are very few family names in the top 10% of all keywords. This

study found that name-based inference undervalues Black authors while overvaluing white

authors when race/ethnicity is taken into account. At the end of the study, the authors provide

advice on how to avoid biases like these. The findings of this study establish the framework for

future research into scientific bias and racial injustice.

Hameed, I., Ijaz, M. U., & Sabharwal, M. (2021). The Impact of Human Resources

Environment and Organizational Identification on Employees’ Psychological Well-Being. Public

Personnel Management, 00910260211001397.

In this article, Hameed claims that many leaders have found it difficult to address the issue

of racism and discrimination in the workplace and they don’t know how to talk about race and at

the same time might end up avoiding the issue. Studies have shown that black employees who feel

free to talk about racial bias at the workplace are 13 times more likely to be disengaged than those

who feel like talking about the same. There are several suggestions that leaders can use to have

meaningful conversations about the issue of race in the workplace. For instance, it would be

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 11

important to do research and relevant training. This means that it is essential to spend time

researching relevant topics that concern racism.

Secondly, the article describes that it is very important to create a safe working

environment for everyone in the workplace. An important component of a work environment that

is supportive is psychological safety. Another important aspect is to ask questions with genuine

curiosity. Questions will help in knowing the issues that may be affecting employees at the

workplace and in that case, one will be able to know the measures to take to control the cases of

racism from happening over and over again. Additionally, leaders should be able to listen carefully

to everything being said in the organization. This is important since it helps in getting the fine

details of the various issues that might be affecting individuals at the workplace. It is very essential

to understand employees and actively listen to them over time in order to foster positive

perceptions of leaders and employees of diverse backgrounds.

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Weber, H. (2020). The educational divide over feelings about ethnic minorities: does more

education really lead to less prejudice? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-20.

DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1810540

Weber examines whether educational expansion results in inter-ethnic attitudes towards

minority communities, especially in Europe and North America. Weber contends that despite

previous research claiming that more education leads to less prejudice among ethnic minorities,

he finds no compelling evidence to prove these theories. In this study, Weber tracks a cohort of

students from the age of 15 who transition from lower or intermediate schools to higher

education institutions such as college in German and the attitudes they express towards Turks as

compared to their fellow German students. The study findings show that in contrast to the

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 12

stylized facts established in previous research, no link correlates higher education to low levels

of prejudice against ethnic minorities. The author argues that higher education itself does not

result in greater levels of tolerance; however, he adds that these findings cannot be validated by

the data available. Weber points out some of the study’s shortcomings that should be taken into

account by future researchers. This study was unable to capture the moment when these

discrepancies emerged since the respondents had already expressed their views on ethnic

minorities in a descriptive manner. According to Weber, researchers should rethink the current

practice of using education as a control variable by default when trying to explain prejudice

towards minorities.

Henkel, T. G., Marion Jr, J. W., & Bourdeau, D. T. (2019). Project manager leadership behavior:

Task-oriented versus relationship-oriented. Journal of Leadership Education, 18(2), 1.

The article talks about the management behavior of executives when handling a

simulated project with a team concerning task-oriented and relationship-oriented conduct to

efficiently realize the success of a project. The article could help in solving racism and bias

against POC in leadership and employment. Project managers tend to be responsible for fulfilling

various roles and meeting budgets and schedules to enhance the completion and success of

projects. To effectively complete a project, managers need to have the needed skills and tools of

quality project management. Some organizations tend to discriminate against POC when offering

employment opportunities and leadership positions.

The article ascertains that project managers need to effectively lead teams, interact

effectively, and influence other stakeholders in realizing the success of the project. Therefore,

people should not be discriminated against considering their color and racial status.

Organizations need to select project managers who are proactive and could lead to the success of

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 13

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the project. Two leadership behavior exist for project managers and they are leadership and

relationship-oriented. Leadership conduct entails the degree to which a manager ascertains where

the scheme would be fulfilled and the people who would be in the squad. Relationship conduct

entails how the leader engages successfully in compound communication processes.

Organizations need to select leaders with such behaviors and skills and avoid racial

discrimination. POC with good project management qualities needs to be given equal

opportunities for project management leadership positions. Racial discrimination often leads to

the failure of projects as sometimes competent people tend to be denied chances of engaging in

project management leadership.

Triana, M. D. C., Gu, P., Chapa, O., Richard, O., & Colella, A. (2021). Sixty years of

discrimination and diversity research in human resource management: A review with

suggestions for future research directions. Human Resource Management, 60(1), 145-

204. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hrm.22052

Using a combination of manual and bibliographic research, the authors examine the

prevalence of prejudice and diversity in HR management (HRM). It has become increasingly

common in recent literature to analyze race, gender and religion-based discrimination after the

passing of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The use of

discriminative language has declined with the increasing use of inclusive and diversity-focused

HRM practices. These changes in the representation of diversity have also led to an increased

number of women in the American labor force and leadership positions. However, the authors

note that gender discrimination is still prevalent as evidenced by unequal pay, recruitment, and

performance appraisal of women and minority populations in organizations. POC face

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 14

discrimination in HRM practices and are often denied access to social support systems in an

organization. Elderly workers also face workplace discrimination because they are perceived as

incompetent and less innovative compared to young workers. Members of the LGBTQ

communities also face discrimination in the recruitment and hiring process. The authors agree

that diversity is important to eliminate discrimination in an organization.

The findings from the articles provide valuable insights into the extent of discrimination

and diversity, offering the context for analyzing the degree of minorities’ discrimination in the

US. The authors significantly broaden the populations considered targets of discrimination,

which could be used to develop strategies for specifically eliminating discrimination and

unfavorable perception among these groups. This article is an insightful tool for understanding

the discrimination faced by POC in the workplace and how they may be perceived by their peers

or coworkers.

Drake, C. Y., Stapleton, D. H., & Yasui, N. Y. (2019). Strengths-Based Undergraduate

Rehabilitation Education Model: Preparing Minority Leaders for Diverse

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Workforce. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 50(2), 129-137.

Drake et al. (2019) presented the strengths-based undergraduate rehabilitation education

paradigm (SBURE) (SBURE). The writers relied on their expertise in teaching at a historically

black institution (HBCU) (HBCU). They created a program to suit students’ strengths and

prepare the minority to take leadership positions—the black community composed of the

minority who struggled in leadership positions in America. The article explains how to prepare

minority leaders for a diverse workforce. The authors proposed the strength-based model (SBM)

for URE to ensure concentrations, leadership roles, responsibilities, and rehabilitation core

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 15

curriculum are incorporated in students’ learning programs. The pillars, through service learning,

would create a competent, rehabilitated professional leader. Minority students of low

socioeconomic status and less academically prepared require the support of the URE program to

allow them to cultivate their strengths. The authors adopted two principles; personalizing the

learning experience by practicing individualism and actively seeking out novel experiences to

prepare minority students for leadership positions. Career exploration and development activities

promote the evolut

Week 8 Question 1 and 2

Week 8 QUESTION 1- MINIMUM OF 150 WORDS NO MORE THAN 300 WORDS AND MAKE SURE TO REFERENCE A PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE- 

  

Doctoral learners commonly exert intense effort in choosing a topic; it simply requires a significant amount of time and focused effort reading literature from one or more fields of study. Looking back at the readings presented in this course and reflecting on the ideas presented there including the three  new dissertation concepts introduced: Need for Study, Significance, and Theoretical Framework, how does reading literature and in particular reading a literature review section contribute to formulating a clearer understanding of these three concepts? Explain.

WEEK 8 QUESTION 2- MINIMUM OF 150 WORDS NO MORE THAN 300 WORDS AND MAKE SURE TO REFERENCE A PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE- 

   

As a PHD Student as you move forward into your content-specific courses, how can a PHD Student expand their list of resources in preparation for defending their topic selection at their first residency? How will this work eventually develop into their research proposal? What is a good plan to use PHD courses to continue to develop your literature review? Explain.

ANSWER THIS QUESTION 150 WORDS 

use attached article for source to provide cited reference 

Week 8 Question 1 And 2

 Week 8 – MINIMUM OF 150 WORDS NO MORE THAN 300 WORDS AND MAKE SURE TO REFERENCE A PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE- 

 

ANSWER THIS QUESTION  NO LESS 150 WORDS 

EACH QUESTION NEEDS THEIR REFERENCES IN APA 7TH EDITION FORMAT 

REFERENCES NEED TO BE UNDER THE QUESTION – ANSWER QUESTIONS SEPERATELY

use attached article for source to provide cited reference 

Week 8 Question 1 and 2

By Stacey Bridges, Charles Banaszewski, and Seanan Kelly

Looking Back, Looking Forward: The Integrated Literature Review

Essential Questions

1. What kinds of changes does a doctoral learner need to make to be successful in a doctoral program?

2. What does it mean for a doctoral learner to be engaged?

3. What is the purpose of Chapter 2 of the dissertation?

4. What are the sections of Chapter 2 of the dissertation?

Looking Back
RES-815 and RES-820 were designed to provide Grand Canyon University (GCU) doctoral learners basic skills necessary to transition to

independent researchers on the doctoral journey. In RES-815, doctoral learners were presented with information about choosing a suitable topic

that is aligned with the program of study in which the learner is enrolled. They learned what quali�es as a feasible research topic to investigate for

the dissertation and were introduced to how to conceptualize the �rst stages of a problem statement. In RES-820, alignment of a topic to the degree

program, feasibility of a study, and development of problem statements were reinforced and new concepts such as the need for a study, problem

spaces, theoretical framework, and signi�cance of the study were introduced. It is imperative that learners take the lessons learned in these

courses and continue to develop vital researcher skills independently to progress on the doctoral journey.

In RES-820, learners were provided with valuable information not only about how to read literature, but also about the intricacies of writing a

dissertation literature review. As a result, doctoral learners should take with them several key ideas for use in completion of the dissertation:

To evaluate the quality of an existing literature review, examine authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and relevance to a research project.

The doctoral dissertation requires signi�cant amounts of independent reading on the research topic. It is important to apply strategies of

scholarly reading to locate and evaluate literary and empirical articles for the dissertation. This allows the doctoral researcher to become

familiar with the scope of the topic and to identify problem spaces within the existing literature on the topic that become the source of the

dissertation research.

Synthesis is the basis of the dissertation and a necessary skill to articulate and subsequently reframe the prior research to include original

thoughts and new knowledge. The doctoral researcher presents the synthesis of the existing research in the dissertation literature review.

To determine whether a quantitative or qualitative research design is most appropriate for the proposed research topic, learners must discern

the features of quantitative and qualitative research and identify quantitative and qualitative research articles. Learners intending to

examine large samples in order to quantify outcomes and to con�rm or support a hypothesis should familiarize themselves with quantitative

research frameworks. Learners intending to explore the experiences of a small group of participants in order to gain an in-depth, rich

understanding of phenomena should familiarize themselves with qualitative research frameworks.

Surveying the literature helps a learner become an expert in the chosen �eld of study and enables the learner to recognize trends in the

research literature. This awareness helps learners �nd existing problem spaces that may or may not be used to defend the viability of the

potential dissertation research project. It is a way to help learners establish boundaries for the literature review and to guide decisions

regarding what to include and what to exclude.

Scholarly argumentation provides a vehicle for justifying value and contribution of new and original research and knowledge.

Doctoral learners should be able to review literature and continue to develop a document that defends the need for a study, recognizes the

signi�cance of a study, and delves into possible theoretical frameworks that may be applied to their dissertation projects.

Vital to the success of all doctoral learners is the ability to internalize the lessons provided in the �rst two foundational courses. While these

courses provided opportunities to learn and practice research skills, it will be incumbent on each learner to continue to develop the dissertation

topic independently while moving through the content and research coursework. Moving forward, learners should begin to assume the role of a

researcher and practice these skills while working independently toward successfully developing a proposal that will lead to a dissertation project.

Looking Forward
Completing a doctoral degree requires high levels of persistence, resilience, and �exibility. The doctoral journey can be very intense and emotional

at times. During the program, one transitions from learner to independent learner while also becoming a researcher. Taking on the role of

researcher will be challenging at times because learners are required to move from a state of dependence to one of independence. A learner will

have to conduct a comprehensive review of the literature and select articles that will identify problem spaces as well as develop a framework that

will guide the dissertation research project. Most of this process will be completed without the aid of instructors evaluating the quality of the

sources, but the tools learned in this course should help a doctoral learner move into the research process.

Doctoral Dispositions

Upon entry to the GCU doctoral program, individuals quickly become aware of the behavioral, attitudinal, and cognitive expectations of a doctoral

learner which the GCU College of Doctoral Studies describes as doctoral learner dispositions. At GCU, doctoral learners:

Are dedicated scholar-practitioners who are passionate about their �eld and seek to become leaders in the disciplines and communities they

serve;

Commit to producing scholarly research, which is ethical and academically honest;

Are self-directed, able to self-motivate toward their continued pursuit of knowledge, and responsible for their own learning;

Engage in re�ective scholarly practice, asking questions of both self and others;

Actively communicate effectively and professionally with peers, faculty, and college staff;

Are accountable for the quality and academic integrity of their own scholarship and research agenda;

Are receptive to feedback, analysis, and constructive critique from peers and faculty within their scholarly community; and

Demonstrate how to design, execute, and present independent, academically rigorous research that adds to the body of knowledge within

their discipline.

The demonstration of these dispositions will facilitate the transformation from knowledge consumer to knowledge creator.

Developing as Researcher

During the program, doctoral learners take steps toward transitioning into a researcher mindset. This course introduces the �rst few steps needed

to become an ef�cient researcher. The �rst step is to develop subject matter expertise by reading deeply and broadly in the literature. The second

step is to be able to evaluate scholarly sources and use the literature to identify a problem space. The third step is to provide a framework to support

the investigation of the problem space. The fourth step is to establish the signi�cance of the study. The development of a dissertation literature

review can help a researcher achieve each of these steps.

The transition to an independent researcher is a challenging but necessary process for the GCU doctoral learner. Doctoral learners bear a greater

responsibility for de�ning the scope of their educational experiences than do undergraduate and master’s students. Attaining a doctoral degree

requires both initiative and creativity and is dependent on the creation of original research by a learner in the discipline. A GCU doctoral learner

will become a creator of new knowledge, which requires being proactive, self-directed, and intrinsically motivated in order to meet GCU milestone

expectations toward graduation.

Dissertation Process and Timeline

The dissertation is the de�ning element of the doctoral journey as well as one the most respected achievements in academe. New doctoral learners

often hold the dissertation in equal measures of fear, awe, and excitement. At GCU, the primary goal of the integrated dissertation process is to

remove the fear, demystify the awe, and leave the excitement untouched. To achieve that goal, the College of Doctoral Studies has broken up the

intensive and often complicated work of building a dissertation into manageable pieces integrated throughout the curriculum. Additionally, GCU

has created a detailed “Dissertation Milestone Guide” and comprehensive set of dissertation templates to provide learners with a clear, transparent

set of steps for successfully completing their dissertations. Doctoral learners can �nd the “Dissertation Milestone Guide” on the DC Network and

should become familiar with the expectations of the dissertation process.

Figure 8.1

GCU Research Intensive Program

The Integrated Literature Review
The literature review should be thought of as a process comprised of multiple examinations of the literature on a topic culminating as a �nished

product that appears in a dissertation. When conducting a literature review, the researcher grounds the study in the existing body of knowledge.

The process can be thought of as conversing with other experts in the �eld regarding the subject matter. The area in the dissertation known as the

“Review of the Literature” is an organized treatment of information and studies related to the topic that includes discussion of how the proposed

topic is situated within the knowledgebase and makes the case for why a problem space exists in the literature.

The �rst three chapters of the dissertation comprise the dissertation proposal. Chapter 1 is the “Introduction to the Study,” Chapter 2 is the

“Literature Review,” and Chapter 3 is the “Methodology.” GCU recommends that learners begin by working on Chapter 2 �rst because the literature

review requires evidence of a problem space, and a need for the study leads to the development of the problem statement, which is the heart of the

entire dissertation. Thus, the strength of the entire dissertation holistically depends on the strength of Chapter 2.

The Sections of Chapter 2
The overarching purpose behind the literature review rests on building a compelling argument justifying the need for a study and identifying a

conceptual framework for conducting the study. Chapter 2 of a dissertation is an argument to justify the reasons the researcher will conduct the

study. Because Chapter 2 serves as the foundation of the argument for the entire dissertation, the other chapters emanate from it. A good

researcher will keep this in mind while preparing each section of the literature review and moving from surveying to synthesizing literature by

shaping an initial draft of Chapter 2 and revising throughout the program.

Chapter 2, the literature review, includes six sections: the introduction to the chapter and background to the problem, identi�cation of the problem

space, theoretical foundations, review of the literature, problem statement, and summary. GCU has separate dissertation templates for quantitative

and qualitive studies. While similar, the two templates have some differences based on methodology. These templates can be found on the DC

Network. For the sake of brevity only the quantitative template is presented below.

The Introduction to the Chapter and Background to the Problem

In this chapter, the learner presents the theoretical framework for the study and develops the topic and speci�c research problem. In order to

perform signi�cant dissertation research, the learner must �rst understand the literature related to the research focus. A well-articulated, thorough

literature review provides the foundation for a substantial, contributory dissertation. The purpose of Chapter 2 is for the learner to develop a well-

documented argument for the selection of the research topic, and formulation of the problem statement. A literature review should be a synthesis

of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. It is not an expanded annotated bibliography or a summary of

research articles related to the topic. It is intended to re�ect a deep understanding of scholarly sources and empirical literature articles that de�ne

what needs to be understood and studied.

The learner uses the literature review to place the research focus into context by analyzing and discussing the existing body of knowledge. In

doing so, the researcher is effectively telling the reader everything that is known, or everything that has been discovered in research about that

focus, and what still needs to be understood in terms of the problems addressed, approaches used, and results produced. As a piece of writing, the

literature review must convey to the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic and build an argument in support of the

research problem.

In this section, the learner describes the overall topic to be investigated and outlines the approach taken for the literature review and the evolution

of the problem based on the “problem space” as identi�ed in the literature from its origination to its current form, that is, speci�cally by trends in

the literature. The learner must make sure the “Introduction to the Chapter” and “Background to the Problem” sections address all required criteria

listed in the rubric shown in Table 8.1. Learners may want to create a subsection title for the “Introduction to the Chapter” section and for the

“Background to the Problem” section to provide clarity for the reader.

Table 8.1

Criteria Table for Introduction and Background

Identi�cation of the Problem Space

All learners must identify how they will focus their research to produce an original dissertation. This involves understanding the difference

between what is known in a �eld of research and what is not yet understood. This process involves reading relevant and appropriate literature and

becoming deeply familiar with how a speci�c topic has been previously studied, where and how the research is trending, and what approaches

have been used to previously examine a problem in order to identify what still needs to be understood.

The topic, the problem statements that other researchers have de�ned, and the approaches that other researchers have taken, all constitute the

“problem space” for a study. The problem space is a way to help you establish some boundaries for the literature review so that you have a clear

idea of what to include and what to exclude. What needs to be understood is the result of the analysis of the literature within the problem space,

and the problem statement expresses how the proposed study will address what needs to be understood.

Becoming deeply familiar with how a speci�c topic has been previously studied involves reading and synthesizing literature related to the problem

space, focusing in particular on research published within the past �ve years. Lack of research on a topic, or personal interest in an unresearched

topic, are not suf�cient reasons to conduct research or focus a dissertation. Just because something has not been researched previously does not

mean it should be or needs to be examined today. Therefore, the learner must be well read on their topic to identify and articulate ways their study

will add to the existing body of knowledge on the topic.

Problems Based in Practice

Practice-based research may initially de�ne the problem based in a practice within an organization or setting; however, the approach to

investigating the problem needs to follow scholarly research procedures. This means the problem space needs to include literature that is scholarly

in nature so that the proposed dissertation research will advance knowledge and practice. The literature review should include peer-reviewed

articles from research-based journals as well as journals focused on professional practice and research-based industry journals.

There are a variety of ways to synthesize the literature. Below are examples of steps that may be used:

First, explore original literature on the topic. The topic should focus on an issue pertinent to the learner’s program of study to determine what

has been discovered and what still needs to be understood.

Second, while exploring the original literature, identify the broad topics and problems researched. Explore the evolution of the research on

the problem. How did the focus change? What �ndings emerged from these studies?

Third, describe the research from the past 2 to 3 years to understand what has been discovered, what problems have been examined, and

what still needs to be understood. Discuss the trends and themes that emerged. Studies that were published within the past 2–3 years will

still be relevant (with the past 5 years) at the point of graduation.

Note: Clarifying a problem space for dissertation study should primarily come from empirical-research literature or studies dated

within 3 to 5 years of the learner’s projected graduation date. This is a recommendation, not a rule.

Dissertations can be used in the literature review; however, one must supplement dissertation citations with citations from other peer-

reviewed research on the topic.

Fourth, de�ne the topic and problem statement by synthesizing the recent studies, including trends, and de�ne what still needs to be

understood.

While the verbiage in this section highlights a set of steps designed to help GCU doctoral learners identify what still needs to be understood for

their study, there are other methods that can be used. These include replication studies, recommendations for future research from prior studies

and literature reviews, adding to a broadly researched area through clearly targeted research, reframing problems, and synthesizing areas of

research to de�ne a new or innovative area of research. This section must clearly identify the speci�c sources that form the basis for what will

become the problem for the study.

In the last part of this section, the learner will describe how the study is situated within the problem space established in the previous discussion

within this section. The learner should also describe how the study may add to the body of literature. Finally, the learner should discuss any

potential practical or professional applications that might occur as an outcome or application of the study.

Table 8.2

Criteria Table for Identi�cation of the Problem Space

Theoretical Foundations

In this section, the learner identi�es and discusses the theory(ies), or model(s), that provide the foundation for the research study. The learner also

provides an explanation of how the problem under investigation relates to the theory or model. The seminal source for each theory or model

presented in this section should be identi�ed and described.

For a quantitative study, the theory(ies) or models(s) guide the development of the research question(s), justify what is being measured (variables),

and describe how those variables are related. The learner should include a discussion of how the research question(s) align with the respective

theory(ies) or model(s) and illustrate how the study �ts within the prior research based on the theory(ies) or model(s).

For a qualitative study, the theory(ies) or models(s) guide the research question(s), justify what is being investigated, and describe how the

phenomenon is related to the research questions. The learner should include a discussion of how the research question(s) align with the respective

theory(ies) or model(s) and illustrate how the study �ts within the prior research based on the theory(ies) or model(s).

The learner should cite references re�ective of the foundational, historical, and current literature in the �eld. Seminal works are usually more than

5 years old; it is important to include those, as well as relevant, more recent literature on the theory. Overall, the presentation in this section should

re�ect that the learner understands the theory or model and its relevance to the proposed study. The learner’s discussion should also re�ect

knowledge and familiarity with the historical development of the theory.

Table 8.3

Criteria Table for Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

Review of the Literature

In this section, the learner provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the research topic. The “Review of the Literature”

section includes themes, trends, and con�icts in research methodology, design, and �ndings. The learner provides a synthesis of the existing

literature, examines the contributions of the literature related to the topic, and discusses the methodological approaches used for the research

based on related empirical studies. Through this synthesis, the learner applies this information to de�ne what needs to be studied as well as to the

creation of the plan and approach for their study.

The learner must provide citations for all ideas, concepts, and perspectives. The learner’s personal opinions or perspectives are not included. The

“Review of the Literature” section should be approximately 30 pages (30 pages re�ects a typical literature review in length and is a

recommendation not a rule); however, a well-written, comprehensive literature review will likely exceed this minimum requirement. The literature

review must be continuously updated throughout the dissertation research and writing process. In order to ensure a current, relevant literature

review, the majority of references in Chapter 2 (approximately 75%) should be within the past 5 years. This is a recommendation, not a hard, fast

rule, as the learner, chair and content expert should evaluate the overall quality and relevance of scholarly sources presented in this chapter. Other

requirements for the literature review include:

The learner will describe each research variable in the study discussing the prior empirical research that has examined the variable(s) and

the relationship between variables.

The learner will discuss the various methodologies and designs that have been used to research topics related to the study. The learner uses

this information to justify the design in Chapter 3.

The learner will discuss the instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data in existing literature. The learner then uses this

information to argue for the appropriateness of the dissertation’s instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data in Chapter 3.

The learner will discuss and synthesize studies related to the dissertation topic. This may include (1) studies describing and/or relating the

variables, (2) studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes, (3) studies on the instruments used to collect data, (4)

studies on the broad population for the study, and/or (5) studies similar to the study. The themes presented, and research studies discussed

and synthesized in the “Review of the Literature” section demonstrates a deep understanding of all aspects of the research topic. The set of

topics discussed in the “Review of the Literature’ section must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the broad area in which the

research topic exists.

The learner will discuss and synthesize the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to the

study. It should provide discussion of existing instrumentation to measure variables to later argue, in Chapter 3, for selected instrument for

the study. This section must argue the appropriateness of the dissertation’s instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data.

Empirical research must be used to justify the selection of instrument(s).

For each major section in the “Review of the Literature,” the learner will include an introductory paragraph that explains why the particular

topic was explored relative to the dissertation topic.

For each major section in the “Review of the Literature,” the learner will include a summary paragraph(s) that (1) compares and contrasts

alternative perspectives on the topic, (2) provides a synthesis of the themes relative to the research topic discussed that emerged from the

literature, (3) discusses data from the various studies, and (4) identi�es how themes are relevant to the dissertation topic.

The types of references that may be used in the literature review include empirical articles, peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles, a

limited number of dissertations (no more than 5 recommended), and books (no more than 5–10 recommended) that present cutting-edge

views on a topic, are research based, or are seminal works.

The learner will expand on and provide additional arguments for what still needs to be understood (the need for the study) that was de�ned

in the “Background of the Problem” section.

The learner may organize the body of a literature review in a variety of ways depending on the nature of the research. However, the approach taken

to the organization and �ow of the topics for the “Review of the Literature” section must be clearly explained and included in an introductory

section of “Review of the Literature. Learners will work with the committee to determine the best way to organize this section of Chapter 2.

Chapter 2 can be particularly challenging with regard to APA format for citations and quotations. The learner should refer to the APA manual

frequently to make sure citations are formatted properly. It is critical that each in-text citation is appropriately listed in the References section.

Incorrectly citing and referencing sources is a serious scholarly and ethical violation, particularly when writing a dissertation. As an emerging

scholar, learners must demonstrate the capability and responsibility to properly cite and reference every single source referenced in the literature

review and throughout the dissertation. Note that all in-text citations within parentheses must be listed in alphabetical order with semicolons

between each citation (e.g., Barzum & Gaft, 1992; Calabore, 2006; Hacke, Somer, Jane, & Rosene, 2008; Marton, 2010; Nosk, 1943; Squares & Krane,

1995; Strump & Whithe, 1979).

In general, “small quotes,” or quotes of less than about 40 words should be avoided. The learner should paraphrase in almost all situations except

where the actual words in the quote have signi�cance. For example, we would not paraphrase, “Four score and seven years ago…” If such a quote is

used, incorporate it into the narrative and enclose it with double quotation marks. The in-text citation is included after the �nal punctuation mark

and the �nal punctuation mark in quoted text should be placed inside the quotation mark.

For a quote within a quote, use a set of single quotation marks. Here is an example of a direct quote within a quote integrated into the narrative. In

the classic introspective autobiography, The Memoirs of a Super�uous Man, one reads that, “one never knows when or where the spirit’s breath

will rest…. ‘The spirit breathes where it will,’ said the Santissimo Salvatore, ‘and thou hearest the sound thereof, but cannot tell whence it cometh or

whither it goeth.'” (Nock, 1943, p. 187)

As a rule, if a quote comprises 40 or more words, display this material as a freestanding block quote. Start formal block quotes on a new line. They

are indented 0.5 inches in from the left margin. The entire block quote is double-spaced. Quotation marks are not used with formal block quotes.

The in-text citation is included after the �nal punctuation mark. Below is an example of a block quote: In an important biography, The First

American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, historian H. W. Brands wrote:

In February 1731, Franklin became a Freemason. Shortly thereafter, he volunteered to draft the bylaws for the embryonic local chapter,

named for St. John the Baptist; upon acceptance of the bylaws, he was elected Warden and subsequently Master of the Lodge. Within three

years, he became Grandmaster of all of Pennsylvania’s Masons. Not unforeseeable he—indeed, this was much of the purpose of

membership for everyone involved—his fellow Masons sent business Franklin’s way. In 1734 he printed The Constitutions, the �rst

formerly sponsored Masonic book in America; he derived additional [printing] work from his brethren on an unsponsored basis. (Brands,

2000, p. 113)

Table 8.4

Criteria Table for Review of the Literature

Problem Statement

The learner should begin the “Problem Statement” section with a declarative problem statement based on the “Identi�cation of Problem Space” and

“Review of the Literature” sections. Some examples of how to phrase a problem statement include:

It is not known if and to what degree/extent…

Based on what is known in literature, _____ is still unknown.

While the literature indicates ____________, it is not known in (school/district/organization/community) if __________.

Keep in mind that problem statements can be presented in a variety of ways that re�ects what needs to be understood within the parameters

established by the problem space. Once the problem statement is established, for alignment purposes, it should be worded exactly as presented in

this section when it is restated in other chapters.

This section then describes the general population affected by the problem along with the importance, scope or opportunity for the problem, and

the importance of addressing the problem. Questions to consider when writing the problem include:

1. What still needs to be understood that this problem statement addresses?

2. What is the real issue that is affecting society, learners, local organizations, or businesses and/or professional practice?

3. At what frequency is the problem occurring?

4. Why has the problem not been well understood in the past?

5. What does the literature and research say about the problem that can and should be ad