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8e

Human Development
A Life-Span View

Robert V. Kail
Purdue University

John C. Cavanaugh
Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

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Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2017

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Human Development: A Life-Span View,
Eighth Edition
Robert V. Kail and John C. Cavanaugh

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To Dea and Chris

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v

RobeRt V. Kail is Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue
University. His undergraduate degree is from Ohio Wesleyan University and his PhD is
from the University of Michigan. Kail is editor of Child Development Perspectives and edi-
tor emeritus of Psychological Science. He received the McCandless Young Scientist Award
from the American Psychological Association, was named the Distinguished Sesquicen-
tennial Alumnus in Psychology by Ohio Wesleyan University, is a fellow of the Association
for Psychological Science, and is an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg,
Germany. Kail has also written Children and Their Development and Scientific Writing
for Psychology. His research focuses on cognitive development during childhood and
adolescence. Away from the office, he enjoys photography and working out.

About the Author

John C. CaVanaugh is President and CEO of the Consortium of Universities of
the Washington Metropolitan Area. He received his undergraduate degree from the
University of Delaware and his PhD from the University of Notre Dame. Cavanaugh is
a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological
Science, and the Gerontological Society of America, and has served as president of
the Adult Development and Aging Division (Division 20) of the APA. Cavanaugh has
also written (with the late Fredda Blanchard-Fields) Adult Development and Aging. His
research interests in gerontology concern family caregiving as well as the role of beliefs in
older adults’ cognitive performance. For enjoyment, he backpacks, enjoys photography
and cooking, and is an avid traveler.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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vii

1 The Study of Human Development 3
part 1 Prenatal Development, infancy, and early Childhood 39
2 Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 39
3 Tools for Exploring the World: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development 79
4 The Emergence of Thought and Language: Cognitive Development in Infancy

and Early Childhood 117
5 Entering the Social World: Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early

Childhood 155

part 2 School-age Children and adolescents 189
6 Off to School: Cognitive and Physical Development in Middle Childhood 189
7 Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood 227
8 Rites of Passage: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 263
9 Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 289

part 3 Young and Middle adulthood 317
10 Becoming an Adult: Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development in Young

Adulthood 317
11 Being with Others: Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood 355
12 Working and Relaxing 387
13 Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood 421

part 4 late adulthood 457
14 The Personal Context of Later Life: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues 457
15 Social Aspects of Later Life: Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship,

and Societal Issues 501
16 Dying and Bereavement 541

Brief Contents

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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ix

About the Authors v
Preface xxi
To the Student xxxi
Neuroscience Index xxxv
Diversity Index xxxvii

1 The Study of Human Development 3
What Do YOU thinK? Would You Want to Live to Be 142? 4

1.1 thinking about Development 5
Recurring Issues in Human Development 5
Basic Forces in Human Development: The Biopsychosocial Framework 7
Neuroscience: A Window into Human Development 10

Real People Applying Human Development: Muhammad Ali 11

1.2 Developmental theories 12
Psychodynamic Theory 12
Learning Theory 13
Cognitive-Developmental Theory 14
The Ecological and Systems Approach 17
Life-Span Perspective, Selective Optimization with Compensation, and

Life-Course Perspective 18
The Big Picture 21

1.3 Doing Developmental Research 22
Measurement in Human Development Research 23
General Designs for Research 26
Designs for Studying Development 28

Spotlight on Research The Stability of Intelligence from
Age 11 to Age 90 Years 29

Integrating Findings from Different Studies 31
Conducting Research Ethically 32
Communicating Research Results 33
Applying Research Results: Social Policy 33

Summary 34
Key Terms 36

2 Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 39
2.1 in the beginning: 23 Pairs of Chromosomes 40

Mechanisms of Heredity 40

part 1 Prenatal Development, infancy, and early Childhood 38

Contents

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x

Genetic Disorders 43
Heredity, Environment, and Development 45

Real People Applying Human Development: Ben and Matt Pick
Their Niches 50

2.2 From Conception to birth 51
Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1–2) 51

What Do YOU thinK? Conception in the 21st Century 52
Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3–8) 53
Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9–38) 55

2.3 influences on Prenatal Development 57
General Risk Factors 57
Teratogens: Drugs, Diseases, and Environmental Hazards 59
Drugs 59
How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development 62
Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment 64

2.4 labor and Delivery 67
Stages of Labor 67
Approaches to Childbirth 68
Adjusting to Parenthood 69

Spotlight on Research Links Between Maternal Depression and Children’s
Behavior Problems 70

Birth Complications 71
Infant Mortality 72

Summary 74
Key Terms 76

3 Tools for Exploring the World: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development 79
3.1 the newborn 80

The Newborn’s Reflexes 80
Assessing the Newborn 80
The Newborn’s States 82
Temperament 85

3.2 Physical Development 87
Growth of the Body 87
The Emerging Nervous System 91

3.3 Moving and grasping: early Motor Skills 96
Locomotion 96
Fine Motor Skills 100

Spotlight on Research Benefits of Training Babies to Grasp 101

3.4 Coming to Know the World: Perception 102
Smell, Taste, and Touch 103
Hearing 103
Seeing 104
Integrating Sensory Information 108

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xi

3.5 becoming Self-aware 109
Origins of Self-Concept 110
Theory of Mind 111

Real People Applying Human Development: “Seeing Is Believing . . .”
for 3-Year-Olds 112

Summary 113
Key Terms 115

4
The Emergence of Thought and Language:
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early
Childhood 117

4.1 the onset of thinking: Piaget’s account 118
Basic Principles of Cognitive Development 118

Real People Applying Human Development: Learning About Butterflies:
Accommodation and Assimilation in Action 119

Sensorimotor Thinking 120
Preoperational Thinking 122
Evaluating Piaget’s Theory 125
Extending Piaget’s Account: Children’s Naïve Theories 126

Spotlight on Research Have a Heart! Preschoolers’ Essentialist
Thinking 129

4.2 information Processing during infancy and early Childhood 130
General Principles of Information Processing 130
Attention 131
Learning 131
Memory 132
Learning Number Skills 134

4.3 Mind and Culture: Vygotsky’s theory 136
The Zone of Proximal Development 137
Scaffolding 137
Private Speech 138

4.4 language 139
The Road to Speech 139
First Words and Many More 142
Speaking in Sentences: Grammatical Development 146
Communicating with Others 149

Summary 151
Key Terms 153

5 Entering the Social World: Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood 155
5.1 beginnings: trust and attachment 156

Erikson’s Stages of Early Psychosocial Development 156
The Growth of Attachment 157
What Determines Quality of Attachment? 160

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xii

Attachment, Work, and Alternative Caregiving 161
Real People Applying Human Development: Lois, Bill, and Sarah 162

5.2 emerging emotions 163
The Function of Emotions 163
Experiencing and Expressing Emotions 164
Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions 166
Regulating Emotions 167

5.3 interacting with others 168
The Joys of Play 169
Helping Others 172

5.4 gender Roles and gender identity 176
Images of Men and Women: Facts and Fantasy 177

Spotlight on Research Reasoning About Gender-Related Properties 178
Gender Typing 180
Evolving Gender Roles 184

Summary 185
Key Terms 186

6 Off to School: Cognitive and Physical Development in Middle Childhood 189
6.1 Cognitive Development 190

More Sophisticated Thinking: Piaget’s Version 190
Real People Applying Human Development: Combinatorial Reasoning

Goes to the Races 191
Information-Processing Strategies for Learning and Remembering 192

6.2 aptitudes for School 194
Theories of Intelligence 195
Binet and the Development of Intelligence Testing 198
Do Tests Work? 199
Hereditary and Environmental Factors 200
The Impact of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status 201

6.3 Special Children, Special needs 204
Gifted Children 204
Children with Disability 204

Spotlight on Research Improving Children’s Knowledge
of the Structure of Words Enhances Their Reading
Comprehension 206

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 208

6.4 academic Skills 209
Reading 209
Writing 212
Math Skills 213

part 2 School-age Children and adolescents 189

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xiii

Real People Applying Human Development: Shin-Ying Loves School 214
Effective Schools, Effective Teachers 216

6.5 Physical Development 218
Growth 218
Development of Motor Skills 219
Physical Fitness 220
Participating in Sports 220

Summary 222
Key Terms 224

7 Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood 227
7.1 Family Relationships 228

The Family as a System 228
Dimensions and Styles of Parenting 229
Siblings 235
Divorce and Remarriage 238
Parent–Child Relationships Gone Awry: Child Maltreatment 239

7.2 Peers 243
Friendships 243
Groups 245
Popularity and Rejection 246
Aggressive Children and Their Victims 248

7.3 electronic Media 249
Television Programs 250
Video Games 251

Spotlight on Research Playing a Video Game Improves Children’s
Visual-Spatial Skill 251

Social Media 252

7.4 understanding others 253
Describing Others 253

Real People Applying Human Development: Tell Me About a Girl You
Like a Lot 254

Understanding What Others Think 254
Prejudice 256

Summary 258
Key Terms 260

8 Rites of Passage: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 263
8.1 Pubertal Changes 264

Signs of Physical Maturation 264
Mechanisms of Maturation 266
Psychological Impact of Puberty 267

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xiv

8.2 health 270
Nutrition 270

Spotlight on Research Evaluating a Program for Preventing Eating
Disorders 273

Physical Fitness 274
Threats to Adolescent Well-Being 275

8.3 information Processing During adolescence 276
Working Memory and Processing Speed 276
Content Knowledge, Strategies, and Metacognitive Skill 277
Problem-Solving and Reasoning 277

8.4 Reasoning about Moral issues 279
Kohlberg’s Theory 280

Real People Applying Human Development: Schindler’s List 282
Evaluating Kohlberg’s Theory 282
Promoting Moral Reasoning 283

Summary 285
Key Terms 286

9 Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 289
9.1 identity and Self-esteem 290

The Search for Identity 290
Ethnic Identity 293
Self-Esteem in Adolescence 294
The Myth of Storm and Stress 296

9.2 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality 297
Romantic Relationships 297
Sexual Behavior 298
Sexual Minority Youth 300
Dating Violence 300

9.3 the World of Work 302
Career Development 302

Real People Applying Human Development: “The Life of Lynne”:
A Drama in Three Acts 303

Part-Time Employment 305

9.4 the Dark Side 307
Drug Use 307
Depression 308

Spotlight on Research Does Racial Discrimination Lead to Depression? 309
Delinquency 310

What Do YOU thinK? When Juveniles Commit Serious Crimes, Should
They Be Tried as Adults? 313

Summary 313
Key Terms 315

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xv

10 Becoming an Adult: Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development in Young Adulthood 317
10.1 emerging adulthood 318

Role Transitions Marking Adulthood 319
Neuroscience, Behavior, and Emerging Adulthood 320
Achieving Milestones: Education, Workforce, and Erikson’s Intimacy 321
So When Do People Become Adults? 323

Real People Applying Human Development: Does Being Rich and Famous
Mean You’re an Adult? 324

10.2 Physical Development and health 325
Growth, Strength, and Physical Functioning 325
Lifestyle Factors in Health 325

What Do YOU thinK? Healthcare Disparities in the United States 333

10.3 Cognitive Development 334
How Should We View Intelligence in Adults? 334
Primary and Secondary Mental Abilities 335

Spotlight on Research The Seattle Longitudinal Study 336
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 337
Neuroscience Research and Intelligence 339
Going Beyond Formal Operations: Thinking in Adulthood 340
Integrating Emotion and Logic in Emerging and Young Adulthood 342

10.4 Who Do You Want to be? Personality in Young
adulthood 345

Creating Life Stories 346
Possible Selves 347
Personal Control Beliefs 348

Summary 350
Key Terms 352

11 Being with Others: Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood 355
11.1 Relationship types and issues 356

Friendships 356
Love Relationships 358

Spotlight on Research Patterns and Universals of Romantic Attachment
Around the World 361

Violence in Relationships 363

11.2 lifestyles and Relationships 365
Singlehood 365
Cohabitation 366
LGBTQ Relationships 367

part 3 Young and Middle adulthood 317

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xvi

Marriage 368
Real People James Obergefell and John Arthur Make History 369

11.3 Family Dynamics and the life Course 372
The Parental Role 372

What Do YOU thinK? Paid Family Leave 374
Diverse Family Forms 376

11.4 Divorce and Remarriage 379
Divorce 379
Remarriage 382

Summary 384
Key Terms 385

12 Working and Relaxing 387
12.1 occupational Selection and Development 388

The Meaning of Work 388
Occupational Choice Revisited 389
Occupational Development 392
Job Satisfaction 394

12.2 gender, ethnicity, and Discrimination issues 397
Gender Differences in Occupational Selection 397
Women and Occupational Development 398
Ethnicity and Occupational Development 399
Bias and Discrimination 400
Gender Bias, Glass Ceilings, and Glass Cliffs 400

What Do YOU thinK? Helping Women Lean In 401

12.3 occupational transitions 404
Retraining Workers 404
Occupational Insecurity 405
Coping with Unemployment 405

Real People The Politics of Unemployment 406

12.4 Work and Family 408
The Dependent Care Dilemma 408
Juggling Multiple Roles 410

12.5 taking time to Relax: leisure activities 413
Types of Leisure Activities 413
Developmental Changes in Leisure 414

Spotlight on Research Long-Term Effects of Leisure
Activities 415

Consequences of Leisure Activities 415

Summary 417
Key Terms 419

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xvii

13 Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood 421
13.1 Physical Changes and health 422

Changes in Appearance 422
Changes in Bones and Joints 423
Reproductive Changes 427

What Do YOU thinK? Menopausal Hormone Therapy 429
Stress and Health 430
Exercise 434

13.2 Cognitive Development 436
Practical Intelligence 436
Becoming an Expert 438
Lifelong Learning 439

Spotlight on Research Designing Software for Middle-Aged
and Older Nonexperts 440

13.3 Personality 441
The Five-Factor Trait Model 441
Changing Priorities in Midlife 443

13.4 Family Dynamics and Middle age 447
Letting Go: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Children 447
Giving Back: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Aging Parents 448

Real People Applying Human Development: Taking Care of Mom 448
Grandparenthood 450

Summary 453
Key Terms 454

14 The Personal Context of Later Life: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues 457
14.1 What are older adults like? 458

The Demographics of Aging 458
Longevity 461
The Third–Fourth Age Distinction 464

14.2 Physical Changes and health 465
Biological Theories of Aging 466
Physiological Changes 468
Chronic Disease and Lifestyle Health Issues 475

Real People The “Angelina Jolie Effect” 477

14.3 Cognitive Processes 479
Information Processing 479

part 4 late adulthood 457

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xviii

Memory 481
Creativity and Wisdom 485

What Do YOU thinK? Does Creativity Exist? 486

14.4 Mental health and intervention 488
Depression 488
Anxiety Disorders 490
Dementia 491

Spotlight on Research Training Persons with Dementia to Be Group
Activity Leaders 496

Summary 497
Key Terms 499

15 Social Aspects of Later Life: Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship, and Societal Issues 501
15.1 theories of Psychosocial aging 502

The Goal of Healthy Aging 502
Competence and Environmental Press 503
Preventive and Corrective Proactivity Model 505

Real People Applying Human Development: Katherine Johnson: Human
Computer for NASA 507

15.2 Personality, Social Cognition,

Psycology Human Growth & Development

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8e

Human Development
A Life-Span View

Robert V. Kail
Purdue University

John C. Cavanaugh
Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

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This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,
some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed
content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right
to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For
valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate
formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
materials in your areas of interest.

Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product
text may not be available in the eBook version.

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Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2017

© 2019, 2016 Cengage Learning, Inc.

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Human Development: A Life-Span View,
Eighth Edition
Robert V. Kail and John C. Cavanaugh

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To Dea and Chris

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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v

RobeRt V. Kail is Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue
University. His undergraduate degree is from Ohio Wesleyan University and his PhD is
from the University of Michigan. Kail is editor of Child Development Perspectives and edi-
tor emeritus of Psychological Science. He received the McCandless Young Scientist Award
from the American Psychological Association, was named the Distinguished Sesquicen-
tennial Alumnus in Psychology by Ohio Wesleyan University, is a fellow of the Association
for Psychological Science, and is an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg,
Germany. Kail has also written Children and Their Development and Scientific Writing
for Psychology. His research focuses on cognitive development during childhood and
adolescence. Away from the office, he enjoys photography and working out.

About the Author

John C. CaVanaugh is President and CEO of the Consortium of Universities of
the Washington Metropolitan Area. He received his undergraduate degree from the
University of Delaware and his PhD from the University of Notre Dame. Cavanaugh is
a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological
Science, and the Gerontological Society of America, and has served as president of
the Adult Development and Aging Division (Division 20) of the APA. Cavanaugh has
also written (with the late Fredda Blanchard-Fields) Adult Development and Aging. His
research interests in gerontology concern family caregiving as well as the role of beliefs in
older adults’ cognitive performance. For enjoyment, he backpacks, enjoys photography
and cooking, and is an avid traveler.

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vii

1 The Study of Human Development 3
part 1 Prenatal Development, infancy, and early Childhood 39
2 Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 39
3 Tools for Exploring the World: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development 79
4 The Emergence of Thought and Language: Cognitive Development in Infancy

and Early Childhood 117
5 Entering the Social World: Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early

Childhood 155

part 2 School-age Children and adolescents 189
6 Off to School: Cognitive and Physical Development in Middle Childhood 189
7 Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood 227
8 Rites of Passage: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 263
9 Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 289

part 3 Young and Middle adulthood 317
10 Becoming an Adult: Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development in Young

Adulthood 317
11 Being with Others: Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood 355
12 Working and Relaxing 387
13 Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood 421

part 4 late adulthood 457
14 The Personal Context of Later Life: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues 457
15 Social Aspects of Later Life: Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship,

and Societal Issues 501
16 Dying and Bereavement 541

Brief Contents

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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ix

About the Authors v
Preface xxi
To the Student xxxi
Neuroscience Index xxxv
Diversity Index xxxvii

1 The Study of Human Development 3
What Do YOU thinK? Would You Want to Live to Be 142? 4

1.1 thinking about Development 5
Recurring Issues in Human Development 5
Basic Forces in Human Development: The Biopsychosocial Framework 7
Neuroscience: A Window into Human Development 10

Real People Applying Human Development: Muhammad Ali 11

1.2 Developmental theories 12
Psychodynamic Theory 12
Learning Theory 13
Cognitive-Developmental Theory 14
The Ecological and Systems Approach 17
Life-Span Perspective, Selective Optimization with Compensation, and

Life-Course Perspective 18
The Big Picture 21

1.3 Doing Developmental Research 22
Measurement in Human Development Research 23
General Designs for Research 26
Designs for Studying Development 28

Spotlight on Research The Stability of Intelligence from
Age 11 to Age 90 Years 29

Integrating Findings from Different Studies 31
Conducting Research Ethically 32
Communicating Research Results 33
Applying Research Results: Social Policy 33

Summary 34
Key Terms 36

2 Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 39
2.1 in the beginning: 23 Pairs of Chromosomes 40

Mechanisms of Heredity 40

part 1 Prenatal Development, infancy, and early Childhood 38

Contents

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x

Genetic Disorders 43
Heredity, Environment, and Development 45

Real People Applying Human Development: Ben and Matt Pick
Their Niches 50

2.2 From Conception to birth 51
Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1–2) 51

What Do YOU thinK? Conception in the 21st Century 52
Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3–8) 53
Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9–38) 55

2.3 influences on Prenatal Development 57
General Risk Factors 57
Teratogens: Drugs, Diseases, and Environmental Hazards 59
Drugs 59
How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development 62
Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment 64

2.4 labor and Delivery 67
Stages of Labor 67
Approaches to Childbirth 68
Adjusting to Parenthood 69

Spotlight on Research Links Between Maternal Depression and Children’s
Behavior Problems 70

Birth Complications 71
Infant Mortality 72

Summary 74
Key Terms 76

3 Tools for Exploring the World: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development 79
3.1 the newborn 80

The Newborn’s Reflexes 80
Assessing the Newborn 80
The Newborn’s States 82
Temperament 85

3.2 Physical Development 87
Growth of the Body 87
The Emerging Nervous System 91

3.3 Moving and grasping: early Motor Skills 96
Locomotion 96
Fine Motor Skills 100

Spotlight on Research Benefits of Training Babies to Grasp 101

3.4 Coming to Know the World: Perception 102
Smell, Taste, and Touch 103
Hearing 103
Seeing 104
Integrating Sensory Information 108

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xi

3.5 becoming Self-aware 109
Origins of Self-Concept 110
Theory of Mind 111

Real People Applying Human Development: “Seeing Is Believing . . .”
for 3-Year-Olds 112

Summary 113
Key Terms 115

4
The Emergence of Thought and Language:
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early
Childhood 117

4.1 the onset of thinking: Piaget’s account 118
Basic Principles of Cognitive Development 118

Real People Applying Human Development: Learning About Butterflies:
Accommodation and Assimilation in Action 119

Sensorimotor Thinking 120
Preoperational Thinking 122
Evaluating Piaget’s Theory 125
Extending Piaget’s Account: Children’s Naïve Theories 126

Spotlight on Research Have a Heart! Preschoolers’ Essentialist
Thinking 129

4.2 information Processing during infancy and early Childhood 130
General Principles of Information Processing 130
Attention 131
Learning 131
Memory 132
Learning Number Skills 134

4.3 Mind and Culture: Vygotsky’s theory 136
The Zone of Proximal Development 137
Scaffolding 137
Private Speech 138

4.4 language 139
The Road to Speech 139
First Words and Many More 142
Speaking in Sentences: Grammatical Development 146
Communicating with Others 149

Summary 151
Key Terms 153

5 Entering the Social World: Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood 155
5.1 beginnings: trust and attachment 156

Erikson’s Stages of Early Psychosocial Development 156
The Growth of Attachment 157
What Determines Quality of Attachment? 160

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xii

Attachment, Work, and Alternative Caregiving 161
Real People Applying Human Development: Lois, Bill, and Sarah 162

5.2 emerging emotions 163
The Function of Emotions 163
Experiencing and Expressing Emotions 164
Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions 166
Regulating Emotions 167

5.3 interacting with others 168
The Joys of Play 169
Helping Others 172

5.4 gender Roles and gender identity 176
Images of Men and Women: Facts and Fantasy 177

Spotlight on Research Reasoning About Gender-Related Properties 178
Gender Typing 180
Evolving Gender Roles 184

Summary 185
Key Terms 186

6 Off to School: Cognitive and Physical Development in Middle Childhood 189
6.1 Cognitive Development 190

More Sophisticated Thinking: Piaget’s Version 190
Real People Applying Human Development: Combinatorial Reasoning

Goes to the Races 191
Information-Processing Strategies for Learning and Remembering 192

6.2 aptitudes for School 194
Theories of Intelligence 195
Binet and the Development of Intelligence Testing 198
Do Tests Work? 199
Hereditary and Environmental Factors 200
The Impact of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status 201

6.3 Special Children, Special needs 204
Gifted Children 204
Children with Disability 204

Spotlight on Research Improving Children’s Knowledge
of the Structure of Words Enhances Their Reading
Comprehension 206

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 208

6.4 academic Skills 209
Reading 209
Writing 212
Math Skills 213

part 2 School-age Children and adolescents 189

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xiii

Real People Applying Human Development: Shin-Ying Loves School 214
Effective Schools, Effective Teachers 216

6.5 Physical Development 218
Growth 218
Development of Motor Skills 219
Physical Fitness 220
Participating in Sports 220

Summary 222
Key Terms 224

7 Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood 227
7.1 Family Relationships 228

The Family as a System 228
Dimensions and Styles of Parenting 229
Siblings 235
Divorce and Remarriage 238
Parent–Child Relationships Gone Awry: Child Maltreatment 239

7.2 Peers 243
Friendships 243
Groups 245
Popularity and Rejection 246
Aggressive Children and Their Victims 248

7.3 electronic Media 249
Television Programs 250
Video Games 251

Spotlight on Research Playing a Video Game Improves Children’s
Visual-Spatial Skill 251

Social Media 252

7.4 understanding others 253
Describing Others 253

Real People Applying Human Development: Tell Me About a Girl You
Like a Lot 254

Understanding What Others Think 254
Prejudice 256

Summary 258
Key Terms 260

8 Rites of Passage: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 263
8.1 Pubertal Changes 264

Signs of Physical Maturation 264
Mechanisms of Maturation 266
Psychological Impact of Puberty 267

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xiv

8.2 health 270
Nutrition 270

Spotlight on Research Evaluating a Program for Preventing Eating
Disorders 273

Physical Fitness 274
Threats to Adolescent Well-Being 275

8.3 information Processing During adolescence 276
Working Memory and Processing Speed 276
Content Knowledge, Strategies, and Metacognitive Skill 277
Problem-Solving and Reasoning 277

8.4 Reasoning about Moral issues 279
Kohlberg’s Theory 280

Real People Applying Human Development: Schindler’s List 282
Evaluating Kohlberg’s Theory 282
Promoting Moral Reasoning 283

Summary 285
Key Terms 286

9 Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 289
9.1 identity and Self-esteem 290

The Search for Identity 290
Ethnic Identity 293
Self-Esteem in Adolescence 294
The Myth of Storm and Stress 296

9.2 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality 297
Romantic Relationships 297
Sexual Behavior 298
Sexual Minority Youth 300
Dating Violence 300

9.3 the World of Work 302
Career Development 302

Real People Applying Human Development: “The Life of Lynne”:
A Drama in Three Acts 303

Part-Time Employment 305

9.4 the Dark Side 307
Drug Use 307
Depression 308

Spotlight on Research Does Racial Discrimination Lead to Depression? 309
Delinquency 310

What Do YOU thinK? When Juveniles Commit Serious Crimes, Should
They Be Tried as Adults? 313

Summary 313
Key Terms 315

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xv

10 Becoming an Adult: Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development in Young Adulthood 317
10.1 emerging adulthood 318

Role Transitions Marking Adulthood 319
Neuroscience, Behavior, and Emerging Adulthood 320
Achieving Milestones: Education, Workforce, and Erikson’s Intimacy 321
So When Do People Become Adults? 323

Real People Applying Human Development: Does Being Rich and Famous
Mean You’re an Adult? 324

10.2 Physical Development and health 325
Growth, Strength, and Physical Functioning 325
Lifestyle Factors in Health 325

What Do YOU thinK? Healthcare Disparities in the United States 333

10.3 Cognitive Development 334
How Should We View Intelligence in Adults? 334
Primary and Secondary Mental Abilities 335

Spotlight on Research The Seattle Longitudinal Study 336
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 337
Neuroscience Research and Intelligence 339
Going Beyond Formal Operations: Thinking in Adulthood 340
Integrating Emotion and Logic in Emerging and Young Adulthood 342

10.4 Who Do You Want to be? Personality in Young
adulthood 345

Creating Life Stories 346
Possible Selves 347
Personal Control Beliefs 348

Summary 350
Key Terms 352

11 Being with Others: Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood 355
11.1 Relationship types and issues 356

Friendships 356
Love Relationships 358

Spotlight on Research Patterns and Universals of Romantic Attachment
Around the World 361

Violence in Relationships 363

11.2 lifestyles and Relationships 365
Singlehood 365
Cohabitation 366
LGBTQ Relationships 367

part 3 Young and Middle adulthood 317

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xvi

Marriage 368
Real People James Obergefell and John Arthur Make History 369

11.3 Family Dynamics and the life Course 372
The Parental Role 372

What Do YOU thinK? Paid Family Leave 374
Diverse Family Forms 376

11.4 Divorce and Remarriage 379
Divorce 379
Remarriage 382

Summary 384
Key Terms 385

12 Working and Relaxing 387
12.1 occupational Selection and Development 388

The Meaning of Work 388
Occupational Choice Revisited 389
Occupational Development 392
Job Satisfaction 394

12.2 gender, ethnicity, and Discrimination issues 397
Gender Differences in Occupational Selection 397
Women and Occupational Development 398
Ethnicity and Occupational Development 399
Bias and Discrimination 400
Gender Bias, Glass Ceilings, and Glass Cliffs 400

What Do YOU thinK? Helping Women Lean In 401

12.3 occupational transitions 404
Retraining Workers 404
Occupational Insecurity 405
Coping with Unemployment 405

Real People The Politics of Unemployment 406

12.4 Work and Family 408
The Dependent Care Dilemma 408
Juggling Multiple Roles 410

12.5 taking time to Relax: leisure activities 413
Types of Leisure Activities 413
Developmental Changes in Leisure 414

Spotlight on Research Long-Term Effects of Leisure
Activities 415

Consequences of Leisure Activities 415

Summary 417
Key Terms 419

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xvii

13 Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood 421
13.1 Physical Changes and health 422

Changes in Appearance 422
Changes in Bones and Joints 423
Reproductive Changes 427

What Do YOU thinK? Menopausal Hormone Therapy 429
Stress and Health 430
Exercise 434

13.2 Cognitive Development 436
Practical Intelligence 436
Becoming an Expert 438
Lifelong Learning 439

Spotlight on Research Designing Software for Middle-Aged
and Older Nonexperts 440

13.3 Personality 441
The Five-Factor Trait Model 441
Changing Priorities in Midlife 443

13.4 Family Dynamics and Middle age 447
Letting Go: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Children 447
Giving Back: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Aging Parents 448

Real People Applying Human Development: Taking Care of Mom 448
Grandparenthood 450

Summary 453
Key Terms 454

14 The Personal Context of Later Life: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues 457
14.1 What are older adults like? 458

The Demographics of Aging 458
Longevity 461
The Third–Fourth Age Distinction 464

14.2 Physical Changes and health 465
Biological Theories of Aging 466
Physiological Changes 468
Chronic Disease and Lifestyle Health Issues 475

Real People The “Angelina Jolie Effect” 477

14.3 Cognitive Processes 479
Information Processing 479

part 4 late adulthood 457

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xviii

Memory 481
Creativity and Wisdom 485

What Do YOU thinK? Does Creativity Exist? 486

14.4 Mental health and intervention 488
Depression 488
Anxiety Disorders 490
Dementia 491

Spotlight on Research Training Persons with Dementia to Be Group
Activity Leaders 496

Summary 497
Key Terms 499

15 Social Aspects of Later Life: Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship, and Societal Issues 501
15.1 theories of Psychosocial aging 502

The Goal of Healthy Aging 502
Competence and Environmental Press 503
Preventive and Corrective Proactivity Model 505

Real People Applying Human Development: Katherine Johnson: Human
Computer for NASA 507

15.2 Personality, Social Cognition,

Psycology Human Growth & Development

Paper Instructions

For your semester paper, please adhere to the following guidelines. These guidelines are requirements regarding grading as you can see from the rubric. The overall purpose of the paper is to reflect on the movie of your choosing and how it connects with what we are learning in the course. It is wide open about exactly what you will discuss, but make sure that you are using
course psychological concepts
to tie in with your ideas. If you are unsure as to if you are on the right track, please feel free to discuss with me.


Guidelines:

*Paper should be at least 3 typed pages in length (not almost 3 pages, but a full 3 pages) (Times New Roman font, 12-point, 1-inch margins, and double-spaced). You should include a title page and a reference page that adheres to APA style (format resources are located in D2L).

*Your paper SHOULD NOT include a summary of the movie. I want you to pick out scenes/people from the movie and describe them using very specific concepts we have covered in the course. The object of this assignment is to get you thinking. That is what makes the assignment so interesting. There should be at least 5 different course concepts that you connect from the movie to our course concepts (more are welcomed). I will post a video explaining more about this during the semester.

*No two students will be allowed to use the same movie. In week 3 of our course, we will do a discussion post where everyone will say the movie they chose. It would be best to get this done early in the week so you get the movie you want. If you see that another student has picked the movie you want, you will need to choose something else so read all the posts before making your own. First come first served on movie choice.

Tip: Take notes while watching the movie because small things will often be forgotten when you start writing the actual paper.


Rubric:

Paper length and format – 20 points

Psychological concepts relevant to our course without summary – 60 points

Overall writing – 20 points

Total – 100 points

Please note: Turnitin will be enabled on this project so it is critical that you do your own work. Plagiarism will receive a score of zero.

Psycology Human Growth & Development

 

Looking for a movie that will discuss a person  Human Growth & Development

Please follow the direction that is attatched

Book Materials – use only chapter 1-16

 Chapter : About Human Development: A Life-Span View Cover Image Book Title: Human Development: A Life-Span

Psycology Human Growth & Development

Paper Instructions

For your semester paper, please adhere to the following guidelines. These guidelines are requirements regarding grading as you can see from the rubric. The overall purpose of the paper is to reflect on the movie of your choosing and how it connects with what we are learning in the course. It is wide open about exactly what you will discuss, but make sure that you are using
course psychological concepts
to tie in with your ideas. If you are unsure as to if you are on the right track, please feel free to discuss with me.


Guidelines:

*Paper should be at least 3 typed pages in length (not almost 3 pages, but a full 3 pages) (Times New Roman font, 12-point, 1-inch margins, and double-spaced). You should include a title page and a reference page that adheres to APA style (format resources are located in D2L).

*Your paper SHOULD NOT include a summary of the movie. I want you to pick out scenes/people from the movie and describe them using very specific concepts we have covered in the course. The object of this assignment is to get you thinking. That is what makes the assignment so interesting. There should be at least 5 different course concepts that you connect from the movie to our course concepts (more are welcomed). I will post a video explaining more about this during the semester.

*No two students will be allowed to use the same movie. In week 3 of our course, we will do a discussion post where everyone will say the movie they chose. It would be best to get this done early in the week so you get the movie you want. If you see that another student has picked the movie you want, you will need to choose something else so read all the posts before making your own. First come first served on movie choice.

Tip: Take notes while watching the movie because small things will often be forgotten when you start writing the actual paper.


Rubric:

Paper length and format – 20 points

Psychological concepts relevant to our course without summary – 60 points

Overall writing – 20 points

Total – 100 points

Please note: Turnitin will be enabled on this project so it is critical that you do your own work. Plagiarism will receive a score of zero.

Psycology Human Growth & Development

Looking for a movie that will discuss Psychology Human Growth & Development and to complete this assignment