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Psychopathology

Assignment: Assessing and Diagnosing Patients With Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Many individuals seeking treatment meet the criteria for both mental health and substance-related disorders. Regardless of whether you specialize in substance-related disorders, all advanced practice nurses should know their signs and symptoms and how to assess and diagnose them. There are assessment and screening tools available to clinicians, and a plethora of information can be obtained through the diagnostic interview. It takes time and experience to know what types of questions to ask to gain the most information, in addition to a basic knowledge of the substances and behaviors you are trying to assess. It can be complicated to sort out substance use disorders from other mental health disorders, but most clients seeking treatment have comorbidities. 

· Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information

· Formulate differential diagnoses using DSM-5 criteria for patients with substance-related and addictive disorders across the lifespan

An important consideration when working with patients is their cultural background. Understanding an individual’s culture and personal experiences provides insight into who the person is and where he or she may progress in the future. Culture helps to establish a sense of identity, as well as to set values, behaviors, and purpose for individuals within a society. Culture may also contribute to a divide between specific interpretations of cultural behavior and societal norms. What one culture may deem as appropriate another culture may find inappropriate. As a result, it is important for advanced practice nurses to remain aware of cultural considerations and interpretations of behavior for diagnosis, especially with reference to substance-related disorders. At the same time, PMHNPs must balance their professional and legal responsibilities for assessment and diagnosis with such cultural considerations and interpretations.

· Consider what history would be necessary to collect from this patient.

· Consider what interview questions you would need to ask this patient.

· Identify at least three possible differential diagnoses for the patient.

CASE STUDY

Name: Lisa Pittman Gender: female Age: 29 years old T- 99.8 P- 101 R 20 178/94 Ht 5’6 Wt 140lbs Background: Lisa is in a West Palm Beach, FL detox facility thinking about long term rehab. She has been smoking crack cocaine, approximately $100 daily. She admits to cannabis 1–2 times weekly (“I have a medical card”), and 2–3 alcohol drinks once weekly. She has past drug possession and theft convictions; currently on 2 yr probation with randomized drug screens. She tries to find the pattern for the calls in order not to test dirty urine. Her admission labs abnormal for ALT 168 AST 200 ALK 250; bilirubin 2.5, albumin 3.0; her GGT is 59; UDS positive for cocaine, THC. Negative for alcohol or other drugs. BAL 0; other labs within normal ranges. She reports sexual abuse as child ages 5–7, perpetrator being her father who went to prison for the abuse and drug charges. She is estranged from him. Mother lives in Alabama, hx of anxiety, benzodiazepine use. Older brother has not contact with family in last 10 years, hx of opioid use. Sleeps 4-5 hrs, appetite decreased, prefers to get high instead of eating. Allergies: amoxicillin She is considering treatment for her Hep C+ but needs to get clean first.

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00:00:00TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

00:00:00______________________________________________________________________________ 

00:00:00BEGIN TRANSCRIPT: 

00:00:00[sil.] 

00:00:20LISA Well I had to be here in this hospital if that answers your question. 

00:00:25OFF CAMERA Yes, thank you. Can I get you a drink of water or something else to drink? Anything? 

00:00:35LISA A drink isn’t going to convince me, right? You’re going to have to convince me. 

00:00:40OFF CAMERA What is you want me to persuade you to do? 

00:00:45LISA Going to rehab. 

00:00:50OFF CAMERA What worries you about going to rehab? 

00:00:55[sil.] 

00:01:00LISA Everything. 

00:01:00OFF CAMERA Okay. I tell you what let’s go back a little bit and tell me about how you’re feeling today. 

00:01:10LISA Scared. 

00:01:15OFF CAMERA Can you tell me more about that feeling of being scared? 

00:01:20LISA Well, I don’t want to be. I don’t want to be what people say I am because if I say it and I’m not going to say it because I ain’t going to change. I can’t. 

00:01:35OFF CAMERA What do people say you are? 

00:01:40LISA And I’m not. 

00:01:45OFF CAMERA What don’t you want to be? 

00:01:45LISA An addict. 

00:01:50OFF CAMERA Do you use drugs and alcohol? 

00:01:50LISA Yeah sometimes I have a drink. You know with friends [inaudible] but it doesn’t matter. I’m in control. 

00:02:00OFF CAMERA Do you feel in control now? 

00:02:05LISA Maybe I could just get that drink [inaudible]. 

00:02:10OFF CAMERA Sure. Sure. Here you go. 

00:02:15LISA Thank you. 

00:02:20[sil.] 

00:02:30LISA You know what I just think I should leave. 

00:02:30OFF CAMERA You keep saying you should leave. You said that earlier but do you really want to leave? 

00:02:40LISA No. 

00:02:45OFF CAMERA Okay. Tell me why you are here. 

00:02:45LISA Because I’m scared. 

00:02:50OFF CAMERA You said that earlier. You think if you could — then I could figure out together why you’re scared and maybe we can come up to a plan. Up with a plan and if we do that, then maybe your fears will disappear. 

00:03:05LISA No not these fears [inaudible] because it’s over. 

00:03:10OFF CAMERA What’s over? 

00:03:10LISA Everything. The business. 

00:03:15OFF CAMERA What do you mean? 

00:03:20LISA Jeremy. 

00:03:25OFF CAMERA Who is Jeremy? 

00:03:25LISA He’s my boyfriend. I saw him naked with Alisa [assumed spelling] with the same fucking name as me. We now have the same fucking boyfriend. In my office, he was screwing that fucking cunk. 

00:03:45OFF CAMERA So you’re the one who caught Jeremy cheating? 

00:03:55LISA Yeah. Cheating? Yeah that’s a clever word shrinks use. 

00:04:05OFF CAMERA So you and Jeremy share an office? 

00:04:05LISA Yeah we do commercials for local businesses, you know, build websites, that kind of stuff. We started a business together. He moved in with me. 

00:04:15OFF CAMERA How long ago was that? 

00:04:20LISA Nine months. 

00:04:20OFF CAMERA Do you have any children? 

00:04:20LISA Not with that fucking asshole. 

00:04:25[sil.] 

00:04:30LISA I have a daughter, Sarah. Gosh, she’s beautiful. She stays with some friends. She’s not related to Jeremy, thank God. 

00:04:45OFF CAMERA And where are you staying? 

00:04:45LISA I’m renting a place far away from here. You know I ran down to the bank to empty both our bank accounts. 

00:04:55OFF CAMERA Business accounts? 

00:04:55LISA Yeah. And do you know that asshole has been draining them for 4 months? I swear. 

00:05:05OFF CAMERA Taking money out of your account without your knowledge. 

00:05:05LISA Yeah. For his buys. 

00:05:10OFF CAMERA Buys? 

00:05:10LISA Yeah, to payoff his debts with my money. 

00:05:20OFF CAMERA Or crack cocaine? 

00:05:25LISA Yeah for crack. 

00:05:25OFF CAMERA How long have you know he’s been smoking crack? 

00:05:30LISA Ever since I saw him with that — every since I saw with her naked. The both of them naked. 

00:05:40OFF CAMERA What was that like seeing Jeremy and Alisa naked and smoking crack? 

00:05:40LISA Well have you ever seen someone you love naked smoking crack? 

00:05:45OFF CAMERA No. 

00:05:50LISA Yeah no I didn’t think so. 

00:05:50OFF CAMERA So what has that been like for you knowing Jeremy’s smoking crack? 

00:05:55LISA Well, I’ve never seen him do drugs before. You know he drinks a lot, smokes weed, but crack cocaine. I mean God have mercy. 

00:06:15OFF CAMERA What are you thinking about? 

00:06:20LISA Everyone’s going to know. 

00:06:25OFF CAMERA Know what? 

00:06:30LISA That I was getting high to stay in this hospital and get cleaned up. 

00:06:35OFF CAMERA You mean rather than go to rehab. 

00:06:40LISA Rehab, man they’re fucking dirty places and I’m sick and tired of dirty places. 

00:06:45OFF CAMERA No, no, no this rehab place is very clean. I’ve seen it. There are a lot of nice people there. People who feel like they get much better help than here in the hospital. In fact, I can call someone for you and let you talk with them. 

00:06:55LISA No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, don’t do that. 

00:07:00OFF CAMERA You’re really fearful of going to rehab. 

00:07:05LISA Well if everyone finds out that I’ve been to rehab, I won’t get a job. I won’t be hired anyway. 

00:07:10OFF CAMERA Plus if people are fearful of the stigma and fearful of what people will think of them. 

00:07:20LISA Yeah, but he says that I’m not addicted. It’s just — you know something wrong with my personality. 

00:07:25OFF CAMERA Who says there’s something wrong with your personality? 

00:07:30LISA Jeremy. 

00:07:30OFF CAMERA When did he tell you that? 

00:07:35LISA Lots of times. 

00:07:35OFF CAMERA I thought you said you and Jeremy split up after you caught him cheating. 

00:07:40LISA I — 

00:07:45OFF CAMERA It’s okay. Take your time. 

00:07:50LISA Well yeah he moved back in. 

00:07:50OFF CAMERA Into your new home? 

00:07:55LISA Yeah. What changed that you two decided to get back together? 

00:08:00OFF CAMERA Well he said he was sorry and he begged me. He’s done it before so I took him back. 

00:08:10LISA And how has that been being back with Jeremy? 

00:08:15OFF CAMERA Well I love Jeremy. I do and don’t want to go out and find another boyfriend. I mean we lost 80,000 dollars on that business. And he promised me that he would make it all back. 

00:08:30LISA So is that why you took him back? Has Jeremy continued smoking crack? 

00:08:45OFF CAMERA Yeah a little but he’s not addicted. He says that it calms him down. Me too. 

00:09:05LISA You too? 

00:09:05OFF CAMERA So do you smoke crack with Jeremy? 

00:09:15LISA Yeah we — he made me try it. 

00:09:25[sil.] 

00:09:30[ Crying ] 

00:09:40LISA And then he tried just once. We did it together. [Inaudible] I could. 

00:09:55[ Crying ] 

00:10:00LISA Hit me like a bullet. And it felt so good. I felt so good. And real fast. 

00:10:20[sil.] 

00:10:25LISA Have you ever felt like you were dancing with butterflies? 

00:10:30OFF CAMERA Dancing with butterflies? No I have not. 

00:10:40[sil.] 

00:10:45LISA But he says it’s not addictive, Jeremy. 

00:10:50OFF CAMERA What do you think? 

00:10:55LISA Well I know I can’t get enough. 

00:11:00[ Crying ] 

00:11:10LISA And I know I don’t want to go back to feeling horrible again because when I don’t smoke it I get worse. And when I have it, I feel good. And then it’s gone. And then I know that I’m going to be needing another hit. 

00:11:45OFF CAMERA That sounds a lot like addiction. 

00:11:55LISA Yeah but I know I don’t want it to be. 

00:12:00OFF CAMERA It sounds like you are very scared of getting help and yet at the same very time, it sounds like you know you need that help. 

00:12:15LISA I know I don’t need help. I don’t need anything. Jeremy promised me that everything is going to be okay. And when you love someone like I do, you got to believe him. Right? 

00:12:45[sil.] 

00:12:45END TRANSCRIPT 

Psychopathology

Assignment

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders; Medication-Induced Movement Disorders

For individuals with disorders such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the development of mental disorder seldom occurs with a singular, defining symptom. Rather, many who experience such disorders show a range of unique symptoms. This range of symptoms may impede an individual’s ability to function in daily life. As a result, clinicians address a patient’s ability or inability to function in life.

Explore psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. Also, explore medication-induced movement disorders and formulate a diagnosis for a patient in a case study.

· Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information

· Formulate differential diagnoses using DSM-5 criteria for patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders, and medication-induced movement disorders across the life span.

Psychotic disorders and schizophrenia are some of the most complicated and challenging diagnoses in the DSM. The symptoms of psychotic disorders may appear quite vivid in some patients; with others, symptoms may be barely observable. Additionally, symptoms may overlap among disorders. For example, specific symptoms, such as neurocognitive impairments, social problems, and illusions may exist in patients with schizophrenia but are also contributing symptoms for other psychotic disorders.

For this Assignment, you will analyze a case study related to schizophrenia, another psychotic disorder, or a medication-induced movement disorder.

Case study

Name: Mrs. Bunny Warren Gender: female Age: 33 years old Background: Bunny was brought in by her best friend, Patty, after the police responded to her home the fifth time today. The police was threatening to arrest her for misuse of the 911 system, Bunny called you and you informed the police she needed to go the emergency room. She has been calling 911 saying people are looking in her windows, standing across the street watching her, stated they are watching for her husband to return home so they can hurt him. Today, she has a stomachache. She believes there is a snake inside of her stomach which she would like to have removed. She stopped eating 2 days ago because of this. During the assessment, the patient seemed on edge, anxious, and paranoid. The patient has history of scoliosis. This is her third presentation to this hospital, she had one psychiatric admission 2 years ago. No self-harm behaviors but has been physically aggressive toward others in the past. She is guarded and refuses to answer questions whether there are memory or concentration problems. She denies any recent head injuries. She states that she has been sleeping nightly, one or two hours at a time and waking up throughout the night. Refuses labs, refuses to have her vital signs obtained. She obtains SSDI. She lives in Atlanta, GA. Bunny denies ever using any drugs and drinks occasionally, once a month. She has a sister who is ten years older, both parents deceased in the last two years. She has no children, her husband is out of town, truck driver. Family history includes that her father had two previous inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations after bad drug experiences in the 1970s, for one week each time. Mother had diagnosis and ongoing treatment for depression. Her paternal grandmother was state hospitalized for several years. She denies any past history of traumatic experiences, but her friend does say that losing her parents was hard for her emotionally. No history of military service. No legal issues currently. Has HS diploma. Allergies: haloperidol

TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

sil.] 

00:00:15UNKNOWN Hi, Mrs. Warren, nice to see you again. How are you doing? 

00:00:20WARREN You’re with them. 

00:00:20UNKNOWN Pardon me. 

00:00:25WARREN I know you are. But you won’t tell me, people like you never do. 

00:00:30UNKNOWN I’m not sure that I follow. 

00:00:30WARREN Sure. They dumb just like everybody else. We’re on to you. 

00:00:40UNKNOWN Who do you mean by we? 

00:00:45WARREN Mm-hmm. 

00:00:45UNKNOWN You are not going to tell me? 

00:00:50WARREN I don’t need to tell you. You have eyes and ears planted everywhere. 

00:00:55UNKNOWN Everywhere meaning other places away from the hospital… 

00:01:00WARREN Everywhere, enough set. 

00:01:00UNKNOWN Let me make sure I understand. Are you saying you feel that I or someone else has been spying on you? 

00:01:05WARREN I don’t feel that. I know it. You and your people had… I don’t need to explain it, you already know. 

00:01:15UNKNOWN You feel safe here in the emergency department? 

00:01:20WARREN There’s nowhere that is safe. Don’t pretend like there is. 

00:01:30END TRANSCRIPT

Psychopathology

Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The human brain only constitutes approximately 2% of an individual’s total body weight, a percentage that pales in comparison to the brain’s level of importance in human development (Koch, 2016). Although externally protected by layers of membranes as well as the skull, the brain is not very resistant to damage. Damage to the brain may compromise its functionality, which may, in turn, lead to neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence or neurocognitive disorders for any number of reasons across the lifespan. 

· Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information

· Formulate differential diagnoses using DSM-5 criteria for patients with neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders across the lifespan

Assignment: Assessing and Diagnosing Patients With Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders begin in the developmental period of childhood and may continue through adulthood. They may range from the very specific to a general or global impairment, and often co-occur (APA, 2013). They include specific learning and language disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disabilities. Neurocognitive disorders, on the other hand, represent a decline in one or more areas of prior mental function that is significant enough to impact independent functioning. They may occur at any time in life and be caused by factors such brain injury; diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, or Huntington’s; infection; or stroke, among others.

For this Assignment, you will assess a patient in a case study who presents with a neurocognitive or neurodevelopmental disorder.

· Consider what history would be necessary to collect from this patient.

· Consider what interview questions you would need to ask this patient.

· Identify at least three possible differential diagnoses for the patient.

Complete and submit your Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation, including your differential diagnosis and critical-thinking process to formulate primary diagnosis.
Incorporate the following into your responses in the template:

· Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding their chief complaint and symptomology to derive your differential diagnosis? What is the duration and severity of their symptoms? How are their symptoms impacting their functioning in life? 

· Objective: What observations did you make during the psychiatric assessment?  

· Assessment: Discuss the patient’s mental status examination results. What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of three possible diagnoses with supporting evidence, listed in order from highest priority to lowest priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis. Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

· Reflection notes: What would you do differently with this client if you could conduct the session over? Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

CASE STUDY

Name: Harold Griffin Gender: male Age:58 years old T- 98.8 P- 86 R 18 134/88 Ht 5’11 Wt 180lbs Background: Has bachelor’s degree in engineering. He is homosexual and dates casually, never married, no children. Has one younger sister. Sleeps 4-6 hours, appetite good. Denied legal issues; MOCA 27/30 difficulty with attention and delayed recall; ASRS-5 20/24; denied hx of drug use; enjoys one scotch drink on the weekends with a cigar. Allergies Morphine; history HTN blood pressure controlled with losartan 100mg daily, angina prescribed ASA 81mg po daily, metoprolol 25mg twice daily. Hypertriglyceridemia prescribed fenofibrate 160mg daily, has BPH prescribed tamsulosin 0.4mg po bedtime.

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00:00:00TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

00:00:00______________________________________________________________________________ 

00:00:00BEGIN TRANSCRIPT: 

00:00:00[sil.] 

00:00:15OFF CAMERA So, you told your supervisor you were having difficulty with concentration, and then it was your supervisor who set up this appointment, right, is it? 

00:00:25HAROLD Yeah, I, I work at this large architectural engineering firm and it’s all great. Except, they’ve accelerated the deadlines now and it just puts a lot of pressure on. And I, I just can’t concentrate. I mean, everyone else is, doesn’t have a problem with it. But, but I just, I just can’t seem to be able to do the same job they’re doing. 

00:00:50OFF CAMERA Okay, tell me about your problem with concentration. 

00:00:55HAROLD Well, um, you know it’s just… Perfect example is, is they wanted me to design um, air ducts. 

00:01:05OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:01:05HAROLD Air ducts, simple. But I designed them through solid wall, a fire wall, and a supporting wall and I didn’t even realize what I was doing. 

00:01:15OFF CAMERA Uh-huh. 

00:01:15HAROLD You know, I mean, um, I’m making silly mistakes like that because, another time we had these windows, we already bought them, design, beautiful, they’re going to be in this entire building. 

00:01:30OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:01:30HAROLD Every floor. Well, I drew the window opening way too small. Now, I mean, if that would have gone ahead, it would have cost millions. I just, it’s, it’s just silly things like that. 

00:01:45OFF CAMERA Uh-huh, is this a new kind of problem for you? 

00:01:45HAROLD Well, I mean, I didn’t seem to have a problem when everything was relaxed, and the deadlines were normal. 

00:01:50OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:01:55HAROLD I could do the job. Everything was fine. But now we’re on these, these ridiculously tight deadlines and, and I just, can’t seem to do it. Everyone else can. It’s, there’s not a problem for them. And I end up like I’m not pulling my weight. 

00:02:10OFF CAMERA Uh-huh. 

00:02:10HAROLD And they think that and it’s true, I’m not. 

00:02:10OFF CAMERA Now did you have these, uh, similar kind of problems back in school? 

00:02:15HAROLD Well, yeah, I mean, in school everyone would go to the library to cram for big exams, so, I mean. 

00:02:20OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:02:20HAROLD That was a normal thing. And, yeah, I’d go but I’d end up looking out the window. Look it’s snowing, oh, it’s spring time. I’ll go for a walk. And, and if someone is whispering in a library well, I have to go to the other side. All my friends could study anywhere. 

00:02:35OFF CAMERA Uh-huh, but, what other kind of difficulties do you seem to have? 

00:02:40HAROLD Well, at the job we have, these uh, lectures, you know. 

00:02:45OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:02:45HAROLD We’d get together, it’s groups. This is the lectures by the chief of the department gets together with all the architects and engineers and he talks about the mission of the day. What we’re trying to work for, our goals. 

00:02:55OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:03:00HAROLD Do I listen? I’m thinking, maybe, my dog needs a bath. Or what am I going to have for lunch? Or, you know, anything other than what he’s saying. 

00:03:05OFF CAMERA Mm-hmm. 

00:03:10HAROLD And because of that, you know, it’s not a good idea. 

00:03:15OFF CAMERA So, so, is it difficult to sit and listen? 

00:03:20HAROLD Yeah, I mean, okay, we were suppose to be designing this other, on top of this penthouse, this, kind of, a patio, party area. 

00:03:30OFF CAMERA Right. 

00:03:30HAROLD And the gutters around it just to make sure everything was very comfortable for everyone. Well, I got up there and I’m designing and the gutters are here, and no, wait a minute, there’s Italian, tile floor. Doesn’t look like it’s tilted the correct way. So I started studying that and there were already two people assigned to study that. To fix that problem, not me. 

00:03:50OFF CAMERA Mm-hmm. 

00:03:55HAROLD I got in a lot of trouble for that one. 

00:03:55OFF CAMERA Do you have any problems organizing? 

00:04:00HAROLD At home or the office? 

00:04:00OFF CAMERA Uh, either. 

00:04:05HAROLD I’m a bit of a mess. I mean, and I’m messy. I will forget my shoes, my socks, my phone, my jacket, I, I can’t find them. I’m not that organized. And I have a calendar. One of my coworkers, actually bought me a calendar to motivate me. 

00:04:20OFF CAMERA Yeah. 

00:04:25HAROLD To get more organized. So, I started writing down all the important dates and events, but then do I ever look at that calendar? No, I don’t. So, it’s a complete waste of time. 

00:04:35OFF CAMERA What about problems paying bills? 

00:04:40HAROLD Bills, I mean, yeah they get paid. After two or three times of the threatening calls or letters. And then I have to pay the penalties. 

00:04:50OFF CAMERA Hmm, what about hyperactivity? 

00:04:50HAROLD You know, I mean, I’m, sometimes I’m a little more uncomfortable in a chair or you know. But I don’t think that’s that big a deal. I mean, I used to be a lot worse. I mean, uh, there was a time when I was in school, I would get marked down for citizenship because I never raised my hand and I talked out of class and, and I just, couldn’t seem to stay focused. But I’m a lot better now. 

00:05:20OFF CAMERA Mm-hmm, were you ever um, treated with medications or behavioral therapies for ADHD? 

00:05:25HAROLD No, no. My mother threatened that one time, but I was never evaluated. Never went, uh, I’m kind of amazed she never just dragged me into a doctor’s office, but she never did. 

00:05:40OFF CAMERA Do you drink any caffeinated drinks? 

00:05:45HAROLD Coffee, soda, you know, once in a while. But when I was a kid, my mother said no caffeine, no sugar, cause you’ll climb the walls. I was already doing it anyway and so she, I uh, once and a while I’ll have a little caffeine now and it kind of helps me focus a little but, sugar, I stay away from that. It’s just not a good idea. 

00:06:05END TRANSCRIPT 

Psychopathology

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

The substance-related disorders encompass 10 separate classes of drugs: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (with separate categories for phencyclidine [or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines] and other hallucinogens); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics; stimulants (amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, and other stimulants); tobacco; and other (or unknown) substances. These 10 classes are not fully distinct. All drugs that are taken in excess have in common direct activation of the brain reward system, which is involved in the reinforcement of behaviors and the production of memories. They produce such an intense activation of the reward system that normal activities may be neglected. Instead of achieving reward system activation through adaptive behaviors, drugs of abuse directly activate the reward pathways(Koob 2006). The pharmacological mechanisms by which each class of drugs produces reward are different, but the drugs typically activate the system and produce feelings of pleasure, often referred to as a “high.” Furthermore, individuals with lower levels of self-control, which may reflect impairments of brain inhibitory mechanisms, may be particularly predisposed to develop substance use disorders, suggesting that the roots of substance use disorders for some persons can be seen in behaviors long before the onset of actual substance use itself(
Moffitt et al. 2011
).

In addition to the substance-related disorders, this chapter also includes gambling disorder, reflecting evidence that gambling behaviors activate reward systems similar to those activated by drugs of abuse and produce some behavioral symptoms that appear comparable to those produced by the substance use disorders. Other excessive behavioral patterns, such as Internet gaming, have also been described, but the research on these and other behavioral syndromes is less clear. Thus, groups of repetitive behaviors, which some term behavioral addictions, with such subcategories as “sex addiction,” “exercise addiction,” or “shopping addiction,” are not included because at this time there is insufficient peer-reviewed evidence to establish the diagnostic criteria and course descriptions needed to identify these behaviors as mental disorders.

The substance-related disorders are divided into two groups: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. The following conditions may be classified as substance-induced: intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders (psychotic disorders, bipolar and related disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunctions, delirium, and neurocognitive disorders).

The current section begins with a general discussion of criteria sets for a substance use disorder, substance intoxication and withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders, at least some of which are applicable across classes of substances. Reflecting some unique aspects of the 10 substance classes relevant to this chapter, the remainder of the chapter is organized by the class of substance and describes their unique aspects. To facilitate differential diagnosis, the text and criteria for the remaining substance/medication-induced mental disorders are included with disorders with which they share phenomenology (e.g., substance/medication-induced depressive disorder is in the chapter “Depressive Disorders”). 

Features

The essential feature of a substance use disorder is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. As seen in Table, the diagnosis of a substance use disorder can be applied to all 10 classes included in this chapter except caffeine. For certain classes some symptoms are less salient, and in a few instances not all symptoms apply (e.g., withdrawal symptoms are not specified for phencyclidine use disorder, other hallucinogen use disorder, or inhalant use disorder).

An important characteristic of substance use disorders is an underlying change in brain circuits that may persist beyond detoxification, particularly in individuals with severe disorders. The behavioral effects of these brain changes may be exhibited in the repeated relapses and intense drug craving when the individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli. These persistent drug effects may benefit from long-term approaches to treatment(McLellan et al. 2000).

Overall, the diagnosis of a substance use disorder is based on a pathological pattern of behaviors related to use of the substance. To assist with organization, Criterion A criteria can be considered to fit within overall groupings of impaired control, social impairment, risky use, and pharmacological criteria. Impaired control over substance use is the first criteria grouping (Criteria 1–4). The individual may take the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended (Criterion 1). The individual may express a persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use and may report multiple unsuccessful efforts to decrease or discontinue use (Criterion 2). The individual may spend a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from its effects (Criterion 3). In some instances of more severe substance use disorders, virtually all of the individual’s daily activities revolve around the substance. Craving (Criterion 4) is manifested by an intense desire or urge for the drug that may occur at any time but is more likely when in an environment where the drug previously was obtained or used. Craving has also been shown to involve classical conditioning and is associated with activation of specific reward structures in the brain. Craving is queried by asking if there has ever been a time when they had such strong urges to take the drug that they could not think of anything else. Current craving is often used as a treatment outcome measure because it may be a signal of impending relapse(Miller et al. 1996).

Social impairment is the second grouping of criteria (Criteria 5–7). Recurrent substance use may result in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (Criterion 5). The individual may continue substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (Criterion 6). Important social, occupational, or recreational activities may be given up or reduced because of substance use (Criterion 7). The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance.

Risky use of the substance is the third grouping of criteria (Criteria 8–9). This may take the form of recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (Criterion 8). The individual may continue substance use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (Criterion 9). The key issue in evaluating this criterion is not the existence of the problem, but rather the individual’s failure to abstain from using the substance despite the difficulty it is causing.

Pharmacological criteria are the final grouping (Criteria 10 and 11). Tolerance (Criterion 10) is signaled by requiring a markedly increased dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect or a markedly reduced effect when the usual dose is consumed. The degree to which tolerance develops varies greatly across different individuals as well as across substances and may involve a variety of central nervous system effects. For example, tolerance to respiratory depression and tolerance to sedating and motor coordination may develop at different rates, depending on the substance. Tolerance may be difficult to determine by history alone, and laboratory tests may be helpful (e.g., high blood levels of the substance coupled with little evidence of intoxication suggest that tolerance is likely). Tolerance must also be distinguished from individual variability in the initial sensitivity to the effects of particular substances. For example, some first-time alcohol drinkers show very little evidence of intoxication with three or four drinks, whereas others of similar weight and drinking histories have slurred speech and incoordination(Schuckit et al. 2011).

Withdrawal (Criterion 11) is a syndrome that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance. After developing withdrawal symptoms, the individual is likely to consume the substance to relieve the symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms vary greatly across the classes of substances, and separate criteria sets for withdrawal are provided for the drug classes. Marked and generally easily measured physiological signs of withdrawal are common with alcohol, opioids, and sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics. Withdrawal signs and symptoms with stimulants (amphetamines and cocaine), as well as tobacco and cannabis, are often present but may be less apparent. Significant withdrawal has not been documented in humans after repeated use of phencyclidine, other hallucinogens, and inhalants; therefore, this criterion is not included for these substances. Neither tolerance nor withdrawal is necessary for a diagnosis of a substance use disorder. However, for most classes of substances, a past history of withdrawal is associated with a more severe clinical course (i.e., an earlier onset of a substance use disorder, higher levels of substance intake, and a greater number of substance-related problems)(Chen et al. 2009).

Symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal occurring during appropriate medical treatment with prescribed medications (e.g., opioid analgesics, sedatives, stimulants) are specifically not counted when diagnosing a substance use disorder. The appearance of normal, expected pharmacological tolerance and withdrawal during the course of medical treatment has been known to lead to an erroneous diagnosis of “addiction” even when these were the only symptoms present. Individuals whose only symptoms are those that occur as a result of medical treatment (i.e., tolerance and withdrawal as part of medical care when the medications are taken as prescribed) should not receive a diagnosis solely on the basis of these symptoms. However, prescription medications can be used inappropriately, and a substance use disorder can be correctly diagnosed when there are other symptoms of compulsive, drug-seeking behavior.

Severity and Specifiers

Substance use disorders occur in a broad range of severity, from mild to severe, with severity based on the number of symptom criteria endorsed. As a general estimate of severity, a mild substance use disorder is suggested by the presence of two to three symptoms, moderate by four to five symptoms, and severe by six or more symptoms. Changing severity across time is also reflected by reductions or increases in the frequency and/or dose of substance use, as assessed by the individual’s own report, report of knowledgeable others, clinician’s observations, and biological testing. The following course specifiers and descriptive features specifiers are also available for substance use disorders: “in early remission,” “in sustained remission,” “on maintenance therapy,” and “in a controlled environment.” Definitions of each are provided within respective criteria sets.

Recording Procedures for Substance Use Disorders

The clinician should use the code that applies to the class of substances but record the name of the specific substance. For example, the clinician should record 304.10 (F13.20) moderate alprazolam use disorder (rather than moderate sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic use disorder) or 305.70 (F15.10) mild methamphetamine use disorder (rather than mild stimulant use disorder). For substances that do not fit into any of the classes (e.g., anabolic steroids), the appropriate code for “other substance use disorder” should be used and the specific substance indicated (e.g., 305.90 [F19.10] mild anabolic steroid use disorder). If the substance taken by the individual is unknown, the code for the class “other (or unknown)” should be used (e.g., 304.90 [F19.20] severe unknown substance use disorder). If criteria are met for more than one substance use disorder, all should be diagnosed (e.g., 304.00 [F11.20] severe heroin use disorder; 304.20 [F14.20] moderate cocaine use disorder).

The appropriate ICD-10-CM code for a substance use disorder depends on whether there is a comorbid substance-induced disorder (including intoxication and withdrawal). In the above example, the diagnostic code for moderate alprazolam use disorder, F13.20, reflects the absence of a comorbid alprazolam-induced mental disorder. Because ICD-10-CM codes for substance-induced disorders indicate both the presence (or absence) and severity of the substance use disorder, ICD-10-CM codes for substance use disorders can be used only in the absence of a substance-induced disorder. See the individual substance-specific sections for additional coding information.

Note that the word addiction is not applied as a diagnostic term in this classification, although it is in common usage in many countries to describe severe problems related to compulsive and habitual use of substances. The more neutral term substance use disorder is used to describe the wide range of the disorder, from a mild form to a severe state of chronically relapsing, compulsive drug taking. Some clinicians will choose to use the word addiction to describe more extreme presentations, but the word is omitted from the official DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnostic terminology because of its uncertain definition and its potentially negative connotation.

Substance-Induced Disorders

The overall category of substance-induced disorders includes intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders (e.g., substance-induced psychotic disorder, substance-induced depressive disorder).

Substance Intoxication and Withdrawal

Criteria for substance intoxication are included within the substance-specific sections of this chapter. The essential feature is the development of a reversible substance-specific syndrome due to the recent ingestion of a substance (Criterion A). The clinically significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes associated with intoxication (e.g., belligerence, mood lability, impaired judgment) are attributable to the physiological effects of the substance on the central nervous system and develop during or shortly after use of the substance (Criterion B). The symptoms are not attributable to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder (Criterion D). Substance intoxication is common among those with a substance use disorder but also occurs frequently in individuals without a substance use disorder. This category does not apply to tobacco.

The most common changes in intoxication involve disturbances of perception, wakefulness, attention, thinking, judgment, psychomotor behavior, and interpersonal behavior. Short-term, or “acute,” intoxications may have different signs and symptoms than sustained, or “chronic,” intoxications. For example, moderate cocaine doses may initially produce gregariousness, but social withdrawal may develop if such doses are frequently repeated over days or weeks(O’Brien 2011).

When used in the physiological sense, the term intoxication is broader than substance intoxication as defined here. Many substances may produce physiological or psychological changes that are not necessarily problematic. For example, an individual with tachycardia from substance use has a physiological effect, but if this is the only symptom in the absence of problematic behavior, the diagnosis of intoxication would not apply. Intoxication may sometimes persist beyond the time when the substance is detectable in the body. This may be due to enduring central nervous system effects, the recovery of which takes longer than the time for elimination of the substance. These longer-term effects of intoxication must be distinguished from withdrawal (i.e., symptoms initiated by a decline in blood or tissue concentrations of a substance).

Criteria for substance withdrawal are included within the substance-specific sections of this chapter. The essential feature is the development of a substance-specific problematic behavioral change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that is due to the cessation of, or reduction in, heavy and prolonged substance use (Criterion A). The substance-specific syndrome causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion C). The symptoms are not due to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder (Criterion D). Withdrawal is usually, but not always, associated with a substance use disorder. Most individuals with withdrawal have an urge to re-administer the substance to reduce the symptoms.

Route of Administration and Speed of Substance Effects

Routes of administration that produce more rapid and efficient absorption into the bloodstream (e.g., intravenous, smoking, intranasal “snorting”) tend to result in a more intense intoxication and an increased likelihood of an escalating pattern of substance use leading to withdrawal. Similarly, rapidly acting substances are more likely than slower-acting substances to produce immediate intoxication(O’Brien 2011).

Duration of Effects

Within the same drug category, relatively short-acting substances tend to have a higher potential for the development of withdrawal than do those with a longer duration of action. However, longer-acting substances tend to have longer withdrawal duration. The half-life of the substance parallels aspects of withdrawal: the longer the duration of action, the longer the time between cessation and the onset of withdrawal symptoms and the longer the withdrawal duration. In general, the longer the acute withdrawal period, the less intense the syndrome tends to be(O’Brien 2011).

Use of Multiple Substances

Substance intoxication and withdrawal often involve several substances used simultaneously or sequentially. In these cases, each diagnosis should be recorded separately.

Associated Laboratory Findings

Laboratory analyses of blood and urine samples can help determine recent use and the specific substances involved. However, a positive laboratory test result does not by itself indicate that the individual has a pattern of substance use that meets criteria for a substance-induced or substance use disorder, and a negative test result does not by itself rule out a diagnosis.

Laboratory tests can be useful in identifying withdrawal. If the individual presents with withdrawal from an unknown substance, laboratory tests may help identify the substance and may also be helpful in differentiating withdrawal from other mental disorders. In addition, normal functioning in the presence of high blood levels of a substance suggests considerable tolerance.

Development and Course

Individuals ages 18–24 years have relatively high prevalence rates for the use of virtually every substance. Intoxication is usually the initial substance-related disorder and often begins in the teens. Withdrawal can occur at any age as long as the relevant drug has been taken in sufficient doses over an extended period of time.

Recording Procedures for Intoxication and Withdrawal

The clinician should use the code that applies to the class of substances but record the name of the specific substance. For example, the clinician should record 292.0 (F13.239) secobarbital withdrawal (rather than sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic withdrawal) or 292.89 (F15.129) methamphetamine intoxication (rather than stimulant intoxication). Note that the appropriate ICD-10-CM diagnostic code for intoxication depends on whether there is a comorbid substance use disorder. In this case, the F15.129 code for methamphetamine indicates the presence of a comorbid mild methamphetamine use disorder. If there had been no comorbid methamphetamine use disorder, the diagnostic code would have been F15.929. ICD-10-CM coding rules require that all withdrawal codes imply a comorbid moderate to severe substance use disorder for that substance. In the above case, the code for secobarbital withdrawal (F13.239) indicates the comorbid presence of a moderate to severe secobarbital use disorder. See the coding note for the substance-specific intoxication and withdrawal syndromes for the actual coding options.

For substances that do not fit into any of the classes (e.g., anabolic steroids), the appropriate code for “other substance intoxication” should be used and the specific substance indicated (e.g., 292.89 [F19.929] anabolic steroid intoxication). If the substance taken by the individual is unknown, the code for the class “other (or unknown)” should be used (e.g., 292.89 [F19.929] unknown substance intoxication). If there are symptoms or problems associated with a particular substance but criteria are not met for any of the substance-specific disorders, the unspecified category can be used (e.g., 292.9 [F12.99] unspecified cannabis-related disorder).

As noted above, the substance-related codes in ICD-10-CM combine the substance use disorder aspect of the clinical picture and the substance-induced aspect into a single combined code. Thus, if both heroin withdrawal and moderate heroin use disorder are present, the single code F11.23 is given to cover both presentations. In ICD-9-CM, separate diagnostic codes (292.0 and 304.00) are given to indicate withdrawal and a moderate heroin use disorder, respectively. See the individual substance-specific sections for additional coding information.

Substance/Medication-Induced Mental Disorders

The substance/medication-induced mental disorders are potentially severe, usually temporary, but sometimes persisting central nervous system (CNS) syndromes that develop in the context of the effects of substances of abuse, medications, or several toxins. They are distinguished from the substance use disorders, in which a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms contribute to the continued use of a substance despite significant substance-related problems. The substance/medication-induced mental disorders may be induced by the 10 classes of substances that produce substance use disorders, or by a great variety of other medications used in medical treatment. Each substance-induced mental disorder is described in the relevant chapter (e.g., “Depressive Disorders,” “Neurocognitive Disorders”), and therefore, only a brief description is offered here. All substance/medication-induced disorders share common characteristics. It is important to recognize these common features to aid in the detection of these disorders. These features are described as follows:

A. The disorder represents a clinically significant symptomatic presentation of a relevant mental disorder.

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of both of the following:

1. The disorder developed during or within 1 month of a substance intoxication or withdrawal or taking a medication; and

2. The involved substance/medication is capable of producing the mental disorder.

C. The disorder is not better explained by an independent mental disorder (i.e., one that is not substance- or medication-induced). Such evidence of an independent mental disorder could include the following:

3. The disorder preceded the onset of severe intoxication or withdrawal or exposure to the medication; or

3. The full mental disorder persisted for a substantial period of time (e.g., at least 1 month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication or taking the medication. This criterion does not apply to substance-induced neurocognitive disorders or hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, which persist beyond the cessation of acute intoxication or withdrawal.

1. The disorder does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium.

1. The disorder causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Features

Some generalizations can be made regarding the categories of substances capable of producing clinically relevant substance-induced mental disorders. In general, the more sedating drugs (sedative, hypnotics, or anxiolytics, and alcohol) can produce prominent and clinically significant depressive disorders during intoxication, while anxiety conditions are likely to be observed during withdrawal syndromes from these substances(Schuckit 2006a). Also, during intoxication, the more stimulating substances (e.g., amphetamines and cocaine) are likely to be associated with substance-induced psychotic disorders and substance-induced anxiety disorders (McLellan et al. 1979), with substance-induced major depressive episodes observed during withdrawal. Both the more sedating and more stimulating drugs are likely to produce significant but temporary sleep and sexual disturbances(Van Reen et al. 2006). An overview of the relationship between specific categories of substances and specific psychiatric syndromes is presented in Table.

The medication-induced conditions include what are often idiosyncratic CNS reactions or relatively extreme examples of side effects for a wide range of medications taken for a variety of medical concerns. These include neurocognitive complications of anesthetics, antihistamines, antihypertensives, and a variety of other medications and toxins (e.g., organophosphates, insecticides, carbon monoxide), as described in the chapter on neurocognitive disorders. Psychotic syndromes may be temporarily experienced in the context of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, and steroid drugs, as well as during use of stimulant-like and depressant-like prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Temporary but severe mood disturbances can be observed with a wide range of medications, including steroids, antihypertensives, disulfiram, and any prescription or over-the-counter depressant or stimulant-like substances. A similar range of medications can be associated with temporary anxiety syndromes, sexual dysfunctions, and conditions of disturbed sleep.

In general, to be considered a substance/medication-induced mental disorder, there must be evidence that the disorder being observed is not likely to be better explained by an independent mental condition. The latter are most likely to be seen if the mental disorder was present before the severe intoxication or withdrawal or medication administration, or, with the exception of several substance-induced persisting disorders listed in Table, continued more than 1 month after cessation of acute withdrawal, severe intoxication, or use of the medications(Caton et al. 2005; Hasin et al. 2002; Schuckit 2006a). When symptoms are only observed during a delirium (e.g., alcohol withdrawal delirium), the mental disorder should be diagnosed as a delirium, and the psychiatric syndrome occurring during the delirium should not also be diagnosed separately, as many symptoms (including disturbances in mood, anxiety, and reality testing) are commonly seen during agitated, confused states. The features associated with each relevant major mental disorder are similar whether observed with independent or substance/medication-induced mental disorders. However, individuals with substance/medication-induced mental disorders are likely to also demonstrate the associated features seen with the specific category of substance or medication, as listed in other subsections of this chapter.

Development and Course

Substance-induced mental disorders develop in the context of intoxication or withdrawal from substances of abuse, and medication-induced mental disorders are seen with prescribed or over-the-counter medications that are taken at the suggested doses. Both conditions are usually temporary and likely to disappear within 1 month or so of cessation of acute withdrawal, severe intoxication, or use of the medication. Exceptions to these generalizations occur for certain long-duration substance-induced disorders: substance-associated neurocognitive disorders that relate to conditions such as alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorder, inhalant-induced neurocognitive disorder, and sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-induced neurocognitive disorder; and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (“flashbacks”; see the section “Hallucinogen-Related Disorders” later in this chapter). However, most other substance/medication-induced mental disorders, regardless of the severity of the symptoms, are likely to improve relatively quickly with abstinence and unlikely to remain clinically relevant for more than 1 month after complete cessation of use.

As is true of many consequences of heavy substance use, some individuals are more and others less prone toward specific substance-induced disorders(Alia-Klein et al. 2011Fu et al. 2002Nunes et al. 2006; Nurnberger et al. 2004). Similar types of predispositions may make some individuals more likely to develop psychiatric side effects of some types of medications, but not others. However, it is unclear whether individuals with family histories or personal prior histories with independent psychiatric syndromes are more likely to develop the induced syndrome once the consideration is made as to whether the quantity and frequency of the substance was sufficient to lead to the development of a substance-induced syndrome.

There are indications that the intake of substances of abuse or some medications with psychiatric side effects in the context of a preexisting mental disorder is likely to result in an intensification of the preexisting independent syndrome(Fu et al. 2002; Swendsen et al. 2010). The risk for substance/medication-induced mental disorders is likely to increase with both the quantity and the frequency of consumption of the relevant substance.

The symptom profiles for the substance/medicat

Psychopathology


Depressive disorders

Depressive disorders include disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, major depressive disorder (including major depressive episode), persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, substance/medication-induced depressive disorder, depressive disorder due to another medical condition, other specified depressive disorder, and unspecified depressive disorder. Unlike in DSM-IV, this chapter “Depressive Disorders” has been separated from the previous chapter “Bipolar and Related Disorders.” The common feature of all of these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual’s capacity to function. What differs among them are issues of duration, timing, or presumed etiology.

In order to address concerns about the potential for the overdiagnosis of and treatment for bipolar disorder in children, a new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, referring to the presentation of children with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol, is added to the depressive disorders for children up to 12 years of age. Its placement in this chapter reflects the finding that children with this symptom pattern typically develop unipolar depressive disorders or anxiety disorders, rather than bipolar disorders, as they mature into adolescence and adulthood.

Major depressive disorder represents the classic condition in this group of disorders. It is characterized by discrete episodes of at least 2 weeks’ duration (although most episodes last considerably longer) involving clear-cut changes in affect, cognition, and neurovegetative functions and inter-episode remissions. A diagnosis based on a single episode is possible, although the disorder is a recurrent one in the majority of cases. Careful consideration is given to the delineation of normal sadness and grief from a major depressive episode. Bereavement may induce great suffering, but it does not typically induce an episode of major depressive disorder. When they do occur together, the depressive symptoms and functional impairment tend to be more severe and the prognosis is worse compared with bereavement that is not accompanied by major depressive disorder. Bereavement-related depression tends to occur in persons with other vulnerabilities to depressive disorders, and recovery may be facilitated by antidepressant treatment.

A more chronic form of depression, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), can be diagnosed when the mood disturbance continues for at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children. This diagnosis, new in DSM-5, includes both the DSM-IV diagnostic categories of chronic major depression and dysthymia.

After careful scientific review of the evidence, premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been moved from an appendix of DSM-IV (“Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study”) to Section II of DSM-5. Almost 20 years of additional research on this condition has confirmed a specific and treatment-responsive form of depressive disorder that begins sometime following ovulation and remits within a few days of menses and has a marked impact on functioning.

A large number of substances of abuse, some prescribed medications, and several medical conditions can be associated with depression-like phenomena. This fact is recognized in the diagnoses of substance/medication-induced depressive disorder and depressive disorder due to another medical condition.

Bipolar disorders

The central feature differentiating disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and bipolar disorders in children involves the longitudinal course of the core symptoms. In children, as in adults, bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder manifest as an episodic illness with discrete episodes of mood perturbation that can be differentiated from the child’s typical presentation. The mood perturbation that occurs during a manic episode is distinctly different from the child’s usual mood. In addition, during a manic episode, the change in mood must be accompanied by the onset, or worsening, of associated cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptoms (e.g., distractibility, increased goal-directed activity), which are also present to a degree that is distinctly different from the child’s usual baseline. Thus, in the case of a manic episode, parents (and, depending on developmental level, children) should be able to identify a distinct time period during which the child’s mood and behavior were markedly different from usual. In contrast, the irritability of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is persistent and is present over many months; while it may wax and wane to a certain degree, severe irritability is characteristic of the child with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Thus, while bipolar disorders are episodic conditions, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is not. In fact, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder cannot be assigned to a child who has ever experienced a full-duration hypomanic or manic episode (irritable or euphoric) or who has ever had a manic or hypomanic episode lasting more than 1 day. Another central differentiating feature between bipolar disorders and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is the presence of elevated or expansive mood and grandiosity. These symptoms are common features of mania but are not characteristic of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Oppositional defiant disorder

While symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder typically do occur in children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, mood symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are relatively rare in children with oppositional defiant disorder. The key features that warrant the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in children whose symptoms also meet criteria for oppositional defiant disorder are the presence of severe and frequently recurrent outbursts and a persistent disruption in mood between outbursts. In addition, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder requires severe impairment in at least one setting (i.e., home, school, or among peers) and mild to moderate impairment in a second setting. For this reason, while most children whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder will also have a presentation that meets criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, the reverse is not the case. That is, in only approximately 15% of individuals with oppositional defiant disorder would criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder be met. Moreover, even for children in whom criteria for both disorders are met, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be made. Finally, both the prominent mood symptoms in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and the high risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in follow-up studies justify placement of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder among the depressive disorders in DSM-5. (Oppositional defiant disorder is included in the chapter “Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders.”) This reflects the more prominent mood component among individuals with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, as compared with individuals with oppositional defiant disorder. Nevertheless, it also should be noted that disruptive mood dysregulation disorder appears to carry a high risk for behavioral problems as well as mood problems.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and autism spectrum disorder

Unlike children diagnosed with bipolar disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, a child whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder also can receive a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, major depressive disorder, and/or anxiety disorder. However, children whose irritability is present only in the context of a major depressive episode or persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) should receive one of those diagnoses rather than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may have symptoms that also meet criteria for an anxiety disorder and can receive both diagnoses, but children whose irritability is manifest only in the context of exacerbation of an anxiety disorder should receive the relevant anxiety disorder diagnosis rather than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. In addition, children with autism spectrum disorders frequently present with temper outbursts when, for example, their routines are disturbed. In that instance, the temper outbursts would be considered secondary to the autism spectrum disorder, and the child should not receive the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Intermittent explosive disorder

Children with symptoms suggestive of intermittent explosive disorder present with instances of severe temper outbursts, much like children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. However, unlike disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, intermittent explosive disorder does not require persistent disruption in mood between outbursts. In addition, intermittent explosive disorder requires only 3 months of active symptoms, in contrast to the 12-month requirement for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Thus, these two diagnoses should not be made in the same child. For children with outbursts and intercurrent, persistent irritability, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be made.

Comorbidity

Rates of comorbidity in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are extremely high(Leibenluft 2011). It is rare to find individuals whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder alone. Comorbidity between disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and other DSM-defined syndromes appears higher than for many other pediatric mental illnesses; the strongest overlap is with oppositional defiant disorder. Not only is the overall rate of comorbidity high in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, but also the range of comorbid illnesses appears particularly diverse. These children typically present to the clinic with a wide range of disruptive behavior, mood, anxiety, and even autism spectrumsymptoms and diagnoses(Findling et al. 2010
Pine et al. 2008
Stringaris et al. 2010). However, children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not have symptoms that meet criteria for bipolar disorder, as in that context, only the bipolar disorder diagnosis should be made. If children have symptoms that meet criteria for oppositional defiant disorder or intermittent explosive disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be assigned. Also, as noted earlier, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not be assigned if the symptoms occur only in an anxiety-provoking context, when the routines of a child with autism spectrum disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder are disturbed, or in the context of a major depressive episode.

Major Depressive Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

· Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).

3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

Note: Criteria A–C represent a major depressive episode.

Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.

In distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode (MDE), it is useful to consider that in grief the predominant affect is feelings of emptiness and loss, while in an MDE it is persistent depressed mood and the inability to anticipate happiness or pleasure. The dysphoria in grief is likely to decrease in intensity over days to weeks and occurs in waves, the so-called pangs of grief. These waves tend to be associated with thoughts or reminders of the deceased. The depressed mood of an MDE is more persistent and not tied to specific thoughts or preoccupations. The pain of grief may be accompanied by positive emotions and humor that are uncharacteristic of the pervasive unhappiness and misery characteristic of an MDE. The thought content associated with grief generally features a preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the deceased, rather than the self-critical or pessimistic ruminations seen in an MDE. In grief, self-esteem is generally preserved, whereas in an MDE feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common. If self-derogatory ideation is present in grief, it typically involves perceived failings vis-à-vis the deceased (e.g., not visiting frequently enough, not telling the deceased how much he or she was loved). If a bereaved individual thinks about death and dying, such thoughts are generally focused on the deceased and possibly about “joining” the deceased, whereas in an MDE such thoughts are focused on ending one’s own life because of feeling worthless, undeserving of life, or unable to cope with the pain of depression.

D. The occurrence of the major depressive episode is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified and unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.

E. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode.

5. Note: This exclusion does not apply if all of the manic-like or hypomanic-like episodes are substance-induced or are attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition.

Coding and Recording Procedures

· The diagnostic code for major depressive disorder is based on whether this is a single or recurrent episode, current severity, presence of psychotic features, and remission status. Current severity and psychotic features are only indicated if full criteria are currently met for a major depressive episode. Remission specifiers are only indicated if the full criteria are not currently met for a major depressive episode. Codes are as follows:


Enlarge table

· In recording the name of a diagnosis, terms should be listed in the following order: major depressive disorder, single or recurrent episode, severity/psychotic/remission specifiers, followed by as many of the following specifiers without codes that apply to the current episode.

Specify:

· With anxious distress (p. 184)

· With mixed features (pp. 184–185)

· With melancholic features (p. 185)

· With atypical features (pp. 185–186)

· With mood-congruent psychotic features (p. 186)

· With mood-incongruent psychotic features (p. 186)

· With catatonia (p. 186). Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1).

· With peripartum onset (pp. 186–187)

· With seasonal pattern (recurrent episode only) (pp. 187–188)

Diagnostic Features

The criterion symptoms for major depressive disorder must be present nearly every day to be considered present, with the exception of weight change and suicidal ideation. Depressed mood must be present for most of the day, in addition to being present nearly every day. Often insomnia or fatigue is the presenting complaint, and failure to probe for accompanying depressive symptoms will result in underdiagnosis. Sadness may be denied at first but may be elicited through interview or inferred from facial expression and demeanor. With individuals who focus on a somatic complaint, clinicians should determine whether the distress from that complaint is associated with specific depressive symptoms. Fatigue and sleep disturbance are present in a high proportion of cases; psychomotor disturbances are much less common but are indicative of greater overall severity, as is the presence of delusional or near-delusional guilt.

The essential feature of a major depressive episode is a period of at least 2 weeks during which there is either depressed mood or the loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities (Criterion A). In children and adolescents, the mood may be irritable rather than sad. The individual must also experience at least four additional symptoms drawn from a list that includes changes in appetite or weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; or recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation or suicide plans or attempts. To count toward a major depressive episode, a symptom must either be newly present or must have clearly worsened compared with the person’s pre-episode status. The symptoms must persist for most of the day, nearly every day, for at least 2 consecutive weeks. The episode must be accompanied by clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. For some individuals with milder episodes, functioning may appear to be normal but requires markedly increased effort.

The mood in a major depressive episode is often described by the person as depressed, sad, hopeless, discouraged, or “down in the dumps” (Criterion A1). In some cases, sadness may be denied at first but may subsequently be elicited by interview (e.g., by pointing out that the individual looks as if he or she is about to cry). In some individuals who complain of feeling “blah,” having no feelings, or feeling anxious, the presence of a depressed mood can be inferred from the person’s facial expression and demeanor. Some individuals emphasize somatic complaints (e.g., bodily aches and pains) rather than reporting feelings of sadness. Many individuals report or exhibit increased irritability (e.g., persistent anger, a tendency to respond to events with angry outbursts or blaming others, an exaggerated sense of frustration over minor matters). In children and adolescents, an irritable or cranky mood may develop rather than a sad or dejected mood. This presentation should be differentiated from a pattern of irritability when frustrated.

Loss of interest or pleasure is nearly always present, at least to some degree. Individuals may report feeling less interested in hobbies, “not caring anymore,” or not feeling any enjoyment in activities that were previously considered pleasurable (Criterion A2). Family members often notice social withdrawal or neglect of pleasurable avocations (e.g., a formerly avid golfer no longer plays, a child who used to enjoy soccer finds excuses not to practice). In some individuals, there is a significant reduction from previous levels of sexual interest or desire.

Appetite change may involve either a reduction or increase. Some depressed individuals report that they have to force themselves to eat. Others may eat more and may crave specific foods (e.g., sweets or other carbohydrates). When appetite changes are severe (in either direction), there may be a significant loss or gain in weight, or, in children, a failure to make expected weight gains may be noted (Criterion A3).

Sleep disturbance may take the form of either difficulty sleeping or sleeping excessively (Criterion A4). When insomnia is present, it typically takes the form of middle insomnia (i.e., waking up during the night and then having difficulty returning to sleep) or terminal insomnia (i.e., waking too early and being unable to return to sleep). Initial insomnia (i.e., difficulty falling asleep) may also occur. Individuals who present with oversleeping (hypersomnia) may experience prolonged sleep episodes at night or increased daytime sleep. Sometimes the reason that the individual seeks treatment is for the disturbed sleep.

Psychomotor changes include agitation (e.g., the inability to sit still, pacing, hand-wringing; or pulling or rubbing of the skin, clothing, or other objects) or retardation (e.g., slowed speech, thinking, and body movements; increased pauses before answering; speech that is decreased in volume, inflection, amount, or variety of content, or muteness) (Criterion A5). The psychomotor agitation or retardation must be severe enough to be observable by others and not represent merely subjective feelings.

Decreased energy, tiredness, and fatigue are common (Criterion A6). A person may report sustained fatigue without physical exertion. Even the smallest tasks seem to require substantial effort. The efficiency with which tasks are accomplished may be reduced. For example, an individual may complain that washing and dressing in the morning are exhausting and take twice as long as usual.

The sense of worthlessness or guilt associated with a major depressive episode may include unrealistic negative evaluations of one’s worth or guilty preoccupations or ruminations over minor past failings (Criterion A7). Such individuals often misinterpret neutral or trivial day-to-day events as evidence of personal defects and have an exaggerated sense of responsibility for untoward events. The sense of worthlessness or guilt may be of delusional proportions (e.g., an individual who is convinced that he or she is personally responsible for world poverty). Blaming oneself for being sick and for failing to meet occupational or interpersonal responsibilities as a result of the depression is very common and, unless delusional, is not considered sufficient to meet this criterion.

Many individuals report impaired ability to think, concentrate, or make even minor decisions (Criterion A8). They may appear easily distracted or complain of memory difficulties. Those engaged in cognitively demanding pursuits are often unable to function. In children, a precipitous drop in grades may reflect poor concentration. In elderly individuals, memory difficulties may be the chief complaint and may be mistaken for early signs of a dementia (“pseudodementia”). When the major depressive episode is successfully treated, the memory problems often fully abate. However, in some individuals, particularly elderly persons, a major depressive episode may sometimes be the initial presentation of an irreversible dementia.

Thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempts (Criterion A9) are common. They may range from a passive wish not to awaken in the morning or a belief that others would be better off if the individual were dead, to transient but recurrent thoughts of committing suicide, to a specific suicide plan. More severely suicidal individuals may have put their affairs in order (e.g., updated wills, settled debts), acquired needed materials (e.g., a rope or a gun), and chosen a location and time to accomplish the suicide. Motivations for suicide may include a desire to give up in the face of perceived insurmountable obstacles, an intense wish to end what is perceived as an unending and excruciatingly painful emotional state, an inability to foresee any enjoyment in life, or the wish to not be a burden to others. The resolution of such thinking may be a more meaningful measure of diminished suicide risk than denial of further plans for suicide.

The evaluation of the symptoms of a major depressive episode is especially difficult when they occur in an individual who also has a general medical condition (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, pregnancy). Some of the criterion signs and symptoms of a major depressive episode are identical to those of general medical conditions (e.g., weight loss with untreated diabetes; fatigue with cancer; hypersomnia early in pregnancy; insomnia later in pregnancy or the postpartum). Such symptoms count toward a major depressive diagnosis except when they are clearly and fully attributable to a general medical condition. Nonvegetative symptoms of dysphoria, anhedonia, guilt or worthlessness, impaired concentration or indecision, and suicidal thoughts should be assessed with particular care in such cases. Definitions of major depressive episodes that have been modified to include only these nonvegetative symptoms appear to identify nearly the same individuals as do the full criteria(Zimmerman et al. 2011).

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

Major depressive disorder is associated with high mortality, much of which is accounted for by suicide; however, it is not the only cause. For example, depressed individuals admitted to nursing homes have a markedly increased likelihood of death in the first year. Individuals frequently present with tearfulness, irritability, brooding, obsessive rumination, anxiety, phobias, excessive worry over physical health, and complaints of pain (e.g., headaches; joint, abdominal, or other pains). In children, separation anxiety may occur.

Although an extensive literature exists describing neuroanatomical, neuroendocrinological, and neurophysiological correlates of major depressive disorder, no laboratory test has yielded results of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as a diagnostic tool for this disorder. Until recently, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity had been the most extensively investigated abnormality associated with major depressive episodes, and it appears to be associated with melancholia, psychotic features, and risks for eventual suicide(
Coryell et al. 2006
Stetler and Miller 2011). Molecular studies have also implicated peripheral factors, including genetic variants in neurotrophic factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines(Dowlati et al. 2010). Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for functional abnormalities in specific neural systems supporting emotion processing, reward seeking, and emotion regulation in adults with major depression(Liotti and Mayberg 2001).

Prevalence

Twelve-month prevalence of major depressive disorder in the United States is approximately 7%, with marked differences by age group such that the prevalence in 18- to 29-year-old individuals is threefold higher than the prevalence in individuals age 60 years or older(
Kessler et al. 2003
). Females experience 1.5- to 3-fold higher rates than males beginning in early adolescence(Kessler et al. 2003).

Development and Course

Major depressive disorder may first appear at any age, but the likelihood of onset increases markedly with puberty. In the United States, incidence appears to peak in the 20s; however, first onset in late life is not uncommon(Kessler et al. 2003).

The course of major depressive disorder is quite variable, such that some individuals rarely, if ever, experience remission (a period of 2 or more months with no symptoms, or only one or two symptoms to no more than a mild degree), while others experience many years with few or no symptoms between discrete episodes. It is important to distinguish individuals who present for treatment during an exacerbation of a chronic depressive illness from those whose symptoms developed recently. Chronicity of depressive symptoms substantially increases the likelihood of underlying personality, anxiety, and substance use disorders and decreases the likelihood that treatment will be followed by full symptom resolution(
Coryell et al. 1990

Klein et al. 1988
). It is therefore useful to ask individuals presenting with depressive symptoms to identify the last period of at least 2 months during which they were entirely free of depressive symptoms.

Recovery typically begins within 3 months of onset for two in five individuals with major depression and within 1 year for four in five individuals(Coryell et al. 1994). Recency of onset is a strong determinant of the likelihood of near-term recovery, and many individuals who have been depressed only for several months can be expected to recover spontaneously. Features associated with lower recovery rates, other than current episode duration, include psychotic features(
Coryell et al. 1996
), prominent anxiety(
Clayton et al. 1991

Psychopathology

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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The neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions with onset in the developmental period. The disorders typically manifest early in development, often before the child enters grade school, and are characterized by developmental deficits that produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning. The range of developmental deficits varies from very specific limitations of learning or control of executive functions to global impairments of social skills or intelligence. The neurodevelopmental disorders frequently co-occur; for example, individuals with autism spectrum disorder often have intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder), and many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have a specific learning disorder. For some disorders, the clinical presentation includes symptoms of excess as well as deficits and delays in achieving expected milestones. For example, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed only when the characteristic deficits of social communication are accompanied by excessively repetitive behaviors, restricted interests, and insistence on sameness.

Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) is characterized by deficits in general mental abilities, such as reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience. The deficits result in impairments of adaptive functioning, such that the individual fails to meet standards of personal independence and social responsibility in one or more aspects of daily life, including communication, social participation, academic or occupational functioning, and personal independence at home or in community settings. Global developmental delay, as its name implies, is diagnosed when an individual fails to meet expected developmental milestones in several areas of intellectual functioning. The diagnosis is used for individuals who are unable to undergo systematic assessments of intellectual functioning, including children who are too young to participate in standardized testing. Intellectual disability may result from an acquired insult during the developmental period from, for example, a severe head injury, in which case a neurocognitive disorder also may be diagnosed.

The communication disorders include language disorder, speech sound disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder, and childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering). The first three disorders are characterized by deficits in the development and use of language, speech, and social communication, respectively. Childhood-onset fluency disorder is characterized by disturbances of the normal fluency and motor production of speech, including repetitive sounds or syllables, prolongation of consonants or vowel sounds, broken words, blocking, or words produced with an excess of physical tension. Like other neurodevelopmental disorders, communication disorders begin early in life and may produce lifelong functional impairments.

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including deficits in social reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and skills in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships. In addition to the social communication deficits, the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Because symptoms change with development and may be masked by compensatory mechanisms, the diagnostic criteria may be met based on historical information, although the current presentation must cause significant impairment.

Within the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, individual clinical characteristics are noted through the use of specifiers (with or without accompanying intellectual impairment; with or without accompanying structural language impairment; associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor; associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder), as well as specifiers that describe the autistic symptoms (age at first concern; with or without loss of established skills; severity). These specifiers provide clinicians with an opportunity to individualize the diagnosis and communicate a richer clinical description of the affected individuals. For example, many individuals previously diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder would now receive a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder without language or intellectual impairment.

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairing levels of inattention, disorganization, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Inattention and disorganization entail inability to stay on task, seeming not to listen, and losing materials, at levels that are inconsistent with age or developmental level. Hyperactivity-impulsivity entails overactivity, fidgeting, inability to stay seated, intruding into other people’s activities, and inability to wait—symptoms that are excessive for age or developmental level. In childhood, ADHD frequently overlaps with disorders that are often considered to be “externalizing disorders,” such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. ADHD often persists into adulthood, with resultant impairments of social, academic and occupational functioning.

The neurodevelopmental motor disorders include developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders. Developmental coordination disorder is characterized by deficits in the acquisition and execution of coordinated motor skills and is manifested by clumsiness and slowness or inaccuracy of performance of motor skills that cause interference with activities of daily living. Stereotypic movement disorder is diagnosed when an individual has repetitive, seemingly driven, and apparently purposeless motor behaviors, such as hand flapping, body rocking, head banging, self-biting, or hitting. The movements interfere with social, academic, or other activities. If the behaviors cause self-injury, this should be specified as part of the diagnostic description. Tic disorders are characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics, which are sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations. The duration, presumed etiology, and clinical presentation define the specific tic disorder that is diagnosed: Tourette’s disorder, persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder, provisional tic disorder, other specified tic disorder, and unspecified tic disorder. Tourette’s disorder is diagnosed when the individual has multiple motor and vocal tics that have been present for at least 1 year and that have a waxing-waning symptom course.

Specific learning disorder, as the name implies, is diagnosed when there are specific deficits in an individual’s ability to perceive or process information efficiently and accurately. This neurodevelopmental disorder first manifests during the years of formal schooling and is characterized by persistent and impairing difficulties with learning foundational academic skills in reading, writing, and/or math. The individual’s performance of the affected academic skills is well below average for age, or acceptable performance levels are achieved only with extraordinary effort. Specific learning disorder may occur in individuals identified as intellectually gifted and manifest only when the learning demands or assessment procedures (e.g., timed tests) pose barriers that cannot be overcome by their innate intelligence and compensatory strategies. For all individuals, specific learning disorder can produce lifelong impairments in activities dependent on the skills, including occupational performance.

The use of specifiers for the neurodevelopmental disorder diagnoses enriches the clinical description of the individual’s clinical course and current symptomatology. In addition to specifiers that describe the clinical presentation, such as age at onset or severity ratings, the neurodevelopmental disorders may include the specifier “associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor.” This specifier gives clinicians an opportunity to document factors that may have played a role in the etiology of the disorder, as well as those that might affect the clinical course. Examples include genetic disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and Rett syndrome; medical conditions such as epilepsy; and environmental factors, including very low birth weight and fetal alcohol exposure (even in the absence of stigmata of fetal alcohol syndrome).

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

A. A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by (1) and/or (2):

1. Inattention: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:

· Note: The symptoms are not solely a manifestation of oppositional behavior, defiance, hostility, or failure to understand tasks or instructions. For older adolescents and adults (age 17 and older), at least five symptoms are required.

a. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities (e.g., overlooks or misses details, work is inaccurate).

b. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (e.g., has difficulty remaining focused during lectures, conversations, or lengthy reading).

c. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (e.g., mind seems elsewhere, even in the absence of any obvious distraction).

d. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., starts tasks but quickly loses focus and is easily sidetracked).

e. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (e.g., difficulty managing sequential tasks; difficulty keeping materials and belongings in order; messy, disorganized work; has poor time management; fails to meet deadlines).

f. Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework; for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers).

g. Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).

h. Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli (for older adolescents and adults, may include unrelated thoughts).

i. Is often forgetful in daily activities (e.g., doing chores, running errands; for older adolescents and adults, returning calls, paying bills, keeping appointments).

2. Hyperactivity and impulsivity: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:

2. Note: The symptoms are not solely a manifestation of oppositional behavior, defiance, hostility, or a failure to understand tasks or instructions. For older adolescents and adults (age 17 and older), at least five symptoms are required.

a. Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat.

b. Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected (e.g., leaves his or her place in the classroom, in the office or other workplace, or in other situations that require remaining in place).

c. Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is inappropriate. (Note: In adolescents or adults, may be limited to feeling restless.)

d. Often unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly.

e. Is often “on the go,” acting as if “driven by a motor” (e.g., is unable to be or uncomfortable being still for extended time, as in restaurants, meetings; may be experienced by others as being restless or difficult to keep up with).

f. Often talks excessively.

g. Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed (e.g., completes people’s sentences; cannot wait for turn in conversation).

h. Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn (e.g., while waiting in line).

i. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations, games, or activities; may start using other people’s things without asking or receiving permission; for adolescents and adults, may intrude into or take over what others are doing).

B. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12 years.

C. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings (e.g., at home, school, or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).

D. There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning.

E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder (e.g., mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, personality disorder, substance intoxication or withdrawal).

Specify whether:

· 314.01 (F90.2) Combined presentation: If both Criterion A1 (inattention) and Criterion A2 (hyperactivity-impulsivity) are met for the past 6 months.

· 314.00 (F90.0) Predominantly inattentive presentation: If Criterion A1 (inattention) is met but Criterion A2 (hyperactivity-impulsivity) is not met for the past 6 months.

· 314.01 (F90.1) Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation: If Criterion A2 (hyperactivity-impulsivity) is met and Criterion A1 (inattention) is not met for the past 6 months.

Specify if:

· In partial remission: When full criteria were previously met, fewer than the full criteria have been met for the past 6 months, and the symptoms still result in impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

Specify current severity:

· Mild: Few, if any, symptoms in excess of those required to make the diagnosis are present, and symptoms result in no more than minor impairments in social or occupational functioning.

· Moderate: Symptoms or functional impairment between “mild” and “severe” are present.

· Severe: Many symptoms in excess of those required to make the diagnosis, or several symptoms that are particularly severe, are present, or the symptoms result in marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Inattention manifests behaviorally in ADHD as wandering off task, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus, and being disorganized and is not due to defiance or lack of comprehension. Hyperactivity refers to excessive motor activity (such as a child running about) when it is not appropriate, or excessive fidgeting, tapping, or talkativeness. In adults, hyperactivity may manifest as extreme restlessness or wearing others out with their activity. Impulsivity refers to hasty actions that occur in the moment without forethought and that have high potential for harm to the individual (e.g., darting into the street without looking). Impulsivity may reflect a desire for immediate rewards or an inability to delay gratification. Impulsive behaviors may manifest as social intrusiveness (e.g., interrupting others excessively) and/or as making important decisions without consideration of long-term consequences (e.g., taking a job without adequate information).

ADHD begins in childhood. The requirement that several symptoms be present before age 12 years conveys the importance of a substantial clinical presentation during childhood. At the same time, an earlier age at onset is not specified because of difficulties in establishing precise childhood onset retrospectively(Kieling et al. 2010). Adult recall of childhood symptoms tends to be unreliable(Klein et al. 2012; Mannuzza et al. 2002), and it is beneficial to obtain ancillary information.

Manifestations of the disorder must be present in more than one setting (e.g., home and school, work). Confirmation of substantial symptoms across settings typically cannot be done accurately without consulting informants who have seen the individual in those settings. Typically, symptoms vary depending on context within a given setting. Signs of the disorder may be minimal or absent when the individual is receiving frequent rewards for appropriate behavior, is under close supervision, is in a novel setting, is engaged in especially interesting activities, has consistent external stimulation (e.g., via electronic screens), or is interacting in one-on-one situations (e.g., the clinician’s office).

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

Mild delays in language, motor, or social development are not specific to ADHD but often co-occur. Associated features may include low frustration tolerance, irritability, or mood lability. Even in the absence of a specific learning disorder, academic or work performance is often impaired. Inattentive behavior is associated with various underlying cognitive processes, and individuals with ADHD may exhibit cognitive problems on tests of attention, executive function, or memory, although these tests are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to serve as diagnostic indices. By early adulthood, ADHD is associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt, primarily when comorbid with mood, conduct, or substance use disorders(Agosti et al. 2011).

No biological marker is diagnostic for ADHD. As a group, compared with peers, children with ADHD display increased slow wave electroencephalograms(Barry et al. 2003), reduced total brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging(Castellanos et al. 2002), and possibly a delay in posterior to anterior cortical maturation(Shaw et al. 2007), but these findings are not diagnostic. In the uncommon cases where there is a known genetic cause (e.g., fragile X syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome), the ADHD presentation should still be diagnosed.

Prevalence

Population surveys suggest that ADHD occurs in most cultures in about 5% of children(Polanczyk et al. 2007) and about 2.5% of adults(Simon et al. 2009).

Development and Course

Many parents first observe excessive motor activity when the child is a toddler, but symptoms are difficult to distinguish from highly variable normative behaviors before age 4 years. ADHD is most often identified during elementary school years, and inattention becomes more prominent and impairing. The disorder is relatively stable through early adolescence, but some individuals have a worsened course with development of antisocial behaviors. In most individuals with ADHD, symptoms of motoric hyperactivity become less obvious in adolescence and adulthood, but difficulties with restlessness, inattention, poor planning, and impulsivity persist(Turgay et al. 2012). A substantial proportion of children with ADHD remain relatively impaired into adulthood.

In preschool, the main manifestation is hyperactivity. Inattention becomes more prominent during elementary school. During adolescence, signs of hyperactivity (e.g., running and climbing) are less common and may be confined to fidgetiness or an inner feeling of jitteriness, restlessness, or impatience. In adulthood, along with inattention and restlessness, impulsivity may remain problematic even when hyperactivity has diminished.

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Temperamental

ADHD is associated with reduced behavioral inhibition, effortful control, or constraint; negative emotionality; and/or elevated novelty seeking. These traits may predispose some children to ADHD but are not specific to the disorder.

Environmental

Very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) conveys a two- to threefold risk for ADHD, but most children with low birth weight do not develop ADHD. Although ADHD is correlated with smoking during pregnancy, some of this association reflects common genetic risk(Thapar et al. 2009). A minority of cases may be related to reactions to aspects of diet(Nigg et al. 2012; Stevens et al. 2011). There may be a history of child abuse, neglect, multiple foster placements, neurotoxin exposure (e.g., lead), infections (e.g., encephalitis), or alcohol exposure in utero. Exposure to environmental toxicants has been correlated with subsequent ADHD, but it is not known whether these associations are causal.

Genetic and physiological

ADHD is elevated in the first-degree biological relatives of individuals with ADHD(Stawicki et al. 2006). The heritability of ADHD is substantial. While specific genes have been correlated with ADHD(Gizer et al. 2009), they are neither necessary nor sufficient causal factors. Visual and hearing impairments, metabolic abnormalities, sleep disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and epilepsy should be considered as possible influences on ADHD symptoms.

ADHD is not associated with specific physical features, although rates of minor physical anomalies (e.g., hypertelorism, highly arched palate, low-set ears) may be relatively elevated. Subtle motor delays and other neurological soft signs may occur. (Note that marked co-occurring clumsiness and motor delays should be coded separately [e.g., developmental coordination disorder].)

Course modifiers

Family interaction patterns in early childhood are unlikely to cause ADHD but may influence its course or contribute to secondary development of conduct problems.

Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues

Differences in ADHD prevalence rates across regions appear attributable mainly to different diagnostic and methodological practices(Polanczyk et al. 2007). However, there also may be cultural variation in attitudes toward or interpretations of children’s behaviors. Clinical identification rates in the United States for African American and Latino populations tend to be lower than for Caucasian populations(Froehlich et al. 2007Kessler et al. 2006Miller et al. 2009). Informant symptom ratings may be influenced by cultural group of the child and the informant(Mann et al. 1992Miller et al. 2009), suggesting that culturally appropriate practices are relevant in assessing ADHD.

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

ADHD is more frequent in males than in females in the general population, with a ratio of approximately 2:1 in children(Polanczyk et al. 2007) and 1.6:1 in adults(Kessler et al. 2006). Females are more likely than males to present primarily with inattentive features.

Functional Consequences of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD is associated with reduced school performance and academic attainment(Frazier et al. 2007), social rejection, and, in adults, poorer occupational performance, attainment, attendance, and higher probability of unemployment(Kessler et al. 2006) as well as elevated interpersonal conflict. Children with ADHD are significantly more likely than their peers without ADHD to develop conduct disorder in adolescence and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood(Mannuzza et al. 1998), consequently increasing the likelihood for substance use disorders and incarceration. The risk of subsequent substance use disorders is elevated, especially when conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder develops(Klein et al. 2012). Individuals with ADHD are more likely than peers to be injured(Merrill et al. 2009Pastor and Reuben 2006). Traffic accidents and violations are more frequent in drivers with ADHD. There may be an elevated likelihood of obesity among individuals with ADHD(Cortese et al. 2008; Fuemmeler et al. 2011).

Inadequate or variable self-application to tasks that require sustained effort is often interpreted by others as laziness, irresponsibility, or failure to cooperate. Family relationships may be characterized by discord and negative interactions. Peer relationships are often disrupted by peer rejection, neglect, or teasing of the individual with ADHD. On average, individuals with ADHD obtain less schooling, have poorer vocational achievement, and have reduced intellectual scores than their peers, although there is great variability. In its severe form, the disorder is markedly impairing, affecting social, familial, and scholastic/occupational adjustment.

Academic deficits, school-related problems, and peer neglect tend to be most associated with elevated symptoms of inattention, whereas peer rejection and, to a lesser extent, accidental injury are most salient with marked symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsivity(Willcutt et al. 2012).

Differential Diagnosis

Oppositional defiant disorder

Individuals with oppositional defiant disorder may resist work or school tasks that require self-application because they resist conforming to others’ demands. Their behavior is characterized by negativity, hostility, and defiance. These symptoms must be differentiated from aversion to school or mentally demanding tasks due to difficulty in sustaining mental effort, forgetting instructions, and impulsivity in individuals with ADHD. Complicating the differential diagnosis is the fact that some individuals with ADHD may develop secondary oppositional attitudes toward such tasks and devalue their importance.

Intermittent explosive disorder

ADHD and intermittent explosive disorder share high levels of impulsive behavior. However, individuals with intermittent explosive disorder show serious aggression toward others, which is not characteristic of ADHD, and they do not experience problems with sustaining attention as seen in ADHD. In addition, intermittent explosive disorder is rare in childhood. Intermittent explosive disorder may be diagnosed in the presence of ADHD.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders

The increased motoric activity that may occur in ADHD must be distinguished from the repetitive motor behavior that characterizes stereotypic movement disorder and some cases of autism spectrum disorder. In stereotypic movement disorder, the motoric behavior is generally fixed and repetitive (e.g., body rocking, self-biting), whereas the fidgetiness and restlessness in ADHD are typically generalized and not characterized by repetitive stereotypic movements. In Tourette’s disorder, frequent multiple tics can be mistaken for the generalized fidgetiness of ADHD. Prolonged observation may be needed to differentiate fidgetiness from bouts of multiple tics.

Specific learning disorder

Children with specific learning disorder may appear inattentive because of frustration, lack of interest, or limited ability. However, inattention in individuals with a specific learning disorder who do not have ADHD is not impairing outside of academic work.

Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)

Symptoms of ADHD are common among children placed in academic settings that are inappropriate to their intellectual ability. In such cases, the symptoms are not evident during non-academic tasks. A diagnosis of ADHD in intellectual disability requires that inattention or hyperactivity be excessive for mental age.

Autism spectrum disorder

Individuals with ADHD and those with autism spectrum disorder exhibit inattention, social dysfunction, and difficult-to-manage behavior. The social dysfunction and peer rejection seen in individuals with ADHD must be distinguished from the social disengagement, isolation, and indifference to facial and tonal communication cues seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism spectrum disorder may display tantrums because of an inability to tolerate a change from their expected course of events. In contrast, children with ADHD may misbehave or have a tantrum during a major transition because of impulsivity or poor self-control.

Reactive attachment disorder

Children with reactive attachment disorder may show social disinhibition, but not the full ADHD symptom cluster, and display other features such as a lack of enduring relationships that are not characteristic of ADHD.

Anxiety disorders

ADHD shares symptoms of inattention with anxiety disorders. Individuals with ADHD are inattentive because of their attraction to external stimuli, new act

Psychopathology

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template

Week (enter week #): (Enter assignment title)

Student Name

College of Nursing-PMHNP, Walden University

NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning

Faculty Name

Assignment Due Date

Subjective:

CC (chief complaint):

HPI:

Past Psychiatric History:

· General Statement:

· Caregivers (if applicable):

· Hospitalizations:

· Medication trials:

· Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis:

Substance Current Use and History:

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History:

Psychosocial History:

Medical History:

· Current Medications:

· Allergies:

· Reproductive Hx:

ROS:

· GENERAL:

· HEENT:

· SKIN:

· CARDIOVASCULAR:

· RESPIRATORY:

· GASTROINTESTINAL:

· GENITOURINARY:

· NEUROLOGICAL:

· MUSCULOSKELETAL:

· HEMATOLOGIC:

· LYMPHATICS:

· ENDOCRINOLOGIC:

Objective:

Physical exam: if applicable

Diagnostic results:

Assessment:

Mental Status Examination:

Differential Diagnoses:

Reflections:

References

· Include at least five (5) scholarly resources to support your assessment and diagnostic reasoning.

© 2021 Walden University Page 1 of 3

Psychopathology


Assignment

· Based on your evaluation of this patient, develop a video case presentation that includes chief complaint; history of present illness; any pertinent past psychiatric, substance use, medical, social, family history; most recent mental status exam; and current psychiatric diagnosis including differentials that were ruled out.

· Include at least five (5) scholarly resources to support your assessment and diagnostic reasoning.

· Ensure that you have the appropriate lighting and equipment to record the presentation

· Present the full case. Include chief complaint; history of present illness; any pertinent past psychiatric, substance use, medical, social, family history; most recent mental status exam; and current psychiatric diagnosis including differentials that were ruled out.

· Report normal diagnostic results as the name of the test and “normal” (rather than specific value). Abnormal results should be reported as a specific value.

Be succinct/ Address the following:

· Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding their personal and medical history? What are their symptoms of concern? How long have they been experiencing them, and what is the severity? How are their symptoms impacting their functioning?

· Objective: What observations did you make during the interview and review of systems? 

· Assessment: What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of three (3) possible diagnoses. List them from highest to lowest priority. What was your primary diagnosis, and why? 

· Reflection notes: What would you do differently in a similar patient evaluation?

Case Study

26-year-old white female. Individual is A/O x3. Individual reports “everything hit me like a freight train in January. I could not sleep.” Individual reports she was placed on medication during recent inpatient admission to psychiatric facility. Individual reports “it works a little too well. It makes me sleepy.” She reports originally going to the psychiatric facility because she could not sleep. Individual reports being diagnosed with Bipolar disorder. She reports losing 14 pounds within one week. Individual reports taking Gabapentin 600 mg in the morning, 600 mg at noon, and 1200 mg at night, and Abilify 5 mg at night. Individual complains of sleeping too much at night. Individual rates life 8/10 with 10 being total happiness. She denies S/I, H/I. individual reports that she has highs and lows. She reports she tried Lithium during inpatient admission “I had a really bad reaction. I had diarrhea.” DX; Bipolar I disorder; Mild depression. Plan; Gabapentin 600 mg tablet, 1.5 tablet nightly, Gabapentin 600 mg one tablet twice daily, Aripiprazole 5 mg one tablet nightly.


DX;

Bipolar disorder, Depression


Medications

Gabapentin 600 mg 1.5 tab nightly

Gabapentin 600 mg one tab daily

Aripiprazole 5 mg tab nightly


Mental exam

PHQ-9 total score; 4

GAD-7 total score; 7


Assessment

Mild depression (disorder) (f32.0/296.21) Major depressive disorder, single episode, mild modified.

Bipolar I disorder (disorder) (f31.9/296.80) Bipolar disorder, unspecified.


Plan;

“I wanna continue going on the right track.” Continue all medications as ordered.


Vital signs

BP; 122/75

HR; 88 bpm

Ht/Lt; 5’11”

Wt; 153 lbs 9 oz

BMI; 21.42

Pain; 0/10

Psychopathology

Discussion: Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).

Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?

To Prepare:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.

· Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Resources

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-001

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Psychopathology

Agoraphobia

Diagnostic Criteria

300.22 (F40.00)

A. Marked fear or anxiety about two (or more) of the following five situations:

1. Using public transportation (e.g., automobiles, buses, trains, ships, planes).

2. Being in open spaces (e.g., parking lots, marketplaces, bridges).

3. Being in enclosed places (e.g., shops, theaters, cinemas).

4. Standing in line or being in a crowd.

5. Being outside of the home alone.

B. The individual fears or avoids these situations because of thoughts that escape might be difficult or help might not be available in the event of developing panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms (e.g., fear of falling in the elderly; fear of incontinence).

C. The agoraphobic situations almost always provoke fear or anxiety.

D. The agoraphobic situations are actively avoided, require the presence of a companion, or are endured with intense fear or anxiety.

E. The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the agoraphobic situations and to the sociocultural context.

F. The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent, typically lasting for 6 months or more.

G. The fear, anxiety, or avoidance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

H. If another medical condition (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, Parkinson’s disease) is present, the fear, anxiety, or avoidance is clearly excessive.

I. The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is not better explained by the symptoms of another mental disorder—for example, the symptoms are not confined to specific phobia, situational type; do not involve only social situations (as in social anxiety disorder); and are not related exclusively to obsessions (as in obsessive-compulsive disorder), perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance (as in body dysmorphic disorder), reminders of traumatic events (as in posttraumatic stress disorder), or fear of separation (as in separation anxiety disorder).

Note: Agoraphobia is diagnosed irrespective of the presence of panic disorder. If an individual’s presentation meets criteria for panic disorder and agoraphobia, both diagnoses should be assigned.

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of agoraphobia is marked, or intense, fear or anxiety triggered by the real or anticipated exposure to a wide range of situations (Criterion A). The diagnosis requires endorsement of symptoms occurring in at least two of the following five situations: 1) using public transportation , such as automobiles, buses, trains, ships, or planes; 2) being in open spaces, such as parking lots, marketplaces, or bridges; 3) being in enclosed spaces, such as shops, theaters, or cinemas; 4) standing in line or being in a crowd; or 5) being outside of the home alone. The examples for each situation are not exhaustive; other situations may be feared(Wittchen et al. 2010). When experiencing fear and anxiety cued by such situations, individuals typically experience thoughts that something terrible might happen (Criterion B). Individuals frequently believe that escape from such situations might be difficult (e.g., “can’t get out of here”) or that help might be unavailable (e.g., “there is nobody to help me”) when panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms occur. “Panic-like symptoms” refer to any of the 13 symptoms included in the criteria for panic attack, such as dizziness, faintness, and fear of dying. “Other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms” include symptoms such as vomiting and inflammatory bowel symptoms, as well as, in older adults, a fear of falling or, in children, a sense of disorientation and getting lost.

The amount of fear experienced may vary with proximity to the feared situation and may occur in anticipation of or in the actual presence of the agoraphobic situation. Also, the fear or anxiety may take the form of a full- or limited-symptom panic attack (i.e., an expected panic attack). Fear or anxiety is evoked nearly every time the individual comes into contact with the feared situation (Criterion C). Thus, an individual who becomes anxious only occasionally in an agoraphobic situation (e.g., becomes anxious when standing in line on only one out of every five occasions) would not be diagnosed with agoraphobia(Craske et al. 2010; Wittchen et al. 2010). The individual actively avoids the situation or, if he or she either is unable or decides not to avoid it, the situation evokes intense fear or anxiety (Criterion D). Active avoidance means the individual is currently behaving in ways that are intentionally designed to prevent or minimize contact with agoraphobic situations. Avoidance can be behavioral (e.g., changing daily routines, choosing a job nearby to avoid using public transportation, arranging for food delivery to avoid entering shops and supermarkets) as well as cognitive (e.g., using distraction to get through agoraphobic situations) in nature. The avoidance can become so severe that the person is completely homebound. Often, an individual is better able to confront a feared situation when accompanied by a companion, such as a partner, friend, or health professional.

The fear, anxiety, or avoidance must be out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the agoraphobic situations and to the sociocultural context (Criterion E). Differentiating clinically significant agoraphobic fears from reasonable fears (e.g., leaving the house during a bad storm) or from situations that are deemed dangerous (e.g., walking in a parking lot or using public transportation in a high-crime area) is important for a number of reasons. First, what constitutes avoidance may be difficult to judge across cultures and sociocultural contexts (e.g., it is socioculturally appropriate for orthodox Muslim women in certain parts of the world to avoid leaving the house alone, and thus such avoidance would not be considered indicative of agoraphobia). Second, older adults are likely to overattribute their fears to age-related constraints and are less likely to judge their fears as being out of proportion to the actual risk(Wolitzky-Taylor et al. 2010). Third, individuals with agoraphobia are likely to overestimate danger in relation to panic-like or other bodily symptoms(
Chambless et al. 1984

McNally and Lorenz 1987
). Agoraphobia should be diagnosed only if the fear, anxiety, or avoidance persists (Criterion F) and if it causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion G). The duration of “typically lasting for 6 months or more” is meant to exclude individuals with short-lived, transient problems. However, the duration criterion should be used as a general guide, with allowance for some degree of flexibility.

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

In its most severe forms, agoraphobia can cause individuals to become completely homebound, unable to leave their home and dependent on others for services or assistance to provide even for basic needs. Demoralization and depressive symptoms, as well as abuse of alcohol and sedative medication as inappropriate self-medication strategies, are common.

Prevalence

Every year approximately 1.7% of adolescents and adults have a diagnosis of agoraphobia (
K
essler et al. 2012; Wittchen et al. 2011). Females are twice as likely as males to experience agoraphobia (Wittchen et al. 2010). Agoraphobia may occur in childhood, but incidence peaks in late adolescence and early adulthood(Beesdo et al. 2009; 
Bittner et al. 2007
). Twelve-month prevalence in individuals older than 65 years is 0.4%(Kessler et al. 2006). Prevalence rates do not appear to vary systematically across cultural/racial groups(
Gustavsson et al. 2011

Lew
is-Fernández et al. 2010).

Development and Course

The percentage of individuals with agoraphobia reporting panic attacks or panic disorder preceding the onset of agoraphobia ranges from 30% in community samples to more than 50% in clinic samples. The majority of individuals with panic disorder show signs of anxiety and agoraphobia before the onset of panic disorder (
Fava et al. 1992

Garvey et al. 1988
).

In two-thirds of all cases of agoraphobia, initial onset is before age 35 years. There is a substantial incidence risk in late adolescence and early adulthood, with indications for a second high incidence risk phase after age 40 years. First onset in childhood is rare. The overall mean age at onset for agoraphobia is 17 years, although the age at onset without preceding panic attacks or panic disorder is 25–29 years(Nocon et al. 2008Wittchen et al. 2010).

The course of agoraphobia is typically persistent and chronic. Complete remission is rare (10%), unless the agoraphobia is treated(Emmelkamp and Wittchen 2009). With more severe agoraphobia, rates of full remission decrease, whereas rates of relapse and chronicity increase. A range of other disorders, in particular other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders, may complicate the course of agoraphobia. The long-term course and outcome of agoraphobia are associated with substantially elevated risk of secondary major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), and substance use disorders.

The clinical features of agoraphobia are relatively consistent across the lifespan, although the type of agoraphobic situations triggering fear, anxiety, or avoidance, as well as the type of cognitions, may vary. For example, in children, being outside of the home alone is the most frequent situation feared, whereas in older adults, being in shops, standing in line, and being in open spaces are most often feared(Wittchen et al. 2010). Also, cognitions often pertain to becoming lost (in children), to experiencing panic-like symptoms (in adults), to falling (in older adults).

The low prevalence of agoraphobia in children could reflect difficulties in symptom reporting, and thus assessments in young children may require solicitation of information from multiple sources, including parents or teachers(Beesdo et al. 2009). Adolescents, particularly males, may be less willing than adults to openly discuss agoraphobic fears and avoidance; however, agoraphobia can occur prior to adulthood and should be assessed in children and adolescents. In older adults, comorbid somatic symptom disorders, as well as motor disturbances (e.g., sense of falling or having medical complications), are frequently mentioned by individuals as the reason for their fear and avoidance(
McCabe et al. 2006
). In these instances, care is to be taken in evaluating whether the fear and avoidance are out of proportion to the real danger involved.

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Temperamental

Behavioral inhibition and neurotic disposition (i.e., negative affectivity [neuroticism] and anxiety sensitivity) are closely associated with agoraphobia but are relevant to most anxiety disorders (phobic disorders, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)(Rohrbacher et al. 2008Wittchen et al. 2010). Anxiety sensitivity (the disposition to believe that symptoms of anxiety are harmful) is also characteristic of individuals with agoraphobia (
Hayward and Wilson 2007
).

Environmental

Negative events in childhood (e.g., separation, death of parent) and other stressful events, such as being attacked or mugged, are associated with the onset of agoraphobia. Furthermore, individuals with agoraphobia describe the family climate and child-rearing behavior as being characterized by reduced warmth and increased overprotection(Wittchen et al. 2010).

Genetic and physiological

Heritability for agoraphobia is 61%(Kendler et al. 1999). Of the various phobias, agoraphobia has the strongest and most specific association with the genetic factor that represents proneness to phobias(
Kendler et al. 1992a

Kendler et al. 1992b
).

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

Females have different patterns of comorbid disorders than males. Consistent with gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders, males have higher rates of comorbid substance use disorders.

Functional Consequences of Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is associated with considerable impairment and disability in terms of role functioning, work productivity, and disability days. Agoraphobia severity is a strong determinant of the degree of disability, irrespective of the presence of comorbid panic disorder, panic attacks, and other comorbid conditions(
Kessler et al. 2006
Wittchen et al. 2010). More than one-third of individuals with agoraphobia are completely homebound and unable to work.

Differential Diagnosis

When diagnostic criteria for agoraphobia and another disorder are fully met, both diagnoses should be assigned, unless the fear, anxiety, or avoidance of agoraphobia is attributable to the other disorder. Weighting of criteria and clinical judgment may be helpful in some cases.

Specific phobia, situational type

Differentiating agoraphobia from situational specific phobia can be challenging in some cases, because these conditions share several symptom characteristics and criteria. Specific phobia, situational type, should be diagnosed versus agoraphobia if the fear, anxiety, or avoidance is limited to one of the agoraphobic situations. Requiring fears from two or more of the agoraphobic situations is a robust means for differentiating agoraphobia from specific phobias, particularly the situational subtype. Additional differentiating features include the cognitive ideation. Thus, if the situation is feared for reasons other than panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms (e.g., fears of being directly harmed by the situation itself, such as fear of the plane crashing for individuals who fear flying), then a diagnosis of specific phobia may be more appropriate.

Separation anxiety disorder

Separation anxiety disorder can be best differentiated from agoraphobia by examining cognitive ideation. In separation anxiety disorder, the thoughts are about detachment from significant others and the home environment (i.e., parents or other attachment figures), whereas in agoraphobia the focus is on panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms in the feared situations.

Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

Agoraphobia should be differentiated from social anxiety disorder based primarily on the situational clusters that trigger fear, anxiety, or avoidance and the cognitive ideation. In social anxiety disorder, the focus is on fear of being negatively evaluated.

Panic disorder

When criteria for panic disorder are met, agoraphobia should not be diagnosed if the avoidance behaviors associated with the panic attacks do not extend to avoidance of two or more agoraphobic situations.

Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be differentiated from agoraphobia by examining whether the fear, anxiety, or avoidance is related only to situations that remind the individual of a traumatic event. If the fear, anxiety, or avoidance is restricted to trauma reminders, and if the avoidance behavior does not extend to two or more agoraphobic situations, then a diagnosis of agoraphobia is not warranted.

Major depressive disorder

In major depressive disorder, the individual may avoid leaving home because of apathy, loss of energy, low self-esteem, and anhedonia. If the avoidance is unrelated to fears of panic-like or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms, then agoraphobia should not be diagnosed.

Other medical conditions

Agoraphobia is not diagnosed if the avoidance of situations is judged to be a physiological consequence of a medical condition. This determination is based on history, laboratory findings, and a physical examination. Other relevant medical conditions may include neurodegenerative disorders with associated motor disturbances (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis), as well as cardiovascular disorders. Individuals with certain medical conditions may avoid situations because of realistic concerns about being incapacitated (e.g., fainting in an individual with transient ischemic attacks) or being embarrassed (e.g., diarrhea in an individual with Crohn’s disease). The diagnosis of agoraphobia should be given only when the fear or avoidance is clearly in excess of that usually associated with these medical conditions.

Comorbidity

The majority of individuals with agoraphobia also have other mental disorders. The most frequent additional diagnoses are other anxiety disorders (e.g., specific phobias, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), depressive disorders (major depressive disorder), PTSD, and alcohol use disorder. Whereas other anxiety disorders (e.g., separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, panic disorder) frequently precede onset of agoraphobia, depressive disorders and substance use disorders typically occur secondary to agoraphobia(
Bittner et al. 2004

Reed and Wittchen 1998
).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05

References: Agoraphobia

· Beesdo K , Knappe S , Pine DS : Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatr Clin North Am 32(3):483–524, 2009

· Bittner A , Goodwin RD , Wittchen HU , et al: What characteristics of primary anxiety disorders predict subsequent major depressive disorder? J Clin Psychiatry 65(5):618–626, 2004

· Bittner A , Egger HL , Erkanli A , et al: What do childhood anxiety disorders predict? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(12):1174–1183, 2007

· Chambless DL , Caputo GC , Bright P , Gallagher R : Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: the body sensation questionnaire and the agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire. J Consult Clin Psychol 52(6):1090–1097, 1984

· Craske MG , Kircanski K , Epstein A , et al: Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V. Depress Anxiety 27(2):93–112, 2010

· Emmelkamp PMG , Wittchen HU : Specific phobias, in Stress-Induced and Fear Circuitry Disorders: Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V. Edited by Andrews G , Charney DS , Sirovatka PJ , Regier DA . Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2009, pp 77–101

· Fava GA , Grandi S , Rafanelli C , Canestrari R : Prodromal symptoms in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a replication study. J Affect Disord 26(2):85–88, 1992

· Garvey MJ , Cook B , Noyes R Jr : The occurrence of a prodrome of generalized anxiety in panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry 29(5):445–449, 1988

· Gustavsson A , Svensson M , Jacobi F , et al: Cost of disorders of the brain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21(10):718–779, 2011

· Hayward C , Wilson KA : Anxiety sensitivity: a missing piece to the agoraphobia-without-panic puzzle. Behav Modif 31(2):162–173, 2007

· Kendler KS , Neale MC , Kessler RC , et al: Childhood parental loss and adult psychpathology in women: a twin study perspective. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49(2):109–116, 1992a

· Kendler KS , Neale MC , Kessler RC , et al: The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: the interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Arch Gen Psychaitry 49(4):273–281, 1992b

· Kendler KS , Karkowski LM , Prescott CA : Fears and phobias: reliability and heritability. Psychol Med 29(3):539–553, 1999

· Kessler RC , Chiu WT , Jin R , et al: The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63(4):415–424, 2006

· Kessler RC , Petukhova M , Sampson NA , et al: Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 21(3):169–184, 2012 10.1002/mpr.1359

· Lewis-Fernández R , Hinton DE , Laria AJ , et al: Culture and the anxiety disorders: recommendations for DSM-V. Depress Anxiety 27(2):212–229, 2010

· McCabe L , Cairney J , Veldhuizen S , et al: Prevalence and correlates of agoraphobia in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14(6):515–522, 2006

· McNally RJ , Lorenz M : Anxiety sensitivity in agoraphobics. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 18(1):3–11, 1987

· Nocon A , Wittchen HU , Beesdo K, et al: Differential familial liability of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Depress Anxiety 25(5):422–434, 2008

· Reed V , Wittchen HU : DSM-IV panic attacks and panic disorder in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: how specific are panic attacks? J Psychiatr Res 32(6):335–345, 1998

· Rohrbacher H , Hoyer J , Beesdo K , et al: Psychometric properties of the Retrospective Self Report of Inhibition (RSRI) in a representative German sample. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 17(2):80–88, 2008

· Wittchen HU , Gloster AT , Beesdo-Baum K , et al: Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depress Anxiety 27(2):113–133, 2010

· Wittchen HU , Jacobi F , Rehm J , et al: The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21(9):655–679, 2011

· Wolitzky-Taylor KB , Castriotta N , Lenze EJ , et al: Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depress Anxiety 27(2):190–211, 2010

Psychopathology

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Exemplar

INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE EXEMPLAR AND TEMPLATE—READ CAREFULLY

If you are struggling with the format or remembering what to include, follow the Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template
AND
the Rubric
as your guide. It is also helpful to review the rubric in detail in order not to lose points unnecessarily because you missed something required. Below highlights by category are taken directly from the grading rubric for the assignment in Weeks 4–10. After reviewing the full details of the rubric, you can use it as a guide.

In the Subjective section, provide:

· Chief complaint

· History of present illness (HPI)

· Past psychiatric history

· Medication trials and current medications

· Psychotherapy or previous psychiatric diagnosis

· Pertinent substance use, family psychiatric/substance use, social, and medical history

· Allergies

· ROS

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

In the Objective section, provide:

· Physical exam documentation of systems pertinent to the chief complaint, HPI, and history

· Diagnostic results, including any labs, imaging, or other assessments needed to develop the differential diagnoses.

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

In the Assessment section, provide:

· Results of the mental status examination,
presented in paragraph form.

· At least three differentials with supporting evidence. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis.
Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case

.

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

Reflect on this case. Include: Discuss what you learned and what you might do differently. Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (

demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment

!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

(The comprehensive evaluation is typically the initial new patient evaluation. You will practice writing this type of note in this course. You will be ruling out other mental illnesses so often you will write up what symptoms are present and what symptoms are not present from illnesses to demonstrate you have indeed assessed for all illnesses which could be impacting your patient. For example, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, bipolar symptoms, psychosis symptoms, substance use, etc.)

EXEMPLAR BEGINS HERE

CC (chief complaint): A brief statement identifying why the patient is here. This statement is verbatim of the patient’s own words about why presenting for assessment. For a patient with dementia or other cognitive deficits, this statement can be obtained from a family member.

HPI: Begin this section with patient’s initials, age, race, gender, purpose of evaluation, current medication and referral reason. For example:

N.M. is a 34-year-old Asian male presents for psychiatric evaluation for anxiety. He is currently prescribed sertraline which he finds ineffective. His PCP referred him for evaluation and treatment.

Or

P.H., a 16-year-old Hispanic female, presents for psychiatric evaluation for concentration difficulty. She is not currently prescribed psychotropic medications. She is referred by her therapist for medication evaluation and treatment.

Then, this section continues with the symptom analysis for your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis.

Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. First what is bringing the patient to your evaluation. Then, include a PSYCHIATRIC REVIEW OF SYMPTOMS. The symptoms onset, duration, frequency, severity, and impact. Your description here will guide your differential diagnoses. You are seeking symptoms that may align with many DSM-5 diagnoses, narrowing to what aligns with diagnostic criteria for mental health and substance use disorders.

Past Psychiatric History: This section documents the patient’s past treatments. Use the mnemonic Go Cha MP.

General Statement: Typically, this is a statement of the patients first treatment experience. For example: The patient entered treatment at the age of 10 with counseling for depression during her parents’ divorce. OR The patient entered treatment for detox at age 26 after abusing alcohol since age 13.

Caregivers are listed if applicable.

Hospitalizations: How many hospitalizations? When and where was last hospitalization? How many detox? How many residential treatments? When and where was last detox/residential treatment? Any history of suicidal or homicidal behaviors? Any history of self-harm behaviors?

Medication trials: What are the previous psychotropic medications the patient has tried and what was their reaction? Effective, Not Effective, Adverse Reaction? Some examples: Haloperidol (dystonic reaction), risperidone (hyperprolactinemia), olanzapine (effective, insurance wouldn’t pay for it)

Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: This section can be completed one of two ways depending on what you want to capture to support the evaluation. First, does the patient know what type? Did they find psychotherapy helpful or not? Why? Second, what are the previous diagnosis for the client noted from previous treatments and other providers. Thirdly, you could document both.

Substance Use History: This section contains any history or current use of caffeine, nicotine, illicit substance (including marijuana), and alcohol. Include the daily amount of use and last known use. Include type of use such as inhales, snorts, IV, etc. Include any histories of withdrawal complications from tremors, Delirium Tremens, or seizures.

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History: This section contains any family history of psychiatric illness, substance use illnesses, and family suicides. You may choose to use a genogram to depict this information. Be sure to include a reader’s key to your genogram or write up in narrative form.

Social History: This section may be lengthy if completing an evaluation for psychotherapy or shorter if completing an evaluation for psychopharmacology. However, at a minimum, please include:

Where patient was born, who raised the patient

Number of brothers/sisters (what order is the patient within siblings)

Who the patient currently lives with in a home? Are they single, married, divorced, widowed? How many children?

Educational Level

Hobbies:

Work History: currently working/profession, disabled, unemployed, retired?

Legal history: past hx, any current issues?

Trauma history: Any childhood or adult history of trauma?

Violence Hx: Concern or issues about safety (personal, home, community, sexual (current & historical)

Medical History: This section contains any illnesses, surgeries, include any hx of seizures, head injuries.

Current Medications: Include dosage, frequency, length of time used, and reason for use. Also include OTC or homeopathic products.

Allergies: Include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately. Provide a description of what the allergy is (e.g., angioedema, anaphylaxis). This will help determine a true reaction vs. intolerance.

Reproductive Hx: Menstrual history (date of LMP), Pregnant (yes or no), Nursing/lactating (yes or no), contraceptive use (method used), types of intercourse: oral, anal, vaginal, other, any sexual concerns

ROS: Cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis. Please note: THIS IS DIFFERENT from a physical examination!

You should list each system as follows: General: Head: EENT: etc. You should list these in bullet format and document the systems in order from head to toe.

Example of Complete ROS:

GENERAL: No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness, or fatigue.

HEENT: Eyes: No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision, or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or sore throat.

SKIN: No rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain, chest pressure, or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.

RESPIRATORY: No shortness of breath, cough, or sputum.

GASTROINTESTINAL: No anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.

GENITOURINARY: Burning on urination, urgency, hesitancy, odor, odd color

NEUROLOGICAL: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness, or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.

MUSCULOSKELETAL: No muscle, back pain, joint pain, or stiffness.

HEMATOLOGIC: No anemia, bleeding, or bruising.

LYMPHATICS: No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No reports of sweating, cold, or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.

Physical exam (If applicable and if you have opportunity to perform—document if exam is completed by PCP): From head to toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head-to-toe format i.e., General: Head: EENT: etc.

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, X-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines).


A

ssessment

Mental Status Examination: For the purposes of your courses, this section must be presented in paragraph form and not use of a checklist! This section you will describe the patient’s appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought processes, thought content, perceptions (hallucinations, pseudohallucinations, illusions, etc.)., cognition, insight, judgment, and SI/HI. See an example below. You will modify to include the specifics for your patient on the above elements—DO NOT just copy the example. You may use a preceptor’s way of organizing the information if the MSE is in paragraph form.

He is an 8-year-old African American male who looks his stated age. He is cooperative with examiner. He is neatly groomed and clean, dressed appropriately. There is no evidence of any abnormal motor activity. His speech is clear, coherent, normal in volume and tone. His thought process is goal directed and logical. There is no evidence of looseness of association or flight of ideas. His mood is euthymic, and his affect appropriate to his mood. He was smiling at times in an appropriate manner. He denies any auditory or visual hallucinations. There is no evidence of any delusional thinking.   He denies any current suicidal or homicidal ideation. Cognitively, he is alert and oriented. His recent and remote memory is intact. His concentration is good. His insight is good. 

Differential Diagnoses: You must have at least three differentials with supporting evidence. Explain what rules each differential in or out and justify your primary diagnosis selection. You will use supporting evidence from the literature to support your rationale. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

Also included in this section is the reflection. Reflect on this case and discuss whether or not you agree with your preceptor’s assessment and diagnostic impression of the patient and why or why not. What did you learn from this case? What would you do differently?

Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrating critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

References (move to begin on next page)

You are required to include at least three evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting.

© 2021 Walden University Page 1 of 3

Psychopathology


CC

26-year-old white female. Individual is A/O x3. Individual reports she was placed on medication during recent inpatient admission to psychiatric facility. Individual reports “it works a little too well. It makes me sleepy.” She reports originally going to the psychiatric facility because she could not sleep. Individual reports being diagnosed with Bipolar disorder. She reports losing 14 pounds within one week. Individual reports taking Gabapentin 600 mg in the morning, 600 mg at noon, and 1200 mg at night, and Abilify 5 mg at night. Individual complains of sleeping too much at night. Individual rates life 8/10 with 10 being total happiness. She denies S/I, H/I. individual reports that she has highs and lows. She reports she tried Lithium during inpatient admission “I had a really bad reaction. I had diarrhea.” DX; Bipolar I disorder (mixed); Mild depression. Plan; Gabapentin 600 mg tablet, 1.5 tablet nightly, Gabapentin 600 mg one tablet twice daily, Aripiprazole 5 mg one tablet nightly.


Mental function

PHQ-9 total core: 4, GAD-7 total score: 6


Vitals

Ht: 5’11”

Wt: 169 lbs

BMI: 23.57

Pain: 0/10


HPI

“Everything hit me like a freight train in January. I could not sleep.” Individual denies childhood trauma.


PMHx

Bipolar disorder

Hallucinations, delusions – Reports hallucinations and delusions when medications were adjusted.

Hyperlipidemia


PSHx

Comments: teeth pulled; cyst cut in back


FHx

Comments: Mother (living) Father (living), skin cancer (mets to brain)


Soc Hx

Alcohol: do not drink

Drug Abuse: No illicit drugs

Tobacco: Never smoker


Ob Preg Hx

Age of menses: 12


Allergies

No known medication allergies


ROS

Psychiatric: (+) change in mood, (-) depression, (-) sadness interfering with function, (+) anxiety, (+) nervousness, (-) sleep disturbance, (-) suicidal/homicidal ideations, (-) hopelessness, (+) worthlessness, (-) delusions, (-) hallucinations

Psychopathology

Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation and Patient Case Presentation 

· Include at least five (5) scholarly resources to support your assessment and diagnostic reasoning.

· Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding their personal and medical history? What are their symptoms of concern? How long have they been experiencing them, and what is the severity? How are their symptoms impacting their functioning?

· Objective: What observations did you make during the interview and review of systems?

· Assessment: What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of three (3) possible diagnoses. List them from highest to lowest priority. What was your primary diagnosis, and why?

· Reflection notes: What would you do differently in a similar patient evaluation?

Psychopathology

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template

Week (enter week #): (Enter assignment title)

Student Name

College of Nursing-PMHNP, Walden University

NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning

Faculty Name

Assignment Due Date

Subjective:

CC (chief complaint):

HPI:

Past Psychiatric History:

· General Statement:

· Caregivers (if applicable):

· Hospitalizations:

· Medication trials:

· Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis:

Substance Current Use and History:

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History:

Psychosocial History:

Medical History:

· Current Medications:

· Allergies:

· Reproductive Hx:

ROS:

· GENERAL:

· HEENT:

· SKIN:

· CARDIOVASCULAR:

· RESPIRATORY:

· GASTROINTESTINAL:

· GENITOURINARY:

· NEUROLOGICAL:

· MUSCULOSKELETAL:

· HEMATOLOGIC:

· LYMPHATICS:

· ENDOCRINOLOGIC:

Objective:

Physical exam: if applicable

Diagnostic results:

Assessment:

Mental Status Examination:

Differential Diagnoses:

Reflections:

References

© 2021 Walden University Page 1 of 3

Psychopathology

Assignment

Subjective Section

Chief complainant

The patient starts by saying, “I can’t stop crying, all the time.” The patient complains that since she gave birth to her child two months ago, she has been experiencing mood disorders and difficulties falling asleep even after the baby is already asleep. She complains that especially when the baby cries, she loses her appetite and is not comfortable with her new body shape and size. She says nothing interests her, even writing, which was one of the things she loved before she gave birth. She does not want to contact her friends, and everything seems to be upsetting her.

History of present illness (HPI)

L.T is a 32-year-old black female who resents for psychiatric evaluation due to mood depression. The patient has not been prescribed any psychotropic drugs recently.

Past psychiatric history

The patient has never been examined or treated for any mental disorders in the past. Recently she was hospitalized for a standard childbirth procedure.

Medication trials and current medication

She has not tried any medications in the past, neither is she under any medication currently.

Psychotherapy or previous psychiatric diagnosis

The patient has no history of psychiatric illness and has not been diagnosed or treated with any mental health disorder.

Pertinent substance use, social, and medical history

The patient denies any use of alcohol or cases of drug abuse in the family. Although she says that her uncle was not an opioid abuser, he committed suicide using GSW. She is married and currently lives with her husband with their two kids. She has been working in the retail business for the past five years, but currently, she is a housewife. The patient grew up with her sister together with her both parents. She has been diagnosed with hypertension recently, and she is taking drugs labelled as labetalol 100mg for HTN, which she says that she sometimes forgets to take them. The patient has no legal history or any issues related to violence.

Allergies

L.T is allergic to codeine. She gave birth two months ago, which automatically means that she is lactating. Currently, she is not using any form of contraceptive, and she has had no desire for sex since she gave birth.

ROS

General: No weight loss, fatigue or chills experienced by the patient.

HEET: Her vision is the same no issues of double vision or jaundice. Her ears, nose and throat are okay.

Skin: Her skin has not changed either is she having rashes.

Cardiovascular: No chest discomfort or pains.

Respiratory: She is not coughing or producing sputum, implying her respiratory is fine.

Gastrointestinal: She has eventually lost her appetite and wants to lose weight, although she is not vomiting or feeling abdominal pain.

Genitourinary: The urine colour or odour has not changed, and she is not experiencing any burns during urination. No headaches, no back or joint pains.

Hematologic: No bleeding realized or enlarged nodes.

Endocrinologic: she is not sweating or having any intolerance to heat or cold. No polydipsia.

Objective Section

Physical examination of the documents

Vital signs

T- 97.6 P- 97 R 22 149/98 Ht 5’3 Wt 245lbs

The patient is withdrawn and tearful during the interview.

Diagnosis results

I would order a Genesight psychotropic test. Genesight testing can help determine best treatment options for this patient.

Assessment Section

Examination of mental status

The patient is appropriately dressed and fit for the occasion and the weather. She is conscious of time and place. Her memory is okay, although she appears to be distant during the assessment. Her speech is okay, although she is using a low tone. Her moods are depressed, and she confesses having suicidal thoughts but has not attempted to do so and that she had had no intentions of hurting the baby. No signs of hallucinations or delusions. We can conclude that her critical and insights are okay.

Differential Diagnoses

Postpartum depression is an episode of depression that is common between 4-6 weeks after delivery. It is often characterized by mood disorders, excess anxiety, weight changes, and insomnia (Sadock et al., 2015). Other stressors connected to this depression include inadequate support from family members. Individuals with this kind of depression often feel a lack of interest in some activities and feelings of guilt, suicidal thoughts (Sadock et al., 2015). The client reports signs of this kind of depression as she says she can’t stop crying, she has lost her appetite, has difficulties in sleeping, depressed moods all the time, has no interest in her previous hobbies, and her self-esteem has also gone down (Sherman & Ali, 2018).

Major depressant disorder: this disorder is characterized by depressed moods and a lack of interest in activities with pleasure. It also includes crying all the time, insomnia, loss of weight, feeling hopeless, feeling guilty all the time, lack of energy and even concentration (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Our client has presented most of these symptoms, which does not mean it is the diagnosis even if the symptoms appeared four weeks after delivery.

Postpartum blues: this disorder is characterized by events of low moods and severe depressive signs. These signs include crying, mood burden, dysphoria, irritability, lack of sleep and concentration (Mullins IV, 2021). The condition primarily affects 30-50% of women who give birth (Sadock et al., 2015). These signs must appear within 2-3days after birth and disappear after two weeks to meet the diagnosis criteria. This is not the case for the patient since the symptoms persisted for more than two weeks.

Reflection

I agree with the preceptor’s assessment and the diagnostic impression of the patient since what the patient is going through is not just ordinary. From this case, I have learned that various mood disorders can have similar symptoms. For example, major depressive disorder and postpartum blues seem to be displaying similar symptoms with postpartum depression. To make the correct diagnosis, one must analyze factors and other stressors associated with the mood disorder (Sadock et al., 2015). I would analyze all the mood disorders to be sure of my final diagnosis for the patient. A legal factor to be considered would be drug safety for both the patient and the baby. Medications pass through breast milk, but the variations of the passage depend on the drugs taken (Frieder et al., 2019)

Psychopathology


Case study


CC

26-year-old white female. Individual is A/O x3. Individual reports she was placed on medication during recent inpatient admission to psychiatric facility. Individual reports “it works a little too well. It makes me sleepy.” She reports originally going to the psychiatric facility because she could not sleep. Individual reports being diagnosed with Bipolar disorder. She reports losing 14 pounds within one week. Individual reports taking Gabapentin 600 mg in the morning, 600 mg at noon, and 1200 mg at night, and Abilify 5 mg at night. Individual complains of sleeping too much at night. Individual rates life 8/10 with 10 being total happiness. She denies S/I, H/I. individual reports that she has highs and lows. She reports she tried Lithium during inpatient admission “I had a really bad reaction. I had diarrhea.” DX; Bipolar I disorder (mixed); Mild depression. Plan; Gabapentin 600 mg tablet, 1.5 tablet nightly, Gabapentin 600 mg one tablet twice daily, Aripiprazole 5 mg one tablet nightly.


Mental function

PHQ-9 total core: 4, GAD-7 total score: 6


Vitals

Ht: 5’11”

Wt: 169 lbs

BMI: 23.57

Pain: 0/10


HPI

“Everything hit me like a freight train in January. I could not sleep.” Individual denies childhood trauma.


PMHx

Bipolar disorder

Hallucinations, delusions – Reports hallucinations and delusions when medications were adjusted.

Hyperlipidemia


PSHx

Comments: teeth pulled; cyst cut in back


FHx

Comments: Mother (living) Father (living), skin cancer (mets to brain)


Soc Hx

Alcohol: do not drink

Drug Abuse: No illicit drugs

Tobacco: Never smoker


Ob Preg Hx

Age of menses: 12


Allergies

No known medication allergies


ROS

Psychiatric: (+) change in mood, (-) depression, (-) sadness interfering with function, (+) anxiety, (+) nervousness, (-) sleep disturbance, (-) suicidal/homicidal ideations, (-) hopelessness, (+) worthlessness, (-) delusions, (-) hallucinations

Psychopathology

Bipolar and Related Disorders

Bipolar and related disorders are separated from the depressive disorders in DSM-5 and placed between the chapters on schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders and depressive disorders in recognition of their place as a bridge between the two diagnostic classes in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics. The diagnoses included in this chapter are bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder, bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition, other specified bipolar and related disorder, and unspecified bipolar and related disorder.

The bipolar I disorder criteria represent the modern understanding of the classic manic-depressive disorder or affective psychosis described in the nineteenth century, differing from that classic description only to the extent that neither psychosis nor the lifetime experience of a major depressive episode is a requirement. However, the vast majority of individuals whose symptoms meet the criteria for a fully syndromal manic episode also experience major depressive episodes during the course of their lives.

Bipolar II disorder, requiring the lifetime experience of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic episode, is no longer thought to be a “milder” condition than bipolar I disorder, largely because of the amount of time individuals with this condition spend in depression and because the instability of mood experienced by individuals with bipolar II disorder is typically accompanied by serious impairment in work and social functioning.

The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is given to adults who experience at least 2 years (for children, a full year) of both hypomanic and depressive periods without ever fulfilling the criteria for an episode of mania, hypomania, or major depression.

A large number of substances of abuse, some prescribed medications, and several medical conditions can be associated with manic-like phenomena. This fact is recognized in the diagnoses of substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder and bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition.

The recognition that many individuals, particularly children and, to a lesser extent, adolescents, experience bipolar-like phenomena that do not meet the criteria for bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic disorder is reflected in the availability of the other specified bipolar and related disorder category. Indeed, specific criteria for a disorder involving short-duration hypomania are provided in Section III in the hope of encouraging further study of this disorder.

Bipolar I Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.

Manic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation (i.e., purposeless non-goal-directed activity).

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

C. The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

D. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment) or another medical condition.

. Note: A full manic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a manic episode and, therefore, a bipolar I diagnosis.

Note: Criteria A–D constitute a manic episode. At least one lifetime manic episode is required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Hypomanic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly every day.

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy and activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) have persisted, represent a noticeable change from usual behavior, and have been present to a significant degree:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

C. The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic of the individual when not symptomatic.

D. The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

E. The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization. If there are psychotic features, the episode is, by definition, manic.

F. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment) or another medical condition .

. Note: A full hypomanic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a hypomanic episode diagnosis. However, caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a hypomanic episode, nor necessarily indicative of a bipolar diathesis.

Note: Criteria A–F constitute a hypomanic episode. Hypomanic episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Major Depressive Episode

A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

· Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, or hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).

3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others; not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

Note: Criteria A–C constitute a major depressive episode. Major depressive episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.

In distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode (MDE), it is useful to consider that in grief the predominant affect is feelings of emptiness and loss, while in an MDE it is persistent depressed mood and the inability to anticipate happiness or pleasure. The dysphoria in grief is likely to decrease in intensity over days to weeks and occurs in waves, the so-called pangs of grief. These waves tend to be associated with thoughts or reminders of the deceased. The depressed mood of an MDE is more persistent and not tied to specific thoughts or preoccupations. The pain of grief may be accompanied by positive emotions and humor that are uncharacteristic of the pervasive unhappiness and misery characteristic of an MDE . The thought content associated with grief generally features a preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the deceased, rather than the self-critical or pessimistic ruminations seen in an MDE. In grief, self-esteem is generally preserved, whereas in an MDE, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common. If self-derogatory ideation is present in grief, it typically involves perceived failings vis-à-vis the deceased (e.g., not visiting frequently enough, not telling the deceased how much he or she was loved). If a bereaved individual thinks about death and dying, such thoughts are generally focused on the deceased and possibly about “joining” the deceased, whereas in an MDE such thoughts are focused on ending one’s own life because of feeling worthless, undeserving of life, or unable to cope with the pain of depression.

Bipolar I Disorder

A. Criteria have been met for at least one manic episode (Criteria A–D under “Manic Episode” above).

B. The occurrence of the manic and major depressive episode(s) is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder.

Coding and Recording Procedures

· The diagnostic code for bipolar I disorder is based on type of current or most recent episode and its status with respect to current severity, presence of psychotic features, and remission status. Current severity and psychotic features are only indicated if full criteria are currently met for a manic or major depressive episode. Remission specifiers are only indicated if the full criteria are not currently met for a manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. Codes are as follows:

· In recording the name of a diagnosis, terms should be listed in the following order: bipolar I disorder, type of current or most recent episode, severity/psychotic/remission specifiers, followed by as many specifiers without codes as apply to the current or most recent episode.

Specify:

· With anxious distress (p. 149)

· With mixed features (pp. 149–150)

· With rapid cycling (pp. 150–151)

· With melancholic features (p. 151)

· With atypical features (pp. 151–152)

· With mood-congruent psychotic features (p. 152 ;

applies to manic episode and/or major depressive episode)

· With mood-incongruent psychotic features (p. 152 ;

applies to manic episode and/or major depressive episode)

· With catatonia (p. 152). Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1).

· With peripartum onset (pp. 152–153)

· With seasonal pattern (pp. 153–154)

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of a manic episode is a distinct period during which there is an abnormally, persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased activity or energy that is present for most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary), accompanied by at least three additional symptoms from Criterion B. If the mood is irritable rather than elevated or expansive, at least four Criterion B symptoms must be present.

Mood in a manic episode is often described as euphoric, excessively cheerful, high, or “feeling on top of the world.” In some cases, the mood is of such a highly infectious quality that it is easily recognized as excessive and may be characterized by unlimited and haphazard enthusiasm for interpersonal, sexual, or occupational interactions. For example, the individual may spontaneously start extensive conversations with strangers in public. Often the predominant mood is irritable rather than elevated, particularly when the individual’s wishes are denied or if the individual has been using substances. Rapid shifts in mood over brief periods of time may occur and are referred to as lability (i.e., the alternation among euphoria, dysphoria, and irritability). In children, happiness, silliness and “goofiness” are normal in the context of special occasions; however, if these symptoms are recurrent, inappropriate to the context, and beyond what is expected for the developmental level of the child, they may meet Criterion A. If the happiness is unusual for a child (i.e., distinct from baseline), and the mood change occurs at the same time as symptoms that meet Criterion B for mania, diagnostic certainty is increased; however, the mood change must be accompanied by persistently increased activity or energy levels that are obvious to those who know the child well.

During the manic episode, the individual may engage in multiple overlapping new projects. The projects are often initiated with little knowledge of the topic, and nothing seems out of the individual’s reach. The increased activity levels may manifest at unusual hours of the day.

Inflated self-esteem is typically present, ranging from uncritical self-confidence to marked grandiosity, and may reach delusional proportions (Criterion B1). Despite lack of any particular experience or talent, the individual may embark on complex tasks such as writing a novel or seeking publicity for some impractical invention. Grandiose delusions (e.g., of having a special relationship to a famous person) are common. In children, overestimation of abilities and belief that, for example, they are the best at a sport or the smartest in the class is normal; however, when such beliefs are present despite clear evidence to the contrary or the child attempts feats that are clearly dangerous and, most important, represent a change from the child’s normal behavior, the grandiosity criterion should be considered satisfied.

One of the most common features is a decreased need for sleep (Criterion B2) and is distinct from insomnia in which the individual wants to sleep or feels the need to sleep but is unable. The individual may sleep little, if at all, or may awaken several hours earlier than usual, feeling rested and full of energy. When the sleep disturbance is severe, the individual may go for days without sleep, yet not feel tired. Often a decreased need for sleep heralds the onset of a manic episode.

Speech can be rapid, pressured, loud, and difficult to interrupt (Criterion B3). Individuals may talk continuously and without regard for others’ wishes to communicate, often in an intrusive manner or without concern for the relevance of what is said. Speech is sometimes characterized by jokes, puns, amusing irrelevancies, and theatricality, with dramatic mannerisms, singing, and excessive gesturing. Loudness and forcefulness of speech often become more important than what is conveyed. If the individual’s mood is more irritable than expansive, speech may be marked by complaints, hostile comments, or angry tirades, particularly if attempts are made to interrupt the individual. Both Criterion A and Criterion B symptoms may be accompanied by symptoms of the opposite (i.e., depressive) pole (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149–150).

Often the individual’s thoughts race at a rate faster than they can be expressed through speech (Criterion B4). Frequently there is flight of ideas evidenced by a nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech, with abrupt shifts from one topic to another. When flight of ideas is severe, speech may become disorganized, incoherent, and particularly distressful to the individual. Sometimes thoughts are experienced as so crowded that it is very difficult to speak.

Distractibility (Criterion B5) is evidenced by an inability to censor immaterial external stimuli (e.g., the interviewer’s attire, background noises or conversations, furnishings in the room) and often prevents individuals experiencing mania from holding a rational conversation or attending to instructions.

The increase in goal-directed activity often consists of excessive planning and participation in multiple activities, including sexual, occupational, political, or religious activities. Increased sexual drive, fantasies, and behavior are often present. Individuals in a manic episode usually show increased sociability (e.g., renewing old acquaintances or calling or contacting friends or even strangers), without regard to the intrusive, domineering, and demanding nature of these interactions. They often display psychomotor agitation or restlessness (i.e., purposeless activity) by pacing or by holding multiple conversations simultaneously. Some individuals write excessive letters, e-mails, text messages, and so forth, on many different topics to friends, public figures, or the media.

The increased activity criterion can be difficult to ascertain in children; however, when the child takes on many tasks simultaneously, starts devising elaborate and unrealistic plans for projects, develops previously absent and developmentally inappropriate sexual preoccupations (not accounted for by sexual abuse or exposure to sexually explicit material), then Criterion B might be met based on clinical judgment. It is essential to determine whether the behavior represents a change from the child’s baseline behavior; occurs most of the day, nearly every day for the requisite time period; and occurs in temporal association with other symptoms of mania.

The expansive mood, excessive optimism, grandiosity, and poor judgment often lead to reckless involvement in activities such as spending sprees, giving away possessions, reckless driving, foolish business investments, and sexual promiscuity that is unusual for the individual, even though these activities are likely to have catastrophic consequences (Criterion B7). The individual may purchase many unneeded items without the money to pay for them and, in some cases, give them away. Sexual behavior may include infidelity or indiscriminate sexual encounters with strangers, often disregarding the risk of sexually transmitted diseases or interpersonal consequences.

The manic episode must result in marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or require hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others (e.g., financial losses, illegal activities, loss of employment, self-injurious behavior). By definition, the presence of psychotic features during a manic episode also satisfies Criterion C.

Manic symptoms or syndromes that are attributable to the physiological effects of a drug of abuse (e.g., in the context of cocaine or amphetamine intoxication), the side effects of medications or treatments (e.g., steroids, l-dopa, antidepressants, stimulants), or another medical condition do not count toward the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. However, a fully syndromal manic episode that arises during treatment (e.g., with medications, electroconvulsive therapy, light therapy) or drug use and persists beyond the physiological effect of the inducing agent (i.e., after a medication is fully out of the individual’s system or the effects of electroconvulsive therapy would be expected to have dissipated completely) is sufficient evidence for a manic episode diagnosis (Criterion D). Caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a manic or hypomanic episode, nor necessarily an indication of a bipolar disorder diathesis. It is necessary to meet criteria for a manic episode to make a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, but it is not required to have hypomanic or major depressive episodes. However, they may precede or follow a manic episode. Full descriptions of the diagnostic features of a hypomanic episode may be found within the text for bipolar II disorder, and the features of a major depressive episode are described within the text for major depressive disorder.

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

During a manic episode, individuals often do not perceive that they are ill or in need of treatment and vehemently resist efforts to be treated. Individuals may change their dress, makeup, or personal appearance to a more sexually suggestive or flamboyant style. Some perceive a sharper sense of smell, hearing, or vision. Gambling and antisocial behaviors may accompany the manic episode. Some individuals may become hostile and physically threatening to others and, when delusional, may become physically assaultive or suicidal. Catastrophic consequences of a manic episode (e.g., involuntary hospitalization, difficulties with the law, serious financial difficulties) often result from poor judgment, loss of insight, and hyperactivity.

Mood may shift very rapidly to anger or depression. Depressive symptoms may occur during a manic episode and, if present, may last moments, hours, or, more rarely, days (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149–150).

Prevalence

The 12-month prevalence estimate in the continental United States was 0.6% for bipolar I disorder as defined in DSM-IV(Merikangas et al. 2007). Twelve-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder across 11 countries ranged from 0.0% to 0.6%(Merikangas et al. 2007). The lifetime male-to-female prevalence ratio is approximately 1.1:1(Merikangas et al. 2007).

Development and Course

Mean age at onset of the first manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode is approximately 18 years for bipolar I disorder. Special considerations are necessary to detect the diagnosis in children. Since children of the same chronological age may be at different developmental stages, it is difficult to define with precision what is “normal” or “expected” at any given point. Therefore, each child should be judged according to his or her own baseline. Onset occurs throughout the life cycle, including first onsets in the 60s or 70s. Onset of manic symptoms (e.g., sexual or social disinhibition) in late mid-life or late-life should prompt consideration of medical conditions (e.g., frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder) and of substance ingestion or withdrawal.

More than 90% of individuals who have a single manic episode go on to have recurrent mood episodes. Approximately 60% of manic episodes occur immediately before a major depressive episode. Individuals with bipolar I disorder who have multiple (four or more) mood episodes (major depressive, manic, or hypomanic) within 1 year receive the specifier “with rapid cycling.”

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Environmental

Bipolar disorder is more common in high-income than in low-income countries (1.4 % vs. 0.7%)(Ormel et al. 2008). Separated, divorced, or widowed individuals have higher rates of bipolar I disorder than do individuals who are married or have never been married, but the direction of the association is unclear.

Genetic and physiological

A family history of bipolar disorder is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for bipolar disorders. There is an average 10-fold increased risk among adult relatives of individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Magnitude of risk increases with degree of kinship. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder likely share a genetic origin(Lichtenstein et al. 2009), reflected in familial co-aggregation of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder(Van Snellenberg and deCandia 2009).

Course modifiers

After an individual has a manic episode with psychotic features, subsequent manic episodes are more likely to include psychotic features. Incomplete inter-episode recovery is more common when the current episode is accompanied by mood-incongruent psychotic features.

Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues

Little information exists on specific cultural differences in the expression of bipolar I disorder. One possible explanation for this may be that diagnostic instruments are often translated and applied in different cultures with no transcultural validation(Sanches and Jorge 2004). In one U.S. study, 12-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder was significantly lower for Afro-Caribbeans than for African Americans or whites(Williams et al. 2007).

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

Females are more likely to experience rapid cycling and mixed states, and to have patterns of comorbidity that differ from those of males, including higher rates of lifetime eating disorders(McElroy et al. 2011). Females with bipolar I or II disorder are more likely to experience depressive symptoms than males(Altshuler et al. 2010; Suppes et al. 2005). They also have a higher lifetime risk of alcohol use disorder than do males and a much greater likelihood of alcohol use disorder than do females in the general population(Frye et al. 2003).

Suicide Risk

The lifetime risk of suicide in individuals with bipolar disorder is estimated to be at least 15 times that of the general population. In fact, bipolar disorder may account for one-quarter of all completed suicides. A past history of suicide attempt and percent days spent depressed in the past year are associated with greater risk of suicide attempts or completions(Marangell et al. 2006).

Functional Consequences of Bipolar I Disorder

Although many individuals with bipolar disorder return to a fully functional level between episodes, approximately 30% show severe impairment in work role function(Judd et al. 2008). Functional recovery lags substantially behind recovery from symptoms, especially with respect to occupational recovery, resulting in lower socioeconomic status despite equivalent levels of education when compared with the general population(Schoeyen et al. 2011). Individuals with bipolar I disorder perform more poorly than healthy individuals on cognitive tests. Cognitive impairments may contribute to vocational and interpersonal difficulties(Dickerson et al. 2004) and persist through the lifespan, even during euthymic periods(Gildengers et al. 2010).

Differential Diagnosis

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder may also be accompanied by hypomanic or manic symptoms (i.e., fewer symptoms or for a shorter duration than required for mania or hypomania). When the individual presents in an episode of major depression, one must depend on corroborating history regarding past episodes of mania or hypomania. Symptoms of irritability may be associated with either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, adding to diagnostic complexity.

Other bipolar disorders

Diagnosis of bipolar I disorder is differentiated from bipolar II disorder by determining whether there have been any past episodes of mania. Other specified and unspecified bipolar and related disorders should be differentiated from bipolar I and II disorders by considering whether either the episodes involving manic or hypomanic symptoms or the episodes of depressive symptoms fail to meet the full criteria for those conditions.

Bipolar disorder due to another medical condition may be distinguished from bipolar I and II disorders by identifying, based on best clinical evidence, a causally related medical condition.

Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or other anxiety disorders

These disorders need to be considered in the differential diagnosis as either the primary disorder or, in some cases, a comorbid disorder. A careful history of symptoms is needed to differentiate generalized anxiety disorder from bipolar disorder, as anxious ruminations may be mistaken for racing thoughts, and efforts to minimize anxious feelings may be taken as impulsive behavior. Similarly, symptoms of posttraumatic stress diso

Psychopathology

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template

Week (enter week #): (Enter assignment title)

Student Name

College of Nursing-PMHNP, Walden University

NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning

Faculty Name

Assignment Due Date

Subjective:

CC (chief complaint):

HPI:

Past Psychiatric History:

· General Statement:

· Caregivers (if applicable):

· Hospitalizations:

· Medication trials:

· Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis:

Substance Current Use and History:

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History:

Psychosocial History:

Medical History:

· Current Medications:

· Allergies:

· Reproductive Hx:

ROS:

· GENERAL:

· HEENT:

· SKIN:

· CARDIOVASCULAR:

· RESPIRATORY:

· GASTROINTESTINAL:

· GENITOURINARY:

· NEUROLOGICAL:

· MUSCULOSKELETAL:

· HEMATOLOGIC:

· LYMPHATICS:

· ENDOCRINOLOGIC:

Objective:

Physical exam: if applicable

Diagnostic results:

Assessment:

Mental Status Examination:

Differential Diagnoses:

Reflections:

References

© 2021 Walden University Page 1 of 3

Psychopathology

Assignment

While most people experience the sadness or grief at some point in their lives, it is typically of short duration and may occur in response to some type of loss. Clinically significant depression, on the other hand, is more disruptive and serious. It lasts longer and has more symptoms that interfere with daily functioning.

This week, you will explore the differences among mood disorders such as depressive, bipolar, and related disorders, and you will examine challenges in properly differentiating among them for the purpose of accurately rendering a diagnosis. You also will look at steps that can be taken to increase the likelihood that patients who are diagnosed with these disorders benefit from treatment and refrain from physically harming themselves or others.

Complete and submit your Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation, including your differential diagnosis and critical-thinking process to formulate a primary diagnosis. Incorporate the following into your responses in the template:

· Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding their chief complaint and symptomology to derive your differential diagnosis? What is the duration and severity of their symptoms? How are their symptoms impacting their functioning in life? 

· Objective: What observations did you make during the psychiatric assessment?  

· Assessment: Discuss the patient’s mental status examination results. What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of three possible diagnoses with supporting evidence, listed in order from highest priority to lowest priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis. Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

· Reflection notes: What would you do differently with this client if you could conduct the session over? Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

· Consider what history would be necessary to collect from this patient.

· Consider what interview questions you would need to ask this patient.

· Identify at least three possible differential diagnoses for the patient.

Name: Ms. Julie Houston Gender: female Age:19 years old T 98.1 P-78 R-18 119/74 Ht 5’2” Wt 184lbs Background: Recently started a business undergraduate program in Boston, MA after growing up and living in South Carolina her whole life. Grew up with both parents, two brothers, and one sister. Currently lives in off-campus housing with two other female roommates. Currently a full-time student, not employed. Not married, currently single. She has no previous psychiatric history; takes no medications. There is no psychiatric or substance use history for her or family. No legal hx NKDA.  

TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

00:00:00______________________________________________________________________________ 

00:00:00BEGIN TRANSCRIPT: 

00:00:00[sil.] 

00:00:15OFF CAMERA Why did your mom feel you should come in and talk with me today? 

00:00:20MRS HOUSTON She was worried. Mom says I get moody this time of year, every year. I don’t know. Maybe. 

00:00:40OFF CAMERA How are you feeling, when? 

00:00:45PATIENT Not great. 

00:00:45OFF CAMERA What’s not great? 

00:00:50PATIENT Huh. Just down. I’m not doing so well. 

00:01:05OFF CAMERA How’s school? 

00:01:05PATIENT Ok. 

00:01:10OFF CAMERA Just ok? 

00:01:15PATIENT Yeah. I left the program at school. I mean I did and… I’m not doing so well. 

00:01:25OFF CAMERA Are the courses difficult? 

00:01:30[sil.] 

00:01:35PATIENT I understand everything. The teachers are getting to be a bit of a pain. The classes aren’t lustrous (Sighs). I’m in this special business program, where you have to come up with a mock company. I just… I just can’t seem to get it done. That, and all my other projects. I’m already late on two of them. 

00:02:25OFF CAMERA Are you having difficult concentrating? 

00:02:30PATIENT Yeah. I’ll read the headlines in the newspaper and like, five seconds later, I can’t remember what I read. And my classes, when I leave the room, I don’t what we were learning about. 

00:02:55OFF CAMERA Are you having any irregular sleeping or eating patterns? 

00:03:05PATIENT (Sighs) I’ve gained ten pounds. Umm… I’ve slept through five of my classes this month if that answers your question. 

00:03:20OFF CAMERA Have you been able to make any friends? 

00:03:25PATIENT [Shrugs] Yeah. Almost immediately. The people are a lot of fun. 

00:03:30OFF CAMERA What do you do with them? 

00:03:35PATIENT Lately, not so much of anything. 

00:03:45OFF CAMERA What happened? 

00:03:50PATIENT Well, it was a blast when I arrived in August. I made friends almost immediately. We went to concerts and shows, we hung out. And we had a lot of fun. 

00:04:15OFF CAMERA You don’t do any of that now? 

00:04:20PATIENT They kind of annoy me a little bit. I mean nothing I can’t get over. They got really dull. They suddenly started playing board games… and then, things also got busy and with the weather, I don’t want to go outside. 

00:04:45OFF CAMERA Do you particularly dislike the cold weather? 

00:04:50PATIENT It’s not like I have a burning passionate hatred for the cold. I’ve always fretted fall and winter. I’m a summer girl. I like the beach and convertibles. And now… 

00:05:10OFF CAMERA You can’t do any of that. 

00:05:10PATIENT No. In fact you can’t do anything at all. 

00:05:15OFF CAMERA Can you tell me what it is you dislike about this time of the year? 

00:05:25PATIENT It’s dark. And grey. And miserable. The whole city changes, it’s not the same city that I loved in August. September was good. It was beautiful. Sunny, crisp days and, the leaves changing at the end of the month and then it just started getting worse and worse. Even… the snow is grey and black. I didn’t know snow got like that, city snow. I thought snow was white and beautiful. But city snow isn’t like that. Everything is grey. It’s miserable. 

Psychopathology

Photo Credit: New Africa / Adobe Stock

Anxiety Disorders, PTSD, and OCD

· Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information

· Formulate differential diagnoses using DSM-5 criteria for patients with anxiety disorders, PTSD, and OCD across the lifespan

Resources

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Obsessive compulsive and related disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm06

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Trauma- and stressor-related disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm07

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., and Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

· Chapter 9, Anxiety Disorders

· Chapter 10, Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

· Chapter 11, Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders

· Chapter 31.11 Trauma-Stressor Related Disorders in Children

· Chapter 31.13 Anxiety Disorders in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence

· Chapter 31.14 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence

Agoraphobia

Individuals with agoraphobia are fearful and anxious about two or more of the following situations: using public transportation; being in open spaces; being in enclosed places; standing in line or being in a crowd; or being outside of the home alone in other situations. The individual fears these situations because of thoughts that escape might be difficult or help might not be available in the event of developing panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms. These situations almost always induce fear or anxiety and are often avoided or require the presence of a companion.

Name: Ms. Barbara Weidre Gender: female Age: 56 years old T- 99.0 P- 99 R 24 132/89 Ht 5’4 Wt 168lbs Background: Lives with her husband in Knoxville, TN, has one daughter age 23. She has never worked. Raised by mother, she never knew her father. Mother with hx of anxiety; no substance hx for patient or family. No previous psychiatric treatment. Has one glass red wine with dinner. Sleeps 10-12 hrs; appetite decreased. Has overactive bladder, untreated. Allergic to Phenergan; complains of headaches, takes prn ibuprofen, has diarrhea once weekly, takes OTC Imodium.

TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

00:00:00______________________________________________________________________________ 

00:00:00BEGIN TRANSCRIPT: 

00:00:00[sil.] 

00:00:15[She nervously plays with her scarf as she breathes anxiously] 

00:00:25OFF CAMERA Hello Mrs. Weidre. Are you ok? Do you want some water or something? 

00:00:30MRS. WEIDRE I’m ok. I’m fine. 

00:00:35OFF CAMERA I understand you wanted to see me today. 

00:00:40[She breathes anxiously] 

00:00:40MRS. WEIDRE I just really needed to sit and talk. 

00:00:40OFF CAMERA Well, tell me what’s wrong, what are you feeling? 

00:00:50MRS. WEIDRE I’m just so… so unsure. I’m tired of being stuck in my house. I don’t like it. 

00:01:00OFF CAMERA Stuck in your house? Do you have difficultly leaving your house? 

00:01:05MRS. WEIDRE Yes. All the time. 

00:01:05OFF CAMERA When do you go out? 

00:01:10MRS. WEIDRE …maybe, once or twice. 

00:01:15OFF CAMERA A day? 

00:01:15[She clutches her hands to her chest] 

00:01:15MRS. WEIDRE A week. Tuesdays and Saturdays. 

00:01:20OFF CAMERA Why Tuesday and Saturday? 

00:01:30MRS. WEIDRE Because when my husband gets home, he can go with me. 

00:01:35OFF CAMERA What do you do when you go out? 

00:01:40MRS. WEIDRE I take walks. 

00:01:40OFF CAMERA Where do you walk? 

00:01:40MRS. WEIDRE I only go to the end of the block, and then I cross the street, and turn around, and I go back around the cul-de-sac. I’ll do that three times. [Losing breathe] No more, then I have to go back inside… I also go in my backyard. That’s usually okay. 

00:02:15OFF CAMERA On the walks, why do you have to go back after three times? What happens? 

00:02:20MRS. WEIDRE [She nervously looks around] I just can’t go any further. 

00:02:25OFF CAMERA Is this a physical problem, knees or something? 

00:02:30[She plays with her scarf] 

00:02:30MRS. WEIDRE No. No. Well… maybe. I just can’t breathe if I’m out any longer. 

00:02:40OFF CAMERA Oh, breathing? 

00:02:40MRS. WEIDRE Yeah. 

00:02:40OFF CAMERA What do you feel? 

00:02:45MRS. WEIDRE [Her voice quivering] I’m just so frightened. Really, really scared. You don’t realize what it took for me to get here today. I really had to. I willed it. I closed my eyes and my husband turned the radio up all the way as he drove. And then he lead me into the building. 

00:03:20OFF CAMERA Is there something that triggers this, anything in particular? 

00:03:30MRS. WEIDRE I don’t like people. Maybe that’s it. I mean I can tolerate them. Ethan, the little boy next door, I’ll bake things for him and say hello. Sometimes, sometimes I watch him when his parents are gone. I mean I can be around people. Maybe that’s not that’s not what I meant. 

00:04:00OFF CAMERA Ok, can you walk me through what happens when you do leave the house? 

00:04:05MRS. WEIDRE I get shortness of breathe, everything, the world just seems to close in on me, and everything gets feels really tight, the air in my body, my chest. I get dizzy. I don’t know what’s wrong… I could be sick. What is this? 

00:04:30OFF CAMERA There can be many different causes for this. What is it that frightens you? 

00:04:40MRS. WEIDRE [She’s short of breathe] Death. I’m afraid to die. 

00:04:45OFF CAMERA You’re afraid you might die? 

00:04:50MRS. WEIDRE Yes. Among other things but that’s what pops into my head. 

00:04:55OFF CAMERA Is there other stuff? 

00:05:00[sil.] 

00:05:05MRS. WEIDRE Cars go to fast. And there’s murders and rapes that I see on the news. And flashfloods. I just think its close, its safer to stay close to home. 

00:05:15OFF CAMERA How long have you had this fear? 

00:05:20MRS. WEIDRE I don’t really know. 

00:05:20OFF CAMERA Do you know when it all started? 

00:05:25MRS. WEIDRE I’m not sure. 

00:05:30OFF CAMERA Do you know what started it? 

00:05:30MRS. WEIDRE No. 

00:05:35OFF CAMERA When was the last time you really ventured out for any length of time? 

00:05:40MRS. WEIDRE Fifteen years. 

00:05:45[She nervously shifts in her chair] 

00:05:45OFF CAMERA That long. Is this the farthest you’ve been in fifteen years? What happened fifteen years ago? 

00:06:00MRS. WEIDRE I don’t really know. 

00:06:05OFF CAMERA There is nothing that happened to you personally that could have made you afraid of dying? 

00:06:10MRS. WEIDRE I always was. My mother died the year before that. But it happened little by little. First it was planes. And then I couldn’t drive on the freeway, then I couldn’t drive at all, then errands, then it was going out… and soon… here I am. 

00:06:40OFF CAMERA It must have taken you extraordinary courage to come here today. What finally brought you to see me? 

00:06:50MRS. WEIDRE My grandson was born. But I couldn’t go and see him. I still haven’t seen him. My daughter gave birth last week and she’s not going to bring him to see me for several months and I don’t want to wait that long. 

00:07:10OFF CAMERA You miss out. 

00:07:15MRS. WEIDRE Yes! Of course I do! My grandson is a thousand miles away and I can’t leave the God damned house. 

00:07:25[sil.] 

00:07:25END TRANSCRIPT 

Psychopathology

Case study

54-year-old white female. Individual reports depression has increased. “I been dealing with my boyfriend being in the nursing home. I have no desire to do anything. I just feel depressed and all I do is lay around crying.” Individual reports anxiety the same. She reports Seroquel helps with sleep and denies side effects from medications. Individual rates life 4/10 with 10 being the happiest. She denies SI/HI at this time. Plan: continue Oxycarboxipine 300 mg daily, increase Seroquel dose to Seroquel 150 mg daily. Order Genesight test (increase Oxycaboxipine dosage pending review of test results). Follow up in 4 weeks


DX;

Bipolar disorder, Anxiety, Depression, Difficulty sleeping

Current Medications

Quetiapine 100 mg

Oxycarbazepine 300 mg

Fluticasone prop 50 mcg spr

Loratadine 10 mg

Levothyroxine sodium 50 mcg

Montelukast sod 10 mg

Losartan potassium 50 mg

Novolog 100 units/ml vial

Diltiazem HCL ER coated BEA

VIT D2 1.25 mg (50,000 unit)

Lisinopril (cough)

Sulfur (hives)

Vital signs

Hight 5’11

Weight 247 lbs

BMI 34


ROS

PYSICHIATRIC;

(+) Change in mood

(+) Depression

(+) Sadness interfering with function

(+) Anxiety

(-) Nervousness

(+) Sleep disturbance

(+) Hopelessness

(+) Worthlessness

(-) Delusions

(-) Hallucinations

HPI

Individual reports anxiety and depression most of her life. She reports childhood sexual trauma. Individual also reports grief from the loss of her adult son.

Past Psychiatric History:

Anxiety

Depression

Bipolar

Reproductive Hx

Age of menses 15

G3 T3 PO AO L2

PMHx

HTN

COPD- Bronchitis/Emphysema

Type II DM

Hyperlipidemia

PSHx

Tubal ligation, vulvectomy

FHx

Mother (deceased) cancer, mood disorder

SHx

Current smoker

Occasional alcohol

Psychopathology

NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template

Week (enter week #): (Enter assignment title)

Student Name

College of Nursing-PMHNP, Walden University

NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning

Faculty Name

Assignment Due Date

Subjective:

CC (chief complaint):

HPI:

Past Psychiatric History:

· General Statement:

· Caregivers (if applicable):

· Hospitalizations:

· Medication trials:

· Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis:

Substance Current Use and History:

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History:

Psychosocial History:

Medical History:

· Current Medications:

· Allergies:

· Reproductive Hx:

ROS:

· GENERAL:

· HEENT:

· SKIN:

· CARDIOVASCULAR:

· RESPIRATORY:

· GASTROINTESTINAL:

· GENITOURINARY:

· NEUROLOGICAL:

· MUSCULOSKELETAL:

· HEMATOLOGIC:

· LYMPHATICS:

· ENDOCRINOLOGIC:

Objective:

Physical exam: if applicable

Diagnostic results:

Assessment:

Mental Status Examination:

Differential Diagnoses:

Reflections:

References

· Include at least five (5) scholarly resources to support your assessment and diagnostic reasoning.

© 2021 Walden University Page 1 of 3

Psychopathology

Schizophrenia

Diagnostic Criteria

295.90 (F20.9)

A. Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated). At least one of these must be (1), (2), or (3):

1. Delusions.

2. Hallucinations.

3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.

5. Negative symptoms (i.e., diminished emotional expression or avolition).

B. For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, level of functioning in one or more major areas, such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, is markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, there is failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational functioning).

C. Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6-month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e., active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or by two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences).

D. Schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features have been ruled out because either 1) no major depressive or manic episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms, or 2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, they have been present for a minority of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.

E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.

F. If there is a history of autism spectrum disorder or a communication disorder of childhood onset, the additional diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations, in addition to the other required symptoms of schizophrenia, are also present for at least 1 month (or less if successfully treated).

Specify if:

The following course specifiers are only to be used after a 1-year duration of the disorder and if they are not in contradiction to the diagnostic course criteria.

· First episode, currently in acute episode: First manifestation of the disorder meeting the defining diagnostic symptom and time criteria. An acute episode is a time period in which the symptom criteria are fulfilled.

· First episode, currently in partial remission: Partial remission is a period of time during which an improvement after a previous episode is maintained and in which the defining criteria of the disorder are only partially fulfilled.

· First episode, currently in full remission: Full remission is a period of time after a previous episode during which no disorder-specific symptoms are present.

· Multiple episodes, currently in acute episode: Multiple episodes may be determined after a minimum of two episodes (i.e., after a first episode, a remission and a minimum of one relapse).

· Multiple episodes, currently in partial remission

· Multiple episodes, currently in full remission

· Continuous: Symptoms fulfilling the diagnostic symptom criteria of the disorder are remaining for the majority of the illness course, with subthreshold symptom periods being very brief relative to the overall course.

· Unspecified

Specify if:

· With catatonia (refer to the criteria for catatonia associated with another mental disorder, pp. 119–120, for definition).

· Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1) catatonia associated with schizophrenia to indicate the presence of the comorbid catatonia.

Specify current severity:

· Severity is rated by a quantitative assessment of the primary symptoms of psychosis, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, abnormal psychomotor behavior, and negative symptoms. Each of these symptoms may be rated for its current severity (most severe in the last 7 days) on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not present) to 4 (present and severe). (See Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity in the chapter “Assessment Measures.”)

· Note: Diagnosis of schizophrenia can be made without using this severity specifier.

Diagnostic Features

The characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia involve a range of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional dysfunctions, but no single symptom is pathognomonic of the disorder. The diagnosis involves the recognition of a constellation of signs and symptoms associated with impaired occupational or social functioning. Individuals with the disorder will vary substantially on most features, as schizophrenia is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome.

At least two Criterion A symptoms must be present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period or longer. At least one of these symptoms must be the clear presence of delusions (Criterion A1), hallucinations (Criterion A2), or disorganized speech (Criterion A3). Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior (Criterion A4) and negative symptoms (Criterion A5) may also be present. In those situations in which the active-phase symptoms remit within a month in response to treatment, Criterion A is still met if the clinician estimates that they would have persisted in the absence of treatment.

Schizophrenia involves impairment in one or more major areas of functioning (Criterion B). If the disturbance begins in childhood or adolescence, the expected level of function is not attained. Comparing the individual with unaffected siblings may be helpful. The dysfunction persists for a substantial period during the course of the disorder and does not appear to be a direct result of any single feature. Avolition (i.e., reduced drive to pursue goal-directed behavior; Criterion A5) is linked to the social dysfunction described under Criterion B. There is also strong evidence for a relationship between cognitive impairment (see the section “Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis” for this disorder) and functional impairment in individuals with schizophrenia.

Some signs of the disturbance must persist for a continuous period of at least 6 months (Criterion C). Prodromal symptoms often precede the active phase, and residual symptoms may follow it, characterized by mild or subthreshold forms of hallucinations or delusions. Individuals may express a variety of unusual or odd beliefs that are not of delusional proportions (e.g., ideas of reference or magical thinking); they may have unusual perceptual experiences (e.g., sensing the presence of an unseen person); their speech may be generally understandable but vague; and their behavior may be unusual but not grossly disorganized (e.g., mumbling in public). Negative symptoms are common in the prodromal and residual phases and can be severe. Individuals who had been socially active may become withdrawn from previous routines. Such behaviors are often the first sign of a disorder.

Mood symptoms and full mood episodes are common in schizophrenia and may be concurrent with active-phase symptomatology. However, as distinct from a psychotic mood disorder, a schizophrenia diagnosis requires the presence of delusions or hallucinations in the absence of mood episodes. In addition, mood episodes, taken in total, should be present for only a minority of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.

In addition to the five symptom domain areas identified in the diagnostic criteria, the assessment of cognition, depression, and mania symptom domains is vital for making critically important distinctions between the various schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

Individuals with schizophrenia may display inappropriate affect (e.g., laughing in the absence of an appropriate stimulus); a dysphoric mood that can take the form of depression, anxiety, or anger; a disturbed sleep pattern (e.g., daytime sleeping and nighttime activity); and a lack of interest in eating or food refusal. Depersonalization, derealization, and somatic concerns may occur and sometimes reach delusional proportions. Anxiety and phobias are common(Tandon et al. 2009). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are common and are strongly linked to vocational and functional impairments. These deficits can include decrements in declarative memory, working memory, language function, and other executive functions, as well as slower processing speed(Mesholam-Gately et al. 2009). Abnormalities in sensory processing and inhibitory capacity, as well as reductions in attention, are also found. Some individuals with schizophrenia show social cognition deficits, including deficits in the ability to infer the intentions of other people (theory of mind)(
Bora et al. 2009
), and may attend to and then interpret irrelevant events or stimuli as meaningful, perhaps leading to the generation of explanatory delusions. These impairments frequently persist during symptomatic remission.

Some individuals with psychosis may lack insight or awareness of their disorder (i.e., anosognosia). This lack of “insight” includes unawareness of symptoms of schizophrenia and may be present throughout the entire course of the illness. Unawareness of illness is typically a symptom of schizophrenia itself rather than a coping strategy. It is comparable to the lack of awareness of neurological deficits following brain damage, termed anosognosia. This symptom is the most common predictor of non-adherence to treatment, and it predicts higher relapse rates, increased number of involuntary treatments, poorer psychosocial functioning, aggression, and a poorer course of illness(
Shad et al. 2006
).

Hostility and aggression can be associated with schizophrenia, although spontaneous or random assault is uncommon. Aggression is more frequent for younger males and for individuals with a past history of violence, non-adherence with treatment, substance abuse, and impulsivity(Elbogen and Johnson 2009). It should be noted that the vast majority of persons with schizophrenia are not aggressive and are more frequently victimized than are individuals in the general population(Teplin et al. 2005).

Currently, there are no radiological, laboratory, or psychometric tests for the disorder. Differences are evident in multiple brain regions between groups of healthy individuals and persons with schizophrenia, including evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological, and neurophysiological studies(Minzenberg et al. 2009). Differences are also evident in cellular architecture, white matter connectivity, and gray matter volume in a variety of regions such as the prefrontal and temporal cortices(
Bora et al. 2011
). Reduced overall brain volume has been observed(
Steen et al. 2006
), as well as increased brain volume reduction with age(Olabi et al. 2011). Brain volume reductions with age are more pronounced in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy individuals(Olabi et al. 2011). Finally, individuals with schizophrenia appear to differ from individuals without the disorder in eye-tracking(
O’Driscoll and Callahan 2008
) and electrophysiological indices(
Jeon and Polich 2003
).

Neurological soft signs common in individuals with schizophrenia include impairments in motor coordination, sensory integration, and motor sequencing of complex movements; left-right confusion; and disinhibition of associated movements. In addition, minor physical anomalies of the face and limbs may occur(Weinberg et al. 2007).

Prevalence

The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia appears to be approximately 0.3%–0.7%(
McGrath et al. 2008
), although there is reported variation by race/ethnicity, across countries, and by geographic origin for immigrants and children of immigrants. The sex ratio differs across samples and populations: for example, an emphasis on negative symptoms and longer duration of disorder (associated with poorer outcome) shows higher incidence rates for males(
Roy et al. 2001
), whereas definitions allowing for the inclusion of more mood symptoms and brief presentations (associated with better outcome) show equivalent risks for both sexes(
Beauchamp and Gagnon 2004
).

Development and Course

The psychotic features of schizophrenia typically emerge between the late teens and the mid-30s; onset prior to adolescence is rare. The peak age at onset for the first psychotic episode is in the early- to mid-20s for males and in the late-20s for females(McGrath et al. 2008). The onset may be abrupt or insidious, but the majority of individuals manifest a slow and gradual development of a variety of clinically significant signs and symptoms. Half of these individuals complain of depressive symptoms. Earlier age at onset has traditionally been seen as a predictor of worse prognosis. However, the effect of age at onset is likely related to gender, with males having worse premorbid adjustment, lower educational achievement, more prominent negative symptoms and cognitive impairment, and in general a worse outcome(
Álvarez-Jiménez et al. 2012
). Impaired cognition is common, and alterations in cognition are present during development and precede the emergence of psychosis, taking the form of stable cognitive impairments during adulthood(
Tarbox and Pogue-Geile 2008
). Cognitive impairments may persist when other symptoms are in remission and contribute to the disability of the disease.

The predictors of course and outcome are largely unexplained, and course and outcome may not be reliably predicted. The course appears to be favorable in about 20% of those with schizophrenia, and a small number of individuals are reported to recover completely. However, most individuals with schizophrenia still require formal or informal daily living supports, and many remain chronically ill, with exacerbations and remissions of active symptoms, while others have a course of progressive deterioration.

Psychotic symptoms tend to diminish over the life course, perhaps in association with normal age-related declines in dopamine activity. Negative symptoms are more closely related to prognosis than are positive symptoms and tend to be the most persistent(Tamminga et al. 1998). Furthermore, cognitive deficits associated with the illness may not improve over the course of the illness.

The essential features of schizophrenia are the same in childhood, but it is more difficult to make the diagnosis. In children, delusions and hallucinations may be less elaborate than in adults, and visual hallucinations are more common and should be distinguished from normal fantasy play. Disorganized speech occurs in many disorders with childhood onset (e.g., autism spectrum disorder), as does disorganized behavior (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). These symptoms should not be attributed to schizophrenia without due consideration of the more common disorders of childhood. Childhood-onset cases tend to resemble poor-outcome adult cases, with gradual onset and prominent negative symptoms. Children who later receive the diagnosis of schizophrenia are more likely to have experienced nonspecific emotional-behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language alterations, and subtle motor delays.

Late-onset cases (i.e., onset after age 40 years) are overrepresented by females, who may have married(Howard et al. 2000). Often, the course is characterized by a predominance of psychotic symptoms with preservation of affect and social functioning. Such late-onset cases can still meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, but it is not yet clear whether this is the same condition as schizophrenia diagnosed prior to mid-life (e.g., prior to age 55 years).

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Environmental

Season of birth has been linked to the incidence of schizophrenia, including late winter/early spring in some locations and summer for the deficit form of the disease(
Brown 2011
). The incidence of schizophrenia and related disorders is higher for children growing up in an urban environment(
March et al. 2008
) and for some minority ethnic groups(
Bourque et al. 2011
).

Genetic and physiological

There is a strong contribution for genetic factors in determining risk for schizophrenia (
Sullivan et al. 2003
), although most individuals who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia have no family history of psychosis(
Mortensen et al. 2010
). Liability is conferred by a spectrum of risk alleles, common and rare, with each allele contributing only a small fraction to the total population variance(
Owen et al. 2010
). The risk alleles identified to date are also associated with other mental disorders, including bipolar disorder, depression, and autism spectrum disorder (
Owen et al. 2010
).

Pregnancy and birth complications with hypoxia and greater paternal age(Miller et al. 2011) are associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia for the developing fetus. In addition, other prenatal and perinatal adversities, including stress, infection, malnutrition, maternal diabetes, and other medical conditions, have been linked with schizophrenia (
Brown 2011
). However, the vast majority of offspring with these risk factors do not develop schizophrenia.

Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues

Cultural and socioeconomic factors must be considered, particularly when the individual and the clinician do not share the same cultural and socioeconomic background. Ideas that appear to be delusional in one culture (e.g., witchcraft) may be commonly held in another. In some cultures, visual or auditory hallucinations with a religious content (e.g., hearing God’s voice) are a normal part of religious experience. In addition, the assessment of disorganized speech may be made difficult by linguistic variation in narrative styles across cultures. The assessment of affect requires sensitivity to differences in styles of emotional expression, eye contact, and body language, which vary across cultures. If the assessment is conducted in a language that is different from the individual’s primary language, care must be taken to ensure that alogia is not related to linguistic barriers. In certain cultures, distress may take the form of hallucinations or pseudo-hallucinations and overvalued ideas that may present clinically similar to true psychosis but are normative to the patient’s subgroup.

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

A number of features distinguish the clinical expression of schizophrenia in females and males. The general incidence of schizophrenia tends to be slightly lower in females, particularly among treated cases. The age at onset is later in females, with a second mid-life peak(
Abel et al. 2010
) as described earlier (see the section “Development and Course” for this disorder). Symptoms tend to be more affect-laden among females, and there are more psychotic symptoms, as well as a greater propensity for psychotic symptoms to worsen in later life(
Abel et al. 2010
). Other symptom differences include less frequent negative symptoms and disorganization. Finally, social functioning tends to remain better preserved in females. There are, however, frequent exceptions to these general caveats.

Suicide Risk

Approximately 5%–6% of individuals with schizophrenia die by suicide, about 20% attempt suicide on one or more occasions, and many more have significant suicidal ideation(Hawton et al. 2005). Suicidal behavior is sometimes in response to command hallucinations to harm oneself or others. Suicide risk remains high over the whole lifespan for males and females, although it may be especially high for younger males with comorbid substance use. Other risk factors include having depressive symptoms or feelings of hopelessness and being unemployed, and the risk is higher, also, in the period after a psychotic episode or hospital discharge(Hawton et al. 2005).

Functional Consequences of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is associated with significant social and occupational dysfunction. Making educational progress and maintaining employment are frequently impaired by avolition or other disorder manifestations, even when the cognitive skills are sufficient for the tasks at hand. Most individuals are employed at a lower level than their parents, and most, particularly men, do not marry or have limited social contacts outside of their family.

Differential Diagnosis

Major depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic or catatonic features

The distinction between schizophrenia and major depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features or with catatonia depends on the temporal relationship between the mood disturbance and the psychosis, and on the severity of the depressive or manic symptoms. If delusions or hallucinations occur exclusively during a major depressive or manic episode, the diagnosis is depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features.

Schizoaffective disorder

A diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder requires that a major depressive or manic episode occur concurrently with the active-phase symptoms and that the mood symptoms be present for a majority of the total duration of the active periods.

Schizophreniform disorder and brief psychotic disorder

These disorders are of shorter duration than schizophrenia as specified in Criterion C, which requires 6 months of symptoms. In schizophreniform disorder, the disturbance is present less than 6 months, and in brief psychotic disorder, symptoms are present at least 1 day but less than 1 month.

Delusional disorder

Delusional disorder can be distinguished from schizophrenia by the absence of the other symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia (e.g., delusions, prominent auditory or visual hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms).

Schizotypal personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder may be distinguished from schizophrenia by subthreshold symptoms that are associated with persistent personality features.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder may present with poor or absent insight, and the preoccupations may reach delusional proportions. But these disorders are distinguished from schizophrenia by their prominent obsessions, compulsions, preoccupations with appearance or body odor, hoarding, or body-focused repetitive behaviors.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder may include flashbacks that have a hallucinatory quality, and hypervigilance may reach paranoid proportions. But a traumatic event and characteristic symptom features relating to reliving or reacting to the event are required to make the diagnosis.

Autism spectrum disorder or communication disorders

These disorders may also have symptoms resembling a psychotic episode but are distinguished by their respective deficits in social interaction with repetitive and restricted behaviors and other cognitive and communication deficits. An individual with autism spectrum disorder or communication disorder must have symptoms that meet full criteria for schizophrenia, with prominent hallucinations or delusions for at least 1 month, in order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as a comorbid condition.

Other mental disorders associated with a psychotic episode

The diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only when the psychotic episode is persistent and not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition. Individuals with a delirium or major or minor neurocognitive disorder may present with psychotic symptoms, but these would have a temporal relationship to the onset of cognitive changes consistent with those disorders. Individuals with substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder may present with symptoms characteristic of Criterion A for schizophrenia, but the substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder can usually be distinguished by the chronological relationship of substance use to the onset and remission of the psychosis in the absence of substance use.

Comorbidity

Rates of comorbidity with substance-related disorders are high in schizophrenia. Over half of individuals with schizophrenia have tobacco use disorder and smoke cigarettes regularly(de Leon and Diaz 2005). Comorbidity with anxiety disorders is increasingly recognized in schizophrenia. Rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder are elevated in individuals with schizophrenia compared with the general population. Schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder may sometimes precede the onset of schizophrenia.

Life expectancy is reduced in individuals with schizophrenia because of associated medical conditions. Weight gain, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular and pulmonary disease are more common in schizophrenia than in the general population(Hennekens 2007). Poor engagement in health maintenance behaviors (e.g., cancer screening, exercise) increases the risk of chronic disease, but other disorder factors, including medications, lifestyle, cigarette smoking, and diet, may also play a role. A shared vulnerability for psychosis and medical disorders may explain some of the medical comorbidity of schizophrenia.

Reference

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm02

Psychopathology

Mood disorders

· High- Anxious (mania)

· Mania- mental illness marked by periods of great excitement or euphoria, delusions, and overactivity

· Low-Depressed (Melancholia)

· Melancholia- deep sadness; melancholy or a mental condition marked by persistent depression and ill-founded fears

· Dysthymic- a mood disorder characterized by chronic mildly depressed or irritable mood often accompanied by other symptoms (such as eating and sleeping disturbances, fatigue, and poor self-esteem)

Mood= Affective disorder- how a person displays a specific behavior

· 3 descriptions of affective expression-

· Labile- Over the top, dramatic, very expressive, overt

· Constricted- Some what of an expression but not full truth

· Flat- Not to reactive, no expression

· Euthymic- Seem up, happy, very expressive, Normal, well

· Dysthymic- Consistent depression and showing signs of such

Van Der Kolk

Trauma- Teaches us about the multidimensional (multiple ways for it to be measured, the construct (idea) cannot be adequately described by measuring a single trait or attribute). Or to be multidimensional is to have your reality focused in multiple dimensions at one time.

Pharmacology- Medicine for trauma

CBT(Cognitive behavioral therapy)- Try to understand trauma

Bio-energetics- tactile assimilation (meditation, hypnosis, etc.)to help heal trauma.

Iboga-Ibogaine-A plant found in Africa helps treat crack addicts; takes people on a trip

Halographic concept- HOLOGRAPHIC THINKING involves our ability to see multiple perspectives at once. When we think holographically, we can view a situation as a whole, taking in not just one of its dimensions, but all of them.

Stress- Related Disorder (tend to be related to trauma)

· 2 types of stress-

· Distress (bad)- Prolonged feeling that forces you to respond and exhausts you, continually having to respond

· Eustress (good)- A positive form of psychological stress that is beneficial for the experiencer.

GAS- General adaptation syndrome- Is a term that describes the physiological changes the body automatically goes through when it responds to stress (The more stages your body goes through the greater risk of long lasting negative effects).

1. Alarm– Notice that there’s a distressor, The bodies sympathetic nervous system is activated by the sudden release of hormones, this nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system which regulates the function of your heart, stomach, bladder, and intestines and well as your muscles. The release of adrenaline and noradrenaline cause physical symptoms like increased heart rate, breathing rate, and rise in blood pressure

2. Resistance– when your body tries to repair itself after the initial shock of stress. If the stressful situation occurs where you do not resolve the stress your body will continue to secrete stress hormone. Can cause disturbances in the immune, digestive, cardiovascular, sleep, and reproductive systems. Examples, headaches, sleeplessness, sadness, frustration, irritability.

3. Exhaustion– Prolonged or chronic stress leads to the last stage of exhaustion. Enduring stressors without relief drains your physical, emotional, and mental resources to the point where your body is no longer able to cope with stress. Example- Could be committing suicide, Fatigue, burnout, decreased stress tolerance.

· Hormones- Instantly go into your blood stream

· Cortisol

· Adrenals

PTSD– is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. Fear triggers many split-second changes in the body to help defend against danger or to avoid it. This “fight-or-flight” response is a typical reaction meant to protect a person from harm. Nearly everyone will experience a range of reactions after trauma, yet most people recover from initial symptoms naturally. Those who continue to experience problems may be diagnosed with PTSD. People who have PTSD may feel stressed or frightened, even when they are not in danger.

· GAD- General anxiety disorder (conditioned behavior- learned behavior)- Feel anxious about everything, cannot pinpoint a specific reason for them to have anxiety, think about terrible things that could happen, feel like all they do is worry- In their nervous system not in their head, calm the body down so they can think clearer

· Medication

· Then reverse the learned behavior

Panic Disorder– No identified stressor, is an anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress. These episodes occur “out of the blue,” not in conjunction with a known fear or stressor.

Agoraphobia– Social anxiety, is a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed. You fear an actual or anticipated situation, such as using public transportation, being in open or enclosed spaces, standing in line, or being in a crowd. Most people who have agoraphobia develop it after having one or more panic attacks, causing them to worry about having another attack and avoid the places where it may happen again.

Anxiety is a Fantasy= Anxiety

Panic is an Anxiety response

Anxiety can become a mania(where a person engages in extreme behavior)

March 8th

Fear is your natural response to an actual threat not a fantasy cause that is anxiety

Extreme expression= labile

· Somatization- Body complaint, someone stating that they have a stomach ache

· Hypochondriac– Sickness that has no problem they are just making it up in their minds, they become abnormally anxious about their health.

Clinical Assessment:

1. Cognitive expression- Expression is the mental/psychological process of conveying the meaning of. information to others through language – i.e., speaking, writing or gesturing. and is associated with crystallized ability.

2. Have they had any previous treatments

3. Is it Chronic(persisting for a long time or constantly recurring: Often contrasted with acute) or Acute (Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset.)

4. Background- Background questions ask for general knowledge about a condition, test or treatment. These types of questions typically ask who, what, where, when, how & why about things like a disorder, test, or treatment, or other aspect of healthcare.

Selective Mutis– Unwilling to speak, may pick certain people they want to talk to or certain things they want to talk about, May have been from experience a traumatic event, or lack of comfortability specific ppl around people, can be associated with something bad. A little girl who had a move away after her father died(Thought she was the reason her father died because she moved after it happened and the rest of her siblings got to stay in Africa)

Dissociate Personality Disorder– Person who splits into at least 1 other alter ego that they then act out, that they may or may not be aware of; mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnect & lack of continuity between memories, surroundings, actions

· Extreme for called identity disorder(multi personality disorder)- Almost always due to extreme physical abuse and can be sexual abuse too

· Reintegration therapy- treatment

Unspecified

· Bipolar 1 & 2- once it gets into

· Type 1 is You’ve had at least one manic episode that may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. In some cases, mania may trigger a break from reality (psychosis).

· Type 2 isn’t as bad but might think about suicide, not sleeping; Bipolar II Disorder— defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes that are typical of Bipolar I Disorder. When You’ve had at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but you’ve never had a manic episode.

· Cyclothymic Disorder (also called Cyclothymia)— defined by periods of hypomanic symptoms as well as periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.

· MDD(Major depressive disorder) single/recurrent (mild, severe)

· Persistent (Dysthymia) depressive disorder, is a continuous long-term (chronic) form of depression. You may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and have low self-esteem and an overall feeling of inadequacy. These feelings last for years and may significantly interfere with your relationships, school, work and daily activities.

· Adjustment DO w/ dep/mixed (Situational)

March 22

Disorder abnormal—————continuum—————Normal

Bio——-cause——-Behavior

D- label

S- Baselines

M- cook book (decision tree)

V- Revision

Psychosis- False reality testing, does the persons thinking match the society of reality. Split of break between thinking (mind) and feeling (emotions).

Ex. Hallucinations (perceptions)- visual, auditory, kinesthetic

Ex. Delusions (thoughts/reasoning)

Form

Schizoaffective

Schizoid- ambivalent with his emotions; Ambivalent-Not sure which way to go

March 29

Types of schizophrenia

Less than 6 months to be classified as a specific schizophrenia (can’t be classified cause haven’t showed the symptoms for 6 months)

Brief Psychosis– might have an episode , psychotic for a brief amount of time, might be schizophrenia and might not be, it’s the characteristic of hallucinations.

· Categories of schizophrenia

· Catatonia- is a group of symptoms that usually involve a lack of movement and communication, and also can include agitation, confusion, and restlessness.

· Paranoid– For example, you may hear voices that make fun of you or insult you. They might also tell you to do harmful things. Or you might see things that aren’t really there.

· Undifferentiated- Feeling void of emotion · Lack of motivation or desire · Auditory hallucinations · Delusions · Movement disturbances · Disorganized speech Delusional

· Unspecified

· Due to (medical, etc.)

· Substance Induced

Not Schizophrenic but have similar behaviors to it, the splitting part

· Schizoid– Ambivalent (having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas)

· Schizotypal– peculiar affect(mood) that is childlike, magical thinking

· Schizoaffective– Schizoaffective disorder is a chronic mental health condition characterized primarily by symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations or delusions, and symptoms of a mood disorder, such as mania and depression. Many people with schizoaffective disorder are often incorrectly diagnosed at first with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Because schizoaffective disorder is less well-studied than the other two conditions, many interventions are borrowed from their treatment approaches.

· Borderline Personality Disorder- is an illness marked by an ongoing pattern of varying moods, self-image, and behavior. These symptoms often result in impulsive actions and problems in relationships. People with borderline personality disorder may experience intense episodes of anger, depression, and anxiety that can last from a few hours to days.

· Schizophreniform-

Personality

A. Paranoid- Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is one of a group of conditions called “Cluster A” personality disorders which involve odd or eccentric ways of thinking. People with PPD also suffer from paranoia, an unrelenting mistrust and suspicion of others, even when there is no reason to be suspicious. This disorder usually begins by early adulthood and appears to be more common in men than in women. ambivalent &

B. Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic- (Borderline, dramatic category)-antisocial, selfish

C. Dependent, avoidant, obsessive compulsive- want it perfect, cleanliness, avoidant, dependent

How do you diagnose almond with ptsd

Psychopathology

Depressive disorders include disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, major depressive disorder (including major depressive episode), persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, substance/medication-induced depressive disorder, depressive disorder due to another medical condition, other specified depressive disorder, and unspecified depressive disorder. Unlike in DSM-IV, this chapter “Depressive Disorders” has been separated from the previous chapter “Bipolar and Related Disorders.” The common feature of all of these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual’s capacity to function. What differs among them are issues of duration, timing, or presumed etiology.

In order to address concerns about the potential for the overdiagnosis of and treatment for bipolar disorder in children, a new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, referring to the presentation of children with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol, is added to the depressive disorders for children up to 12 years of age. Its placement in this chapter reflects the finding that children with this symptom pattern typically develop unipolar depressive disorders or anxiety disorders, rather than bipolar disorders, as they mature into adolescence and adulthood.

Major depressive disorder represents the classic condition in this group of disorders. It is characterized by discrete episodes of at least 2 weeks’ duration (although most episodes last considerably longer) involving clear-cut changes in affect, cognition, and neurovegetative functions and inter-episode remissions. A diagnosis based on a single episode is possible, although the disorder is a recurrent one in the majority of cases. Careful consideration is given to the delineation of normal sadness and grief from a major depressive episode. Bereavement may induce great suffering, but it does not typically induce an episode of major depressive disorder. When they do occur together, the depressive symptoms and functional impairment tend to be more severe and the prognosis is worse compared with bereavement that is not accompanied by major depressive disorder. Bereavement-related depression tends to occur in persons with other vulnerabilities to depressive disorders, and recovery may be facilitated by antidepressant treatment.

A more chronic form of depression, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), can be diagnosed when the mood disturbance continues for at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children. This diagnosis, new in DSM-5, includes both the DSM-IV diagnostic categories of chronic major depression and dysthymia.

After careful scientific review of the evidence, premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been moved from an appendix of DSM-IV (“Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study”) to Section II of DSM-5. Almost 20 years of additional research on this condition has confirmed a specific and treatment-responsive form of depressive disorder that begins sometime following ovulation and remits within a few days of menses and has a marked impact on functioning.

A large number of substances of abuse, some prescribed medications, and several medical conditions can be associated with depression-like phenomena. This fact is recognized in the diagnoses of substance/medication-induced depressive disorder and depressive disorder due to another medical condition.

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

296.99 ( F34.81 )

A. Severe recurrent temper outbursts manifested verbally (e.g., verbal rages) and/or behaviorally (e.g., physical aggression toward people or property) that are grossly out of proportion in intensity or duration to the situation or provocation.

B. The temper outbursts are inconsistent with developmental level.

C. The temper outbursts occur, on average, three or more times per week.

D. The mood between temper outbursts is persistently irritable or angry most of the day, nearly every day, and is observable by others (e.g., parents, teachers, peers).

E. Criteria A–D have been present for 12 or more months. Throughout that time, the individual has not had a period lasting 3 or more consecutive months without all of the symptoms in Criteria A–D.

F. Criteria A and D are present in at least two of three settings (i.e., at home, at school, with peers) and are severe in at least one of these.

G. The diagnosis should not be made for the first time before age 6 years or after age 18 years.

H. By history or observation, the age at onset of Criteria A–E is before 10 years.

I. There has never been a distinct period lasting more than 1 day during which the full symptom criteria, except duration, for a manic or hypomanic episode have been met.

· Note: Developmentally appropriate mood elevation, such as occurs in the context of a highly positive event or its anticipation, should not be considered as a symptom of mania or hypomania.

J. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during an episode of major depressive disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety disorder, persistent depressive disorder [dysthymia]).

· Note: This diagnosis cannot coexist with oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, or bipolar disorder, though it can coexist with others, including major depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorders. Individuals whose symptoms meet criteria for both disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and oppositional defiant disorder should only be given the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. If an individual has ever experienced a manic or hypomanic episode, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not be assigned.

K. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical or neurological condition.

Diagnostic Features

The core feature of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is chronic, severe persistent irritability. This severe irritability has two prominent clinical manifestations, the first of which is frequent temper outbursts. These outbursts typically occur in response to frustration and can be verbal or behavioral (the latter in the form of aggression against property, self, or others). They must occur frequently (i.e., on average, three or more times per week) (Criterion C) over at least 1 year in at least two settings (Criteria E and F), such as in the home and at school, and they must be developmentally inappropriate (Criterion B). The second manifestation of severe irritability consists of chronic, persistently irritable or angry mood that is present between the severe temper outbursts. This irritable or angry mood must be characteristic of the child, being present most of the day, nearly every day, and noticeable by others in the child’s environment (Criterion D).

The clinical presentation of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder must be carefully distinguished from presentations of other, related conditions, particularly pediatric bipolar disorder. In fact, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder was added to DSM-5 to address the considerable concern about the appropriate classification and treatment of children who present with chronic, persistent irritability relative to children who present with classic (i.e., episodic) bipolar disorder.

Some researchers view severe, non-episodic irritability as characteristic of bipolar disorder in children, although both DSM-IV and DSM-5 require that both children and adults have distinct episodes of mania or hypomania to qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. During the latter decades of the 20th century, this contention by researchers that severe, nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of pediatric mania coincided with an upsurge in the rates at which clinicians assigned the diagnosis of bipolar disorder to their pediatric patients. This sharp increase in rates appears to be attributable to clinicians combining at least two clinical presentations into a single category. That is, both classic, episodic presentations of mania and non-episodic presentations of severe irritability have been labeled as bipolar disorder in children(Blader and Carlson 2007
Moreno et al. 2007
). In DSM-5, the term bipolar disorder is explicitly reserved for episodic presentations of bipolar symptoms. DSM-IV did not include a diagnosis designed to capture youths whose hallmark symptoms consisted of very severe, non-episodic irritability, whereas DSM-5, with the inclusion of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, provides a distinct category for such presentations.

Prevalence

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is common among children presenting to pediatric mental health clinics. Prevalence estimates of the disorder in the community are unclear. Based on rates of chronic and severe persistent irritability, which is the core feature of the disorder, the overall 6-month to 1-year period-prevalence of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder among children and adolescents probably falls in the 2%–5% range(Brotman et al. 2006). However, rates are expected to be higher in males and school-age children than in females and adolescents.

Development and Course

The onset of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder must be before age 10 years, and the diagnosis should not be applied to children with a developmental age of less than 6 years. It is unknown whether the condition presents only in this age-delimited fashion. Because the symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are likely to change as children mature, use of the diagnosis should be restricted to age groups similar to those in which validity has been established (6–18 years). Approximately half of children with severe, chronic irritability will have a presentation that continues to meet criteria for the condition 1 year later(Brotman et al. 2006). Rates of conversion from severe, nonepisodic irritability to bipolar disorder are very low(Stringaris et al. 2009Stringaris et al. 2010). Instead, children with chronic irritability are at risk to develop unipolar depressive and/or anxiety disorders in adulthood.

Age-related variations also differentiate classic bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Rates of bipolar disorder generally are very low prior to adolescence (<1%), with a steady increase into early adulthood (1%–2% prevalence)(
Costello et al. 2002
). Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is more common than bipolar disorder prior to adolescence, and symptoms of the condition generally become less common as children transition into adulthood(Brotman et al. 2006).

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Temperamental

Children with chronic irritability typically exhibit complicated psychiatric histories. In such children, a relatively extensive history of chronic irritability is common, typically manifesting before full criteria for the syndrome are met. Such prediagnostic presentations may have qualified for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder. Many children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder have symptoms that also meet criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for an anxiety disorder, with such diagnoses often being present from a relatively early age(Leibenluft 2011). For some children, the criteria for major depressive disorder may also be met.

Genetic and physiological

In terms of familial aggregation and genetics, it has been suggested that children presenting with chronic, non-episodic irritability can be differentiated from children with bipolar disorder in their family-based risk. However, these two groups do not differ in familial rates of anxiety disorders, unipolar depressive disorders, or substance abuse(Brotman et al. 2007). Compared with children with pediatric bipolar disorder or other mental illnesses, those with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder exhibit both commonalities and differences in information-processing deficits. For example, face-emotion labeling deficits, as well as perturbed decision making and cognitive control, are present in children with bipolar disorder and chronically irritable children, as well as in children with some other psychiatric conditions(
Dickstein et al. 2010

Guyer et al. 2007

Rich et al. 2008
). There is also evidence for disorder-specific dysfunction, such as during tasks assessing attention deployment in response to emotional stimuli, which has demonstrated unique signs of dysfunction in children with chronic irritability(Brotman et al. 2010
Rich et al. 2007

Rich et al. 2011
).

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

Children presenting to clinics with features of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are predominantly male(Leibenluft 2011). Among community samples, a male preponderance appears to be supported(Brotman et al. 2006). This difference in prevalence between males and females differentiates disruptive mood dysregulation disorder from bipolar disorder, in which there is an equal gender prevalence.

Suicide Risk

In general, evidence documenting suicidal behavior and aggression, as well as other severe functional consequences, in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be noted when evaluating children with chronic irritability.

Functional Consequences of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Chronic, severe irritability, such as is seen in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, is associated with marked disruption in a child’s family and peer relationships, as well as in school performance. Because of their extremely low frustration tolerance, such children generally have difficulty succeeding in school; they are often unable to participate in the activities typically enjoyed by healthy children; their family life is severely disrupted by their outbursts and irritability; and they have trouble initiating or sustaining friendships. Levels of dysfunction in children with bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are generally comparable. Both conditions cause severe disruption in the lives of the affected individual and their families. In both disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and pediatric bipolar disorder, dangerous behavior, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts, severe aggression, and psychiatric hospitalization are common.

Differential Diagnosis

Because chronically irritable children and adolescents typically present with complex histories, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder must be made while considering the presence or absence of multiple other conditions. Despite the need to consider many other syndromes, differentiation of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder from bipolar disorder and oppositional defiant disorder requires particularly careful assessment.

Bipolar disorders

The central feature differentiating disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and bipolar disorders in children involves the longitudinal course of the core symptoms. In children, as in adults, bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder manifest as an episodic illness with discrete episodes of mood perturbation that can be differentiated from the child’s typical presentation. The mood perturbation that occurs during a manic episode is distinctly different from the child’s usual mood. In addition, during a manic episode, the change in mood must be accompanied by the onset, or worsening, of associated cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptoms (e.g., distractibility, increased goal-directed activity), which are also present to a degree that is distinctly different from the child’s usual baseline. Thus, in the case of a manic episode, parents (and, depending on developmental level, children) should be able to identify a distinct time period during which the child’s mood and behavior were markedly different from usual. In contrast, the irritability of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is persistent and is present over many months; while it may wax and wane to a certain degree, severe irritability is characteristic of the child with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Thus, while bipolar disorders are episodic conditions, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is not. In fact, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder cannot be assigned to a child who has ever experienced a full-duration hypomanic or manic episode (irritable or euphoric) or who has ever had a manic or hypomanic episode lasting more than 1 day. Another central differentiating feature between bipolar disorders and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is the presence of elevated or expansive mood and grandiosity. These symptoms are common features of mania but are not characteristic of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Oppositional defiant disorder

While symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder typically do occur in children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, mood symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are relatively rare in children with oppositional defiant disorder. The key features that warrant the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in children whose symptoms also meet criteria for oppositional defiant disorder are the presence of severe and frequently recurrent outbursts and a persistent disruption in mood between outbursts. In addition, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder requires severe impairment in at least one setting (i.e., home, school, or among peers) and mild to moderate impairment in a second setting. For this reason, while most children whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder will also have a presentation that meets criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, the reverse is not the case. That is, in only approximately 15% of individuals with oppositional defiant disorder would criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder be met. Moreover, even for children in whom criteria for both disorders are met, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be made. Finally, both the prominent mood symptoms in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and the high risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in follow-up studies justify placement of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder among the depressive disorders in DSM-5. (Oppositional defiant disorder is included in the chapter “Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders.”) This reflects the more prominent mood component among individuals with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, as compared with individuals with oppositional defiant disorder. Nevertheless, it also should be noted that disruptive mood dysregulation disorder appears to carry a high risk for behavioral problems as well as mood problems.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and autism spectrum disorder

Unlike children diagnosed with bipolar disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, a child whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder also can receive a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, major depressive disorder, and/or anxiety disorder. However, children whose irritability is present only in the context of a major depressive episode or persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) should receive one of those diagnoses rather than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may have symptoms that also meet criteria for an anxiety disorder and can receive both diagnoses, but children whose irritability is manifest only in the context of exacerbation of an anxiety disorder should receive the relevant anxiety disorder diagnosis rather than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. In addition, children with autism spectrum disorders frequently present with temper outbursts when, for example, their routines are disturbed. In that instance, the temper outbursts would be considered secondary to the autism spectrum disorder, and the child should not receive the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

Intermittent explosive disorder

Children with symptoms suggestive of intermittent explosive disorder present with instances of severe temper outbursts, much like children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. However, unlike disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, intermittent explosive disorder does not require persistent disruption in mood between outbursts. In addition, intermittent explosive disorder requires only 3 months of active symptoms, in contrast to the 12-month requirement for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Thus, these two diagnoses should not be made in the same child. For children with outbursts and intercurrent, persistent irritability, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be made.

Comorbidity

Rates of comorbidity in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are extremely high(Leibenluft 2011). It is rare to find individuals whose symptoms meet criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder alone. Comorbidity between disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and other DSM-defined syndromes appears higher than for many other pediatric mental illnesses; the strongest overlap is with oppositional defiant disorder. Not only is the overall rate of comorbidity high in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, but also the range of comorbid illnesses appears particularly diverse. These children typically present to the clinic with a wide range of disruptive behavior, mood, anxiety, and even autism spectrumsymptoms and diagnoses(Findling et al. 2010
Pine et al. 2008
Stringaris et al. 2010). However, children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not have symptoms that meet criteria for bipolar disorder, as in that context, only the bipolar disorder diagnosis should be made. If children have symptoms that meet criteria for oppositional defiant disorder or intermittent explosive disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, only the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should be assigned. Also, as noted earlier, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not be assigned if the symptoms occur only in an anxiety-provoking context, when the routines of a child with autism spectrum disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder are disturbed, or in the context of a major depressive episode.

Major Depressive Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

· Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).

3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

Note: Criteria A–C represent a major depressive episode.

Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.

In distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode (MDE), it is useful to consider that in grief the predominant affect is feelings of emptiness and loss, while in an MDE it is persistent depressed mood and the inability to anticipate happiness or pleasure. The dysphoria in grief is likely to decrease in intensity over days to weeks and occurs in waves, the so-called pangs of grief. These waves tend to be associated with thoughts or reminders of the deceased. The depressed mood of an MDE is more persistent and not tied to specific thoughts or preoccupations. The pain of grief may be accompanied by positive emotions and humor that are uncharacteristic of the pervasive unhappiness and misery characteristic of an MDE. The thought content associated with grief generally features a preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the deceased, rather than the self-critical or pessimistic ruminations seen in an MDE. In grief, self-esteem is generally preserved, whereas in an MDE feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common. If self-derogatory ideation is present in grief, it typically involves perceived failings vis-à-vis the deceased (e.g., not visiting frequently enough, not telling the deceased how much he or she was loved). If a bereaved individual thinks about death and dying, such thoughts are generally focused on the deceased and possibly about “joining” the deceased, whereas in an MDE such thoughts are focused on ending one’s own life because of feeling worthless, undeserving of life, or unable to cope with the pain of depression.

D. The occurrence of the major depressive episode is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified and unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.

E. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode.

. Note: This exclusion does not apply if all of the manic-like or hypomanic-like episodes are substance-induced or are attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition.

Coding and Recording Procedures

· The diagnostic code for major depressive disorder is based on whether this is a single or recurrent episode, current severity, presence of psychotic features, and remission status. Current severity and psychotic features are only indicated if full criteria are currently met for a major depressive episode. Remission specifiers are only indicated if the full criteria are not currently met for a major depressive episode. Codes are as follows:


Enlarge table

· In recording the name of a diagnosis, terms should be listed in the following order: major depressive disorder, single or recurrent episode, severity/psychotic/remission specifiers, followed by as many of the following specifiers without codes that apply to the current episode.

Specify:

· With anxious distress (p. 184)

· With mixed features (pp. 184–185)

· With melancholic features (p. 185)

· With atypical features (pp. 185–186)

· With mood-congruent psychotic features (p. 186)

· With mood-incongruent psychotic features (p. 186)

· With catatonia (p. 186). Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1).

· With peripartum onset (pp. 186–187)

· With seasonal pattern (recurrent episode only) (pp. 187–188)

Diagnostic Features

The criterion symptoms for major depressive disorder must be present nearly every day to be considered present, with the exception of weight change and suicidal ideation. Depressed mood must be present for most of the day, in addition to being present nearly every day. Often insomnia or fatigue is the presenting complaint, and failure to probe for accompanying depressive symptoms will result in underdiagnosis. Sadness may be denied at first but may be elicited through interview or inferred from facial expression and demeanor. With individuals who focus on a somatic complaint, clinicians should determine whether the distress from that complaint is associated with specific depressive symptoms. Fatigue and

Psychopathology

Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and Other Adverse Effects of Medication

Medication-induced movement disorders are included in Section II because of their frequent importance in 1) the management by medication of mental disorders or other medical conditions and 2) the differential diagnosis of mental disorders (e.g., anxiety disorder versus neuroleptic-induced akathisia; malignant catatonia versus neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Although these movement disorders are labeled “medication induced,” it is often difficult to establish the causal relationship between medication exposure and the development of the movement disorder, especially because some of these movement disorders also occur in the absence of medication exposure. The conditions and problems listed in this chapter are not mental disorders.

The term neuroleptic is becoming outdated because it highlights the propensity of antipsychotic medications to cause abnormal movements, and it is being replaced with the term antipsychotic in many contexts. Nevertheless, the term neuroleptic remains appropriate in this context. Although newer antipsychotic medications may be less likely to cause some medication-induced movement disorders, those disorders still occur. Neuroleptic medications include so-called conventional, “typical,” or first-generation antipsychotic agents (e.g., chlorpromazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine); “atypical” or second-generation antipsychotic agents (e.g., clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine); certain dopamine receptor–blocking drugs used in the treatment of symptoms such as nausea and gastroparesis (e.g., prochlorperazine, promethazine, trimethobenzamide, thiethylperazine, metoclopramide); and amoxapine, which is marketed as an antidepressant.

Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism Other Medication-Induced Parkinsonism

332.1 (G21.11) Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism 332.1 (G21.19) Other Medication-Induced Parkinsonism

Parkinsonian tremor, muscular rigidity, akinesia (i.e., loss of movement or difficulty initiating movement), or bradykinesia (i.e., slowing movement) developing within a few weeks of starting or raising the dosage of a medication (e.g., a neuroleptic) or after reducing the dosage of a medication used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

333.92 (G21.0) Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Although neuroleptic malignant syndrome is easily recognized in its classic full-blown form, it is often heterogeneous in onset, presentation, progression, and outcome(Addonizio et al. 1986; Caroff 2003; Caroff and Mann 1993; Rosebush and Stewart 1989Strawn et al. 2007). The clinical features described below are those considered most important in making the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome based on consensus recommendations(Gurrera et al. 2011).

Diagnostic Features

Patients have generally been exposed to a dopamine antagonist within 72 hours prior to symptom development. Hyperthermia (>100.4°F or >38.0°C on at least two occasions, measured orally), associated with profuse diaphoresis, is a distinguishing feature of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, setting it apart from other neurological side effects of antipsychotic medications. Extreme elevations in temperature, reflecting a breakdown in central thermoregulation, are more likely to support the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Generalized rigidity, described as “lead pipe” in its most severe form and usually unresponsive to antiparkinsonian agents, is a cardinal feature of the disorder and may be associated with other neurological symptoms (e.g., tremor, sialorrhea, akinesia, dystonia, trismus, myoclonus, dysarthria, dysphagia, rhabdomyolysis). Creatine kinase elevation of at least four times the upper limit of normal is commonly seen. Changes in mental status, characterized by delirium or altered consciousness ranging from stupor to coma, are often an early sign(Velamoor et al. 1994). Affected individuals may appear alert but dazed and unresponsive, consistent with catatonic stupor. Autonomic activation and instability—manifested by tachycardia (rate > 25% above baseline), diaphoresis, blood pressure elevation (systolic or diastolic ≥ 25% above baseline) or fluctuation (≥ 20 mmHg diastolic change or ≥25 mmHg systolic change within 24 hours), urinary incontinence, and pallor—may be seen at any time but provide an early clue to the diagnosis(Gurrera 1999). Tachypnea (rate > 50% above baseline) is common, and respiratory distress—resulting from metabolic acidosis, hypermetabolism, chest wall restriction, aspiration pneumonia, or pulmonary emboli—can occur and lead to sudden respiratory arrest.

A workup, including laboratory investigation, to exclude other infectious, toxic, metabolic, and neuropsychiatric etiologies or complications is essential(Caroff and Mann 1993) (see the section “Differential Diagnosis” later in this discussion). Although several laboratory abnormalities are associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, no single abnormality is specific to the diagnosis. Individuals with neuroleptic malignant syndrome may have leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, hypoxia, decreased serum iron concentrations(Rosebush and Mazurek 1991), and elevations in serum muscle enzymes and catecholamines. Findings from cerebrospinal fluid analysis and neuroimaging studies are generally normal, whereas electroencephalography shows generalized slowing. Autopsy findings in fatal cases have been nonspecific and variable, depending on complications.

Development and Course

Evidence from database studies suggests incidence rates for neuroleptic malignant syndrome of 0.01%–0.02% among individuals treated with antipsychotics(Spivak et al. 2000; Stübner et al. 2004). The temporal progression of signs and symptoms provides important clues to the diagnosis and prognosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Alteration in mental status and other neurological signs typically precede systemic signs(Velamoor et al. 1994). The onset of symptoms varies from hours to days after drug initiation. Some cases develop within 24 hours after drug initiation, most within the first week, and virtually all cases within 30 days(Caroff and Mann 1988). Once the syndrome is diagnosed and oral antipsychotic drugs are discontinued, neuroleptic malignant syndrome is self-limited in most cases. The mean recovery time after drug discontinuation is 7–10 days, with most individuals recovering within 1 week and nearly all within 30 days(Caroff and Mann 1988). The duration may be prolonged when long-acting antipsychotics are implicated. There have been reports of individuals in whom residual neurological signs persisted for weeks after the acute hypermetabolic symptoms resolved(Caroff et al. 2000). Total resolution of symptoms can be obtained in most cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome; however, fatality rates of 10%–20% have been reported when the disorder is not recognized(Caroff 2003). Although many individuals do not experience a recurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome when rechallenged with antipsychotic medication(Pope et al. 1991), some do, especially when antipsychotics are reinstituted soon after an episode(Caroff and Mann 1988; Rosebush et al. 1989Susman and Addonizio 1988).

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a potential risk in any individual after antipsychotic drug administration. It is not specific to any neuropsychiatric diagnosis and may occur in individuals without a diagnosable mental disorder who receive dopamine antagonists. Clinical, systemic, and metabolic factors associated with a heightened risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome include agitation, exhaustion, dehydration, and iron deficiency(Rosebush and Mazurek 1991Keck et al. 1989Sachdev et al. 1997). A prior episode associated with antipsychotics has been described in 15%–20% of index cases, suggesting underlying vulnerability in some patients(Caroff and Mann 1988; Yamawaki et al. 1990); however, genetic findings based on neurotransmitter receptor polymorphisms have not been replicated consistently.

Nearly all dopamine antagonists have been associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, although high-potency antipsychotics pose a greater risk compared with low-potency agents and newer atypical antipsychotics(Ananth et al. 2004Hasan and Buckley 1998; Stübner et al. 2004; Yacoub and Francis 2006). Partial or milder forms may be associated with newer antipsychotics, but neuroleptic malignant syndrome varies in severity even with older drugs. Dopamine antagonists used in medical settings (e.g., metoclopramide, prochlorperazine) have also been implicated. Parenteral administration routes, rapid titration rates, and higher total drug dosages have been associated with increased risk(Keck et al. 1989Sachdev et al. 1997); however, neuroleptic malignant syndrome usually occurs within the therapeutic dosage range of antipsychotics.

Differential Diagnosis

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome must be distinguished from other serious neurological or medical conditions, including central nervous system infections, inflammatory or autoimmune conditions, status epilepticus, subcortical structural lesions, and systemic conditions (e.g., pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis, tetanus, heat stroke).

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome also must be distinguished from similar syndromes resulting from the use of other substances or medications, such as serotonin syndrome; parkinsonian hyperthermia syndrome following abrupt discontinuation of dopamine agonists; alcohol or sedative withdrawal; malignant hyperthermia occurring during anesthesia; hyperthermia associated with abuse of stimulants and hallucinogens; and atropine poisoning from anticholinergics.

In rare instances, individuals with schizophrenia or a mood disorder may present with malignant catatonia, which may be indistinguishable from neuroleptic malignant syndrome(Mann et al. 1986). Some investigators consider neuroleptic malignant syndrome to be a drug-induced form of malignant catatonia.

Medication-Induced Acute Dystonia

333.72 (G24.02) Medication-Induced Acute Dystonia

Abnormal and prolonged contraction of the muscles of the eyes (oculogyric crisis), head, neck (torticollis or retrocollis), limbs, or trunk developing within a few days of starting or raising the dosage of a medication (such as a neuroleptic) or after reducing the dosage of a medication used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms.

Medication-Induced Acute Akathisia

333.99 (G25.71) Medication-Induced Acute Akathisia

Subjective complaints of restlessness, often accompanied by observed excessive movements (e.g., fidgety movements of the legs, rocking from foot to foot, pacing, inability to sit or stand still), developing within a few weeks of starting or raising the dosage of a medication (such as a neuroleptic) or after reducing the dosage of a medication used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms.

Tardive Dyskinesia

333.85 (G24.01) Tardive Dyskinesia

Involuntary athetoid or choreiform movements (lasting at least a few weeks) generally of the tongue, lower face and jaw, and extremities (but sometimes involving the pharyngeal, diaphragmatic, or trunk muscles) developing in association with the use of a neuroleptic medication for at least a few months.

Symptoms may develop after a shorter period of medication use in older persons. In some patients, movements of this type may appear after discontinuation, or after change or reduction in dosage, of neuroleptic medications, in which case the condition is called neuroleptic withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia. Because withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia is usually time-limited, lasting less than 4–8 weeks, dyskinesia that persists beyond this window is considered to be tardive dyskinesia.

Tardive Dystonia Tardive Akathisia

333.72 (G24.09) Tardive Dystonia 333.99 (G25.71) Tardive Akathisia

Tardive syndrome involving other types of movement problems, such as dystonia or akathisia, which are distinguished by their late emergence in the course of treatment and their potential persistence for months to years, even in the face of neuroleptic discontinuation or dosage reduction.

Medication-Induced Postural Tremor

333.1 (G25.1) Medication-Induced Postural Tremor

Fine tremor (usually in the range of 8–12 Hz) occurring during attempts to maintain a posture and developing in association with the use of medication (e.g., lithium, antidepressants, valproate). This tremor is very similar to the tremor seen with anxiety, caffeine, and other stimulants.

Other Medication-Induced Movement Disorder

333.99 (G25.79) Other Medication-Induced Movement Disorder

This category is for medication-induced movement disorders not captured by any of the specific disorders listed above. Examples include 1) presentations resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome that are associated with medications other than neuroleptics and 2) other medication-induced tardive conditions.

Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndrome

995.29 T43.205 A  Initial encounter

995.29 T43.205D  Subsequent encounter

995.29 T43.205S  Sequelae

Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur after an abrupt cessation (or marked reduction in dose) of an antidepressant medication that was taken continuously for at least 1 month. Symptoms generally begin within 2–4 days and typically include specific sensory, somatic, and cognitive-emotional manifestations. Frequently reported sensory and somatic symptoms include flashes of lights, “electric shock” sensations, nausea, and hyperresponsivity to noises or lights. Nonspecific anxiety and feelings of dread may also be reported. Symptoms are alleviated by restarting the same medication or starting a different medication that has a similar mechanism of action—for example, discontinuation symptoms after withdrawal from a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor may be alleviated by starting a tricyclic antidepressant. To qualify as antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, the symptoms should not have been present before the antidepressant dosage was reduced and are not better explained by another mental disorder (e.g., manic or hypomanic episode, substance intoxication, substance withdrawal, somatic symptom disorder).

Diagnostic Features

Discontinuation symptoms may occur following treatment with tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, selegiline, pargyline)(Blier and Tremblay 2006; Delgado 2006; Demyttenaere and Haddad 2000; Fava 2006Haddad 2001Haddad and Qureshi 2000; Kaymaz et al. 2008; Mavissakalian and Perel 1999; Schatzberg et al. 2006; Shelton 2006Warner et al. 2006). The incidence of this syndrome depends on the dosage and half-life of the medication being taken, as well as the rate at which the medication is tapered. Short-acting medications that are stopped abruptly rather than tapered gradually may pose the greatest risk. The short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine is the agent most commonly associated with discontinuation symptoms, but such symptoms occur for all types of antidepressants(Fava 2006Haddad 2001Warner et al. 2006).

Unlike withdrawal syndromes associated with opioids, alcohol, and other substances of abuse, antidepressant discontinuation syndrome has no pathognomonic symptoms. Instead, the symptoms tend to be vague and variable(Blier and Tremblay 2006; Delgado 2006; Demyttenaere and Haddad 2000; Fava 2006Haddad 2001Haddad and Qureshi 2000; Kaymaz et al. 2008; Mavissakalian and Perel 1999; Schatzberg et al. 2006; Shelton 2006Warner et al. 2006) and typically begin 2–4 days after the last dose of the antidepressant. For SSRIs (e.g., paroxetine), symptoms such as dizziness, ringing in the ears, “electric shocks in the head,” an inability to sleep, and acute anxiety are described. The antidepressant use prior to discontinuation must not have incurred hypomania or euphoria (i.e., there should be confidence that the discontinuation syndrome is not the result of fluctuations in mood stability associated with the previous treatment). The antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is based solely on pharmacological factors and is not related to the reinforcing effects of an antidepressant. Also, in the case of stimulant augmentation of an antidepressant, abrupt cessation may result in stimulant withdrawal symptoms (see “Stimulant Withdrawal” in the chapter “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders”) rather than the antidepressant discontinuation syndrome described here.

Prevalence

The prevalence of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is unknown but is thought to vary according to the dosage prior to discontinuation, the half-life and receptor-binding affinity of the medication, and possibly the individual’s genetically influenced rate of metabolism for this medication.

Course and Development

Because longitudinal studies are lacking, little is known about the clinical course of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms appear to abate over time with very gradual dosage reductions. After an episode, some individuals may prefer to resume medication indefinitely if tolerated.

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome includes anxiety and depressive disorders, substance use disorders, and tolerance to medications.

Anxiety and depressive disorders

Discontinuation symptoms often resemble symptoms of a persistent anxiety disorder or a return of somatic symptoms of depression for which the medication was initially given.

Substance use disorders

Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome differs from substance withdrawal in that antidepressants themselves have no reinforcing or euphoric effects. The medication dosage has usually not been increased without the clinician’s permission, and the individual generally does not engage in drug-seeking behavior to obtain additional medication. Criteria for a substance use disorder are not met.

Tolerance to medications

Tolerance and discontinuation symptoms can occur as a normal physiological response to stopping medication after a substantial duration of exposure. Most cases of medication tolerance can be managed through carefully controlled tapering.

Comorbidity

Typically, the individual was initially started on the medication for a major depressive disorder; the original symptoms may return during the discontinuation syndrome.

Reference

American  Psychiatric Association. (2013). Medication-induced movement disorders and other adverse effects of medication. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., pp. 709–714). Author.

Psychopathology

Bipolar and related disorders are separated from the depressive disorders in DSM-5 and placed between the chapters on schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders and depressive disorders in recognition of their place as a bridge between the two diagnostic classes in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics. The diagnoses included in this chapter are bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder, bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition, other specified bipolar and related disorder, and unspecified bipolar and related disorder.

The bipolar I disorder criteria represent the modern understanding of the classic manic-depressive disorder or affective psychosis described in the nineteenth century, differing from that classic description only to the extent that neither psychosis nor the lifetime experience of a major depressive episode is a requirement. However, the vast majority of individuals whose symptoms meet the criteria for a fully syndromal manic episode also experience major depressive episodes during the course of their lives.

Bipolar II disorder, requiring the lifetime experience of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic episode, is no longer thought to be a “milder” condition than bipolar I disorder, largely because of the amount of time individuals with this condition spend in depression and because the instability of mood experienced by individuals with bipolar II disorder is typically accompanied by serious impairment in work and social functioning.

The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is given to adults who experience at least 2 years (for children, a full year) of both hypomanic and depressive periods without ever fulfilling the criteria for an episode of mania, hypomania, or major depression.

A large number of substances of abuse, some prescribed medications, and several medical conditions can be associated with manic-like phenomena. This fact is recognized in the diagnoses of substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder and bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition.

The recognition that many individuals, particularly children and, to a lesser extent, adolescents, experience bipolar-like phenomena that do not meet the criteria for bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic disorder is reflected in the availability of the other specified bipolar and related disorder category. Indeed, specific criteria for a disorder involving short-duration hypomania are provided in Section III in the hope of encouraging further study of this disorder.

Bipolar I Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.

Manic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation (i.e., purposeless non-goal-directed activity).

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

C. The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

D. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment) or another medical condition.

. Note: A full manic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a manic episode and, therefore, a bipolar I diagnosis.

Note: Criteria A–D constitute a manic episode. At least one lifetime manic episode is required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Hypomanic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly every day.

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy and activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) have persisted, represent a noticeable change from usual behavior, and have been present to a significant degree:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

C. The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic of the individual when not symptomatic.

D. The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

E. The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization. If there are psychotic features, the episode is, by definition, manic.

F. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment) or another medical condition .

. Note: A full hypomanic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a hypomanic episode diagnosis. However, caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a hypomanic episode, nor necessarily indicative of a bipolar diathesis.

Note: Criteria A–F constitute a hypomanic episode. Hypomanic episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Major Depressive Episode

A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

· Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, or hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).

3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others; not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

Note: Criteria A–C constitute a major depressive episode. Major depressive episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.

In distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode (MDE), it is useful to consider that in grief the predominant affect is feelings of emptiness and loss, while in an MDE it is persistent depressed mood and the inability to anticipate happiness or pleasure. The dysphoria in grief is likely to decrease in intensity over days to weeks and occurs in waves, the so-called pangs of grief. These waves tend to be associated with thoughts or reminders of the deceased. The depressed mood of an MDE is more persistent and not tied to specific thoughts or preoccupations. The pain of grief may be accompanied by positive emotions and humor that are uncharacteristic of the pervasive unhappiness and misery characteristic of an MDE . The thought content associated with grief generally features a preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the deceased, rather than the self-critical or pessimistic ruminations seen in an MDE. In grief, self-esteem is generally preserved, whereas in an MDE, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common. If self-derogatory ideation is present in grief, it typically involves perceived failings vis-à-vis the deceased (e.g., not visiting frequently enough, not telling the deceased how much he or she was loved). If a bereaved individual thinks about death and dying, such thoughts are generally focused on the deceased and possibly about “joining” the deceased, whereas in an MDE such thoughts are focused on ending one’s own life because of feeling worthless, undeserving of life, or unable to cope with the pain of depression.

Bipolar I Disorder

A. Criteria have been met for at least one manic episode (Criteria A–D under “Manic Episode” above).

B. The occurrence of the manic and major depressive episode(s) is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder.

Coding and Recording Procedures

· The diagnostic code for bipolar I disorder is based on type of current or most recent episode and its status with respect to current severity, presence of psychotic features, and remission status. Current severity and psychotic features are only indicated if full criteria are currently met for a manic or major depressive episode. Remission specifiers are only indicated if the full criteria are not currently met for a manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. Codes are as follows:


Enlarge table

· In recording the name of a diagnosis, terms should be listed in the following order: bipolar I disorder, type of current or most recent episode, severity/psychotic/remission specifiers, followed by as many specifiers without codes as apply to the current or most recent episode.

Specify:

· With anxious distress (p. 149)

· With mixed features (pp. 149–150)

· With rapid cycling (pp. 150–151)

· With melancholic features (p. 151)

· With atypical features (pp. 151–152)

· With mood-congruent psychotic features (p. 152 ;

applies to manic episode and/or major depressive episode)

· With mood-incongruent psychotic features (p. 152 ;

applies to manic episode and/or major depressive episode)

· With catatonia (p. 152). Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1).

· With peripartum onset (pp. 152–153)

· With seasonal pattern (pp. 153–154)

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of a manic episode is a distinct period during which there is an abnormally, persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased activity or energy that is present for most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary), accompanied by at least three additional symptoms from Criterion B. If the mood is irritable rather than elevated or expansive, at least four Criterion B symptoms must be present.

Mood in a manic episode is often described as euphoric, excessively cheerful, high, or “feeling on top of the world.” In some cases, the mood is of such a highly infectious quality that it is easily recognized as excessive and may be characterized by unlimited and haphazard enthusiasm for interpersonal, sexual, or occupational interactions. For example, the individual may spontaneously start extensive conversations with strangers in public. Often the predominant mood is irritable rather than elevated, particularly when the individual’s wishes are denied or if the individual has been using substances. Rapid shifts in mood over brief periods of time may occur and are referred to as lability (i.e., the alternation among euphoria, dysphoria, and irritability). In children, happiness, silliness and “goofiness” are normal in the context of special occasions; however, if these symptoms are recurrent, inappropriate to the context, and beyond what is expected for the developmental level of the child, they may meet Criterion A. If the happiness is unusual for a child (i.e., distinct from baseline), and the mood change occurs at the same time as symptoms that meet Criterion B for mania, diagnostic certainty is increased; however, the mood change must be accompanied by persistently increased activity or energy levels that are obvious to those who know the child well.

During the manic episode, the individual may engage in multiple overlapping new projects. The projects are often initiated with little knowledge of the topic, and nothing seems out of the individual’s reach. The increased activity levels may manifest at unusual hours of the day.

Inflated self-esteem is typically present, ranging from uncritical self-confidence to marked grandiosity, and may reach delusional proportions (Criterion B1). Despite lack of any particular experience or talent, the individual may embark on complex tasks such as writing a novel or seeking publicity for some impractical invention. Grandiose delusions (e.g., of having a special relationship to a famous person) are common. In children, overestimation of abilities and belief that, for example, they are the best at a sport or the smartest in the class is normal; however, when such beliefs are present despite clear evidence to the contrary or the child attempts feats that are clearly dangerous and, most important, represent a change from the child’s normal behavior, the grandiosity criterion should be considered satisfied.

One of the most common features is a decreased need for sleep (Criterion B2) and is distinct from insomnia in which the individual wants to sleep or feels the need to sleep but is unable. The individual may sleep little, if at all, or may awaken several hours earlier than usual, feeling rested and full of energy. When the sleep disturbance is severe, the individual may go for days without sleep, yet not feel tired. Often a decreased need for sleep heralds the onset of a manic episode.

Speech can be rapid, pressured, loud, and difficult to interrupt (Criterion B3). Individuals may talk continuously and without regard for others’ wishes to communicate, often in an intrusive manner or without concern for the relevance of what is said. Speech is sometimes characterized by jokes, puns, amusing irrelevancies, and theatricality, with dramatic mannerisms, singing, and excessive gesturing. Loudness and forcefulness of speech often become more important than what is conveyed. If the individual’s mood is more irritable than expansive, speech may be marked by complaints, hostile comments, or angry tirades, particularly if attempts are made to interrupt the individual. Both Criterion A and Criterion B symptoms may be accompanied by symptoms of the opposite (i.e., depressive) pole (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149–150).

Often the individual’s thoughts race at a rate faster than they can be expressed through speech (Criterion B4). Frequently there is flight of ideas evidenced by a nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech, with abrupt shifts from one topic to another. When flight of ideas is severe, speech may become disorganized, incoherent, and particularly distressful to the individual. Sometimes thoughts are experienced as so crowded that it is very difficult to speak.

Distractibility (Criterion B5) is evidenced by an inability to censor immaterial external stimuli (e.g., the interviewer’s attire, background noises or conversations, furnishings in the room) and often prevents individuals experiencing mania from holding a rational conversation or attending to instructions.

The increase in goal-directed activity often consists of excessive planning and participation in multiple activities, including sexual, occupational, political, or religious activities. Increased sexual drive, fantasies, and behavior are often present. Individuals in a manic episode usually show increased sociability (e.g., renewing old acquaintances or calling or contacting friends or even strangers), without regard to the intrusive, domineering, and demanding nature of these interactions. They often display psychomotor agitation or restlessness (i.e., purposeless activity) by pacing or by holding multiple conversations simultaneously. Some individuals write excessive letters, e-mails, text messages, and so forth, on many different topics to friends, public figures, or the media.

The increased activity criterion can be difficult to ascertain in children; however, when the child takes on many tasks simultaneously, starts devising elaborate and unrealistic plans for projects, develops previously absent and developmentally inappropriate sexual preoccupations (not accounted for by sexual abuse or exposure to sexually explicit material), then Criterion B might be met based on clinical judgment. It is essential to determine whether the behavior represents a change from the child’s baseline behavior; occurs most of the day, nearly every day for the requisite time period; and occurs in temporal association with other symptoms of mania.

The expansive mood, excessive optimism, grandiosity, and poor judgment often lead to reckless involvement in activities such as spending sprees, giving away possessions, reckless driving, foolish business investments, and sexual promiscuity that is unusual for the individual, even though these activities are likely to have catastrophic consequences (Criterion B7). The individual may purchase many unneeded items without the money to pay for them and, in some cases, give them away. Sexual behavior may include infidelity or indiscriminate sexual encounters with strangers, often disregarding the risk of sexually transmitted diseases or interpersonal consequences.

The manic episode must result in marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or require hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others (e.g., financial losses, illegal activities, loss of employment, self-injurious behavior). By definition, the presence of psychotic features during a manic episode also satisfies Criterion C.

Manic symptoms or syndromes that are attributable to the physiological effects of a drug of abuse (e.g., in the context of cocaine or amphetamine intoxication), the side effects of medications or treatments (e.g., steroids, l-dopa, antidepressants, stimulants), or another medical condition do not count toward the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. However, a fully syndromal manic episode that arises during treatment (e.g., with medications, electroconvulsive therapy, light therapy) or drug use and persists beyond the physiological effect of the inducing agent (i.e., after a medication is fully out of the individual’s system or the effects of electroconvulsive therapy would be expected to have dissipated completely) is sufficient evidence for a manic episode diagnosis (Criterion D). Caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a manic or hypomanic episode, nor necessarily an indication of a bipolar disorder diathesis. It is necessary to meet criteria for a manic episode to make a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, but it is not required to have hypomanic or major depressive episodes. However, they may precede or follow a manic episode. Full descriptions of the diagnostic features of a hypomanic episode may be found within the text for bipolar II disorder, and the features of a major depressive episode are described within the text for major depressive disorder.

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

During a manic episode, individuals often do not perceive that they are ill or in need of treatment and vehemently resist efforts to be treated. Individuals may change their dress, makeup, or personal appearance to a more sexually suggestive or flamboyant style. Some perceive a sharper sense of smell, hearing, or vision. Gambling and antisocial behaviors may accompany the manic episode. Some individuals may become hostile and physically threatening to others and, when delusional, may become physically assaultive or suicidal. Catastrophic consequences of a manic episode (e.g., involuntary hospitalization, difficulties with the law, serious financial difficulties) often result from poor judgment, loss of insight, and hyperactivity.

Mood may shift very rapidly to anger or depression. Depressive symptoms may occur during a manic episode and, if present, may last moments, hours, or, more rarely, days (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149–150).

Prevalence

The 12-month prevalence estimate in the continental United States was 0.6% for bipolar I disorder as defined in DSM-IV(Merikangas et al. 2007). Twelve-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder across 11 countries ranged from 0.0% to 0.6%(Merikangas et al. 2007). The lifetime male-to-female prevalence ratio is approximately 1.1:1(Merikangas et al. 2007).

Development and Course

Mean age at onset of the first manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode is approximately 18 years for bipolar I disorder. Special considerations are necessary to detect the diagnosis in children. Since children of the same chronological age may be at different developmental stages, it is difficult to define with precision what is “normal” or “expected” at any given point. Therefore, each child should be judged according to his or her own baseline. Onset occurs throughout the life cycle, including first onsets in the 60s or 70s. Onset of manic symptoms (e.g., sexual or social disinhibition) in late mid-life or late-life should prompt consideration of medical conditions (e.g., frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder) and of substance ingestion or withdrawal.

More than 90% of individuals who have a single manic episode go on to have recurrent mood episodes. Approximately 60% of manic episodes occur immediately before a major depressive episode. Individuals with bipolar I disorder who have multiple (four or more) mood episodes (major depressive, manic, or hypomanic) within 1 year receive the specifier “with rapid cycling.”

Risk and Prognostic Factors

Environmental

Bipolar disorder is more common in high-income than in low-income countries (1.4 % vs. 0.7%)(Ormel et al. 2008). Separated, divorced, or widowed individuals have higher rates of bipolar I disorder than do individuals who are married or have never been married, but the direction of the association is unclear.

Genetic and physiological

A family history of bipolar disorder is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for bipolar disorders. There is an average 10-fold increased risk among adult relatives of individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Magnitude of risk increases with degree of kinship. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder likely share a genetic origin(
Lichtenstein et al. 2009
), reflected in familial co-aggregation of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder(
Van Snellenberg and deCandia 2009
).

Course modifiers

After an individual has a manic episode with psychotic features, subsequent manic episodes are more likely to include psychotic features. Incomplete inter-episode recovery is more common when the current episode is accompanied by mood-incongruent psychotic features.

Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues

Little information exists on specific cultural differences in the expression of bipolar I disorder. One possible explanation for this may be that diagnostic instruments are often translated and applied in different cultures with no transcultural validation(Sanches and Jorge 2004). In one U.S. study, 12-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder was significantly lower for Afro-Caribbeans than for African Americans or whites(Williams et al. 2007).

Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues

Females are more likely to experience rapid cycling and mixed states, and to have patterns of comorbidity that differ from those of males, including higher rates of lifetime eating disorders(
McElroy et al. 2011
). Females with bipolar I or II disorder are more likely to experience depressive symptoms than males(Altshuler et al. 2010Suppes et al. 2005). They also have a higher lifetime risk of alcohol use disorder than do males and a much greater likelihood of alcohol use disorder than do females in the general population(Frye et al. 2003).

Suicide Risk

The lifetime risk of suicide in individuals with bipolar disorder is estimated to be at least 15 times that of the general population. In fact, bipolar disorder may account for one-quarter of all completed suicides. A past history of suicide attempt and percent days spent depressed in the past year are associated with greater risk of suicide attempts or completions(Marangell et al. 2006).

Functional Consequences of Bipolar I Disorder

Although many individuals with bipolar disorder return to a fully functional level between episodes, approximately 30% show severe impairment in work role function(Judd et al. 2008). Functional recovery lags substantially behind recovery from symptoms, especially with respect to occupational recovery, resulting in lower socioeconomic status despite equivalent levels of education when compared with the general population(Schoeyen et al. 2011). Individuals with bipolar I disorder perform more poorly than healthy individuals on cognitive tests. Cognitive impairments may contribute to vocational and interpersonal difficulties(
Dickerson et al. 2004
) and persist through the lifespan, even during euthymic periods(Gildengers et al. 2010).

Differential Diagnosis

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder may also be accompanied by hypomanic or manic symptoms (i.e., fewer symptoms or for a shorter duration than required for mania or hypomania). When the individual presents in an episode of major depression, one must depend on corroborating history regarding past episodes of mania or hypomania. Symptoms of irritability may be associated with either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, adding to diagnostic complexity.

Other bipolar disorders

Diagnosis of bipolar I disorder is differentiated from bipolar II disorder by determining whether there have been any past episodes of mania. Other specified and unspecified bipolar and related disorders should be differentiated from bipolar I and II disorders by considering whether either the episodes involving manic or hypomanic symptoms or the episodes of depressive symptoms fail to meet the full criteria for those conditions.

Bipolar disorder due to another medical condition may be distinguished from bipolar I and II disorders by identifying, based on best clinical evidence, a causally related medical condition.

Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or other anxiety disorders

These disorders need to be considered in the differential diagnosis as either the primary disorder or, in some cases, a comorbid disorder. A careful history of symptoms is needed to differentiate gene

Psychopathology

sample

Assignment: Assessing and Diagnosing Patients With Mood Disorders

Subjective: CC (chief complaint): “I can’t stop crying. All the time.” HPI: L.T is a 32-year-old black female who presents for psychiatric evaluation. Patient complains of a depressed mood almost every day since the birth of her child, two months ago. She reports finding it difficult to cope with the new baby and is overwhelmed by the baby’s care. Patient admits to sleeping difficulties, including problems falling asleep after the baby, especially after the baby cries. She also reports reduced appetite, dissatisfaction with her body size and shape, low self-esteem, feelings of guilt and inadequacy, and avoiding contact with friends. She reports an irritable mood stating that “things just upset her.” She also reports lack of interest in activities including writing, which she liked. Patient admits to having thoughts of suicide but has not acted upon them. She denies having thoughts of harming the baby. The patient is not currently prescribed any psychotropic medications.

Past Psychiatric History: General Statement: Patient has never been assessed or treated for mental health disorders Caregivers (if applicable): n/a Hospitalizations: patient was recently hospitalized for normal childbirth Medication trials: None Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: has no history of psychiatric illnesses and has never been treated for mental health conditions

Substance Current Use and History: Patient denied alcohol or drug use Family

Psychiatric/Substance Use History: Her uncle committed suicide using a GSW. Uncle was an opioid abuser

Psychosocial History: patient is currently married and lives with her husband and two children. She is a stay-at-home mother after working in retail for 5 years. She grew up with both parents and has one sister who lives in Omaha, NE. she has a bachelor’s degree in physics. She was employed in research science and worked as a high school teacher 5 years before the birth of her daughter. She had her first child two months ago. Client has no legal history

Medical History: L.T has hypertension

Current Medications: Labetalol 100 mg for HTN; admits to missing doses due to forgetting

Allergies: Codeine

Reproductive Hx: Gave birth two months ago and is currently lactating. She is currently not using contraceptives. Patient has not been sexually active since the birth of her child. She reports she has no drive or desire for sex

ROS: General: no weight loss, chills, fever, or fatigue

HEENT: Eyes: no changes in vision, double vision or jaundice. Ears, Nose, Throat: No changes in hearing, congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat

Skin: No changes in skin color. No rash or itching.

Cardiovascular: No chest discomfort/pain, palpitations or edema

Respiratory: No cough, sputum production or dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Reports reduced appetite. Reports she wants to lose weight after the pregnancy. No anorexia, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain

Genitourinary: No burning with urination, hesitancy or urgency. No changes in urine color or odor Neurological: no headaches, seizures, paralysis, numbness or tingling in extremities Musculoskeletal: No back pain, joint pain or stiffness

Hematologic: No bleeding or anemia Lymphatics: No enlarged nodes or history of splenectomy. Endocrinologic: no reports of sweating, heat or cold intolerance. No polydipsia or polyuria

Objective:

Vital signs: T- 97.6, P- 97, R 22, BP 149/98, Ht 5’3 Wt 245lb

Physical exam: N/A

Diagnostic results: N/A

Assessment:

Mental Status Examination: L.T is dressed appropriately for occasion and weather. She is alert and oriented to person, place, and time. Her memory appears to be intact during the assessment. She is cooperative but seems to be distant during assessment. Her speech is clear and coherent but she speaks in a low tone. Her mood is depressed. Affect is constricted. No delusions or hallucinations (both visual and auditory). Reports having thoughts of suicide or death but she has not acted upon them. Her insight and judgment are good

Differential Diagnoses: Postpartum depression: This refers to an episode of depression with an onset of symptoms four weeks following delivery. It is epitomized by a depressed mood, excessive anxiety, changes in weight, and insomnia (Sadock et al., 2015). Associated stressors often include lack of support (Sadock et al., 2015). People with postpartum depression often present with other signs and symptoms of major depressive disorder including diminished pleasure in activities such as inappropriate guilt or inadequacy, thoughts of death or suicide in addition to thoughts of harming the baby (Sadock et al., 2015). This is the most likely diagnosis considering that the patient meets the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and the symptoms started 4 weeks after childbirth. The client reports a depressed mood and crying almost every day, difficulty sleeping, reduced appetite, low self-esteem, feelings of guilt and inadequacy, lack of interest in pleasurable activities, and thoughts of suicide without a specific plan.

Major depressive disorder: MDD is a mood disorder characterized by depressed mood or diminished pleasure in activities such as depressed mood. This includes feelings of sadness or tearfulness, lack of pleasure or interest in activities, insomnia or hypersomnia, weight loss, loss of energy, feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness, inappropriate guilt, frequent thoughts of suicide or death, loss of energy, and reduced ability to concentrate or indecisiveness (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Even though the patient presents with most of these symptoms, it is less likely that this is the diagnosis given that the symptoms occurred within four weeks after delivery (APA, 2013).

Postpartum blues: This is a transient mood disturbance that is characterized by low mood and mild depressive symptoms. These depressive symptoms include mood liability, dysphoria, crying, tearfulness, irritability, decreased sleep, and decreased concentration (Mullins, 2021). According to Sadock et al. (2015), the condition affects 30% to 50% of women who give birth. To meet the diagnostic criteria of the condition, the symptoms must occur 2-3 days of delivery and resolve within two weeks. If the symptoms persist for more than 2 weeks, the diagnostic criteria of major depressive disorder are met (Sadock et al., 2015). This is not the likely diagnosis because the symptoms persisted for more than 2 weeks

Reflections Based on the presented case, I have learned the various mood disorders which can portray the same symptoms. Essentially, I have learned about postpartum depression, which is a mood disorder occurring 4-6 weeks after childbirth. I have also learned about other mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and postpartum blues, which mimic the symptoms of postpartum depression. To make an accurate diagnosis, it is essential to analyze factors related to stressors and triggers of the mood disorder (Sadock et al., 2015). A legal factor that should be considered during the treatment of the patient is drug safety, particularly in regards to the infant. The decision for a breastfeeding mother to take medications should involve careful considerations of the potential effectiveness of the drugs and potential risks to the infant. While all medications pass into breast milk, the extent of passage varies between drugs (Frieder et al.,2019). Also, given that patients with postpartum depression experience thoughts of suicide and harming the baby, it is important to ask about such thoughts to help determine if the thoughts are psychotic or obsessional as well as to help ensure the safety of the mother and child (Frieder et al.,2019)

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5. American Psychiatric Association, 70. Frieder, A., Fersh, M., Hainline, R., & Deligiannidis, K. M. (2019). Pharmacotherapy of postpartum depression: current approaches and novel drug development. CNS drugs, 33(3), 265-282.

Mullins IV, C. H. (2021). Postpartum Blues. Patient Education and Counseling.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Sherman, L. J., & Ali, M. M. (2018). Diagnosis of postpartum depression and timing and types of treatment received differ for women with private and Medicaid coverage. Women’s Health Issues, 28(6), 524-529. 7 This study source was downloaded by 100000798758000 from CourseHero.com on 09-16-2021 12:13:21 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/98069366/WK3Assgn1LinusO-Assessing-and-Diagnosing-Patients-with-Mood-Disorders-editeddocx/ This study resource was shared via Course