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AET 703 Technology Management Analytics

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AET 703 Technology Management Analytics

Student’s Name:

Project Description

French Fried Potato Manufacture

Date: March 8, 2022

Scenario.

The purpose of the project is being worker in major food manufacturer (Lambda Foods) to analyze the raw data regarding Potatoes size. The target size of the potato is 10 ounces plus or minus one-half of an ounce. In the containerizing process culls are removed bringing uniformity into the containers’ contents.

Sample

To pick the three samples of 25 potatoes each. I used the simple random sampling, this sampling technique gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen. It is not a haphazard sample as some people think! One way of achieving a simple random sample is to number each element in the sampling frame (e.g. give everyone on the Electoral register a number) and then use random numbers to select the required sample.

Normality test: normality is the pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviour that confirms to a usual, typical or expected standard. I run the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests to check the normality of the samples

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

Sample 1

25

100.0%

0

0.0%

25

100.0%

Sample 2

25

100.0%

0

0.0%

25

100.0%

Sample 3

25

100.0%

0

0.0%

25

100.0%

Shapiro wilk test is used to test whether random sample coming from normal distribution or not. While dealing with very small sample, you will be cautious while interpreting Shapiro wilk test because power of test is also small. If deviation in the data is small then denominator become small and we get larger value of w. So we can conclude that sample is drawn from normal distribution which may lead to wrong interpretation.

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Sample 1

.089

25

.200*

.979

25

.855

Sample 2

.174

25

.050

.934

25

.106

Sample 3

.087

25

.200*

.973

25

.713

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

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The tests and graphs are clearly shows that none of the sample is normally distributed.

Data Mean and Standard Deviation

Sample 1

Mean

9.9868

0.0180621

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

9.949522

 

Upper Bound

10.02408

 

5% Trimmed Mean

9.985

 

Median

9.99

 

Variance

0.008

 

Std. Deviation

0.090311

 

Minimum

9.82

 

Maximum

10.2

 

Range

0.38

 

Interquartile Range

0.105

 

Skewness

0.205

0.464

Kurtosis

0.394

0.902

Sample 2

Mean

9.9764

0.0318532

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

9.910658

 

Upper Bound

10.04214

 

5% Trimmed Mean

9.982667

 

Median

9.99

 

Variance

0.025

 

Std. Deviation

0.159266

 

Minimum

9.59

 

Maximum

10.26

 

Range

0.67

 

Interquartile Range

0.17

 

Skewness

-0.817

0.464

Kurtosis

1.222

0.902

Sample 3

Mean

9.9792

0.035435

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

9.906066

 

Upper Bound

10.05233

 

5% Trimmed Mean

9.986778

 

Median

9.98

 

Variance

0.031

 

Std. Deviation

0.177175

 

Minimum

9.52

 

Maximum

10.27

 

Range

0.75

 

Interquartile Range

0.24

 

Skewness

-0.502

0.464

Kurtosis

0.515

0.902

Interpretation:

Sample 1. The average size is 9.9868 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 9.949522 and 10.0240.

Sample 2. The average size is 9.910658 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 10.04214 and 9.982667

Sample 3. The average size is 9.9792 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 9.906066 and 10.05233. The detail descriptive summary is give in the above table.

Meeting Target Size.

Hypothesis testing is a demonstration of insights, statistics by which an expert tests a presumption in regards to a populace boundary. The strategy utilized by the investigator relies upon the idea of the information utilized and the justification behind the examination. Hypothesis testing is utilized to evaluate the believability of a theory by utilizing test information. Such information might come from a bigger populace, or from the information creating process.

The alpha equal 0.05 significance level.

Decision Rule: Reject the null hypothesis if the p value is less than 0.05.

Hypothesis testing one (Sample 1)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 9.8 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 9.8

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 9.8 ounces

Ha: µ > 9.8

Test Output:

Sample 1:

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Sample 1

25

9.986800

.0903106

.0180621

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 9.8

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Sample 1

10.342

24

.000

.1868000

.149522

.224078

The p value (0.000) is less than 0.05 hence we reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is higher than 9.8 ounces

Hypothesis testing two (Sample 2)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 10 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 10

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 10 ounces

Ha: µ > 1o

Test Output:

Sample 2:

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Sample 2

25

9.976400

.1592660

.0318532

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 10

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Sample 2

-.741

24

.466

-.0236000

-.089342

.042142

The p value (0.466) is higher than 0.05 hence we fail to reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is not higher than 9.8 ounces

Hypothesis testing three (Sample 3)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 9.5 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 9.5

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 10 ounces

Ha: µ > 9.5

Test Output:

Sample 3:

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Sample 3

25

9.979200

.1771751

.0354350

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 9.5

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Sample 3

13.523

24

.000

.4792000

.406066

.552334

The p value (0.000) is less than 0.05 hence we reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is higher than 9.5 ounces

Forecasting Capacity Needs

The factory has seasonal demand for the finished product. For the last 20 quarters the data which seems to support this seasonality. These numbers represent millions of pounds of potatoes.

Based on the historical data the regression forecast model is:

Y=1.184-0.012*x

Slope

-0.012

Intercept

1.184

Y represent the predicted forecast value while represent the time.

The detail table is shown below.

Potato Demand

Year

Time (Period)

Potato Demand (millions) (Actual)

Forecast

Act-Forecast (Error)

Abs(A-F) (Error)

Error^2

Percent Error

2017

1

1.03

1.1721

-0.1421

0.1421

0.0202

13.80%

2

0.89

1.1601

-0.2701

0.2701

0.0729

30.35%

3

1.24

1.1480

0.0920

0.0920

0.0085

7.42%

4

1.5

1.1359

0.3641

0.3641

0.1325

24.27%

2018

5

0.95

1.1239

-0.1739

0.1739

0.0302

18.30%

6

1.02

1.1118

-0.0918

0.0918

0.0084

9.00%

7

1.36

1.0997

0.2603

0.2603

0.0677

19.14%

8

1.11

1.0877

0.0223

0.0223

0.0005

2.01%

2019

9

0.89

1.0756

-0.1856

0.1856

0.0344

20.85%

10

1.05

1.0635

-0.0135

0.0135

0.0002

1.29%

11

1.29

1.0515

0.2385

0.2385

0.0569

18.49%

12

1.34

1.0394

0.3006

0.3006

0.0904

22.43%

2020

13

0.89

1.0273

-0.1373

0.1373

0.0189

15.43%

14

0.76

1.0153

-0.2553

0.2553

0.0652

33.59%

15

1.29

1.0032

0.2868

0.2868

0.0823

22.23%

16

1.04

0.9911

0.0489

0.0489

0.0024

4.70%

2021

17

0.8

0.9791

-0.1791

0.1791

0.0321

22.38%

18

0.57

0.9670

-0.3970

0.3970

0.1576

69.65%

19

1.19

0.9549

0.2351

0.2351

0.0553

19.75%

20

0.94

0.9429

-0.0029

0.0029

0.0000

0.30%

Average Error

0.0000

MSE

0.0325

MAD

0.1478

MAPE

15.48%

Mean Absolute Deviation=0.1478, Mean Absolute Percentage Error=15.48% and Mean Squared Error=0.0325

All three of them are indicators of forecasting accuracy wherein forecasts have been made over a period of time. However, the parameters used to determine the forecasting accuracy vary and thus above three methods.

MAD takes into consideration absolute values of forecasting errors and average them over entire forecasting period. Forecasting error for a specific time period means difference between actual parameter and forecasted parameter. It must be noted that only Absolute Values are taken which always ensures that set of data are positive which when averaged gives Mean Absolute Deviation.

MAPE is further refinement on MAD. Here instead of absolute deviation, Absolute Percentage Error is used. Absolute Percentage Error equals Absolute deviation divided by Actual data and multiplied by 100. Otherwise approach for calculating MAPE is same as MAD

MSE is calculated by squaring all errors and dividing it by “n – 1” “n” stands for number of data. It must be noted that Mean under MAD or MAPE is arrived by dividing numerator with “n”, whereas MSE is calculated by dividing numerator with “n – 1”.

Summary.

Three samples are picked from the data populations each one has 25 observations and all the three samples are not normally distributed. Similarly the sample 1 and sample 3 data means support the alternative hypothesis and sample 2 support null hypothesis at 5% level of significances.

The equation for the forecast is

Y=1.184-0.012*x

Y represent the predicted forecast value while represent the time.

The predicted value for 2022 using above regression equation:

 

Time (Period)

Forecast

2022

21 Q1

0.931

22 Q2

0.919

23 Q3

0.907

24 Q4

0.895

References

Bordalo, P. G. (2020). Overreaction in macroeconomic expectations. . American Economic Review, 110(9), 2748-82.

Jugend, D. F. (2020). Public support for innovation: A systematic review of the literature and implications for open innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 15(6), 119-185.

Ma, Y. R. (2019). Oil financialization and volatility forecast: Evidence from multidimensional predictors. Journal of Forecasting, 38(6), 564-581.

Denis, D. J. (2018). SPSS data analysis for univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. John Wiley & Sons.

PowerPoint

Sheet1

Project Activity
1 First team meeting data Date
2 Number of team meetins Number
3 Meeting method/s Word
4 Completion of sample and test of normality Date
5 Completion of Mean and standard deviation Date
6 Target for hypothesis test finished Date
7 Completed work with forecast Date
8 Completion of presentation Date
9 Completion of paper Date
Sample
9 What sample techinque did you use Word
Normal
10 Was the first sample normal? Word
11 What was the p-value Number
12 Was the second sample normal? Word
13 What was the p-value Number
14 Was the third sample normal? Word
15 What was the p-value Number
Mean and Standard Deviation
16 What was x-bar for the first sample? Number
17 What was x-bar for the second sample? Number
18 What was x-bar for the third sample? Number
19 What was the standard deviation of the first sample? Number
20 What was the standard deviation of the second sample? Number
21 What was the standard deviation of the third sample? Number
22 For the x-bar selected what is the confidence level Number
23 What are the degrees of freedom Number
24 What is the t-value Number
25 What is the standard error of the mean Number
26 What is the half-width Number
27 What is the low value of the confidence interval for the population? Number
28 What is the high value of the confidence interval for the population? Number
29 For the std dev selected, what is the confidence level? Number
30 What is the sum of squares Number
31 What is the low chi-square distribution value? Number
32 What is the high chi-square distribution value? Number
33 What is the low confidence interval value for the standard deviation? Number
34 What is the high confidence interval value for the standard deviation? Number
Meeting the Weight Target Size
35 For proving greater than, what is your null hypothesis? Word
36 What is the alternative Word
37 What is the p-value for the above hypothesis test? Number
Forecasting Capacity Needs – Use Holt Winters
38 In backfilling to test your model, what is the 1st quarter you can produce a value? Word
39 What was the potato demand for year 2017 in pounds? Number
40 What was potato demands for year 2017 in 10 ounce potatoes? Number
41 What were your initial alpha, beta and gamma values? Word
42 What is your forecast in pounds for the first quarter of 2022? Number
43 What is your forecast in pounds for the second quarter of 2022? Number
44 What is your forecast in pounds for the third quarter of 2022? Number
45 What is your forecast in pounds for the fourth quarter of 2022? Number
46 What is your production forecast of potatoes needed for the year 2022? Number
48 For the 1st quarter in 2021 provide the actual value Number
49 For the 1st quarter in 2021 provide the forecasted value Number
50 Give the MAD for Q4 2021 Number
51 Adjust the alpha, beta and gamma to optimize your forecast
52 Give alpha, beta and gamma Number
53 What did you optimize Number
54 What was the orginal value with 0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 Number
55 What is the value with your parameters? Number
56 Why did you choose to optimize this value? Word

Powerpoint


In 10-12 slides, including the title and reference slides,
outline your research proposal to present to your classmates. Speaker notes are required to provide additional information for your bullet points.

Research Proposal Topic: Mental Health

The PowerPoint will need to include:

1. Introductory section: including your problem statement and your hypothesis.

2. Method section: including your description of the participants, apparatus/materials/instruments, procedure, and design you anticipate using.

3. Results: discuss how results would be gathered for which statistic was used, the alpha level (.05), critical value, and degrees of freedom. (Do not create fake results.)

4. Discussion: requires 4 paragraphs that include:

0. Describe what it would mean if you obtained significant results. Then describe what it would mean to obtain nonsignificant results.

1. Discuss how your study followed APA ethical guidelines, by discussing the use of an informed consent form, debriefing statement, deception, and obtaining IRB permission.

2. Discuss any limitations in your study (e.g., possible confounding, lack of random assignment or random sampling, etc.)

3. Conclude with a discussion of future studies that could arise from your study.

5. Appendices: two figures, OR two tables, OR a table and a figure. For example, set up a table focusing on participants, include your individually created survey, use/cite tables from a previous study, refer to Chapter 14 summary table, include Informed Consent figure and/or Debriefing Form figure. If unsure, contact your instructor for confirmation of appendices.

6. Reference Slide: APA-formatted reference slide.

Powerpoint

1

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course

Instructor’s Name

Date

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The title of the article selected is “The Clinician-Administered PSTD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation in Military Veterans“, and talks about a posttraumatic stress disorder called DSM-5. The study discusses the development of CAPS for DSM-5. Accordingly, the authors give the outcomes of an initial psychometric evaluation of CPS-5 scores in 2 samples of military veterans (Ns = 165 and 207).

The first hypothesis of the paper was that CAPS-5 scores would present high internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability. Another hypothesis was that CAPS-5 and CAPS-IV scores would show the same pattern of associations with measures of PTSD and other constructs. In the third hypothesis, based on PTSD diagnosis, there would be moderate to strong correspondence between CAPS-F using SEV2 and the CAPS-IV using F1/12. All the hypotheses were supported. The participants were veterans selected from a VA healthcare system. They were categorized into two: the first category had 167 individuals while the second one had 207 people. During the research, a qualitative research method: Trauma Questionnaires and interviews were employed as the main data collection methods.

The study had some limitations, and the first one was that the study subjects were military veterans selected from a single geographical area, and many were men. As such, it was not clear how accurate the findings generalize to nonveterans and females. Also, the sample sizes were modest, especially for the comparison between CAPS-5 and CAPS-IV in the first phase.

The study gave undisputed evidence that the CAPS-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic status and severity of the symptom. Furthermore, the streamlined format of CAPS-5 facilitates administration and scoring and makes it simple to learn than CAPS-IV.

Reference

Weathers, F. W., Bovin, M. J., Lee, D. J., Sloan, D. M., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., Keane, T. M., & Marx, B. P. (2018). The clinician-administered PTSD scale for DSM–5 (CAPS-5): Development and initial psychometric evaluation in military veterans. Psychological Assessment, 30(3), 383-395. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000486

Fleming, C., Hollowell, C., Pokorny, V., Keacher, L., Davenport, N. (2018). Comparing Depressive Symptom Assessment Approaches in the Context of PSTD. https://doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.2.33051.77604

Lang, A. J., Wilkins, K., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Golinelli, D., Chavira, D., Sherbourne, C., … & Stein, M. B. (2012). Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response. General hospital psychiatry34(4), 332-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.genhosppsych.2012.02.003

Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Biddle, D. (2001). The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behaviour research and therapy39(8), 977-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00084-x

Powerpoint

1


Selected Articles

The tittle of the article is: Comparing Depressive Symptom Assessment Approaches in the Context of PSTD

Fleming, C., Hollowell, C., Pokorny, V., Keacher, L., Davenport, N. (2018). Comparing Depressive Symptom Assessment Approaches in the Context of PSTD.https://doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.2.33051.77604

The tittle of the selected article is: The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD

Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Biddle, D. (2001). The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behaviour research and therapy39(8), 977-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00084-x

The tittle of the selected article is Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response.

Lang, A. J., Wilkins, K., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Golinelli, D., Chavira, D., Sherbourne, C., … & Stein, M. B. (2012). Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response. General hospital psychiatry34(4), 332-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.genhosppsych.2012.02.003

powerpoint

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

Topic: The focus will be on how COVID has impacted the mental health of people, including health care providers. Where to seek for help.

Your education will be geared towards these. Please review the links below.

Support for Public Health Professionals and Professionals


https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/stress-coping/healthcare-workers-first-responders/index.html

Support for Employees


https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/stress-coping/employee-job-stress/index.html

PowerPoint

PowerPoint on communication 

  • 2 months ago

Powerpoint

 Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation, with speaker notes, that examines the significance of an organization’s culture and values. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice-over or a video. Refer to the Topic Materials for additional guidance on recording your presentation with Loom. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for References at the end.

  1. Outline the purpose of an organization’s mission, vision, and values.
  2. Explain why an organization’s mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes.
  3. Explain what factors lead to conflict in a professional practice. Describe how organizational values and culture can influence the way conflict is addressed.
  4. Discuss effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration.
  5. Discuss how organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes. Describe how these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be appropriate for the assignment and relevant to nursing practice.  

While APA style format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

    • 15

    Powerpoint

     Directions: Each student is required to develop a PowerPoint for chapters 14 & 15 in the Creswell textbook. 

    Students are encouraged to be creative and include Video-links to their Power-Points. DO NOT JUST COPY what is on the Book – Look for other sources.

    Make sure your PowerPoint includes a reflection on the following guiding questions:

    Connections: What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your learning?

    Challenge: What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue within the text?

    Concepts: What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text?

    CHAPTERS IN FILES

    Changes: What changes in attitudes, thinking, or action are suggested by the text, either for you or others?

    • The Power-Point file should be named as follows:  First Name_Last Name_EEC6678_PPT
    • Upload the file via BlackBoard in Discussion.

    Powerpoint

    Prompt: First, review Chapter 9 in your text as well as the article Stages of the Consumer Buying Process and the video 7 Tips for Good Survey Questions. Next, prepare a presentation that lists and briefly explains each stage of the consumer buying process. Define the marketing strategy used within each stage of the process regarding your chosen market segment. Finally, identify which specific stages of the process will be most effective for your consumer segment.

    Powerpoint

    1. Change Management Communication Plan PresentationSubmit a creative and polished PowerPoint presentation with narration to share your change management communication plan. The communication plan should include your recommendations for workforce development techniques and how you plan to communicate these to the U.S. branch employees.
      Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

      1. Define the audience by performing a target audience analysis. (slides 1–2)
      2. Determine core and audience-specific communication objectives and messages, including appropriate tone. You may include the following information (slides 3–4):
        1. Discuss goals of the communications campaign. You may consider the following points:
          • Why is this communication campaign needed?
          • What are the essential topics to communicate to company leadership?
          • What do front-line employees need to know as they experience and deal with the impact of change?
          • How will you convey need and urgency for change? Discuss What’s in It for Me (WIIFM).
          • Use a story or a graphic to connect with the change vision for success to the communication plan.
        2. Define and communicate new performance expectations and what stakeholders need to do to prepare for change.
      3. Recommend two workforce development techniques to support employees’ adaptation to change and build on existing skills and strengths. Consider the following (slides 5–6):
        1. What do you want the employees of the U.S. branch to do differently?
        2. How should the organization’s leadership support employees during the change, through training and development programs to address the gaps?
      4. Determine and review the best delivery channels for each communication based on the target audience analysis. Select a minimum of three channels as part of a multi-prong communication strategy. You may include the following information (slides 7–8):
        1. What would be the communication timeline for delivery of all messages? Create an outline.
        2. How often will the branch’s change initiators communicate with this audience?
        3. Outline communication responsibilities and assignments. Who is responsible for leading communications with this audience?
      5. Include your plan for a feedback loop to monitor and manage the communication campaign. (slides 9–10)
        1. Determine metrics or key performance indicators (KPIs) to track the success of the communication campaign.
        2. Outline how the metrics will be implemented and tracked through a feedback loop.
    2. Executive LetterWrite an executive letter to the VP of the U.S. branch recommending a strategy and best practices for sustaining the change efforts. Specifically, you must address the following criteria:
      1. Recommend one strategy for evaluating the business impact of change.
        1. How can they sustain change efforts through performance management?
      2. Recommend two best practices for ensuring new skills are applied on the job.
        1. Include at least one reinforcement technique leadership can use to sustain change.

    PowerPoint

    1

    Annotated bibliography

    Name

    Professor

    Institution

    Course

    Date

    2

    Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

    Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

    Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

    The article explores building outdoor structures; the research of Wu Ying focuses on

    the flexibility of building materials. Advances in building technology have risen in line with

    the growing need for better-quality building materials. To maintain the benefits of the grand

    design of building materials and ensure that their design level is progressively enhanced to

    enhance the exterior design of buildings, a focus on the adaptability research of building

    materials application is needed. Building materials can be used in various ways; they can

    enhance the appearance of modern building engineering, increase project value, and increase

    building field production efficiency by examining their adaptability to the external design

    shape of a building (Ying, 2018).

    The relevance of the resource explains how building materials are adapted to creating

    an exterior of a building and help increase the production efficiency of the building field.

    Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

    Sustainability. In Google Books. Butterworth-Heinemann. https://books.google.co.ke/

    books?

    id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

    ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

    The article by Perez and Perini analyses the current state of the art on nature-based

    urban and building sustainability strategies, discussed in detail. In the introduction, the

    editors cover essential principles of natural components in the built environment and a

    strategy for their use in buildings and cities. Part One discusses urban ecosystems and

    3

    ecosystem services. In contrast, Part Two focuses on tactics and technology, such as vertical

    greening systems, green roofs, and green streets, to improve the urban environment. Aspects

    such as improved energy efficiency, air quality, acoustics, water management, and

    biodiversity are addressed in Part Three, including data on the project’s quantitative

    outcomes. Describes the many ways to incorporate nature into the built world. Systems and

    approaches for incorporating nature into buildings are presented in this article—the most up-

    to-date information on operations and ecosystem services research. This collection includes

    new and established designs and those currently in the testing phase (Perez & Perini, 2018).

    The article is essential because It enables a great understanding of the strategies used

    by Leoh Ming to integrate the city environment with the building. However, the book has no

    reviews yet; the authors are researchers with Ph.D. degrees and have experience in their field

    of work. This makes the source to be reliable and trustworthy.

    Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

    buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

    Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

    10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

    High-rise and skyline visibility analysis is the subject of this essay. Decisions

    concerning the skylines of modern cities, dominated by skyscrapers, must take visibility into

    account. Using a targeted isovist is the cornerstone of the visibility approach, which refers to

    the visible portion of a tall structure’s target area. Analysis of tall tower clusters visible from

    adjacent streets and the effect they have on the city’s skyline is presented in this article, which

    uses Jakarta as an opportunity to illustrate how this approach may be applied to other cities.

    To replicate the modeling techniques in the background, Grasshopper was utilized to create

    4

    the algorithm for visualizing the content. To illustrate the results, a color section is used to

    depict the fraction of viewable viewpoints and the visible space of a structure’s front, both of

    which are essential metrics. According to the results, building height combinations, structure

    placement, building-to-street relationships, and perspective distances all had a substantial

    influence on the rate of visibility. Because of how well they can be seen, tall building cluster

    visibility affects its skyline. The techniques provided here for analyzing visibility are

    essential for the design and construction of tall buildings in a distributed organization and, as

    a result, for predicting how future cities’ skylines will look(Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020).

    The significance of the article will enable me to understand the position of

    structures, the relationship between the buildings and the street, the distances between

    different perspectives what significant impact they play on the rate of visibility.

    Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

    architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

    122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

    It examines the importance of structure service systems (BSS) and how they’re being

    considered at the earliest phases of architectural design. If these technologies are included in

    the structure’s design rather than after being built, it will save money and time. The late

    inclusion of BSS may have a detrimental impact on both the structure’s exterior and inside.

    Since it may enhance design outcomes while also identifying and eliminating service system

    incompatibilities and conflicts. BSS integration is becoming more common in the

    construction sector, notably plumbing systems and the design itself, and between the design

    and the design, all benefit from 3D digital modeling. 3D digital modeling is critical in

    spotting possible conflicts. All service systems are coordinated using various methods studied

    in the literature. Additional data from the construction industry is also being collected and

    5

    evaluated to offer a more objective perspective. BSS are integrated into the architectural

    design throughout the conceptual phases of the design process, using a variety of regional

    construction projects and research on the construction industry as examples(Abdelhameed &

    Saputra, 2020).

    The article is relevant since it explores how to improve design results while also

    detecting and avoiding service system incompatibilities and conflicts.

    Bradecki, T., & Uherek-Bradecka, B. (2017). Work Models in the Design Process for House

    Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual? IOP Conference Series: Materials Science

    and Engineering, 245, 052033. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/245/5/052033

    The results of a study into several kinds of single-family and multifamily housing

    models are presented in this article. The outside layout and internal functional arrangement

    heavily influence the design outcome. Models are essential tools for architects to use while

    showcasing their work and educating the public about their concepts. Even though 3D

    models may depict anything, specific individuals still cannot grasp the concept of the planned

    place. The researchers’ goal is to find a way to stimulate both the inside and outside of a

    vehicle in a single model. In the article, a variety of home models are shown. We used a

    combination of actual models, 3D models, and hand drawings to create each of the case

    studies we’ve done.

    The resource’s importance with the models was to get a clear picture of how planned

    future homes would feel in terms of openness. According to the study’s findings, synthetic

    models may aid in the design process.

    6

    The URBAN model research group, which includes academic researchers and

    architects, researches relevance. The authors gained a plethora of architectural expertise via

    theoretical models, building projects, and construction site monitoring. The following

    information may be of interest to builders, designers, interior designers, and academics in

    architecture. (Bradecki & Uherek-Bradecka, 2017).

    7

    Reference

    Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

    Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

    Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

    Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

    Sustainability. In Google Books. Butterworth-Heinemann. https://books.google.co.ke/

    books?

    id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

    ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

    Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

    buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

    Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

    10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

    Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

    architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

    122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

    Bradecki, T., & Uherek-Bradecka, B. (2017). Work Models in the Design Process for House

    Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual? IOP Conference Series: Materials Science

    and Engineering, 245, 052033. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/245/5/052033

    powerpoint

    HSDD 5300 – Legal & Ethical Issues in Disabilities
    Se me ste r and Ye ar: Winter 2022

    I. Course Information
    Se me ste r and Ye ar: Winter 2022
    Course Start and End Date s: 01/03/2022 – 05/01/2022
    Course CRN and Se ction: 30115 – L01
    B uilding and Room: Online Venue – CANVAS

    II. Instructor Information
    Profe ssor: Marilyn S Anglade
    Email: manglade@nova.edu

    If the instructor cannot be reached, please contact the Department offering this course.

    III. Class Schedule and Location
    Day Date Time Location Building/Room

    01/03/2022 – 05/01/2022 Programs On-line Online Venue-CANVAS

    IV. Course Description
    This course discusses current laws related to disabilities, such as ADA and IDEA, as well as
    contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals with disabilities and the daily responsibilities of
    disability professionals. This course further examines the application of ethical principles to matters
    associated with genetics, treatment decisions, and competency determination. P rerequisite: HSDD 5000

    V. Course Objectives / Learning Outcomes
    1) Discuss the importance and impact of disability law such as ADA and IDEA.
    2) Demonstrate an understanding of the most common ethical issues affecting individuals with disabilities
    and disability professionals.
    3) Demonstrate an understanding of the application of ethical principles to the resolution of common
    dilemmas in the disability field.

    VI. Materials and Resources
    B ook Url: NSU Book Store
    Course Re quire d Te xts and M ate rials:
    We hme ye r, M . L., B rown, I., Pe rcy, M ., Shogre n, K. A. & Fung, W. L. A. (2017). A
    comprehensive guide to intellectual and developmental disabilities. B rooke s. ISB N:978-1-59857-
    602-3

    American P sychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological
    Association (7th ed.). Author. ISB N: 978-1-4338-3217-8

    Course Supple me ntal M ate rials:
    Ouellette, A. (2013). Bioethics and disability: Toward a disability-conscious bioethics. Cambridge
    University P ress.

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 1 of 14

    U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division Disability Rights Section. (n.d.). A Guide to Disability
    Rights Laws. https://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm

    He lpful We bsite s:
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (n.d.). Information and technical assistance on the
    Americans with disabilities education act. https://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm

    The National Alliance for Direct Support P rofessionals
    (2020). Frontline initiative. https://nadsp.org/frontline-initiative/
    US Department of Education. (n.d.). Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
    http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html
    US Department of Labor. (2020). Office of Disability Employment Policy.
    https://www.dol.gov/agencies/odep

    VII. Course Schedule and Topic Outline
    Class schedule subject to modification, but not without prior notification.
    Course Sche dule :

    **Class schedule subject to modification, but not without prior notification.**
    We e k Topic

    Week
    1 1/3-
    1/9

    Ethics of Decision Making and Consent in P eople with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    2
    1/10-
    1/16

    Changing P erspectives on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    3
    1/17-
    1/23

    Trends and Issues in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    4
    1/24-
    1/30

    Responding to Cultural and Linguistic Differences Among P eople with Intellectual Disability

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 2 of 14

    Week
    5
    1/31-
    2/6

    Maltreatment of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    6
    2/7-
    2/13

    Sexuality and P eople Who Have Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    7
    2/14-
    2/20

    Historical Overview of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    8
    2/21-
    2/27

    What Is Meant by the Terms Intellectual Disability and Developmental Disabilities?

    Week
    9
    2/28-
    3/6

    Spring Break

    Week
    10
    3/7-
    3/13

    Advocacy and Legal Considerations to Ensure Civil Rights

    Week
    11
    3/14-
    3/20

    Self-Advocacy

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 3 of 14

    Week
    12
    3/21-
    3/27

    Nutritional Considerations for Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    13
    3/28-
    4/3

    Making Services More Effective Through Research and Evaluation

    Week
    14
    4/4-
    4/10

    P eople with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Mental Health Needs

    Week
    15
    4/11-
    4/17

    Future Trends and Advances in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Week
    16
    4/18-
    4/24

    Introduction to Early Development: A Multidisciplinary P erspective

    Week
    17
    4/25-
    5/1

    Introduction to Genetics, Genomics, Epigenetics, and Intellectual and
    Developmental Disabilities

    VIII. Assignments
    Assignme nt # 1: Disability Encounte r Re action Pape r (Due we e k 4)
    Students will be asked to write a short reflection paper (3 pages) describing one of
    the following encounters with disability:
    • Interview a person with a disability and provide transcript
    • Read a first-person account of a person with a disability

    The reflection paper will focus on basic information about the type of disability as well as the individual’s
    experience(s) of and attitude(s) towards the disability. Be sure to use literature to support your statements
    (at least 3 citations from disability-related journals). When citing the literature, please remember to follow

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 4 of 14

    APA style.

    P age 1: Background and description of the disability
    P age 2: Description of your encounter (i.e. describe the interview, summarize the articles read, summarize
    biographical description)
    P age 3: Reflect on the individuals experiences and provide personal reactions/reflections to your
    experiences learning from an individual with a disability.

    Assignme nt # 2: Ethical Issue s and Challe nge s Re action Pape r (Due we e k 11)
    Students will be expected to discuss the common issues and challenges when working with individuals with
    disabilities, including methods of overcoming these challenges while considering ethical and legal aspects
    along the way. In addition, talk about how specific laws, such as ADA, IDEA, etc… play a role in
    addressing the challenges and issues encountered. Be sure to use literature to support your statements (at
    least 5 citations from disability-related journals). Your paper should be between 4 to 5 pages. When citing
    the literature, please remember to follow APA style.

    P age 1: Identify common issues and challenges when working with individuals with disabilities
    P age 2: Discuss ethical and legal aspects of the issues/challenges you presented
    P age 3-4: Discuss laws (ADA, IDEA, etc) and how they can specifically play into supporting or
    hindering individuals encountering the common issues/challenges you identified.
    P age 5: Discuss your personal reflections, thoughts, ideas

    Assignme nt # 3: Program Re se arch Pape r (Due we e k 13)
    Students are expected to produce a 8-10 page paper with at least 10 citations from disability-related
    journals. When citing the literature, follow APA style. For this assignment, students are to DESIGN a
    service program for individuals with a specific disability including the following components: administrative
    considerations, ethical and legal considerations, managing staff and workplace conflict, and utilizing well
    researched and effective techniques with the population chosen.

    P age 1: Identify and describe a disability
    P age 2-3: Describe a program need for individuals with this disability (cite current research surrounding
    this need, what programming currently exists, why additional programming is needed.)
    P age 4-6: Discuss your program design in detail using research-based techniques. P ages 7-8 Include
    additional sections to discuss any legal/ethical considerations that may emerge with the program you are
    implementing.
    P ages 9-10: Include personal reflections/opinions, ideas for future research.

    Assignme nt # 4: Program Re se arch Pre se ntation (Due we e k 14)
    Students are expected to create a power point presentation of 10-15 slides discussing their assignment #3
    papers. These presentations will be shared during class and posted.

    Discussion Posts: (Due throughout the se me ste r)
    Throughout this course, you will be prompted to respond to a discussion question. Discussion post
    assignments are due as indicated on the course schedule. P rior to completing the discussion post, you
    should read all assigned material for the week so as to incorporate what you’ve learned (and any additional
    research you’ve done) into your response. Your discussion posts should not solely consist of your opinions
    – all opinions/conclusions should be supported by research and/or the text demonstrating your
    understanding of the assigned materials. For each discussion post, you are required to respond to one
    classmate’s post. Both your initial post as well as your response post must be submitted by the Sunday of
    that week by 11:59 p.m., EST.

    Chat participation:
    There will be four (4) live chat sessions, held via Zoom, throughout the semester. Students who are unable
    to attend the live session should submit a one (1) paragraph synopsis of the discussion held in order to

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 5 of 14

    obtain points for attendance. See “course policies” below for further information.

    IX. Grading Criteria
    Your final grade is determined by your performance on a number of different tasks:
    Grade Quality P oints P ercentage P oints

    A 4.00 90 – 100

    B 3.00 80 – 89

    C 2.00 70 – 79

    F 0.00 Below 70

    NP R 0.00 –

    P 0.00 –

    Additional Grade s: I (Incomplete), W (Withdrawn), AU (Audit), NPR (No P rogress), and TR
    (Transfer). The grade of PR (P rogress) may be used for programs with a thesis or dissertation in which
    the student continues to demonstrate progress towards requirement completion. P rograms with clinical
    rotations, internships, or externships in which grades may not be available within the university’s approved
    grading period may use the IP (In P rogress) grade.

    Final Course Grade :
    GRADING CRITERIA: Your final grade is determined by your performance on the following grade
    categories and scale
    GRADE CATEGO RIES WEIGH T

    Assignment #1: Disability Encounter Reaction P aper 15%

    Assignment #2: Ethical Issues & Challenges Reaction P aper 15%

    Assignment #3: P rogram Research P aper 15%

    Assignment #4: P rogram Research P resentation 25%

    Discussion P osts (x7) 20%

    P articipation in Live Chats (x4) 10%

    TOTAL: 100%

    X. Course Policies
    Ge ne ral Policy:
    This course consists of readings, live classes, and discussions. While you are not required to attend live
    sessions, you are strongly encouraged to do so. Students who do not attend a live session should listen to a
    recording of that week’s discussion which will be posted on the Canvas site within 48 hours of the live
    session. To obtain points for the session, students are required to submit a 1 paragraph synopsis of the
    discussion held during that live session. Students are charged with the knowledge and information
    disseminated during the live sessions. Therefore, while attendance is not mandatory, reviewing the
    recording is suggested such that students are kept abreast of course information. While previous
    knowledge and/or experience are not required for this course, it is the responsibility of the student to
    contact the instructor to clarify any issues regarding the concepts being studied each week.

    Specifically, this course is taught in eight week-long sessions. The materials are presented in eight weekly

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 6 of 14

    modules. Each week, the Module will open on Monday at 12:01 a.m. EST and will close the following
    Sunday. All assignments for a given week will be due on Sunday at 11:59 p.m. EST. In addition to the module
    material, we will have 4 live chat sessions, as noted above in the course schedule. Each week, the student is
    expected to complete the assigned readings as well as either a research/reaction paper or a discussion post and
    response.

    If a student anticipates being unable to complete an assignment by the listed deadline, he/she may contact
    the instructor for a possible extension. Stude nts should not assume the y will be grante d an
    e xte nsion but must contact the instructor for further information.

    Both the subjects covered and the required readings may necessitate modification during the semester.
    The instructor will make every effort to advise students of any changes. However, it is the responsibility
    of the student to check the course site often for adjustments made to the syllabus or for any other
    announcements.

    The Internet is an extension of the classroom. As such, the decorum and professionalism expected of you
    in class extends to the Website and all postings made regarding the course or its content. I expect that you
    will extend the same courtesy to your fellow students on the list as you do in class. Feel free to disagree
    with the ideas expressed but work to keep the discussions polite and focused on the ideas.

    XI. University Policies
    P lease consult the FCE catalog for information on college and department policies and the NSU Student
    Handbook for information on NSU policies: https://education.nova.edu/students/current-
    students/studentcataloghandbook.html

    NSU Class Recording P olicy:
    Class content throughout this course may be recorded in accordance with the NSU Class Recording
    P olicy. If class content is recorded, these recordings will be made available to students registered for this
    course as a supplement to the classroom experience. Recordings will be made available to all students who
    were registered to attend the live offering of the class, regardless of a student’s section or discipline, or
    whether the student is participating in the course online. If recordings are intended to be accessible to
    students or third parties who were not registered for the live offering of the class, students’ personally
    identifiable information will be removed or redacted from the recording, unless (1) their written consent to
    such disclosure was previously provided, or (2) the disclosure is permissible in accordance with the Family
    Educational Rights and P rivacy Act (“FERPA”).
    Students are prohibited from recording audio or video, or taking photographs in classrooms (including online
    classes) without prior permission from the instructor or pursuant to an approved disability accommodation,
    and from reproducing, sharing, or disseminating classroom recordings to individuals outside of this course.
    Students found engaging in such conduct will be in breach of the Student Code of Conduct and subject to
    disciplinary action.

    XII. Bibliography
    McAfee, J. K., Cockram, J., & Wolfe, P. S. (2001). P olice reactions to crimes involving people with
    mental retardation: A cross-cultural experimental study. Education and Training in Mental Retardation
    and Developmental Disabilities, 36, 160-171.
    Morris, C. D., Niederbuhl, J. M., & Mahr, J. M. (1993). Determining the capability of individuals with
    mental retardation to give informed consent. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 98, 263-272.
    Niederbuhl, J. M., & Morris, C. D. (1993). Sexual knowledge and the capability of persons with dual
    diagnoses to consent to sexual contact. Sexuality & Disability, 11, 295-307.
    P arker, T., & Abramson, P. R. (1995). The law hath not been dead: protecting adults with mental
    retardation from sexual abuse and violation of their sexual freedom. Mental Retardation, 33, 257-263.
    P etersilia, J. (1997). Unequal justice? Offenders with mental retardation in prison. Corrections

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 7 of 14

    Management Quarterly, 1(4), 36-43.
    P etersilia, J. (2000). Doing justice? The criminal justice system and offenders with developmental
    disabilities. California P olicy Research Center, University of California: Los Angeles, CA.
    Stavis, P. F. (1991). Harmonizing the right to sexual expression and the right to protection from harm for
    persons with mental disability. Sexuality and Disability, 9, (2), 131-141.

    XIII. Appendix/Appendices
    P lease refer to the grading rubrics below for specific scoring:

    Rubric for Classroom Participation
    Criteria 0 points 1 point 2-3 points

    Actively contributes to
    classroom discussions

    P rofessor has no
    ability to connect
    student’s name,
    voice, and ideas.
    Student “multi-
    tasks” or distracts
    others in class.

    Student follows
    classroom discussion
    and offers thoughts
    during some classes.

    Student initiates
    discussions or actively
    contributes to
    discussions in a
    variety of ways,
    including those below.

    Displays awareness of
    class readings

    Contributions
    display lack of
    awareness of the
    readings.

    Contributions display
    tangential or vague
    awareness of
    readings.

    Contributions
    connected to readings.
    Student able to
    reference ideas from
    the readings.

    Generates
    questions/challenges

    Student passively
    accepts, passively
    rejects, or gives up
    on ideas from
    readings.

    Student participates in
    discussions of
    questions related to
    readings, or testing of
    ideas.

    Student initiates
    questions arising from
    the reading or
    challenges ideas in
    response to other,
    contrasting ideas.

    P resents areas of
    confusion/“miss-
    understandings”

    Student presumes
    that confusion is a
    statement about
    their own
    inadequacies, or
    the difficulty of the
    content, and
    remains silent.

    Student participates in
    discussions about
    areas of confusion or
    “miss-
    understandings.”

    Student raises areas
    of confusion and
    collaborates with
    seminar members to
    think through
    confusions and “miss-
    understandings.”

    Rubric for Discussion Postings

    Criteria 0-1 point 2 points 3-4 points

    Sufficient number of
    contributions

    Less than six
    contributions, and/or
    contributions only
    added at the last
    minute, and/or few
    visits to site

    Six contributions
    and/or site visited
    once per week or
    less.

    More than Six
    contributions and site
    visited once per
    week or more.

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 8 of 14

    Contributions related
    to readings/
    discussions

    Contributions
    unrelated to course
    content

    Contributions
    related to others’
    comments about
    the course material,
    without adding new
    responses related
    to course material

    Contributions are
    clearly that
    —contributions that
    draw from (with
    citations) course
    readings/discussions.

    Engagement of
    contributions

    Contributions only
    congratulatory,
    critical, and/or of the
    “thanks-that-was-
    great” variety

    Contributions relate
    to and expand upon
    the contributions of
    others.

    Contributions initiate
    new threads and/or
    introduce new ideas
    to discussion.

    Rubric for Re action Pape rs Assignme nts 1 and 2

    0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

    P resents own
    ideas, thoughts,
    questions around
    personal reflection,
    the course, or
    other relevant
    matters stemming
    from participation
    in the course

    P aper is based
    solely on course
    content, e.g. a
    summary of one
    of the chapters
    or articles.

    Some, thin
    discussion of
    personal
    reflections
    based on the
    course content

    P aper reflects
    personal
    consideration of
    personal reflection,
    the course or other
    relevant matters
    stemming from
    participation in the
    course.

    Relates own
    thoughts to
    specific course
    content,
    particularly
    readings, and other
    empirically
    validated and
    supportive
    literature

    Reflections are
    entirely personal
    without
    evidence of
    engagement
    with course
    readings or
    experience.

    P ersonal
    reflections
    related to
    course
    materials and
    research
    literature, but
    these are not
    specifically
    cited.

    P ersonal reflections
    are founded in
    course materials,
    particularly based
    on specific
    reference to course
    readings and
    research literature.
    Reference to class
    discussions may be
    included.

    Adheres to APA
    format; well-
    written.

    Multiple errors
    in APA format;
    errors from
    previous papers
    not corrected in
    subsequent
    papers. Writing
    poorly edited;
    awkward
    construction
    and/or poor flow
    of ideas.

    Some APA
    errors. Writing
    shows
    evidence of
    self-editing
    with some
    construction
    and/or flow
    problems.

    Accurate use of
    APA format with
    minimal errors.
    Evidence that errors
    from previous
    papers are
    corrected in later
    papers. Coherent
    development of the
    ideas using well-
    formed sentences
    and flowing
    paragraphs.

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 9 of 14

    Rubric for Program Re se arch Pape r Assignme nts 3

    0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

    P resents ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions in a
    manner that
    addresses the
    research question
    chosen and
    relates
    information to
    course content.

    P aper does not
    fully answer the
    research
    question
    chosen.

    Some
    components of
    the question
    chosen are
    addressed and
    integration of
    student’s
    ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions with
    course content
    is noted.

    P aper reflects full
    integration of
    personal ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions with
    course content and
    all components of
    the question chosen
    are answered
    thoroughly.

    Information
    presented
    provides evidence
    of knowledge and
    skills gained
    through research,
    as well as
    application of
    these skills.

    Responses to
    the question
    chosen are
    entirely
    personal
    without
    evidence of
    engagement
    with course
    readings,
    experience, or
    supportive
    literature.

    P ersonal
    responses to
    the question
    chosen are
    related to
    course
    materials and
    supportive
    literature but
    these are not
    specifically
    cited.

    P ersonal responses
    to the question
    chosen are founded
    in course materials,
    particularly based
    on specific
    reference to course
    readings and
    research literature.
    In addition, there is
    evidence of the
    application of
    knowledge and
    skills learned.

    Adheres to APA
    format; well-
    written.

    Multiple errors
    in APA format;
    errors from
    previous papers
    not corrected in
    subsequent
    papers. Writing
    poorly edited;
    awkward
    construction
    and/or poor
    flow of ideas.

    Some APA
    errors. Writing
    shows
    evidence of
    self-editing
    with some
    construction
    and/or flow
    problems.

    Accurate use of
    APA format with
    minimal errors.
    Evidence that
    errors from
    previous papers are
    corrected in later
    papers. Coherent
    development of the
    ideas using well-
    formed sentences
    and flowing
    paragraphs.

    Rubric for Program Re se arch Pre se ntation Assignme nt 4

    0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 10 of 14

    P resents ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions in a
    manner that
    addresses the
    research question
    chosen and relates
    information to
    course content.

    P resentation
    does not fully
    answer the
    research
    question chosen.

    Some
    components of
    the question
    chosen are
    addressed and
    integration of
    student’s ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions with
    course content
    is noted.

    P resentation
    reflects full
    integration of
    personal ideas,
    thoughts, and
    questions with
    course content and
    all components of
    the question chosen
    are answered
    thoroughly.

    Student
    disseminates
    information and
    research findings
    clearly and
    provides their
    personal thoughts,
    feelings, or ideas
    that support or
    contradict these
    findings.

    P resentation
    does not provide
    information
    addresses the
    question chosen
    nor does it
    provide the
    audience with
    research data
    and conclusions.

    P resentation
    answers the
    components of
    the question
    and presents
    some research
    data and
    conclusions
    with no
    elaboration or
    personal views
    mentioned.

    P resentation fully
    answers the
    research question
    chosen and provides
    detailed research
    data and
    conclusions. In
    addition, the student
    provides his/her
    personal views that
    either support or
    contradict the
    research findings.

    P resentation
    generates active
    participation from
    the audience, as
    well as questions
    for discussion.

    P resentation
    generates no
    interest from the
    audience or any
    questions for
    discussion.

    P resentation
    generates
    some interest
    from the
    audience in the
    form of active
    participation or
    some short
    questions that
    do not lead to
    discussion.

    P resentation poses
    questions to the
    audience, engages
    them in activity, and
    generates many
    questions for
    discussion.

    Stude nts comple ting H SDD 5300 will be able to me e t the following program obje ctive s by the
    following asse ssme nt me asure me nts and me thods:
    Course : Le gal and Ethical Issue s in Disability

    Le arning Outcome s/Obje ctive s
    and
    Program Obje ctive s

    Dire ct Asse ssme nt Asse ssme nt M e thod

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 11 of 14

    Learning Outcome 1:
    Discuss the importance and impact of
    disability law such as ADA and
    IDEA.
    P rogram Learning Objectives:
    P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
    P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
    Disabilities and Challenges
    P LO 3: Understanding impact of
    systems
    P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
    principles
    P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
    analytic, and writing skills

    Discussion P osts,
    Ethical Issues and
    Challenges Reaction
    P aper

    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess students’ ability to
    review literature and discuss how
    specific laws play a role in addressing
    challenges when working with
    individuals with disabilities.

    Learning Outcome 2:
    Demonstrate an understanding of the
    most common ethical issues affecting
    individuals with disabilities and
    disability professionals.
    P rogram Learning Objectives:
    P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
    P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
    Disabilities and Challenges
    P LO 3: Understanding impact of
    systems
    P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
    principles
    P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
    planning and administration to provide
    services
    P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
    analytic, and writing skills

    Discussion P osts,
    Disability Encounter
    P aper,
    Ethical Issues and
    Challenges Reaction
    P aper,

    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess students’ ability to
    reflect on an individual with a specific
    disability in interviewing and
    discussing that individual’s
    experiences, attitudes, and challenges
    with regard to their disability.
    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess students’ ability to
    review literature and discuss how
    specific laws play a role in addressing
    challenges when working with
    individuals with disabilities.

    Learning Outcome 3:
    Demonstrate an understanding of the
    application of ethical principles to the
    resolution of common dilemmas in the
    disability field.
    P rogram Learning Objectives:
    P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
    P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
    Disabilities and Challenges
    P LO 3: Understanding impact of
    systems
    P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
    principles
    P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
    planning and administration to provide
    services
    P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
    analytic, and writing skills

    Discussion P osts,
    Ethical Issues and
    Challenges Reaction
    P aper,
    P rogram Research
    P aper,
    P rogram Research
    P resentation

    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess students’ ability to
    review literature and discuss how
    specific laws play a role in addressing
    challenges when working with
    individuals with disabilities.
    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess student’s ability to do
    an extensive review of literature in
    designing a service program for
    individuals with a specific disability.
    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess student’s ability to
    present information retrieved in
    research in designing a service
    program for individuals with a
    specific disability.

    Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 12 of 14

    Learning Outcome 4:
    Recognize the function of his or her
    professional code of ethics when
    working with individuals with
    disabilities.
    P rogram Learning Objectives:
    P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
    P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
    Disabilities and Challenges
    P LO 3: Understanding impact of
    systems
    P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
    principles
    P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
    planning and administration to provide
    services
    P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
    analytic, and writing skills

    Discussion P osts,
    P rogram Research
    P aper,
    P rogram Research
    P resentation

    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess student’s ability to do
    an extensive review of literature in
    designing a service program for
    individuals with a specific disability.
    A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
    used to assess student’s ability to
    present information retrieved in
    research in designing a service
    program for individuals with a
    specific disability.

    Learning Outcome 5:
    Analyze and apply the appropriate
    legal concepts of privacy,
    confidentiality, and informed consent
    when working with individuals with
    disabilities, understanding the unique
    factors that affect these concepts with
    this population.
    P rogram Learning Objectives:
    P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadershi

    PowerPoint

    Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

    • Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
    • Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
    • Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

    Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

    Powerpoint

    chapter 9 review and summary of african american history must cite where the information of the summary is in the ebook needs pictures videos and graphs and be presentable 

    Powerpoint

    TOPIC: HOW EFFECTIVE ARE BULLYING INTERVENTION PROGRAMS IN SCHOOL? IF THEY ARE NOT EFFECTIVE, HOW DO WE KNOW?

    NEGLIGENCE & LIABILITY

    Law and Ethics ORGANIZATION OF FINAL PRESENTATION
    You have two components for your Final Presentation, for a total of 300 points:
    I)Presentation to colleagues (with PPT or Prezi) (200 points)
    You will prepare an 8-10 minute (10-15 slides) professional development presentation for your colleagues,
    supervisors, parents or another appropriate group based on the self-selected (and Dr. R.- approved) topic above.
    The required slides or topic areas are (you do not have to go in this order):
    _____ 1) Title. Word choice is important. Consider a two-part title. Examples:
    -Concussion in College-Level Sports: Are Schools Liable?
    -Cyberbullying: A Parent’s Guide
    -IEP Compliance During the Pandemic: How to Avoid a Lawsuit

    _____ 2) Introduction and background: What prompted you to select this topic? Why is this topic so important?
    _____ 3) Summary of data/statistics which puts the issue into an appropriate educational and legal perspective.
    This section could be combined with #2 to provide a rationale for the importance of your topic.
    _____ 4) Summary of cases related to this issue (find a range of 5+ cases over time, level, and jurisdictions.) ‘OLD’
    cases help establish the issue, so do NOT fear cases which occurred before you were born. Do try to find
    both older and newer cases related to your issue. Did the ruling stand the test of time? –Or change/shift?
    _____ 5) Summary of Statutes related to this issue, including Federal Statutes (Codes, Titles, Public Laws, etc.),
    Florida State Statutes, Florida State Board of Education Rules, and School Board Rules/Policies
    _____ 6) Conclusions and recommendations. Develop up to three key recommendations with details to address this
    issue to prevent a lawsuit.
    _____ 7) References in APA format. Remember to reference sources of data, cases and the history of your issue.
    II) Ancillary Documents to be Uploaded into Canvas (100 points)
    _____ 1) Presentation. Upload the above presentation, whether it’s a PPT or Prezi
    _____ 2) 5 Case Briefs. Upload one running document of 5 complete case briefs (same as above) related to topic
    in following format for each case. (This will probably be between 10 and 15 pages long). You may use ONE
    case from cases we study from the Dayton text, but your research is expected here to find cases. You may
    also do a cut-and-paste from cases you find on-line. However, remove any signs of Internet such as
    underlined and blue print—and be sure to cite all sources.
    _____ A) Caption. Title of Case (Plessy v. Ferguson)
    _____ B) Citation–e.g., 163 U.S. 537 (1963)—NOT the docket number
    _____ C) Facts. What happened? (This is the juicy part of the story leading up to the case).
    _____ D) Procedural History of the case. Where did the case go before THIS case? Procedural History is
    NOT required of each case—but be sure to see if there WERE previous cases leading up to this one.
    _____ E) Legal Issue(s)/Question(s) which this case answered. What was the [alleged] violation?
    _____ F) Holdings. Yes or No?
    _____ G) Rationale/Disposition. Why did the judge(s) say they ruled this way?
    _____ H) Concurring and Dissenting Opinion, if given. This part will NOT be in every case.
    _____ I) 3-paragraph response/commentary:
    1) Why did I/we choose this case?
    2) Do I/we agree/disagree with the ruling? Why/why not?
    3) Why is this case important for educational practitioners and leaders to be aware of?
    _____ 3) Specific statutes, provisions related to this issue—with commentary. You may do a cut-and-paste.
    However, remove any signs of Internet such as underlined and blue print. Again, do not merely list the
    statutes. Write about a paragraph of commentary. What did you learn? What surprises you or reaffirms
    what you knew? What do we especially need to know to avoid a lawsuit?
    _____ 4) Additional info. Other material such as additional cases, articles, reports, texts of interviews, etc.

    PowerPoint

    1

    Dallas City Hall

    Name

    Professor

    Institution

    Course

    Date

    2

    One of the buildings that I chose from Leoh Ming’s architect works is the Dallas City

    building located in Dallas, USA. I have chosen the building due to its unique structure and

    intention to serve as the administrative center for Dallas’ municipal administration. However,

    the structure slopes at a 34-degree inclination, each of the building’s seven above-grade levels

    are 9.5-feet wider from the one below it. This sloping façade interacts only with buildings on

    either side facing downtown and offers shelter from the elements and the Texas sun. Dallas

    City Hall has an extensive façade, concrete structures, and adaptability of construction

    materials which are well designed according to the articles the paper presents.

    Although the foundation and basement levels are far more extensive than the visible

    footprint of the building, they are hidden behind the sloping façade and extend well beyond

    it. Two hundred thirty feet in width, the cantilevered roof spans 200 feet (61 meters), the

    ground level is 126 feet in width, and the basement is 230 feet. According to the article by

    Dallas City Hall, the building façade is inseparable from the park in front of it(Dallas City

    Hall, n.d.). Three cylindrical pillars that seem to prop up the structure were constructed due

    to the Mayor’s reaction to the apparent upper of the building’s form. In addition to providing

    cosmetic support, these pillars do not carry the structure’s weight. The design and

    construction of the structure and the Park Plaza and the garage came to more than $70 million

    in total.

    When designing City Hall, Pei employed cast-in-place concrete structures for the

    interior and outside of the building and the building and park itself. Each story is

    approximately nine feet larger than that below it, with the building tilting outward at a 34-

    degree angle. The symbolic logic and functional logic are both present in the 560-foot-long

    from. The building has utilized the following principles in the construction: attraction and

    3

    engagement, visibility, nature and sustainability, public transportation as well as integration

    (Sustainable Construction: Methods and Benefits, 2020). A concrete frame in a building

    project consists of columns as well as a mix of technologies that form the structural skeleton

    of a structure. This grid of columns and beams is often erected on a concrete slab and serves

    to hold the structure’s floors, walls, and cladding, among other things.

    Wu Ying’s study focuses on the adaptability of building materials in the construction

    of outdoor buildings. To enhance the building’s exterior, adaptation research in the usage of

    construction materials must be prioritized. This Research examines building materials’

    flexibility in external design form to increase current building engineering look, project

    value, and building field production efficiency(Ying, 2018). Compared to other articles, this

    article will help me understand more about the Dallas City building. The peer-review

    approach is used to maintain academic study quality by having an author’s academic

    publication, study, or ideas reviewed by professionals in the same field.

    The main argument of Perez and Perini is nature-Based Approaches to Urban and

    Residential Sustainability. They discuss the basic principles of natural components in

    building design and the tactics required to incorporate them into buildings and towns. The

    three parts explore the quantifiable advantages, outcomes, concerns, and challenges of

    integrating nature into our constructed environment (Perez & Perini, 2018). In comparison

    with other articles, this article will help me understand the strategies used by Leoh Ming to

    integrate the city environment with the building. However, the book has no reviews yet; the

    authors are researchers with Ph.D. degrees and have experience in their field of work. This

    makes the source to be reliable and trustworthy.

    4

    The main argument of (Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020) analyses the skyline and tall

    buildings’ visibility using a dependable approach. According to the Research, towering

    building clusters may be studied by looking at all unimpeded views from adjacent streets and

    their effect on the skyline using Jakarta as an example. In comparison with other articles, the

    article will enable me to understand the visibility of Dallas City Hall and the methods used by

    Leoh Ming to ensure the visibility of the building. The article is a peer-reviewed article that

    researchers have checked and ensured the quality.

    The article’s main argument by (Abdelhameed & Saputra, 2020) describes how the

    architectural design incorporates building services. Specifically, the study examines the

    relevance of building service systems (BSS) and how they should be considered throughout

    the early architectural design stages. These systems should be included in the building from

    the early design stages to save money and avoid costly and time-consuming adjustments. In

    comparison with other articles, the article explains how rooms are integrated to form one

    building. The article will help me in understanding how Leoh Ming was integrated into one

    building. The study has certainly been peer-reviewed to retain academic scientific quality. It

    puts an author’s scholarly piece or ideas to evaluation by specialists in the same area. 


    5

    References

    Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

    architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

    122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

    Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

    Sustainability. In Google Books. Butterworth-Heinemann. https://books.google.co.ke/

    books?

    id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

    ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

    Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

    buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

    Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

    10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

    Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

    Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

    Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

    Dallas City Hall. (n.d.). Www.pcf-P.com. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from https://www.pcf-

    p.com/projects/dallas-city-hall/

    Sustainable Construction: Methods and Benefits | BigRentz. (2020, February 4).

    Www.bigrentz.com. https://www.bigrentz.com/blog/sustainable-construction

    powerpoint

    MKT 345 Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric
    Consumer Buying Process

    Overview: For this milestone, due in Module Four, you will prepare a PowerPoint presentation summarizing the consumer buying processes you have so far
    researched in order to market the consumer product you are proposing for your final project.

    Prompt: First, review Chapter 9 in your text as well as the article Stages of the Consumer Buying Process and the video 7 Tips for Good Survey Questions. Next,
    prepare a presentation that lists and briefly explains each stage of the consumer buying process. Define the marketing strategy used within each stage of the
    process regarding your chosen market segment. Finally, identify which specific stages of the process will be most effective for your consumer segment.

    Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

    III. Consumer Buying Process

    A. Define the stages of the consumer buying process.
    B. Analyze a marketing strategy that can be used for each stage of the consumer buying process in regard to your chosen market segment.
    C. Determine the specific stages of the consumer buying process for which your marketing strategies can be most effective for your consumer

    segment.

    Using the speaker notes, provide any additional details of importance regarding the bullet points you listed on each slide to further explain the information.

    Instructor feedback on this milestone should be incorporated into your next milestones and into the final project.

    Rubric

    Guidelines for Submission: Milestone Two should be a minimum 3-slide PowerPoint presentation with audio or speaker notes included. Citations should be
    provided in APA format as needed.

    For help with PowerPoint and preparing your slideshow, visit Infobase, or the Microsoft PowerPoint help center.

    Please note that the grading rubric for this milestone submission is not identical to that of the final project. The Final Project Rubric will include an additional
    “Exemplary” category that provides guidance for how you can go above and beyond “Proficient” in your final submission.

    Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value
    Consumer Buying

    Process: Stages
    Defines the stages of the consumer
    buying process

    Identifies the stages, but does not
    identify all stages or does not define
    the steps, or definition is not cogent or
    inaccurate

    Does not define the stages of the
    consumer buying process

    30

    Consumer Buying
    Process: Marketing

    Strategy

    Analyzes a marketing strategy that can
    be used for each stage of the
    consumer buying process in regard to
    market segment

    Analyzes marketing strategies, but
    does not address each step of the
    process or is misaligned with market
    segment or description is not cogent

    Does not describe marketing strategies
    for stages of the consumer buying
    process

    30

    Consumer Buying
    Process: Buying

    Process

    Determines stages in the consumer
    buying process where marketing
    strategies can be most effective given
    the selected consumer segment

    Determines stages in the consumer
    buying process where identified
    marketing strategies can be most
    effective, but is not aligned with the
    selected consumer segment

    Does not determine stages where
    identified marketing strategies would
    be most effective

    30

    Articulation of
    Response

    Submission has no major errors related
    to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax,
    or organization

    Submission has major errors related to
    citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or
    organization that negatively impact
    readability and articulation of main
    ideas

    Submission has critical errors related
    to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax,
    or organization that prevent
    understanding of ideas

    10

    Total 100%

    PowerPoint

    1

    Dallas City Hall

    Name

    Professor

    Institution

    Course

    Date

    2

    One of the buildings that I chose from Leoh Ming’s architect works is the Dallas City

    building located in Dallas, USA. I have chosen the building due to its unique structure and its

    intention to serve as the administrative centre for Dallas’ municipal administration. However,

    the structure slopes at a 34-degree inclination, each of the building’s seven above-grade levels

    are 9.5-feet wider from the one below it. This sloping façade interacts only with buildings on

    either side that face downtown and offers shelter from the elements and the Texas sun.

    Although the foundation and basement levels are far more extensive than the visible

    footprint of the building, they are hidden behind the sloping façade and extend well beyond

    it. Two hundred thirty feet in width, the cantilevered roof spans 200 feet (61 meters), the

    ground level is 126 feet in width, and the basement is 230 feet. Three cylindrical pillars that

    seem to prop up the structure were constructed due to the Mayor’s reaction to the apparent

    upper of the building’s form. In addition to providing cosmetic support, these pillars do not

    carry the structure’s weight. The design and construction of the structure and the Park Plaza

    and the garage came to more than $70 million in total.

    When designing City Hall, Pei employed cast-in-place concrete structures for the

    interior and outside of the building and the building and park itself. Each story is

    approximately nine feet larger than that below it, with the building tilting outward at a 34-

    degree angle. The symbolic logic and functional logic are both present in the 560-foot-long

    from. The building has utilized the following principles in the construction: attraction and

    engagement, visibility, nature and sustainability, public transportation as well as integration.

    Wu Ying’s scholarly work focuses on the adaptability of construction materials in

    exterior building design. To enhance the building’s exterior, adaptation research in the usage

    of construction materials must be prioritized. This Research examines building materials’

    3

    flexibility in external design form to increase current building engineering look, project

    value, and building field production efficiency. The article will help me understand more

    about the Dallas City building (Ying, 2018).

    The scholarly book by Perez and Perini covers nature-Based Approaches to Urban

    and Residential Sustainability. Discusses the basic principles of natural components in the

    building design and the tactics required to incorporate them into buildings and towns. The

    three parts explore the quantifiable advantages, outcomes, concerns and challenges of

    integrating nature into our constructed environment (Perez & Perini, 2018).

    The scholarly article by (Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020) analyses the skyline and tall

    buildings’ visibility using a dependable approach. According to the Research, towering

    building clusters may be studied by looking at all unimpeded views from adjacent streets and

    their effect on the skyline using Jakarta as an example.

    The article by (Abdelhameed & Saputra, 2020) describes how the architectural design

    incorporates building services. Specifically, the study examines the relevance of building

    service systems (BSS) and how they should be considered throughout the early architectural

    design stages. These systems should be included in the building from the early design stages

    to save money and avoid costly and time-consuming adjustments.

    4

    References

    Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

    architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

    122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

    Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

    Sustainability. In Google Books. Butterworth-Heinemann. https://books.google.co.ke/

    books?

    id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

    ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

    Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

    buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

    Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

    10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

    Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

    Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

    Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

    PowerPoint

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet

    Review the guiding organizations from the Guiding the Future of Nursing activity and reflect on the expectations for a BSN-prepared nurse. Whether you have been in practice for years or are just starting your career as a nurse, learning should never stop. As you remember from the College of Nursing Philosophical Framework, lifetime learning is one of the tenets of becoming a nurse leader.

    Identify the competencies and essentials you need to develop. Select:

    ·   2 competencies from Pre-licensure KSAs on the QSEN Competencies page 


    ·   2 essentials from the AACN The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice 
Complete the table below by doing the following: 


    1. In the second column, identify the competency or essential you need to address. 


    2. In the third column, identify specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs) you need to develop, and cite your source. 
a. QSEN citation hint: Per the QSEN Competencies web page, the competencies were taken from another source, which is cited in footnote 2. The page number in the example below was taken from the primary source. 


    3. In the fourth column, describe how you will develop yourself and give yourself a timeframe. 


    4. In the fifth column, explain why this improvement is important to your development as a nurse. 


    Note: An example has been provided for you in the first row.

    NSG/302 v2

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    Example:

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Example: Evidence-based practice

    Example:

    Knowledge: “Describe reliable sources for locating

    Example:

    I will learn how to evaluate sources using the University

    Example:

    In order to base practice decisions in evidence, I have


    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 2 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    evidence reports and clinical practice guidelines” (Cronenwett et al., 2007, p. 124).

    Library’s Evaluate Sources tutorial at https://library.phoenix.edu/ev aluating_sources/ in 14 days or less.

    to first understand how to find good, credible information.

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Patient-centered Care

    Recognizing and knowing the cultural differences of each patient and their social background and their values when it comes to healthcare and the healing process (Cronenwett et al., 2007).

    Within seven days, I will learn to communicate by using the guidelines and information provided on QSEN. By knowing how to approach and provide care individually, the patients will feel respected and valued. I will learn to provide patient- centered care to an individual that they will feel safe and that they are part of the decision when it comes to their care.

    To provide self-centered care, It is essential to know the patient’s values, beliefs, cultural background, and readiness to learn to get better. Understanding how they approach or value health care, I’ll be able to provide better and more effective care to my patients.

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Safety

    Reduces the risk of harm to every patient and provider and delivers care effectively (Cronenwett et al., 2007).

    Within two weeks, I can learn how to identify the risk factors that can contribute to patient safety. By identifying errors, I can safely communicate to others how to avoid possible dangers that might occur when safety measures are being put aside. There are many resources that I can use to learn and get information, for example, the QSEN study material and the university library.

    As a nurse, I always need to prioritize the safety of my patients. Safety is paramount; many guidelines need to be followed when providing care. By valuing the safety protocol of hospitals or facilities, I can prevent patient harm from happening.

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 3 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education

    Clinical Prevention and Population Health

    Health promotion, disease, and injury prevention across the lifespan are essential elements of baccalaureate nursing practice at the individual and population levels (AACN, 2008, pg 23). The knowledge that I need to know on promoting health and disease prevention can help make a difference in the community. Assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations in preparing and minimizing the health consequences of emergencies, including mass casualty disasters, is a skill needed to help improve the health of individuals or communities. Also, caring with passion will have a positive effect

    A month from today, I will develop skills that can be very helpful to provide disease prevention and health promotion. I will focus on studying how to improve disease prevention and how to deliver this message to the member of the community. Teaching about handwashing, vaccinations are just a few examples that I can do by myself to share knowledge with others.

    Knowing how to prevent some illnesses is essential knowledge that a nurse should have. As a nurse, I can help the community or individuals avoid the spread of infection and avoid getting or catching it, for example, being up to date on vaccination, teaching the importance of handwashing, wearing a face mask. With this knowledge, I can make a difference in the community.

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education

    Professionalism and Professional Values

    Professional values and the associated behaviors are foundational to the practice of nursing (AACN, 2008, pg. 26). The inherent in professional practice is an understanding of nursing practice’s historical, legal, and contemporary context (AACN, 2008. pg 26.) It is essential to know the

    Within seven days, I will provide care with compassion and delegate appropriate work to other healthcare teams to provide care promptly. It is not easy to delegate sometimes, especially when you have an overwhelming workload. But, I plan to have good time management to provide care

    Professionalism in healthcare is vital because, as a nurse, we deal with so many circumstances. Nurses have to act professionally when communicating with patients and the patient’s families. Professionalism comes with accountability, meaning we are in a profession where we are

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 4 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    patients and how to approach a patient or family. Different cultures require different approaches, so knowing their backgrounds is necessary. Having accountability and professionalism will result in a positive patient-nurse relationship and better health outcomes.

    fast and safely.

    accountable for our actions. Showing professionalism has a positive effect on the person around us. Nurses gain trust and respect in their work by how they look, talk, and provide care. As a nurse, gaining trust from the patient and family is very important, and this trust is difficult to attain without showing professionalism.

    Reference

    Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., … Warren, J. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 55(3)122-131. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2007.02.006

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. (2008, March 20). The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf

    Powerpoint

      

    1.Create a slide that summarizes your leadership style, traits, and practices.

    2. In three slides, Discuss how nursing professionals can benefit from integrating the tenets of servant leadership to empower and influence others as they lead.

    You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice. 

    While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. 

    powerpoint

    Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

    ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

    Annotated Bibliography

    Student’s Full Name

    Institutional Affiliation

    Course Full Name

    Instructor’s Full Name

    Date

    Bodin, K., Teare, G., & Taks, M. (2022). Critical Social Science in Sport Management Research: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in sports and active living4. DOI: 
    10.3389/fspor.2022.812200

    This is a scoping review study aimed at examining the trends, the gaps, and the application of essential social sciences and the related strategies in the sport management scholarship. About 16 relevant studies were identified through database search that included the manual search of 419 journals. The outcome of the study reveals a rise in the critical research published in the journals of sports management. The findings of the study reveal the presence of the space for the rise in the incidences of publication of important critical social science work in journals about sports management. it gives the researchers an opportunity of articulating their research strategies in scholarly outputs.

    Sinulingga, G., & Sinulingga, A. (2020, March). Analysis of Sports Management Coaching, Wrestling Karo District. In 1st Unimed International Conference on Sport Science (UnICoSS 2019) (pp. 53-57). Atlantis Press. -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 5

    This is a qualitative descriptive study aimed at investigating the procedure of implementing the management of coaching wrestling in 2019. The authors adopted interviews, observations, documentation, and triangulation. The outcome of the study reveals that implementing the training principles involves the process of developing the philosophy, goals, and the styles of training, and building of the characters. The results also show that the principle of the behavior of coaches includes communication with the athletes and the management of the athletes’ behaviors. The study also reveals that the principle of teaching includes games, skills, techniques, tactics, and planning on the instructions. The principles of training based on the outcomes of the study are the training on the fundamental skills, training, physical fitness, learning, nutrition science, education of the use of drugs, and doping.

    POWERPOINT

    IMPLICATIONS FOR TRAUMA-INFORMED CARE 8

    Implications for Trauma-Informed Care: Adverse Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in the Lives of Male Offenders

    Takia Owens
    South University
    CNS 6529 Research and Evaluation
    Dr. Dan
    3/8/2022

    Abstract

    Psychological abuse, household dysfunction, neglect, and physical abuse are examples of adverse childhood trauma. However, in efforts to support trauma-informed care for male offenders, the relationship between these adverse childhood traumatic events and dissociation must be determined. This study will utilize a qualitative research approach as well as a correlational research design. The study will include 30 participants drawn from various maximum-security prisons.

    Introduction

    Adverse childhood experiences are traumatic events that occur in children aged 0 to 17. Emotional abuse, household dysfunction, neglect, and physical abuse are examples of traumatic events. Adverse childhood trauma has long-term consequences in an individual’s life, resulting in higher levels of dissociation. This disassociation is more pronounced in male offenders. These negative childhood experiences are also one of the factors that contributed to the crimes committed by these individuals. However, more research is needed to determine how these adverse childhood traumas relate to dissociation in male offenders.

    This relationship will be critical in informing the provision of trauma-informed care to these offenders. Trauma is described as a traumatic occurrence that threatens one’s or others’ bodily or psychological well-being and causes feelings of fear, helplessness, or shock (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Bloom, 2013). Traumatic events have been a part of human life since the beginning of time. Severe accidents, violence, personal assaults, or natural disasters could all be examples. Various historical events illustrate the various forms of trauma that can occur in human life. These experiences have resulted in the creation of numerous trauma sources that have improved human knowledge of trauma. Human beings, on the other hand, are still subjected to trauma that affects their emotional, physical, spiritual, and psychological well-being.

    Physical attack, combat, accidents, and human or natural disasters have all resulted in males experiencing trauma. Most men live in diverse cities are affected by violent trauma. The previous study on this found that gun, violence, and drug crimes were more rampant among the repeat victims of violence as compared to those that were accidentally injured (Coope.et-al, 2000). TIC is focused on an increasing understanding of the adverse effects of psychological trauma.

    Trauma-informed care has been shown to enhance criminal responsiveness to evidence-based cognitive behavioral treatment, which minimizes criminal potential risks and supports integrated programming for offenders. Trauma is a common occurrence in society and among men and women. Victims could be retraumatized by the service system, affecting their willingness to join and interact while refocusing on negative trauma. Childhood trauma, emotional abuse, and having unmarried parents were all characteristics that significantly predicted sexual deviance in male offenders.

    Child physical maltreatment and substance misuse were both major predictors of violent sexual behavior. Trauma is something that almost everyone has experienced at some point in their lives (Coope.et-al, 2000). Because different people have varied degrees of psychological, bodily, and mental responses to trauma, the effects of this experience are unique to everyone. Trauma in the early stages of development makes a person vulnerable to trauma later in life due to continuous stress and the development of mental disorders like depression, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Trauma has an impact on dealing with the physical, neurological, and psychological symptoms and consequences for male offenders’ early childhood development and separation. Many offenders were victims of child abuse and family dysfunction when they were adolescents, and incarcerated clients have significantly higher rates of poor childhood experiences. The entire aim of TIC is to include knowledge of the neurobiological, social, and psychological effects of trauma into policies, methods, and practices that promote a safe, caring, and fair service delivery setting.

    Review of Literature

    Fung et al. (2019) conducted a study to see if there was a link between negative childhood experiences and dissociation. To examine the link between adverse childhood experiences and dissociation, the authors used questionnaires about adverse childhood experiences and dissociation. The authors assessed dissociation using the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, whereas the adverse childhood question was used to measure a history of emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction (Fung et al., 2019). The study discovered a connection between dissociation and traumatic childhood experiences in which participants reported significant levels of dissociation.

    To help evaluate the association between childhood traumatic events and dissociation, Rafiq et al. (2018) did a comprehensive evaluation of 30 different empirical investigations. The publications for this study were obtained from the databases Embase, PubMed, and PsycINFO. The researchers discovered a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation. Individuals who were exposed to traumatic events as children had a higher level of detachment. The researchers also discovered that dissociations are linked to specific negative childhood events (Rafiq et al., 2018). The authors found that people who have had traumatic childhood experiences require proper therapeutic support to manage and resolve dissociative symptoms.

    Which is defined as an experienced or observed event that threatens one’s physical or mental well-being. As we notice that some people are not diagnose with mental illness to later on and that mental illness and trauma concerns are among the most common challenges that most people face in today’s society. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional well-being are all part of mental health. As a result, mental illness is defined as the condition that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Anxiety, major bipolar disorder, depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, and trauma are some of the most frequent mental diseases. Mental health and trauma issues are frequently caused by several causes. 

    A study by Degnan et al. (2022) looked at the link between childhood interpersonal trauma, negative symptoms, and psychological mediators. For the investigations, the authors utilized a total of 240 people who had experienced childhood trauma and attachment dissociation. The findings revealed a link between childhood trauma and dissociative experiences among the study’s participants.

    When providing care using trauma-informed approaches and strategies, the author suggested that healthcare providers explore the relationship between dissociation and adverse childhood events. Rabito et al. (2020) conducted research to determine the link between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. For their study, the authors used 22 participants and variables such as age, gender, marital status, and the maturity level of commencement of the condition.

    The Dissociative Experiences Sea, the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were employed by the researchers. The outcomes of the study reveal a link between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. The authors suggested that affected individuals employ cognitive-behavioral therapy to assist them deal with their dissociation symptoms. Wagner et al. (2021) done extensive research to evaluate mentalization and dissociation following traumatic childhood experiences. The Mentalization Questionnaire, the Essener Trauma Inventory, and the Brief Symptom Inventory were provided to 77 offenders for the study.

    The authors next used the Spss process tool to investigate the link between traumatic childhood events and individual dissociation. The study discovered a link between severe childhood trauma and increased levels of dissociation and mentalization in adults (Wagner et al., 2021). Individuals with low mentalization were linked to worse sadness, anxiety, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder, according to the authors.

    Sun et al. (2018) carried out a study to determine whether dissociation mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucination. The authors administered questionnaires and carried out interviews on sixty-six participants. Sun et al. (2018) used clinician-rated measures to evaluate the relationship between these two factors. The study determined a positive correlation between childhood trauma and dissociation. The authors concluded that dissociative symptoms are part of routine assessment among individuals with a history of childhood trauma.

    Method


    Participants

    Thirty Individuals will be recruited from different prisons across South Carolina for the study. After obtaining all the study’s details, informed consent will be acquired to participate. The study’s participants will be chosen using the stratified sampling approach. Male offenders will be separated into groups based on their traits. Race, age, and cultural background are the three factors. Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics will be the races studied. Participants will range in age between 20 to 40 years old. They will be separated into ten-year age groups. The ages of the participants will range from 20 to 29, 30 to 39. The participants should also have a history of adverse childhood events and a higher level of dissociation. The independent variable is the male offenders.








    Materials

    As we measure the dependent variable, which is adverse childhood events and dissociative. The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire will be administered. The questionnaire will have ten questions and will be used to evaluate various types of childhood traumatic events. Physical abuse, verbal abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse are the traumatic experiences that will be analyzed using these questionnaires. The Dissociative Experiences Scale questionnaire is used as the second piece of research material. Bernstein and Putnam created this scale to evaluate individual dissociation. The ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly will be administered as the third measure to assess the subset of dissociative experiences among the participants of the study.


    Design



    The primary research will be guided by the qualitative research approach. Non-numerical data will be collected, analyzed, and interpreted in this location. The qualitative research technique will allow researchers to identify and comprehend the connection between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation in male criminals’ lives. The correlational research design was adopted in this study. This design will be utilized to investigate the link between adverse childhood trauma episodes and male offenders’ dissociation. It will assist in the recognition of trends and patterns in the data collected, as well as providing information on how trauma-informed care can be provided to these offenders.


    Procedure

    The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale questionnaire, and the Ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly questionnaire will be administered to the selected participants. They will be expected to complete the questionnaires with the assistance of mental health professionals. The data will be evaluated using content analysis, which will be applied to identify communication patterns that have been recorded. Common words, topics, and concepts will be recognized by the content analysis. It will also enable the measurement and analysis of the detected topics to determine their significance and linkages. The relationship analysis component of the analysis will be used to identify the link between adverse childhood events and dissociation.

    Expected Results

    That there is a positive relationship between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among male offenders. The study’s intended findings are that there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among male criminals. Is it true that having a traumatic upbringing will have an impact on your life path? Will you be imprisoned, or will things progress for the better, or will the childhood trauma continue? When providing trauma-informed therapy, this intended result underlines the need of taking traumatic childhood events into perspective. Will trauma-informed care be useful in treating male offenders yes it will be useful.

    Discussion

    Individuals who have had a traumatic childhood are more likely to commit crimes. Physical abuse, mental abuse, and neglect are examples of unfavorable childhood traumas. However, it is important to investigate whether there is a link between these traumatic childhood events and male criminals.

    As we talk about behavior and childhood, we can refer to these theorists according to Freud’s view, the body goes through numerous psychosexual stages. Psychodynamic theories, on the other hand, are concerned with the internal forces that drive people’s behavior. Erik Erikson’s theory, for example, examines an individual’s development through eight stages of examining behavioral flaws.

    Cognitive theories, on the other hand, highlight that individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs shape their behavioral substantial link exists between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation, according to a literature evaluation based on much research. These findings imply that when treating male criminals, mental health providers should consider unpleasant childhood experiences. This will enable trauma-informed care to be provided to this population, ensuring their overall well-being.

    Conclusion

    The study’s research approach is a correlational research design, which will be utilized to assess the association between adverse childhood trauma events and male offenders’ dissociation. The study will include 30 individuals who will be chosen using a stratified sample approach from different prison institutions in the South Carolina. This approach will ensure that people of all experiences, such as race and age, are fairly represented. The study’s intended findings are that there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among males’ offenders.

    As stated that the purpose of the planned research is to see if there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation in male criminals. This study’s findings will be critical in informing trauma-informed care for male offenders to secure their overall well-being. The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire and the ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly questionnaire will be used to collect data in a qualitative manner.

    References

    Altintas, M., & Bilici, M. (2018). Evaluation of childhood trauma with respect to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences, and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. Comprehensive Psychiatry82, 100-107.

    Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C. H., Perry, B. D., … & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience256(3), 174-186.

    Degnan, A., Berry, K., Humphrey, C., & Bucci, S. (2022). The role of attachment and dissociation in the relationship between childhood interpersonal trauma and negative symptoms in psychosis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy.

    Fung, H. W., Ross, C. A., Yu, C. K. C., & Lau, E. K. L. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences and dissociation among Hong Kong mental health service users. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation20(4), 457-470.

    Levenson, J. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and subsequent substance abuse in a sample of sexual offenders: Implications for treatment and prevention. Victims & Offenders11(2), 199-224.

    Nanny, J. T., Conrad, E. J., McCloskey, M., & Constants, J. I. (2015). Criminal behavior and repeat violent trauma. American Journal of Preventive Medicine49(3), 395-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.021

    Rabito-Alcón, M. F., Baile, J. I., & Vanderlinden, J. (2020). Child Trauma Experiences and Dissociative Symptoms in Women with Eating Disorders: Case-Control Study. Children7(12), 274.

    Rafiq, S., Campodonico, C., & Varese, F. (2018). The relationship between childhood adversities and dissociation in severe mental illness: A meta‐analytic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica138(6), 509-525.

    Sun, P., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Simpson, K., Lawrence, K., Peach, N., & Bendall, S. (2018). Does dissociation mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations, delusions in first-episode psychosis?. Comprehensive Psychiatry84, 68-74.

    Wagner-Skacel, J., Riedl, D., Kampling, H., & Lampe, A. (2021). Mentalization and Dissociation after Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PowerPoint

    Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?

    Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.

    Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

    • Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
    • Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
    • Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

    Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.

    Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

    powerpoint

    Coca Cola
    Megan George

    Consumer segment

    ! The Coca Cola understands the needs of the
    customers.

    ! It develops a business strategy that aligns with
    the expected consumer behavior.

    ! Primary consumers or target market (consumers
    aged 10-25 years).

    ! Secondary consumers (aged 25-40 years) (Wang,
    2021).

    Resources

    ! Consumer behavior information can be sourced
    from resources such as:

    ! Social media platforms.
    ! Focus groups and surveys.
    ! Customer reviews
    ! Competitor analysis.

    Secondary research

    ! Scholarly reviewed articles and journal articles are
    used in studying the characteristics of Coca Cola’s
    consumer segment.

    ! Characteristics of the consumer segment:
    ! Highly influenced into adapting a given

    consumption behavior.
    ! Majority have varying purchasing power with

    differences in level of income.
    ! Prefer trending fashion or newly introduced products

    (Melancon & Dalakas, 2018).

    Segmentation strategies

    ! There are various strategies the Coca Cola Company
    can segment the market:

    ! Demographic such as age, income, occupation and
    income.

    ! Geographic segmentation: based on the location of
    the customer.

    ! Psychographics: based on hobbies and interest
    ! Behavioral; strategy: based on behavioral patterns as

    studies from the resources.

    Behavioral segmentation

    ! This segmentation strategy is based on consumer
    behavior.

    ! Consumer aged (20-45) are affected by factors
    such as income, interests, age.

    ! These factors affect their consumer patterns.
    ! Behavioral segmentation would assist in

    implementing the best offer in terms of marketing
    mix.

    Selected consumer segment

    ! Segment: Low income, highly literate adults
    aged 25-40 years

    ! The segment is highly price sensitive due to
    limited purchasing power.

    ! The segment understands the quality standards
    of the product.

    ! The segment has information on prices (De et al,
    2021).

    Research needs

    ! Impact of technology: helps determine needed
    differentiation strategies.

    ! Effect of change in income: helps in
    understanding expected changes in demand.

    ! Effect of competition and pricing: helps
    determine the ability to switch to competitors.

    References 


    Wang, J. (2021, October). How Coca Cola and Pepsi Use Segmentation
    in Consumer Product Industry. In 2021 International Conference on
    Public Relations and Social Sciences (ICPRSS 2021) (pp. 866-870).
    Atlantis Press.
    Melancon, J. P., & Dalakas, V. (2018). Consumer social voice in the age
    of social media: Segmentation profiles and relationship marketing
    strategies. Business Horizons, 61(1), 157-167.
    De Villiers, R., Tipgomut, P., & Franklin, A. (2020). International market
    segmentation across consumption and communication categories:
    Identity, demographics, and consumer decisions and online habits.

    POWERPOINT

    2/3/2022

    1

    Your Research Paper

    • Use 8 ½ by 11” white paper, with margins
    of 1” (or 1 ¼”)

    • Double space EVERYTHING

    • Font should be pica 10 pitch or Times
    Roman 12 pitch

    • Single spaces between sentences

    • Page numbers in upper right hand corners

    How to set up your paper in APA

    2/3/2022

    2

    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Review of Literature
    • Method

    – Participants
    – Apparatus and Measures
    – Design
    – Procedures

    • Expected Results
    • Reference Section

    Key Elements

    Title Page

    2/3/2022

    3

    • One paragraph

    • 150 – 250 words

    • Format
    – Purpose of Study

    – Participants

    – Methods and Materials

    – Anticipated results

    Abstract

    2/3/2022

    4

    • Sets the stage for the project
    • Creates reader interest in the topic
    • Establishes the issues or concerns that

    leads to the study
    • Conveys information about the problem
    • Places the study within the larger context
    • Reaches out to a specific audience

    Introduction

    • The primary purpose of a review of
    literature is to demonstrate why your study
    is necessary.

    • What research has been performed by
    others that relates to your topic

    Review of Literature

    2/3/2022

    5

    • Review
    – Setting
    – Population

    – Methods
    – Outcomes

    • Evaluate
    – Relations

    – Contradictions
    – Gaps

    – Inconsistencies

    Review and Evaluate

    • Corrigan, Rowan, Green, Lundin, River, Uphoff-
    Wasowski, White and Kubiak (2002) conducted
    two studies examining the causal processes in
    contact, fear and rejection. Corrigan et al. posited
    two models to account for stigmatizing reactions.
    In the first model, labeled personal responsibility,
    beliefs about personality responsibility influences
    both the level of pity and anger displayed toward
    mental patients. Additionally, the variables of pity
    and anger influence helping behavior. In the
    second model, labeled dangerousness, perceived
    dangerousness influences fear of mental patients,
    which in turn influences the avoidance of the
    mentally ill.

    An Excerpt from a Review of Literature

    2/3/2022

    6

    • Taken as a whole, it appears that exposing
    these myths as myths increases the
    acceptance of the mentally ill and that staged
    contact with a mentally person to expose
    myths has an even more powerful effect.
    Caution must be advised, though; Martin et
    al.’s (2002) and Alexander and Link’s (2003)
    studies and the first study of Corrigan et al.
    (2002) were based upon paper and pencil
    methodologies. And while Corrigan et al.’s
    (2002) second study involved staged Myths
    of violence 6 presentations, it was conducted
    in a college setting with a college sample.

    Another Excerpt from the Same Review

    • Participants
    – Who will be in your study?

    – What population did you use?

    – Were there any restrictions in the nature of
    your participant pool?

    Method

    2/3/2022

    7

    • Total number of participants and the number
    assigned to each condition

    • Major demographic characteristics of the
    participants (age, sex, etc.)

    • Way the participants were selected
    • Was the selection restricted in some way?

    – All counseling majors
    – Only women
    – Only deaf

    • How were the participants assigned?

    Participant Information

    Twenty-seven students from South
    University (12 women and 15 men) ranging
    in age from 17 to 43 years old, voluntarily
    participated in this experiment. There were
    9 participants randomly assigned to each of
    the three conditions. Informed consent was
    obtained from all participants.

    Example:

    2/3/2022

    8

    Sixteen undergraduates at South University
    (12 males and 4 females) participated in
    exchange for partial course credit. All
    participants performed in the same way.
    Data from 5 subjects who indicated that they
    did not learn English before 5 years of age
    were excluded from all analyses. No color-
    blind subjects were included in any of the
    experiments. Informed consent was
    obtained from all participants.

    Example:

    • Apparatus/Materials
    – Tells the reader what equipment and tools you

    used in your experiment and to acquire the
    data

    Method

    2/3/2022

    9

    Materials

    A survey was constructed and used that
    contains six simple yes or no questions
    dealing with honesty, cheating, stealing, and
    not getting caught (see appendix). A
    Monopoly game board was used for
    demonstrating question one.

    Example:

    Materials

    The Social Phobia Scale was utilized in this study
    (see Appendix). It is a questionnaire consisting of 15
    items in which the subject is asked to put a
    checkmark in the blank in front of any item that is
    applied to them in the last six months. It was created
    as an assignment in Psychological Statistics and
    Measurements class at South University. Internal
    reliability is been determined for the scale, and
    content and construct validity have been established
    as well.

    Example:

    2/3/2022

    10

    Materials
    A website was created for presenting various
    surveys (see appendix). The Keirsey
    Temperament Sorter (Keirsey, 1998b) and the
    Keirsey Character Sorter (Keirsey, 1998c) were
    utilized to measure personality type. Two other
    surveys developed by the researcher were also
    administered: a short demographic survey (see
    Appendix) and an assessment of the degree of
    domestic violence experienced by each
    participant (see appendix). All the surveys were
    conducted on the computer with the results
    recorded on an answer sheet (see appendix).

    Example:

    • What type of design did you use?
    – Within subjects

    • Counterbalancing

    – Between subjects

    – Quasi-experimental

    – Experimental

    – Correlational

    – Survey/Descriptive

    Design

    2/3/2022

    11

    • Variables
    – What is your independent variable (s)? How

    many levels?

    – What it is your dependent variable (s)?

    • Threats to internal or external validity
    – What?

    – How you intend to control for them

    Design

    • Provides the reader with a summary of each step in the
    execution of the research

    • Blue Print of your data collection process
    • Should be sufficiently detailed so that anyone reading your

    paper could conduct the study as you intended
    • Provides a verbal record telling the reader

    – Who

    – What

    – Where

    – When

    – Why

    – How often

    – How much

    Procedures

    2/3/2022

    12

    • Instructions to the participants

    • Description of the setting

    • Description of manipulation of the
    independent variable

    • How consent was obtained

    • How data was collected

    Include:

    • Restate the issue/problem in counseling

    • Summarize the rationale and purpose for
    your study

    • Summarize your expected results

    Summary and Anticipated Results

    2/3/2022

    13

    • Describe the significance of the study for
    counseling

    • Consider including:
    – 3-4 reasons the study adds to the scholarly

    literature (or)

    – 3-4 reasons this study helps to improve
    practice

    Summary and Anticipated Results

    • Required if you cite any sources in your
    paper

    • Every source cited in your paper must
    appear on the reference list, and every
    entry in your reference list must be cited in
    your paper

    • Double spaced!

    References

    2/3/2022

    14

    • Keep quotations to a minimum (less than 3
    per paper)

    • Don’t forget the quotation marks and page
    numbers (or paragraph numbers), or you
    will be guilty of plagiarism!

    Warning

    • Publication Manual of the American
    Psychological Association (7th edition)

    • Resources available online through South
    Library

    • Online Writing Lab (Purdue University)

    Additional Help and Assistance

    PowerPoint

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet

    Review the guiding organizations from the Guiding the Future of Nursing activity and reflect on the expectations for a BSN-prepared nurse. Whether you have been in practice for years or are just starting your career as a nurse, learning should never stop. As you remember from the College of Nursing Philosophical Framework, lifetime learning is one of the tenets of becoming a nurse leader.

    Identify the competencies and essentials you need to develop. Select:

    ·   2 competencies from Pre-licensure KSAs on the QSEN Competencies page 


    ·   2 essentials from the AACN The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice 
Complete the table below by doing the following: 


    1. In the second column, identify the competency or essential you need to address. 


    2. In the third column, identify specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs) you need to develop, and cite your source. 
a. QSEN citation hint: Per the QSEN Competencies web page, the competencies were taken from another source, which is cited in footnote 2. The page number in the example below was taken from the primary source. 


    3. In the fourth column, describe how you will develop yourself and give yourself a timeframe. 


    4. In the fifth column, explain why this improvement is important to your development as a nurse. 


    Note: An example has been provided for you in the first row.

    NSG/302 v2

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    Example:

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Example: Evidence-based practice

    Example:

    Knowledge: “Describe reliable sources for locating

    Example:

    I will learn how to evaluate sources using the University

    Example:

    In order to base practice decisions in evidence, I have


    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 2 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    evidence reports and clinical practice guidelines” (Cronenwett et al., 2007, p. 124).

    Library’s Evaluate Sources tutorial at https://library.phoenix.edu/ev aluating_sources/ in 14 days or less.

    to first understand how to find good, credible information.

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Patient-centered Care

    Recognizing and knowing the cultural differences of each patient and their social background and their values when it comes to healthcare and the healing process (Cronenwett et al., 2007).

    Within seven days, I will learn to communicate by using the guidelines and information provided on QSEN. By knowing how to approach and provide care individually, the patients will feel respected and valued. I will learn to provide patient- centered care to an individual that they will feel safe and that they are part of the decision when it comes to their care.

    To provide self-centered care, It is essential to know the patient’s values, beliefs, cultural background, and readiness to learn to get better. Understanding how they approach or value health care, I’ll be able to provide better and more effective care to my patients.

    QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs

    Safety

    Reduces the risk of harm to every patient and provider and delivers care effectively (Cronenwett et al., 2007).

    Within two weeks, I can learn how to identify the risk factors that can contribute to patient safety. By identifying errors, I can safely communicate to others how to avoid possible dangers that might occur when safety measures are being put aside. There are many resources that I can use to learn and get information, for example, the QSEN study material and the university library.

    As a nurse, I always need to prioritize the safety of my patients. Safety is paramount; many guidelines need to be followed when providing care. By valuing the safety protocol of hospitals or facilities, I can prevent patient harm from happening.

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 3 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education

    Clinical Prevention and Population Health

    Health promotion, disease, and injury prevention across the lifespan are essential elements of baccalaureate nursing practice at the individual and population levels (AACN, 2008, pg 23). The knowledge that I need to know on promoting health and disease prevention can help make a difference in the community. Assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations in preparing and minimizing the health consequences of emergencies, including mass casualty disasters, is a skill needed to help improve the health of individuals or communities. Also, caring with passion will have a positive effect

    A month from today, I will develop skills that can be very helpful to provide disease prevention and health promotion. I will focus on studying how to improve disease prevention and how to deliver this message to the member of the community. Teaching about handwashing, vaccinations are just a few examples that I can do by myself to share knowledge with others.

    Knowing how to prevent some illnesses is essential knowledge that a nurse should have. As a nurse, I can help the community or individuals avoid the spread of infection and avoid getting or catching it, for example, being up to date on vaccination, teaching the importance of handwashing, wearing a face mask. With this knowledge, I can make a difference in the community.

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education

    Professionalism and Professional Values

    Professional values and the associated behaviors are foundational to the practice of nursing (AACN, 2008, pg. 26). The inherent in professional practice is an understanding of nursing practice’s historical, legal, and contemporary context (AACN, 2008. pg 26.) It is essential to know the

    Within seven days, I will provide care with compassion and delegate appropriate work to other healthcare teams to provide care promptly. It is not easy to delegate sometimes, especially when you have an overwhelming workload. But, I plan to have good time management to provide care

    Professionalism in healthcare is vital because, as a nurse, we deal with so many circumstances. Nurses have to act professionally when communicating with patients and the patient’s families. Professionalism comes with accountability, meaning we are in a profession where we are

    Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 4 of 4

    Guiding Entity

    Competency/Essential

    Needed KSAs

    Improvement Plan

    Importance

    patients and how to approach a patient or family. Different cultures require different approaches, so knowing their backgrounds is necessary. Having accountability and professionalism will result in a positive patient-nurse relationship and better health outcomes.

    fast and safely.

    accountable for our actions. Showing professionalism has a positive effect on the person around us. Nurses gain trust and respect in their work by how they look, talk, and provide care. As a nurse, gaining trust from the patient and family is very important, and this trust is difficult to attain without showing professionalism.

    Reference

    Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., … Warren, J. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 55(3)122-131. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2007.02.006

    The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. (2008, March 20). The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf

    powerpoint

    pCap1_Company_Overview.pptx

    Irene Shviktar

    Vice President, Marketing

    Front Range Action Sports

    4/3/2017

    Lastname_Firstname_1J_Overview

    1

    Mission

    Our mission is to provide customers with an unparalleled collection of sporting goods and outdoor recreation merchandise. We strive to do so while ensuring that our clients receive the best customer service possible so that they can enjoy their recreational activities to the fullest.

    Jet skis, wakeboards, ski boats, and water skis.

    Specialized merchandise

    The largest selection of water sports merchandise is in our Colorado stores.

    3

    4/3/2017

    Lastname_Firstname_1J_Overview

    johnson_PowerPoint_Capstone1_Winter_Products.pptx

    Front Range Action Sports

    A New Line of Action in the Rockies and Beyond

    Reaching New Heights with Our 2019 Goals

    Increasing our market position in the Western United States in the Winter Sports arena

    Expanding Our Place in the Action

    Winter Sports in the Western U.S.

    Skiing

    A popular sport with staying power

    Average age of participant: 35 years

    Snowboarding

    Fastest growing winter sport

    Average age of participant: 23 years

    Winter Product Line Sales Projections In Millions

    California and Washington residents increasingly spend their winter vacation time at local resort areas such as Lake Tahoe and Crystal Mountain.

    Action Plan Summary

    Front Range Action Sports

    PowerPoint_Introductory_Capstone1_Winter_Products_Instructions.docx

    Grader – Instructions PPT 2019 Project

    PowerPoint_Introductory_Capstone1_Winter_Products

    Project Description:

    In this project, you will apply skills you practiced from the Objectives in PowerPoint Chapters 1 through 3. You will develop a presentation that Irene Shviktar, Vice President of Marketing, will show at a corporate marketing retreat that summarizes the company’s plans to expand the winter sports product line.


    Steps to Perform:

    Step

    Instructions

    Points Possible

    1

    Open the PowerPoint file PowerPoint_Capstone1_Winter_Products.pptx downloaded with this project.

    0

    2

    Change the Slide Size to Widescreen, and then change the Colors to Blue II.

    4

    3

    Format the background of Slide 1 with the picture downloaded with this project—pCap1_Skiing.jpg. Select the subtitle, and then use the Eyedropper to change the font color to the dark red color of the skier’s jacket. Apply bold to the subtitle.

    4

    4

    With Slide 1 displayed, insert the second slide from the downloaded presentation named pCap1_Company_Overview.pptx.
    Mac users: Insert all slides and then delete the title slide (FRONT RANGE ACTION SPORTS) and the third slide (SPECIALIZED MERCHANDISE) from the Company Overview presentation.

    2

    5

    On Slide 2, in the content placeholder, center the paragraph, increase the font size to 32, and then apply bold and italic. Click the Bullets button to toggle it off.

    6

    6

    On Slide 2, change the line spacing of the content placeholder text to 1.5. Change the shape fill to the first color in the sixth column, and then change the font color to White, Background 1—the first color in the first column.

    4

    7

    On Slide 2, format the content placeholder with the first bevel shape effect—Round. Format the title with the first WordArt style and increase the font size to 80.

    Note, the bevel effect may be named Circle depending on the version of Office used.

    6

    8

    Display Slide 3, and then change the slide layout to Content with Caption. In the content placeholder, from the downloaded project files, insert pCap1_Heights.jpg. Apply the first reflection picture effect—Tight Reflection: Touching.

    4

    9

    On Slide 3, format the slide background with the last Theme color in the sixth column. Be sure to apply the background color only to Slide 3. Increase the font size of the caption placeholder text to 24.

    4

    10

    Display Slide 4, and then in the content placeholder, insert the Process type SmartArt graphic Segmented Process. Change the color to Colored Fill – Accent 2, and then apply the 3-D Cartoon style. Center the slide title and hide the background graphics.

    7

    11

    In the SmartArt, in the top, dark blue text rectangle, type Washington and California Resorts and then click in the light blue text placeholder below and to the left. Type Mammoth Mountain in California and then click in the text placeholder to the right. Type Mission Ridge in Washington

    3

    12

    In the middle of the SmartArt graphic, click the dark blue shape. Type Our Market Position and then click in the light blue text placeholder below and to the left. Type Trusted brand name and then click in the text placeholder to the right. Type Expansion planned for Western U.S. (include the period.)

    3

    13

    In the last dark blue shape, type Poised for Growth and then click in the text placeholder below and to the left. Type New warehouses in Washington and then click in the text placeholder to the right. Type Proposed retail division in California

    3

    14

    Display Slide 5, and then insert a new slide with the Two Content layout. On the inserted slide, enter Our Most Popular Winter Products as the slide title. Center the title.

    4

    15

    On Slide 6, in the content placeholder on the left, type the following six list items and then change the font size to 36 and apply the default numbering style.
    Snowboards
    Boots
    Goggles
    Bindings
    Skis
    Jackets

    5

    16

    On Slide 6 in the placeholder on the right, search Online Pictures using the search phrase snowboard and then insert an appropriate image from the results. Change the Height of the picture to 3.5 and then apply the preset Glow: 8 point; Turquoise, Accent color 1 glow effect— in the first column, the second effect.

    Select and delete any additional text boxes that may display when the image is inserted.

    3

    17

    Display Slide 7, and then in the content placeholder, insert a Clustered Column chart. In the worksheet, enter the following data:
    Oregon Colorado British Columbia
    Year 1 12.2 17.5 6.5
    Year 2 14.5 19.2 8.7
    Year 3 11.9 18.6 10.6
    Year 4 17.6 22.4 11.3

    2

    18

    Apply Chart Style 8, and then remove the Chart Title element. Animate the chart by applying the Wipe entrance effect.

    2

    19

    Display Slide 8, and then hide the background graphics on the slide. Format the background with the downloaded picture file—pCap1_Lake.jpg.

    4

    20

    On Slide 8, align the text placeholder to the top and center of the slide. Change the Font Color to White, Background 1—the first color in the first column, and the Font to Calibri (Body). Apply Bold.

    5

    21

    In the slide thumbnails, select Slides 5 and 9. Apply a Solid Fill background color using the second color in the sixth column, under Theme colors.

    4

    22

    Display Slide 9. Insert the downloaded picture file pCap1_ Mountain.jpg. Change the picture Height to 2.25 and then apply the second glow effect in the first column.

    3

    23

    On Slide 9, use the Crop to Shape option to change the picture shape to the tenth Basic Shape in the third row—Cloud. Align the picture to the center and middle of the slide.

    3

    24

    On Slide 9, insert a Frame shape anywhere on the slide. Change the Height to 2.5 and the Width to 4.5, and then type Moving to the Top of the Winter Sports Action in the shape. Align the shape to the bottom of the slide. Select the title, picture, and frame, and then align the objects to the center of the slide. Apply the second style in the third column shape style to the Frame shape.

    7

    25

    To all of the slides in the presentation, apply the Page Curl transition with the Single Left Effect Option.

    2

    26

    Display Slide 6, and then apply the Split entrance effect to the numbered list.

    2

    27

    Display Slide 3. In the Notes pane, type The key elements necessary to achieve our goals are the expansion of the winter sports product line and an aggressive marketing campaign. (include the period).

    2

    28

    Insert a Header & Footer for the Notes and Handouts. Include the Date and time updated automatically, the Page number, and a Footer with the text Capstone1_Winter_Products.

    2

    29

    Save and close the file, and then submit for grading.

    0

    Total Points

    100

    Created On: 03/04/2020 1 GO19_PP_INTRO_GRADER_CAP1 – Winter Products 1.2

    pCap1_Heights.jpg

    pCap1_Lake.jpg

    pCap1_Mountain.jpg

    pCap1_Skiing.jpg

    PowerPoint

    Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

    • Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
    • Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
    • Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

    Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

    Powerpoint

    Host-Microbe Coevolution: Applying Evidence from Model
    Systems to Complex Marine Invertebrate Holobionts

    Paul A. O’Brien,a,b,c Nicole S. Webster,b,c,d David J. Miller,e,f David G. Bournea,b,c

    aCollege of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    bAustralian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    cAIMS@JCU, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    dAustralian Centre for Ecogenomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    eARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    fCentre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

    ABSTRACT Marine invertebrates often host diverse microbial communities, making
    it difficult to identify important symbionts and to understand how these communi-
    ties are structured. This complexity has also made it challenging to assign microbial
    functions and to unravel the myriad of interactions among the microbiota. Here we
    propose to address these issues by applying evidence from model systems of host-
    microbe coevolution to complex marine invertebrate microbiomes. Coevolution is
    the reciprocal adaptation of one lineage in response to another and can occur
    through the interaction of a host and its beneficial symbiont. A classic indicator of
    coevolution is codivergence of host and microbe, and evidence of this is found in
    both corals and sponges. Metabolic collaboration between host and microbe is of-
    ten linked to codivergence and appears likely in complex holobionts, where micro-
    bial symbionts can interact with host cells through production and degradation of
    metabolic compounds. Neutral models are also useful to distinguish selected mi-
    crobes against a background population consisting predominately of random associ-
    ates. Enhanced understanding of the interactions between marine invertebrates and
    their microbial communities is urgently required as coral reefs face unprecedented
    local and global pressures and as active restoration approaches, including manipula-
    tion of the microbiome, are proposed to improve the health and tolerance of reef
    species. On the basis of a detailed review of the literature, we propose three re-
    search criteria for examining coevolution in marine invertebrates: (i) identifying sto-
    chastic and deterministic components of the microbiome, (ii) assessing codivergence
    of host and microbe, and (iii) confirming the intimate association based on shared
    metabolic function.

    KEYWORDS codivergence, coevolution, marine invertebrates, microbiome,
    phylosymbiosis

    Coevolution theory dates back to the 19th century (box 1), and coevolution iscurrently referred to as the reciprocal evolution of one lineage in response to
    another (1). This definition encompasses a broad range of interactions such as predator-
    prey, host-symbiont, and host-parasite interactions or interactions among the members
    of a community of organisms such as a host and its associated microbiome (1, 2). In the
    case of host-microbe associations, this has produced some of the most remarkable
    evolutionary outcomes that have shaped life on Earth, such as the eukaryotic cell,
    multicellularity, and the development of organ systems (3, 4). It is now recognized that
    microbial associations with a multicellular host represent the rule rather than the

    Citation O’Brien PA, Webster NS, Miller DJ,
    Bourne DG. 2019. Host-microbe coevolution:
    applying evidence from model systems to
    complex marine invertebrate holobionts. mBio
    10:e02241-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio
    .02241-18.

    Editor Danielle A. Garsin, University of Texas
    Health Science Center at Houston

    Copyright © 2019 O’Brien et al. This is an
    open-access article distributed under the terms
    of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
    International license.

    Address correspondence to David G. Bourne,
    david.bourne@jcu.edu.au.

    Published 5 February 2019

    MINIREVIEW
    Host-Microbe Biology

    crossm

    January/February 2019 Volume 10 Issue 1 e02241-18 ® mbio.asm.org 1

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    exception (4), but in complex associations of that kind, the extent to which coevolution
    operates is often unclear.

    BOX 1: A BRIEF HISTORY OF COEVOLUTION
    Charles Darwin once explained the sudden and rapid diversification of flowering

    plants as an “abominable mystery,” since it could not be explained by traditional
    views of evolution alone (5). While his correspondent Gaston de Saporta speculated
    that a biological interaction between flowering plants and insects might be the
    cause of the phenomenon, it was not until nearly 100 years later that the concept of
    coevolution developed. In a pioneering study, Ehrlich and Raven (6) observed that
    related groups of butterflies were feeding on related groups of plants and specu-
    lated this was due to a process for which they coined the name “coevolution.” Using
    butterflies, they argued that plants had evolved mechanisms to overcome predation
    from herbivores, which in turn had evolved new ways to prey on plants. Decades on,
    the introduction of phylogenetics has shown that plants evolved in the absence of
    butterflies, which colonized the diverse group of plants after their chemical defenses
    were already in place (7). Nevertheless, the theory of coevolution was endorsed, and
    two important points came to light. First, care must be taken when inferring
    coevolution from seemingly parallel lines of evolution, and where possible, diver-
    gence times and common ancestry should be included. Second, coevolution can
    occur between communities of organisms (“guild” coevolution), as observed in the
    case of flowering plants, where predation and pollination from a wide variety of
    insects likely influenced the diversification of angiosperms (8).

    Since coevolution can occur across multiple levels of interactions, multiple theories
    have also developed. The Red Queen theory is based on the concept of antagonistic
    coevolution and assumes that an adaptation that increases the fitness of one species
    will come at the cost to the fitness of another (9). This type of coevolution has been
    most pronounced in host-parasite interactions, where the antagonistic interactions are
    closely coupled (10). However, coevolutionary patterns may also arise in the case of
    mutualistic symbioses, which require reciprocal adaptations to the benefit of each
    partner (11). Mutualistic coevolution is associated with a number of key traits that are
    discussed further in this review, such as obligate symbiosis, vertical inheritance, and
    metabolic collaboration. Third, coevolution has also recently been placed in context of
    the hologenome theory (12), which suggests that the holobiont can act as a unit of
    selection (but not necessarily as the primary unit) since the combined genomes
    influence the host phenotype on which selection may operate (13, 14). However,
    hologenome theory also acknowledges that selection acts on each component of the
    holobiont individually as well as in combination with other components (including the
    host). Thus, the entity that is the hologenome may be formed, in part, through
    coevolution of interacting holobiont compartments, in addition to neutral processes
    (12).

    Given the ubiquitous nature of host-microbe associations and the huge metabolic
    potential that microorganisms represent, it is not surprising that evidence of host-
    microbe coevolution is emerging. Model representatives of both simple and complex
    associations are being used to study coevolution, allowing researchers to look for
    specific traits, signals, and patterns (1, 15). A well-known model system is the pea-aphid
    and its endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Buchnera. This insect has evolved special-
    ized cells known as bacteriocytes to host its endosymbionts, which in turn synthesize
    and translocate amino acids that are missing from the diet of the pea aphids (16).
    Amino acid synthesis occurs through intimate cooperation between host and symbiont,
    with some pathways missing from the host and some from the symbiont, such that the
    relationship is obligate to the extent that the one organism cannot survive without the
    other (17). The human gut microbiome has been extensively studied in complex
    systems and has been shown to be intimately associated with human health. Gut

    Minireview ®

    January/February 2019 Volume 10 Issue 1 e02241-18 mbio.asm.org 2

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    microbes have been shown to be linked with human behavior and development
    through metabolic processes, such as microbial regulation of the essential amino acid
    tryptophan (18, 19). The human microbiome contains around 150-fold more nonre-
    dundant genes than the human genome (20), and the metabolic capacity of microbes
    residing in the intestine is believed to have been a driving evolutionary force in the
    host-microbe coevolution of humans (2). In these examples, as well as many others
    (21–23), both host and symbiont evolved to maintain and facilitate the symbiosis.
    Furthermore, phylogenies of host and symbiont in these systems are often mirrored,
    indicating that host and symbiont are diverging in parallel (16, 24, 25), a phenomenon
    known as codivergence (26).

    In the marine environment, invertebrates can host microbial communities as simple
    and stable as that of the pea aphid or as complex and dynamic as that of the human
    gut (Fig. 1). The Hawaiian bobtail squid, for example, maintains an exclusive symbiosis
    with a single bacterial symbiont which it hosts within a specialized light organ (27). On
    the other hand, corals host enormously diverse microbial communities, comprising
    thousands of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which are often influ-
    enced by season, location, host health, and host genotype (28–31). Marine sponges also
    host complex microbial communities with diversity comparable to that of corals (32)
    but with associations that are generally far more stable in space and time (33).
    Less-diverse microbial communities are found in the sea anemone Aiptasia, where the
    number of OTUs is generally in the low hundreds (34). Due to the close taxonomic
    relationship of Aiptasia with coral and its comparatively simple microbial community, it
    has been proposed as a model organism for studying coral microbiology and symbiosis
    (34). Some marine invertebrates also include species along a continuum of microbial
    diversities. Ascidians, for example, have been shown to host fewer than 10 (Polycarpa
    aurata) or close to 500 (Didemnum sp.) microbial OTUs within their inner tunic (35).
    Furthermore, species with low microbial diversity such as P. aurata can exhibit high
    intraspecific variation, with as few as 8% of OTUs shared among individuals of the same
    species (35). Taken together, the data from those studies highlight the vast spectrum
    of associations that marine invertebrates form with microbial communities in terms of
    diversity, composition, and stability (Fig. 1).

    While previous research has provided a good understanding of the composition of
    marine invertebrate microbiomes, our understanding of how the microbiome interacts
    with the host, and of the potential to coevolve, is far more limited. Moreover, the

    FIG 1 Spectrum of microbial diversity associated with different compartments of marine invertebrates. Microbial associations may involve a single symbiont
    in a specialized organ or over 1,000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with tissues. The levels of OTUs reported in the figure represent the highest
    recorded in the referenced study for that species. Reported levels of diversity may differ significantly within the same species across different studies.

    Minireview ®

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    increasing number of studies generating tremendous volumes of host-associated
    microbiome sequence data requires theoretical development to interpret these rela-
    tionships. Coevolved microbial symbionts are presumed to be intimately linked with
    host fitness and metabolism (36); therefore, understanding these relationships in
    marine invertebrates will have direct implications for health and disease processes in
    these animals. Three research criteria arise for examining coevolution in marine inver-
    tebrates: (i) identifying stochastic and deterministic microbial components of the
    microbiome, (ii) assessing codivergence of host and microbe, and (iii) confirming an
    intimate association between host and microbe related to shared metabolic function
    (metabolic collaboration). While each of these criteria may be fulfilled without the
    involvement of coevolution (26, 37, 38), evidence of their existence in combination
    provides a strong basis for establishing coevolution patterns (Fig. 2). This review
    positions these three criteria in coevolution as representing a complementary approach
    to the study of complex marine invertebrate microbiomes by drawing from examples
    of model systems. Focussing on keystone coral reef invertebrates, this review also
    evaluates the current evidence for each criterion. Finally, while parasites and pathogens
    also contribute to host coevolution, the focus of this review is mutualistic symbionts;
    thus, pathogens and parasitism are not discussed.

    BOX 2: GLOSSARY
    (i) Codivergence. Two organisms which speciate or diverge in parallel as illus-

    trated by topological congruency of phylogenetic trees.
    (ii) Coevolution. Reciprocal adaptation of one (or more) lineage(s) in response to

    another (or others).
    (iii) Holobiont. A host organism and its associated microbial community.
    (iv) Hologenome. The collective genomes of a host and its associated microbial

    community, which may act as a unit of selection or at discrete levels.
    (v) Metabolic collaboration. Two or more oganisms that are linked through

    metabolic interactions, generally to the benefit of one another.
    (vi) Metagenome. The collective microbial genes recovered from an environmen-

    tal sample, usually predominantly prokaryotic.
    (vii) Metatranscriptomics. Quantification of the total microbial mRNA in a sample

    as an indication of gene expression and active microbial functions.
    (viii) Microbiome. The total genetic make-up of a microbial community associated

    with a habitat.
    (ix) Microbiota. The community of microorganisms residing in a particular habitat,

    usually a host organism.
    (x) Phylosymbiosis. The rentention of a host phylogenetic signal within its

    associated microbial community.
    (xi) Virome. The total viral genetic content recovered from an environmental

    sample.

    UNTANGLING PATTERNS OF HOST-MICROBE COEVOLUTION IN A WEB OF
    MICROBES

    (i) Phylosymbiosis and neutral theory—identifying stochastic and determinis-
    tic components of the microbiome. Host-microbe coevolution may occur to some
    degree at the level of the hologenome, i.e., reciprocal evolution of the host genome
    and microbiome (12). Therefore, it is necessary to understand microbial community
    structure and population dynamics within the host environment. This may illustrate (i)
    that the microbiome associated with a host is structured through phylogenetically
    related host traits and may therefore retain a host phylogenetic signal (phylosymbiosis)
    and (ii) that certain microbes deviate from the expected patterns of neutral population
    dynamics, i.e., stochastic births and deaths and immigration. It is likely that phylosym-
    biosis and neutral population dynamics are linked; therefore, their potential to con-
    tribute to coevolution is discussed together.

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    Homocysteine + Serine
    (host diet & metabolism)

    Cystathionine B-synthase
    (symbiont enzyme)

    Cystathionine

    Cystathionine y-lyase
    (host enzyme)

    Cysteine

    S-H
    CH2

    C COOH H2N
    H

    Bacteria spp. 1

    Host spp. A

    d)

    Host phylogeny Microbial dendrogram
    Host species

    A

    B

    C

    D

    a)

    b)

    Host phylogeny Microbial phylogeny

    Bacteria spp. 1

    A

    B

    C

    D

    Relative abundance of
    microbes in host sample

    Fr
    eq

    ue
    nc

    y
    of

    m
    ic

    ro
    be

    s
    in

    h
    os

    t Bacteria spp. 1

    Bacteria spp.2
    Low High

    0

    1

    c)

    FIG 2 Hypothetical scenario addressing three criteria for host-microbe coevolution in species A to D. (a) Phylosymbiosis
    shown through hierarchical clustering of the microbial community, resulting in a microbial dendrogram which mirrors host
    phylogeny. (b) Neutral model showing the expected occurrence of microbes based on neutral population dynamics (blue
    line). As the relative abundance increases, so too does the occurrence in host samples. The members of bacterial species
    group 1 (Bacteria spp. 1) are therefore more abundant than would be expected by chance and may indicate active selection,
    while the members of Bacteria spp. 2 are less abundant. (c) Codivergence of the members of Bacteria spp. 1 with their hosts.
    The members of Bacteria spp. 1 are found within the microbial community of each host species and appear to be actively
    selected for. Their phylogeny indicates a host split at the strain level followed by diversification within each host species.
    Congruence between host and microbial lineages suggests important host-microbe interactions and warrants further
    investigation. (d) Metabolic collaboration between the members of Host spp. A and those of Bacteria spp. 1. Fluorescence
    in-situ hybridization (FISH) confirms that the members of Bacteria spp. 1 are located within bacteriocyte cells in the tissues
    of Host spp. A. Genome and transcriptome data for each species suggest that the amino acid cysteine is produced by the
    activity of a metabolic pathway shared between host and microbe. In corals of the genus Acropora, for example, the
    genome is incomplete with respect to biosynthesis of cysteine and represents a potential pathway for collaborations of host
    and microbe (101). Hypothetically, the amino acids homocysteine and serine (potentially sourced from host diet and
    metabolism) are combined to form cystathionine through the enzyme cystathionine V synthase (provided by the host’s
    endosymbiont). The host enzyme cystathionine �-lyase then breaks down cystathionine to form cysteine.

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    The term “phylosymbiosis” is not intended to imply coevolution (12, 38); however,
    coevolution of a host and microbiome may reinforce patterns of phylosymbiosis. There
    are many host traits that correlate with host phylogeny, some of which can act as
    environmental filters, preventing the establishment of microbes in the host environ-
    ment. Thus, neutral population dynamics, with host traits acting as an ecological filter
    to microbial immigration, may be sufficient to result in phylosymbiotic patterns (39, 40).
    However, host traits are not static; thus, the evolution of these microbial niches may
    further drive the radiation of the microbes that reside within them. In turn, the
    continuous colonization over many generations of a microbial community likely adds
    to the selective pressure on host traits. Therefore, ecological filtering of microbes
    through host traits and coevolution of a host and microbiome need not be mutually
    exclusive in the appearance of phylosymbiosis (39). Moreover, assessing patterns of
    phylosymbiosis and neutral population dynamics also allows the detection of microbes
    that deviate from these patterns and may identify important microbial species that are
    actively selected for (or against) by the host. In this context, neutral models can
    simulate expected microbial abundance, allowing easier detection of microbes that do
    not fit these patterns (41). This reasoning justifies consideration of phylosymbiosis and
    microbial population dynamics in assessing coevolution in complex holobionts.

    Patterns of phylosymbiosis are frequently detected in complex holobionts. One
    particular study tested for phylosymbiosis across 24 species of terrestrial animals from
    4 groups that included Peromyscus deer mice, Drosophila flies, mosquitos, and Nasonia
    wasps and an additional data set of 7 hominid species (42). Since these animals (with
    the exception of hominids) could be reared under controlled laboratory conditions,
    environmental influences could be eliminated, leaving the host as the sole factor
    influencing the microbial community. Under these conditions, phylosymbiotic patterns
    were clearly observed for all five groups, with phylogenetically related taxa sharing
    similar microbial communities and microbial dendrograms mirroring host phylogenies.
    Similar patterns of phylosymbiosis have been observed in a growing number of
    terrestrial systems, including all five gut regions in rodents (43), the skin of ungulates
    (44), the distal gut in hominids (45), and roots of multiple plant phyla (46), providing
    evidence that such patterns are common among host-associated microbiomes.

    In the marine environment, two major studies, one involving 236 colonies across 32
    genera of scleractinian coral collected from the east and west coasts of Australia (47)
    and the other involving 804 samples of 81 sponge species collected from the Atlantic
    Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (32),
    have provided the most convincing examples of phylosymbiosis. Both studies found a
    significant evolutionary signal of the host with respect to microbial diversity and
    composition. Specifically, mantel tests were used to delineate the finding that closely
    related corals and sponges hosted more extensively similar microbial communities in
    terms of composition than would be expected by chance. In the case of corals, the
    similarity was seen in the skeleton and, to a lesser extent, in the tissue microbiome,
    while the mucus microbiome was more highly influenced by the surrounding environ-
    ment (47). However, both studies found that host species was the strongest factor in
    explaining dissimilarity among microbial communities. Additional studies on both cold
    water and tropical sponges have found similar phylogenetic patterns within the
    microbiome of the host species (48, 49). Together, these results suggest that host
    phylogeny (or associated traits) has a significant role in structuring associated microbial
    communities, although there are additional factors related to host identity (and unre-
    lated to phylogeny) that also likely play a major role.

    Most studies to date have focused on the microbes that adhere to these patterns of
    phylosymbiosis, though more-useful information arguably could be determined from
    the microbes that do not. Since phylosymbiosis is a pattern that shows correlations
    between microbiome dissimilarity and host phylogeny, it does not indicate active
    microbial selection or cospeciation (38), and the species that deviate from these
    patterns would be interesting targets for studies of codivergence and metabolic
    collaboration (see below). Neutral models have been applied to three species of

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    sponges, a jellyfish, and a sea anemone, and while neutral models have been shown to
    fit well to the expectation of microbial abundance in sponges (which also show
    phylosymbiosis), jellyfish and sea anemone microbiomes were found to be associated
    with a higher level of nonneutrality (40). Potential reasons for nonneutrality include the
    presence of a more sophisticated immune system in cnidarians that provides active
    selection on certain microbial taxa and that the microbiomes in such cases are more
    transient or a combination of the two. In summary, neutral population dynamics filtered
    through phylogenetically related host traits likely result in, or at least contribute to, the
    observed patterns of phylosymbiosis. This does not necessarily mean that the pattern
    is unimportant or is not contributing to coevolution at the hologenome level, and it
    may be that the communities of microbes that follow these patterns are responsible for
    broad ecological functions (50). On the other hand, microbes that deviate from these
    patterns may be responsible for more-specific functions and are of high interest to
    those trying to identify symbionts and coevolution at the microbial species or strain
    level.

    (ii) Codivergence—microbial phylogeny and host phylogeny are congruent.
    The second criterion in assessing host-microbe coevolution is that of whether individ-
    ual microbial lineages and their hosts have matching phylogenies (22, 24, 51). Codi-
    vergence implies a tightly coupled, long-term interaction between two species and can
    potentially identify beneficial symbionts (or parasites) that have coevolved with the
    host (26). However, it is also important that codivergence can arise due to processes
    other than coevolution, such as one species adaptively tracking another, which would
    imply that the evolution is not reciprocal, or two species responding independently to
    the same speciation event or environmental stress (37). In known cases of coevolution,
    phylogenies of hosts and their microbial symbionts are congruent (16, 51, 52). However,
    in complex and uncharacterized systems, this strategy can be reversed to identify
    potential symbionts. Therefore, the main value of investigating codivergence in com-
    plex associations is to identify those specific microbes on which to focus further
    attention.

    Codivergence has been demonstrated in the case of Hydra viridissima, a freshwater
    relative of marine cnidarians, and its photosymbiont Chlorella (53). In this system,
    photosynthetically fixed carbohydrates from Chlorella are transported to its host (54),
    and phylogenetic analysis of 6 strains of H. viridissima and their vertically transmitted
    symbionts revealed clear congruency of host and symbiont topologies (55). In more-
    complex systems, patterns of codivergence have been illustrated in the gut microbiota
    of hominids (25). Analysis of fecal samples from humans, wild chimpanzees, wild
    bonobos, and wild gorillas showed that four clades of bacteria from the dominant
    families Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae codiverged with host phylogeny. Impor-
    tantly, this example illustrates one possible way of identifying codivergence in complex
    holobionts where the symbionts are unknown. Since bacteria from the families Bacte-
    roidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Lachnospiraceae are known to dominate the gut of
    hominids, multiple primer sets targeting each individual family were utilized, and
    phylogenetic analyses of the families were completed independently. Furthermore,
    instead of using the relatively slowly diverging 16S rRNA gene, the fast-evolving and
    variable gene encoding DNA gyrase subunit B was used for bacterial phylogenetics.
    Similar methods may be applied to complex marine invertebrates such as coral and
    sponges, where 16S rRNA gene studies have identified prominent bacteria.

    Within complex marine invertebrate holobionts, codivergence has been most clearly
    demonstrated in cold-water sponges in the family Latrunculiidae. The microbiomes of
    six species within this family were dominated by a single betaproteobacterial OTU, and
    the phylogeny of this OTU was highly congruent with that of the host (56). Further-
    more, gene expression analysis suggested that the dominant betaproteobacteria are
    active members of the microbiome rather than dormant or nonviable members;
    however, whether or not this potential symbiont and its host participate in metabolic
    collaboration is unknown, highlighting an example warranting further investigation.
    The microbiomes of many other marine invertebrates are dominated by members of

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    the genus Endozoicomonas (57). A pan-genomic analysis of the genomes of seven
    Endozoicomonas strains representing a broad range of hosts (corals, sponges, and sea
    slugs) provided some evidence for codivergence (58). Strikingly, the two closely related
    corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa hosted Endozoicomonas with
    highly similar genomes. A second, large-scale study (47) found that Endozoicomon

    Powerpoint

     Need a 16

     slide long power point within 8 hrs       Introduction   Main critique theme  Critique theme is   focused and clearly explained     Significance  Makes clear what   motivates them to explore main theme/question and significance     Background  Explains background   on the problem     Body content and article   evaluation   Overall  each section of body   content provides details of all 3 articles, articles are thoroughly but   concisely compared, contrasted and evaluated clearly     Introduce articles  Give article details   (citation), provide each paper’s objective/hypotheses     Article methods  Methods summarized   and evaluated completely for all 3 articles     Article results  Results are   summarized and evaluated, tables/figures used from papers to help with   critique     Article discussions  Discussions are   summarized and thoroughly evaluated for all 3 articles     Summary  Summarizes strengths   and weaknesses of each article, makes a concluding statement overall about   the critique theme     Speculation  Suggests what should   be done next, points out new questions raised by work     Citation slide  Any studies mentioned   during the presentation are listed and all publication information given in a   ‘References’ slide       Organization   of presentation   Purpose of slides  Purpose of each   slide is clear to the listener (title of slide contains premise)     Continuity  Effective   transitions between slides contribute to a continuous sequence of connected   ideas, slides flow well     Roadmap  Provides a   roadmap/preview then several reminders/singpost during the talk so that the   listener never feels lost     Figures  Every figure and   image is clearly labeled and all figures are fully explained by the presenter     Attractiveness  slides are laid out   well, text is easy to read and colors do not clash, there are no distracting   transitions     Timing  15 min

    Powerpoint

     

    Directions: Each student is required to develop a PowerPoint for chapters 16 & 17 in the Creswell textbook. 

    Students are encouraged to be creative and include Video-links to their Power-Points. DO NOT JUST COPY what is on the Book – Look for other sources.

    Make sure your PowerPoint includes a reflection on the following guiding questions:

    Connections: What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your learning?

    Challenge: What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue with in the text?

    Concepts: What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text?

    Changes: What changes in attitudes, thinking, or action are suggested by the text, either for you or others?

    • The Power-Point file should be named as follows:  First Name_Last Name_EEC6678_PPT

    powerpoint

    Running head: NUTRITION 1

    NUTRITION 7

    Name: Samikshya Timilsena

    Class: NFS234301

    Date: 03/31/2022

    Product Paper

    Nutritious Milk Shake

    Introduction

    Nutrition is important for all the population and demands for an important attention to make sure that everyone is healthy and have all the recommended nutrients. Working in a school environment has contributed to my interaction with children that have their daily snacks and out of curiosity tried to look into the type of products that most of them are consuming. I got to understand that 80% of the children were having the kind frozen smoothie bowl and the children love the product due to its best packaging and sweet taste of the fruit flavors that are used that range from banana, raspberry, blackberry, acai and almond (Eda et al., 2017). The kind frozen smoothie bowl is the currently used product as a snack for the kids as their breakfast. The needs that are lacking in the current product is the vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin A, calcium and iron that falls under the necessity for children since they are in their developmental stage and need to develop strong bones, teeth and muscles.

    Purpose

    The paper targets in the development of the fortified milkshake product targeting school-going children as their breakfast. The milkshake is fortified with the vitamin D, vitamin A, folic acid, calcium and iron for the purpose of helping the children in their developing stage to have strong bonds, teeth and muscle development. The product brand is Nutritious Joyous Milkshake.

    It can feel like an uphill task to get kids to consume healthful foods. It is more difficult to make a child take nutritious foods like the leafy ones which are healthier. However, a child’s nutrition is extremely crucial. Do not give in and let them live off of fast food and sugary drinks and treats. It is all worth it in the end. Everyone, regardless of age, should eat nutritious foods to avoid obesity and lifestyle diseases. Proper nutrition is essential for your children’s health and development. Healthy eating habits and nutritional information may be instilled in your child early on in life with the right nutrition for children. Help your children develop healthy eating habits by teaching them about the importance of excellent nutrition. It is easier to get your child enthused about eating healthily if he understands the basics of nutrition. There is the need for awareness and education of the parents about the nutrition of their children and consider watching what their children are eating because they have detrimental impact in their old age (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Parents should take the responsibility of making sure that they understand the composition of the food that the child took during the day and ensure that there is a balanced diet and junky food are avoided for a good healthy.

    The body’s calcium and phosphate levels are regulated in part by vitamin D. The nutrient is taken by children to keep their teeth and muscles healthy. Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets in children and osteomalacia, a disorder that causes bone discomfort in adults. Taking a daily vitamin D pill is recommended by the government for everyone in the autumn and winter (Gavin, 2021). Children are in a stage that require the nutrients like calcium and iron for the purpose of the development of strong bones, muscles and teeth. Iron is needed in children development because it helps in moving oxygen from the lungs to the rest part of the body (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Additionally, iron makes the child’s muscles to store and use the oxygen. The body has no ability of developing its own iron and require iron to be taken as supplements and sourced from foods. Children requires the vitamin D in their bodies that play an important role as the prohormone that helps in the calcium absorption (Iannelli, 2021). Children need food that is rich with all the nutrients that include the vitamin A that plays a huge part in eye vision (Gavin, 2021). The high intake of the vitamin A makes an individual have the ability to differential different colors and also have a good night vision. Additionally, vitamin A is important in the body of a child in building a strong immune against infections. Folic acid is another nutrient that is needed in a child development and it helps in assisting in the development of internal organs that were not fully developed during the 12 weeks pregnancy. The folic acid is also important in the process of the prevention of the neural tube defects.

    My product that is “Nutritious Joyous Milkshake” is a fortified and flavored milkshake that would replace the kind frozen smoothie bowl, and this is the reason to why it is necessary to have it in place in providing additional nutrients that the previous product was not offering. The addition of iron, calcium, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A into the milkshake product is done through the fortification process. Fortification is a process which is a practice of adding vitamins and minerals to a consumed food product that initially lack the components and it is done during processing state to increase its nutritional value (Olson et al., 2021). The nutrients are incorporated into the milkshake product through fortification process that occurs during the processing of the product where it is intentionally added the five mentioned nutrients in the right quantities as needed by the children. The process is much paramount and targets on adding the nutritional value to the milkshake and this happen that the right amounts are added assuring the customers that the product is nutritious, and the children needs for body development is present in the product for their breakfast (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The process of developing the Nutritious Joyous Milkshake is just done like the other milkshake but for this different flavor that is mango, strawberry and blackberry flavors would be available and have additional nutrients that include folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin B, calcium and iron. The milkshake would be more nutritious as the common milkshake and it would be stored frozen to protect its quality. The product would serve the children best because the added nutrients have been shown to be of much value to them and educating them about the new product and value it adds to their bodies would result to more sales.

    Conclusion

    The Nutritious Joyous Milkshake that is a fortified milkshake would address the needs of the children that are currently using the kind frozen smoothie bowl that lacks the main nutrients that include the folic acid, iron, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D. The fortified milkshake will be having the five nutrients that are added through fortification process and this is done when processing the product. The product ensure that the children are getting majority of the needed nutrients that is significant for their body development especially for bone, teeth and muscle development (Olson et al., 2021). The fortified milkshake is better than the kind frozen smoothie bowl because it adds the five nutrients that adds the value needed by the children’s’ bodies during development. The challenges that might come in using the product is that the more the product it stays refrigerated the more nutrients are depleted and this demands that demand should be high to reduce the stay after production.

    References

    Eda, K., Aylin, A., Ozge, K., & Naile, B. (2017). Nutritional status in school children: Deficiencies in iron, folic acid and Vitamin B12. Scientific Research And Essays6(21), 4604-4610. https://doi.org/10.5897/sre11.930

    Gavin, M. (2021). Vitamins (for Kids) – Nemours KidsHealth. Kidshealth.org. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/vitamin.html.

    Iannelli, V. (2021). How Much Calcium Do Kids Need?. Verywell Family. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.verywellfamily.com/childrens-calcium-requirements-2633314.

    Mayo Clinic. (2021). Iron deficiency in children: Prevention tips for parents. Mayo clinic. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/iron-deficiency/art-20045634#:~:text=Why%20is%20iron%20important%20for,children%20is%20a%20common%20problem

    Olson, R., Gavin-Smith, B., Ferraboschi, C., & Kraemer, K. (2021). Food Fortification: The Advantages, Disadvantages and Lessons from Sight and Life Programs. Nutrients13(4), 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041118

    powerpoint

    Running head: CASE STUDY 1

    CASE STUDY 4

    Case Study

    Student Name

    Institution Affiliation

    Case Study

    Blindness Disability

    Sightlessness is defined as blindness. When someone has blindness, they are unable to see anything at all. The term “blindness” refers to the inability of one’s eyes to discern between dim light and strong light, when used literally. In current society, the terms “blind” and “blindness” refer to a wide spectrum of visual impairments. Severe loss of vision in one or both eyes with some residual eyesight is commonly called “blindness.” People over the age of 50 account for 80% of all cases of blindness. Blindness can be caused by diabetes, macular degeneration and other conditions that affect the retina and optic nerve. One of the most common and disabling conditions is blindness. Around 246 million individuals in the world have limited vision, and 39 million are legally blind. About 90% of the world’s visually handicapped citizens reside in underdeveloped countries. Blindness is a disability that affects a person in different levels of life where there are those that are born blind and there are those that becomes ill along the way losing their sight (Angkananon et al., 2021). There are different experiences for the people with blindness and this include those that are completely blind and cannot even see colors. On the other hand, there are those blind but they are able to recognize colors, varying shapes and a varying degree of light. There are about 25 of those visually impaired that can navigate without the use of the white cane and this is based on how the control their movement and their ability to see objects on their way (Angkananon et al., 2021). Blindness is a disability that affects an individual ability to work in a workplace that demands to have sight to handle some tasks like in the production section where machines are handled and it is a high risk for them to work in the kind of work environment.

    Program Need for the Blind

    People with visual impairments have a wealth of options at their disposal around the country. People who have lost their vision have access to a variety of programs and services aimed at helping them succeed in school, careers, health, the legal system, and other aspects of daily life. One of the most philanthropic institutions in the United States for the benefit of people with vision impairments is the American Printing House for the Blind. It is the mission of this group to remove the daily obstacles that persons with visual impairments confront in their daily lives at home, at work, in school, and in public. People who are blind or visually impaired can find it difficult in securing employment because of the challenges that they have due to their disability but organizations like American Printing House for the Blind are there to offer necessary support. There is an increasing push for equitable job opportunities for the blind and visually impaired in the population despite the needs that they have but because offering them the support needed contribute to them delivering value. The blind people require support in terms of resources that helps them secure job employment and be able to deliver and this include developing assistive technologies, and educating community leaders to raise awareness to support the needs of the visually impaired population. For those who are blind or visually impaired, the National Federation of the Blind provides a wide range of services that include training and education, as well as assistive technology and goods, advocacy, and outreach.

    Assistive Technology Need

    Each and every person’s life has been impacted by technology in the modern world. To ensure that employees and entire population with visual impairments can take use of the full range of functional, job function, and social opportunities available to them, assistive technology is critical. Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, purchased commercially off the shelf or adapted or custom-made for use by individuals with disabilities falls within IDEA’s definition of assistive technology (Götzelmann, 2018). As a result, employees with disability in an organization deserve to have an environment that is favorable for them to work and this include computers designed with voice technology that allow them use computer comfortably. There are two primary categories of assistive technology for people with visual impairments: low vision devices and blindness aids (Götzelmann, 2018). The employees deserve training on how to use the assistive technology as a way of orientation for them to deliver quality services in the workplace.

    Orientation and Mobility Instruction Need

    “IDEA is as supportive services as are required to assist a child or an adult with a disability to benefit from special education and also employment, additionally, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act includes orientation and mobility services” (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). Employees who are blind or visually impaired may get orientation and mobility assistance from trained professionals, as defined by IDEA, to help them become familiar with and move around their immediate surroundings at in the community and the workplace for more safely. For people with visual impairment, orientation and mobility services are an essential aspect of teaching them how to navigate their surroundings and retain or regain their sense of where they are going (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). A long cane can also be used by those who are blind or visually impaired to help them navigate their surroundings safely and independently. An key part of the expanded core curriculum is orientation and mobility (Erickson, 2022).To get around the environment in a safe and efficient manner, the management in organization has the role of making sure that the need of moving around for the blind is offered by limiting destructions that might risk their lives.

    The Program Design for the Visually Impaired

    In the workplace, there is the need to design a service program for the visually impaired especially the blind in order to ensure that they get the necessary support that makes them work effectively. There are various service designs that should be put into consideration for the visually impaired that makes them feel accommodated in the workplace.

    Administrative Considerations

    The administration has a huge infrastructural role in making sure that the people living with disability are considered in how they would navigate within the office and the entire workplace environment. People with disabilities can benefit greatly from simple changes to their environment. Having a workstation that is easy to navigate is essential. Consider developing a good terrain in the environment also side rails that guides the visually impaired employee to the office without much struggle (Kajur, 2020). The issue of infrastructure should be extended to the toilet also to ensure that employee has a guiding side rails that makes their movement within the workplace favorable. The administrative management should consider acquiring the computers and other technology that are favorable in serving the interest of the blind within the organization and ensure that the offer their services based on their job description without much stress. During meetings and presentations, the administrative management should consider using verbal communication on describing graphs charts and other visual aids that helps the employees to also contribute to the meeting and get insight about the progress of the firm.

    The administrative consideration should also include offering training to the entry level employees that are visually impaired in how to use the assistive technology like the computer that has voice and brail technology to facilitate their service delivery (Kajur, 2020). The administration through the human resource department should consider hiring employees with visual impairment without discrimination. People with vision impairment can be highly motivated and successful, having surmounted what many people consider a difficult work/life hurdle. As a result, finding and recruiting such persons should be considered by the administration. There are a number of organizations and agencies that can assist in finding and employing individuals who are visually impaired or blind since they are already prepared for the job market like training on assistive technology and best mobility.

    Managing Staff

    The management of staff with visual impairment requires a design that focuses on the assistive technology needed and modification of the environment to create the best place that an employee can deliver. The design of handling the visually impaired employee is to first modify the workplace and make sure that the assistive technology is in place that ensure they deliver services. The management should listen to the employees demands in terms of their environment that include the arrangement that makes sure that they are comfortable and can move around sourcing files and also attend to clients without much struggle. The management would be responsible in making sure that the visually impaired employees are working independently by supporting their demands to make sure that they work like any other employee without the need of any special attention or favors. In the process of evaluation of the productivity of the employees, there should be equality in the process and those with visual impairment should not be favored especially when all the assistive technology that helps them work effectively are provided. There is a high possibility that those with visual impairment do not like being favored in the workplace because this is what makes them inferior and not worth being employed. There is the need of showcasing the capability of every employee and this would make the visually impaired work harder and prove that they can deliver when offered the necessary support.

    Workplace Conflict

    In the workplace, conflict is something that normally occur because people cannot agree on everything and there is a point where different opinions and suggestions are experienced. Understanding that a conflict is a common aspect that is experienced is much important because it guides on the ways of looking for a solution towards the particular problem. In the case of virtually impaired employees, a design of addressing issue of conflict in a fair way without favor is needed to avoid developing negative energy in the workplace. A design that brings equality in the workplace is what needed and in a scenario where the virtually impaired employee are in a conflict with the general employee require wisdom in handling the conflict where everyone is given an opportunity to express dissatisfaction. The mediator or the person taking the neutral ground should handle the issue professionally and there should be no favor to the virtually impaired employees or being considered inferior but justice served and a decision that serves the interest of both parties is offered (NHS, 2021). The main reason to why favors’ are avoided is to promote diversity in the workplace and this would not work when the other employees are feeling that the people living with disability are getting more attention and favor from the management. During the hiring process and also orientation practice, all the employees should be subjected to an interactive session where they are encouraged to work together and support collaboration without the need of discriminating one another. Promoting the culture of diversity and inclusivity is a design that works towards making the virtually impaired feel respected and their contribution is appreciated (NHS, 2021). There is the approach that the workplace conflict is addressed by looking at the causal factors that led to the disagreement and this helps in finding a solution to the problem. There is the need of building the foundation that all the employees are equal from the treatment and also attention they get in terms of disciplinary action and also evaluation because they all have the resources necessary to deliver.

    Legal/Ethical Consideration

    According to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), it is illegal to discriminate against an individual with a disability, such as blindness or impaired vision. Federal legislation prohibits discrimination in employment. Federal and state civil rights enforcement organizations implement the ADA’s restrictions on discrimination in the workplace, including the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The EEOC enforces the ADA’s anti-discrimination provisions, which prohibit firms with 15 or more employees from engaging in any kind of employment discrimination. State and local governments may not discriminate in their programs and activities, and this includes all levels of state and local government, no matter how many employees they have (WHO, 2022). The organization would be designed to accommodate the aspects of legal matters and make sure that employees are employed without discrimination including those with visual impairment and more focus would be directed towards their experience, academic qualification and skills.

    There are the ethical issues that need consideration when incorporating diversity in the workplace and making sure that the visually impaired employees interested are taken care of (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). It is considered unethical for the employees to discriminate their colleagues that are visually impaired in any way especially in the scenario they feel that they are not up to the task offered to them to work in the firm. The visually impaired employees should be treated as everyone else and there should be no favors.

    Personal Reflection/Opinions

    I consider it relevant for an organization to consider ways of handling the needs of their employees and this is to make sure that those visually impaired have a good environment that serves their needs and are capable to deliver quality services based on their job description. In my view, supporting the blind employees with the assistive technology that makes them work on their assigned tasks effectively makes them equal to other employees and makes it possible for them to be compared to the other employees that have no disability (WHO, 2022). The assistive technology acts as an equalizer in the workplace and this should be welcomed as a way of eliminating discrimination and favors and make the workplace more collaborative. In my opinion, I belief that offering all the support needed to the employees that are blind makes them confident that they can deliver based on their job description. In the future research, more focus should be directed towards looking for more knowledge about the effective technology that should be used for the visually impaired that makes them satisfied with their job.

    References

    Angkananon, K., Wald, M., & Phetkeaw, T. (2021). Development and Evaluation of Technology Enhanced Interaction Framework Method for Designing Accessible Technologies for Visually Impaired People. Frontiers In Computer Science3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomp.2021.671414

    Erickson, J. (2022). 6 Principles Of Visual Accessibility Design – Usability Geek. Usability Geek. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://usabilitygeek.com/6-principles-visual-accessibility-design/.

    Götzelmann, T. (2018). Visually Augmented Audio-Tactile Graphics for Visually Impaired People. ACM Transactions On Accessible Computing11(2), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1145/3186894

    Kajur, S. (2020). How to make your office accessible for visually impaired & people who are blind. | Anuprayaas. Anuprayaas – Making India Accessible. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://anuprayaas.org/8-ways-to-make-a-workplace-accessible-disability-friendly/.

    Koutheair Khribi, M. (2022). Toward Accessible Online Learning for Visually Impaired and Blind Students. Nafath7(19). https://doi.org/10.54455/mcn.19.02

    NHS. (2021). Blindness and vision loss. nhs.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vision-loss/.

    WHO. (2022). Vision impairment and blindness. Who.int. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/blindness-and-visual-impairment.

    powerpoint

    Note: This is based on your discussion from last week so much of it you will be able to cut and paste to start creating your presentation. This week you will also interview someone from your selected population.


    Hello I Picked new coming teachers ( age 23-27) or (teacher fresh from college).


    Their stressor having no support, lack of resources, not being taught efficiently etc…


    type of program – Time management or w.e you see fit/better

    · Who (1 point) Did you go into detail and describe the population

    · What population are you researching for your stress management project? Narrow down your target population using gender identity, age group, nationality, specialty, etc. 

    · What (1 point) Did you identify multiple potential sources of stress unique to this population?

    · What do you think are their unique stressors? 

    · Why (1 point) Did you provide statistics on the incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions.

    · Why does it matter?

    · How (1 point) What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population?

    · What type of program are you interested in research to help this population.

    · Describe your interview and the individual’s unique perspective (1 point).

    · References: Did you identify AND incorporate the results of 3 quality references (one for each slide) and one interview?

    · Formatting, Design, Visual, Grammar (1 point) Did you ensure your presentation was your best effort?

     

     

    Previous
    Next

    Powerpoint

     

    • Access the Uniform Crime Reports for both the area in which you live and your state. (If you are an international student, access crime reports in your community and country.)
    • Examine the types of crime reported in these areas.

    Scenario: Citizens in your area are concerned about crime rates. You are asked to present information at a town hall meeting. Your presentation should include information about frequency of different types of crimes, potential risk factors that may contribute to certain crimes being more frequent than others, and strategies that could help prevent certain crimes in the future.

    To complete

    • Create a PowerPoint presentation (15–20 slides) explaining the various categories and types of crime in your city/ neighborhood vs. the crime in your state. (If you are an international student access crime reports in your community and country.)
      • Focus on the categories of crimes that are highest/ lowest in your area.
      • Indicate the extent of crime in different areas.
      • Discuss what factors might influence how high or low crime rates are in certain areas.
      • Provide strategies for addressing these crime issues and make recommendations to law enforcement and public officials based on the types of crimes and the offenders who commit those crimes.

    powerpoint

    Here are the requirements for the Nursing Role assignment:

    1-What are the overall roles of the Home Health nurse (eg direct patient care, educator)?

    2-Discuss the various settings a Home Health nurses can provide care for patients in the community – be specific.

    3-Discuss the various roles home health nurses can have in the community (be specific)

    –        eg parish nurse

    ·       The role of the parish nurse is to…

    Be very detailed and provide specific examples.

    4-What types of medical problems a Home Health nurse treats (just list and/or briefly explain types of problems… for example, Pulmonary nurse will treat asthma, COPD, bronchitis, etc. Do not go into any specifics about the diseases.)

    Feel free to add anything you would like to the presentation.

    ** Make it fun and exciting.  Feel free to dress up as your specific nurse and/or have props. Also, when you present, make sure you are convincing me of the type of nurse you are.

    Powerpoint

    Purpose

    This week you learned about some of the key players in the history of software development. In this presentation, you will summarize from your research some aspect of software development history that you found of interest and apply it in context with modern software development concepts you are learning in this course.

    Assignment Instructions

    Create a narrated 6–8 slide presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint® in which you discuss the aspect of software development history that you found most interesting during this week’s learning. Be sure to discuss whether this historical aspect has a continuing influence in today’s software development environment in terms of core programming concepts such as repetition structures, decision structures, arrays, functions, and variables. For example, think about how the shift from procedural programming to object-oriented programming changed or did not change how the core concepts were handled. When composing your presentation, be sure to use Standard English and a highly developed and sustained viewpoint and purpose. The communication of your presentation should be highly ordered, logical and unified.

    Additionally, one slide must be devoted to some aspect of software development history demonstrating the benefits of multiculturalism and diversity in a global context. How has software development evolved as we have become more globalized and how has it influenced the growth and change in software development?

    Your presentation must have narration throughout as if you were delivering it in a live, professional setting. Focus on your word choice. Your oral delivery techniques, including word choice and oral expressiveness, should display exceptional content, organization, and style, while leading the audience to a dynamic and supported conclusion.

    Assignment Requirements

    Narrated content must be effectively incorporated into the presentation. Oral delivery techniques, including word choice and oral expressiveness, displays exceptional content, organization, and style, while leading the audience to a dynamic and supported conclusion.

    At least one slide must demonstrate the ability to analyze the benefits of multiculturalism and diversity in a global context.

    · Video 1: “
    Computer Architecture

    · Video 2: “
    A Short History of Software Development

    · Video 3: “
    Algol 60

    · Video 4: “
    Software Development Process Overview

    · Video 5: “
    Software Construction Phase Overview

    PowerPoint

    Running Head: RESEARCH PAPER

    Mack

    Service-Learning Research Paper

    Montez D Mack

    HCA – 483

    Jackson State University

    Challenges Facing Service-Learning Research Paper

    Introduction

    Service-learning is a method of teaching that combines theoretical and practical learning objectives to provide the student with an opportunity for pragmatic and broadminded learning experiences to meet societal needs. This method of teaching allows students to become creative with the knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to solve the numerous challenges facing the community. Lecturers play a very important role in service-learning of guiding the student’s through these programs (Salam et al., 2019). However, there are numerous challenges and issues facing service learning. This is mainly due to the lack of enough literature/information about the compatibility of this approach, especially between lecturers and students (Salam et al., 2019). Therefore, this paper will research the challenges of service-learning through the perspectives of both lecturers and students.

    Background of the Problem

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for the introduction and implementation of service learning around the world. However, the implementation and applicability of the programs have not yielded the anticipated beneficial outcomes simply because many of the lecturers/teachers are not well prepared or equipped for this type of learning. One of the main problems faced by students in this program is the complete understanding between theory and practice as well as the lack of cognitive autonomy. Also, lecturers teaching this type of learning approach lack the necessary structural support. Lastly, there is a lack of a much-needed relationship between the school and the community. A more systematic and structured implementation program is required to incorporate service learning in academic programs. Research by Mackenzie, Hinchey, and Cornforth (2019) shows that much needs to be done to create strategies that will establish a sustainable relationship between the academic institutions and the community to promote the success of the service-learning approach.

    Problem Statement

    The main objective of this research paper is to highlight the different perspectives of both lecturers and students about the numerous challenges that they have faced while participating in and implementing the service-learning programs. The main purpose of the service-learning experience or program is to produce students who have comprehensive knowledge and skills about our communities’ social needs. Therefore, undertaking this research will help to shine a light on ways that can be adopted to improve the implementation of these programs to produce holistically developed students.

    Purpose Statement

    The findings obtained from this research will be used to provide much-needed insight into the numerous challenges facing lecturers and students in an institution where service-learning is practiced. The information will be used by academic developers to develop critical guidelines and training workshops that will all the stakeholders in the service-learning programs to better design and implement the service-learning programs in schools.

    Research and Interview questions

    Research question

    · What are the different challenges and issues facing the implementation and applicability of service-learning in our academic institutions today?

    Interview questions

    · Do students experience a gap between theory and practice in the implementation of service-learning?

    · Do students experience a lack of cognitive autonomy in the service-learning programs?

    · Do lecturers/teachers lack the necessary structural support to fully implement the service-learning programs?

    Conceptual Framework

    The conceptual framework for this research paper zeroes on the idea that an instructor’s input especially in the service-learning programs is very important to the success of a student. It connects to the main points or argument of this paper that some of the challenges facing the service-learning programs can be explained through a lecturer’s perspective hence then need to include them in the research paper. The performance of a student in the service-learning classroom is dependent on the instructor’s performance. The research adopts Weiner’s Attribution Theory which suggests that performance in a classroom can be improved by both external and internal factors as discussed in this paper.

    Nature of the Study

    Methods

    The research used the qualitative approach to collect data from all the participants. The learners and lecturers who participated in the research were selected through the use of the purposive sampling strategy. The data collected from the students involved focused groups interviews. However, the data collection from the lecturers involved face-to-face interviews. All the data collected from the two sources were then analyzed using Yin’s thematic analysis.

    Research Design

    The research used the qualitative data collection approach to collect data from both focus groups and face interviews sessions. The study applied Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle to thoroughly examine the impacts that service-learning programs have from the lecturers’ perspectives. The participants were taken through the six stages of Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle which are description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan to offer their perspective on the questions.

    Significance of the research

    This research topic is important as it provides additional information on the issues the different challenges facing the service-learning programs. The research is critical for all stakeholders such as students, lecturers, institutions, and academic developers. The biggest benefactors of this research are students and the community. The insight from this research will improve on the strategies of implementing the service-learning which will provide students with holistic development that will help solve the social needs of our communities.

    Assumptions, Delimitations, Limitations

    The assumptions in this project are that the selected sample of participants represented the perspectives of all the other students and lecturers concerning the main research question. The paper assumes that there is a part of the students and lecturers who found the service-learning program very effective and do not have issues with it. However, the assumption is that this only represents a small number of the target population. The presumed weakness of the study is that the population that was investigated was not sufficient enough to generalize the study findings and results to other institutions throughout the country or around the world. Also, the time allocated for each session was not enough to obtain comprehensive information or data that can provide a far-reaching conclusion on the study question.

    Literature Review

    The literature review applied a total of six sources obtained from online-based databases that contain peer-reviewed articles from well-known experts. Salam et al., (2019) highlighted that although service learning has many advantages and benefits to all stakeholders involved, it possesses several disadvantages. In the study, Salam et al., (2019) presented five possible challenges that impact most of the institutions in the process of implementing service-learning programs. These challenges include the students, lecturers/ teachers, institutions, pedagogy, and the community. The above-mentioned problem interacts at some point. For instance, students, who are regarded as the most important stakeholder of the service program, must engage with the community to drive the numerous service-learning activities. The lecturers and students interact during classroom learning and might encounter a problem if there are no strong mechanisms to guide them in their interactions since each could have a different understanding of the problem that needs solutions (Salam et al., 2019). Thus, it is important to ensure they’re well-prepared service-learning programs that will help each stakeholder to implement the projects. The institution also interacts with the students and lecturers and problems will arise if the administration fails to develop clear guidelines on how to design and implement the service-learning curriculum (Salam et al., 2019). Therefore, it is critical for all the five stakeholders mentioned in this research to develop a mechanism that helps them to become more compatible to develop a strong and effective service-learning environment for the learners.

    Ziegert and McGoldrick (2008) carried out research that aimed to highlight the different perspectives of lecturers/teachers concerning their problems with the service-learning program. From the research, the author establishes a different problem that the instructors face while trying to implement the service-learning program in schools. One of the problems includes the difficulties in integrating the service-learning curriculum with the course content as well as when carrying out assessments to the students (Musa et al., 2017). The lecturers believed that integrating the service earning program with the course content would lead to a lack of focus or concentration by the students and this would lead them to lose control of the learning of their students (Ziegert and McGoldrick, 2008). They attributed this problem to the aspect of the service-learning program taking away students from the classroom to the community as they carry out community engagement activities. The lecturers also argued that based on the resources available for implementing the service-learning program, they could not match the student’s skills with those required to solve specific problems in the community (Ziegert and McGoldrick, 2008). They claimed that the process of achieving this goal would be time-consuming as it will make it very difficult to carry out other activities such as supervising the various service-learning activities that the students are doing during their community engagement. Thus, these courses would require more structured and well-prepared guidelines on how to effectively implement them to ensure they have minimum impact or disruption to the course content and other classroom activities.

    Bennett et al., (2016) conducted research that purposed to determine the numerous factors important in the implementation and sustenance of service-learning programs in higher education. Some of the factors that the author identified included funding, stakeholders’ willingness, and well elaborate structure. Bennett et al., (2016) conclude that without all these factors, the implementation of service-learning would be impossible. The author also added that clear communication during the implementation of the programs is very important, especially between the students, their instructors, and other students. Communication skills are very important in the implementation of service-learning initiatives as it requires all students to interact and engage with people in the communities. Without the necessary communication skills, students will find it very difficult to implement the programs as well as engage with their instructors on ways to implement these initiatives (Bennett et al., 2016). Also, the research showed that the implementation of the service-learning programs comes at great mental stress for the students. Bennett et al., (2016) indicated that some of the students participating in the implementation of service-learning programs would occasionally display emotional outbursts. The author attributed these emotional outbursts to the intense cognitive as well as physical labor that they experienced while carrying out the initiatives of the program. Lastly, Bennett et al., (2016) concluded that since some of these programs are only for a short period, they were not adequate to achieve the objectives of meeting the various educational needs of the learner or satisfying the social needs of the community they were engaging. Thus, there is an urgent need for the considerations of the students’ needs, support as well as readiness when implementing the service-learning programs (Kropp, Arrington, & Shankar, 2015). This is because the mental stress experienced by the students could act as a demotivation factor that will prevent them from practicing service-learning after their graduation. Also, institutions must ensure there are enough resources that for the lecturers to supervise and implement the service-learning programs.

    Richard, et al., (2017) conducted a research study on the numerous challenges facing the service-learning program and the benefits that a student can gain from engaging with individuals who are different from them. This study is geared to answer one of our main issues identified with service learning which involves a lack of good relationship between the students and the outside community. Richard, et al., (2018) argued that students practicing service-learning can benefit a lot from interacting and engaging the community through serving them in the school years. This aspect will help the student in the real-world experiences as they will have improved skills such as critical thinking when solving problems concerning the social needs of the community. The students will improve their leadership skills through service learning and this will help the student to fulfill their civic responsibilities to the community. The research showed that students who participate in service-learning programs are better equipped and likely to acquire life skills such as problem-solving abilities. Also, the study suggested that these students are more open-minded as well as compassionate when dealing with and solving problems touching of social needs of their communities. Lastly, the study suggested that students who enroll themselves in service-learning programs are more likely to be open to diversity as well as to different perspectives as the programs provide them with the opportunities to meet, interact and engage with people from different ethnicities, backgrounds, needs, and religions (Nishimura & Yokote 2020).

    Kagan & Diamond (2019) carried out a study that determined to identify the impacts of implementation of service-learning programs on the students’ development. Nevertheless, the study indicated that there is a general concern that schools practicing service-learning programs have not been able to produce graduates that are employable and well equipped to handle numerous social needs impacting society. The study showed that the reason for this aspect is that higher education institutions have not yet done enough to develop students that will create an impact on the community (Kagan & Diamond (2019). Thus, there is a dire need for universities to invest resources in creating a sustainable service-learning experience for students that will allow them to be problem solvers in society after they graduate. The study suggested that there is a need for higher institutions to integrate service-learning into their programs as the students and community would benefit a lot from each other.

    From the numerous sources used in the literature review, it is evident that the success of service-learning will result from successfully integrating the academic learning of the students and their community service. This would create an important parallel development as well as the partnership between the students and the community that will promote innovation and service delivery to the social needs of the community. Thus, improving the effectiveness of learning in the classroom to the students and providing lecturers with enough resources to implement the service-learning program would be the first step towards success. Also, improving the relationship and rapport between institutions and the community will help the service-learning programs succeed.

    Data Collection

    Before collecting the information from the selected participants, institutional permission was obtained and the participants were advised that their participation in the interviews would only be voluntary. All the participants were explained that they were at liberty to leave the study if they felt uncomfortable during their participation. Data from the lecturers were collected through face-to-face interviews while those of the students were collected through focus groups of about 5 participants per group. The main aim of the research was to obtain genuine perspectives from the participants about the challenges of service-learning. The group sessions lasted for about 30 minutes. The data collected from the lecturers were through face-to-face interviews that were followed with follow-up questions to obtain as much information as possible. The session from the interviews lasted for about 30 minutes and all the sessions were recorded.

    Data Analysis

    The data analysis involved the use of Yin’s thematic analytical approach where the two sources of data for the research were analyzed at the same time. The analytical approach was classified into five phases which included compiling, disassembling, reassembling, interpreting the data, and making conclusions. All the data that was collected from the interviews and focus groups were compiled together to make it easy to access and work on it. Then, the compiled data was disassembled by creating themes and codes according to the data to provide a better understanding of the data. Then, the data was reassembled to establish patterns and meaningful themes. After developing patterns, the data were interpreted based on the initial research questions. Finally, conclusions through giving the themes developed names and writing a comprehensive report based on the general results of the codes and patterns developed.

    The findings of the study concluded that students and lecturers encountered various challenges while trying to implement the service-learning programs. These challenges include the existence of a gap theory and practice, students’ lack of cognitive independence, lack of structural support directed to the lecturers by the institution, and poor relationship between institutions and the community. The issue of the gap that exists between theory and practice by the students indicated that students did not understand the relationship between the theory they learn in the classroom and the practical activities they carry out in the community engagements. The students complained that they lacked the necessary skills to carry out the service-learning projects. The lack of cognitive independence by the students involved a lack of self-confidence by the students to undertake the service-learning projects without the help of their instructors. Students usually relied on their instructors to explain to them what it meant by carrying out volunteer activities in the community and the skills they needed to do it. Thirdly, lecturers lacked the necessary structural support from their faculties such as money, planning, and extra manpower to carry out their implementation of the service-learning programs. Instructors did not have enough resources which made the implementation of these programs very difficult ad ineffective. Lastly, the poor relationship between the institutions and the community acted as an obstacle for the numerous important stakeholders of the service-learning program to interact and engage. Some students did not have the expertise required in some companies where they attended to carry out their service-learning projects. This created an aspect of reduced confidence for the student as well as the companies and ended up impacting negatively on the service-learning program.

    Discussion and conclusion

    Discussion

    The findings proved the important role that instructors of the service-learning programs played in ensuring they are well planned and executed. This means that lectures must have enough resources and knowledge about the service-learning program for it to succeed. Without lecturers with knowledge about the programs, students will not be able to transform the theory they learn in the classroom into a real-world application that can solve the social needs in society. The instructors also need to work on ensuring the students develop self-confidence to successfully carry out their service-learning projects in the community. Instructors must provide much-needed support to the students to develop cognitive independence. The instructors can only achieve this if they have strong structural support such as finance and manpower from their institutions. Without this structural support, instructors will be overwhelmed with their implementation plans for the service-learning and this will lead to failure. Lastly, developing a good relationship between all the stakeholders such as institutions and communities will ensure easy access and cooperation. This includes creating a liaison department in the institution that will help the students to identify the various social needs that the community requires to be solved. Through this department, students will plan, identify and prepare for the most suitable social need that they can solve to succeed in it and create a trusting relationship in the community. Students must learn also to develop or create creative projects targeting to solve the most complex and challenging needs in society to succeed in service-learning projects.

    Conclusion

    The implementation of the service-learning programs in our institutions is very important, especially in this era of advancement in science and technology. The service-learning program will help provide an avenue where students can be prepared for future careers that will help solve our societal needs. The program is an integral part of the new industrial revolution as it helps students to interact with the community in solving some of the social needs that face our community. However, to overcome the numerous challenges that have resulted in the implementation of the programs, total commitment from all the stakeholders involved is necessary. Therefore, all the viewpoints given by the lecturers and students must be taken into consideration as they provide important information on how to best implement the service-learning program. Through this, the challenges facing the implementation of the service-learning programs in our institutions can be solved and help promote the institution of higher education to produce graduates who are equipped to solve social needs in our society . This will promote and improve the lives of the people in society.

    References

    Bennett, D., Sunderland, N., Bartleet, B., & Power, A. (2016). Implementing and sustaining higher education service-learning initiatives. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(2), 145-163.

    Kagan C., & Diamond J. (2019). Foundations of university–community engagement. In: University–community relations in the UK. Rethinking university-community policy connections. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Kropp, J., Arrington, N. M., & Shankar, V. (2015). Developing a service-learning student facilitator program: Lessons learned. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 8(1).

    Musa, N., Abang Ibrahim, D. H., Abdullah, J., Saee, S., Ramli, F., Mat, A. R., & Ahmad Khiri, M. J. (2017). A methodology for implementation of service learning in higher education institution: A case study from faculty of computer science and information technology, UNIMAS. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 9(2), 101 – 109.

    Nishimura M., & Yokote H. (2020). Service-learning as a means to understand socio-economic privilege, inequality, and social mobility. In Sanger C., Gleason N. (eds). Diversity and inclusion in global higher education. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

    Richard, D., Keen, C., Hatcher, J. A., & Pease, H. A. (2017). Pathways to adult civic engagement: Benets of reflection and dialogue across difference in higher education service-learning programs. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 23(1), 60-74.

    Salam, M., Awang Iskandar, D. N. Abang Ibrahim, D. H., & Farooq, M. S. (2019). Service learning in higher education: A systematic literature review. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20(1), 573-593.

    Ziegert, A., & McGoldrick, K. (2008). When service is good for economics: Linking the classroom and community through service learning. International Review of Economics Education, 7(2), 39-56.

    powerpoint

    Title

    Part 1

    Name

    Description of the population (Who)
    1 Reference

    Provide detailed information consider

    Gender identity

    Age

    Nationality

    Other

    Sources of stress (What)
    1 Reference

    Incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions (Why)

    What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population? (How)
    1 Reference

    Interview Results (1 point)

    Speak to someone from the populations.

    What are their thoughts on what, why, and how?

    Do they have any examples or recommendations?

    References: At least three reputable sources (Use MLA or APA format) and one interview

    Look for a national organization for stats, examples include: Stress in America Survey, American Psychological Society, CDC, National Institutes of Health, National Alliance on Mental Illness, there are often industry or population specific organizations.

    For what causes stress consider a search such as “population and sources of stress”

    Example “college students and sources of stress”

    This was the first one https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA62839434&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=01463934&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7Eb3f6219a#:~:text=The%20top%20five%20sources%20of,work%20load%2C%20and%20new%20responsibilities.

    For why this is a problem consider a search such as “population and stress and statistics”

    Example “college students and stress and statistics” and look beyond the first few hits to find a reputable organization. This was the third one https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/09/numbers

    For how to help consider a search such as “population and stress management and program”

    Example “college students and stress management and pet therapy” resulting in https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/interacting-therapy-dogs-may-help-stressed-out-college-students-cope-180977736/

    One interview: Find someone who represents the population and interview them to get their perspective on the causes of stress and why it is concerning.

    Rubric

    Who (1 point) Did you go into detail and describe the population

    What (1 point) Did you identify multiple potential sources of stress unique to this population?

    Why (1 point) Did you provide statistics on the incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions 

    How (1 point) What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population?

    Interview (1 point)

    References: Did you identify AND incorporate the results of quality references? If not, points will be deducted from that section.

    Formatting, Design, Visual, Grammar (1 point) Did you ensure your presentation was your best effort?

    Powerpoint

    ESSAY

    Natural experiments and long-term

    monitoring are critical to understand and

    predict marine host–microbe ecology and

    evolution

    Matthieu LerayID
    1‡*, Laetitia G. E. WilkinsID

    2¤‡
    , Amy ApprillID

    3
    , Holly M. BikID

    4
    ,

    Friederike Clever
    1,5

    , Sean R. ConnollyID
    1
    , Marina E. De León

    1,2
    , J. Emmett DuffyID

    6
    ,

    Leïla Ezzat7, Sarah Gignoux-WolfsohnID8, Edward Allen Herre1, Jonathan Z. KayeID9,
    David I. KlineID

    1
    , Jordan G. KuenemanID

    1
    , Melissa K. McCormickID

    8
    , W. Owen McMillan

    1
    ,

    Aaron O’DeaID
    1,10*, Tiago J. PereiraID

    4
    , Jillian M. PetersenID

    11
    , Daniel F. PetticordID

    1
    ,

    Mark E. Torchin
    1
    , Rebecca Vega ThurberID

    12
    , Elin VidevallID

    13,14
    , William T. WcisloID

    1
    ,

    Benedict YuenID
    11

    , Jonathan A. EisenID
    2,15,16

    1 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama, 2 UC Davis Genome

    Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 3 Marine Chemistry and

    Geochemistry Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United

    States of America, 4 Department of Marine Sciences and Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia,

    Athens, Georgia, United States of America, 5 Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan

    University, Manchester, United Kingdom, 6 Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network, Smithsonian

    Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America, 7 Department of Ecology,

    Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United

    States of America, 8 Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of

    America, 9 Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California, United States of America,

    10 Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy,

    11 Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria,

    12 Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America,

    13 Center for Conservation Genomics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United

    States of America, 14 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence,

    Rhode Island, United States of America, 15 Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California,

    Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 16 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology,

    University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

    ¤ Current address: Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Department of Symbiosis, Bremen,
    Germany

    ‡ These authors share first authorship on this work.

    * leray.upmc@gmail.com (ML); odeaa@si.edu (AO)

    AbstractAU : Pleaseconfirmthatallheadinglevelsarerepresentedcorrectly:
    Marine multicellular organisms host a diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, microbial

    eukaryotes, and viruses that form their microbiome. Such host-associated microbes can sig-

    nificantly influence the host’s physiological capacities; however, the identity and functional

    role(s) of key members of the microbiome (“core microbiome”) in most marine hosts coexist-

    ing in natural settings remain obscure. Also unclear is how dynamic interactions between

    hosts and the immense standing pool of microbial genetic variation will affect marine eco-

    systems’ capacity to adjust to environmental changes. Here, we argue that significantly

    advancing our understanding of how host-associated microbes shape marine hosts’ plastic

    and adaptive responses to environmental change requires (i) recognizing that individual

    host–microbe systems do not exist in an ecological or evolutionary vacuum and (ii)

    PLOS BIOLOGY

    PLOS Biology | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322 August 19, 2021 1 / 18

    a1111111111

    a1111111111

    a1111111111

    a1111111111

    a1111111111

    OPEN ACCESS

    Citation: Leray M, Wilkins LGE, Apprill A, Bik HM,

    Clever F, Connolly SR, et al. (2021) Natural

    experiments and long-term monitoring are critical

    to understand and predict marine host–microbe

    ecology and evolution. PLoS Biol 19(8): e3001322.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322

    Published: August 19, 2021

    Copyright: This is an open access article, free of all

    copyright, and may be freely reproduced,

    distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or

    otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.

    The work is made available under the Creative

    Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

    Funding: Financial support for the workshop was

    provided by grant GBMF5603 (https://doi.org/10.

    37807/GBMF5603) from the Gordon and Betty

    Moore Foundation (W.T. Wcislo, J.A. Eisen, co-

    PIs), and additional funding from the Smithsonian

    Tropical Research Institute and the Office of the

    Provost of the Smithsonian Institution (W.T.

    Wcislo, J.P. Meganigal, and R.C. Fleischer, co-PIs).

    JP was supported by a WWTF VRG Grant and the

    ERC Starting Grant ’EvoLucin’. LGEW has received

    funding from the European Union’s Framework

    Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon

    2020 (2014-2020) under the Marie Sklodowska-

    Curie Grant Agreement No. 101025649. AO was

    supported by the Sistema Nacional de

    Investigadores (SENACYT, Panamá). A. Apprill was

    supported by NSF award OCE-1938147. D.I. Kline,

    M. Leray, S.R. Connolly, and M.E. Torchin were

    expanding the field toward long-term, multidisciplinary research on entire communities of

    hosts and microbes. Natural experiments, such as time-calibrated geological events associ-

    ated with well-characterized environmental gradients, provide unique ecological and evolu-

    tionary contexts to address this challenge. We focus here particularly on mutualistic

    interactions between hosts and microbes, but note that many of the same lessons and

    AU : Anabbreviationlisthasbeencompiledforthoseusedinthemaintext:Pleaseverifythatallentriesarecorrect:approaches would apply to other types of interactions.

    Main

    It is widely recognized that host-associated microbes play profound roles in the health of their

    marine hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Although some such interactions with microbes

    are transient, many are more persistent and can be generally described as symbioses. Symbio-

    ses come in many flavors including parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism (see Box 1),

    and, in this paper, we focus in particular on the mutually beneficial (i.e., mutualistic) subset of

    such interactions involving marine hosts. Despite the wide recognition of the importance of

    such mutualisms, it remains less clear how these associations scale up to drive broader ecologi-

    cal and evolutionary patterns and processes. For example, the contribution of microbes to host

    acclimatization and adaptation (see Box 1 for definitions) is an active new field of experimental

    research with much potential. Studies, mostly conducted in controlled laboratory settings,

    have evaluated the ecological costs/benefits for hosts to associate temporarily with different

    microbes (e.g., corals [1–4]) or to engage in obligate intimate relationships (e.g., bobtail squid

    with the bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri [5]).
    Experimental studies are, however, intrinsically limited in several ways. They limit them-

    selves to a small number of experimentally tractable hosts and microbes, and, in doing so,

    fail to account for the enormous complexity of interactions and variation that exist in nature

    between multiple hosts and their multitudes of associated microbes. Short-lived experiments

    (e.g., days to weeks) cannot replicate the scales of time and space involved in the potential

    coevolution of hosts and microbes (Box 1). Attempts to merge long-term datasets to reveal

    overarching patterns (e.g., [6–9]) have provided valuable insights but are shadowed by the lim-

    its and biases introduced by mixing information from different contexts or methodologies

    [10]. These limitations obscure general principles on the roles (mutualistic or otherwise) of

    host-associated microbes across host individuals, species, and communities [11–13].

    Here, we demonstrate the value of moving beyond taxon-centric approaches to studying

    host–microbe associations in their natural evolutionary and ecological context. We suggest

    intensifying long-term research in well-documented “natural experiments”. Such natural

    experiments, including well-calibrated geological events (e.g., vicariance and creation of novel

    habitats accurately dated using fossil and geological data) and environmental gradients where

    multiple hosts and associated microbes are subjected to the same range of environmental con-

    ditions, can be particularly useful (Fig 1). These phenomena provide a unique framework for

    comparative studies where the processes of interest occur over spatial and evolutionary time

    scales that are nearly impossible to capture in laboratory experiments. The value of combining

    experimental and long-term field studies at natural experiments has been recognized by ecolo-

    gists [14–16]. We argue that similar approaches should be applied to the study of host–microbe

    interactions. We highlight several natural experiments that can advance our understanding of

    the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms shaping host–microbe interactions (with a focus

    on mutualistic ones) in marine communities and ecosystems.

    PLOS BIOLOGY

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    supported by a Rohr Family Foundation grant for

    the Rohr Reef Resilience Project, for which this is

    contribution #2. This is contribution #85 from the

    Smithsonian’s MarineGEO and Tennenbaum

    Marine Observatories Network. The funders had no

    role in study design, data collection and analysis,

    decision to publish, or preparation of the

    manuscript.

    Competing interests: The authors have declared

    that no competing interests exist.

    Abbreviations: LTER, Long-Term Ecological

    Research; MarineGEO, Marine Global Earth

    Observatory; MBON, Marine Biodiversity

    Observation Network; TEP, Tropical Eastern Pacific.

    Identifying important players

    Marine organisms have evolved complex structural, behavioral, and chemical mechanisms to

    regulate the presence, abundance, and activity of their microbial associates. Hosts can limit

    colonization by transient opportunistic microbes that would use space and resources without

    providing any benefits, and some hosts can even block pathogens entirely [17–19]. Host-spe-

    cific and obligate microbial associates, often called the “core microbiome” of a host population

    Box 1. Definitions of key terms

    Acclimatization: The process by which an organism becomes accustomed to new envi-

    ronmental conditions during its lifetime.

    Adaptation: A heritable trait of an organism that increases its fitness in its surrounding

    environment. In comparison to acclimatization, adaptations will be passed on to the

    next generation.

    Convergent evolution: Independent origins of similar features in different organisms in

    response to separately experiencing similar selective pressures. Importantly, conver-

    gently originated features, also known as analogous features, were not present in the

    common ancestor of the taxa in question.

    Genetic drift: Change in the relative frequency of genotypes due to random variation in

    reproduction. Such drift is more common in small populations and leads to changes in

    genotype frequencies independent of adaptive forces.

    Host–microbe coevolution: During host–microbe coevolution, multicellular hosts and

    their associated microbes show a concerted and heritable response to an environmental

    change.

    Homologous recombination: The process by which two pieces or stretches of DNA that

    are very similar in their sequence physically align and exchange nucleotides.

    Horizontal gene transfer: The unidirectional movement of DNA, usually only small frac-

    tions of a genome, from one organism to another. Though this generally occurs more

    frequently within species than between, it can also occur across vast evolutionary

    distances.

    Metagenomics: Studies of the genetic material of communities of organisms.

    Phenotypic plasticity: Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a specific genotype to pro-

    duce more than one phenotype in response to a changing environment during an indi-

    vidual’s lifetime. These phenotypic changes may include an organism’s behavior,

    morphology, physiology, or other features. Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive if it increases

    an individual’s survival and if the ability is passed on to the next generation.

    Symbioses: Symbioses are broadly defined as intimate interactions between at least two

    organisms where at least one of them benefits. We focus here specifically on mutually

    beneficial interactions (aka mutualisms) between multicellular eukaryotes and their

    associated microbes. These interactions may include disease resistance, predator avoid-

    ance, and nutrition. These interactions will ultimately increase host survival and fitness.

    PLOS BIOLOGY

    PLOS Biology | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322 August 19, 2021 3 / 18

    Fig 1. Examples of marine natural experiments as observatories of host–microbe interactions. Regionally focused, long-term,

    and taxonomically broad research programs will help fill key knowledge gaps about the nature of microbe functions and the

    dynamics of host–microbe interactions in changing oceans. We highlight areas of the world’s oceans where environmental

    gradients are well characterized, where the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the local host fauna and flora is already well

    established, where paleoecological studies can provide important historical context, where a long-term monitoring program is

    ongoing, and where there is significant research infrastructure. Long-term monitoring sites (white dots) include sites of the NSF’s

    LTER Network, the Smithsonian Institution’s MarineGEO network of partners, the MBON, the AIMS, and the ASSEMBLE. (1)

    NASA MODIS data; (2) Adapted from [93]; (3) Adapted from [73]; (4) Adapted from [74]; (5) Adapted from [94]; (6) Adapted

    from [95]. AIMSAU : AbbreviationlistshavebeencompiledforthoseusedinFigs1and4:Pleaseverifythatallentriesarecorrect:, Australian Institute of Marine Science; ASSEMBLE, Association of European Marine Biological Laboratories;
    LTER, Long-Term Ecological Research; MarineGEO, Marine Global Earth Observatory; MBON, Marine Biodiversity

    Observation Network.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322.g001

    PLOS BIOLOGY

    PLOS Biology | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322 August 19, 2021 4 / 18

    or species, are generally assumed to play more important functional roles than opportunistic

    and transient taxa [20]. This core microbiome is exemplified by an obligate nutritional micro-

    bial symbiosis, in which the host relies extensively on microbial partners for survival by syn-

    thesis of food, often in a nutrient-limited habitat. The host may acquire these partners

    horizontally (from the surrounding environment), vertically (from the parent to the offspring),

    or in both ways (mixed mode) [21]. Many evolved symbioses result in codependency; for

    example, the genomes of host-associated microbes have lost genes encoding pathways that

    were previously essential, such as those for motility or environmental stress responses, but that

    became obsolete in obligate symbiotic lifestyles [22]. In return, hosts have evolved mechanisms

    to maintain their associated microbes in stable intracellular environments and to support their

    nutritional needs [23]. Some of these nutritional associations are clearly identifiable because

    symbionts form massive and dense populations, sometimes only consisting of a single micro-

    bial species, in or on the bodies of their hosts. Examples include photosynthetic symbioses in

    cnidarians [24] and chemosynthetic symbioses in invertebrate animals such as bathymodiolin

    mussels, lucinid clams, Riftia tubeworms, and Astomonema nematodes [25,26]. Although
    widespread, host reliance on a single or few microbes for nutrition are the exception rather

    than the rule. The vast majority of animals and plants are instead associated with a diverse

    assemblage of microbes where it is challenging to differentiate between members of the core

    microbiome and the myriad of transient microbes and even more challenging to determine

    what, if any, key functional roles such microbes play.

    Several approaches have been proposed to identify key microbes or functions within com-

    plex host microbiomes (reviewed in [27]). The most common practice is to identify microbial

    taxa that are consistently associated with a host population or species using marker gene

    sequencing, usually above some arbitrary prevalence threshold ([28]; but see [29,30] for alter-

    native methods). The prevalence of a host–microbe association is typically measured without

    explicit attention to co-occurring and closely related host taxa, the surrounding environment,

    or adequacy of spatial and temporal sampling. This limited sampling and lack of context, often

    resulting from funding constraints, leads to several major limitations. First, a microbial taxon

    can be prevalent in a host population for reasons unrelated to its functional role. For example,

    it may originate from the host’s food or habitat, including seawater or sediment [31]. Second,

    even the core microbiome can change over time [32]. Functionally important microbes may

    fluctuate in abundance throughout host ontogeny and may also vary seasonally. Essential host-

    associated microbes may be overlooked if the sampling method cannot detect low abundance

    reliably, resulting in false negatives, or if sampling is sporadic, missing the life stage or season

    when particular microbes are essential. Third, many studies rely upon sequencing of rRNA

    genes to characterize communities, yet rRNA genes are generally too conserved to distinguish

    closely related taxa and reveal little directly about genomic functional potential. Clearly, under-

    standing the functional roles of host-associated microbes requires analyses that go far beyond

    individual marker gene profiles and instead encompass other types of information such as

    whole genomes or metagenomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, localization, biochemistry,

    and more. Fourth, taxon-focused studies may miss valuable information about interactions

    that could be gleaned from broader comparative analyses. Microbes that are specific to particu-

    lar host genotypes, host species, or closely related groups of hosts, indicating a shared evolu-

    tionary history, are likely candidates for core microbes with specialized functions (e.g., gut

    fermenters associated with herbivores). These existing limitations could be robustly circum-

    vented via whole-ecosystem studies where long-term collection of comprehensive genomic-

    level datasets (e.g., ‘omic scale information) would transform our understanding of host–

    microbe interactions at all levels.

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    To instigate this new approach, we recommend strategically intensifying research within a

    few ocean regions. This entails collecting large scale data on host-associated microbes across

    phylogenetically diverse sets of co-occurring host organisms, together with data on surround-

    ing free-living microbes (i.e., in seawater and sediments) through time in areas where the sur-

    rounding abiotic environment and community dynamics have been well characterized. A

    regionally focused and coordinated approach will allow identifying environmental sources

    and hosts that serve as reservoirs of key host-associated microbial taxa and genes. Long-term

    investments in research on particular communities of hosts and microbes will also help estab-

    lish links between changes in core microbiome composition, environmental factors, ecosystem

    function, and resilience. Public archival of genomic data and samples (available for comple-

    mentary analysis using emerging technologies) collected from a few intensively studied ocean

    regions will foster transformative discoveries on dynamic host–microbe relationships. Habi-

    tat-forming corals, sponges, seagrasses, and mangrove trees are important focal groups, since

    breakdowns in the associations between these species and their microbiomes likely dispropor-

    tionately influence other taxa and ecosystem functions. However, this should not come at the

    expense of research on more inconspicuous and overlooked, yet functionally important taxa

    that comprise the majority of the oceans’ biological diversity (e.g., small fish that fuel marine

    food webs [33] and urchins and crustaceans that feed on algae that can displace corals [34]).

    Systematic biases toward studying certain taxa (vertebrates, species with large body sizes,

    charismatic fauna), partly caused by the lack of coordination, have clearly affected our under-

    standing of the distribution and roles of host-associated microbes. For example, a recent

    microbiome comparison of several Indo-Pacific invertebrate species demonstrated that

    sponges have a less specific microbiome than had been assumed for many years [35]. Expand-

    ing the taxonomic breadth of host–microbe studies will be most fruitful in areas where taxo-

    nomically rigorous field guides, ecological survey data, and functional trait databases are

    available. Substantial progress will also occur where phylogenetic relationships are known and

    local expert taxonomists can be engaged. One of the numerous potential outcomes includes

    building community-wide association matrices to unveil the extent of reliance between hosts

    and microbial partners (specificity versus ubiquity, obligate versus facultative) and the interac-

    tions that promote the stability of core microbiomes.

    Role of microbes in host acclimatization and adaptation

    Host-associated microbes can rapidly respond to extrinsic factors such as extreme or anoma-

    lous environmental conditions (e.g., heatwaves, hypoxia), pathogens, anthropogenic distur-

    bances (e.g., pollution, overfishing, aquaculture, invasive species), and acute and chronic

    stressors [36,37]. They can also quickly change in response to factors intrinsic to the host (e.g.,

    changes in host physiology [38]). The dynamic nature of microbes may provide a source of

    ecological and evolutionary novelty to support potential host response mechanisms that aug-

    ment the host’s own evolutionary potential. Host-associated microbial communities can shift

    rapidly through the loss, gain, or replacement of individual members. Individual microbial

    cells can make rapid physiological adjustments during their lifetime (plasticity) or within a few

    generations (adaptation) [39] (Fig 2). In many microbes, relatively high rates of mutation and

    exchange of genetic material among divergent lineages (through homologous recombination

    and horizontal gene transfer) generate a high frequency of new genetic variants, some of

    which may be better suited to novel conditions (Fig 2). These mechanisms contribute to fuel-

    ing an immense standing pool of genetic variation that hosts can potentially draw upon. The

    outcomes of the collective ecological and evolutionary response of hosts and their associated

    microbes to environmental change may comprise 1 of 4 nonmutually exclusive scenarios

    PLOS BIOLOGY

    PLOS Biology | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322 August 19, 2021 6 / 18

    [40,41]: (1) Imbalance: a temporary or permanent change of host fitness and microbial func-

    tions leading to increased disease susceptibility; (2) Resistance: the microbiome continues per-

    forming its functions and the host does not lose or gain fitness; (3) Acclimatization: the newly

    formed microbial community in conjunction with host phenotypic plasticity enable the indi-

    vidual host to adjust and maintain performance under changing environmental conditions

    (Fig 2); and (4) Adaptation: in the long term, newly formed interactions between host geno-

    types and associated microbes increase the fitness of the symbiosis and th

    Powerpoint

    Resource

    Deep-Learning Resources for Studying Glycan-

    Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions

    Graphical Abstract

    Highlights

    d Glycan-focused language models can be used for sequence-

    to-function models

    d Information in glycans predicts immunogenicity,

    pathogenicity, and taxonomic origin

    d Glycan alignments shed light into bacterial virulence

    Bojar et al., 2021, Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144
    January 13, 2021 ª 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier In
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.10.004

    Authors

    Daniel Bojar, Rani K. Powers,

    Diogo M. Camacho, James J. Collins

    Correspondence
    diogo.camacho@wyss.harvard.edu
    (D.M.C.),
    jimjc@mit.edu (J.J.C.)

    In Brief

    Bojar et al. present a workflow that

    combines machine learning and

    bioinformatics techniques to analyze the

    prominent role of glycans in host-microbe

    interactions. The herein developed

    glycan-focused language models and

    alignments allow for the prediction and

    analysis of glycan immunogenicity,

    association with pathogenicity, and

    taxonomic classification.

    c.
    ll

    OPEN ACCESS

    ll

    Resource

    Deep-Learning Resources for Studying
    Glycan-Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions
    Daniel Bojar,1,2 Rani K. Powers,1,2 Diogo M. Camacho,1,4,* and James J. Collins1,2,3,4,5,*
    1Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    2Department of Biological Engineering and Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

    MA 02139, USA
    3Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    4These authors contributed equally
    5Lead Contact

    *Correspondence: diogo.camacho@wyss.harvard.edu (D.M.C.), jimjc@mit.edu (J.J.C.)

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.10.004

    SUMMARY

    Glycans, the most diverse biopolymer, are shaped by evolutionary pressures stemming from host-microbe
    interactions. Here, we present machine learning and bioinformatics methods to leverage the evolutionary in-
    formation present in glycans to gain insights into how pathogens and commensals interact with hosts. By
    using techniques from natural language processing, we develop deep-learning models for glycans that are
    trained on a curated dataset of 19,299 unique glycans and can be used to study and predict glycan functions.
    We show that these models can be utilized to predict glycan immunogenicity and the pathogenicity of bac-
    terial strains, as well as investigate glycan-mediated immune evasion via molecular mimicry. We also develop
    glycan-alignment methods and use these to analyze virulence-determining glycan motifs in the capsular
    polysaccharides of bacterial pathogens. These resources enable one to identify and study glycan motifs
    involved in immunogenicity, pathogenicity, molecular mimicry, and immune evasion, expanding our under-
    standing of host-microbe interactions.

    INTRODUCTION

    In contrast to RNA and proteins, whose sequences can be eluci-

    dated from their associated DNA sequence, glycans are the only

    biopolymer outside the rules of the central dogma of molecular

    biology. Although glycans are synthesized by DNA-encoded en-

    zymes (Lairson et al., 2008), an individual glycan sequence is

    dependent on the interplay between multiple enzymes and

    cellular conditions. Additionally, the expansive glycan alphabet

    of hundreds of different monosaccharides allows for a large

    number of potential oligosaccharides, built with different mono-

    saccharides, lengths, connectivity, and branching. Glycans are

    present as modifications on all other biopolymers (Varki, 2017),

    exerting varying effects on biomolecules, including stabilization

    and modulation of their functionality (Dekkers et al., 2017; Solá

    and Griebenow, 2009). Apart from influencing the function of in-

    dividual proteins, glycans are also crucial for cell-cell contact in

    the case of glycan-glycan interactions during the attachment of

    pathogenic bacteria to host cells (Day et al., 2015), and they

    mediate essential developmental processes such as nervous

    system development (Haltiwanger and Lowe, 2004). Recently,

    Lauc et al. hypothesized that the plethora of available glycoforms

    and their plasticity facilitated the evolution of complex multicel-

    lular lifeforms (Lauc et al., 2014), reasoning that is supported

    by the essential roles of glycans in developmental processes

    132 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 ª 2020 The
    This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

    and cell-cell communication and emphasizes the evolutionary

    information in glycans.

    Because glycans make up the outermost layer of both eukary-

    otic and prokaryotic cells, cross-kingdom interactions will

    necessarily involve these molecules (Day et al., 2015). The prom-

    inent role of glycans in host-pathogen interactions (Varki, 2017)

    has resulted in evolutionary pressures and opportunities on

    both sides of the interaction—natural selection can modify

    host glycan receptors used by pathogens without losing their

    functionalities, whereas pathogens and commensals need to

    alter their glycans to evade the host immune system. These inter-

    actions provide a window into understanding glycan-mediated

    host-microbe relationships. Glycans display great phenotypic

    variability: sequences can be changed depending on environ-

    mental conditions, such as the level of extracellular metabolites

    (Park et al., 2017), without the need for genetic mutations, poten-

    tially facilitating rapid responses to changes in host-microbe

    relationships.

    Given the aforementioned glycan-mediated host-microbe in-

    teractions, glycans could provide insights into pathogenicity

    and commensalism determinants, as, for instance, molecular

    mimicry of host glycans by both pathogens and commensals fa-

    cilitates their immune evasion (Carlin et al., 2009; Varki and Gag-

    neux, 2015). Additional therapeutic potential is enabled by the

    widespread usage of glycans by viruses for cell adhesion and

    Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
    creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

    C

    D
    Bonds Made
    by NeuNAc

    α2-8

    α2-3

    α2-6

    N
    um

    b
    e

    r o
    f G

    ly
    c

    a
    ns

    0

    200

    400

    α2-6

    α2-3

    α2-8

    Bonds Made
    by NeuNGc

    0

    40

    80

    NeuNAc

    NeuNGc Kdo

    Monosaccharides
    with Bond α2-3

    0

    200

    400

    Monosaccharides Paired with Fuc

    N
    um

    b
    e

    r o
    f G

    ly
    c

    a
    ns

    Branching

    O
    c

    c
    ur

    e
    nc

    e
    s

    Position

    Main

    Side

    G
    a

    l
    G

    lc

    G
    a

    lN
    A

    c
    M

    a
    n

    Fu
    c

    G
    lc

    N
    A

    c
    N

    G
    lc

    N
    A

    c
    O

    S

    G
    lc

    A
    Rh

    a

    G
    lc

    N
    A

    c
    G

    ro
    G

    a
    lO

    A
    c

    G
    a

    lA
    G

    lc
    N

    1200

    800

    400

    0

    3000

    2000

    1000

    0

    G
    lc

    N
    A

    c

    G
    a

    lO
    S

    A 12,674 Species-Specific Glycans

    6,969 eukaryotic
    6,119 prokaryotic
    152 viral

    19,299 Unique Glycans

    1,027 Glycoletters
    19,866 Glycowords
    9,152 Glycans with at
    least one label

    1600

    6000

    Domain

    Order

    Kingdom

    Family

    Phylum

    Genus

    Class

    Species

    Number of Glycans

    Number of Glycans
    0 2000 4000 6000 0 2000 4000 0 20001000 3000

    0 800 0 400 800 0 400 800

    Virus

    Archaea

    Primates
    Pseudomonadales
    Fabales

    Rhizobiales

    Saccharomycetales

    Lactobacillales
    Artiodactyla

    Burkholderiales

    Actinomycetales

    0 1000 2000

    Plantae
    Animalia

    Fungi
    Excavata

    Virus
    Euryarchaeota
    Riboviria
    Chromista
    Proteoarchaeota

    0 2000 4000

    Hominidae

    Pseudomonadaceae
    Fabaceae

    Saccharomycetaceae
    Rhizobiaceae

    Pasteurellaceae

    Burkholderiaceae

    Solanaceae
    Muridae

    Angiosperms
    Chordata

    Ascomycota
    Firmicutes

    Basidiomycota
    Actinobacteria

    Euglenozoa

    Virus
    Arthropoda

    Homo

    Salmonella

    Burkholderia
    Shigella

    Bos
    Sus
    Streptococcus

    Lactobacillus

    Dicotyledons
    Mammalia

    Bacilli
    Alphaproteobacteria
    Monocotyledons

    Saccharomycetes

    Betaproteobacteria

    Sordariomycetes
    Actinobacteria

    Sus scrofa
    Mus musculus

    Rattus norvegicus

    Shigella dysenteriae
    Gallus gallus

    Pseudomonas sp.

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    B
    Eukarya

    Bacteria

    Bacteria Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria

    Enterobacterales Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia
    Homo

    Pseudomonas
    Homo sapiens

    Bos taurus

    Escherichia coli

    Figure 1. Using a Curated Glycan Dataset as a Resource for Glycobiology and Analyzing Host-Microbe Interactions
    (A) Building curated datasets of species-specific and unique glycan sequences. Glycans stemming from proteins, lipids, small molecules, or cellular surfaces

    were gathered from UniCarbKB, CSDB, GlyTouCan, and the academic literature. We deposited these datasets in our database SugarBase, containing additional

    associated metadata, such as linkage and immunogenicity information.

    (legend continued on next page)

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    Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 133

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    entry (Thompson et al., 2019) and pathogenic bacteria (Poole

    et al., 2018).

    In addition to previous work developing computational ap-

    proaches to glycan analysis (McDonald et al., 2016; Spahn

    et al., 2016), identifying relevant glycan motifs and their roles in

    host-microbe interactions at scale would benefit from pattern-

    learning algorithms, such as machine learning, that can uncover

    statistical dependencies in biological sequences (Camacho

    et al., 2018). Research on other biopolymers has shown that lan-

    guage models, originally developed for the analysis of human

    languages, perform best in this task (Alley et al., 2019; Almagro

    Armenteros et al., 2020; Strodthoff et al., 2020), because they

    can leverage evolutionarily conserved regularities and lan-

    guage-like properties in such sequences. Language models,

    with their memory-like features, are well suited for leveraging

    patterns and implicit structure in biopolymers such as those un-

    derlying nucleic acids (Valeri et al., 2020) and proteins (Alley

    et al., 2019), because information in these sequences is order

    dependent, and non-neighboring residues can have meaningful

    interactions. Applying a natural language-processing approach

    to biological sequences also enables learning a representation

    of a molecule that can be used to analyze sequence motifs

    and predict functional properties. These types of models are

    therefore a suitable starting point for the analysis of glycan

    sequences.

    Here, we present a resource toolkit comprising machine

    learning and bioinformatics methods as well as a large glycan

    database to leverage the evolutionary information present in gly-

    cans for predictive purposes in the context of host-microbe in-

    teractions, e.g., by understanding pathogenicity-associated

    glycan motifs. This toolkit can be used as a complete workflow

    for investigating host-microbe interactions, from a glycan data-

    set to glycan motifs identified by machine learning and further

    investigated by glycan alignments, or as separate modules. Un-

    derlying all of this is our language model for glycans, SweetTalk,

    trained on a dataset of 19,299 unique glycan sequences. With

    this, we demonstrate that similarities between glycans can be

    visualized and used to predict glycan properties such as human

    immunogenicity. Another part of our platform is SweetOrigins, a

    language-model-based classifier predicting the taxonomic

    origin of glycans that we use to obtain evolution-informed repre-

    sentations of glycans. To achieve this in the context of glycan-

    mediated host-microbe interactions, we manually curated a

    comprehensive dataset comprising 12,674 glycans with species

    annotations. These datasets were combined into a database,

    SugarBase, that is amenable to programmatic access and inte-

    gration into deep-learning pipelines, thus providing resources for

    analyses involving host-microbe interactions.

    In this work, we demonstrate the potential and generaliz-

    ability of using SugarBase, SweetTalk, SweetOrigins, and a

    glycan-alignment methodology for studying glycan-mediated

    host-microbe interactions. We show that a language-model-

    based classifier trained on glycan sequences can accurately

    (B) Glycan species distribution in the species-specific glycan dataset. For all gly

    taxonomic level are shown with their number of glycans.

    (C and D) Analyzing the local structural context of glycoletters. We identified the m

    local structural context together with its likely position in the glycan structure (main

    sialic acids (D).

    134 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021

    predict glycan immunogenicity and the pathogenicity of

    E. coli strains, revealing predictive glycan motifs. We also

    leverage the evolutionary information gained by SweetOrigins

    to analyze glycan motifs that could be used for molecular-

    mimicry-mediated immune evasion by commensals and

    pathogens. Applying our glycan-alignment methodology to

    the example of the capsular polysaccharides of Staphylo-

    coccus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, we uncover a

    potential connection to the enterobacterial common antigen

    and hypothesize a mechanism for the increased virulence

    mediated by these glycan motifs. Taken together, these

    resources offer a powerful and generalizable platform for

    studying and understanding the role of glycans in host-

    microbe interactions.

    RESULTS

    Curating Glycan Datasets for Glycobiology and Glycan-
    Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions
    To investigate the role of glycans in host-microbe interactions,

    we constructed a dataset of species-specific glycan sequences

    that could be used to train machine-learning models. For this, we

    gathered and curated a dataset with glycans from GlyTouCan

    (Tiemeyer et al., 2017), UniCarbKB (Campbell et al., 2014), the

    Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) (Toukach and Egor-

    ova, 2016), and targeted literature searches (see STAR

    Methods). To facilitate training deep-learning models on glycan

    sequences, we only included glycans with fully elucidated se-

    quences, including the determination of linkages between

    monosaccharides. Our dataset contained 12,674 highly diverse

    glycans with a deposited species association (Figure 1A; Table

    S1) and included glycans from 1,726 species (corresponding to

    39 taxonomic phyla; Figure 1B). Specifically, our dataset con-

    tained 6,969 eukaryotic, 6,119 prokaryotic, and 152 viral gly-

    cans. Because we included all species for which we could find

    glycans, this dataset constituted a comprehensive snapshot of

    currently known species-specific glycans, with glycans from

    numerous bacteria, facilitating the study of glycan-mediated

    host-microbe interactions.

    We further reasoned that the inclusion of glycan sequences

    without a deposited species label would strengthen the lan-

    guage models we describe below. This approach is supported

    by the success of transfer learning in the field of machine learning

    (Howard and Ruder, 2018), in which models are initially trained

    on large datasets without labels and then finetuned on smaller

    datasets with labels. This makes more data available to learn

    general patterns, such as sequence motifs, that can be lever-

    aged to predict glycan properties. Accordingly, we curated a

    separate dataset in which we used the databases mentioned

    above to gather 19,299 unique glycan sequences, irrespective

    of whether species information was available (Figure 1A;

    STAR Methods; Table S2). To gain a comprehensive view of

    glycobiology, we included all glycan categories, encompassing

    cans with species information, up to the 10 most abundant classes for each

    ost frequent monosaccharides following fucose in glycans (C), highlighting its

    versus side branch). Additionally, we compared the binding behavior of several

    Featurize
    Input

    / // /

    Language Model
    (Glycoletters)

    Classifiers
    (Glycowords)

    SweetTalk

    Xt-1 Xt

    LSTMRv LSTMRv LSTMRv

    Xt+1

    Yt-1 Yt Yt+1

    2-3x

    Embedding

    A

    Language Model Output

    C Glycowords With
    Existing Alphabet

    Possible Realized

    Data Processing

    GlyTouCan Literature

    D

    Datasets

    α2

    β4
    α3 β3 β3

    Ser/Thr

    α2

    β4
    α3 β3 β3

    Ser/Thr

    α2

    β4
    α3 β3 β3

    Ser/Thr

    α2

    β4
    α3 β3 β3

    Ser/Thr

    β3 β3

    α3 β3

    β4 α3

    α2 β4

    Fuc

    Gal GalNAc
    GlcNAc

    tSNE Dim 1

    Glycoletter Embeddings

    Fuc

    Glc
    Neu

    Man

    B Glycowords

    tS
    N

    E
    D

    im
    2

    Bonds

    Gal

    NeuNAc

    Glc

    α3 β3

    10 –

    30 –

    -10 –

    -30 –

    -30

    -10

    30

    10

    N
    um

    b
    e

    r o
    f G

    ly
    c

    o
    w

    o
    rd

    s

    Possible Realized

    U
    M

    A
    P

    D
    im

    2

    UMAP Dim 1

    8 –

    4 –

    0 –

    -4 –

    -10

    -6

    -2

    2

    6

    LSTMFw LSTMFw LSTMFw

    19,299
    Glycans

    E F G

    2-2-6
    UMAP Dim 1

    6

    -8

    -4

    0

    4

    U
    M

    A
    P

    D
    im

    2

    Non
    -immuno

    -genic

    Immuno
    -genic

    N
    um

    b
    e

    r o
    f U

    nm
    a

    sk
    e

    d
    G

    ly
    c

    o
    w

    o
    rd

    s

    Probability Immunogenic Probability Immunogenic

    α3
    α6
    α6

    α3

    β2

    β4 β4
    α6

    α2 α3 α3
    α2

    α6

    α2 β4 β4 α3 β4 β4
    α6

    WT
    α2 α3

    α2 α6

    1 2

    3

    3

    1 2

    2

    α6 α3

    α3 α6

    β4 β21

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    α6 β4 β3 β4

    WT

    1 2

    β4 β31

    1

    β3 β6

    α6 α3

    Fuc Gal GalNAcGlcNAc ManNAcGlc ManRhaNeuNAcNeuNGc Xyl

    αGal

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1 –

    2 –
    3 –

    4 –
    5 –

    6 –
    7 –

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    1 –

    2 –

    3 –

    4 –

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    0.2

    0.6

    1.0

    Homo sapiens

    Non-Reducing Reducing

    Homo sapiens

    Non-Reducing Reducing

    Ruminococcus
    gnavus

    Homo sapiens

    High
    MMannose

    ghHig
    haRh

    NN-Glycans

    nsO-Glycan

    1012

    108

    104

    100

    (legend on next page)

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    Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 135

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    protein-, lipid-, and small molecule-associated glycans, as well

    as capsular and extracellular polysaccharides.

    In our dataset, we observed 1,027 unique monosaccharides or

    bonds that were present in glycan sequences and comprised the

    smallest units of an alphabet for a glycan language. Analogous to

    natural language processing, we termed these entities ‘‘glycolet-

    ters’’ and constructed ‘‘glycowords’’ by considering trisaccha-

    rides (i.e., three monosaccharides and two connecting bonds,

    or five glycoletters), yielding 19,866 unique glycowords in our da-

    taset. With this, we sought to incorporate local structural infor-

    mation into our models and enable the discovery of relevant mo-

    tifs, which usually contain subsequences larger than a single

    monosaccharide. Even larger substructures would preclude

    the analysis of shorter glycans and lead to an exponential in-

    crease in the size of the resulting vocabulary. We would also

    like to note that although we chose trisaccharides as building

    blocks, glycan substructures of any length can be used to build

    a vocabulary for our models without considerable changes.

    To make these data and analysis resources readily accessible

    and facilitate further advances in glycobiology, we created Sug-

    arBase, a comprehensive glycan database with metadata and

    analytical tools based on this work (Figure S1A; Table S2;

    https://webapps.wyss.harvard.edu/sugarbase). SugarBase of-

    fers accessible glycan data, explorable glycan representations

    learned by our language models, and many of the methods

    developed here as tools, such as the local structural context

    of any glycoletter (Figure S1B) and glycan alignments, described

    below.

    Reasoning that our glycan datasets constitute broad re-

    sources for glycobiology and host-microbe interactions, we set

    out to investigate host glycan substructures that could be

    emulated by microbes for molecular mimicry. Analyzing the envi-

    ronment of the monosaccharide fucose as an example, we

    observed N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and galactose (Gal)

    as typical connected monosaccharides (Figure 1C), which is

    consistent with the fucosyltransferase substrate specificities an-

    notated in glycosyltransferase family 10 (Lombard et al., 2014).

    Thus, microbial glycans containing fucose could potentially

    include either GlcNAc or Gal in direct proximity to maximize sim-

    ilarity with host glycans. This insight aids in formulating hypoth-

    Figure 2. Learning the Language of Glycans Revealed Regularities in S

    (A) Building a language model for glycobiology. We used glycowords, overlapping

    based bidirectional RNN, SweetTalk, that was trained by predicting the next glyc

    symbol nomenclature for glycans (SNFG).

    (B) Learned representation of glycoletters by SweetTalk. We visualized the embe

    SNE). Areas enriched for modified monosaccharides of one type are colored.

    (C) Comparing the abundance of possible and observed glycowords. Possible

    exhaustive combination (36 bonds and 991 monosaccharides).

    (D) Comparing the distribution of possible and observed glycowords. We gene

    monosaccharides and bonds and formed their embedding by averaging their co

    jection (UMAP) of these generated glycowords (blue) and all observed glycoword

    (E) Glycan embeddings learned by the immunogenicity classifier. Embeddings fo

    according to whether they were immunogenic (blue) or non-immunogenic (orang

    (F) Glycoword masking to probe the immunogenicity classifier. Glycowords were

    Reducing’’/‘‘Reducing’’) and used as input for the trained immunogenicity classifi

    glycan is for prediction, with the bar representing the full-length glycan at the bo

    (G) Glycan in silico alterations to probe immunogenicity classifier. For 4,000

    monosaccharide or bond. If the resulting glycowords were observed, we used th

    probability is plotted together with the altered glycan sequences, with the wildtyp

    monosaccharide was modified. The addition of an ‘‘S’’ implies a sulfurylated mo

    136 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021

    eses and identifying glycan motifs relevant for molecular mim-

    icry, as we describe below. We also differentiated binding

    orientation preferences for different sialic acids, a crucial mono-

    saccharide type in host-pathogen interactions (Figure 1D;

    Haines-menges et al., 2015), revealing a preference for the char-

    acteristic human monosaccharide NeuNAc to be (a2-3)-linked,

    relative to other sialic acids such as NeuNGc. These types of an-

    alyses can directly lead to hypotheses of glycan motifs that can

    be investigated by using the methods presented in this work.

    Using Natural Language Processing to Learn the
    Grammar of Glycans
    Next, we used our curated dataset of 19,299 glycan sequences

    (Table S2) to develop a deep-learning-based language model,

    SweetTalk. For this, we chose a bidirectional recurrent neural

    network (RNN; Figure 2A; Sherstinsky, 2020), because this

    type of model has delivered state-of-the-art results for other bio-

    polymers, such as protein sequences (Alley et al., 2019; Almagro

    Armenteros et al., 2020; Strodthoff et al., 2020). Originally devel-

    oped for human languages, RNNs exhibit memory-like elements

    by predicting the next word given the preceding words (Sherstin-

    sky, 2020); this enables RNNs to learn complex, order-depen-

    dent interactions in proteins by viewing amino acids as letters

    and predicting the next amino acid given the preceding

    sequence (Alley et al., 2019). Two of the main usages for a trained

    language model are as follows: (1) extracting a learned represen-

    tation for each word and (2) finetuning the model for predicting

    structural or functional properties of a sequence. For the former,

    a representation or embedding that characterizes a word in

    terms of context, usage, and meaning is constructed in the pa-

    rameters of the trained model for each word in the vocabulary.

    This learned representation can be used to quantify the similarity

    of two glycan sequences or analyze language properties, which

    we demonstrate with the analysis of molecular mimicry in host-

    microbe interactions. The latter—finetuning a general language

    model on a predictive task such as predicting pathogenicity—

    is also known as transfer learning (Howard and Ruder, 2018;

    Tan et al., 2018), and in our case it involves general glycan fea-

    tures that are learned by the language model to predict func-

    tional properties.

    ubstructures and Can Be Used to Predict Glycan Immunogenicity

    units consisting of three monosaccharides and two bonds, for our glycoletter-

    oletter given previous glycoletters. Glycans are drawn in accordance with the

    dding for every glycoletter by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-

    glycowords were calculated from the pool of observed glycoletters and their

    rated 250,000 glycowords by randomly sampling from the observed pool of

    nstituent glycoletter embeddings. A uniform manifold approximation and pro-

    s (orange) is shown.

    r glycans from our immunogenicity dataset are shown via UMAP and colored

    e).

    progressively exchanged with padding (‘‘masking’’) from both termini (‘‘Non-

    er. Inferred immunogenicity probability indicates how crucial each region of a

    ttom.

    iterations, single monosaccharides or bonds were replaced with a random

    em as input for the trained immunogenicity classifier. Inferred immunogenicity

    e glycan found at the bottom. In case of ambiguity, a number indicates which

    nosaccharide, whereas ‘‘Me’’ implies a methylated monosaccharide.

    ll
    OPEN ACCESSResource

    Glycans are the only nonlinear biopolymer, with up to multiple

    branches per sequence. To enable a language model despite

    this branching, we extracted partially overlapping ‘‘glyco-

    words’’ from the non-reducing end to the reducing end of gly-

    cans in the bracket notation (Figure 2A), comprising three

    monosaccharides and two bonds. These glycowords repre-

    sented snapshots of structural contexts that characterize a

    glycan sequence. By using monosaccharides and bonds as

    ‘‘glycoletters,’’ we then trained a glycoletter-based language

    model, SweetTalk, predicting the next most probable glycolet-

    ter given the preceding glycoletters in the context of these gly-

    cowords (Table S3). This operation, instead of directly training

    on full sequences, avoids learning specious relationships be-

    tween glycoletters that are close in the bracket notation but

    far apart in the actual glycan structure due to branching. We

    then demonstrated the necessity of accounting for the order-

    dependent information in glycans by training SweetTalk on

    scrambled glycan sequences, randomizing the order but keep-

    ing the composition of a sequence—this resulted in severely

    degraded model performance, emphasizing the language-like

    elements inherent in glycan sequences (Table S3). Analyzing

    the learned embeddings of glycoletters after traini

    powerpoint

    Occupational
    Health Nurse

    By: Chinenye Eneremadu

    Roles of an
    Occupational Health
    Nurse

    ● Occupational health nurses work to prevent,
    investigate, and treat workplace-related
    illnesses and injuries.

    ● To prevent workplace injuries and illnesses
    ● Assess workplaces to identify possible

    hazards
    ● These nurses also educate employers and

    employees on how to prevent accidents and
    injuries.

    Direct Roles

    ● Occupational health nurses work closely with
    both employers/employees to ensure that
    workers stay safe in their working
    environments

    ● They effectively communicate with employers,
    employees, medical professionals, and
    insurance companies

    ● They possess teaching skills in which they
    educating individuals on workplace safety

    ● They pay attention to detail and
    problem-solving skills are equally important.

    Settings of an Occupational Health Nurse

    Occupational health nurses work can often find
    employment in hospitals and clinics. However, many
    employers and companies will also hire these
    nursing professionals. They work in all industries
    and all different types of workplaces.

    ● manufacturing and production facilities
    ● hospitals
    ● medical centers
    ● as well as in other employment sectors,

    including government.

    Type of Medical Problems Occupational Health Nurses treat

    ● When an employee claims that an illness or
    injury is related to his work, an occupational
    health nurse will also investigate the incident
    circumstances.

    ● They have access to an employee’s medical
    charts to determine whether a workplace
    hazard could have caused the injury or
    illness.

    Type of Medical Problems Occupational Health Nurses treat

    ● Treating employees that get hurt or ill due to workplace hazards is another important responsibility of
    occupational health nurses. This includes

    ○ tending to injuries
    ○ administering medication
    ○ performing rehabilitation therapy after certain injuries.

    ● Occupational nurses will also screen new and prospective employees to ensure that they can perform
    the duties required by their positions. This may include

    ○ physical examination
    ○ vision test
    ○ hearing test
    ○ drug or alcohol screening.

    References

    Occupational Health Nurse. EveryNurse.org. (2022, March 13). Retrieved April 4, 2022, from

    https://everynurse.org/careers/occupational-health-nurse/#:~:text=Occupational%20health%20nurses%20work
    %20to,to%20prevent%20accidents%20and%20injuries.

    Powerpoint

    The MRI Race:
    Brain Volume Deficiency in individuals with ADHD

    Student Presenter

    Department of Biology, East Central University

    19 April 2019

    Introduction roadmap

    Background

    What Is ADHD?

    The MRI Race and Why We Care

    Paper Citations

    Papers

    Paper #1

    Paper #2

    Paper #3

    What is ADHD?

    Single most common mental disorder affecting children1

    5% of all children

    2.5% of all adults

    Characterized by: Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

    (1) American Psychiatric Association

    Stanford Medicine 2015 (image)

    ADHD is caused by a wide variety of things. These include problems during pregnancy, premature birth, genetics, and some other things that scientists are still trying to figure out. ADHD is the single most common mental disorder affecting children, affecting 5% of all children and 2.5 percent of adults. ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

    I originally studied ADHD in my honors thesis. As a future developmental pediatrician I will diagnose and treat ADHD more than any other disorder. I have always been interested in the neurobiology behind ADHD, but using MRI to learn more about the specific structures and areas affected will benefit the future patients I look forward to serving.

    3

    The MRI race and why we care

    Using MRI to visualize brain volumes:

    Unique insight into ADHD brain volume deficiencies

    National Institute of Mental Health 2007 (image)

    Now we need to talk about the neurobiology of ADHD. Research shows that brains of those with AHD develop at a normal rate but is delayed by an average of three years in certain brain regions. If you look at this picture you can see that certain brain structures are delayed between the important ages of 7 and 13. For example the frontal cortex is delayed. The frontal cortex controls thinking, planning, and attention. All behaviors that are associated with ADHD.

    4

    Paper citations

    Paper #1:

    Hoogman M, Bralten J, Hibar DP, Mennes M, Zwiers MP, Schweren L, van Hulzen KJE, Medland SE, Shumskaya E, Jahanshad N, et al. Subcortical brain volume differences of participants with ADHD across the lifespan: an ENIGMA collaboration. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 16:1–39.

    Paper #2:

    Castellanos, F. X.; Lee, P. P.; Sharp, W.; Jeffries, N. O.; Greenstein, D. K.; Clasen, L. S. Developmental Trajectories of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Jama 2002, 288, 1740.

    Paper #3:

    Batty MJ, Liddle EB, Pitiot A, Toro R, Groom MJ, Scerif G, Liotti M, Liddle PF, Paus T, Hollis C. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2010;49(3):229–238.

    ____ = date of publication

    Paper #1: SubCortical Brain Volume Differences of Participants with ADHD Across the Lifespan:
    an ENIGMA Collaboration

    Mega-analysis

    1713 cases (ADHD)

    1529 controls

    Hoogman et al. 2017

    Cliff Notes:

    Size deficiency in all regions tested except the pallidum and thalamus

    Psychostimulant medication & symptom severity: no effect on size

    Paper #2: Developmental Trajectories of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Castellanos et al. 2002

    152 cases (ADHD)

    139 controls

    Cliff Notes:

    1. Stimulant medication increases volumes of all structures tested, but not at levels similar to controls

    Paper #3: Cortical Gray Matter in
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
    A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    25 cases (ADHD)

    24 controls

    Cliff Notes:

    Statistical deficit of the pars opercularis cortex

    Hypothesis supported

    Batty et al. 2010

    Pars opercularis because of its connection to inhibitory control, a facet of ADHD behavior.

    8

    Analysis roadmap

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Overview

    Introduction

    Paper #1

    Pros:

    Framing the problem and objectives in separate subsections

    Paper #2

    Pros:

    Detailed literature review

    Paper #3

    Pros:

    Good mix of subject and literature review

    Cons:

    Missing a hypothesis

    Cons:

    Abstract skimpy in context and methods; heavy in results

    Cons:

    Title is general

    Methods

    Paper #1

    Pros:

    Repeatable description of overall experiment

    Paper #2

    Pros:

    Repeatable patient gathering/ screening

    Paper #3

    Pros:

    Matched every ADHD case with a control with matching demographics

    Cons:

    Questionable if experiment can be run without error at every lab

    Cons:

    Unnecessary page-long description of statistics

    Cons:

    No plan for MRI scans w/ movement; All participants on medication; 1 female

    Results

    Paper #1

    Pros:

    Focused on the effects of secondary variables on specific structures

    Paper #2

    Pros:

    Included data linking behavior ratings with brain structures

    Paper #3

    Pros:

    Data presentation answers objectives and hypothesis

    Cons:

    2 graphs for 4 data tables

    Cons:

    1 graph for 3 data tables

    Cons:

    Used color to distinguish data in a graph

    discussion

    Paper #1

    Pros:

    Advocates for DSM update to lower stigma

    Paper #2

    Pros:

    Openly discussed limitations of study

    Paper #3

    Pros:

    Proposed future experiments

    Cons:

    Discussed limitations, but heavily overshadowed by positives

    Cons:

    Repeats results

    Cons:

    Discussed only having a medication group but overlooked past research on subject

    13

    Overview

    Paper #1

    Pros:

    Added Research in context section

    Paper #2

    Pros:

    Data tables easy to read and interpret

    Paper #3

    Pros:

    Free space for eyes to rest

    Cons:

    Graphs at end of paper

    Cons:

    Results section of abstract absurdly long

    Cons:

    Smallest number of brain scans

    14

    Conclusion

    My favorite: Paper #1; Hoogman et al. 2017

    My least favorite: Paper #3; Batty et al. 2010

    Each article added to this body of research in their own distinct way

    Interesting Note: Papers 1 & 3 referenced paper 2

    Any questions?

    Powerpoint

     

    • Select either female offenders or offenders with mental health disorders for this assessment.
    • Research the historical context for treatment of your selected population as well as their special needs.
    • Review the literature on treatment programs intended for your population. Select a program that has empirical support for its effectiveness. Your selected program should be relevant to treatment of the population in your particular field of interest (police, courts, or corrections).

    The Assignment

    Create a PowerPoint presentation in which you address the following:

    • Part I: Provide historical context for the treatment of and outcomes for your selected population in the criminal justice system.
    • Part II: Describe the special needs of this population related to their treatment in your selected field of interest in the criminal justice system.
    • Part III: Identify the program you selected. Provide an overview of the program, including what services are provided and how the needs of the population are addressed.
    • Part IV: Provide empirical support that demonstrates the program’s effectiveness. Cite at least two research studies that have tested the outcomes of the program.  

    Be sure to include notes that you would use to deliver your presentation.

      • 25

      powerpoint

      Create a slideshow of your favorite Points of Interest from the World Regional Geography Workbook: The Essentials. The goal is that you work on this weekly with each region we study and by the end of the class you’ll have a geographic bucket list.

      Slide One – title, name, class

      Slide Two – North American Region

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 2F

      Research 5 facts on both points of interest, paraphrase these facts into academic bullets (no full sentences or paragraphs)

      Add an internet photo of both points of interest

      Add reference citation for both points of interest

      Slide Three – Middle American Region

      Pick Two Points of Interest (one must be mainland and one must be islands) from the Mapping Checklist 3E and follow criteria above in italic

      Slide Four -South America

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 4E and follow criteria above in italic

      Slide Five – European Region

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the Mapping Checklist 5E and follow criteria above in italic

      Slide Five – Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia Region

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the Mapping Checklist 6G or 6H and follow criteria above in italic

      Slide Six – East Asia

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 7E and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Seven – South Asia

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 8E and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Eight – Southeast Asia

      Pick Two Points of Interest (one must be mainland and one must be insular) from the 9E Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Nine – North Africa and Southwest Asia

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 10I or 10J Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Ten – Subsaharan Africa

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 11E Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Eleven – Austral Region

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the 12E Mapping Checkist and follow the criteria above in italic

      Slide Twelve – Oceania

      Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 13D Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

      References should be at the bottom of each slide, one for each point of interest (each slide will have two references.)

      PowerPoint

      For this project you will create a PowerPoint presentation.  When completed it will consist of 9 to 10 slides. Slide 10 will be extra credit (+15 points).  Be sure to utilize chapters 24 + 25, along with others we do not have time to cover, of your textbook for this assignment, as the information there will be the base criteria for grading.

      Powerpoint

      You have been hired as the manager for a new clinical lab company in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The lab is a nonprofit that serves low-income patients in the downtown area. The lab is in the process of setting its fees-for-services on individual services. The clinic director has estimated fixed costs of $436,000, a volume of 18,500 tests, and variable cost rate of $19.

      PowerPoint

        

      7 to 10 slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

      This week we will be covering respiratory disorders and the drugs used to treat them. For your assignment you will prepare a Power Point slide deck going over the medications and focusing on the step wise approach. 

      Describe the long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice, as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient. including adults and children.

      Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.

      Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.

      Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.

      Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

      Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
      Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.

        • 4
        • 10