Week 8 Question 1 and 2
DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1
DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 2
Do Black Women Change Social Identity to Progress into Leadership Positions?
Grand Canyon University
RES 820: The Literature Landscape
Dr. Renee Winter
April 18, 2022
Black Women in Leadership- Annotated Bibliographies
Allen, A. (2020). The Black woman’s math problem: Exploring the resilience of Black women who lead in the United States federal government. Journal of African American Studies, 24(4), 530–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-020-09498-z
Allen (2020) describes the resilience of Black women who have taken on leadership positions in the United States despite institutional racism and years of injustice The paper focuses specifically on the U.S. history of White men as the dominant figures in government positions and the political arena as a whole. Black women have historically faced barriers to entry with respect to leadership positions across the fields of business, especially for senior leadership roles. The article highlights the empowerment of Black women and aims to raise awareness of the importance of Black women as being fully qualified for leadership positions. Further, the article describes the history of Black women as leaders despite employers not utilizing them as such and describes the history of limitations on Black women’s civil liberties, including barriers to education and employment.
The article also discusses the synergistic challenges Black women face as a result of their gender and skin color, both of which are highly embedded in prejudice. Discrimination based on these factors has significantly limited leadership opportunities for Black women. In the face of both racism and sexism, the article proposes that Black women must maintain three critical abilities: agility, sincerity, and emotional intelligence. Finally, the paper offers insight into the ways in which Black women are overcoming these challenges and emphasizes the need for a better understanding of these topics in order to open up leadership positions to more Black women.
Corpuz, E., Due, C., & Augoustinos, M. (2020). Caught in two worlds: A critical review of culture and gender in the leadership literature. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 14(12), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12571
Corpuz et al. (2020) discuss the impact of culture and gender as important in influencing the roles of women in leadership and the workforce; specifically, these factors are likely to negatively impact opportunities for growth, especially for women in leadership positions. The paper utilizes the common metaphor of the glass ceiling as a way of describing the ubiquitous challenges faced by women in obtaining and maintaining leadership positions. However, the paper goes on to describe the fundamental differences between the challenges faced by Black and White women and the circumstances underlying their success. This motivates the critical analysis of the diversity of women in leadership positions, especially with respect to culture and linguistics. An example of clear case bias is the term “angry Black female,” which clearly demonstrates the links between gender, culture, and perceptions of women. Maintaining their identities while navigating professional relationships can be a challenge for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women. This requires a strong sense of self-identity and self-concept but is essential to withstanding the discriminatory and even hostile situations they are likely to encounter in the process of taking on leadership roles. It can be complicated for CALD women to maintain their identities while assuming leadership roles.
Morris, T.-N., & Stevenson, H. C. (2020, Fall). Building up: Changing gender and racial disparities in independent school leadership will involve examining the pipeline of upcoming leaders. New and advanced research concludes that sponsorship is among the best strategies used in ensuring Blacks are appointed to lead also, Independent School, 80(1), 86–93.
This article proposes strategies to involve more people of color in leadership positions. Proposed methods include career sponsorship, affinity-based mentorship, and leadership programs as useful strategies to do so and to help people of color expand their professional networks by establishing connections. Currently, the majority of leadership positions in independent schools are held by white men, as are the majority of career sponsors, which results in a cycle preventing the promotion of people of color. The burden of improving this situation lies on the white sponsors who are in a position of power to amplify Black voices and challenge prejudice to elevate people of color into leadership positions. The article highlights the role of race and gender in influencing relationships with sponsors, also recognizing that these are two of many factors that affect promotion to leadership roles.
Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M., Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a White man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing Black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233
Roberts et al. (2020) highlight the obstacles faced by Black women in attempting to advance their careers and move into top leadership positions. The paper recognizes the long history of white males as the dominant demographic in leadership positions and the oppressive effect this has had especially on Black women. The paper highlights the tradition of Black women being excluded from leadership positions in their places of employment despite their history of acting as leaders in other aspects of their lives. The article acknowledges limitations on participation in educational and work opportunities faced by Black women, arguing that institutionalized discrimination that is deeply ingrained in our culture has stood in the way of the advancement of Black women. Withstanding these conditions requires agility, sincerity, and emotional intelligence to make sense of the history and circumstances and to establish a professional identity that is compatible with leadership success. The article highlights specific barriers standing in the way of Black women advancing to leadership positions.
Sales, S., Galloway Burke, M., & Cannonier, C. (2020). African American women leadership across contexts: Examining the internal traits and external factors on women leaders’ perceptions of empowerment. Journal of Management History, 26(3), 353–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmh-04-2019-0027
This article the empowerment of Black women as well as the many barriers they face in ascending to administrative leadership seats. Historically, Black women have been excluded from upper management, as this has been dominated by White men. The article highlights barriers faced by Black women even beyond those faced by White women. These include restrictions to civil liberties as well as internal forces limiting empowerment. Institutionalized racism and gender biases have long excluded women from leadership positions in a range of fields. Additionally, internalized biases resulting from a long history of oppression stand in the way of Black women’s empowerment. Black women have long held leadership positions in their families and communities, yet as part of the workforce, they are consistently underestimated and thus underrepresented. These struggles differ from the experiences of White women and women of other ethnic backgrounds. In this way, Black women, as dual minorities, face an increased likelihood of being marginalized, overlooked, or unappreciated even today.
Regarding leadership, Black women continue to be underrepresented in historical discourses and literature compared to Black males of the same ethnic background. However, being a Black woman comes with a unique set of experiences. Gender and race are cultural and societal notions that have been deeply ingrained in prejudice for centuries. As a result, to overcome these difficult conditions and build their professional identities and perspectives on the world, women of African ancestry in leadership positions must first make sense of their past and their own experiences in the present. In leadership development, self-authorship is critical for leaders who are also women of color because they have the knowledge, confidence, and skills concerning the same. This allows them to make successful decisions while actively participating in their organizations (Sales et al., 2020). Therefore, this article has relevance to the topic of discussion, as it highlights the significance that self-authorship contributes to the development of a Black woman’s professional and social identity.
Motro, D., Evans, J. B., Ellis, A. P. J., & Benson, L. III. (2022). Race and reactions to women’s expressions of anger at work: Examining the effects of the “angry Black woman” stereotype. Journal of Applied Psychology, 107(1), 142–152.
This article focuses on how the black woman has experienced bias and is likely not to gain promotion in her workplace due to anger. It discusses how anger emanates internally from the black woman and is expected to influence her leadership capabilities negatively. First, it is observed that people understand an angry black woman from two perspectives: stereotypes and observed behavior. The study also suggests that an angry black woman is treated more negatively than an angry black man because the role expectation of an angry black woman is different from an angry black man. One of the considered stereotypes of an angry black woman, which usually comes out through being self-assertive, is when she declines to follow the norms of the society of being a hardworking and submissive woman. Therefore it is argued that when the cause of anger from a black woman comes internally from her personality, her anger is viewed negatively. When anger comes from a trait and not from external factors such as the environment, it might lead to abusive leadership and low performance. The article also adds to the workplace’s emotions that are viewed differently according to gender, as men who cry are considered weak, but when a woman cries, it’s not perceived as weakness. It also argues that not all women are treated the same when it comes to expressing anger as white women’s anger is likely to be caused by external factors, whereas black women’s anger is likely to be their personal trait.
Goodman, M. (2000). Wearing my clown to work: The crown act as a solution. To shortcomings of title VII for hair discrimination at the workplace.
This article highlights the challenges that black women face in their respective job positions. According to Goodman (2000), color is one of the bases used to judge the personality traits and the qualifications of people in various job places around the world. Therefore, the article states that most black women are often overlooked during job recruitment due to their color. On the other hand, the report also notes that the few women who manage to secure their jobs are often subjected to very harsh working conditions. It may include low payments and very few promotions. Therefore, Goodman (2000) questions the integrity and accountability of most leaders. Furthermore, she notes that many talents are wasted due to racism and discrimination because qualified women are often denied opportunities while the less qualified are given these jobs.
The article also focuses on the hair act policy in the United States. According to this article, the color of a woman’s hair matters a lot and determines whether or not a woman may secure a job in any organization in the US. Goodman (2000) notes that justice institutions such as courts need to intervene and save the country from this mess. The article notes that although the constitution advocates for equality, very few measures have been put in place to address the menace of racism and bias against black women and other minorities who present with different hair colors and other perceived or actual cultural differences.
Lee, H.-W., Robertson, P. J., & Kim, K. (2019). Determinants of Job Satisfaction Among U.S. Federal Employees: An Investigation of Racial and Gender Differences. Public Personnel Management, 009102601986937.
The author employed a comparatives model of job satisfaction which allowed a complaint term of individual factors as overall patterns of the priorities given to the individual facts. The study looks at how the determinants of job satisfaction varied by ethnicity and gender among subgroups of federal employees in the United States. Gender and ethnicity are dominant features that lead people to think, feel, and act differently. However, the difference may be mitigated in the organizational environments. An organization can generate strong situational forces that influence the context considerably; therefore, the individual distinction becomes less important. For instance, the difference in the behavior of women and men results mainly from the difference in the way they are treated in the organization compared to any inherent differences among them.
This article is an excellent source for addressing the bias and racism that affects social identity among minorities in leadership positions and employment. In the United States, women’s dual obligations are common, resulting in work-life conflict, which leads to lower job satisfaction and well-being. Therefore, the article is relevant as it has contributed meaningful and core arguments. It is also reliable because it does not show bias but provides more than one viewpoint (Lee et al., 2019).
Beatty Moody, D. L., Waldstein, S. R., Leibel, D. K., Hoggard, L. S., Gee, G. C., Ashe, J. J., … & Zonderman, A. B. (2021). Race and other sociodemographic categories are differentially linked to multiple dimensions of interpersonal-level discrimination: Implications for intersectional, health research. PloS one, 16(5), e0251174.
The main objective of the author of the article is to find out the connection between the causes of various levels of race and other issues and biased issues between the African Americans and Whites. In the United States, the issue of discrimination is still on the higher level between the whites, which are known as the dominant group, and the black Americans, who are nondominant. Therefore, the race is the most affecting sociodemographic category. According to the research, black Americans are the most affected by the issue of racial discrimination in the United States. It is due to the following factors: various unique experiences in the United States, excessive responsibility for poor health, and the issue of enslavement and persecution. On the other hand, the United States’s dominant racial group, known as the Whites, also experiences discrimination at an interpersonal level related to poor health.
In most cases, people experience discrimination against a race which goes together with other personal attributes such as gender, socioeconomic status, and age. Such characteristics have various meanings, and they have a more significant influence on people’s perceptions of the level of interpersonal interactions. According to the author, racism is every day worldwide; it is also part of America. Being a black America is not that easy since African Americans are continuous in the United States. According to the author’s findings, African Americans went through discrimination compared to whites. Additionally, the older African American men, together with the poor ones, experienced discrimination at a very high rate in contrast to the younger African Americans. The article is relevant to how the effects of social identity among minorities progress into leadership positions because it outlines the impact of racism can hinder identity expression and general health.
Hickox, S. A., & Kaminski, M. (2021). Arbitrators’ Review of Bullying in the Workplace. ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law, 35(3), 399-448.
This article analyzes bullying in the workplace. According to Hickox & Kaminski (2021), workplace bullying can include threats, physical assault, persistent verbal attacks, and interference with work. It takes a heavy toll on targeted employees and contributes to higher absenteeism, increased healthcare usage, reduced productivity, reduced organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. Hickox & Kaminski (2021) also indicates that workplace bullying can cause mental problems, such as post-traumatic stress, anxiety, clinical depression, burnout, and panic attack. Workplace bullying can also cause sleep disruption, mood swings, loss of concentration, and anger among targeted employees. Besides that, workplace bullying can lead to a higher turnover and negatively affect the company’s ability to recruit new talent due to a bad reputation. Research indicates that internal organizational processes in most companies are not sufficient to stop or prevent bullying. Therefore, targets of bullying need other platforms to address their claims. This article is relevant to the struggles of minorities in leadership positions and how their physical bodies and social identity can be severely harmed.
Robinson, N. C., Williams-Black, T., Smith, K. V., & Harges, A. (2019). It All Started with a Picture: Reflections on Existing as Women of Color in a PWI. Multicultural Perspectives, 21(1), 41-52.
The paper “It All Started with a Picture: Replications on Current as Women of Color in a PWI” is written by Robinson C. Nichelle et al. the authors are centered on the purpose of scrutinizing replications of a woman of color in a predominately white organization (PWI). The authors worked on the article by gathering the viewpoints of three facility followers and one ex-student learner of color. In their paper, these women shared distinct expressions and highlighted that they were no longer distinct but equivalent but have changed into an equivalent but reasonable culture. They are demanding to find ways to be in a position to fix this problem.
According to their findings, the authors found that the real-life outcomes discovered that these faculty followers and the learner had encountered challenges grounded on implied prejudice and impartiality at PWI. Additionally, the results of the article specified that impartiality is only attained when everybody desires to confess that it does not occur, and significant that this can change the ethos and copy togetherness.
This article is relevant to the effect of social identity expression and perception on minority progression in leadership. It sheds light on what black women and other women of color endure in their leadership positions in America.
Jackson, L. C., & Bouchard, M. M. (2019). Mentoring: a key success factor for African American women in the US Federal Senior Executive Service. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 84(4), 35.
According to numerous reports by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), government-wide SES appointments in the United States remain in the low percentages for African American Women (AAW) when compared to the percentages of AAW in comparable positions in the civilian labor force (CLF). Within a national context, this paper analyses the views held by AWW in the SES, GS-15, and GS-14 concerning the lack of sufficient representation of women and minorities in the SES. Published in 2019, the paper reveals the obstacles and challenges that AAW faces in their determination to achieve career success in SES and cites mentoring as the key success factor that can help AAW to achieve career progression to senior management positions. The article provides an extensive overview of AAW’s perceptions of the success factors that empowered or would empower them to accomplish SES-level careers. The article serves the purpose of filling the gap in scholarly studies on the issues of AAW, which has been under-researched in past studies as researchers have mainly focused on all minorities, all women, or women of color. The authors of the article cited numerous references. One of the authors (Lynda C. Jackson) is a professor at Trinity Washington University, while the other (Marcia M. Bouchard) is a professor at the University of Maryland University College. This article is relevant to the social identity of minorities in leadership. It exposes the main reasons why there are few African American Women, a minority group, in the SES and what can be done to increase these numbers.
Phillips, L. T., & Jun, S. (2021, September 13). Why Benefiting From Discrimination Is Less Recognized as Discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication.
The authors of this article explain the benefits of discrimination as discrimination. The authors theorized that the objective discrimination decision is described as being less likely to be acknowledged as discrimination. Therefore, they supported this hypothesis using the relevant eight studies. According to the article, discrimination continues to plague the general society.
The study’s findings reveal that despite reduced possibilities of human resource workers recognizing the discrimination when it is described as favoring, it affects the reporting behaviors. It means they have lower chances of reporting the potentially discriminatory decisions for the review. The other finding shows that individuals support the lawsuit less when the discrimination utilizes a favoring frame than disfavoring. This is basically due to the inequity frames that shape the perceived intentions instead of the perceived harm. The results also reveal that inequality frames about the discriminatory decision conducted by the firm might impact the candidate’s job pursuit behaviors.
The article is essential in addressing the issue of bias and racism against minorities in leadership and employment because the winning frame of the discrimination as disfavoring results in excusing the favoring-based discrimination and worsening the inequality situation.
Kennedy, C. (2021). The Strained Relationship between Hair Discrimination and Title VII Litigation and Why It Is Time to Use a Different Solution. Notre Dame JL Ethics & Pub. Pol’y, 35, 401.
The article discusses the challenges that individuals belonging to the African American community face as employees and leaders of different organizations. According to the write-up, some of the difficulties black women can experience as leaders and employees include discrimination based on their appearances. The author explains that the appearance of African American women is a significant aspect that can deny them the opportunity to secure employment or get the promotions they need to serve in leadership positions. This aspect includes having natural African American hair, which individuals belonging to other races considered unkempt. The author elucidates that it is unfair for members of this population to be compelled to alter their appearances to conform to that of other communities to be accepted as part of the workforce. The author posits that black women should not be denied the opportunity to serve as influential leaders and workers because of trivial factors such as appearances. It explores significant aspects such as the provisions in the constitution that forbid the practice of discriminating against individuals based on their appearances and identity and the need to give individuals the same opportunity irrespective of their physical looks.
The article is a significant source of information because it contains essential information about the challenges that African Americans, the largest minority group in America, face as employees and leaders. For example, it addresses the difficulties encountered by African American women whose natural hair is often considered unkempt and not neat enough for individuals serving in corporations. Therefore, they are often compelled to transform their appearances to resemble those of other races to become accepted in the corporate world, attributing to the causation of changing social identities.
Kozlowski, D., Murray, D. S., Bell, A., Hulsey, W., Larivière, V., Monroe-White, T., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2022). Avoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches. Plos one, 17(3), e0264270.
The source expounds on some of the challenges faced by black people because of racism and bias. The authors seek to provide a solution on how prejudice can be avoided using the name-based strategies. The authors have acknowledged that racial disparity is one of the biggest problems, especially for the Black community. Therefore, excellent solutions are incorporated in ensuring that they have eliminated that great challenge. The author discovers that the name inference has created a significant bias between Blacks and Whites. For instance, many Black authors with black native names have been underrated and White authors appraised. That bias has a negative outcome, especially for Black people with a vast potential to spread positive influence.
The authors have used different pieces of evidence to indicate the total population that has been affected by racial bias. They have also included a quotation that approximates the total influence that the name-based approach will contribute. The US is the leader in racial disparity cases, as indicated from the evidence provided in the sources. However, the method might not work for the American-Indian groups. The authors suggest the need for further research that would benefit all populations affected by racial disparities. The challenges mentioned in the article are proportionate to what minorities have experienced in their leadership duration.
The degree being pursued is the Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership with an emphasis in Organizational Development.
Black women are continually navigating their social identities, modifying their positions, and adjusting their circumstances to avoid being restrained in their leadership development, resulting in Black women being underrepresented in upper-level management and executive positions.
Feasibility of Research Problem
It is feasible for the researcher to identify the personal and professional characteristics that influence the empowerment of black women in leadership and executive roles by utilizing qualitative methods to explore the lived experiences of black women.
The main problem addressed by this research is to highlight and emphasize the limitations placed on minority women when taking leadership and executive roles, as well as the challenges they face in a society marked by widening racial inequality (Sales et al., 2020).
Need for Study
This study is needed to understand the effect of social identity on Black women’s progression into leadership positions. The Social Identity Theory explains that people’s identities are comprised of their social groups and outside groups. This theory is the critical theory behind discrimination of minorities as people in outside member groups are often feared or disliked (Brown, 2000). For example, Sugimoto (2022) and Kennedy (2021) explain how names and hair that differ from the assumed standard white, American expectations, lead to discrimination in the workplace and even hinder upward mobility within a company. Names and hair are a crucial part of identity expression. Therefore, if these are factors that hinder access to leadership positions, the social groups are restricted and seen as unfavorable (Brown, 2000). Few studies are looking at the correlation between social identity and Black women moving into leadership positions. However, Morris & Stevenson (2020) examine discrimination and racial barriers in the sequence leading to leadership positions. They found that offering equitable mentoring programs and racial visibility for minorities can assist in overcoming such obstacles. The goal is to further Morris & Stevenson’s (2020) research, exploring the social identity system and how it affects Black women entering or in leadership positions, therefore rendering this study necessary for the advancement of equity for minorities.
This study manifests its framework using Social Identity Theory, which refers to the concept that our social identity is comprised of our social groups or group memberships (Brown, 2000). The theorists behind Social Identity Theory, Tajfel & Turner (2004) explain that the theory is rife with bias and discrimination within a social group. Studies conclude that members of a group are likely to discriminate against people outside of such a group as it makes them feel better and more superior, even if it is not something that they would consider doing as an individual (Tajfel &Turner, 2004). Another biased-based consequence of Social Identity Theory can be explained by Brown (2000). Brown (2000) uses an example of French fishermen blockading a group of English ferry passengers – the French fishermen are perceived as mean to the English passengers. As such, the English passengers now perceive all French people unfavorably while feeling better about themselves. This story also illustrates how xenophobia and discrimination were fostered (Brown, 2000). This study is based on the outcomes Social Identity Theory enacts against those perceived as the outsiders or others, in this case, minorities seeking leadership positions. Social Identity Theory will allow us to understand and analyze how minorities are perceived in leadership positions and how those leaders remain empowered within their groups and with other groups.
In the paper, “Caught in two worlds: A critical review of culture and gender in the leadership literature,” Corpuz et al. (2020) discuss the roles of culture and gender in determining women’s roles in leadership and the workforce. The authors argue that gender and culture limit women’s opportunities and growth in leadership positions, leading to a destructive cycle that prevents current and future women from attaining leadership positions. The authors report that have that women comprised approximately 48.5% of the world’s workforce in 2018, but significantly fewer women attain executive positions than their male counterparts (Corpuz et al., 2020). However, the authors highlight that black and white women hit “the glass ceiling” for fundamentally different reasons and the circumstances that create their success stories are fundamentally different. This article is particularly significant to the research topic chosen because it not only sets a foundation for the disparities between women and men in the workplace but also highlights the disparities between black women and white women in achieving leadership positions. Importantly, this article sets a foundation upon which this research study will build, to emphasize the limitations placed on minority women when taking leadership and executive roles, as well as the challenges they face in a society