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Powerpoint 8 slides

For this evaluation prepare a power point presentation about your health promotion initiative. The length would equal the sections of your paper. For example, if your paper contains 8 sections, your presentation will be 8 slides plus the introduction and references, totaling 10 slides.

1. Describe the health problem. Using data and statistics support your claim that the issue you selected is a problem. What specifically will you address in your proposed health promotion program? Be sure your proposed outcome is realistic and measureable. (1-2 slides).

 

2. Describe the vulnerable population and setting. What are the risk factors that make this a vulnerable population? Use evidence to support the risk factors you have identified. (1-2 slides).

 

3. Present your health promotion/disease prevention theoretical framework or conceptual model that would best serve as the framework guiding the proposal. Provide rationale for your selection which includes discussion of the concepts of the selected model. (1 slide).

 

4. Present your health promotion program using an evidence-based intervention. Include a thorough discussion of the specifics of this intervention which include resources necessary, those involved, and feasibility for a nurse in an advanced role. Be certain to include a timeline. (1-2 slides)

 

5. Describe your intended outcomes. Describe the outcomes in detail concurrent with the SMART goal approach. (1-2 slides).

6. Present your plan for evaluation for each outcome. (1-2 slides). 

7. Thoroughly describe possible barriers/challenges to implementing the proposed project as well as strategies to address these barriers/challenges. (1-2 slides).

 

Follow the rule of 7 of professional presentations: Use no more than 7 lines of text per slide, with around 7 words per line. Explanations would be added to the notes sections or as a separate paper.

Powerpoint 8 slides

For this evaluation prepare a power point presentation about your health promotion initiative. The length would equal the sections of your paper. For example, if your paper contains 8 sections, your presentation will be 8 slides plus the introduction and references, totaling 10 slides.

1. Describe the health problem. Using data and statistics support your claim that the issue you selected is a problem. What specifically will you address in your proposed health promotion program? Be sure your proposed outcome is realistic and measureable. (1-2 slides).

 

2. Describe the vulnerable population and setting. What are the risk factors that make this a vulnerable population? Use evidence to support the risk factors you have identified. (1-2 slides).

 

3. Present your health promotion/disease prevention theoretical framework or conceptual model that would best serve as the framework guiding the proposal. Provide rationale for your selection which includes discussion of the concepts of the selected model. (1 slide).

 

4. Present your health promotion program using an evidence-based intervention. Include a thorough discussion of the specifics of this intervention which include resources necessary, those involved, and feasibility for a nurse in an advanced role. Be certain to include a timeline. (1-2 slides)

 

5. Describe your intended outcomes. Describe the outcomes in detail concurrent with the SMART goal approach. (1-2 slides).

SMART Goal Planning for Breast CancerBy April 30, 2022, breast cancer patient navigators will reduce the average time fromabnormal screening mammogram to diagnostic conclusion from 65 days to 30 days for AfricanAmerican women diagnosed with breast cancer in the region.

6. Present your plan for evaluation for each outcome. (1-2 slides). 

7. Thoroughly describe possible barriers/challenges to implementing the proposed project as well as strategies to address these barriers/challenges. (1-2 slides).

 

Follow the rule of 7 of professional presentations: Use no more than 7 lines of text per slide, with around 7 words per line. Explanations would be added to the notes sections or as a separate paper.

Powerpoint 8 slides

2

Breast Cancer Health Promotion

Florida National University

Jose Cardentey

Health Promotion and Role Development in Advanced Nursing Practice

Professor: Alexander Garcia Salas

April 10, 2022

Breast Cancer Health Promotion

Health promotion program

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and is the second-highest cause of cancer deaths. Despite the constant improvements in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, the fate of African American women when it comes to this disease remains in a very disadvantaged position. One of the interventions described is the provision of mass media awareness of cancer screening services. Surviving a cancer disease relies highly on early detection and treatment from previous studies. Hence, structured programs to engage many African American women to have regular mammography and timely treatment help close the gap between black and white communities. Studies have shown that the possibility of an African American returning to follow-up checking after an inconclusive mammogram screening is far less than that of a white American. There are efforts in place to reduce the mortality rate of breast cancer patients, which primarily lie in the promotion of modifiable risk factors. These factors include encouraging physical activity, low alcohol consumption, and early detection through regular mammography. (Reeder-Hayes et al. 2017)

The use of mass media to render educational and motivational information about breast cancer is a crucial strategy toward averting the current trend of the healthcare state of African American women. Mass media used include radio, television, newspapers, and billboards. The use of mass media usually comes hand in hand with other approaches that aid in ensuring more people respond to the information being shared. These approaches include offering free screening services, vouchers, and same-day appointments to help cut the expenses, especially for low-income women. There is also an increased interest in using cell phone mass messaging and smartphone applications when passing or receiving information about breast cancer among young black women. The use of smartphones has become an ever-present part of modern life. More than 85% of the entire population own a smartphone. This statistic is crucial because it makes it easier to disseminate information. Text messages reminding users to undergo a mammogram exam every six months can easily be generated and sent to a significant number of people at the same time. This saves time and cost for the organization running the campaign. Emails and social media communications also have a significant impact on reaching out to African American women to do their breast cancer screening. (Hoppe et al. 2019)

In addition to that, applications that have essential information about breast cancer can be developed that allow any African American woman to access all the information she needs about breast cancer and make an appointment for an exam through the programming interfaces. The applications have the purpose of creating awareness about cancer that is giving out accurate information about breast cancer, providing educational information about breast cancer that can aid in early detection of breast cancer, and giving out the information on prevention of the disease. The app also promotes non-profit organizations that aim to aid breast cancer awareness in black communities. To execute this, smartphone application developers have to be hired to create the application and ensure the continual update of information. Radio stations can also be used to disseminate information about breast cancer. The radio stations that target African American audiences are typically referred to as Black radio. They are viewed as a trusted source of information by African American audiences. Black radio will be used to share information and create awareness about breast cancer. The strategy to ensure wide and fruitful dissemination of information is to have personal on-air interviews and allow call-ins through the show to get feedback from the audience. This approach promotes social learning and allows the women to learn from each other about their different experiences with cancer. Black radio is an important approach as it reaches all the different age groups of the African American community. (Sheppard et al. 2016)

Another essential step in closing the racial gap in breast cancer is increasing the health literacy level of the African American community. Health literacy refers to the capacity levels of an individual to get, process, and understand the basic health information and services needed to make an appropriate health decision. Low health literacy is commonly linked to reduced use of preventive measures like screening, decreased or no knowledge of the importance of early detection, and poor adherence to treatment plans. This causes the individuals to have a greater sense of fatalism of the disease, no participation in breast cancer control programs, and late detection of the disease. Therefore, to ensure increased health literacy, the information being shared through the different means need to be clear and simple to understand. The members of African American ethnicity are less likely to receive preventive health services and more often receive lower-quality care compared to the whites. This disparity directly impacts breast cancer treatment in African American women. To combat this variance, health professionals should undergo training on the role of racial bias in patients’ treatment plans. Health professionals need to take time to explain to patients their diagnosis and all the options they have regardless of race. The nursing should help the patients closely when undergoing their cancer treatment. They should make a follow-up in cases where a patient misses an appointment. This is to investigate the reason the patient missed the appointment and also offer help with common issues like financial constraints related to insurance clearances, family schedules, or pain handling. The medical staff should also prepare a journal of resources that could be useful to the patient. This aids in improving the health literacy levels of the African American community and also empowers individuals to reach out. Medical staff also have a role in providing moral support to the patients undergoing treatment. (Yedjou et al. 2017) They ought to spread a word of hope to the patients as they undergo treatment. The medical workforce also should keep tabs on patients to ensure that they stick to medication and maintain a healthy lifestyle. This will raise the treatment completion rate of the African American community. Racial bias also exists in mammography referrals. This is a disparity that medical practitioners need to level. Proper and extensive awareness among medical health practitioners needs to be done since they hold a much greater influence on the patients’ experience with breast cancer. African American communities have the church as the most important social institution. Therefore, it becomes an important setting to conduct breast cancer promotion for African American women. The action plan in reaching out to African American women in their churches is by conducting reach-out campaigns that include distributing literature, holding community events hosted by the church, and also blending health session within church programs. Unemployment is also a barrier to bridging the racial gap between African Americans and white communities. There is a higher unemployment rate among the African American communities, which directly impacts individuals’ ability to get medical insurance, which affects their access to health care. The financial strain among African American women can be linked to the higher breast cancer mortality rate since they will have delays in diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Women with financial problems face challenges in accessing comprehensive breast cancer management since the regular visits for treatments generate costs. Patient navigation is another model that works to reduce the disparities in breast cancer care. This model is a patient-oriented method involving coordination among health workers working in helping them overcome the barriers to receiving breast cancer care. The program emphasizes saving patients’ lives by ensuring patients receive timely breast cancer care between the stage of suspicious finding and the conclusion of the finding. This is achieved by eliminating all the barriers patient encounters between the two stages. The barriers to receiving timely treatment are communication, finances, the medical system, fear, and emotions. This model aims to ensure every black woman receives all the necessary as soon as possible. Patient navigation also has the feature of offering free cancer screening to African American women. This will greatly impact the statistics showing the disparity across the racial divide. Allostatic load also increases the racial gap in breast cancer statistics. Allostatic load refers chronic stress state caused by the experiences of racism and associated environmental challenges. This stress causes increased neural and neuroendocrine responses, which cause more health-damaging effects. In breast cancer, the allostatic load leads to biologically aggressive tumours and a worse quality of life. Thus, to increase the outcomes of breast cancer treatment among African American women, more understanding of different patients’ psychological states plays an important role in their recovery. (Yedjou et al. 2019)

Outcomes

This research will change the current trends in cancer care for the African American community. The first outcome expected of this research is that misconceptions about breast cancer and its treatment plan will no longer exist. With proper dissemination of accurate and up-to-date information on breast cancer, the African American community will have the correct information about the disease. This will have an influence on attracting more African American women to undergo breast cancer screening. The second outcome of this research is that the mortality rate of the African American community will improve compared to that of white Americans. The survival chance of a breast cancer patient highly relies on the early detection of the disease, which can be achieved by creating awareness targeted to African American community. When the communities know that there is an importance of having regular mammography, they will turn up for testing, thereby ensuring early detection, translating to a higher chance of survival. The survival chance of patients is also improved from the implementation of patient navigation which allows fast delivery of treatment to African Americans. The third outcome of this research is a racism-free cancer care system. This is achieved by training all medical practitioners to adopt changes that ensure all patients are treated equally. Another outcome of this research is improved Physician and patient communication. This relation is key in helping the patient get the confidence she needs to undergo painful cancer treatments. This was from a statistic that patient who has a good relationship with the medical staff has a lower chance of declining to undergo surgery. Medical staff is to be trained on how to maintain communication with the patients and to avoid showing bias during their encounters.

Evaluation of outcomes

Evaluation of clearing misconceptions of breast cancer outcomes will entail checking the effectiveness of various mass media in reaching the African American community. This involves getting feedback from a community sample to see if they have the correct information about breast cancer. In addition, it serves to check if people understood the information that was shared. Evaluation of improvement of the mortality rate of African American community compared to the white American community involve taking statistics of both ethnic divides and comparing the numbers. This will obtain from health records in the regions the promotion is conducted. This evaluation will take time since the treatment timeline for breast cancer does vary for different patients according to factors like detection and others. This evaluation serves to indicate the main objective of the research, which was to bridge the racial gap in the mortality rate of breast cancer patients. Evaluation of having a racism-free health care system is to be done by running random interviews with patients from minority ethnic groups. They are asked about their experience while undergoing breast cancer screening and treatment. This stands to give the impact of having the training programs for the medical staff on maintaining racism-free services. This evaluation will also give the way the physicians relate with patients; that is, the kind of communication they share. This is a critical feature that shows the professionalism of the medical staff in the eyes of patients. It also shows if there is any bias in the various disciplines within a healthcare facility.

Possible barriers

One of the barriers to implementing this research is limited knowledge of research methods. Conducting research is a complex process that requires dynamic support from individuals, organizations, and colleagues. This process also requires specific individual skills like proper time management, critical thinking, and multitasking, among others, which are hard to possess. Another barrier is the lack of adequate time to conduct the necessary literature review. This will limit the knowledge I possess regarding the subject matter. Over-reliance on scholarly articles to guide the planning and evaluation of the implementation of the research can also sabotage the credibility of the process. The success of the implementation relies on healthcare staff believing in the findings and agreeing that adopting new strategies could positively impact the health care of African American communities.

Reference

Hoppe, E. J., Hussain, L. R., Grannan, K. J., Dunki-Jacobs, E. M., Lee, D. Y., & Wexelman, B. A. (2019). Racial disparities in breast cancer persist despite early detection: analysis of treatment of stage 1 breast cancer and effect of insurance status on disparities. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment173(3), 597-602.

Reeder-Hayes, K. E., Troester, M. A., & Meyer, A. M. (2017). Reducing Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care: The Role of’Big Data’. Oncology (08909091)31(10).

Sheppard, V. B., Hurtado-de-Mendoza, A., Talley, C. H., Zhang, Y., Cabling, M. L., & Makambi, K. H. (2016). Reducing racial disparities in breast cancer survivors’ ratings of quality cancer care: the enduring impact of trust. The Journal for Healthcare Quality (JHQ)38(3), 143-163.

Yedjou, C. G., Sims, J. N., Miele, L., Noubissi, F., Lowe, L., Fonseca, D. D., … & Tchounwou, P. B. (2019). Health and racial disparity in breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance, 31-49.

Yedjou, C. G., Tchounwou, P. B., Payton, M., Miele, L., Fonseca, D. D., Lowe, L., & Alo, R. A. (2017). Assessing the racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in the United States. International journal of environmental research and public health14(5), 486.

Powerpoint 8 slides

Running head: ASSIGNMENT 2

ASSIGNMENT 2

Assignment 2 SMART Goal Planning Form

Nutrition

Florida National University

Alina Rivero

Health Promotion and Role Development in Advanced Nursing Practice

Professor: Alexander Garcia Salas

February 16, 2022

Smart Goal Planning Form

When children are knowledgeable about the adverse effects of unhealthy nutrition on their health and the risk of complications brought by their diabetes conditions, there will be reduction of the risks and other associated complications to ensure that healthy body weight and a low BMI are attained by consumption of healthy diets within three months.

Powerpoint 8 slides

RUNNING HEAD: HEALTH PROGRAM PROPOSAL 1

HEALTH PROGRAM PROPOSAL 1

Health program proposal

Alina Rivero Paret

Florida National University 

March 05, 2022

Obesity has increasingly become a global health Barking concern in the modern era. Health organizations worldwide are concerned about the increasing number of overweight and obese adults in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has facts that worldwide obesity rates have tripled since 1975, with more than 1.9 billion adults being overweight in 2016, of which 650 million of these were obese (“Obesity and overweight,” 2021). In the United States, the prevalence of obesity increased to 42.4% in 2017-2018 from 30.5% in 1999-2000. Obesity-related diseases include stroke, heart attack, type 2 diabetes, among other conditions (CDC, 2021). the above data shows that obesity is a significant health concern in the community, and there is an increasing need to sensitize the community on its effects.

With the rising number of obese people in the population, the need to create a health promotion program that helps sensitize the community on the effects of obesity and how to prevent the health threat increases every day. With a health promotion program for obesity in place, the prevalence of obesity in vulnerable communities would lower, and people would establish healthier ways of living to avoid obesity. This program will address the rising number of obesity-related ailments and deaths in the affected communities. For this program to be successful, much in-depth and personal research needs to be done before health practitioners get to work on the ground.

When well carried out, the research will give the practitioners accurate information on the obesity situation in a selected community or area. Without this research, the health officials would be working on guesswork which could prove futile since not all areas have the same obesity prevalence data. After analysis, the strategy created will depend on the data collected. In high obesity-prevalence areas, the groundwork will be on reducing the number of obese occupants through processes such as counseling, guidance, and promotion of a healthy lifestyle. The groundwork in low-prevalence areas would mainly be on maintaining these low numbers while also advocating for a healthier lifestyle and preventing obesity.

Several populations are more at risk of getting obese than others. These groups include; children, low-income individuals, individuals above 65 years old, and rural populations. Most of these groups are vulnerable to getting obesity over several pre-disposed factors. These factors may be cultural, behavioral, socio-demographic, or biological (Stevens et al., 2017, p. xx). Some risk factors for obesity can be changed while others cannot. With those risk factors that cannot be changed, getting obesity can be reduced by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Some of these risk factors include; lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating behaviors, lack of enough sleep, too much stress, age, unhealthy environments, and family history (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, n.d.). Most of these risk factors span the various vulnerable groups mentioned above, but some are more group-specific than others.

With the above data search done on a general scope, there is no doubt that a more thorough targeted research could reveal more community-specific values that would assist in the formulation of effective strategies to combat the prevalence of obesity. Health practitioners could use search research as the base for their work on patients of obesity so that they can make more targeted treatments on the population. For example, an old obese person over 65 years of age will be prioritized in treatment since they could fall more vulnerable in a specific population setting. This would show that different population settings have different prevalence rates of obesity [ and the need to do in-depth personal research in a community before commencing on any health problem would be of utmost importance.

Obesity is ranked as the fifth cause of death globally. This would place it among the top preventable causes of death worldwide. There exist several evidence-based strategies to combat the problem of obesity. A review of the process of obesity screening shows that most doctors do not follow the process of screening for obesity during check-ups. This review supported obesity screening combined with referral to quality intervention services for all healthcare patients and showed that most health practitioners do not follow this due process. The review supported that health service providers incorporate obesity screening in their medical check-ups (Pearce et al., 2019, p. xx).

The journal of the association of American nurse practitioners concludes that the modest weight loss of even 5% -10% of body weight could help reduce the prevalence of obesity. The journal uses current figures and statistics to conclude the reduction of body weight as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the population. It also outlines ways nursing practitioners may help individuals achieve weight loss (Fruh, 2017, p. xx).

The evidence-based strategies outlined in the above journals will be helpful in the health program. The document’s research and conclusions clearly show that obesity is a preventable disease if healthcare professionals test for it during regular medical check-ups. Both reviews show an in-depth look at the problem of obesity and how it could be prevented and treated. However, to fully incorporate the research into the health program model, several changes must be made to impact a community effectively. Both pieces of research have to have their numbers adjusted to fit the community we are working in. this could cause the research not to hold water in certain areas as both were carried out on a generalized global scope.

This health program will incorporate field research before embarking on the job, which will tackle the problem of obesity in the community. The research will be based on age, ethnicity, race, genetic disorders, and family history. In addition to screening for obesity, a weight loss program and exercise program will be incorporated into the general health promotion program. This helps more people reduce obesity and those not overweight to maintain their body mass index. Using electronic media, public gatherings, sports activities, and one-on-one obesity campaigns will also help sensitize the community on the dangers of obesity.

References

CDC. (2021, June 7). Obesity is a common, serious, and costly disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Fruh, S. M. (2017). Obesity. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners29(S1), S3-S14. https://doi.org/10.1002/2327-6924.12510

Obesity and overweight. (2021, June 9). WHO | World Health Organization. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Pearce, C., Rychetnik, L., Wutzke, S., & Wilson, A. (2019). Obesity prevention and the role of hospital and community-based health services: A scoping review. BMC Health Services Research19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4262-3

Stevens, J., Pratt, C., Boyington, J., Nelson, C., Truesdale, K. P., Ward, D. S., Lytle, L., Sherwood, N. E., Robinson, T. N., Moore, S., Barkin, S., Cheung, Y. K., & Murray, D. M. (2017). Multilevel interventions targeting obesity: Research recommendations for vulnerable populations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine52(1), 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.011

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.). Overweight and obesity. Advancing Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research & Innovation | NHLBI, NIH. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/overweight-and-obesity

Powerpoint 8 slides

Running head: HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAM 2

HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAM 2

Health Promotion Program

Alina Rivero Paret

Florida National University 

April 09, 2022

Obesity is defined as a disorder that involves excess fat that leads to an increase in the risk of health issues. This condition results from the consumption of more calories than those which are burned through exercise activities or normal daily activities. A person is confirmed to be having obesity when the body mass index is 30 or more. Obesity is a common, severe, and costly public health issue. Over 40 percent of the United States adults (42.5 percent) of age 20 years and above are obese. Additionally, 21.1 percent of adolescents of age 12-19, 20.3 percent of children of ages 6-11, and 13.4 percent of children aged 2-5 years have been confirmed to be obese. Even though this condition is effectively managed through a healthy lifestyle, little attention is put to the role played by this intervention. Physical exercise and healthy eating have been confirmed to be playing an important role in the reduction of obesity risks (Connecticut State, Department of Public Health, 2022). Therefore, this paper is focused on discussing a proposed health promotion program using the evidence-based intervention i.e. nutrition, physical activity, and obesity program.

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (NPAO) health promotion program

The obesity epidemic does not have a single or simple solution and it is considered to be a complex issue that requires a multifaceted strategy. The policymakers; the state as well as the local organizations; the business, the school, and the community leaders; the childcare and healthcare professionals; and individuals are expected to work together to help in the creation of an environment that supports healthy lifestyles.

The NPAO program is focused on the provision of quality education and supporting the implementation of public health policies, systems, and environmental change (PSE) approaches. The focus is to promote healthy eating and active living for individuals of all ages (Pearce et al., 2019). Healthy eating and physical activeness have been confirmed to be important in the maintenance of healthy body weight and the prevention of the risk of developing chronic illnesses.

Changing eating habits is important for the loss and maintenance of weight. To ensure there is a loss of weight, individuals need to eat fewer calories and utilize more calories than what has been taken. Even though this can be a challenging procedure, sticking to the plan can be important in the reduction of the weight and maintenance of a healthy weight. Based on the NPAO health promotion program, following a healthy eating plan is influenced by various factors such as age, weight, metabolism, food preferences, access to food, culture, and traditions. Under this health promotion program, a healthy eating plan is encouraged and it includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains like oats, brown rice, and whole-wheat bread (Pearce et al., 2019). There are also fat-free or low-fat dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese; consumption of various protein foods that include seafood, lean meats, and poultry, legumes, nuts, soy products, and seeds; oils like olive and canola oils.

The healthy eating plans under the NPAO health promotion also include the consumption of fewer foods and beverages that contain refined carbohydrates, sodium, and added sugars. The eating plan encouraged in the community also includes the control portion size and restricting foods that have saturated fats and trans fats. The required or defined physical exercise promoted in the community is a regular physical activity that takes at least 150 minutes every week and it’s characterized by moderate to intense aerobic activity like brisk walking. Moderate to the intensity aerobic physical activity is important in making the heart beat faster and making a person breathe harder (CDC, 2021). This type of exercise does not overwork or overheat a person, therefore, they are considered to be safe for most individuals. Individuals with physical disabilities can take part in physical activities such as wheelchair aerobics or basketball. Before the engagement of the individuals in the physical activities, a thorough assessment of health condition is done to find the presence of heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. The assessment is important in determining the type or the amount of physical activity that suits the lifestyle, interest, and skills.

The successful attainment of the expected outcome from the implementation of the NPAO health promotion program involves various activities. The targeted individuals are expected to ensure that there is adherence to the proposed activities (CDC, 2021). Some of the activities that can be performed include keeping track of the body weight, sticking to a healthy eating plan, ensuring that there is an ongoing regular physical activity, and taking part in the weight loss maintenance program.

Intended Outcomes

The NPAO health promotion program is targeted at developing a comprehensive, integrated strategy for enhancement of the nutrition and physical activity to help in the reduction of obesity in the community. The implementation of the program is aimed at achieving specific outcomes (Pearce et al., 2019). In this case, the expected outcomes, in this case, include an increase in the physical activity, an increase in the consumption of the fruits and vegetables, a reduction in the consumption of the sugar-sweetened beverages, an increase in the initiation and duration of the breastfeeding, a reduction in the consumption of the high-energy dense foods, and the reduction in the rates of the television watching.

Detailed Plan for Evaluation for Each Outcome

The evaluation of the health promotion program helps in providing the information that allows states to help in the successful development and implementation of the plan effectively and efficiently (Connecticut State, Department of Public Health, 2022). The plan for the evaluation can involve the collection of the information from the baseline data and this means the data on the amount of physical activity, the amount of the fruits and vegetables consumed by the population, the amount of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed, the duration and how often breastfeeding is initiated, the amount of energy-dense foods consumed, and the number of hours spent while watching the television.

Following the successful implementation of the program, it is expected that there will be an improvement in the physical activities, an increase in the consumption of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, a reduction in the amount of the energy-dense foods, and a reduction in the number of hours spent on watching television. There will be an improvement in the level of satisfaction and the attitudes of the participants in the development process (Connecticut State, Department of Public Health, 2022). The information can be used to help in strengthening the activities such as the improvement of the shareholder’s engagement, stimulation of the partnership formation, and identification of the suitable content and objectives for the plan.

The Potential Barriers or Challenges Towards the Implementation of the Proposed Project

The implementation of the NPAO program helps in attaining the excellent results and activities that lead to the reduction of the individual risk of obesity disease. There are various interventions such as the NPAO intervention that have been proposed to help in addressing the issue of obesity within the community, nevertheless, there are various challenges and barriers that affect the attainment of the expected outcomes.

One of the barriers that affect the successful implementation of the NPAO health promotion program is the culture. One of the interventions under NPAO is the promotion of healthy eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods that expose individuals to the risk of obesity. However, this intervention might not come to reality as a result of the cultural and traditional practices. There are individuals in the community who believe in the traditional practices and often consume unhealthy traditional foods whose value and nutritional contents are not known (Connecticut State, Department of Public Health, 2022). Based on these traditional practices, it is becoming hard to convince these people to quit such practices thus affecting the efforts put in place to ensure that there is a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy foods.

The other challenge is the language barrier which affects the communication with the individuals in the community. The language barrier is also affecting the rates at which individuals seek healthcare services for example the early screening process for the obesity risks. The language barrier affects the realization of effective communication and education to the population about some of the healthy practices that need to be adopted to reduce the risk of obesity diagnosis (Albury et al., 2020). The language barrier makes it hard to reach a specific group of the population and inform them about the available resources on obesity diseases, the risk factors, and the healthy practices that can be adopted to ensure that there is a reduced rate of obesity diseases within the society.

The other barrier is linked to the lack of commitment from the healthcare providers, government, and the population in general. Even though health education can be provided about the role of nutrition and physical activity in the reduction of the risk and complications of obesity disease, not all patients or community individuals will adhere to the recommendations made under the NPAO health promotion program (Coupe et al., 2019). The adherence to the proposed recommendation requires the willingness and the readiness of the targeted population.

The adherence to the recommendations based on the proposed NPAO intervention is also affected by the busy working schedules in the places of work. Many adults find it hard to prepare food at home and carry it to their workplaces. This means that the only source of foods that can be easily accessed is fast foods whose contents are not well known. These behaviors increase the risk of the individual to obesity illness and make it hard to implement the NPAO interventions (Brown & Perrin, 2018). The type of work performed by some groups of people requires them to spend several hours in the office and find it hard to create time for physical exercise as a result of their work and family schedules.

Due to the rise in chronic illness, there is a growth in the number of patients seeking healthcare services. The ratio of nurses to patients is becoming a major concern since few nurses are available to handle the growing number of patients. Therefore, it is sometimes becoming impossible for the majority of the nurses to engage in other health promotion practices such as community health education that targets the promotion of healthy living (Bump, 2018). As a result, the lack of awareness about obesity disease, the prevention measures, and the poor knowledge of the risk associated with obesity has resulted in the rise of obesity incidences within the community. The rise in obesity incidences within these communities is linked to environmental, social, and genetic factors.

The fight against obesity in the community is also affected by the lack of commitment from governmental agencies. The lack of commitment from both the local, state, and federal governments affects the fights against obesity and this implies that the implementation of the NPAO health promotion program is affected hence making it hard to reduce this incidence within the society. The government is making little effort to ensure that the companies producing fast food products adhere to the rules. There is a growth in fast-food products and the targeted individuals are children and adults working in the busy schedules in the organizations (Bump, 2018). These adults lack time to cook their foods at home, therefore, choose to buy fast foods whose contents are not well described in the labeling of these products. Therefore, the problem of obesity begins at a younger age as a result of the poor control laws on the firms that produce these fast foods in the country.

Strategies to Addressing the Barriers or Challenges

The successful implementation of the NPAO health promotion program requires effective solutions to the barriers mentioned above. It is evident that culture affects the fight against obesity, therefore, as a healthcare provider, it is important to practice cultural competency to ensure that there is support and understanding of the traditional practices. When the community feels understood and appreciated based on their traditions and cultural values, they can listen to the new proposals made by the providers (Jongen et al., 2018). As a provider, it is important to appreciate such cultures while informing them about the negative side of such cultures and the potential replacement of the traditions. This helps in changing the perceptions of the individuals within the community. The cultural-competency also helps in ensuring that the interpreter is employed to help in the effective communication with the targeted individuals.

The other solution is focused on the role of the government and its commitment to fighting the obesity disease. The government must ensure that there is the existence of the strict rules that register the food processing firms so that their licenses can be revoked if they fail to adhere to the nutritional value guidelines on the foods produced (Mozaffarian et al., 2018). Government commitment is also required in ensuring that the number of healthcare providers is increased (Kamal et al., 2019). This is an important approach since it helps in making sure that while some providers offer services at the facility, some teams can be assigned to the local communities to help in promoting health education on healthy behaviors so that the population is secured from the risks associated with the unhealthy behaviors.

References

Albury, C., Strain, W. D., Le Brocq, S., Logue, J., Lloyd, C., Tahrani, A., & Language Matters working group. (2020). The importance of language in engagement between health-care professionals and people living with obesity: a joint consensus statement. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology8(5), 447-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30102-9

Brown, C. L., & Perrin, E. M. (2018). Obesity prevention and treatment in primary care. Academic pediatrics18(7), 736-745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2018.05.004

Bump, J. B. (2018). Undernutrition, obesity, and governance: a unified framework for upholding the right to food. BMJ Global Health3(Suppl 4), e000886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000886

CDC. (2021, June 7). Obesity is a common, serious, and costly disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Connecticut State, Department of Public Health. (2022, April 1). Nutrition, Physical Activity & Obesity Program. Retrieved from https://portal.ct.gov/DPH/Health-Education-Management–Surveillance/Nutrition-Physical-Activity-and-Obesity-Prevention-Program/Nutrition-Physical-Activity–Obesity-Prevention-Program
Coupe, N., Peters, S., Rhodes, S., & Cotterill, S. (2019). The effect of commitment-making on weight loss and behavior change in adults with obesity/overweight; a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1-16.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7185-3
Jongen, C., McCalman, J., & Bainbridge, R. (2018). Health workforce cultural competency interventions: a systematic scoping review. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3001-5

Kamal, A. H., Wolf, S. P., Troy, J., Leff, V., Dahlin, C., Rotella, J. D., … & Myers, E. R. (2019). Policy changes are key to promoting sustainability and growth of the specialty palliative care workforce. Health Affairs38(6), 910-918. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00018

Mozaffarian, D., Angell, S. Y., Lang, T., & Rivera, J. A. (2018). Role of government policy in nutrition—barriers to and opportunities for healthier eating. BMJ361. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2426.

Pearce, C., Rychetnik, L., Wutzke, S., & Wilson, A. (2019). Obesity prevention and the role of hospital and community-based health services: A scoping review. BMC Health Services Research19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4262-3

Powerpoint 8 slides

. 7

Breast Cancer Health Promotion

Florida National University

Jose Cardentey

Health Promotion and Role Development in Advanced Nursing Practice           

Professor: Alexander Garcia Salas

March 5, 2022


Breast Cancer Overview

Breast cancer is a health problem that causes the breast cells to grow uncontrollably, forming a lump of cells called a tumor. The tumor can remain in the breast or travel to other body parts creating new tumors, a condition known as metastasis. This uncontrollable growth is diverse and depends on the cells undergoing rapid growth, defining the different types of breast cancer. In females between the years of 20-59, breast cancer claims the highest mortality rate and is only second to skin cancer (BCPP, 2022). Breast cancer affects both women and men but is more prevalent in women.

Vulnerable Population Overview

This health promotion program proposal aims to explore breast cancer and its interaction with the black minority community in the USA. The program will also address intervention protocols that will be crucial in addressing the condition. The health promotion program to be implemented will involve promoting mammography screening and educational campaigns on cancer awareness. The proposed outcomes in this study will involve better cancer awareness among the community and improve the permeation of cancer screening services by including a mobile screening service. It can be accomplished by providing mobile mammography equipment. The educational campaign is achieved by creating reading material, including pamphlets and brochures, and education sessions in designated places of worship, one of the black community’s important institutions.

Literature Review

The black community in America accounts for 46.8 million of the total population in the USA (Tamir, 2021). The African American population is particularly vulnerable to many health complications fueled by the social and economic disparities they experience compared to their non-black counterparts. In the case of breast cancer, factors including less routine screening exercises and lower access to treatment are crucial constituting factors to this phenomenon. In addition, studies have shown that there is a lower likelihood for women of color in America to get screening services after they are diagnosed with an abnormal mammogram.

Therefore the black population faces immense challenges with breast cancer regarding their social-economic situations. Additional factors that affect this population and the prevalence of breast cancer in the community are low health insurance coverage and inadequate access to health care. The socio-economic environment of black women with breast cancer exacerbates these circumstances. For instance, black women’s income averages 5,500 US dollars a year, with higher poverty and unemployment rates than their white counterparts (Demographics, 2018). All these factors make the population more vulnerable to disease prevalence, and in this case, breast cancer.

Interventions

There have been interventions that have been done to help in improving the quality and awareness of the black community on breast cancer. The first intervention that has been used is mass media to increase awareness of cancer screening services. It has included radio stations that target African American populations, including the WQHT in New York and WVEE-FM in Atlanta, Georgia. These radio stations have invested in black airtime programming like on-air interviews (Miles, 2020). It can reach black community members, including women, men, and the elderly. Awareness creation has also been explored with the breast cancer awareness movement, including Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

This intervention has been crucial in increasing mean cancer-oriented RSV by 180.1 percent (Patel et al., 2020). It is specific to the women. Cancer awareness movement for men did not significantly increase the RSV cancer-specific percentage (Patel et al., 2020). Another beneficial intervention identified has been the ACCURE Program which translates to Cancer through Undoing Racism and Equity. The program caters to both white and black cancer patients. The program is designed to help black people suffering from cancer overcome hurdles they face when seeking cancer treatments, including physician miscommunication, limited transportation access, and mistrust of medical establishments.

It is done through training nurses to react to these hurdles. Secondly, the program also ensures nurses can provide extra care services to enhance the treatment completion rate. The nurses would help those unable to reach the threshold that would avail them of specialized care, including meeting appointment schedules (Cancer Institute, 2021). Their telehealth services provide these cancer services to black patients who could not access healthcare services due to transport constraints. The program also ensures accountability among the nurses by ensuring that the treatment completion rate among the white and black patients is kept up to date.

Health Intervention Model

The breast self-exam model serves as the best guiding framework for this proposal. It is a crucial tool for self-awareness for community members suffering from breast cancer. The model is oriented towards helping women know the natural functioning and state of their breasts and helping them detect and report any changes to this state to the health professionals (Edco, 2020). The model includes a standard kit model that demonstrates BSE in front of groups. It explains how to conduct the self-exam test while incorporating breast care printed booklet on the clinical exams, mammograms, and the responsibilities of breast self-exam models to the timely detection and interventions on breast cancer.

In conclusion, this research proposal is an investigation of the health promotion strategies that can be applied among the African American population to combat breast cancer. It also tackles the problems that result in the disparity of healthcare quality between the black American population and the white population. The proposal is a presentation of methodologies that if emphasized through resource application, can be used to provide better care for the African American population.

References

BCPP. (2022). African American Women and Breast Cancer – Breast Cancer Prevention Partners (BCPP). Breast Cancer Prevention Partners (BCPP). Retrieved 5 March 2022, from https://www.bcpp.org/resource/african-american-women-and-breast-cancer/#:~:text=In%20the%20US%3A&text=African%20American%20women%20have%20a,American%20women%20than%20White%20women.

Cancer Institute, N. (2021). System-Wide Changes Can Help Reduce Cancer Disparities. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 5 March 2022, from https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2021/black-white-cancer-disparities-survival-accure.

Demographics, B. (2018). Black Women Statistics – BlackDemographics.com. BlackDemographics.com. Retrieved 5 March 2022, from https://blackdemographics.com/population/black-women-statistics/.

Edco, H. (2020). Educational Resources For Breast Cancer Awareness. Health Education. Retrieved 5 March 2022, from https://www.healthedco.com/breast-cancer-awareness-models-and-teaching-tools.

Miles, R. (2020). Closing the Gap: Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality among African American Women. Radiology: Imaging Cancer2(5), e200124. https://doi.org/10.1148/rycan.2020200124

Patel, M., Halpern, J., Desai, A., Keeter, M., Bennett, N., & Brannigan, R. (2020). The success of Prostate and Testicular Cancer Awareness Campaigns Compared to Breast Cancer Awareness Month According to Internet Search Volumes: A Google Trends Analysis. Urology, 139, 64-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.11.062

Tamir, C. (2021). The Growing Diversity of Black America. Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. Retrieved 5 March 2022, from https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2021/03/25/the-growing-diversity-of-black-america/#:~:text=The%20U.S.%20Black%20population%20is,than%20in%202000%20as%20well.