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Week 8 Overview
Week 8 is the class wrap up. We reflect on best practices for interaction design, talk a bit about the history as well as what the future has in store.

By the end of this week, you should be able to:

Identify future technical trends that will help shape the future interaction experience
Discuss how history influences the future in interaction design practices

Reading Assignments

Sheppard, N. (2020, April 15). 10 UX design trends to look out for in 2020. Retrieved June 05, 2020, from https://www.userzoom.com/blog/10-ux-design-trends-to-look-out-for-in-2020/

Nielsen, J. (2019) A 100-Year View of User Experience, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/100-years-ux/

Practical Connection

At our school, it is a priority that students are provided with strong educational programs and courses that allow them to be servant-leaders in their disciplines and communities, linking research with practice and knowledge with ethical decision-making. This assignment is a written assignment where students will demonstrate how this course research has connected and put into practice within their own career.


Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study.


Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.
Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.
Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.
Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment.
You should not, provide an overview of the assignments assigned in the course. The assignment asks that you reflect how the knowledge and skills obtained through meeting course objectives were applied or could be applied in the workplace.


Series Page
Title Page
What’s Inside
Chapter 1: What is Interaction Design?

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Good and Poor Design
1.3 What Is Interaction Design?
1.4 The User Experience
1.5 The Process of Interaction Design
1.6 Interaction Design and the User Experience
Interview with Harry Brignull

Chapter 2: Understanding and Conceptualizing Interaction
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Understanding the Problem Space and Conceptualizing
2.3 Conceptual Models
2.4 Interface Metaphors
2.5 Interaction Types
2.6 Paradigms, Visions, Theories, Models, and Frameworks
Interview with Kees Dorst

Chapter 3: Cognitive Aspects
3.1 Introduction
3.2 What Is Cognition?
3.3 Cognitive Frameworks

Chapter 4: Social Interaction
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Being Social
4.3 Face-to-Face Conversations

4.4 Remote Conversations
4.5 Telepresence
4.6 Co-presence

Chapter 5: Emotional Interaction
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Emotions and the User Experience
5.3 Expressive Interfaces
5.4 Annoying Interfaces
5.5 Detecting Emotions and Emotional Technology
5.6 Persuasive Technologies and Behavioral Change
5.7 Anthropomorphism and Zoomorphism

Chapter 6: Interfaces
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Interface Types
6.3 Natural User Interfaces and Beyond
6.4 Which Interface?
Interview with Leah Beuchley

Chapter 7: Data Gathering
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Five Key Issues
7.3 Data Recording
7.4 Interviews
7.5 Questionnaires
7.6 Observation
7.7 Choosing and Combining Techniques

Chapter 8: Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Qualitative and Quantitative
8.3 Simple Quantitative Analysis
8.4 Simple Qualitative Analysis
8.5 Tools to Support Data Analysis
8.6 Using Theoretical Frameworks
8.7 Presenting the Findings

Chapter 9: The Process of Interaction Design
9.1 Introduction
9.2 What Is Involved in Interaction Design?
9.3 Some Practical Issues
Interview with Ellen Gottesdiener

Chapter 10: Establishing Requirements
10.1 Introduction
10.2 What, How, and Why?
10.3 What Are Requirements?
10.4 Data Gathering for Requirements
10.5 Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation
10.6 Task Description
10.7 Task Analysis

Chapter 11: Design, Prototyping, and Construction
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Prototyping
11.3 Conceptual Design
11.4 Concrete Design
11.5 Using Scenarios
11.6 Generating Prototypes
11.7 Construction
Interview with the Late Gary Marsden

Chapter 12: Interaction Design in Practice
12.1 Introduction
12.2 AgileUX
12.3 Design Patterns
12.4 Open Source Resources
12.5 Tools for Interaction Design

Chapter 13: Introducing Evaluation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The Why, What, Where, and When of Evaluation
13.3 Types of Evaluation
13.4 Evaluation Case Studies

13.5 What Did We Learn from the Case Studies?
13.6 Other Issues to Consider when Doing Evaluation

Chapter 14: Evaluation Studies: From Controlled to Natural Settings
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Usability Testing
14.3 Conducting Experiments
14.4 Field Studies
Interview with Danah Boyd

Chapter 15: Evaluation: Inspections, Analytics, and Models
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Inspections: Heuristic Evaluation and Walkthroughs
15.3 Analytics
15.4 Predictive Models

End User License Agreement

List of Tables
Table 1.1

Table 6.1

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List of Illustrations
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Figure 15.7

“Preece, Sharp & Rogers have become a recognized brand name trusted by
students, researchers, developers, and design practitioners in an
increasingly diverse field across user experience design, ubiquitous
computing, urban informatics, and mobile applications. The 4th edition
refreshes this foundational textbook that continues to provide a
comprehensive, current, and compelling coverage of concepts, methods, and
cases of interaction design. Informed by the combined wisdom and thought
leadership of these three senior academics, the book is a trusted source of
applied knowledge grounded and refined by years of experience.”

Professor Marcus Foth, Director, Urban Informatics Research Lab
Interactive & Visual Design, School of Design, Queensland University of

Technology Brisbane, Australia
“The authors of this book have succeeded! Again! This new edition reflects in
full richness what constitutes modern interaction design. While being the
most comprehensive and authoritative source in the field it is also amazingly
accessible and a pleasure to read.”

Dr. Erik Stolterman, Professor in Informatics, School of Informatics and
Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA

“The speed of change in ICT is both the cause and the consequence of new
ways to view, design and support human interactions with digital technology.
Keeping a textbook up-to-date in HCI is therefore a major challenge. Thanks
to the authors’ firm commitment to education and outstanding capacity to
combine, in every new edition, an account of the deep foundations of the
field with a broad selection of advanced topics, the complete set of all four
editions of this book testifies to the remarkable evolution of HCI as a
discipline. Interaction Design is thus not only a first-class textbook for HCI
education but also an insightful depiction of how the discipline has grown and
contributed to the pervasiveness of digital technology in everyday life.”

Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio,

“I’ve loved Interaction Design in the past, as it provided a contemporary line
of sight between theory and practice. Its style encouraged interaction,
especially for readers where English is not their first language, by capturing
the wisdom in engagingly readable ways. This 4th edition updates what is
already wholesome and good, to deliver more, especially with the e-text
version. I’d say this latest revision not only gives its readers the best chance
to know where their learning journey ought to start, it takes them well down
the track to understanding this important field with a much more critical lens.”

Patrick O’Brien, Managing Director, The Amanuenses Network Pte Ltd,

“Interaction Design has been my textbook of choice for generalist and
introductory HCI courses ever since the first edition. It is well written, with
great use of examples and supplementary resources. It is authoritative and
has excellent coverage. The latest edition brings the material up-to-date.
Importantly, it is also an engaging read.”
Ann Blandford, Professor of Human-Computer Interaction, University College

London, UK
“Interaction Design by Preece, Sharp and Rogers offers an engaging
excursion through the world of interaction design. The new edition offers a
view on a broad range of topics needed for students in the field of interaction
design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design or
ubiquitous computing. The book should be one of the things every student
should have in their backpack. It guides one through the jungle of information
in our digital age. The online resources are a great help to create good
classes my students and remove some weight from my backpack.”

Johannes Schöning, Professor of Computer Science, Hasselt University,

“Interaction Design has been one of the textbooks of reference at the
University of Castilla – La Mancha (Spain) for several years. It covers the
main topics in Human Computer Interaction offering a comprehensive
equilibrium between theoretical and practical approaches to the discipline.
The new chapter about ‘Interaction Design in Practice’ and the remarkable
updates in some chapters, with new case studies and examples, allow the
user to explore the book from different perspectives and facilitate its use as
a textbook in different subjects.”

Professor Manuel Ortega, CHICO Group (Computer Human Interaction and
Collaboration), University of Castilla – La Mancha, Spain

“Interaction Design is an excellent textbook for general HCI courses that
covers topics from the essential theoretical and methodological knowledge to
the state-of-the-art practical knowledge in HCI and interaction design. The
fourth edition again maintains this book’s position as a must-have book for all
HCI and interaction design students.”

Youn-kyung Lim, Department of Industrial Design, KAIST, Korea
“For years this book has been my recommendation for a general introduction
to Human–Computer Interaction. What I particularly admire is the

combination of theoretical content exploring human understanding and
behaviour, along with practical content on designing, developing, and
evaluating interaction systems – all with references to the literature. The new
edition updates existing content, and adds important material on recent
developments, for example touch-interaction on smartphones and tablets.”

Robert Biddle, Professor of Human–Computer Interaction, Carleton
University, Ottawa, Canada

“This new edition provides another wonderful opportunity to reflect on the
core issues of Interaction Design and their ongoing definition and redefinition
in changing contexts. It’s great to see the maker community welcomed into
the new edition along with all the other updated material. I am confident I can
continue to set this book as the basic text for my classes and for those
wishing to learn more about Interaction design and related areas.”

Toni Robertson, Professor of Interaction Design, University of Technology,
Sydney, Australia

“This book teaches interaction design by motivating and activating the
student, and there really is no other way.”

Dr. Albert Ali Salah, Boğaziçi University, Turkey
“I picked up the first edition of Interaction Design when I started learning
about HCI and interaction design and haven’t left it since. Now I use the
latest edition to introduce the subject to both undergraduate and research
students because the book provides a truly multidisciplinary overview of IxD,
doing justice to the natures of the discipline. It offers an excellent balance:
from general concepts, to design, prototyping and evaluation methodology
and, importantly, to plenty of colourful and inspiring examples. The new
section on IxD practice is a much needed addition, as the industry keeps
growing and reaches maturity.”

Enrico Costanza, Electronics and Computer Science, The University of
Southampton, UK

“This fourth edition is going to continue to be the Interaction Design reference
book for academics and students. Our work in communication sciences and
technologies will continue to find many enlightening pathways and references
within the traditional human-centric approach but also deeper into social and
emotional interaction issues. The updates to this edition are of utmost
relevance and also underline very well the strategic relation with industry’s
use of HCI R&D methods and techniques nowadays.”

Oscar Mealha, Department of Communication and Art, University of Aveiro,

“I have used all editions of the book in my courses. I love how each new
edition continues to be relevant, vibrant and central for educating interaction
designers, and keeping them up to date with the changes in the field.
Thumbs up for the fourth edition, too!”

Alma Leora Culén, Design of Information Systems, University of Oslo,

“The book is great. Now, I have very good resources to support me teaching
my undergraduate HCI course. I really liked how the information is presented
in the book; an excellent blend of theories, concepts, examples, and case
studies. Moreover, I would like to use the book as one of my resources in
research on HCI education. I would highly recommend this book for HCI
instructors and students.”

Dr. Harry B. Santoso, Instructor of Interaction System (HCI) course at
Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

“For many years, Interaction Design: Beyond Human–Computer Interaction
has been used as a major textbook or reference book for human–computer
interaction (HCI) related courses for undergraduate and postgraduate
students in computer science, design and industrial engineering in Chinese
universities. I especially appreciate its focus on HCI design, instead of just
focusing on those technological aspects of HCI. This gives students a basic
but very important body of knowledge and skills in the user-centered design
approach for developing usable and enjoyable products in industry settings
or conducting HCI research in an academic context. The timely four revisions
of the book in the past years have always kept it well updated to the newest
developments in the field.”

Zhengjie Liu, Professor, Director, Sino-European Usability Center, Dalian
Maritime University, P.R. China


beyond human–computer interaction

Fourth Edition

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Registered office

John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern G ate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United

For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to
apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at

The right of Jenny Preece, Y vonne Rogers and Helen Sharp to be identified as the authors of this
work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior
permission of the publisher.

Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material
included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-
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brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or
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vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative
information in regard to the subject matter covered. I t is sold on the understanding that the publisher
is not engaged in rendering professional services. I f professional advice or other expert assistance is
required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

I SBN 978-1-119-02075-2 (pbk)

I SBN 978-1-119-06601-9 (ebk)

I SBN 978-1-119-08879-0 (ebk)

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Welcome to the fourth edition of Interaction Design: Beyond Human–
Computer Interaction, and our interactive website at www.id-book.com.
Building on the success of the previous editions, we have substantially
updated and streamlined the material to provide a comprehensive
introduction to the fast-growing and multidisciplinary field of interaction
design. But rather than let the book expand, we have again made a
conscious effort to reduce its size – with a little help from our publisher.
Our textbook is aimed primarily at undergraduate, masters, and doctoral
students from a range of backgrounds studying introductory classes in
human–computer interaction, interaction design, web design, software
engineering, digital media, information systems, and information studies. It
will also appeal to a wide range of professionals and technology users who
can dip into it and learn about a specific approach, interface, or topic.
It is called Interaction Design: Beyond Human–Computer Interaction because
interaction design is concerned with a broader scope of issues, topics, and
methods than was traditionally the scope of human–computer interaction
(HCI), with a focus on the diversity of design and evaluation processes
involved. We define interaction design as

designing interactive products to support the way people communicate
and interact in their everyday and working lives.

This relies on an understanding of the capabilities and desires of people and
on the kinds of technology available to interaction designers, together with a
knowledge of how to identify requirements and develop them into a suitable
design. Our textbook provides an introduction to all of these areas, teaching
practical techniques to support development as well as discussing possible
technologies and design alternatives.
The number of different types of interface available to today’s interaction
designers continues to increase steadily so our textbook, likewise, has been
expanded to cover this. For example, we discuss and provide examples of
brain, mobile, robotic, wearable, shareable, mixed reality, and multimodel
interfaces as well as more traditional desktop, multimedia, and web
The book has 15 chapters and includes discussion of the wide range of
interfaces that are now available, how cognitive, social, and affective issues
apply to interaction design, and how to gather, analyze, and present data for

interaction design. A central theme is that design and evaluation are
interleaving, highly iterative processes, with some roots in theory but which
rely strongly on good practice to create usable products. The book has a
hands-on orientation and explains how to carry out a variety of techniques
used to design and evaluate the wide range of applications coming onto the
market. It also has a strong pedagogical design and includes many activities
(with detailed comments), assignments, and the special pedagogic features
discussed below.


We address topics and questions about the what, why, and how of
interaction design. These include:

Why some interfaces are good and others are poor
Whether people can really multitask
How technology is transforming the way people communicate with
one another
What users’ needs are and how we can design for them
How interfaces can be designed to change people’s behavior
How to choose between the many different kinds of interactions that
are now available (e.g. talking, touching, wearing)
What it means to design truly accessible interfaces
The pros and cons of carrying out studies in the lab versus in the wild
When to use qualitative versus quantitative methods
How to construct informed consent forms
How the detail of interview questions affects the conclusions that can
safely be drawn
How to move from a set of scenarios, personas, and use cases to
initial low-fidelity prototypes
How to represent the results of data analysis clearly
Why it is that what people say can be different from what they do
The ethics of monitoring and recording people’s activities
What are Agile UX and Lean UX and how do they relate to interaction

The style of writing throughout the book is intended to be accessible to
students, as well as professionals and general readers. It is largely
conversational in nature and includes anecdotes, cartoons, and case studies.
Many of the examples are intended to relate to readers’ own experiences.
The book and the associated website are also intended to encourage
readers to be active when reading and to think about seminal issues. For
example, a popular feature that we have included throughout is the dilemma,
where a controversial topic is aired. The aim is for readers to understand
that much of interaction design needs consideration of the issues, and that
they need to learn to weigh up the pros and cons and be prepared to make
trade-offs. We particularly want readers to realize that there is rarely a right
or wrong answer, although there is a world of difference between a good
design and a poor design. This book is accompanied by a website (www.id-
book.com), which provides a variety of resources, including slides for each
chapter, comments on chapter activities, and a number of in-depth case
studies written by researchers and designers. Pointers to respected blogs,
online tutorials, and other useful materials are provided.

Changes from Previous Editions
New to this edition is an e-text version. Publishing technology has matured
considerably in recent years, to the extent that it is possible to create an
interactive textbook. Our e-text version is in full color and supports note
sharing, annotating, contextualized navigating, powerful search features,
inserted videos, links, and quizzes. To reflect the dynamic nature of the field,
the fourth edition has been thoroughly updated and new examples, images,
case studies, dilemmas, and so on have been included to illustrate the
changes. A brand new Chapter 12 has been included called ‘Interaction
design in practice,’ which covers how practical UX methods, such as Agile
UX and Lean UX, have become increasingly popularized and more widely
used in the world of commerce and business. Old examples and methods no
longer used in the field have been removed to make way for the new
material (some of which can now be found on www.id-book.com). The
former Chapter 12 has been removed (but is still available on the website),
making the evaluation section three compact chapters. Some chapters have
been completely rewritten whilst others have been extensively revised. For
example, Chapters 4 and 5 have been substantially updated to reflect new
developments in social media and emotional interaction, while also covering
the new interaction design issues they raise, such as privacy and addiction.
Many examples of new interfaces and technologies have been added to
Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 on data collection and analysis have also been

substantially updated. We have updated our interviews with leading figures
involved in innovative research, state-of-the-art design, and contemporary
practice (with the exception of Gary Marsden who, we are sorry to report,
died unexpectedly at the end of 2013).

Many people have helped us over the years in writing the four editions. We
have benefited from the advice and support of our many professional
colleagues across the world, our students, friends, and families. We
especially would like to thank everyone who generously contributed their
ideas and time to help make all the editions successful.
These include our colleagues and students at the College of Information
Studies – ‘Maryland’s iSchool’ – University of Maryland, and the Human–
Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) and Center for the Advanced Study
of Communities and Information (CASCI), the Open University, University
College London, and Indiana University. We would especially like to thank (in
alphabetical first name order) all of the following who have helped us over
the years:
Alex Quinn, Alice Robbin, Alice Siempelkamp, Alina Goldman, Allison Druin,
Anijo Mathew, Ann Blandford, Ann Jones, Anne Adams, Ben Bederson, Ben
Shneiderman, Carol Boston, Connie Golsteijn, Dan Green, Dana Rotman,
danah boyd, Debbie Stone, Derek Hansen, Duncan Brown, Edwin Blake, Eva
Hornecker, Gill Clough, Harry Brignull, Janet van der Linden, Jennifer
Ferreira, Jennifer Golbeck, Jeff Rick, Joh Hunt, Johannes Schöning, Jon
Bird, Jonathan Lazar, Judith Segal, Julia Galliers, Kent Norman, Laura
Plonka, Leeann Brumby, Mark Woodroffe, Michael Wood, Nadia Pantidi,
Nick Dalton, Nicolai Marquardt, Paul Marshall, Philip ‘Fei’ Wu, Rachael
Bradley, Rafael Cronin, Richard Morris, Richie Hazlewood, Rob Jacob, Rose
Johnson, Stefan Kreitmayer, Stephanie Wilson, Tammy Toscos, Tina Fuchs,
Tom Hume, Tom Ventsias, Toni Robertson and Youn-kyung Lim.

We are particularly grateful to Nadia Pantidi and Mara Balestrini for filming,
editing, and compiling a series of on the spot ‘talking heads’ videos, where
they posed probing questions to the diverse set of attendees at CHI’11 and
CHI’14, including a variety of CHI people from across the globe. The
questions included asking about the future of interaction design and whether
HCI has gone too wild. There are about 50 of them – which can be viewed
on our website. We are also indebted to danah boyd, Harry Brignull, Leah
Beuchley, Kees Dorst, Ellen Gottesdiener, and the late Gary Marsden for
generously contributing in-depth text-based interviews in the book.
Finally, we would like to thank our editor and the production team at Wiley
who once more have been very supportive and encouraging throughout the
process of developing this fourth edition: Georgia King, Deborah Egleton and
Juliet Booker.

About the Authors
The authors are senior academics with a background in teaching,
researching, and consulting in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and Europe.
Having worked together on three previous editions of this book, and an
earlier textbook on Human–Computer Interaction, they bring considerable
experience in curriculum development, using a variety of media for distance
learning as well as face-to-face teaching. They have considerable knowledge
of creating learning texts and websites that motivate and support learning for
a range of students. All three are specialists in interaction design and
human–computer interaction (HCI). In addition they bring skills from other
disciplines. Yvonne Rogers started off as a cognitive scientist, Helen Sharp is
a software engineer, and Jenny Preece works in information systems. Their
complementary knowledge and skills enable them to cover the breadth of
concepts in interaction design and HCI to produce an interdisciplinary text
and website.
Jennifer Preece is Professor and Dean in the College of Information Studies
– Maryland’s iSchool – at the University of Maryland. Jenny’s research
focuses at the intersection of information, community, and technology. She is
particularly interested in community participation on- and offline. She has
researched ways to support empathy and social support online, patterns of
online participation, reasons for not participating (i.e. lurking), strategies for
supporting online communication, development of norms, and the attributes
of successful technology-supported communities. Currently Jenny is
researching how technology can be used to educate and motivate citizens to
contribute quality data to citizen science projects. This research contributes

to the broader need for the collection of data about the world’s flora and
fauna at a time when many species are in rapid decline due to habitat loss,
pollution, and climate change. She was author of one of the first books on
online communities: Online Communities: Designing Usability, Supporting
Sociability (2000) published by John