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Teaching Strategies

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read 
Supporting and Responding to Behavior: Evidence-Based Classroom Strategies for Teachers.

After reading Chapter 8 of the course text, select two teaching strategies for preventing challenging behavior in the classroom. Search the Internet (e.g., Scholastic.com (Links to an external site.)Edutopia.org (Links to an external site.), or NAEYC.org (Links to an external site.)) to find a lesson to support each of your chosen strategies. For each strategy, follow the layout below in your discussion prompt and address the following:

· Name and describe the strategy.

· Provide a link to the lesson from the Internet.

· Explain how this lesson will support challenging behaviors.

· Explain how this lesson will support diverse cultures.

· Explain how this lesson will support varying abilities.

Remember that you must address all of the above points for each teaching strategy you selected. This means you will answer the questions twice.

Teaching Strategies

This technical assistance document was adapted from the PBIS Technical Brief on Classroom PBIS Strategies written by: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer Freeman,

Steve Goodman, Barbara Mitchell, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Brigid Flannery, George Sugai, Heather George, and Bob Putman, 2015.

Additional assistance was provided to the Office of Special Education Programs by Brandi Simonsen and Jenifer Freeman. Special thanks to Allison Blakely,

Ambra Green, and Jennifer Rink, OSEP interns who also contributed to the development of this document.

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Purpose and Description
What is the purpose of this document?

The purpose of this document is to summarize evidence-based, positive, proactive, and responsive classroom behavior intervention and support strategies for
teachers. These strategies should be used classroom-wide, intensified for support small-group instruction, or amplified further for individual students. These

strategies can help teachers capitalize on instructional time and decrease disruptions, which is crucial as schools are held to greater academic and social
accountability measures for all students.

What needs to be in place before I can expect these strategies to work?

The effectiveness of these classroom strategies are maximized when: (a) the strategies are implemented within a school-wide multi-tiered behavioral
framework, such as school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS; see www.pbis.org); (b) classroom and school-wide expectations and
systems are directly linked; (c) classroom strategies are merged with effective instructional design, curriculum, and delivery; and (d) classroom-based data

are used to guide decision making. The following school- and classroom-level supports should be in place to optimize the fidelity and benefits of
implementation.

School-level supports Classroom-level supports

• A multi-tiered framework, including strategies for identifying and teaching

expectations, acknowledging appropriate behavior, and responding to
inappropriate behavior

• The school-wide framework is guided by school-wide discipline data

• Appropriate supports for staff are provided, including leadership teaming,
supporting policy, coaching, and implementation monitoring

• Classroom system for teaching expectations, providing acknowledgments,

and managing rule violations linked to the school-wide framework

• Classroom management decisions are based on classroom behavioral data

• Effective instructional strategies implemented to the greatest extent
possible

• Curriculum is matched to student need and supporting data

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What are the principles that guide the use of these strategies in the classro om?

The purpose of the guiding principles is to define the characteristics and cultural features that drive the use of these classroom strategies within a multi-tiered
framework. The guiding principles help establish the fundamental norms, rules, and ethics that are essential to the success of these classroom strategies

within a multi-tiered framework. These seven principles are the foundational values that drive the success of these classroom strategies and are important to
keep in mind when developing contextually appropriate adaptations of the strategies suggested in this document.

Professional Business-like, objective, neutral, impartial, and unbiased

Cultural Considerate of individual’s learning history and experience s (e.g., family, community, peer group)

Informed Data-based, response-to-intervention

Fidelity-Based Implementation accuracy is monitored and adjusted as needed

Educational The quality of design and delivery of instruction is considered

Instructive Expected behaviors are explicitly taught, modeled, monitored, and reinforced

Preventive Environment arranged to encourage previously taught social skills and discourage anticipated behavior errors

User Guide
What is included in this guide?

There are three main parts to this guide on classroom PBIS strategies.

1. Interactive map with corresponding tables, tools, and tips . The interactive map provides the links to the document with the

content to support the implementation of the essential features of these classroom strategies.

2. Self-assessment and decision-making chart. These tools are intended to help guide the user to the parts of the document that

will be most useful.

3. Scenarios. Two scenarios are provided to extend learning and provide concrete examples of how to use classroom PBIS strategies

and many of the tools suggested in this document in consortium.

A short summary and references are provided at the conclusion of the document.

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What is not included in this guide?

This guide should not be considered a replacement for more comprehensive trainings and does not provide the depth of knowledge/research about each
topic. Although many of the strategies suggested in this document can be used for individual students, more support likely will be needed from a behavior

specialist or school psychologist for teachers who work with students with more intensive support needs.

This document also does not include strategies for addressing violent or unlawful student conduct.

Where do I start?

The interactive map provides an organizational layout of the document and some basic definitions of terms that may be helpful to know prior to taking the
self-assessment. Teachers should begin with the self-assessment to gauge current classroom management practices. The self-assessment is designed to help

teachers know where to focus their attention (e.g., foundations, practices, data systems). After teachers take the self-assessment, the interactive map will
direct them to content that will be most useful. The decision-making flow chart should be used to help guide teachers in making decisions about making

adjustments within their classrooms.

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Interactive Map of Core Features

1.1 Settings
The physical layout of the
classroom is designed to be

effective

1.3 Expectations
Three to five classroom rules

are clearly posted, defined,

and explicitly taught

1.2 Routines
Predictable classroom

routines are developed and

taught

2.1 Supervision
Provide reminders

(prompts), and actively

scan, move, and interact

with students

2.2 Opportunity
Provide high rates and
varied opportunities for all

students to respond

2.3 Acknowledgment
Using specific praise and

other strategies, let

students know when they
meet classroom

expectations

2.4 Prompts and
Precorrections
Provide reminders, before

a behavior is expected,
that clearly describe the

expectation

2.5 Error Corrections
Use brief, contingent, and

specific statements when

misbehavior occurs

2.6 Other Strategies
Use other strategies that
preempt escalation,

minimize inadvertent

reward of the problem
behavior, create a

learning opportunity for
emphasizing desired

behavior, and maintain

optimal instructional time

2.7 Additional Tools

More tips for teachers

Classroom Interventions and Supports

Foundations (Table 1)

Response Prevention

Data Systems (Table 3) Practices (Table 2)

3.1 Counting
Record how often or how
many times a behavior

occurs (also called

frequency)

3.2 Timing
Record how long a behavior

lasts (also called duration).

3.3 Sampling
Estimate how often a
behavior occurs during part

of an interval, the entire

interval, or at the end of an
interval

3.4 ABC Cards, Incident
Reports, or Office

Discipline Referrals
Record information about
the events that occurred

before, during, and after a

behavior incident

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Self-Assessment
Teachers should start with the first statement on the self-assessment. When unsure of an answer, teachers should go to the part of the interactive map
indicated and read more about the practice.

Classroom Interventions and Supports Self-Assessment Yes No

1. The classroom is physically designed to meet the needs of all students.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.1 on the interactive map.

2. Classroom routines are developed, taught, and predictable.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.2 on the interactive map.

3. Three to five positive classroom expectations are posted, defined, and explicitly taught.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.3 on the interactive map.

4. Prompts and active supervision practices are used proactively.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.1 on the interactive map.

5. Opportunities to respond are varied and are provided at high rates.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.2 on the interactive map.

6. Specific praise and other strategies are used to acknowledge behavior.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.3 on the interactive map.

7. Reminders are consistently given before a behavior might occur.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.4 on the interactive map.

8. The responses to misbehaviors in the classroom are appropriate and systematic.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.5 on the interactive map.

9. Data systems are used to collect information about classroom behavior.

If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with Table 3 on the interactive map.

If yes on all, celebrate successes! Continually monitor, and make adjustments as needed.

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Decision-Making Chart
The decision-making chart will help guide teachers regarding implementation of best practices in preventing and responding to behaviors in the classroom.

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Table 1. Matrix of Foundations for Classroom Interventions and Supports

1.1 SETTINGS

EFFECTIVELY DESIGN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASSROOM

Description

and Critical Features

Elementary

Examples

Secondary

Examples

Non-

Examples

Empirical Support

and Resources

What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?

What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?

What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?

• Design classroom to

facilitate the most typical
instructional activities (e.g.,

small groups, whole group,

learning centers)

• Arrange furniture to allow

for smooth teacher and

student movement

• Assure instructional

materials are neat, orderly,

and ready for use

• Post materials that support
critical content and learning

strategies (e.g., word walls,
steps for the writing

process, mathematical

formulas)

• Design classroom layout

according to the type of

activity taking place:

– Tables for centers

– Separate desk for

independent work

– Circle area for group

instruction

• Consider teacher versus

student access to materials

• Use assigned seats and

areas

• Be sure all students can be

seen

• Design classroom layout

according to the type of

activity taking place:

– Circle for discussion

– Forward facing for group

instruction

• Use assigned seats

• Be sure all students can be

seen

• Consider options for storage

of students’ personal items

(e.g., backpacks, notebooks

for other classes)

• Equipment and materials

are damaged, unsafe,
and/or not in sufficient

working condition or not

accessible to all students

• Disorderly, messy, unclean,

and/or visually unappealing

environment

• Some students and/or parts

of the room not visible to

teacher

• Congestion in high-traffic
areas (e.g., coat closet,

pencil sharpener, teacher

desk)

• Inappropriately sized

furniture

• Teachers can prevent many

instances of problem
behavior and minimize

disruptions by strategically

planning the arrangement
of the physical

environment1

• Arranging classroom
environment to deliver

instruction in a way that

promotes learning2

Video:

http://louisville.edu/education/ab

ri/primarylevel/structure/group

Book:

Structuring Your Classroom for
Academic Success3

1 Wong & Wong, 2009
2 Archer & Hughes, 2011
3 Paine, Radicchi, Rosellini, Deutchman, & Darch, 1983

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1.2 ROUTINES

DEVELOP AND TEACH PREDICTABLE CLASSROOM ROUTINES

Description

and Critical Features

Elementary

Examples

Secondary

Examples

Non-

Examples

Empirical Support

and Resources

What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?

What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?

What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?

• Establish predictable

patterns and activities

• Promote smooth operation

of classroom

• Outline the steps for

completing specific

activities

• Teach routines and

procedures directly

• Practice regularly

• Recognize students when
they successfully follow

classroom routines and

procedures

• Create routines and

procedures for the most

problematic areas or times

• Promote self-managed or

student-guided schedules

and routines

• Establish routines and

procedures for:

– Arrival and dismissal

– Transitions between

activities

– Accessing help

– What to do after work is

completed

• Example arrival routines:

– Hang up coat and

backpack

– Put notes and homework

in the “In” basket

– Sharpen two pencils

– Go to desk and begin the

warm-up activities listed

on the board

– If you finish early, read a

book

• Consider routines and

procedures for:

– Turning in work

– Handing out materials

– Making up missed work

– What to do after work is

completed

• Example class period

routines:

– Warm-up activity for

students

– Review of previous

content

– Instruction for new

material

– Guided or independent

practice opportunities

– Wrap-up activities

• Assuming students will
automatically know your

routines and procedures
without instruction and

feedback

• Omitting tasks that students
are regularly expected to

complete

• Missing opportunities to
provide: (a) visual and/or

auditory reminders to

students about your routines
and procedures (e.g., signs,

posters, pictures, hand

signals, certain music
playing, timers) and/or (b)

feedback about student

performance

• Establishing classroom
routines and procedures

early in the school year
increases structure and

predictability for students;

when clear routines are in
place and consistently used,

students are more likely to

be engaged with school and
learning and less likely to

demonstrate problem

behavior4

• Student learning is

enhanced by teachers’
developing basic classroom

structure (e.g., routines and

procedures)5

Podcast:

http://pbismissouri.org/classroom

-procedures-and-routines-

content-acquisition-video/

Video:
https://www.teachingchannel.org

/videos/create-a-safe-classroom

4 Kern & Clemens, 2007
5 Soar & Soar, 1979

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1.3 EXPECTATIONS

POST, DEFINE, AND TEACH THREE TO FIVE POSITIVE CLASSROOM EXPECTATIONS

Description and Critical
Features

Elementary
Examples

Secondary
Examples

Non-
Examples

Empirical Support
and Resources

What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?

What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?

What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?

• If in a school implementing
a multi-tiered behavioral

framework, such as school-
wide PBIS, adopt the three

to five positive school-wide

expectations as classroom

expectations

• Expectations should be

observable, measurable,
positively stated,

understandable, and always

applicable

• Teach expectations using

examples and non-examples

and with opportunities to
practice and receive

feedback

• Involve students in defining
expectations within

classroom routines

(especially at the secondary

level)

• Obtain student commitment

to support expectations

• Post:

– Prominently in the

classroom

– Example: Be safe, Be

respectful, Be ready, Be

responsible

• Define for each classroom

setting or routine:

– Being safe means hands
and feet to self during

transitions

– Being safe means using
all classroom materials

correctly

• Teach:

– Develop engaging

lessons to teach the

expectations

– Regularly refer to

expectations when
interacting with students

(during prompts, specific

praise, and error

corrections)

• Post:

– Prominently in the

classroom

– Example: Be respectful,

Be responsible, Be a

good citizen, Be ready to

learn

• Define for each classroom

setting or routine:

– Being respectful means

using inclusive language

– Being responsible means
having all materials

ready at the start of

class

• Teach:

– Develop engaging
lessons to teach the

expectations

– Regularly refer to
expectations when

interacting with students

• Assuming students will
already know your

expectations

• Having more than five

expectations

• Listing only behaviors you

do not want from students
(e.g., no cell phones, no

talking, no gum, no hitting)

• Creating expectations that
you are not willing to

consistently enforce

• Selecting expectations that
are inappropriate for

developmental or age level

• Choosing expectations that
do not sufficiently cover all

situations

• Ignoring school-wide

expectations

• A dependable system of
rules and procedures

provides structure for
students and helps them to

be engaged with

instructional tasks6

• Teaching rules and routines

to students at the beginning

of the year and enforcing
them consistently across

time increases student

academic achievement and

task engagement7

Case Study:

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.ed

u/wp-

content/uploads/2013/07/ICS-

003.pdf

Podcast:

http://pbismissouri.org/conten
t-acquisition-podcast-
classroom-rules-and-
expectations/

Videos:

http://louisville.edu/education/a
bri/primarylevel/expectations/gr

oup

6 Brophy, 2004
7 Evertson & Emmer, 1982; Johnson, Stoner, & Green, 1996

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Table 2. Matrix of Practices for Classroom Interventions and Supports

2.1 SUPERVISION

USE ACTIVE SUPERVISION AND PROXIMITY

Practice Description and

Critical Features
Elementary Examples Secondary Examples Non-Examples

Empirical Support and

Resources

What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?

How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?

What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?

What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?

A process for monitoring the
classroom, or any school setting,

that incorporates moving,
scanning, and interacting

frequently with students8

Includes:

• Scanning: visual sweep of
entire space

• Moving: continuous
movement, proximity

• Interacting: verbal
communication in a

respectful manner, any
precorrections, non-

contingent attention, specific

verbal feedback

• While students are working
independently in centers,

scan and move around the

classroom, checking in with

students

• While working with a small

group of students, frequently
look up and quickly scan the

classroom to be sure other

students are still on track

• During transitions between

activities, move among the

students to provide
proximity; scan continuously

to prevent problems, and
provide frequent feedback as

students successfully

complete the transition

• While monitoring students,
move around the area,

interact with students, and

observe behaviors of
individuals and the group;

scan the entire area as you

move around all corners of

the area

• Briefly interact with

students: ask how they are
doing, comment, or inquire

about their interests; show
genuine interest in their

responses (This is an

opportunity to connect
briefly with a number of

students)

• Sitting or standing where
you cannot see the entire

room or space, such as

with your back to the group

or behind your desk

• Walking the same,

predictable route the entire
period of time, such as

walking the rows of desks

in the same manner every

period

• Stopping and talking with a

student or students for

several minutes

• Interacting with the same

student or groups of

students every day

• Combining prompts or
precorrection with active

supervision is effective across

a variety of classroom and

non-classroom settings9

Self-Assessment Tool:

http://pbismissouri.org/wp-
content/uploads/2017/06/ECP5.1-

Teacher-Tool-Classroom-Active-
Supervision-1.pdf?x30198

Module:

http://pbismissouri.org/wp-
content/uploads/2017/06/ECP5.2-

Classroom-Module-Active-

Supervision-1.pptx?x30198

Video:

http://louisville.edu/education/abri/

primarylevel/supervision/group

IRIS Ed (secondary):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v

=rCqIzeU-0hQ

8 DePry & Sugai, 2002
9 Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997; DePry & Sugai, 2002; Lewis, Colvin, & Sugai, 2000