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## PowerPoint

AET 703 Technology Management Analytics

1

AET 703 Technology Management Analytics

Student’s Name:

Project Description

French Fried Potato Manufacture

Date: March 8, 2022

Scenario.

The purpose of the project is being worker in major food manufacturer (Lambda Foods) to analyze the raw data regarding Potatoes size. The target size of the potato is 10 ounces plus or minus one-half of an ounce. In the containerizing process culls are removed bringing uniformity into the containers’ contents.

Sample

To pick the three samples of 25 potatoes each. I used the simple random sampling, this sampling technique gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen. It is not a haphazard sample as some people think! One way of achieving a simple random sample is to number each element in the sampling frame (e.g. give everyone on the Electoral register a number) and then use random numbers to select the required sample.

Normality test: normality is the pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviour that confirms to a usual, typical or expected standard. I run the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests to check the normality of the samples

 Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Sample 1 25 100.0% 0 0.0% 25 100.0% Sample 2 25 100.0% 0 0.0% 25 100.0% Sample 3 25 100.0% 0 0.0% 25 100.0%

Shapiro wilk test is used to test whether random sample coming from normal distribution or not. While dealing with very small sample, you will be cautious while interpreting Shapiro wilk test because power of test is also small. If deviation in the data is small then denominator become small and we get larger value of w. So we can conclude that sample is drawn from normal distribution which may lead to wrong interpretation.

 Tests of Normality Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig. Sample 1 .089 25 .200* .979 25 .855 Sample 2 .174 25 .050 .934 25 .106 Sample 3 .087 25 .200* .973 25 .713 *. This is a lower bound of the true significance. a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

The tests and graphs are clearly shows that none of the sample is normally distributed.

Data Mean and Standard Deviation

 Sample 1 Mean 9.9868 0.0180621 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 9.949522 Upper Bound 10.02408 5% Trimmed Mean 9.985 Median 9.99 Variance 0.008 Std. Deviation 0.090311 Minimum 9.82 Maximum 10.2 Range 0.38 Interquartile Range 0.105 Skewness 0.205 0.464 Kurtosis 0.394 0.902 Sample 2 Mean 9.9764 0.0318532 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 9.910658 Upper Bound 10.04214 5% Trimmed Mean 9.982667 Median 9.99 Variance 0.025 Std. Deviation 0.159266 Minimum 9.59 Maximum 10.26 Range 0.67 Interquartile Range 0.17 Skewness -0.817 0.464 Kurtosis 1.222 0.902 Sample 3 Mean 9.9792 0.035435 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 9.906066 Upper Bound 10.05233 5% Trimmed Mean 9.986778 Median 9.98 Variance 0.031 Std. Deviation 0.177175 Minimum 9.52 Maximum 10.27 Range 0.75 Interquartile Range 0.24 Skewness -0.502 0.464 Kurtosis 0.515 0.902

Interpretation:

Sample 1. The average size is 9.9868 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 9.949522 and 10.0240.

Sample 2. The average size is 9.910658 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 10.04214 and 9.982667

Sample 3. The average size is 9.9792 ounces and we are 95% confident that the average size of the population is in between 9.906066 and 10.05233. The detail descriptive summary is give in the above table.

Meeting Target Size.

Hypothesis testing is a demonstration of insights, statistics by which an expert tests a presumption in regards to a populace boundary. The strategy utilized by the investigator relies upon the idea of the information utilized and the justification behind the examination. Hypothesis testing is utilized to evaluate the believability of a theory by utilizing test information. Such information might come from a bigger populace, or from the information creating process.

The alpha equal 0.05 significance level.

Decision Rule: Reject the null hypothesis if the p value is less than 0.05.

Hypothesis testing one (Sample 1)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 9.8 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 9.8

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 9.8 ounces

Ha: µ > 9.8

Test Output:

Sample 1:

 One-Sample Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Sample 1 25 9.986800 .0903106 .0180621
 One-Sample Test Test Value = 9.8 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Sample 1 10.342 24 .000 .1868000 .149522 .224078

The p value (0.000) is less than 0.05 hence we reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is higher than 9.8 ounces

Hypothesis testing two (Sample 2)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 10 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 10

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 10 ounces

Ha: µ > 1o

Test Output:

Sample 2:

 One-Sample Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Sample 2 25 9.976400 .1592660 .0318532
 One-Sample Test Test Value = 10 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Sample 2 -.741 24 .466 -.0236000 -.089342 .042142

The p value (0.466) is higher than 0.05 hence we fail to reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is not higher than 9.8 ounces

Hypothesis testing three (Sample 3)

Null hypothesis Ho: the average size of the potato is less than or equal to 9.5 ounces

Ho: µ ≤ 9.5

Alternative hypothesis Ha: the average size of the potato is higher than 10 ounces

Ha: µ > 9.5

Test Output:

Sample 3:

 One-Sample Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Sample 3 25 9.979200 .1771751 .0354350
 One-Sample Test Test Value = 9.5 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Sample 3 13.523 24 .000 .4792000 .406066 .552334

The p value (0.000) is less than 0.05 hence we reject the null hypothesis and concluded the average size of the potato is higher than 9.5 ounces

Forecasting Capacity Needs

The factory has seasonal demand for the finished product. For the last 20 quarters the data which seems to support this seasonality. These numbers represent millions of pounds of potatoes.

Based on the historical data the regression forecast model is:

Y=1.184-0.012*x

 Slope -0.012 Intercept 1.184

Y represent the predicted forecast value while represent the time.

The detail table is shown below.

Potato Demand

 Year Time (Period) Potato Demand (millions) (Actual) Forecast Act-Forecast (Error) Abs(A-F) (Error) Error^2 Percent Error 2017 1 1.03 1.1721 -0.1421 0.1421 0.0202 13.80% 2 0.89 1.1601 -0.2701 0.2701 0.0729 30.35% 3 1.24 1.1480 0.0920 0.0920 0.0085 7.42% 4 1.5 1.1359 0.3641 0.3641 0.1325 24.27% 2018 5 0.95 1.1239 -0.1739 0.1739 0.0302 18.30% 6 1.02 1.1118 -0.0918 0.0918 0.0084 9.00% 7 1.36 1.0997 0.2603 0.2603 0.0677 19.14% 8 1.11 1.0877 0.0223 0.0223 0.0005 2.01% 2019 9 0.89 1.0756 -0.1856 0.1856 0.0344 20.85% 10 1.05 1.0635 -0.0135 0.0135 0.0002 1.29% 11 1.29 1.0515 0.2385 0.2385 0.0569 18.49% 12 1.34 1.0394 0.3006 0.3006 0.0904 22.43% 2020 13 0.89 1.0273 -0.1373 0.1373 0.0189 15.43% 14 0.76 1.0153 -0.2553 0.2553 0.0652 33.59% 15 1.29 1.0032 0.2868 0.2868 0.0823 22.23% 16 1.04 0.9911 0.0489 0.0489 0.0024 4.70% 2021 17 0.8 0.9791 -0.1791 0.1791 0.0321 22.38% 18 0.57 0.9670 -0.3970 0.3970 0.1576 69.65% 19 1.19 0.9549 0.2351 0.2351 0.0553 19.75% 20 0.94 0.9429 -0.0029 0.0029 0.0000 0.30%
 Average Error 0.0000 MSE 0.0325 MAD 0.1478 MAPE 15.48%

Mean Absolute Deviation=0.1478, Mean Absolute Percentage Error=15.48% and Mean Squared Error=0.0325

All three of them are indicators of forecasting accuracy wherein forecasts have been made over a period of time. However, the parameters used to determine the forecasting accuracy vary and thus above three methods.

MAD takes into consideration absolute values of forecasting errors and average them over entire forecasting period. Forecasting error for a specific time period means difference between actual parameter and forecasted parameter. It must be noted that only Absolute Values are taken which always ensures that set of data are positive which when averaged gives Mean Absolute Deviation.

MAPE is further refinement on MAD. Here instead of absolute deviation, Absolute Percentage Error is used. Absolute Percentage Error equals Absolute deviation divided by Actual data and multiplied by 100. Otherwise approach for calculating MAPE is same as MAD

MSE is calculated by squaring all errors and dividing it by “n – 1” “n” stands for number of data. It must be noted that Mean under MAD or MAPE is arrived by dividing numerator with “n”, whereas MSE is calculated by dividing numerator with “n – 1”.

Summary.

Three samples are picked from the data populations each one has 25 observations and all the three samples are not normally distributed. Similarly the sample 1 and sample 3 data means support the alternative hypothesis and sample 2 support null hypothesis at 5% level of significances.

The equation for the forecast is

Y=1.184-0.012*x

Y represent the predicted forecast value while represent the time.

The predicted value for 2022 using above regression equation:

 Time (Period) Forecast 2022 21 Q1 0.931 22 Q2 0.919 23 Q3 0.907 24 Q4 0.895

# References

Bordalo, P. G. (2020). Overreaction in macroeconomic expectations. . American Economic Review, 110(9), 2748-82.

Jugend, D. F. (2020). Public support for innovation: A systematic review of the literature and implications for open innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 15(6), 119-185.

Ma, Y. R. (2019). Oil financialization and volatility forecast: Evidence from multidimensional predictors. Journal of Forecasting, 38(6), 564-581.

Denis, D. J. (2018). SPSS data analysis for univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. John Wiley & Sons.

## Powerpoint

In 10-12 slides, including the title and reference slides,

Research Proposal Topic: Mental Health

The PowerPoint will need to include:

2. Method section: including your description of the participants, apparatus/materials/instruments, procedure, and design you anticipate using.

3. Results: discuss how results would be gathered for which statistic was used, the alpha level (.05), critical value, and degrees of freedom. (Do not create fake results.)

4. Discussion: requires 4 paragraphs that include:

0. Describe what it would mean if you obtained significant results. Then describe what it would mean to obtain nonsignificant results.

1. Discuss how your study followed APA ethical guidelines, by discussing the use of an informed consent form, debriefing statement, deception, and obtaining IRB permission.

2. Discuss any limitations in your study (e.g., possible confounding, lack of random assignment or random sampling, etc.)

3. Conclude with a discussion of future studies that could arise from your study.

5. Appendices: two figures, OR two tables, OR a table and a figure. For example, set up a table focusing on participants, include your individually created survey, use/cite tables from a previous study, refer to Chapter 14 summary table, include Informed Consent figure and/or Debriefing Form figure. If unsure, contact your instructor for confirmation of appendices.

6. Reference Slide: APA-formatted reference slide.

## Powerpoint

1

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course

Instructor’s Name

Date

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The title of the article selected is “The Clinician-Administered PSTD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation in Military Veterans“, and talks about a posttraumatic stress disorder called DSM-5. The study discusses the development of CAPS for DSM-5. Accordingly, the authors give the outcomes of an initial psychometric evaluation of CPS-5 scores in 2 samples of military veterans (Ns = 165 and 207).

The study had some limitations, and the first one was that the study subjects were military veterans selected from a single geographical area, and many were men. As such, it was not clear how accurate the findings generalize to nonveterans and females. Also, the sample sizes were modest, especially for the comparison between CAPS-5 and CAPS-IV in the first phase.

The study gave undisputed evidence that the CAPS-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic status and severity of the symptom. Furthermore, the streamlined format of CAPS-5 facilitates administration and scoring and makes it simple to learn than CAPS-IV.

Reference

Lang, A. J., Wilkins, K., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Golinelli, D., Chavira, D., Sherbourne, C., … & Stein, M. B. (2012). Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response. General hospital psychiatry34(4), 332-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.genhosppsych.2012.02.003

Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Biddle, D. (2001). The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behaviour research and therapy39(8), 977-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00084-x

## Powerpoint

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The tittle of the article is: Comparing Depressive Symptom Assessment Approaches in the Context of PSTD

The tittle of the selected article is: The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD

Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Biddle, D. (2001). The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behaviour research and therapy39(8), 977-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00084-x

The tittle of the selected article is Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response.

Lang, A. J., Wilkins, K., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Golinelli, D., Chavira, D., Sherbourne, C., … & Stein, M. B. (2012). Abbreviated PTSD Checklist (PCL) as a guide to clinical response. General hospital psychiatry34(4), 332-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.genhosppsych.2012.02.003

## powerpoint

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

Topic: The focus will be on how COVID has impacted the mental health of people, including health care providers. Where to seek for help.

Support for Public Health Professionals and Professionals

Support for Employees

## Powerpoint

Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation, with speaker notes, that examines the significance of an organization’s culture and values. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice-over or a video. Refer to the Topic Materials for additional guidance on recording your presentation with Loom. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for References at the end.

1. Outline the purpose of an organization’s mission, vision, and values.
2. Explain why an organization’s mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes.
3. Explain what factors lead to conflict in a professional practice. Describe how organizational values and culture can influence the way conflict is addressed.
4. Discuss effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration.
5. Discuss how organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes. Describe how these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be appropriate for the assignment and relevant to nursing practice.

While APA style format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

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## Powerpoint

Directions: Each student is required to develop a PowerPoint for chapters 14 & 15 in the Creswell textbook.

Students are encouraged to be creative and include Video-links to their Power-Points. DO NOT JUST COPY what is on the Book – Look for other sources.

Make sure your PowerPoint includes a reflection on the following guiding questions:

Connections: What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your learning?

Challenge: What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue within the text?

Concepts: What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text?

CHAPTERS IN FILES

Changes: What changes in attitudes, thinking, or action are suggested by the text, either for you or others?

• The Power-Point file should be named as follows:  First Name_Last Name_EEC6678_PPT
• Upload the file via BlackBoard in Discussion.

## Powerpoint

Prompt: First, review Chapter 9 in your text as well as the article Stages of the Consumer Buying Process and the video 7 Tips for Good Survey Questions. Next, prepare a presentation that lists and briefly explains each stage of the consumer buying process. Define the marketing strategy used within each stage of the process regarding your chosen market segment. Finally, identify which specific stages of the process will be most effective for your consumer segment.

## Powerpoint

1. Change Management Communication Plan PresentationSubmit a creative and polished PowerPoint presentation with narration to share your change management communication plan. The communication plan should include your recommendations for workforce development techniques and how you plan to communicate these to the U.S. branch employees.
Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

1. Define the audience by performing a target audience analysis. (slides 1–2)
2. Determine core and audience-specific communication objectives and messages, including appropriate tone. You may include the following information (slides 3–4):
1. Discuss goals of the communications campaign. You may consider the following points:
• Why is this communication campaign needed?
• What are the essential topics to communicate to company leadership?
• What do front-line employees need to know as they experience and deal with the impact of change?
• How will you convey need and urgency for change? Discuss What’s in It for Me (WIIFM).
• Use a story or a graphic to connect with the change vision for success to the communication plan.
2. Define and communicate new performance expectations and what stakeholders need to do to prepare for change.
3. Recommend two workforce development techniques to support employees’ adaptation to change and build on existing skills and strengths. Consider the following (slides 5–6):
1. What do you want the employees of the U.S. branch to do differently?
2. How should the organization’s leadership support employees during the change, through training and development programs to address the gaps?
4. Determine and review the best delivery channels for each communication based on the target audience analysis. Select a minimum of three channels as part of a multi-prong communication strategy. You may include the following information (slides 7–8):
1. What would be the communication timeline for delivery of all messages? Create an outline.
2. How often will the branch’s change initiators communicate with this audience?
3. Outline communication responsibilities and assignments. Who is responsible for leading communications with this audience?
5. Include your plan for a feedback loop to monitor and manage the communication campaign. (slides 9–10)
1. Determine metrics or key performance indicators (KPIs) to track the success of the communication campaign.
2. Outline how the metrics will be implemented and tracked through a feedback loop.
2. Executive LetterWrite an executive letter to the VP of the U.S. branch recommending a strategy and best practices for sustaining the change efforts. Specifically, you must address the following criteria:
1. Recommend one strategy for evaluating the business impact of change.
1. How can they sustain change efforts through performance management?
2. Recommend two best practices for ensuring new skills are applied on the job.
1. Include at least one reinforcement technique leadership can use to sustain change.

## PowerPoint

1

Annotated bibliography

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

2

Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

The article explores building outdoor structures; the research of Wu Ying focuses on

the flexibility of building materials. Advances in building technology have risen in line with

the growing need for better-quality building materials. To maintain the benefits of the grand

design of building materials and ensure that their design level is progressively enhanced to

enhance the exterior design of buildings, a focus on the adaptability research of building

materials application is needed. Building materials can be used in various ways; they can

enhance the appearance of modern building engineering, increase project value, and increase

building field production efficiency by examining their adaptability to the external design

shape of a building (Ying, 2018).

The relevance of the resource explains how building materials are adapted to creating

an exterior of a building and help increase the production efficiency of the building field.

Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

books?

id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

The article by Perez and Perini analyses the current state of the art on nature-based

urban and building sustainability strategies, discussed in detail. In the introduction, the

editors cover essential principles of natural components in the built environment and a

strategy for their use in buildings and cities. Part One discusses urban ecosystems and

3

ecosystem services. In contrast, Part Two focuses on tactics and technology, such as vertical

greening systems, green roofs, and green streets, to improve the urban environment. Aspects

such as improved energy efficiency, air quality, acoustics, water management, and

biodiversity are addressed in Part Three, including data on the project’s quantitative

outcomes. Describes the many ways to incorporate nature into the built world. Systems and

approaches for incorporating nature into buildings are presented in this article—the most up-

to-date information on operations and ecosystem services research. This collection includes

new and established designs and those currently in the testing phase (Perez & Perini, 2018).

The article is essential because It enables a great understanding of the strategies used

by Leoh Ming to integrate the city environment with the building. However, the book has no

reviews yet; the authors are researchers with Ph.D. degrees and have experience in their field

of work. This makes the source to be reliable and trustworthy.

Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

High-rise and skyline visibility analysis is the subject of this essay. Decisions

concerning the skylines of modern cities, dominated by skyscrapers, must take visibility into

account. Using a targeted isovist is the cornerstone of the visibility approach, which refers to

the visible portion of a tall structure’s target area. Analysis of tall tower clusters visible from

adjacent streets and the effect they have on the city’s skyline is presented in this article, which

uses Jakarta as an opportunity to illustrate how this approach may be applied to other cities.

To replicate the modeling techniques in the background, Grasshopper was utilized to create

4

the algorithm for visualizing the content. To illustrate the results, a color section is used to

depict the fraction of viewable viewpoints and the visible space of a structure’s front, both of

which are essential metrics. According to the results, building height combinations, structure

placement, building-to-street relationships, and perspective distances all had a substantial

influence on the rate of visibility. Because of how well they can be seen, tall building cluster

visibility affects its skyline. The techniques provided here for analyzing visibility are

essential for the design and construction of tall buildings in a distributed organization and, as

a result, for predicting how future cities’ skylines will look(Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020).

The significance of the article will enable me to understand the position of

structures, the relationship between the buildings and the street, the distances between

different perspectives what significant impact they play on the rate of visibility.

Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

It examines the importance of structure service systems (BSS) and how they’re being

considered at the earliest phases of architectural design. If these technologies are included in

the structure’s design rather than after being built, it will save money and time. The late

inclusion of BSS may have a detrimental impact on both the structure’s exterior and inside.

Since it may enhance design outcomes while also identifying and eliminating service system

incompatibilities and conflicts. BSS integration is becoming more common in the

construction sector, notably plumbing systems and the design itself, and between the design

and the design, all benefit from 3D digital modeling. 3D digital modeling is critical in

spotting possible conflicts. All service systems are coordinated using various methods studied

in the literature. Additional data from the construction industry is also being collected and

5

evaluated to offer a more objective perspective. BSS are integrated into the architectural

design throughout the conceptual phases of the design process, using a variety of regional

construction projects and research on the construction industry as examples(Abdelhameed &

Saputra, 2020).

The article is relevant since it explores how to improve design results while also

detecting and avoiding service system incompatibilities and conflicts.

Bradecki, T., & Uherek-Bradecka, B. (2017). Work Models in the Design Process for House

Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual? IOP Conference Series: Materials Science

and Engineering, 245, 052033. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/245/5/052033

The results of a study into several kinds of single-family and multifamily housing

models are presented in this article. The outside layout and internal functional arrangement

heavily influence the design outcome. Models are essential tools for architects to use while

showcasing their work and educating the public about their concepts. Even though 3D

models may depict anything, specific individuals still cannot grasp the concept of the planned

place. The researchers’ goal is to find a way to stimulate both the inside and outside of a

vehicle in a single model. In the article, a variety of home models are shown. We used a

combination of actual models, 3D models, and hand drawings to create each of the case

studies we’ve done.

The resource’s importance with the models was to get a clear picture of how planned

future homes would feel in terms of openness. According to the study’s findings, synthetic

models may aid in the design process.

6

The URBAN model research group, which includes academic researchers and

architects, researches relevance. The authors gained a plethora of architectural expertise via

theoretical models, building projects, and construction site monitoring. The following

information may be of interest to builders, designers, interior designers, and academics in

7

Reference

Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

books?

id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

Bradecki, T., & Uherek-Bradecka, B. (2017). Work Models in the Design Process for House

Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual? IOP Conference Series: Materials Science

and Engineering, 245, 052033. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/245/5/052033

## powerpoint

HSDD 5300 – Legal & Ethical Issues in Disabilities
Se me ste r and Ye ar: Winter 2022

I. Course Information
Se me ste r and Ye ar: Winter 2022
Course Start and End Date s: 01/03/2022 – 05/01/2022
Course CRN and Se ction: 30115 – L01
B uilding and Room: Online Venue – CANVAS

II. Instructor Information

III. Class Schedule and Location
Day Date Time Location Building/Room

01/03/2022 – 05/01/2022 Programs On-line Online Venue-CANVAS

IV. Course Description
This course discusses current laws related to disabilities, such as ADA and IDEA, as well as
contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals with disabilities and the daily responsibilities of
disability professionals. This course further examines the application of ethical principles to matters
associated with genetics, treatment decisions, and competency determination. P rerequisite: HSDD 5000

V. Course Objectives / Learning Outcomes
1) Discuss the importance and impact of disability law such as ADA and IDEA.
2) Demonstrate an understanding of the most common ethical issues affecting individuals with disabilities
and disability professionals.
3) Demonstrate an understanding of the application of ethical principles to the resolution of common
dilemmas in the disability field.

VI. Materials and Resources
B ook Url: NSU Book Store
Course Re quire d Te xts and M ate rials:
We hme ye r, M . L., B rown, I., Pe rcy, M ., Shogre n, K. A. & Fung, W. L. A. (2017). A
comprehensive guide to intellectual and developmental disabilities. B rooke s. ISB N:978-1-59857-
602-3

American P sychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (7th ed.). Author. ISB N: 978-1-4338-3217-8

Course Supple me ntal M ate rials:
Ouellette, A. (2013). Bioethics and disability: Toward a disability-conscious bioethics. Cambridge
University P ress.

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 1 of 14

U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division Disability Rights Section. (n.d.). A Guide to Disability

He lpful We bsite s:
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (n.d.). Information and technical assistance on the
Americans with disabilities education act. https://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm

The National Alliance for Direct Support P rofessionals
US Department of Education. (n.d.). Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
US Department of Labor. (2020). Office of Disability Employment Policy.
https://www.dol.gov/agencies/odep

VII. Course Schedule and Topic Outline
Class schedule subject to modification, but not without prior notification.
Course Sche dule :

**Class schedule subject to modification, but not without prior notification.**
We e k Topic

Week
1 1/3-
1/9

Ethics of Decision Making and Consent in P eople with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
2
1/10-
1/16

Changing P erspectives on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
3
1/17-
1/23

Trends and Issues in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
4
1/24-
1/30

Responding to Cultural and Linguistic Differences Among P eople with Intellectual Disability

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 2 of 14

Week
5
1/31-
2/6

Maltreatment of Children with Developmental Disabilities

Week
6
2/7-
2/13

Sexuality and P eople Who Have Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
7
2/14-
2/20

Historical Overview of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
8
2/21-
2/27

What Is Meant by the Terms Intellectual Disability and Developmental Disabilities?

Week
9
2/28-
3/6

Spring Break

Week
10
3/7-
3/13

Advocacy and Legal Considerations to Ensure Civil Rights

Week
11
3/14-
3/20

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 3 of 14

Week
12
3/21-
3/27

Nutritional Considerations for Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
13
3/28-
4/3

Making Services More Effective Through Research and Evaluation

Week
14
4/4-
4/10

P eople with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Mental Health Needs

Week
15
4/11-
4/17

Future Trends and Advances in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Week
16
4/18-
4/24

Introduction to Early Development: A Multidisciplinary P erspective

Week
17
4/25-
5/1

Introduction to Genetics, Genomics, Epigenetics, and Intellectual and
Developmental Disabilities

VIII. Assignments
Assignme nt # 1: Disability Encounte r Re action Pape r (Due we e k 4)
Students will be asked to write a short reflection paper (3 pages) describing one of
the following encounters with disability:
• Interview a person with a disability and provide transcript
• Read a first-person account of a person with a disability

The reflection paper will focus on basic information about the type of disability as well as the individual’s
experience(s) of and attitude(s) towards the disability. Be sure to use literature to support your statements
(at least 3 citations from disability-related journals). When citing the literature, please remember to follow

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 4 of 14

APA style.

P age 1: Background and description of the disability
P age 2: Description of your encounter (i.e. describe the interview, summarize the articles read, summarize
biographical description)
P age 3: Reflect on the individuals experiences and provide personal reactions/reflections to your
experiences learning from an individual with a disability.

Assignme nt # 2: Ethical Issue s and Challe nge s Re action Pape r (Due we e k 11)
Students will be expected to discuss the common issues and challenges when working with individuals with
disabilities, including methods of overcoming these challenges while considering ethical and legal aspects
along the way. In addition, talk about how specific laws, such as ADA, IDEA, etc… play a role in
addressing the challenges and issues encountered. Be sure to use literature to support your statements (at
least 5 citations from disability-related journals). Your paper should be between 4 to 5 pages. When citing

P age 1: Identify common issues and challenges when working with individuals with disabilities
P age 2: Discuss ethical and legal aspects of the issues/challenges you presented
P age 3-4: Discuss laws (ADA, IDEA, etc) and how they can specifically play into supporting or
hindering individuals encountering the common issues/challenges you identified.
P age 5: Discuss your personal reflections, thoughts, ideas

Assignme nt # 3: Program Re se arch Pape r (Due we e k 13)
Students are expected to produce a 8-10 page paper with at least 10 citations from disability-related
journals. When citing the literature, follow APA style. For this assignment, students are to DESIGN a
service program for individuals with a specific disability including the following components: administrative
considerations, ethical and legal considerations, managing staff and workplace conflict, and utilizing well
researched and effective techniques with the population chosen.

P age 1: Identify and describe a disability
P age 2-3: Describe a program need for individuals with this disability (cite current research surrounding
this need, what programming currently exists, why additional programming is needed.)
additional sections to discuss any legal/ethical considerations that may emerge with the program you are
implementing.
P ages 9-10: Include personal reflections/opinions, ideas for future research.

Assignme nt # 4: Program Re se arch Pre se ntation (Due we e k 14)
Students are expected to create a power point presentation of 10-15 slides discussing their assignment #3
papers. These presentations will be shared during class and posted.

Discussion Posts: (Due throughout the se me ste r)
Throughout this course, you will be prompted to respond to a discussion question. Discussion post
assignments are due as indicated on the course schedule. P rior to completing the discussion post, you
should read all assigned material for the week so as to incorporate what you’ve learned (and any additional
– all opinions/conclusions should be supported by research and/or the text demonstrating your
understanding of the assigned materials. For each discussion post, you are required to respond to one
classmate’s post. Both your initial post as well as your response post must be submitted by the Sunday of
that week by 11:59 p.m., EST.

Chat participation:
There will be four (4) live chat sessions, held via Zoom, throughout the semester. Students who are unable
to attend the live session should submit a one (1) paragraph synopsis of the discussion held in order to

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 5 of 14

obtain points for attendance. See “course policies” below for further information.

Grade Quality P oints P ercentage P oints

A 4.00 90 – 100

B 3.00 80 – 89

C 2.00 70 – 79

F 0.00 Below 70

NP R 0.00 –

P 0.00 –

Additional Grade s: I (Incomplete), W (Withdrawn), AU (Audit), NPR (No P rogress), and TR
(Transfer). The grade of PR (P rogress) may be used for programs with a thesis or dissertation in which
the student continues to demonstrate progress towards requirement completion. P rograms with clinical
rotations, internships, or externships in which grades may not be available within the university’s approved

categories and scale

Assignment #1: Disability Encounter Reaction P aper 15%

Assignment #2: Ethical Issues & Challenges Reaction P aper 15%

Assignment #3: P rogram Research P aper 15%

Assignment #4: P rogram Research P resentation 25%

Discussion P osts (x7) 20%

P articipation in Live Chats (x4) 10%

TOTAL: 100%

X. Course Policies
Ge ne ral Policy:
This course consists of readings, live classes, and discussions. While you are not required to attend live
sessions, you are strongly encouraged to do so. Students who do not attend a live session should listen to a
recording of that week’s discussion which will be posted on the Canvas site within 48 hours of the live
session. To obtain points for the session, students are required to submit a 1 paragraph synopsis of the
discussion held during that live session. Students are charged with the knowledge and information
disseminated during the live sessions. Therefore, while attendance is not mandatory, reviewing the
recording is suggested such that students are kept abreast of course information. While previous
knowledge and/or experience are not required for this course, it is the responsibility of the student to
contact the instructor to clarify any issues regarding the concepts being studied each week.

Specifically, this course is taught in eight week-long sessions. The materials are presented in eight weekly

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 6 of 14

modules. Each week, the Module will open on Monday at 12:01 a.m. EST and will close the following
Sunday. All assignments for a given week will be due on Sunday at 11:59 p.m. EST. In addition to the module
material, we will have 4 live chat sessions, as noted above in the course schedule. Each week, the student is
expected to complete the assigned readings as well as either a research/reaction paper or a discussion post and
response.

If a student anticipates being unable to complete an assignment by the listed deadline, he/she may contact
the instructor for a possible extension. Stude nts should not assume the y will be grante d an
e xte nsion but must contact the instructor for further information.

Both the subjects covered and the required readings may necessitate modification during the semester.
The instructor will make every effort to advise students of any changes. However, it is the responsibility
of the student to check the course site often for adjustments made to the syllabus or for any other
announcements.

The Internet is an extension of the classroom. As such, the decorum and professionalism expected of you
in class extends to the Website and all postings made regarding the course or its content. I expect that you
will extend the same courtesy to your fellow students on the list as you do in class. Feel free to disagree
with the ideas expressed but work to keep the discussions polite and focused on the ideas.

XI. University Policies
P lease consult the FCE catalog for information on college and department policies and the NSU Student
Handbook for information on NSU policies: https://education.nova.edu/students/current-
students/studentcataloghandbook.html

NSU Class Recording P olicy:
Class content throughout this course may be recorded in accordance with the NSU Class Recording
P olicy. If class content is recorded, these recordings will be made available to students registered for this
course as a supplement to the classroom experience. Recordings will be made available to all students who
were registered to attend the live offering of the class, regardless of a student’s section or discipline, or
whether the student is participating in the course online. If recordings are intended to be accessible to
students or third parties who were not registered for the live offering of the class, students’ personally
identifiable information will be removed or redacted from the recording, unless (1) their written consent to
such disclosure was previously provided, or (2) the disclosure is permissible in accordance with the Family
Educational Rights and P rivacy Act (“FERPA”).
Students are prohibited from recording audio or video, or taking photographs in classrooms (including online
classes) without prior permission from the instructor or pursuant to an approved disability accommodation,
and from reproducing, sharing, or disseminating classroom recordings to individuals outside of this course.
Students found engaging in such conduct will be in breach of the Student Code of Conduct and subject to
disciplinary action.

XII. Bibliography
McAfee, J. K., Cockram, J., & Wolfe, P. S. (2001). P olice reactions to crimes involving people with
mental retardation: A cross-cultural experimental study. Education and Training in Mental Retardation
and Developmental Disabilities, 36, 160-171.
Morris, C. D., Niederbuhl, J. M., & Mahr, J. M. (1993). Determining the capability of individuals with
mental retardation to give informed consent. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 98, 263-272.
Niederbuhl, J. M., & Morris, C. D. (1993). Sexual knowledge and the capability of persons with dual
diagnoses to consent to sexual contact. Sexuality & Disability, 11, 295-307.
P arker, T., & Abramson, P. R. (1995). The law hath not been dead: protecting adults with mental
retardation from sexual abuse and violation of their sexual freedom. Mental Retardation, 33, 257-263.
P etersilia, J. (1997). Unequal justice? Offenders with mental retardation in prison. Corrections

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 7 of 14

Management Quarterly, 1(4), 36-43.
P etersilia, J. (2000). Doing justice? The criminal justice system and offenders with developmental
disabilities. California P olicy Research Center, University of California: Los Angeles, CA.
Stavis, P. F. (1991). Harmonizing the right to sexual expression and the right to protection from harm for
persons with mental disability. Sexuality and Disability, 9, (2), 131-141.

XIII. Appendix/Appendices
P lease refer to the grading rubrics below for specific scoring:

Rubric for Classroom Participation
Criteria 0 points 1 point 2-3 points

Actively contributes to
classroom discussions

P rofessor has no
ability to connect
student’s name,
voice, and ideas.
Student “multi-
others in class.

Student follows
classroom discussion
and offers thoughts
during some classes.

Student initiates
discussions or actively
contributes to
discussions in a
variety of ways,
including those below.

Displays awareness of

Contributions
display lack of
awareness of the

Contributions display
tangential or vague
awareness of

Contributions
Student able to
reference ideas from

Generates
questions/challenges

Student passively
accepts, passively
rejects, or gives up
on ideas from

Student participates in
discussions of
questions related to
ideas.

Student initiates
questions arising from
challenges ideas in
response to other,
contrasting ideas.

P resents areas of
confusion/“miss-
understandings”

Student presumes
that confusion is a
their own
the difficulty of the
content, and
remains silent.

Student participates in
areas of confusion or
“miss-
understandings.”

Student raises areas
of confusion and
collaborates with
seminar members to
think through
confusions and “miss-
understandings.”

Rubric for Discussion Postings

Criteria 0-1 point 2 points 3-4 points

Sufficient number of
contributions

Less than six
contributions, and/or
contributions only
minute, and/or few
visits to site

Six contributions
and/or site visited
once per week or
less.

More than Six
contributions and site
visited once per
week or more.

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Contributions related
discussions

Contributions
unrelated to course
content

Contributions
related to others’
the course material,
responses related
to course material

Contributions are
clearly that
—contributions that
draw from (with
citations) course

Engagement of
contributions

Contributions only
congratulatory,
critical, and/or of the
“thanks-that-was-
great” variety

Contributions relate
to and expand upon
the contributions of
others.

Contributions initiate
introduce new ideas
to discussion.

Rubric for Re action Pape rs Assignme nts 1 and 2

0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

P resents own
ideas, thoughts,
questions around
personal reflection,
the course, or
other relevant
matters stemming
from participation
in the course

P aper is based
solely on course
content, e.g. a
summary of one
of the chapters
or articles.

Some, thin
discussion of
personal
reflections
based on the
course content

P aper reflects
personal
consideration of
personal reflection,
the course or other
relevant matters
stemming from
participation in the
course.

Relates own
thoughts to
specific course
content,
particularly
empirically
validated and
supportive
literature

Reflections are
entirely personal
without
evidence of
engagement
with course
experience.

P ersonal
reflections
related to
course
materials and
research
literature, but
these are not
specifically
cited.

P ersonal reflections
are founded in
course materials,
particularly based
on specific
reference to course
research literature.
Reference to class
discussions may be
included.

format; well-
written.

Multiple errors
in APA format;
errors from
previous papers
not corrected in
subsequent
papers. Writing
poorly edited;
awkward
construction
and/or poor flow
of ideas.

Some APA
errors. Writing
shows
evidence of
self-editing
with some
construction
and/or flow
problems.

Accurate use of
APA format with
minimal errors.
Evidence that errors
from previous
papers are
corrected in later
papers. Coherent
development of the
ideas using well-
formed sentences
and flowing
paragraphs.

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 9 of 14

Rubric for Program Re se arch Pape r Assignme nts 3

0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

P resents ideas,
thoughts, and
questions in a
manner that
research question
chosen and
relates
information to
course content.

P aper does not
research
question
chosen.

Some
components of
the question
chosen are
integration of
student’s
ideas,
thoughts, and
questions with
course content
is noted.

P aper reflects full
integration of
personal ideas,
thoughts, and
questions with
course content and
all components of
the question chosen
thoroughly.

Information
presented
provides evidence
of knowledge and
skills gained
through research,
as well as
application of
these skills.

Responses to
the question
chosen are
entirely
personal
without
evidence of
engagement
with course
experience, or
supportive
literature.

P ersonal
responses to
the question
chosen are
related to
course
materials and
supportive
literature but
these are not
specifically
cited.

P ersonal responses
to the question
chosen are founded
in course materials,
particularly based
on specific
reference to course
research literature.
evidence of the
application of
knowledge and
skills learned.

format; well-
written.

Multiple errors
in APA format;
errors from
previous papers
not corrected in
subsequent
papers. Writing
poorly edited;
awkward
construction
and/or poor
flow of ideas.

Some APA
errors. Writing
shows
evidence of
self-editing
with some
construction
and/or flow
problems.

Accurate use of
APA format with
minimal errors.
Evidence that
errors from
previous papers are
corrected in later
papers. Coherent
development of the
ideas using well-
formed sentences
and flowing
paragraphs.

Rubric for Program Re se arch Pre se ntation Assignme nt 4

0-2 points 3-4 points 5-7 points Comments

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 10 of 14

P resents ideas,
thoughts, and
questions in a
manner that
research question
chosen and relates
information to
course content.

P resentation
does not fully
research
question chosen.

Some
components of
the question
chosen are
integration of
student’s ideas,
thoughts, and
questions with
course content
is noted.

P resentation
reflects full
integration of
personal ideas,
thoughts, and
questions with
course content and
all components of
the question chosen
thoroughly.

Student
disseminates
information and
research findings
clearly and
provides their
personal thoughts,
feelings, or ideas
that support or
findings.

P resentation
does not provide
information
question chosen
nor does it
provide the
audience with
research data
and conclusions.

P resentation
components of
the question
and presents
some research
data and
conclusions
with no
elaboration or
personal views
mentioned.

P resentation fully
research question
chosen and provides
detailed research
data and
conclusions. In
provides his/her
personal views that
either support or
research findings.

P resentation
generates active
participation from
the audience, as
well as questions
for discussion.

P resentation
generates no
interest from the
audience or any
questions for
discussion.

P resentation
generates
some interest
from the
audience in the
form of active
participation or
some short
questions that
discussion.

P resentation poses
questions to the
audience, engages
them in activity, and
generates many
questions for
discussion.

Stude nts comple ting H SDD 5300 will be able to me e t the following program obje ctive s by the
following asse ssme nt me asure me nts and me thods:
Course : Le gal and Ethical Issue s in Disability

Le arning Outcome s/Obje ctive s
and
Program Obje ctive s

Dire ct Asse ssme nt Asse ssme nt M e thod

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 11 of 14

Learning Outcome 1:
Discuss the importance and impact of
disability law such as ADA and
IDEA.
P rogram Learning Objectives:
P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
Disabilities and Challenges
P LO 3: Understanding impact of
systems
P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
principles
P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
analytic, and writing skills

Discussion P osts,
Ethical Issues and
Challenges Reaction
P aper

A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess students’ ability to
review literature and discuss how
specific laws play a role in addressing
challenges when working with
individuals with disabilities.

Learning Outcome 2:
Demonstrate an understanding of the
most common ethical issues affecting
individuals with disabilities and
disability professionals.
P rogram Learning Objectives:
P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
Disabilities and Challenges
P LO 3: Understanding impact of
systems
P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
principles
P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
services
P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
analytic, and writing skills

Discussion P osts,
Disability Encounter
P aper,
Ethical Issues and
Challenges Reaction
P aper,

A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess students’ ability to
reflect on an individual with a specific
disability in interviewing and
discussing that individual’s
experiences, attitudes, and challenges
with regard to their disability.
A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess students’ ability to
review literature and discuss how
specific laws play a role in addressing
challenges when working with
individuals with disabilities.

Learning Outcome 3:
Demonstrate an understanding of the
application of ethical principles to the
resolution of common dilemmas in the
disability field.
P rogram Learning Objectives:
P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
Disabilities and Challenges
P LO 3: Understanding impact of
systems
P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
principles
P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
services
P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
analytic, and writing skills

Discussion P osts,
Ethical Issues and
Challenges Reaction
P aper,
P rogram Research
P aper,
P rogram Research
P resentation

A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess students’ ability to
review literature and discuss how
specific laws play a role in addressing
challenges when working with
individuals with disabilities.
A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess student’s ability to do
an extensive review of literature in
designing a service program for
individuals with a specific disability.
A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess student’s ability to
present information retrieved in
research in designing a service
program for individuals with a
specific disability.

Generated: 3/1/2022 Page 12 of 14

Learning Outcome 4:
Recognize the function of his or her
professional code of ethics when
working with individuals with
disabilities.
P rogram Learning Objectives:
P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadership
P LO 2: Knowledge of Developmental
Disabilities and Challenges
P LO 3: Understanding impact of
systems
P LO 4: Apply ethical and legal
principles
P LO 5: Apply knowledge of strategic
services
P LO 6: Demonstrate research,
analytic, and writing skills

Discussion P osts,
P rogram Research
P aper,
P rogram Research
P resentation

A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess student’s ability to do
an extensive review of literature in
designing a service program for
individuals with a specific disability.
A 20-point criterion-based rubric is
used to assess student’s ability to
present information retrieved in
research in designing a service
program for individuals with a
specific disability.

Learning Outcome 5:
Analyze and apply the appropriate
legal concepts of privacy,
confidentiality, and informed consent
when working with individuals with
disabilities, understanding the unique
factors that affect these concepts with
this population.
P rogram Learning Objectives:
P LO 1: Knowledge of Leadershi

## PowerPoint

Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

• Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
• Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
• Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

## Powerpoint

chapter 9 review and summary of african american history must cite where the information of the summary is in the ebook needs pictures videos and graphs and be presentable

## Powerpoint

TOPIC: HOW EFFECTIVE ARE BULLYING INTERVENTION PROGRAMS IN SCHOOL? IF THEY ARE NOT EFFECTIVE, HOW DO WE KNOW?

NEGLIGENCE & LIABILITY

Law and Ethics ORGANIZATION OF FINAL PRESENTATION
You have two components for your Final Presentation, for a total of 300 points:
I)Presentation to colleagues (with PPT or Prezi) (200 points)
You will prepare an 8-10 minute (10-15 slides) professional development presentation for your colleagues,
supervisors, parents or another appropriate group based on the self-selected (and Dr. R.- approved) topic above.
The required slides or topic areas are (you do not have to go in this order):
_____ 1) Title. Word choice is important. Consider a two-part title. Examples:
-Concussion in College-Level Sports: Are Schools Liable?
-Cyberbullying: A Parent’s Guide
-IEP Compliance During the Pandemic: How to Avoid a Lawsuit

_____ 2) Introduction and background: What prompted you to select this topic? Why is this topic so important?
_____ 3) Summary of data/statistics which puts the issue into an appropriate educational and legal perspective.
This section could be combined with #2 to provide a rationale for the importance of your topic.
_____ 4) Summary of cases related to this issue (find a range of 5+ cases over time, level, and jurisdictions.) ‘OLD’
cases help establish the issue, so do NOT fear cases which occurred before you were born. Do try to find
both older and newer cases related to your issue. Did the ruling stand the test of time? –Or change/shift?
_____ 5) Summary of Statutes related to this issue, including Federal Statutes (Codes, Titles, Public Laws, etc.),
Florida State Statutes, Florida State Board of Education Rules, and School Board Rules/Policies
_____ 6) Conclusions and recommendations. Develop up to three key recommendations with details to address this
issue to prevent a lawsuit.
_____ 7) References in APA format. Remember to reference sources of data, cases and the history of your issue.
II) Ancillary Documents to be Uploaded into Canvas (100 points)
_____ 1) Presentation. Upload the above presentation, whether it’s a PPT or Prezi
_____ 2) 5 Case Briefs. Upload one running document of 5 complete case briefs (same as above) related to topic
in following format for each case. (This will probably be between 10 and 15 pages long). You may use ONE
case from cases we study from the Dayton text, but your research is expected here to find cases. You may
also do a cut-and-paste from cases you find on-line. However, remove any signs of Internet such as
underlined and blue print—and be sure to cite all sources.
_____ A) Caption. Title of Case (Plessy v. Ferguson)
_____ B) Citation–e.g., 163 U.S. 537 (1963)—NOT the docket number
_____ C) Facts. What happened? (This is the juicy part of the story leading up to the case).
_____ D) Procedural History of the case. Where did the case go before THIS case? Procedural History is
NOT required of each case—but be sure to see if there WERE previous cases leading up to this one.
_____ E) Legal Issue(s)/Question(s) which this case answered. What was the [alleged] violation?
_____ F) Holdings. Yes or No?
_____ G) Rationale/Disposition. Why did the judge(s) say they ruled this way?
_____ H) Concurring and Dissenting Opinion, if given. This part will NOT be in every case.
_____ I) 3-paragraph response/commentary:
1) Why did I/we choose this case?
2) Do I/we agree/disagree with the ruling? Why/why not?
3) Why is this case important for educational practitioners and leaders to be aware of?
_____ 3) Specific statutes, provisions related to this issue—with commentary. You may do a cut-and-paste.
However, remove any signs of Internet such as underlined and blue print. Again, do not merely list the
statutes. Write about a paragraph of commentary. What did you learn? What surprises you or reaffirms
what you knew? What do we especially need to know to avoid a lawsuit?
_____ 4) Additional info. Other material such as additional cases, articles, reports, texts of interviews, etc.

## PowerPoint

1

Dallas City Hall

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

2

One of the buildings that I chose from Leoh Ming’s architect works is the Dallas City

building located in Dallas, USA. I have chosen the building due to its unique structure and

intention to serve as the administrative center for Dallas’ municipal administration. However,

the structure slopes at a 34-degree inclination, each of the building’s seven above-grade levels

are 9.5-feet wider from the one below it. This sloping façade interacts only with buildings on

either side facing downtown and offers shelter from the elements and the Texas sun. Dallas

City Hall has an extensive façade, concrete structures, and adaptability of construction

materials which are well designed according to the articles the paper presents.

Although the foundation and basement levels are far more extensive than the visible

footprint of the building, they are hidden behind the sloping façade and extend well beyond

it. Two hundred thirty feet in width, the cantilevered roof spans 200 feet (61 meters), the

ground level is 126 feet in width, and the basement is 230 feet. According to the article by

Dallas City Hall, the building façade is inseparable from the park in front of it(Dallas City

Hall, n.d.). Three cylindrical pillars that seem to prop up the structure were constructed due

to the Mayor’s reaction to the apparent upper of the building’s form. In addition to providing

cosmetic support, these pillars do not carry the structure’s weight. The design and

construction of the structure and the Park Plaza and the garage came to more than \$70 million

in total.

When designing City Hall, Pei employed cast-in-place concrete structures for the

interior and outside of the building and the building and park itself. Each story is

approximately nine feet larger than that below it, with the building tilting outward at a 34-

degree angle. The symbolic logic and functional logic are both present in the 560-foot-long

from. The building has utilized the following principles in the construction: attraction and

3

engagement, visibility, nature and sustainability, public transportation as well as integration

(Sustainable Construction: Methods and Benefits, 2020). A concrete frame in a building

project consists of columns as well as a mix of technologies that form the structural skeleton

of a structure. This grid of columns and beams is often erected on a concrete slab and serves

to hold the structure’s floors, walls, and cladding, among other things.

Wu Ying’s study focuses on the adaptability of building materials in the construction

of outdoor buildings. To enhance the building’s exterior, adaptation research in the usage of

construction materials must be prioritized. This Research examines building materials’

flexibility in external design form to increase current building engineering look, project

value, and building field production efficiency(Ying, 2018). Compared to other articles, this

article will help me understand more about the Dallas City building. The peer-review

approach is used to maintain academic study quality by having an author’s academic

publication, study, or ideas reviewed by professionals in the same field.

The main argument of Perez and Perini is nature-Based Approaches to Urban and

Residential Sustainability. They discuss the basic principles of natural components in

building design and the tactics required to incorporate them into buildings and towns. The

three parts explore the quantifiable advantages, outcomes, concerns, and challenges of

integrating nature into our constructed environment (Perez & Perini, 2018). In comparison

with other articles, this article will help me understand the strategies used by Leoh Ming to

integrate the city environment with the building. However, the book has no reviews yet; the

authors are researchers with Ph.D. degrees and have experience in their field of work. This

makes the source to be reliable and trustworthy.

4

The main argument of (Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020) analyses the skyline and tall

buildings’ visibility using a dependable approach. According to the Research, towering

building clusters may be studied by looking at all unimpeded views from adjacent streets and

their effect on the skyline using Jakarta as an example. In comparison with other articles, the

article will enable me to understand the visibility of Dallas City Hall and the methods used by

Leoh Ming to ensure the visibility of the building. The article is a peer-reviewed article that

researchers have checked and ensured the quality.

The article’s main argument by (Abdelhameed & Saputra, 2020) describes how the

relevance of building service systems (BSS) and how they should be considered throughout

the early architectural design stages. These systems should be included in the building from

the early design stages to save money and avoid costly and time-consuming adjustments. In

comparison with other articles, the article explains how rooms are integrated to form one

building. The article will help me in understanding how Leoh Ming was integrated into one

building. The study has certainly been peer-reviewed to retain academic scientific quality. It

puts an author’s scholarly piece or ideas to evaluation by specialists in the same area.

5

References

Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

books?

id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

Dallas City Hall. (n.d.). Www.pcf-P.com. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from https://www.pcf-

p.com/projects/dallas-city-hall/

Sustainable Construction: Methods and Benefits | BigRentz. (2020, February 4).

Www.bigrentz.com. https://www.bigrentz.com/blog/sustainable-construction

## powerpoint

MKT 345 Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric

Overview: For this milestone, due in Module Four, you will prepare a PowerPoint presentation summarizing the consumer buying processes you have so far
researched in order to market the consumer product you are proposing for your final project.

Prompt: First, review Chapter 9 in your text as well as the article Stages of the Consumer Buying Process and the video 7 Tips for Good Survey Questions. Next,
prepare a presentation that lists and briefly explains each stage of the consumer buying process. Define the marketing strategy used within each stage of the
process regarding your chosen market segment. Finally, identify which specific stages of the process will be most effective for your consumer segment.

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

A. Define the stages of the consumer buying process.
B. Analyze a marketing strategy that can be used for each stage of the consumer buying process in regard to your chosen market segment.
C. Determine the specific stages of the consumer buying process for which your marketing strategies can be most effective for your consumer

segment.

Using the speaker notes, provide any additional details of importance regarding the bullet points you listed on each slide to further explain the information.

Instructor feedback on this milestone should be incorporated into your next milestones and into the final project.

Rubric

Guidelines for Submission: Milestone Two should be a minimum 3-slide PowerPoint presentation with audio or speaker notes included. Citations should be
provided in APA format as needed.

For help with PowerPoint and preparing your slideshow, visit Infobase, or the Microsoft PowerPoint help center.

Please note that the grading rubric for this milestone submission is not identical to that of the final project. The Final Project Rubric will include an additional
“Exemplary” category that provides guidance for how you can go above and beyond “Proficient” in your final submission.

Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Process: Stages
Defines the stages of the consumer

Identifies the stages, but does not
identify all stages or does not define
the steps, or definition is not cogent or
inaccurate

Does not define the stages of the

30

Process: Marketing

Strategy

Analyzes a marketing strategy that can
be used for each stage of the
consumer buying process in regard to
market segment

Analyzes marketing strategies, but
does not address each step of the
process or is misaligned with market
segment or description is not cogent

Does not describe marketing strategies
for stages of the consumer buying
process

30

Process

Determines stages in the consumer
strategies can be most effective given
the selected consumer segment

Determines stages in the consumer
marketing strategies can be most
effective, but is not aligned with the
selected consumer segment

Does not determine stages where
identified marketing strategies would
be most effective

30

Articulation of
Response

Submission has no major errors related
to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax,
or organization

Submission has major errors related to
citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or
organization that negatively impact
ideas

Submission has critical errors related
to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax,
or organization that prevent
understanding of ideas

10

Total 100%

## PowerPoint

1

Dallas City Hall

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

2

One of the buildings that I chose from Leoh Ming’s architect works is the Dallas City

building located in Dallas, USA. I have chosen the building due to its unique structure and its

intention to serve as the administrative centre for Dallas’ municipal administration. However,

the structure slopes at a 34-degree inclination, each of the building’s seven above-grade levels

are 9.5-feet wider from the one below it. This sloping façade interacts only with buildings on

either side that face downtown and offers shelter from the elements and the Texas sun.

Although the foundation and basement levels are far more extensive than the visible

footprint of the building, they are hidden behind the sloping façade and extend well beyond

it. Two hundred thirty feet in width, the cantilevered roof spans 200 feet (61 meters), the

ground level is 126 feet in width, and the basement is 230 feet. Three cylindrical pillars that

seem to prop up the structure were constructed due to the Mayor’s reaction to the apparent

upper of the building’s form. In addition to providing cosmetic support, these pillars do not

carry the structure’s weight. The design and construction of the structure and the Park Plaza

and the garage came to more than \$70 million in total.

When designing City Hall, Pei employed cast-in-place concrete structures for the

interior and outside of the building and the building and park itself. Each story is

approximately nine feet larger than that below it, with the building tilting outward at a 34-

degree angle. The symbolic logic and functional logic are both present in the 560-foot-long

from. The building has utilized the following principles in the construction: attraction and

engagement, visibility, nature and sustainability, public transportation as well as integration.

Wu Ying’s scholarly work focuses on the adaptability of construction materials in

exterior building design. To enhance the building’s exterior, adaptation research in the usage

of construction materials must be prioritized. This Research examines building materials’

3

flexibility in external design form to increase current building engineering look, project

value, and building field production efficiency. The article will help me understand more

about the Dallas City building (Ying, 2018).

The scholarly book by Perez and Perini covers nature-Based Approaches to Urban

and Residential Sustainability. Discusses the basic principles of natural components in the

building design and the tactics required to incorporate them into buildings and towns. The

three parts explore the quantifiable advantages, outcomes, concerns and challenges of

integrating nature into our constructed environment (Perez & Perini, 2018).

The scholarly article by (Puspitasari & Kwon, 2020) analyses the skyline and tall

buildings’ visibility using a dependable approach. According to the Research, towering

building clusters may be studied by looking at all unimpeded views from adjacent streets and

their effect on the skyline using Jakarta as an example.

The article by (Abdelhameed & Saputra, 2020) describes how the architectural design

incorporates building services. Specifically, the study examines the relevance of building

service systems (BSS) and how they should be considered throughout the early architectural

design stages. These systems should be included in the building from the early design stages

to save money and avoid costly and time-consuming adjustments.

4

References

Abdelhameed, W., & Saputra, W. (2020). Integration of building service systems in

architectural design. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 25, 109–

122. https://doi.org/10.36680/j.itcon.2020.007

Perez, G., & Perini, K. (2018). Nature-Based Strategies for Urban and Building

books?

id=_wIxDwAAQBAJ&dq=nature+and+sustainability+of+a+building&hl=en&sa=X&

ved=2ahUKEwjrhdKOmZ_2AhVPUxoKHeBJDsUQ6AF6BAgKEAI

Puspitasari, A. W., & Kwon, J. (2020). A reliable method for visibility analysis of tall

buildings and skyline: a case study of tall buildings cluster in Jakarta. Journal of

Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–12. https://doi.org/

10.1080/13467581.2020.1787839

Ying, W. (2018). Research on the Adaptability of Building Materials Application in Exterior

Exterior Design of Buildings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

Science, 189, 032009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/3/032009

## PowerPoint

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet

Review the guiding organizations from the Guiding the Future of Nursing activity and reflect on the expectations for a BSN-prepared nurse. Whether you have been in practice for years or are just starting your career as a nurse, learning should never stop. As you remember from the College of Nursing Philosophical Framework, lifetime learning is one of the tenets of becoming a nurse leader.

Identify the competencies and essentials you need to develop. Select:

·   2 competencies from Pre-licensure KSAs on the QSEN Competencies page

·   2 essentials from the AACN The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice  Complete the table below by doing the following:

1. In the second column, identify the competency or essential you need to address.

2. In the third column, identify specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs) you need to develop, and cite your source.  a. QSEN citation hint: Per the QSEN Competencies web page, the competencies were taken from another source, which is cited in footnote 2. The page number in the example below was taken from the primary source.

3. In the fourth column, describe how you will develop yourself and give yourself a timeframe.

4. In the fifth column, explain why this improvement is important to your development as a nurse.

Note: An example has been provided for you in the first row.

NSG/302 v2

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance Example: QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Example: Evidence-based practice Example: Knowledge: “Describe reliable sources for locating Example: I will learn how to evaluate sources using the University Example: In order to base practice decisions in evidence, I have

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 2 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance evidence reports and clinical practice guidelines” (Cronenwett et al., 2007, p. 124). Library’s Evaluate Sources tutorial at https://library.phoenix.edu/ev aluating_sources/ in 14 days or less. to first understand how to find good, credible information. QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Patient-centered Care Recognizing and knowing the cultural differences of each patient and their social background and their values when it comes to healthcare and the healing process (Cronenwett et al., 2007). Within seven days, I will learn to communicate by using the guidelines and information provided on QSEN. By knowing how to approach and provide care individually, the patients will feel respected and valued. I will learn to provide patient- centered care to an individual that they will feel safe and that they are part of the decision when it comes to their care. To provide self-centered care, It is essential to know the patient’s values, beliefs, cultural background, and readiness to learn to get better. Understanding how they approach or value health care, I’ll be able to provide better and more effective care to my patients. QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Safety Reduces the risk of harm to every patient and provider and delivers care effectively (Cronenwett et al., 2007). Within two weeks, I can learn how to identify the risk factors that can contribute to patient safety. By identifying errors, I can safely communicate to others how to avoid possible dangers that might occur when safety measures are being put aside. There are many resources that I can use to learn and get information, for example, the QSEN study material and the university library. As a nurse, I always need to prioritize the safety of my patients. Safety is paramount; many guidelines need to be followed when providing care. By valuing the safety protocol of hospitals or facilities, I can prevent patient harm from happening.

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 3 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education Clinical Prevention and Population Health Health promotion, disease, and injury prevention across the lifespan are essential elements of baccalaureate nursing practice at the individual and population levels (AACN, 2008, pg 23). The knowledge that I need to know on promoting health and disease prevention can help make a difference in the community. Assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations in preparing and minimizing the health consequences of emergencies, including mass casualty disasters, is a skill needed to help improve the health of individuals or communities. Also, caring with passion will have a positive effect A month from today, I will develop skills that can be very helpful to provide disease prevention and health promotion. I will focus on studying how to improve disease prevention and how to deliver this message to the member of the community. Teaching about handwashing, vaccinations are just a few examples that I can do by myself to share knowledge with others. Knowing how to prevent some illnesses is essential knowledge that a nurse should have. As a nurse, I can help the community or individuals avoid the spread of infection and avoid getting or catching it, for example, being up to date on vaccination, teaching the importance of handwashing, wearing a face mask. With this knowledge, I can make a difference in the community. The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education Professionalism and Professional Values Professional values and the associated behaviors are foundational to the practice of nursing (AACN, 2008, pg. 26). The inherent in professional practice is an understanding of nursing practice’s historical, legal, and contemporary context (AACN, 2008. pg 26.) It is essential to know the Within seven days, I will provide care with compassion and delegate appropriate work to other healthcare teams to provide care promptly. It is not easy to delegate sometimes, especially when you have an overwhelming workload. But, I plan to have good time management to provide care Professionalism in healthcare is vital because, as a nurse, we deal with so many circumstances. Nurses have to act professionally when communicating with patients and the patient’s families. Professionalism comes with accountability, meaning we are in a profession where we are

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 4 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance patients and how to approach a patient or family. Different cultures require different approaches, so knowing their backgrounds is necessary. Having accountability and professionalism will result in a positive patient-nurse relationship and better health outcomes. fast and safely. accountable for our actions. Showing professionalism has a positive effect on the person around us. Nurses gain trust and respect in their work by how they look, talk, and provide care. As a nurse, gaining trust from the patient and family is very important, and this trust is difficult to attain without showing professionalism.

Reference

Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., … Warren, J. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 55(3)122-131. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2007.02.006

The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. (2008, March 20). The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf

## Powerpoint

2. In three slides, Discuss how nursing professionals can benefit from integrating the tenets of servant leadership to empower and influence others as they lead.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

## powerpoint

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

Annotated Bibliography

Student’s Full Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Full Name

Instructor’s Full Name

Date

Bodin, K., Teare, G., & Taks, M. (2022). Critical Social Science in Sport Management Research: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in sports and active living4. DOI:
10.3389/fspor.2022.812200

This is a scoping review study aimed at examining the trends, the gaps, and the application of essential social sciences and the related strategies in the sport management scholarship. About 16 relevant studies were identified through database search that included the manual search of 419 journals. The outcome of the study reveals a rise in the critical research published in the journals of sports management. The findings of the study reveal the presence of the space for the rise in the incidences of publication of important critical social science work in journals about sports management. it gives the researchers an opportunity of articulating their research strategies in scholarly outputs.

Sinulingga, G., & Sinulingga, A. (2020, March). Analysis of Sports Management Coaching, Wrestling Karo District. In 1st Unimed International Conference on Sport Science (UnICoSS 2019) (pp. 53-57). Atlantis Press. -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 5

## POWERPOINT

IMPLICATIONS FOR TRAUMA-INFORMED CARE 8

# Implications for Trauma-Informed Care: Adverse Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in the Lives of Male OffendersTakia Owens South University CNS 6529 Research and Evaluation Dr. Dan 3/8/2022Abstract

Psychological abuse, household dysfunction, neglect, and physical abuse are examples of adverse childhood trauma. However, in efforts to support trauma-informed care for male offenders, the relationship between these adverse childhood traumatic events and dissociation must be determined. This study will utilize a qualitative research approach as well as a correlational research design. The study will include 30 participants drawn from various maximum-security prisons.

Introduction

Adverse childhood experiences are traumatic events that occur in children aged 0 to 17. Emotional abuse, household dysfunction, neglect, and physical abuse are examples of traumatic events. Adverse childhood trauma has long-term consequences in an individual’s life, resulting in higher levels of dissociation. This disassociation is more pronounced in male offenders. These negative childhood experiences are also one of the factors that contributed to the crimes committed by these individuals. However, more research is needed to determine how these adverse childhood traumas relate to dissociation in male offenders.

This relationship will be critical in informing the provision of trauma-informed care to these offenders. Trauma is described as a traumatic occurrence that threatens one’s or others’ bodily or psychological well-being and causes feelings of fear, helplessness, or shock (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Bloom, 2013). Traumatic events have been a part of human life since the beginning of time. Severe accidents, violence, personal assaults, or natural disasters could all be examples. Various historical events illustrate the various forms of trauma that can occur in human life. These experiences have resulted in the creation of numerous trauma sources that have improved human knowledge of trauma. Human beings, on the other hand, are still subjected to trauma that affects their emotional, physical, spiritual, and psychological well-being.

Physical attack, combat, accidents, and human or natural disasters have all resulted in males experiencing trauma. Most men live in diverse cities are affected by violent trauma. The previous study on this found that gun, violence, and drug crimes were more rampant among the repeat victims of violence as compared to those that were accidentally injured (Coope.et-al, 2000). TIC is focused on an increasing understanding of the adverse effects of psychological trauma.

Trauma-informed care has been shown to enhance criminal responsiveness to evidence-based cognitive behavioral treatment, which minimizes criminal potential risks and supports integrated programming for offenders. Trauma is a common occurrence in society and among men and women. Victims could be retraumatized by the service system, affecting their willingness to join and interact while refocusing on negative trauma. Childhood trauma, emotional abuse, and having unmarried parents were all characteristics that significantly predicted sexual deviance in male offenders.

Child physical maltreatment and substance misuse were both major predictors of violent sexual behavior. Trauma is something that almost everyone has experienced at some point in their lives (Coope.et-al, 2000). Because different people have varied degrees of psychological, bodily, and mental responses to trauma, the effects of this experience are unique to everyone. Trauma in the early stages of development makes a person vulnerable to trauma later in life due to continuous stress and the development of mental disorders like depression, anxiety, and personality disorders.

Trauma has an impact on dealing with the physical, neurological, and psychological symptoms and consequences for male offenders’ early childhood development and separation. Many offenders were victims of child abuse and family dysfunction when they were adolescents, and incarcerated clients have significantly higher rates of poor childhood experiences. The entire aim of TIC is to include knowledge of the neurobiological, social, and psychological effects of trauma into policies, methods, and practices that promote a safe, caring, and fair service delivery setting.

Review of Literature

Fung et al. (2019) conducted a study to see if there was a link between negative childhood experiences and dissociation. To examine the link between adverse childhood experiences and dissociation, the authors used questionnaires about adverse childhood experiences and dissociation. The authors assessed dissociation using the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, whereas the adverse childhood question was used to measure a history of emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction (Fung et al., 2019). The study discovered a connection between dissociation and traumatic childhood experiences in which participants reported significant levels of dissociation.

To help evaluate the association between childhood traumatic events and dissociation, Rafiq et al. (2018) did a comprehensive evaluation of 30 different empirical investigations. The publications for this study were obtained from the databases Embase, PubMed, and PsycINFO. The researchers discovered a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation. Individuals who were exposed to traumatic events as children had a higher level of detachment. The researchers also discovered that dissociations are linked to specific negative childhood events (Rafiq et al., 2018). The authors found that people who have had traumatic childhood experiences require proper therapeutic support to manage and resolve dissociative symptoms.

Which is defined as an experienced or observed event that threatens one’s physical or mental well-being. As we notice that some people are not diagnose with mental illness to later on and that mental illness and trauma concerns are among the most common challenges that most people face in today’s society. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional well-being are all part of mental health. As a result, mental illness is defined as the condition that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Anxiety, major bipolar disorder, depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, and trauma are some of the most frequent mental diseases. Mental health and trauma issues are frequently caused by several causes.

A study by Degnan et al. (2022) looked at the link between childhood interpersonal trauma, negative symptoms, and psychological mediators. For the investigations, the authors utilized a total of 240 people who had experienced childhood trauma and attachment dissociation. The findings revealed a link between childhood trauma and dissociative experiences among the study’s participants.

When providing care using trauma-informed approaches and strategies, the author suggested that healthcare providers explore the relationship between dissociation and adverse childhood events. Rabito et al. (2020) conducted research to determine the link between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. For their study, the authors used 22 participants and variables such as age, gender, marital status, and the maturity level of commencement of the condition.

The Dissociative Experiences Sea, the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were employed by the researchers. The outcomes of the study reveal a link between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. The authors suggested that affected individuals employ cognitive-behavioral therapy to assist them deal with their dissociation symptoms. Wagner et al. (2021) done extensive research to evaluate mentalization and dissociation following traumatic childhood experiences. The Mentalization Questionnaire, the Essener Trauma Inventory, and the Brief Symptom Inventory were provided to 77 offenders for the study.

The authors next used the Spss process tool to investigate the link between traumatic childhood events and individual dissociation. The study discovered a link between severe childhood trauma and increased levels of dissociation and mentalization in adults (Wagner et al., 2021). Individuals with low mentalization were linked to worse sadness, anxiety, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder, according to the authors.

Sun et al. (2018) carried out a study to determine whether dissociation mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucination. The authors administered questionnaires and carried out interviews on sixty-six participants. Sun et al. (2018) used clinician-rated measures to evaluate the relationship between these two factors. The study determined a positive correlation between childhood trauma and dissociation. The authors concluded that dissociative symptoms are part of routine assessment among individuals with a history of childhood trauma.

Method

Participants

Thirty Individuals will be recruited from different prisons across South Carolina for the study. After obtaining all the study’s details, informed consent will be acquired to participate. The study’s participants will be chosen using the stratified sampling approach. Male offenders will be separated into groups based on their traits. Race, age, and cultural background are the three factors. Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics will be the races studied. Participants will range in age between 20 to 40 years old. They will be separated into ten-year age groups. The ages of the participants will range from 20 to 29, 30 to 39. The participants should also have a history of adverse childhood events and a higher level of dissociation. The independent variable is the male offenders.

Materials

As we measure the dependent variable, which is adverse childhood events and dissociative. The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire will be administered. The questionnaire will have ten questions and will be used to evaluate various types of childhood traumatic events. Physical abuse, verbal abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse are the traumatic experiences that will be analyzed using these questionnaires. The Dissociative Experiences Scale questionnaire is used as the second piece of research material. Bernstein and Putnam created this scale to evaluate individual dissociation. The ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly will be administered as the third measure to assess the subset of dissociative experiences among the participants of the study.

Design

The primary research will be guided by the qualitative research approach. Non-numerical data will be collected, analyzed, and interpreted in this location. The qualitative research technique will allow researchers to identify and comprehend the connection between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation in male criminals’ lives. The correlational research design was adopted in this study. This design will be utilized to investigate the link between adverse childhood trauma episodes and male offenders’ dissociation. It will assist in the recognition of trends and patterns in the data collected, as well as providing information on how trauma-informed care can be provided to these offenders.

Procedure

The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale questionnaire, and the Ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly questionnaire will be administered to the selected participants. They will be expected to complete the questionnaires with the assistance of mental health professionals. The data will be evaluated using content analysis, which will be applied to identify communication patterns that have been recorded. Common words, topics, and concepts will be recognized by the content analysis. It will also enable the measurement and analysis of the detected topics to determine their significance and linkages. The relationship analysis component of the analysis will be used to identify the link between adverse childhood events and dissociation.

Expected Results

That there is a positive relationship between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among male offenders. The study’s intended findings are that there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among male criminals. Is it true that having a traumatic upbringing will have an impact on your life path? Will you be imprisoned, or will things progress for the better, or will the childhood trauma continue? When providing trauma-informed therapy, this intended result underlines the need of taking traumatic childhood events into perspective. Will trauma-informed care be useful in treating male offenders yes it will be useful.

Discussion

Individuals who have had a traumatic childhood are more likely to commit crimes. Physical abuse, mental abuse, and neglect are examples of unfavorable childhood traumas. However, it is important to investigate whether there is a link between these traumatic childhood events and male criminals.

As we talk about behavior and childhood, we can refer to these theorists according to Freud’s view, the body goes through numerous psychosexual stages. Psychodynamic theories, on the other hand, are concerned with the internal forces that drive people’s behavior. Erik Erikson’s theory, for example, examines an individual’s development through eight stages of examining behavioral flaws.

Cognitive theories, on the other hand, highlight that individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs shape their behavioral substantial link exists between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation, according to a literature evaluation based on much research. These findings imply that when treating male criminals, mental health providers should consider unpleasant childhood experiences. This will enable trauma-informed care to be provided to this population, ensuring their overall well-being.

Conclusion

The study’s research approach is a correlational research design, which will be utilized to assess the association between adverse childhood trauma events and male offenders’ dissociation. The study will include 30 individuals who will be chosen using a stratified sample approach from different prison institutions in the South Carolina. This approach will ensure that people of all experiences, such as race and age, are fairly represented. The study’s intended findings are that there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation among males’ offenders.

As stated that the purpose of the planned research is to see if there is a link between adverse childhood trauma and dissociation in male criminals. This study’s findings will be critical in informing trauma-informed care for male offenders to secure their overall well-being. The Adverse Childhood Experiences questionnaire and the ernis Felt Sense of Anomaly questionnaire will be used to collect data in a qualitative manner.

References

Altintas, M., & Bilici, M. (2018). Evaluation of childhood trauma with respect to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences, and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. Comprehensive Psychiatry82, 100-107.

Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C. H., Perry, B. D., … & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience256(3), 174-186.

Degnan, A., Berry, K., Humphrey, C., & Bucci, S. (2022). The role of attachment and dissociation in the relationship between childhood interpersonal trauma and negative symptoms in psychosis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy.

Fung, H. W., Ross, C. A., Yu, C. K. C., & Lau, E. K. L. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences and dissociation among Hong Kong mental health service users. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation20(4), 457-470.

Levenson, J. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and subsequent substance abuse in a sample of sexual offenders: Implications for treatment and prevention. Victims & Offenders11(2), 199-224.

Nanny, J. T., Conrad, E. J., McCloskey, M., & Constants, J. I. (2015). Criminal behavior and repeat violent trauma. American Journal of Preventive Medicine49(3), 395-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.021

Rabito-Alcón, M. F., Baile, J. I., & Vanderlinden, J. (2020). Child Trauma Experiences and Dissociative Symptoms in Women with Eating Disorders: Case-Control Study. Children7(12), 274.

Rafiq, S., Campodonico, C., & Varese, F. (2018). The relationship between childhood adversities and dissociation in severe mental illness: A meta‐analytic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica138(6), 509-525.

Sun, P., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Simpson, K., Lawrence, K., Peach, N., & Bendall, S. (2018). Does dissociation mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations, delusions in first-episode psychosis?. Comprehensive Psychiatry84, 68-74.

Wagner-Skacel, J., Riedl, D., Kampling, H., & Lampe, A. (2021). Mentalization and Dissociation after Adverse Childhood Experiences.

## PowerPoint

Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?

Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.

Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

• Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
• Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
• Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.

Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

## powerpoint

Coca Cola
Megan George

Consumer segment

! The Coca Cola understands the needs of the
customers.

! It develops a business strategy that aligns with
the expected consumer behavior.

! Primary consumers or target market (consumers
aged 10-25 years).

! Secondary consumers (aged 25-40 years) (Wang,
2021).

Resources

! Consumer behavior information can be sourced
from resources such as:

! Social media platforms.
! Focus groups and surveys.
! Customer reviews
! Competitor analysis.

Secondary research

! Scholarly reviewed articles and journal articles are
used in studying the characteristics of Coca Cola’s
consumer segment.

! Characteristics of the consumer segment:
! Highly influenced into adapting a given

consumption behavior.
! Majority have varying purchasing power with

differences in level of income.
! Prefer trending fashion or newly introduced products

(Melancon & Dalakas, 2018).

Segmentation strategies

! There are various strategies the Coca Cola Company
can segment the market:

! Demographic such as age, income, occupation and
income.

! Geographic segmentation: based on the location of
the customer.

! Psychographics: based on hobbies and interest
! Behavioral; strategy: based on behavioral patterns as

studies from the resources.

Behavioral segmentation

! This segmentation strategy is based on consumer
behavior.

! Consumer aged (20-45) are affected by factors
such as income, interests, age.

! These factors affect their consumer patterns.
! Behavioral segmentation would assist in

implementing the best offer in terms of marketing
mix.

Selected consumer segment

! Segment: Low income, highly literate adults
aged 25-40 years

! The segment is highly price sensitive due to

! The segment understands the quality standards
of the product.

! The segment has information on prices (De et al,
2021).

Research needs

! Impact of technology: helps determine needed
differentiation strategies.

! Effect of change in income: helps in
understanding expected changes in demand.

! Effect of competition and pricing: helps
determine the ability to switch to competitors.

References

Wang, J. (2021, October). How Coca Cola and Pepsi Use Segmentation
in Consumer Product Industry. In 2021 International Conference on
Public Relations and Social Sciences (ICPRSS 2021) (pp. 866-870).
Atlantis Press.
Melancon, J. P., & Dalakas, V. (2018). Consumer social voice in the age
of social media: Segmentation profiles and relationship marketing
De Villiers, R., Tipgomut, P., & Franklin, A. (2020). International market
segmentation across consumption and communication categories:
Identity, demographics, and consumer decisions and online habits.

## POWERPOINT

2/3/2022

1

• Use 8 ½ by 11” white paper, with margins
of 1” (or 1 ¼”)

• Double space EVERYTHING

• Font should be pica 10 pitch or Times
Roman 12 pitch

• Single spaces between sentences

• Page numbers in upper right hand corners

How to set up your paper in APA

2/3/2022

2

• Title Page
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Review of Literature
• Method

– Participants
– Apparatus and Measures
– Design
– Procedures

• Expected Results
• Reference Section

Key Elements

Title Page

2/3/2022

3

• One paragraph

• 150 – 250 words

• Format
– Purpose of Study

– Participants

– Methods and Materials

– Anticipated results

Abstract

2/3/2022

4

• Sets the stage for the project
• Creates reader interest in the topic
• Establishes the issues or concerns that

• Conveys information about the problem
• Places the study within the larger context
• Reaches out to a specific audience

Introduction

• The primary purpose of a review of
literature is to demonstrate why your study
is necessary.

• What research has been performed by
others that relates to your topic

Review of Literature

2/3/2022

5

• Review
– Setting
– Population

– Methods
– Outcomes

• Evaluate
– Relations

– Gaps

– Inconsistencies

Review and Evaluate

• Corrigan, Rowan, Green, Lundin, River, Uphoff-
Wasowski, White and Kubiak (2002) conducted
two studies examining the causal processes in
contact, fear and rejection. Corrigan et al. posited
two models to account for stigmatizing reactions.
In the first model, labeled personal responsibility,
both the level of pity and anger displayed toward
mental patients. Additionally, the variables of pity
and anger influence helping behavior. In the
second model, labeled dangerousness, perceived
dangerousness influences fear of mental patients,
which in turn influences the avoidance of the
mentally ill.

An Excerpt from a Review of Literature

2/3/2022

6

• Taken as a whole, it appears that exposing
these myths as myths increases the
acceptance of the mentally ill and that staged
contact with a mentally person to expose
myths has an even more powerful effect.
Caution must be advised, though; Martin et
al.’s (2002) and Alexander and Link’s (2003)
studies and the first study of Corrigan et al.
(2002) were based upon paper and pencil
methodologies. And while Corrigan et al.’s
(2002) second study involved staged Myths
of violence 6 presentations, it was conducted
in a college setting with a college sample.

Another Excerpt from the Same Review

• Participants
– Who will be in your study?

– What population did you use?

– Were there any restrictions in the nature of

Method

2/3/2022

7

• Total number of participants and the number
assigned to each condition

• Major demographic characteristics of the
participants (age, sex, etc.)

• Way the participants were selected
• Was the selection restricted in some way?

– All counseling majors
– Only women
– Only deaf

• How were the participants assigned?

Participant Information

Twenty-seven students from South
University (12 women and 15 men) ranging
in age from 17 to 43 years old, voluntarily
participated in this experiment. There were
9 participants randomly assigned to each of
the three conditions. Informed consent was
obtained from all participants.

Example:

2/3/2022

8

(12 males and 4 females) participated in
exchange for partial course credit. All
participants performed in the same way.
Data from 5 subjects who indicated that they
did not learn English before 5 years of age
were excluded from all analyses. No color-
blind subjects were included in any of the
experiments. Informed consent was
obtained from all participants.

Example:

• Apparatus/Materials
– Tells the reader what equipment and tools you

used in your experiment and to acquire the
data

Method

2/3/2022

9

Materials

A survey was constructed and used that
contains six simple yes or no questions
dealing with honesty, cheating, stealing, and
not getting caught (see appendix). A
Monopoly game board was used for
demonstrating question one.

Example:

Materials

The Social Phobia Scale was utilized in this study
(see Appendix). It is a questionnaire consisting of 15
items in which the subject is asked to put a
checkmark in the blank in front of any item that is
applied to them in the last six months. It was created
as an assignment in Psychological Statistics and
Measurements class at South University. Internal
reliability is been determined for the scale, and
content and construct validity have been established
as well.

Example:

2/3/2022

10

Materials
A website was created for presenting various
surveys (see appendix). The Keirsey
Temperament Sorter (Keirsey, 1998b) and the
Keirsey Character Sorter (Keirsey, 1998c) were
utilized to measure personality type. Two other
surveys developed by the researcher were also
administered: a short demographic survey (see
Appendix) and an assessment of the degree of
domestic violence experienced by each
participant (see appendix). All the surveys were
conducted on the computer with the results
recorded on an answer sheet (see appendix).

Example:

• What type of design did you use?
– Within subjects

• Counterbalancing

– Between subjects

– Quasi-experimental

– Experimental

– Correlational

– Survey/Descriptive

Design

2/3/2022

11

• Variables
– What is your independent variable (s)? How

many levels?

– What it is your dependent variable (s)?

• Threats to internal or external validity
– What?

– How you intend to control for them

Design

• Provides the reader with a summary of each step in the
execution of the research

• Blue Print of your data collection process
• Should be sufficiently detailed so that anyone reading your

paper could conduct the study as you intended
• Provides a verbal record telling the reader

– Who

– What

– Where

– When

– Why

– How often

– How much

Procedures

2/3/2022

12

• Instructions to the participants

• Description of the setting

• Description of manipulation of the
independent variable

• How consent was obtained

• How data was collected

Include:

• Restate the issue/problem in counseling

• Summarize the rationale and purpose for

Summary and Anticipated Results

2/3/2022

13

• Describe the significance of the study for
counseling

• Consider including:
– 3-4 reasons the study adds to the scholarly

literature (or)

– 3-4 reasons this study helps to improve
practice

Summary and Anticipated Results

• Required if you cite any sources in your
paper

• Every source cited in your paper must
appear on the reference list, and every
entry in your reference list must be cited in

• Double spaced!

References

2/3/2022

14

• Keep quotations to a minimum (less than 3
per paper)

• Don’t forget the quotation marks and page
numbers (or paragraph numbers), or you
will be guilty of plagiarism!

Warning

• Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (7th edition)

• Resources available online through South
Library

• Online Writing Lab (Purdue University)

## PowerPoint

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet

Review the guiding organizations from the Guiding the Future of Nursing activity and reflect on the expectations for a BSN-prepared nurse. Whether you have been in practice for years or are just starting your career as a nurse, learning should never stop. As you remember from the College of Nursing Philosophical Framework, lifetime learning is one of the tenets of becoming a nurse leader.

Identify the competencies and essentials you need to develop. Select:

·   2 competencies from Pre-licensure KSAs on the QSEN Competencies page

·   2 essentials from the AACN The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice  Complete the table below by doing the following:

1. In the second column, identify the competency or essential you need to address.

2. In the third column, identify specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs) you need to develop, and cite your source.  a. QSEN citation hint: Per the QSEN Competencies web page, the competencies were taken from another source, which is cited in footnote 2. The page number in the example below was taken from the primary source.

3. In the fourth column, describe how you will develop yourself and give yourself a timeframe.

4. In the fifth column, explain why this improvement is important to your development as a nurse.

Note: An example has been provided for you in the first row.

NSG/302 v2

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance Example: QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Example: Evidence-based practice Example: Knowledge: “Describe reliable sources for locating Example: I will learn how to evaluate sources using the University Example: In order to base practice decisions in evidence, I have

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 2 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance evidence reports and clinical practice guidelines” (Cronenwett et al., 2007, p. 124). Library’s Evaluate Sources tutorial at https://library.phoenix.edu/ev aluating_sources/ in 14 days or less. to first understand how to find good, credible information. QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Patient-centered Care Recognizing and knowing the cultural differences of each patient and their social background and their values when it comes to healthcare and the healing process (Cronenwett et al., 2007). Within seven days, I will learn to communicate by using the guidelines and information provided on QSEN. By knowing how to approach and provide care individually, the patients will feel respected and valued. I will learn to provide patient- centered care to an individual that they will feel safe and that they are part of the decision when it comes to their care. To provide self-centered care, It is essential to know the patient’s values, beliefs, cultural background, and readiness to learn to get better. Understanding how they approach or value health care, I’ll be able to provide better and more effective care to my patients. QSEN Pre- licensure KSAs Safety Reduces the risk of harm to every patient and provider and delivers care effectively (Cronenwett et al., 2007). Within two weeks, I can learn how to identify the risk factors that can contribute to patient safety. By identifying errors, I can safely communicate to others how to avoid possible dangers that might occur when safety measures are being put aside. There are many resources that I can use to learn and get information, for example, the QSEN study material and the university library. As a nurse, I always need to prioritize the safety of my patients. Safety is paramount; many guidelines need to be followed when providing care. By valuing the safety protocol of hospitals or facilities, I can prevent patient harm from happening.

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 3 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education Clinical Prevention and Population Health Health promotion, disease, and injury prevention across the lifespan are essential elements of baccalaureate nursing practice at the individual and population levels (AACN, 2008, pg 23). The knowledge that I need to know on promoting health and disease prevention can help make a difference in the community. Assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations in preparing and minimizing the health consequences of emergencies, including mass casualty disasters, is a skill needed to help improve the health of individuals or communities. Also, caring with passion will have a positive effect A month from today, I will develop skills that can be very helpful to provide disease prevention and health promotion. I will focus on studying how to improve disease prevention and how to deliver this message to the member of the community. Teaching about handwashing, vaccinations are just a few examples that I can do by myself to share knowledge with others. Knowing how to prevent some illnesses is essential knowledge that a nurse should have. As a nurse, I can help the community or individuals avoid the spread of infection and avoid getting or catching it, for example, being up to date on vaccination, teaching the importance of handwashing, wearing a face mask. With this knowledge, I can make a difference in the community. The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education Professionalism and Professional Values Professional values and the associated behaviors are foundational to the practice of nursing (AACN, 2008, pg. 26). The inherent in professional practice is an understanding of nursing practice’s historical, legal, and contemporary context (AACN, 2008. pg 26.) It is essential to know the Within seven days, I will provide care with compassion and delegate appropriate work to other healthcare teams to provide care promptly. It is not easy to delegate sometimes, especially when you have an overwhelming workload. But, I plan to have good time management to provide care Professionalism in healthcare is vital because, as a nurse, we deal with so many circumstances. Nurses have to act professionally when communicating with patients and the patient’s families. Professionalism comes with accountability, meaning we are in a profession where we are

Baccalaureate Professional Growth Worksheet NSG/302 v2 Page 4 of 4

 Guiding Entity Competency/Essential Needed KSAs Improvement Plan Importance patients and how to approach a patient or family. Different cultures require different approaches, so knowing their backgrounds is necessary. Having accountability and professionalism will result in a positive patient-nurse relationship and better health outcomes. fast and safely. accountable for our actions. Showing professionalism has a positive effect on the person around us. Nurses gain trust and respect in their work by how they look, talk, and provide care. As a nurse, gaining trust from the patient and family is very important, and this trust is difficult to attain without showing professionalism.

Reference

Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., … Warren, J. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 55(3)122-131. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2007.02.006

The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. (2008, March 20). The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf

## pCap1_Company_Overview.pptx

Irene Shviktar

Vice President, Marketing

Front Range Action Sports

4/3/2017

Lastname_Firstname_1J_Overview

1

Mission

Our mission is to provide customers with an unparalleled collection of sporting goods and outdoor recreation merchandise. We strive to do so while ensuring that our clients receive the best customer service possible so that they can enjoy their recreational activities to the fullest.

## PowerPoint

Nurses use critical thinking skills to analyze data to make important decisions. Think about the competencies you selected to develop in Wk 1. How would improving these professional competencies impact critical thinking and clinical decision-making?Using the 2 competencies and the 2 essentials from the Wk 1 worksheet, develop a 12- to 15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes.Include an overview of the QSEN Competencies and the AACN Baccalaureate Essentials. Do the following:

• Explain how each competency and essential that you selected aligns with critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
• Provide examples of how improvements in these areas will impact patient outcomes.
• Explain how developing the competencies and essentials will impact/improve your work.

Include at least 2 scholarly resources from the University of Phoenix Library.Cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

## Powerpoint

Host-Microbe Coevolution: Applying Evidence from Model
Systems to Complex Marine Invertebrate Holobionts

Paul A. O’Brien,a,b,c Nicole S. Webster,b,c,d David J. Miller,e,f David G. Bournea,b,c

aCollege of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
bAustralian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, QLD, Australia
cAIMS@JCU, Townsville, QLD, Australia
dAustralian Centre for Ecogenomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
eARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
fCentre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

ABSTRACT Marine invertebrates often host diverse microbial communities, making
it difficult to identify important symbionts and to understand how these communi-
ties are structured. This complexity has also made it challenging to assign microbial
functions and to unravel the myriad of interactions among the microbiota. Here we
propose to address these issues by applying evidence from model systems of host-
microbe coevolution to complex marine invertebrate microbiomes. Coevolution is
the reciprocal adaptation of one lineage in response to another and can occur
through the interaction of a host and its beneficial symbiont. A classic indicator of
coevolution is codivergence of host and microbe, and evidence of this is found in
both corals and sponges. Metabolic collaboration between host and microbe is of-
ten linked to codivergence and appears likely in complex holobionts, where micro-
bial symbionts can interact with host cells through production and degradation of
metabolic compounds. Neutral models are also useful to distinguish selected mi-
crobes against a background population consisting predominately of random associ-
ates. Enhanced understanding of the interactions between marine invertebrates and
their microbial communities is urgently required as coral reefs face unprecedented
local and global pressures and as active restoration approaches, including manipula-
tion of the microbiome, are proposed to improve the health and tolerance of reef
species. On the basis of a detailed review of the literature, we propose three re-
search criteria for examining coevolution in marine invertebrates: (i) identifying sto-
chastic and deterministic components of the microbiome, (ii) assessing codivergence
of host and microbe, and (iii) confirming the intimate association based on shared
metabolic function.

KEYWORDS codivergence, coevolution, marine invertebrates, microbiome,
phylosymbiosis

Coevolution theory dates back to the 19th century (box 1), and coevolution iscurrently referred to as the reciprocal evolution of one lineage in response to
another (1). This definition encompasses a broad range of interactions such as predator-
prey, host-symbiont, and host-parasite interactions or interactions among the members
of a community of organisms such as a host and its associated microbiome (1, 2). In the
case of host-microbe associations, this has produced some of the most remarkable
evolutionary outcomes that have shaped life on Earth, such as the eukaryotic cell,
multicellularity, and the development of organ systems (3, 4). It is now recognized that
microbial associations with a multicellular host represent the rule rather than the

Citation O’Brien PA, Webster NS, Miller DJ,
Bourne DG. 2019. Host-microbe coevolution:
applying evidence from model systems to
complex marine invertebrate holobionts. mBio
10:e02241-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio
.02241-18.

Editor Danielle A. Garsin, University of Texas
Health Science Center at Houston

of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

Address correspondence to David G. Bourne,
david.bourne@jcu.edu.au.

Published 5 February 2019

MINIREVIEW
Host-Microbe Biology

crossm

January/February 2019 Volume 10 Issue 1 e02241-18 ® mbio.asm.org 1

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exception (4), but in complex associations of that kind, the extent to which coevolution
operates is often unclear.

BOX 1: A BRIEF HISTORY OF COEVOLUTION
Charles Darwin once explained the sudden and rapid diversification of flowering

plants as an “abominable mystery,” since it could not be explained by traditional
views of evolution alone (5). While his correspondent Gaston de Saporta speculated
that a biological interaction between flowering plants and insects might be the
cause of the phenomenon, it was not until nearly 100 years later that the concept of
coevolution developed. In a pioneering study, Ehrlich and Raven (6) observed that
related groups of butterflies were feeding on related groups of plants and specu-
lated this was due to a process for which they coined the name “coevolution.” Using
butterflies, they argued that plants had evolved mechanisms to overcome predation
from herbivores, which in turn had evolved new ways to prey on plants. Decades on,
the introduction of phylogenetics has shown that plants evolved in the absence of
butterflies, which colonized the diverse group of plants after their chemical defenses
were already in place (7). Nevertheless, the theory of coevolution was endorsed, and
two important points came to light. First, care must be taken when inferring
coevolution from seemingly parallel lines of evolution, and where possible, diver-
gence times and common ancestry should be included. Second, coevolution can
occur between communities of organisms (“guild” coevolution), as observed in the
case of flowering plants, where predation and pollination from a wide variety of
insects likely influenced the diversification of angiosperms (8).

Since coevolution can occur across multiple levels of interactions, multiple theories
have also developed. The Red Queen theory is based on the concept of antagonistic
coevolution and assumes that an adaptation that increases the fitness of one species
will come at the cost to the fitness of another (9). This type of coevolution has been
most pronounced in host-parasite interactions, where the antagonistic interactions are
closely coupled (10). However, coevolutionary patterns may also arise in the case of
mutualistic symbioses, which require reciprocal adaptations to the benefit of each
partner (11). Mutualistic coevolution is associated with a number of key traits that are
discussed further in this review, such as obligate symbiosis, vertical inheritance, and
metabolic collaboration. Third, coevolution has also recently been placed in context of
the hologenome theory (12), which suggests that the holobiont can act as a unit of
selection (but not necessarily as the primary unit) since the combined genomes
influence the host phenotype on which selection may operate (13, 14). However,
hologenome theory also acknowledges that selection acts on each component of the
holobiont individually as well as in combination with other components (including the
host). Thus, the entity that is the hologenome may be formed, in part, through
coevolution of interacting holobiont compartments, in addition to neutral processes
(12).

Given the ubiquitous nature of host-microbe associations and the huge metabolic
potential that microorganisms represent, it is not surprising that evidence of host-
microbe coevolution is emerging. Model representatives of both simple and complex
associations are being used to study coevolution, allowing researchers to look for
specific traits, signals, and patterns (1, 15). A well-known model system is the pea-aphid
and its endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Buchnera. This insect has evolved special-
ized cells known as bacteriocytes to host its endosymbionts, which in turn synthesize
and translocate amino acids that are missing from the diet of the pea aphids (16).
Amino acid synthesis occurs through intimate cooperation between host and symbiont,
with some pathways missing from the host and some from the symbiont, such that the
relationship is obligate to the extent that the one organism cannot survive without the
other (17). The human gut microbiome has been extensively studied in complex
systems and has been shown to be intimately associated with human health. Gut

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microbes have been shown to be linked with human behavior and development
through metabolic processes, such as microbial regulation of the essential amino acid
tryptophan (18, 19). The human microbiome contains around 150-fold more nonre-
dundant genes than the human genome (20), and the metabolic capacity of microbes
residing in the intestine is believed to have been a driving evolutionary force in the
host-microbe coevolution of humans (2). In these examples, as well as many others
(21–23), both host and symbiont evolved to maintain and facilitate the symbiosis.
Furthermore, phylogenies of host and symbiont in these systems are often mirrored,
indicating that host and symbiont are diverging in parallel (16, 24, 25), a phenomenon
known as codivergence (26).

In the marine environment, invertebrates can host microbial communities as simple
and stable as that of the pea aphid or as complex and dynamic as that of the human
gut (Fig. 1). The Hawaiian bobtail squid, for example, maintains an exclusive symbiosis
with a single bacterial symbiont which it hosts within a specialized light organ (27). On
the other hand, corals host enormously diverse microbial communities, comprising
thousands of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which are often influ-
enced by season, location, host health, and host genotype (28–31). Marine sponges also
host complex microbial communities with diversity comparable to that of corals (32)
but with associations that are generally far more stable in space and time (33).
Less-diverse microbial communities are found in the sea anemone Aiptasia, where the
number of OTUs is generally in the low hundreds (34). Due to the close taxonomic
relationship of Aiptasia with coral and its comparatively simple microbial community, it
has been proposed as a model organism for studying coral microbiology and symbiosis
(34). Some marine invertebrates also include species along a continuum of microbial
diversities. Ascidians, for example, have been shown to host fewer than 10 (Polycarpa
aurata) or close to 500 (Didemnum sp.) microbial OTUs within their inner tunic (35).
Furthermore, species with low microbial diversity such as P. aurata can exhibit high
intraspecific variation, with as few as 8% of OTUs shared among individuals of the same
species (35). Taken together, the data from those studies highlight the vast spectrum
of associations that marine invertebrates form with microbial communities in terms of
diversity, composition, and stability (Fig. 1).

While previous research has provided a good understanding of the composition of
marine invertebrate microbiomes, our understanding of how the microbiome interacts
with the host, and of the potential to coevolve, is far more limited. Moreover, the

FIG 1 Spectrum of microbial diversity associated with different compartments of marine invertebrates. Microbial associations may involve a single symbiont
in a specialized organ or over 1,000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with tissues. The levels of OTUs reported in the figure represent the highest
recorded in the referenced study for that species. Reported levels of diversity may differ significantly within the same species across different studies.

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increasing number of studies generating tremendous volumes of host-associated
microbiome sequence data requires theoretical development to interpret these rela-
tionships. Coevolved microbial symbionts are presumed to be intimately linked with
host fitness and metabolism (36); therefore, understanding these relationships in
marine invertebrates will have direct implications for health and disease processes in
these animals. Three research criteria arise for examining coevolution in marine inver-
tebrates: (i) identifying stochastic and deterministic microbial components of the
microbiome, (ii) assessing codivergence of host and microbe, and (iii) confirming an
intimate association between host and microbe related to shared metabolic function
(metabolic collaboration). While each of these criteria may be fulfilled without the
involvement of coevolution (26, 37, 38), evidence of their existence in combination
provides a strong basis for establishing coevolution patterns (Fig. 2). This review
positions these three criteria in coevolution as representing a complementary approach
to the study of complex marine invertebrate microbiomes by drawing from examples
of model systems. Focussing on keystone coral reef invertebrates, this review also
evaluates the current evidence for each criterion. Finally, while parasites and pathogens
also contribute to host coevolution, the focus of this review is mutualistic symbionts;
thus, pathogens and parasitism are not discussed.

BOX 2: GLOSSARY
(i) Codivergence. Two organisms which speciate or diverge in parallel as illus-

trated by topological congruency of phylogenetic trees.
(ii) Coevolution. Reciprocal adaptation of one (or more) lineage(s) in response to

another (or others).
(iii) Holobiont. A host organism and its associated microbial community.
(iv) Hologenome. The collective genomes of a host and its associated microbial

community, which may act as a unit of selection or at discrete levels.
(v) Metabolic collaboration. Two or more oganisms that are linked through

metabolic interactions, generally to the benefit of one another.
(vi) Metagenome. The collective microbial genes recovered from an environmen-

tal sample, usually predominantly prokaryotic.
(vii) Metatranscriptomics. Quantification of the total microbial mRNA in a sample

as an indication of gene expression and active microbial functions.
(viii) Microbiome. The total genetic make-up of a microbial community associated

with a habitat.
(ix) Microbiota. The community of microorganisms residing in a particular habitat,

usually a host organism.
(x) Phylosymbiosis. The rentention of a host phylogenetic signal within its

associated microbial community.
(xi) Virome. The total viral genetic content recovered from an environmental

sample.

UNTANGLING PATTERNS OF HOST-MICROBE COEVOLUTION IN A WEB OF
MICROBES

(i) Phylosymbiosis and neutral theory—identifying stochastic and determinis-
tic components of the microbiome. Host-microbe coevolution may occur to some
degree at the level of the hologenome, i.e., reciprocal evolution of the host genome
and microbiome (12). Therefore, it is necessary to understand microbial community
structure and population dynamics within the host environment. This may illustrate (i)
that the microbiome associated with a host is structured through phylogenetically
related host traits and may therefore retain a host phylogenetic signal (phylosymbiosis)
and (ii) that certain microbes deviate from the expected patterns of neutral population
dynamics, i.e., stochastic births and deaths and immigration. It is likely that phylosym-
biosis and neutral population dynamics are linked; therefore, their potential to con-
tribute to coevolution is discussed together.

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Homocysteine + Serine
(host diet & metabolism)

Cystathionine B-synthase
(symbiont enzyme)

Cystathionine

Cystathionine y-lyase
(host enzyme)

Cysteine

S-H
CH2

C COOH H2N
H

Bacteria spp. 1

Host spp. A

d)

Host phylogeny Microbial dendrogram
Host species

A

B

C

D

a)

b)

Host phylogeny Microbial phylogeny

Bacteria spp. 1

A

B

C

D

Relative abundance of
microbes in host sample

Fr
eq

ue
nc

y
of

m
ic

ro
be

s
in

h
os

t Bacteria spp. 1

Bacteria spp.2
Low High

0

1

c)

FIG 2 Hypothetical scenario addressing three criteria for host-microbe coevolution in species A to D. (a) Phylosymbiosis
shown through hierarchical clustering of the microbial community, resulting in a microbial dendrogram which mirrors host
phylogeny. (b) Neutral model showing the expected occurrence of microbes based on neutral population dynamics (blue
line). As the relative abundance increases, so too does the occurrence in host samples. The members of bacterial species
group 1 (Bacteria spp. 1) are therefore more abundant than would be expected by chance and may indicate active selection,
while the members of Bacteria spp. 2 are less abundant. (c) Codivergence of the members of Bacteria spp. 1 with their hosts.
The members of Bacteria spp. 1 are found within the microbial community of each host species and appear to be actively
selected for. Their phylogeny indicates a host split at the strain level followed by diversification within each host species.
Congruence between host and microbial lineages suggests important host-microbe interactions and warrants further
investigation. (d) Metabolic collaboration between the members of Host spp. A and those of Bacteria spp. 1. Fluorescence
in-situ hybridization (FISH) confirms that the members of Bacteria spp. 1 are located within bacteriocyte cells in the tissues
of Host spp. A. Genome and transcriptome data for each species suggest that the amino acid cysteine is produced by the
activity of a metabolic pathway shared between host and microbe. In corals of the genus Acropora, for example, the
genome is incomplete with respect to biosynthesis of cysteine and represents a potential pathway for collaborations of host
and microbe (101). Hypothetically, the amino acids homocysteine and serine (potentially sourced from host diet and
metabolism) are combined to form cystathionine through the enzyme cystathionine V synthase (provided by the host’s
endosymbiont). The host enzyme cystathionine �-lyase then breaks down cystathionine to form cysteine.

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The term “phylosymbiosis” is not intended to imply coevolution (12, 38); however,
coevolution of a host and microbiome may reinforce patterns of phylosymbiosis. There
are many host traits that correlate with host phylogeny, some of which can act as
environmental filters, preventing the establishment of microbes in the host environ-
ment. Thus, neutral population dynamics, with host traits acting as an ecological filter
to microbial immigration, may be sufficient to result in phylosymbiotic patterns (39, 40).
However, host traits are not static; thus, the evolution of these microbial niches may
further drive the radiation of the microbes that reside within them. In turn, the
continuous colonization over many generations of a microbial community likely adds
to the selective pressure on host traits. Therefore, ecological filtering of microbes
through host traits and coevolution of a host and microbiome need not be mutually
exclusive in the appearance of phylosymbiosis (39). Moreover, assessing patterns of
phylosymbiosis and neutral population dynamics also allows the detection of microbes
that deviate from these patterns and may identify important microbial species that are
actively selected for (or against) by the host. In this context, neutral models can
simulate expected microbial abundance, allowing easier detection of microbes that do
not fit these patterns (41). This reasoning justifies consideration of phylosymbiosis and
microbial population dynamics in assessing coevolution in complex holobionts.

Patterns of phylosymbiosis are frequently detected in complex holobionts. One
particular study tested for phylosymbiosis across 24 species of terrestrial animals from
4 groups that included Peromyscus deer mice, Drosophila flies, mosquitos, and Nasonia
wasps and an additional data set of 7 hominid species (42). Since these animals (with
the exception of hominids) could be reared under controlled laboratory conditions,
environmental influences could be eliminated, leaving the host as the sole factor
influencing the microbial community. Under these conditions, phylosymbiotic patterns
were clearly observed for all five groups, with phylogenetically related taxa sharing
similar microbial communities and microbial dendrograms mirroring host phylogenies.
Similar patterns of phylosymbiosis have been observed in a growing number of
terrestrial systems, including all five gut regions in rodents (43), the skin of ungulates
(44), the distal gut in hominids (45), and roots of multiple plant phyla (46), providing
evidence that such patterns are common among host-associated microbiomes.

In the marine environment, two major studies, one involving 236 colonies across 32
genera of scleractinian coral collected from the east and west coasts of Australia (47)
and the other involving 804 samples of 81 sponge species collected from the Atlantic
Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (32),
have provided the most convincing examples of phylosymbiosis. Both studies found a
significant evolutionary signal of the host with respect to microbial diversity and
composition. Specifically, mantel tests were used to delineate the finding that closely
related corals and sponges hosted more extensively similar microbial communities in
terms of composition than would be expected by chance. In the case of corals, the
similarity was seen in the skeleton and, to a lesser extent, in the tissue microbiome,
while the mucus microbiome was more highly influenced by the surrounding environ-
ment (47). However, both studies found that host species was the strongest factor in
explaining dissimilarity among microbial communities. Additional studies on both cold
water and tropical sponges have found similar phylogenetic patterns within the
microbiome of the host species (48, 49). Together, these results suggest that host
phylogeny (or associated traits) has a significant role in structuring associated microbial
communities, although there are additional factors related to host identity (and unre-
lated to phylogeny) that also likely play a major role.

Most studies to date have focused on the microbes that adhere to these patterns of
phylosymbiosis, though more-useful information arguably could be determined from
the microbes that do not. Since phylosymbiosis is a pattern that shows correlations
between microbiome dissimilarity and host phylogeny, it does not indicate active
microbial selection or cospeciation (38), and the species that deviate from these
patterns would be interesting targets for studies of codivergence and metabolic
collaboration (see below). Neutral models have been applied to three species of

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sponges, a jellyfish, and a sea anemone, and while neutral models have been shown to
fit well to the expectation of microbial abundance in sponges (which also show
phylosymbiosis), jellyfish and sea anemone microbiomes were found to be associated
with a higher level of nonneutrality (40). Potential reasons for nonneutrality include the
presence of a more sophisticated immune system in cnidarians that provides active
selection on certain microbial taxa and that the microbiomes in such cases are more
transient or a combination of the two. In summary, neutral population dynamics filtered
through phylogenetically related host traits likely result in, or at least contribute to, the
observed patterns of phylosymbiosis. This does not necessarily mean that the pattern
is unimportant or is not contributing to coevolution at the hologenome level, and it
may be that the communities of microbes that follow these patterns are responsible for
broad ecological functions (50). On the other hand, microbes that deviate from these
patterns may be responsible for more-specific functions and are of high interest to
those trying to identify symbionts and coevolution at the microbial species or strain
level.

(ii) Codivergence—microbial phylogeny and host phylogeny are congruent.
The second criterion in assessing host-microbe coevolution is that of whether individ-
ual microbial lineages and their hosts have matching phylogenies (22, 24, 51). Codi-
vergence implies a tightly coupled, long-term interaction between two species and can
potentially identify beneficial symbionts (or parasites) that have coevolved with the
host (26). However, it is also important that codivergence can arise due to processes
other than coevolution, such as one species adaptively tracking another, which would
imply that the evolution is not reciprocal, or two species responding independently to
the same speciation event or environmental stress (37). In known cases of coevolution,
phylogenies of hosts and their microbial symbionts are congruent (16, 51, 52). However,
in complex and uncharacterized systems, this strategy can be reversed to identify
potential symbionts. Therefore, the main value of investigating codivergence in com-
plex associations is to identify those specific microbes on which to focus further
attention.

Codivergence has been demonstrated in the case of Hydra viridissima, a freshwater
relative of marine cnidarians, and its photosymbiont Chlorella (53). In this system,
photosynthetically fixed carbohydrates from Chlorella are transported to its host (54),
and phylogenetic analysis of 6 strains of H. viridissima and their vertically transmitted
symbionts revealed clear congruency of host and symbiont topologies (55). In more-
complex systems, patterns of codivergence have been illustrated in the gut microbiota
of hominids (25). Analysis of fecal samples from humans, wild chimpanzees, wild
bonobos, and wild gorillas showed that four clades of bacteria from the dominant
families Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae codiverged with host phylogeny. Impor-
tantly, this example illustrates one possible way of identifying codivergence in complex
holobionts where the symbionts are unknown. Since bacteria from the families Bacte-
roidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Lachnospiraceae are known to dominate the gut of
hominids, multiple primer sets targeting each individual family were utilized, and
phylogenetic analyses of the families were completed independently. Furthermore,
instead of using the relatively slowly diverging 16S rRNA gene, the fast-evolving and
variable gene encoding DNA gyrase subunit B was used for bacterial phylogenetics.
Similar methods may be applied to complex marine invertebrates such as coral and
sponges, where 16S rRNA gene studies have identified prominent bacteria.

Within complex marine invertebrate holobionts, codivergence has been most clearly
demonstrated in cold-water sponges in the family Latrunculiidae. The microbiomes of
six species within this family were dominated by a single betaproteobacterial OTU, and
the phylogeny of this OTU was highly congruent with that of the host (56). Further-
more, gene expression analysis suggested that the dominant betaproteobacteria are
active members of the microbiome rather than dormant or nonviable members;
however, whether or not this potential symbiont and its host participate in metabolic
collaboration is unknown, highlighting an example warranting further investigation.
The microbiomes of many other marine invertebrates are dominated by members of

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the genus Endozoicomonas (57). A pan-genomic analysis of the genomes of seven
Endozoicomonas strains representing a broad range of hosts (corals, sponges, and sea
slugs) provided some evidence for codivergence (58). Strikingly, the two closely related
corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa hosted Endozoicomonas with
highly similar genomes. A second, large-scale study (47) found that Endozoicomon

## Powerpoint

Need a 16

slide long power point within 8 hrs       Introduction   Main critique theme  Critique theme is   focused and clearly explained     Significance  Makes clear what   motivates them to explore main theme/question and significance     Background  Explains background   on the problem     Body content and article   evaluation   Overall  each section of body   content provides details of all 3 articles, articles are thoroughly but   concisely compared, contrasted and evaluated clearly     Introduce articles  Give article details   (citation), provide each paper’s objective/hypotheses     Article methods  Methods summarized   and evaluated completely for all 3 articles     Article results  Results are   summarized and evaluated, tables/figures used from papers to help with   critique     Article discussions  Discussions are   summarized and thoroughly evaluated for all 3 articles     Summary  Summarizes strengths   and weaknesses of each article, makes a concluding statement overall about   the critique theme     Speculation  Suggests what should   be done next, points out new questions raised by work     Citation slide  Any studies mentioned   during the presentation are listed and all publication information given in a   ‘References’ slide       Organization   of presentation   Purpose of slides  Purpose of each   slide is clear to the listener (title of slide contains premise)     Continuity  Effective   transitions between slides contribute to a continuous sequence of connected   ideas, slides flow well     Roadmap  Provides a   roadmap/preview then several reminders/singpost during the talk so that the   listener never feels lost     Figures  Every figure and   image is clearly labeled and all figures are fully explained by the presenter     Attractiveness  slides are laid out   well, text is easy to read and colors do not clash, there are no distracting   transitions     Timing  15 min

## Powerpoint

Directions: Each student is required to develop a PowerPoint for chapters 16 & 17 in the Creswell textbook.

Students are encouraged to be creative and include Video-links to their Power-Points. DO NOT JUST COPY what is on the Book – Look for other sources.

Make sure your PowerPoint includes a reflection on the following guiding questions:

Connections: What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your learning?

Challenge: What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue with in the text?

Concepts: What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text?

Changes: What changes in attitudes, thinking, or action are suggested by the text, either for you or others?

• The Power-Point file should be named as follows:  First Name_Last Name_EEC6678_PPT

## powerpoint

NUTRITION 7

Name: Samikshya Timilsena

Class: NFS234301

Date: 03/31/2022

Product Paper

Nutritious Milk Shake

Introduction

Nutrition is important for all the population and demands for an important attention to make sure that everyone is healthy and have all the recommended nutrients. Working in a school environment has contributed to my interaction with children that have their daily snacks and out of curiosity tried to look into the type of products that most of them are consuming. I got to understand that 80% of the children were having the kind frozen smoothie bowl and the children love the product due to its best packaging and sweet taste of the fruit flavors that are used that range from banana, raspberry, blackberry, acai and almond (Eda et al., 2017). The kind frozen smoothie bowl is the currently used product as a snack for the kids as their breakfast. The needs that are lacking in the current product is the vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin A, calcium and iron that falls under the necessity for children since they are in their developmental stage and need to develop strong bones, teeth and muscles.

Purpose

The paper targets in the development of the fortified milkshake product targeting school-going children as their breakfast. The milkshake is fortified with the vitamin D, vitamin A, folic acid, calcium and iron for the purpose of helping the children in their developing stage to have strong bonds, teeth and muscle development. The product brand is Nutritious Joyous Milkshake.

It can feel like an uphill task to get kids to consume healthful foods. It is more difficult to make a child take nutritious foods like the leafy ones which are healthier. However, a child’s nutrition is extremely crucial. Do not give in and let them live off of fast food and sugary drinks and treats. It is all worth it in the end. Everyone, regardless of age, should eat nutritious foods to avoid obesity and lifestyle diseases. Proper nutrition is essential for your children’s health and development. Healthy eating habits and nutritional information may be instilled in your child early on in life with the right nutrition for children. Help your children develop healthy eating habits by teaching them about the importance of excellent nutrition. It is easier to get your child enthused about eating healthily if he understands the basics of nutrition. There is the need for awareness and education of the parents about the nutrition of their children and consider watching what their children are eating because they have detrimental impact in their old age (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Parents should take the responsibility of making sure that they understand the composition of the food that the child took during the day and ensure that there is a balanced diet and junky food are avoided for a good healthy.

The body’s calcium and phosphate levels are regulated in part by vitamin D. The nutrient is taken by children to keep their teeth and muscles healthy. Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets in children and osteomalacia, a disorder that causes bone discomfort in adults. Taking a daily vitamin D pill is recommended by the government for everyone in the autumn and winter (Gavin, 2021). Children are in a stage that require the nutrients like calcium and iron for the purpose of the development of strong bones, muscles and teeth. Iron is needed in children development because it helps in moving oxygen from the lungs to the rest part of the body (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Additionally, iron makes the child’s muscles to store and use the oxygen. The body has no ability of developing its own iron and require iron to be taken as supplements and sourced from foods. Children requires the vitamin D in their bodies that play an important role as the prohormone that helps in the calcium absorption (Iannelli, 2021). Children need food that is rich with all the nutrients that include the vitamin A that plays a huge part in eye vision (Gavin, 2021). The high intake of the vitamin A makes an individual have the ability to differential different colors and also have a good night vision. Additionally, vitamin A is important in the body of a child in building a strong immune against infections. Folic acid is another nutrient that is needed in a child development and it helps in assisting in the development of internal organs that were not fully developed during the 12 weeks pregnancy. The folic acid is also important in the process of the prevention of the neural tube defects.

My product that is “Nutritious Joyous Milkshake” is a fortified and flavored milkshake that would replace the kind frozen smoothie bowl, and this is the reason to why it is necessary to have it in place in providing additional nutrients that the previous product was not offering. The addition of iron, calcium, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A into the milkshake product is done through the fortification process. Fortification is a process which is a practice of adding vitamins and minerals to a consumed food product that initially lack the components and it is done during processing state to increase its nutritional value (Olson et al., 2021). The nutrients are incorporated into the milkshake product through fortification process that occurs during the processing of the product where it is intentionally added the five mentioned nutrients in the right quantities as needed by the children. The process is much paramount and targets on adding the nutritional value to the milkshake and this happen that the right amounts are added assuring the customers that the product is nutritious, and the children needs for body development is present in the product for their breakfast (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The process of developing the Nutritious Joyous Milkshake is just done like the other milkshake but for this different flavor that is mango, strawberry and blackberry flavors would be available and have additional nutrients that include folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin B, calcium and iron. The milkshake would be more nutritious as the common milkshake and it would be stored frozen to protect its quality. The product would serve the children best because the added nutrients have been shown to be of much value to them and educating them about the new product and value it adds to their bodies would result to more sales.

Conclusion

The Nutritious Joyous Milkshake that is a fortified milkshake would address the needs of the children that are currently using the kind frozen smoothie bowl that lacks the main nutrients that include the folic acid, iron, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D. The fortified milkshake will be having the five nutrients that are added through fortification process and this is done when processing the product. The product ensure that the children are getting majority of the needed nutrients that is significant for their body development especially for bone, teeth and muscle development (Olson et al., 2021). The fortified milkshake is better than the kind frozen smoothie bowl because it adds the five nutrients that adds the value needed by the children’s’ bodies during development. The challenges that might come in using the product is that the more the product it stays refrigerated the more nutrients are depleted and this demands that demand should be high to reduce the stay after production.

References

Eda, K., Aylin, A., Ozge, K., & Naile, B. (2017). Nutritional status in school children: Deficiencies in iron, folic acid and Vitamin B12. Scientific Research And Essays6(21), 4604-4610. https://doi.org/10.5897/sre11.930

Gavin, M. (2021). Vitamins (for Kids) – Nemours KidsHealth. Kidshealth.org. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/vitamin.html.

Iannelli, V. (2021). How Much Calcium Do Kids Need?. Verywell Family. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.verywellfamily.com/childrens-calcium-requirements-2633314.

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Iron deficiency in children: Prevention tips for parents. Mayo clinic. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/iron-deficiency/art-20045634#:~:text=Why%20is%20iron%20important%20for,children%20is%20a%20common%20problem

Olson, R., Gavin-Smith, B., Ferraboschi, C., & Kraemer, K. (2021). Food Fortification: The Advantages, Disadvantages and Lessons from Sight and Life Programs. Nutrients13(4), 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041118

## powerpoint

CASE STUDY 4

Case Study

Student Name

Institution Affiliation

Case Study

Blindness Disability

Sightlessness is defined as blindness. When someone has blindness, they are unable to see anything at all. The term “blindness” refers to the inability of one’s eyes to discern between dim light and strong light, when used literally. In current society, the terms “blind” and “blindness” refer to a wide spectrum of visual impairments. Severe loss of vision in one or both eyes with some residual eyesight is commonly called “blindness.” People over the age of 50 account for 80% of all cases of blindness. Blindness can be caused by diabetes, macular degeneration and other conditions that affect the retina and optic nerve. One of the most common and disabling conditions is blindness. Around 246 million individuals in the world have limited vision, and 39 million are legally blind. About 90% of the world’s visually handicapped citizens reside in underdeveloped countries. Blindness is a disability that affects a person in different levels of life where there are those that are born blind and there are those that becomes ill along the way losing their sight (Angkananon et al., 2021). There are different experiences for the people with blindness and this include those that are completely blind and cannot even see colors. On the other hand, there are those blind but they are able to recognize colors, varying shapes and a varying degree of light. There are about 25 of those visually impaired that can navigate without the use of the white cane and this is based on how the control their movement and their ability to see objects on their way (Angkananon et al., 2021). Blindness is a disability that affects an individual ability to work in a workplace that demands to have sight to handle some tasks like in the production section where machines are handled and it is a high risk for them to work in the kind of work environment.

Program Need for the Blind

People with visual impairments have a wealth of options at their disposal around the country. People who have lost their vision have access to a variety of programs and services aimed at helping them succeed in school, careers, health, the legal system, and other aspects of daily life. One of the most philanthropic institutions in the United States for the benefit of people with vision impairments is the American Printing House for the Blind. It is the mission of this group to remove the daily obstacles that persons with visual impairments confront in their daily lives at home, at work, in school, and in public. People who are blind or visually impaired can find it difficult in securing employment because of the challenges that they have due to their disability but organizations like American Printing House for the Blind are there to offer necessary support. There is an increasing push for equitable job opportunities for the blind and visually impaired in the population despite the needs that they have but because offering them the support needed contribute to them delivering value. The blind people require support in terms of resources that helps them secure job employment and be able to deliver and this include developing assistive technologies, and educating community leaders to raise awareness to support the needs of the visually impaired population. For those who are blind or visually impaired, the National Federation of the Blind provides a wide range of services that include training and education, as well as assistive technology and goods, advocacy, and outreach.

Assistive Technology Need

Each and every person’s life has been impacted by technology in the modern world. To ensure that employees and entire population with visual impairments can take use of the full range of functional, job function, and social opportunities available to them, assistive technology is critical. Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, purchased commercially off the shelf or adapted or custom-made for use by individuals with disabilities falls within IDEA’s definition of assistive technology (Götzelmann, 2018). As a result, employees with disability in an organization deserve to have an environment that is favorable for them to work and this include computers designed with voice technology that allow them use computer comfortably. There are two primary categories of assistive technology for people with visual impairments: low vision devices and blindness aids (Götzelmann, 2018). The employees deserve training on how to use the assistive technology as a way of orientation for them to deliver quality services in the workplace.

Orientation and Mobility Instruction Need

“IDEA is as supportive services as are required to assist a child or an adult with a disability to benefit from special education and also employment, additionally, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act includes orientation and mobility services” (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). Employees who are blind or visually impaired may get orientation and mobility assistance from trained professionals, as defined by IDEA, to help them become familiar with and move around their immediate surroundings at in the community and the workplace for more safely. For people with visual impairment, orientation and mobility services are an essential aspect of teaching them how to navigate their surroundings and retain or regain their sense of where they are going (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). A long cane can also be used by those who are blind or visually impaired to help them navigate their surroundings safely and independently. An key part of the expanded core curriculum is orientation and mobility (Erickson, 2022).To get around the environment in a safe and efficient manner, the management in organization has the role of making sure that the need of moving around for the blind is offered by limiting destructions that might risk their lives.

The Program Design for the Visually Impaired

In the workplace, there is the need to design a service program for the visually impaired especially the blind in order to ensure that they get the necessary support that makes them work effectively. There are various service designs that should be put into consideration for the visually impaired that makes them feel accommodated in the workplace.

The administration has a huge infrastructural role in making sure that the people living with disability are considered in how they would navigate within the office and the entire workplace environment. People with disabilities can benefit greatly from simple changes to their environment. Having a workstation that is easy to navigate is essential. Consider developing a good terrain in the environment also side rails that guides the visually impaired employee to the office without much struggle (Kajur, 2020). The issue of infrastructure should be extended to the toilet also to ensure that employee has a guiding side rails that makes their movement within the workplace favorable. The administrative management should consider acquiring the computers and other technology that are favorable in serving the interest of the blind within the organization and ensure that the offer their services based on their job description without much stress. During meetings and presentations, the administrative management should consider using verbal communication on describing graphs charts and other visual aids that helps the employees to also contribute to the meeting and get insight about the progress of the firm.

The administrative consideration should also include offering training to the entry level employees that are visually impaired in how to use the assistive technology like the computer that has voice and brail technology to facilitate their service delivery (Kajur, 2020). The administration through the human resource department should consider hiring employees with visual impairment without discrimination. People with vision impairment can be highly motivated and successful, having surmounted what many people consider a difficult work/life hurdle. As a result, finding and recruiting such persons should be considered by the administration. There are a number of organizations and agencies that can assist in finding and employing individuals who are visually impaired or blind since they are already prepared for the job market like training on assistive technology and best mobility.

Managing Staff

The management of staff with visual impairment requires a design that focuses on the assistive technology needed and modification of the environment to create the best place that an employee can deliver. The design of handling the visually impaired employee is to first modify the workplace and make sure that the assistive technology is in place that ensure they deliver services. The management should listen to the employees demands in terms of their environment that include the arrangement that makes sure that they are comfortable and can move around sourcing files and also attend to clients without much struggle. The management would be responsible in making sure that the visually impaired employees are working independently by supporting their demands to make sure that they work like any other employee without the need of any special attention or favors. In the process of evaluation of the productivity of the employees, there should be equality in the process and those with visual impairment should not be favored especially when all the assistive technology that helps them work effectively are provided. There is a high possibility that those with visual impairment do not like being favored in the workplace because this is what makes them inferior and not worth being employed. There is the need of showcasing the capability of every employee and this would make the visually impaired work harder and prove that they can deliver when offered the necessary support.

Workplace Conflict

In the workplace, conflict is something that normally occur because people cannot agree on everything and there is a point where different opinions and suggestions are experienced. Understanding that a conflict is a common aspect that is experienced is much important because it guides on the ways of looking for a solution towards the particular problem. In the case of virtually impaired employees, a design of addressing issue of conflict in a fair way without favor is needed to avoid developing negative energy in the workplace. A design that brings equality in the workplace is what needed and in a scenario where the virtually impaired employee are in a conflict with the general employee require wisdom in handling the conflict where everyone is given an opportunity to express dissatisfaction. The mediator or the person taking the neutral ground should handle the issue professionally and there should be no favor to the virtually impaired employees or being considered inferior but justice served and a decision that serves the interest of both parties is offered (NHS, 2021). The main reason to why favors’ are avoided is to promote diversity in the workplace and this would not work when the other employees are feeling that the people living with disability are getting more attention and favor from the management. During the hiring process and also orientation practice, all the employees should be subjected to an interactive session where they are encouraged to work together and support collaboration without the need of discriminating one another. Promoting the culture of diversity and inclusivity is a design that works towards making the virtually impaired feel respected and their contribution is appreciated (NHS, 2021). There is the approach that the workplace conflict is addressed by looking at the causal factors that led to the disagreement and this helps in finding a solution to the problem. There is the need of building the foundation that all the employees are equal from the treatment and also attention they get in terms of disciplinary action and also evaluation because they all have the resources necessary to deliver.

Legal/Ethical Consideration

According to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), it is illegal to discriminate against an individual with a disability, such as blindness or impaired vision. Federal legislation prohibits discrimination in employment. Federal and state civil rights enforcement organizations implement the ADA’s restrictions on discrimination in the workplace, including the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The EEOC enforces the ADA’s anti-discrimination provisions, which prohibit firms with 15 or more employees from engaging in any kind of employment discrimination. State and local governments may not discriminate in their programs and activities, and this includes all levels of state and local government, no matter how many employees they have (WHO, 2022). The organization would be designed to accommodate the aspects of legal matters and make sure that employees are employed without discrimination including those with visual impairment and more focus would be directed towards their experience, academic qualification and skills.

There are the ethical issues that need consideration when incorporating diversity in the workplace and making sure that the visually impaired employees interested are taken care of (Koutheair Khribi, 2022). It is considered unethical for the employees to discriminate their colleagues that are visually impaired in any way especially in the scenario they feel that they are not up to the task offered to them to work in the firm. The visually impaired employees should be treated as everyone else and there should be no favors.

Personal Reflection/Opinions

I consider it relevant for an organization to consider ways of handling the needs of their employees and this is to make sure that those visually impaired have a good environment that serves their needs and are capable to deliver quality services based on their job description. In my view, supporting the blind employees with the assistive technology that makes them work on their assigned tasks effectively makes them equal to other employees and makes it possible for them to be compared to the other employees that have no disability (WHO, 2022). The assistive technology acts as an equalizer in the workplace and this should be welcomed as a way of eliminating discrimination and favors and make the workplace more collaborative. In my opinion, I belief that offering all the support needed to the employees that are blind makes them confident that they can deliver based on their job description. In the future research, more focus should be directed towards looking for more knowledge about the effective technology that should be used for the visually impaired that makes them satisfied with their job.

References

Angkananon, K., Wald, M., & Phetkeaw, T. (2021). Development and Evaluation of Technology Enhanced Interaction Framework Method for Designing Accessible Technologies for Visually Impaired People. Frontiers In Computer Science3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomp.2021.671414

Erickson, J. (2022). 6 Principles Of Visual Accessibility Design – Usability Geek. Usability Geek. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://usabilitygeek.com/6-principles-visual-accessibility-design/.

Götzelmann, T. (2018). Visually Augmented Audio-Tactile Graphics for Visually Impaired People. ACM Transactions On Accessible Computing11(2), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1145/3186894

Kajur, S. (2020). How to make your office accessible for visually impaired & people who are blind. | Anuprayaas. Anuprayaas – Making India Accessible. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://anuprayaas.org/8-ways-to-make-a-workplace-accessible-disability-friendly/.

Koutheair Khribi, M. (2022). Toward Accessible Online Learning for Visually Impaired and Blind Students. Nafath7(19). https://doi.org/10.54455/mcn.19.02

NHS. (2021). Blindness and vision loss. nhs.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vision-loss/.

WHO. (2022). Vision impairment and blindness. Who.int. Retrieved 30 March 2022, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/blindness-and-visual-impairment.

## powerpoint

Note: This is based on your discussion from last week so much of it you will be able to cut and paste to start creating your presentation. This week you will also interview someone from your selected population.

Hello I Picked new coming teachers ( age 23-27) or (teacher fresh from college).

Their stressor having no support, lack of resources, not being taught efficiently etc…

type of program – Time management or w.e you see fit/better

· Who (1 point) Did you go into detail and describe the population

· What population are you researching for your stress management project? Narrow down your target population using gender identity, age group, nationality, specialty, etc.

· What (1 point) Did you identify multiple potential sources of stress unique to this population?

· What do you think are their unique stressors?

· Why (1 point) Did you provide statistics on the incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions.

· Why does it matter?

· How (1 point) What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population?

· What type of program are you interested in research to help this population.

· Describe your interview and the individual’s unique perspective (1 point).

· References: Did you identify AND incorporate the results of 3 quality references (one for each slide) and one interview?

· Formatting, Design, Visual, Grammar (1 point) Did you ensure your presentation was your best effort?

## Powerpoint

• Access the Uniform Crime Reports for both the area in which you live and your state. (If you are an international student, access crime reports in your community and country.)
• Examine the types of crime reported in these areas.

Scenario: Citizens in your area are concerned about crime rates. You are asked to present information at a town hall meeting. Your presentation should include information about frequency of different types of crimes, potential risk factors that may contribute to certain crimes being more frequent than others, and strategies that could help prevent certain crimes in the future.

To complete

• Create a PowerPoint presentation (15–20 slides) explaining the various categories and types of crime in your city/ neighborhood vs. the crime in your state. (If you are an international student access crime reports in your community and country.)
• Focus on the categories of crimes that are highest/ lowest in your area.
• Indicate the extent of crime in different areas.
• Discuss what factors might influence how high or low crime rates are in certain areas.
• Provide strategies for addressing these crime issues and make recommendations to law enforcement and public officials based on the types of crimes and the offenders who commit those crimes.

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Here are the requirements for the Nursing Role assignment:

1-What are the overall roles of the Home Health nurse (eg direct patient care, educator)?

2-Discuss the various settings a Home Health nurses can provide care for patients in the community – be specific.

3-Discuss the various roles home health nurses can have in the community (be specific)

–        eg parish nurse

·       The role of the parish nurse is to…

Be very detailed and provide specific examples.

4-What types of medical problems a Home Health nurse treats (just list and/or briefly explain types of problems… for example, Pulmonary nurse will treat asthma, COPD, bronchitis, etc. Do not go into any specifics about the diseases.)

Feel free to add anything you would like to the presentation.

** Make it fun and exciting.  Feel free to dress up as your specific nurse and/or have props. Also, when you present, make sure you are convincing me of the type of nurse you are.

## powerpoint

Topic: Compare France health care system against US health care system. (It is the PowerPoint presentation)

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Purpose

This week you learned about some of the key players in the history of software development. In this presentation, you will summarize from your research some aspect of software development history that you found of interest and apply it in context with modern software development concepts you are learning in this course.

Assignment Instructions

Create a narrated 6–8 slide presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint® in which you discuss the aspect of software development history that you found most interesting during this week’s learning. Be sure to discuss whether this historical aspect has a continuing influence in today’s software development environment in terms of core programming concepts such as repetition structures, decision structures, arrays, functions, and variables. For example, think about how the shift from procedural programming to object-oriented programming changed or did not change how the core concepts were handled. When composing your presentation, be sure to use Standard English and a highly developed and sustained viewpoint and purpose. The communication of your presentation should be highly ordered, logical and unified.

Additionally, one slide must be devoted to some aspect of software development history demonstrating the benefits of multiculturalism and diversity in a global context. How has software development evolved as we have become more globalized and how has it influenced the growth and change in software development?

Your presentation must have narration throughout as if you were delivering it in a live, professional setting. Focus on your word choice. Your oral delivery techniques, including word choice and oral expressiveness, should display exceptional content, organization, and style, while leading the audience to a dynamic and supported conclusion.

Assignment Requirements

Narrated content must be effectively incorporated into the presentation. Oral delivery techniques, including word choice and oral expressiveness, displays exceptional content, organization, and style, while leading the audience to a dynamic and supported conclusion.

At least one slide must demonstrate the ability to analyze the benefits of multiculturalism and diversity in a global context.

· Video 1: “
Computer Architecture

· Video 2: “
A Short History of Software Development

· Video 3: “
Algol 60

· Video 4: “
Software Development Process Overview

· Video 5: “
Software Construction Phase Overview

## PowerPoint

Mack

Service-Learning Research Paper

Montez D Mack

HCA – 483

Jackson State University

Challenges Facing Service-Learning Research Paper

Introduction

Service-learning is a method of teaching that combines theoretical and practical learning objectives to provide the student with an opportunity for pragmatic and broadminded learning experiences to meet societal needs. This method of teaching allows students to become creative with the knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to solve the numerous challenges facing the community. Lecturers play a very important role in service-learning of guiding the student’s through these programs (Salam et al., 2019). However, there are numerous challenges and issues facing service learning. This is mainly due to the lack of enough literature/information about the compatibility of this approach, especially between lecturers and students (Salam et al., 2019). Therefore, this paper will research the challenges of service-learning through the perspectives of both lecturers and students.

Background of the Problem

In recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for the introduction and implementation of service learning around the world. However, the implementation and applicability of the programs have not yielded the anticipated beneficial outcomes simply because many of the lecturers/teachers are not well prepared or equipped for this type of learning. One of the main problems faced by students in this program is the complete understanding between theory and practice as well as the lack of cognitive autonomy. Also, lecturers teaching this type of learning approach lack the necessary structural support. Lastly, there is a lack of a much-needed relationship between the school and the community. A more systematic and structured implementation program is required to incorporate service learning in academic programs. Research by Mackenzie, Hinchey, and Cornforth (2019) shows that much needs to be done to create strategies that will establish a sustainable relationship between the academic institutions and the community to promote the success of the service-learning approach.

Problem Statement

The main objective of this research paper is to highlight the different perspectives of both lecturers and students about the numerous challenges that they have faced while participating in and implementing the service-learning programs. The main purpose of the service-learning experience or program is to produce students who have comprehensive knowledge and skills about our communities’ social needs. Therefore, undertaking this research will help to shine a light on ways that can be adopted to improve the implementation of these programs to produce holistically developed students.

Purpose Statement

The findings obtained from this research will be used to provide much-needed insight into the numerous challenges facing lecturers and students in an institution where service-learning is practiced. The information will be used by academic developers to develop critical guidelines and training workshops that will all the stakeholders in the service-learning programs to better design and implement the service-learning programs in schools.

Research and Interview questions

Research question

· What are the different challenges and issues facing the implementation and applicability of service-learning in our academic institutions today?

Interview questions

· Do students experience a gap between theory and practice in the implementation of service-learning?

· Do students experience a lack of cognitive autonomy in the service-learning programs?

· Do lecturers/teachers lack the necessary structural support to fully implement the service-learning programs?

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework for this research paper zeroes on the idea that an instructor’s input especially in the service-learning programs is very important to the success of a student. It connects to the main points or argument of this paper that some of the challenges facing the service-learning programs can be explained through a lecturer’s perspective hence then need to include them in the research paper. The performance of a student in the service-learning classroom is dependent on the instructor’s performance. The research adopts Weiner’s Attribution Theory which suggests that performance in a classroom can be improved by both external and internal factors as discussed in this paper.

Nature of the Study

Methods

The research used the qualitative approach to collect data from all the participants. The learners and lecturers who participated in the research were selected through the use of the purposive sampling strategy. The data collected from the students involved focused groups interviews. However, the data collection from the lecturers involved face-to-face interviews. All the data collected from the two sources were then analyzed using Yin’s thematic analysis.

Research Design

The research used the qualitative data collection approach to collect data from both focus groups and face interviews sessions. The study applied Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle to thoroughly examine the impacts that service-learning programs have from the lecturers’ perspectives. The participants were taken through the six stages of Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle which are description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan to offer their perspective on the questions.

Significance of the research

This research topic is important as it provides additional information on the issues the different challenges facing the service-learning programs. The research is critical for all stakeholders such as students, lecturers, institutions, and academic developers. The biggest benefactors of this research are students and the community. The insight from this research will improve on the strategies of implementing the service-learning which will provide students with holistic development that will help solve the social needs of our communities.

Assumptions, Delimitations, Limitations

The assumptions in this project are that the selected sample of participants represented the perspectives of all the other students and lecturers concerning the main research question. The paper assumes that there is a part of the students and lecturers who found the service-learning program very effective and do not have issues with it. However, the assumption is that this only represents a small number of the target population. The presumed weakness of the study is that the population that was investigated was not sufficient enough to generalize the study findings and results to other institutions throughout the country or around the world. Also, the time allocated for each session was not enough to obtain comprehensive information or data that can provide a far-reaching conclusion on the study question.

Literature Review

The literature review applied a total of six sources obtained from online-based databases that contain peer-reviewed articles from well-known experts. Salam et al., (2019) highlighted that although service learning has many advantages and benefits to all stakeholders involved, it possesses several disadvantages. In the study, Salam et al., (2019) presented five possible challenges that impact most of the institutions in the process of implementing service-learning programs. These challenges include the students, lecturers/ teachers, institutions, pedagogy, and the community. The above-mentioned problem interacts at some point. For instance, students, who are regarded as the most important stakeholder of the service program, must engage with the community to drive the numerous service-learning activities. The lecturers and students interact during classroom learning and might encounter a problem if there are no strong mechanisms to guide them in their interactions since each could have a different understanding of the problem that needs solutions (Salam et al., 2019). Thus, it is important to ensure they’re well-prepared service-learning programs that will help each stakeholder to implement the projects. The institution also interacts with the students and lecturers and problems will arise if the administration fails to develop clear guidelines on how to design and implement the service-learning curriculum (Salam et al., 2019). Therefore, it is critical for all the five stakeholders mentioned in this research to develop a mechanism that helps them to become more compatible to develop a strong and effective service-learning environment for the learners.

Ziegert and McGoldrick (2008) carried out research that aimed to highlight the different perspectives of lecturers/teachers concerning their problems with the service-learning program. From the research, the author establishes a different problem that the instructors face while trying to implement the service-learning program in schools. One of the problems includes the difficulties in integrating the service-learning curriculum with the course content as well as when carrying out assessments to the students (Musa et al., 2017). The lecturers believed that integrating the service earning program with the course content would lead to a lack of focus or concentration by the students and this would lead them to lose control of the learning of their students (Ziegert and McGoldrick, 2008). They attributed this problem to the aspect of the service-learning program taking away students from the classroom to the community as they carry out community engagement activities. The lecturers also argued that based on the resources available for implementing the service-learning program, they could not match the student’s skills with those required to solve specific problems in the community (Ziegert and McGoldrick, 2008). They claimed that the process of achieving this goal would be time-consuming as it will make it very difficult to carry out other activities such as supervising the various service-learning activities that the students are doing during their community engagement. Thus, these courses would require more structured and well-prepared guidelines on how to effectively implement them to ensure they have minimum impact or disruption to the course content and other classroom activities.

Bennett et al., (2016) conducted research that purposed to determine the numerous factors important in the implementation and sustenance of service-learning programs in higher education. Some of the factors that the author identified included funding, stakeholders’ willingness, and well elaborate structure. Bennett et al., (2016) conclude that without all these factors, the implementation of service-learning would be impossible. The author also added that clear communication during the implementation of the programs is very important, especially between the students, their instructors, and other students. Communication skills are very important in the implementation of service-learning initiatives as it requires all students to interact and engage with people in the communities. Without the necessary communication skills, students will find it very difficult to implement the programs as well as engage with their instructors on ways to implement these initiatives (Bennett et al., 2016). Also, the research showed that the implementation of the service-learning programs comes at great mental stress for the students. Bennett et al., (2016) indicated that some of the students participating in the implementation of service-learning programs would occasionally display emotional outbursts. The author attributed these emotional outbursts to the intense cognitive as well as physical labor that they experienced while carrying out the initiatives of the program. Lastly, Bennett et al., (2016) concluded that since some of these programs are only for a short period, they were not adequate to achieve the objectives of meeting the various educational needs of the learner or satisfying the social needs of the community they were engaging. Thus, there is an urgent need for the considerations of the students’ needs, support as well as readiness when implementing the service-learning programs (Kropp, Arrington, & Shankar, 2015). This is because the mental stress experienced by the students could act as a demotivation factor that will prevent them from practicing service-learning after their graduation. Also, institutions must ensure there are enough resources that for the lecturers to supervise and implement the service-learning programs.

Richard, et al., (2017) conducted a research study on the numerous challenges facing the service-learning program and the benefits that a student can gain from engaging with individuals who are different from them. This study is geared to answer one of our main issues identified with service learning which involves a lack of good relationship between the students and the outside community. Richard, et al., (2018) argued that students practicing service-learning can benefit a lot from interacting and engaging the community through serving them in the school years. This aspect will help the student in the real-world experiences as they will have improved skills such as critical thinking when solving problems concerning the social needs of the community. The students will improve their leadership skills through service learning and this will help the student to fulfill their civic responsibilities to the community. The research showed that students who participate in service-learning programs are better equipped and likely to acquire life skills such as problem-solving abilities. Also, the study suggested that these students are more open-minded as well as compassionate when dealing with and solving problems touching of social needs of their communities. Lastly, the study suggested that students who enroll themselves in service-learning programs are more likely to be open to diversity as well as to different perspectives as the programs provide them with the opportunities to meet, interact and engage with people from different ethnicities, backgrounds, needs, and religions (Nishimura & Yokote 2020).

Kagan & Diamond (2019) carried out a study that determined to identify the impacts of implementation of service-learning programs on the students’ development. Nevertheless, the study indicated that there is a general concern that schools practicing service-learning programs have not been able to produce graduates that are employable and well equipped to handle numerous social needs impacting society. The study showed that the reason for this aspect is that higher education institutions have not yet done enough to develop students that will create an impact on the community (Kagan & Diamond (2019). Thus, there is a dire need for universities to invest resources in creating a sustainable service-learning experience for students that will allow them to be problem solvers in society after they graduate. The study suggested that there is a need for higher institutions to integrate service-learning into their programs as the students and community would benefit a lot from each other.

From the numerous sources used in the literature review, it is evident that the success of service-learning will result from successfully integrating the academic learning of the students and their community service. This would create an important parallel development as well as the partnership between the students and the community that will promote innovation and service delivery to the social needs of the community. Thus, improving the effectiveness of learning in the classroom to the students and providing lecturers with enough resources to implement the service-learning program would be the first step towards success. Also, improving the relationship and rapport between institutions and the community will help the service-learning programs succeed.

Data Collection

Before collecting the information from the selected participants, institutional permission was obtained and the participants were advised that their participation in the interviews would only be voluntary. All the participants were explained that they were at liberty to leave the study if they felt uncomfortable during their participation. Data from the lecturers were collected through face-to-face interviews while those of the students were collected through focus groups of about 5 participants per group. The main aim of the research was to obtain genuine perspectives from the participants about the challenges of service-learning. The group sessions lasted for about 30 minutes. The data collected from the lecturers were through face-to-face interviews that were followed with follow-up questions to obtain as much information as possible. The session from the interviews lasted for about 30 minutes and all the sessions were recorded.

Data Analysis

The data analysis involved the use of Yin’s thematic analytical approach where the two sources of data for the research were analyzed at the same time. The analytical approach was classified into five phases which included compiling, disassembling, reassembling, interpreting the data, and making conclusions. All the data that was collected from the interviews and focus groups were compiled together to make it easy to access and work on it. Then, the compiled data was disassembled by creating themes and codes according to the data to provide a better understanding of the data. Then, the data was reassembled to establish patterns and meaningful themes. After developing patterns, the data were interpreted based on the initial research questions. Finally, conclusions through giving the themes developed names and writing a comprehensive report based on the general results of the codes and patterns developed.

The findings of the study concluded that students and lecturers encountered various challenges while trying to implement the service-learning programs. These challenges include the existence of a gap theory and practice, students’ lack of cognitive independence, lack of structural support directed to the lecturers by the institution, and poor relationship between institutions and the community. The issue of the gap that exists between theory and practice by the students indicated that students did not understand the relationship between the theory they learn in the classroom and the practical activities they carry out in the community engagements. The students complained that they lacked the necessary skills to carry out the service-learning projects. The lack of cognitive independence by the students involved a lack of self-confidence by the students to undertake the service-learning projects without the help of their instructors. Students usually relied on their instructors to explain to them what it meant by carrying out volunteer activities in the community and the skills they needed to do it. Thirdly, lecturers lacked the necessary structural support from their faculties such as money, planning, and extra manpower to carry out their implementation of the service-learning programs. Instructors did not have enough resources which made the implementation of these programs very difficult ad ineffective. Lastly, the poor relationship between the institutions and the community acted as an obstacle for the numerous important stakeholders of the service-learning program to interact and engage. Some students did not have the expertise required in some companies where they attended to carry out their service-learning projects. This created an aspect of reduced confidence for the student as well as the companies and ended up impacting negatively on the service-learning program.

Discussion and conclusion

Discussion

The findings proved the important role that instructors of the service-learning programs played in ensuring they are well planned and executed. This means that lectures must have enough resources and knowledge about the service-learning program for it to succeed. Without lecturers with knowledge about the programs, students will not be able to transform the theory they learn in the classroom into a real-world application that can solve the social needs in society. The instructors also need to work on ensuring the students develop self-confidence to successfully carry out their service-learning projects in the community. Instructors must provide much-needed support to the students to develop cognitive independence. The instructors can only achieve this if they have strong structural support such as finance and manpower from their institutions. Without this structural support, instructors will be overwhelmed with their implementation plans for the service-learning and this will lead to failure. Lastly, developing a good relationship between all the stakeholders such as institutions and communities will ensure easy access and cooperation. This includes creating a liaison department in the institution that will help the students to identify the various social needs that the community requires to be solved. Through this department, students will plan, identify and prepare for the most suitable social need that they can solve to succeed in it and create a trusting relationship in the community. Students must learn also to develop or create creative projects targeting to solve the most complex and challenging needs in society to succeed in service-learning projects.

Conclusion

The implementation of the service-learning programs in our institutions is very important, especially in this era of advancement in science and technology. The service-learning program will help provide an avenue where students can be prepared for future careers that will help solve our societal needs. The program is an integral part of the new industrial revolution as it helps students to interact with the community in solving some of the social needs that face our community. However, to overcome the numerous challenges that have resulted in the implementation of the programs, total commitment from all the stakeholders involved is necessary. Therefore, all the viewpoints given by the lecturers and students must be taken into consideration as they provide important information on how to best implement the service-learning program. Through this, the challenges facing the implementation of the service-learning programs in our institutions can be solved and help promote the institution of higher education to produce graduates who are equipped to solve social needs in our society . This will promote and improve the lives of the people in society.

References

Bennett, D., Sunderland, N., Bartleet, B., & Power, A. (2016). Implementing and sustaining higher education service-learning initiatives. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(2), 145-163.

Kagan C., & Diamond J. (2019). Foundations of university–community engagement. In: University–community relations in the UK. Rethinking university-community policy connections. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kropp, J., Arrington, N. M., & Shankar, V. (2015). Developing a service-learning student facilitator program: Lessons learned. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 8(1).

Musa, N., Abang Ibrahim, D. H., Abdullah, J., Saee, S., Ramli, F., Mat, A. R., & Ahmad Khiri, M. J. (2017). A methodology for implementation of service learning in higher education institution: A case study from faculty of computer science and information technology, UNIMAS. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 9(2), 101 – 109.

Nishimura M., & Yokote H. (2020). Service-learning as a means to understand socio-economic privilege, inequality, and social mobility. In Sanger C., Gleason N. (eds). Diversity and inclusion in global higher education. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

Richard, D., Keen, C., Hatcher, J. A., & Pease, H. A. (2017). Pathways to adult civic engagement: Benets of reflection and dialogue across difference in higher education service-learning programs. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 23(1), 60-74.

Salam, M., Awang Iskandar, D. N. Abang Ibrahim, D. H., & Farooq, M. S. (2019). Service learning in higher education: A systematic literature review. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20(1), 573-593.

Ziegert, A., & McGoldrick, K. (2008). When service is good for economics: Linking the classroom and community through service learning. International Review of Economics Education, 7(2), 39-56.

## powerpoint

Title

Part 1

Name

Description of the population (Who)
1 Reference

Provide detailed information consider

Gender identity

Age

Nationality

Other

Sources of stress (What)
1 Reference

Incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions (Why)

What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population? (How)
1 Reference

Interview Results (1 point)

Speak to someone from the populations.

What are their thoughts on what, why, and how?

Do they have any examples or recommendations?

References: At least three reputable sources (Use MLA or APA format) and one interview

Look for a national organization for stats, examples include: Stress in America Survey, American Psychological Society, CDC, National Institutes of Health, National Alliance on Mental Illness, there are often industry or population specific organizations.

For what causes stress consider a search such as “population and sources of stress”

Example “college students and sources of stress”

For why this is a problem consider a search such as “population and stress and statistics”

Example “college students and stress and statistics” and look beyond the first few hits to find a reputable organization. This was the third one https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/09/numbers

For how to help consider a search such as “population and stress management and program”

Example “college students and stress management and pet therapy” resulting in https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/interacting-therapy-dogs-may-help-stressed-out-college-students-cope-180977736/

One interview: Find someone who represents the population and interview them to get their perspective on the causes of stress and why it is concerning.

Rubric

Who (1 point) Did you go into detail and describe the population

What (1 point) Did you identify multiple potential sources of stress unique to this population?

Why (1 point) Did you provide statistics on the incidence/prevalence of stress, burnout, PTSD or other stress-related conditions

How (1 point) What type of program are you interested in researching to help this population?

Interview (1 point)

References: Did you identify AND incorporate the results of quality references? If not, points will be deducted from that section.

Formatting, Design, Visual, Grammar (1 point) Did you ensure your presentation was your best effort?

## Powerpoint

ESSAY

Natural experiments and long-term

monitoring are critical to understand and

predict marine host–microbe ecology and

evolution

Matthieu LerayID
1‡*, Laetitia G. E. WilkinsID

2¤‡
, Amy ApprillID

3
, Holly M. BikID

4
,

Friederike Clever
1,5

, Sean R. ConnollyID
1
, Marina E. De León

1,2
, J. Emmett DuffyID

6
,

Leïla Ezzat7, Sarah Gignoux-WolfsohnID8, Edward Allen Herre1, Jonathan Z. KayeID9,
David I. KlineID

1
, Jordan G. KuenemanID

1
, Melissa K. McCormickID

8
, W. Owen McMillan

1
,

Aaron O’DeaID
1,10*, Tiago J. PereiraID

4
, Jillian M. PetersenID

11
, Daniel F. PetticordID

1
,

Mark E. Torchin
1
, Rebecca Vega ThurberID

12
, Elin VidevallID

13,14
, William T. WcisloID

1
,

Benedict YuenID
11

, Jonathan A. EisenID
2,15,16

1 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama, 2 UC Davis Genome

Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 3 Marine Chemistry and

Geochemistry Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United

States of America, 4 Department of Marine Sciences and Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia,

Athens, Georgia, United States of America, 5 Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan

University, Manchester, United Kingdom, 6 Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network, Smithsonian

Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America, 7 Department of Ecology,

Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United

States of America, 8 Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of

America, 9 Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California, United States of America,

10 Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy,

11 Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria,

12 Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America,

13 Center for Conservation Genomics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United

States of America, 14 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence,

Rhode Island, United States of America, 15 Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California,

Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 16 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology,

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

¤ Current address: Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Department of Symbiosis, Bremen,
Germany

‡ These authors share first authorship on this work.

* leray.upmc@gmail.com (ML); odeaa@si.edu (AO)

Marine multicellular organisms host a diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, microbial

eukaryotes, and viruses that form their microbiome. Such host-associated microbes can sig-

nificantly influence the host’s physiological capacities; however, the identity and functional

role(s) of key members of the microbiome (“core microbiome”) in most marine hosts coexist-

ing in natural settings remain obscure. Also unclear is how dynamic interactions between

hosts and the immense standing pool of microbial genetic variation will affect marine eco-

systems’ capacity to adjust to environmental changes. Here, we argue that significantly

advancing our understanding of how host-associated microbes shape marine hosts’ plastic

and adaptive responses to environmental change requires (i) recognizing that individual

host–microbe systems do not exist in an ecological or evolutionary vacuum and (ii)

PLOS BIOLOGY

PLOS Biology | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322 August 19, 2021 1 / 18

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

OPEN ACCESS

Citation: Leray M, Wilkins LGE, Apprill A, Bik HM,

Clever F, Connolly SR, et al. (2021) Natural

experiments and long-term monitoring are critical

to understand and predict marine host–microbe

ecology and evolution. PLoS Biol 19(8): e3001322.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322

Published: August 19, 2021

Copyright: This is an open access article, free of all

copyright, and may be freely reproduced,

distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or

otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.

The work is made available under the Creative

Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Funding: Financial support for the workshop was

provided by grant GBMF5603 (https://doi.org/10.

37807/GBMF5603) from the Gordon and Betty

Moore Foundation (W.T. Wcislo, J.A. Eisen, co-

PIs), and additional funding from the Smithsonian

Tropical Research Institute and the Office of the

Provost of the Smithsonian Institution (W.T.

Wcislo, J.P. Meganigal, and R.C. Fleischer, co-PIs).

JP was supported by a WWTF VRG Grant and the

ERC Starting Grant ’EvoLucin’. LGEW has received

funding from the European Union’s Framework

Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon

2020 (2014-2020) under the Marie Sklodowska-

Curie Grant Agreement No. 101025649. AO was

supported by the Sistema Nacional de

Investigadores (SENACYT, Panamá). A. Apprill was

supported by NSF award OCE-1938147. D.I. Kline,

M. Leray, S.R. Connolly, and M.E. Torchin were

expanding the field toward long-term, multidisciplinary research on entire communities of

hosts and microbes. Natural experiments, such as time-calibrated geological events associ-

ated with well-characterized environmental gradients, provide unique ecological and evolu-

tionary contexts to address this challenge. We focus here particularly on mutualistic

interactions between hosts and microbes, but note that many of the same lessons and

AU : Anabbreviationlisthasbeencompiledforthoseusedinthemaintext:Pleaseverifythatallentriesarecorrect:approaches would apply to other types of interactions.

Main

It is widely recognized that host-associated microbes play profound roles in the health of their

marine hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Although some such interactions with microbes

are transient, many are more persistent and can be generally described as symbioses. Symbio-

ses come in many flavors including parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism (see Box 1),

and, in this paper, we focus in particular on the mutually beneficial (i.e., mutualistic) subset of

such interactions involving marine hosts. Despite the wide recognition of the importance of

such mutualisms, it remains less clear how these associations scale up to drive broader ecologi-

cal and evolutionary patterns and processes. For example, the contribution of microbes to host

acclimatization and adaptation (see Box 1 for definitions) is an active new field of experimental

research with much potential. Studies, mostly conducted in controlled laboratory settings,

have evaluated the ecological costs/benefits for hosts to associate temporarily with different

microbes (e.g., corals [1–4]) or to engage in obligate intimate relationships (e.g., bobtail squid

with the bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri [5]).
Experimental studies are, however, intrinsically limited in several ways. They limit them-

selves to a small number of experimentally tractable hosts and microbes, and, in doing so,

fail to account for the enormous complexity of interactions and variation that exist in nature

between multiple hosts and their multitudes of associated microbes. Short-lived experiments

(e.g., days to weeks) cannot replicate the scales of time and space involved in the potential

coevolution of hosts and microbes (Box 1). Attempts to merge long-term datasets to reveal

overarching patterns (e.g., [6–9]) have provided valuable insights but are shadowed by the lim-

its and biases introduced by mixing information from different contexts or methodologies

[10]. These limitations obscure general principles on the roles (mutualistic or otherwise) of

host-associated microbes across host individuals, species, and communities [11–13].

Here, we demonstrate the value of moving beyond taxon-centric approaches to studying

host–microbe associations in their natural evolutionary and ecological context. We suggest

intensifying long-term research in well-documented “natural experiments”. Such natural

experiments, including well-calibrated geological events (e.g., vicariance and creation of novel

habitats accurately dated using fossil and geological data) and environmental gradients where

multiple hosts and associated microbes are subjected to the same range of environmental con-

ditions, can be particularly useful (Fig 1). These phenomena provide a unique framework for

comparative studies where the processes of interest occur over spatial and evolutionary time

scales that are nearly impossible to capture in laboratory experiments. The value of combining

experimental and long-term field studies at natural experiments has been recognized by ecolo-

gists [14–16]. We argue that similar approaches should be applied to the study of host–microbe

interactions. We highlight several natural experiments that can advance our understanding of

the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms shaping host–microbe interactions (with a focus

on mutualistic ones) in marine communities and ecosystems.

PLOS BIOLOGY

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supported by a Rohr Family Foundation grant for

the Rohr Reef Resilience Project, for which this is

contribution #2. This is contribution #85 from the

Smithsonian’s MarineGEO and Tennenbaum

Marine Observatories Network. The funders had no

role in study design, data collection and analysis,

decision to publish, or preparation of the

manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared

that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: LTER, Long-Term Ecological

Research; MarineGEO, Marine Global Earth

Observatory; MBON, Marine Biodiversity

Observation Network; TEP, Tropical Eastern Pacific.

Identifying important players

Marine organisms have evolved complex structural, behavioral, and chemical mechanisms to

regulate the presence, abundance, and activity of their microbial associates. Hosts can limit

colonization by transient opportunistic microbes that would use space and resources without

providing any benefits, and some hosts can even block pathogens entirely [17–19]. Host-spe-

cific and obligate microbial associates, often called the “core microbiome” of a host population

Box 1. Definitions of key terms

Acclimatization: The process by which an organism becomes accustomed to new envi-

Adaptation: A heritable trait of an organism that increases its fitness in its surrounding

environment. In comparison to acclimatization, adaptations will be passed on to the

next generation.

Convergent evolution: Independent origins of similar features in different organisms in

response to separately experiencing similar selective pressures. Importantly, conver-

gently originated features, also known as analogous features, were not present in the

common ancestor of the taxa in question.

Genetic drift: Change in the relative frequency of genotypes due to random variation in

reproduction. Such drift is more common in small populations and leads to changes in

genotype frequencies independent of adaptive forces.

Host–microbe coevolution: During host–microbe coevolution, multicellular hosts and

their associated microbes show a concerted and heritable response to an environmental

change.

Homologous recombination: The process by which two pieces or stretches of DNA that

are very similar in their sequence physically align and exchange nucleotides.

Horizontal gene transfer: The unidirectional movement of DNA, usually only small frac-

tions of a genome, from one organism to another. Though this generally occurs more

frequently within species than between, it can also occur across vast evolutionary

distances.

Metagenomics: Studies of the genetic material of communities of organisms.

Phenotypic plasticity: Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a specific genotype to pro-

duce more than one phenotype in response to a changing environment during an indi-

vidual’s lifetime. These phenotypic changes may include an organism’s behavior,

morphology, physiology, or other features. Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive if it increases

an individual’s survival and if the ability is passed on to the next generation.

Symbioses: Symbioses are broadly defined as intimate interactions between at least two

organisms where at least one of them benefits. We focus here specifically on mutually

beneficial interactions (aka mutualisms) between multicellular eukaryotes and their

associated microbes. These interactions may include disease resistance, predator avoid-

ance, and nutrition. These interactions will ultimately increase host survival and fitness.

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Fig 1. Examples of marine natural experiments as observatories of host–microbe interactions. Regionally focused, long-term,

and taxonomically broad research programs will help fill key knowledge gaps about the nature of microbe functions and the

dynamics of host–microbe interactions in changing oceans. We highlight areas of the world’s oceans where environmental

gradients are well characterized, where the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the local host fauna and flora is already well

established, where paleoecological studies can provide important historical context, where a long-term monitoring program is

ongoing, and where there is significant research infrastructure. Long-term monitoring sites (white dots) include sites of the NSF’s

LTER Network, the Smithsonian Institution’s MarineGEO network of partners, the MBON, the AIMS, and the ASSEMBLE. (1)

from [95]. AIMSAU : AbbreviationlistshavebeencompiledforthoseusedinFigs1and4:Pleaseverifythatallentriesarecorrect:, Australian Institute of Marine Science; ASSEMBLE, Association of European Marine Biological Laboratories;
LTER, Long-Term Ecological Research; MarineGEO, Marine Global Earth Observatory; MBON, Marine Biodiversity

Observation Network.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001322.g001

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or species, are generally assumed to play more important functional roles than opportunistic

and transient taxa [20]. This core microbiome is exemplified by an obligate nutritional micro-

bial symbiosis, in which the host relies extensively on microbial partners for survival by syn-

thesis of food, often in a nutrient-limited habitat. The host may acquire these partners

horizontally (from the surrounding environment), vertically (from the parent to the offspring),

or in both ways (mixed mode) [21]. Many evolved symbioses result in codependency; for

example, the genomes of host-associated microbes have lost genes encoding pathways that

were previously essential, such as those for motility or environmental stress responses, but that

became obsolete in obligate symbiotic lifestyles [22]. In return, hosts have evolved mechanisms

to maintain their associated microbes in stable intracellular environments and to support their

nutritional needs [23]. Some of these nutritional associations are clearly identifiable because

symbionts form massive and dense populations, sometimes only consisting of a single micro-

bial species, in or on the bodies of their hosts. Examples include photosynthetic symbioses in

cnidarians [24] and chemosynthetic symbioses in invertebrate animals such as bathymodiolin

mussels, lucinid clams, Riftia tubeworms, and Astomonema nematodes [25,26]. Although
widespread, host reliance on a single or few microbes for nutrition are the exception rather

than the rule. The vast majority of animals and plants are instead associated with a diverse

assemblage of microbes where it is challenging to differentiate between members of the core

microbiome and the myriad of transient microbes and even more challenging to determine

what, if any, key functional roles such microbes play.

Several approaches have been proposed to identify key microbes or functions within com-

plex host microbiomes (reviewed in [27]). The most common practice is to identify microbial

taxa that are consistently associated with a host population or species using marker gene

sequencing, usually above some arbitrary prevalence threshold ([28]; but see [29,30] for alter-

native methods). The prevalence of a host–microbe association is typically measured without

explicit attention to co-occurring and closely related host taxa, the surrounding environment,

or adequacy of spatial and temporal sampling. This limited sampling and lack of context, often

resulting from funding constraints, leads to several major limitations. First, a microbial taxon

can be prevalent in a host population for reasons unrelated to its functional role. For example,

it may originate from the host’s food or habitat, including seawater or sediment [31]. Second,

even the core microbiome can change over time [32]. Functionally important microbes may

fluctuate in abundance throughout host ontogeny and may also vary seasonally. Essential host-

associated microbes may be overlooked if the sampling method cannot detect low abundance

reliably, resulting in false negatives, or if sampling is sporadic, missing the life stage or season

when particular microbes are essential. Third, many studies rely upon sequencing of rRNA

genes to characterize communities, yet rRNA genes are generally too conserved to distinguish

closely related taxa and reveal little directly about genomic functional potential. Clearly, under-

standing the functional roles of host-associated microbes requires analyses that go far beyond

individual marker gene profiles and instead encompass other types of information such as

whole genomes or metagenomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, localization, biochemistry,

and more. Fourth, taxon-focused studies may miss valuable information about interactions

that could be gleaned from broader comparative analyses. Microbes that are specific to particu-

lar host genotypes, host species, or closely related groups of hosts, indicating a shared evolu-

tionary history, are likely candidates for core microbes with specialized functions (e.g., gut

fermenters associated with herbivores). These existing limitations could be robustly circum-

vented via whole-ecosystem studies where long-term collection of comprehensive genomic-

level datasets (e.g., ‘omic scale information) would transform our understanding of host–

microbe interactions at all levels.

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To instigate this new approach, we recommend strategically intensifying research within a

few ocean regions. This entails collecting large scale data on host-associated microbes across

phylogenetically diverse sets of co-occurring host organisms, together with data on surround-

ing free-living microbes (i.e., in seawater and sediments) through time in areas where the sur-

rounding abiotic environment and community dynamics have been well characterized. A

regionally focused and coordinated approach will allow identifying environmental sources

and hosts that serve as reservoirs of key host-associated microbial taxa and genes. Long-term

investments in research on particular communities of hosts and microbes will also help estab-

lish links between changes in core microbiome composition, environmental factors, ecosystem

function, and resilience. Public archival of genomic data and samples (available for comple-

mentary analysis using emerging technologies) collected from a few intensively studied ocean

regions will foster transformative discoveries on dynamic host–microbe relationships. Habi-

tat-forming corals, sponges, seagrasses, and mangrove trees are important focal groups, since

breakdowns in the associations between these species and their microbiomes likely dispropor-

tionately influence other taxa and ecosystem functions. However, this should not come at the

expense of research on more inconspicuous and overlooked, yet functionally important taxa

that comprise the majority of the oceans’ biological diversity (e.g., small fish that fuel marine

food webs [33] and urchins and crustaceans that feed on algae that can displace corals [34]).

Systematic biases toward studying certain taxa (vertebrates, species with large body sizes,

charismatic fauna), partly caused by the lack of coordination, have clearly affected our under-

standing of the distribution and roles of host-associated microbes. For example, a recent

microbiome comparison of several Indo-Pacific invertebrate species demonstrated that

sponges have a less specific microbiome than had been assumed for many years [35]. Expand-

ing the taxonomic breadth of host–microbe studies will be most fruitful in areas where taxo-

nomically rigorous field guides, ecological survey data, and functional trait databases are

available. Substantial progress will also occur where phylogenetic relationships are known and

local expert taxonomists can be engaged. One of the numerous potential outcomes includes

building community-wide association matrices to unveil the extent of reliance between hosts

and microbial partners (specificity versus ubiquity, obligate versus facultative) and the interac-

tions that promote the stability of core microbiomes.

Role of microbes in host acclimatization and adaptation

Host-associated microbes can rapidly respond to extrinsic factors such as extreme or anoma-

lous environmental conditions (e.g., heatwaves, hypoxia), pathogens, anthropogenic distur-

bances (e.g., pollution, overfishing, aquaculture, invasive species), and acute and chronic

stressors [36,37]. They can also quickly change in response to factors intrinsic to the host (e.g.,

changes in host physiology [38]). The dynamic nature of microbes may provide a source of

ecological and evolutionary novelty to support potential host response mechanisms that aug-

ment the host’s own evolutionary potential. Host-associated microbial communities can shift

rapidly through the loss, gain, or replacement of individual members. Individual microbial

cells can make rapid physiological adjustments during their lifetime (plasticity) or within a few

generations (adaptation) [39] (Fig 2). In many microbes, relatively high rates of mutation and

exchange of genetic material among divergent lineages (through homologous recombination

and horizontal gene transfer) generate a high frequency of new genetic variants, some of

which may be better suited to novel conditions (Fig 2). These mechanisms contribute to fuel-

ing an immense standing pool of genetic variation that hosts can potentially draw upon. The

outcomes of the collective ecological and evolutionary response of hosts and their associated

microbes to environmental change may comprise 1 of 4 nonmutually exclusive scenarios

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[40,41]: (1) Imbalance: a temporary or permanent change of host fitness and microbial func-

tions leading to increased disease susceptibility; (2) Resistance: the microbiome continues per-

forming its functions and the host does not lose or gain fitness; (3) Acclimatization: the newly

formed microbial community in conjunction with host phenotypic plasticity enable the indi-

vidual host to adjust and maintain performance under changing environmental conditions

(Fig 2); and (4) Adaptation: in the long term, newly formed interactions between host geno-

types and associated microbes increase the fitness of the symbiosis and th

## Powerpoint

Resource

Deep-Learning Resources for Studying Glycan-

Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

d Glycan-focused language models can be used for sequence-

to-function models

d Information in glycans predicts immunogenicity,

pathogenicity, and taxonomic origin

d Glycan alignments shed light into bacterial virulence

Bojar et al., 2021, Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.10.004

Authors

Daniel Bojar, Rani K. Powers,

Diogo M. Camacho, James J. Collins

Correspondence
diogo.camacho@wyss.harvard.edu
(D.M.C.),
jimjc@mit.edu (J.J.C.)

In Brief

Bojar et al. present a workflow that

combines machine learning and

bioinformatics techniques to analyze the

prominent role of glycans in host-microbe

interactions. The herein developed

glycan-focused language models and

alignments allow for the prediction and

analysis of glycan immunogenicity,

association with pathogenicity, and

taxonomic classification.

c.
ll

OPEN ACCESS

ll

Resource

Deep-Learning Resources for Studying
Glycan-Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions
Daniel Bojar,1,2 Rani K. Powers,1,2 Diogo M. Camacho,1,4,* and James J. Collins1,2,3,4,5,*
1Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2Department of Biological Engineering and Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

MA 02139, USA
3Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
4These authors contributed equally

*Correspondence: diogo.camacho@wyss.harvard.edu (D.M.C.), jimjc@mit.edu (J.J.C.)

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.10.004

SUMMARY

Glycans, the most diverse biopolymer, are shaped by evolutionary pressures stemming from host-microbe
interactions. Here, we present machine learning and bioinformatics methods to leverage the evolutionary in-
formation present in glycans to gain insights into how pathogens and commensals interact with hosts. By
using techniques from natural language processing, we develop deep-learning models for glycans that are
trained on a curated dataset of 19,299 unique glycans and can be used to study and predict glycan functions.
We show that these models can be utilized to predict glycan immunogenicity and the pathogenicity of bac-
terial strains, as well as investigate glycan-mediated immune evasion via molecular mimicry. We also develop
glycan-alignment methods and use these to analyze virulence-determining glycan motifs in the capsular
polysaccharides of bacterial pathogens. These resources enable one to identify and study glycan motifs
involved in immunogenicity, pathogenicity, molecular mimicry, and immune evasion, expanding our under-
standing of host-microbe interactions.

INTRODUCTION

In contrast to RNA and proteins, whose sequences can be eluci-

dated from their associated DNA sequence, glycans are the only

biopolymer outside the rules of the central dogma of molecular

biology. Although glycans are synthesized by DNA-encoded en-

zymes (Lairson et al., 2008), an individual glycan sequence is

dependent on the interplay between multiple enzymes and

cellular conditions. Additionally, the expansive glycan alphabet

of hundreds of different monosaccharides allows for a large

number of potential oligosaccharides, built with different mono-

saccharides, lengths, connectivity, and branching. Glycans are

present as modifications on all other biopolymers (Varki, 2017),

exerting varying effects on biomolecules, including stabilization

and modulation of their functionality (Dekkers et al., 2017; Solá

and Griebenow, 2009). Apart from influencing the function of in-

dividual proteins, glycans are also crucial for cell-cell contact in

the case of glycan-glycan interactions during the attachment of

pathogenic bacteria to host cells (Day et al., 2015), and they

mediate essential developmental processes such as nervous

system development (Haltiwanger and Lowe, 2004). Recently,

Lauc et al. hypothesized that the plethora of available glycoforms

and their plasticity facilitated the evolution of complex multicel-

lular lifeforms (Lauc et al., 2014), reasoning that is supported

by the essential roles of glycans in developmental processes

132 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 ª 2020 The
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

and cell-cell communication and emphasizes the evolutionary

information in glycans.

Because glycans make up the outermost layer of both eukary-

otic and prokaryotic cells, cross-kingdom interactions will

necessarily involve these molecules (Day et al., 2015). The prom-

inent role of glycans in host-pathogen interactions (Varki, 2017)

has resulted in evolutionary pressures and opportunities on

both sides of the interaction—natural selection can modify

host glycan receptors used by pathogens without losing their

functionalities, whereas pathogens and commensals need to

alter their glycans to evade the host immune system. These inter-

actions provide a window into understanding glycan-mediated

host-microbe relationships. Glycans display great phenotypic

variability: sequences can be changed depending on environ-

mental conditions, such as the level of extracellular metabolites

(Park et al., 2017), without the need for genetic mutations, poten-

tially facilitating rapid responses to changes in host-microbe

relationships.

Given the aforementioned glycan-mediated host-microbe in-

teractions, glycans could provide insights into pathogenicity

and commensalism determinants, as, for instance, molecular

mimicry of host glycans by both pathogens and commensals fa-

cilitates their immune evasion (Carlin et al., 2009; Varki and Gag-

neux, 2015). Additional therapeutic potential is enabled by the

C

D
by NeuNAc

α2-8

α2-3

α2-6

N
um

b
e

r o
f G

ly
c

a
ns

0

200

400

α2-6

α2-3

α2-8

by NeuNGc

0

40

80

NeuNAc

NeuNGc Kdo

Monosaccharides
with Bond α2-3

0

200

400

Monosaccharides Paired with Fuc

N
um

b
e

r o
f G

ly
c

a
ns

Branching

O
c

c
ur

e
nc

e
s

Position

Main

Side

G
a

l
G

lc

G
a

lN
A

c
M

a
n

Fu
c

G
lc

N
A

c
N

G
lc

N
A

c
O

S

G
lc

A
Rh

a

G
lc

N
A

c
G

ro
G

a
lO

A
c

G
a

lA
G

lc
N

1200

800

400

0

3000

2000

1000

0

G
lc

N
A

c

G
a

lO
S

A 12,674 Species-Specific Glycans

6,969 eukaryotic
6,119 prokaryotic
152 viral

19,299 Unique Glycans

1,027 Glycoletters
19,866 Glycowords
9,152 Glycans with at
least one label

1600

6000

Domain

Order

Kingdom

Family

Phylum

Genus

Class

Species

Number of Glycans

Number of Glycans
0 2000 4000 6000 0 2000 4000 0 20001000 3000

0 800 0 400 800 0 400 800

Virus

Archaea

Primates
Fabales

Rhizobiales

Saccharomycetales

Lactobacillales
Artiodactyla

Burkholderiales

Actinomycetales

0 1000 2000

Plantae
Animalia

Fungi
Excavata

Virus
Euryarchaeota
Riboviria
Chromista
Proteoarchaeota

0 2000 4000

Hominidae

Fabaceae

Saccharomycetaceae
Rhizobiaceae

Pasteurellaceae

Burkholderiaceae

Solanaceae
Muridae

Angiosperms
Chordata

Ascomycota
Firmicutes

Basidiomycota
Actinobacteria

Euglenozoa

Virus
Arthropoda

Homo

Salmonella

Burkholderia
Shigella

Bos
Sus
Streptococcus

Lactobacillus

Dicotyledons
Mammalia

Bacilli
Alphaproteobacteria
Monocotyledons

Saccharomycetes

Betaproteobacteria

Sordariomycetes
Actinobacteria

Sus scrofa
Mus musculus

Rattus norvegicus

Shigella dysenteriae
Gallus gallus

Pseudomonas sp.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

B
Eukarya

Bacteria

Bacteria Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria

Enterobacterales Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia
Homo

Pseudomonas
Homo sapiens

Bos taurus

Escherichia coli

Figure 1. Using a Curated Glycan Dataset as a Resource for Glycobiology and Analyzing Host-Microbe Interactions
(A) Building curated datasets of species-specific and unique glycan sequences. Glycans stemming from proteins, lipids, small molecules, or cellular surfaces

were gathered from UniCarbKB, CSDB, GlyTouCan, and the academic literature. We deposited these datasets in our database SugarBase, containing additional

(legend continued on next page)

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Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 133

ll
OPEN ACCESS Resource

entry (Thompson et al., 2019) and pathogenic bacteria (Poole

et al., 2018).

In addition to previous work developing computational ap-

proaches to glycan analysis (McDonald et al., 2016; Spahn

et al., 2016), identifying relevant glycan motifs and their roles in

host-microbe interactions at scale would benefit from pattern-

learning algorithms, such as machine learning, that can uncover

statistical dependencies in biological sequences (Camacho

et al., 2018). Research on other biopolymers has shown that lan-

guage models, originally developed for the analysis of human

languages, perform best in this task (Alley et al., 2019; Almagro

Armenteros et al., 2020; Strodthoff et al., 2020), because they

can leverage evolutionarily conserved regularities and lan-

guage-like properties in such sequences. Language models,

with their memory-like features, are well suited for leveraging

patterns and implicit structure in biopolymers such as those un-

derlying nucleic acids (Valeri et al., 2020) and proteins (Alley

et al., 2019), because information in these sequences is order

dependent, and non-neighboring residues can have meaningful

interactions. Applying a natural language-processing approach

to biological sequences also enables learning a representation

of a molecule that can be used to analyze sequence motifs

and predict functional properties. These types of models are

therefore a suitable starting point for the analysis of glycan

sequences.

Here, we present a resource toolkit comprising machine

learning and bioinformatics methods as well as a large glycan

database to leverage the evolutionary information present in gly-

cans for predictive purposes in the context of host-microbe in-

teractions, e.g., by understanding pathogenicity-associated

glycan motifs. This toolkit can be used as a complete workflow

for investigating host-microbe interactions, from a glycan data-

set to glycan motifs identified by machine learning and further

investigated by glycan alignments, or as separate modules. Un-

derlying all of this is our language model for glycans, SweetTalk,

trained on a dataset of 19,299 unique glycan sequences. With

this, we demonstrate that similarities between glycans can be

visualized and used to predict glycan properties such as human

immunogenicity. Another part of our platform is SweetOrigins, a

language-model-based classifier predicting the taxonomic

origin of glycans that we use to obtain evolution-informed repre-

sentations of glycans. To achieve this in the context of glycan-

mediated host-microbe interactions, we manually curated a

comprehensive dataset comprising 12,674 glycans with species

annotations. These datasets were combined into a database,

SugarBase, that is amenable to programmatic access and inte-

gration into deep-learning pipelines, thus providing resources for

analyses involving host-microbe interactions.

In this work, we demonstrate the potential and generaliz-

ability of using SugarBase, SweetTalk, SweetOrigins, and a

glycan-alignment methodology for studying glycan-mediated

host-microbe interactions. We show that a language-model-

based classifier trained on glycan sequences can accurately

(B) Glycan species distribution in the species-specific glycan dataset. For all gly

taxonomic level are shown with their number of glycans.

(C and D) Analyzing the local structural context of glycoletters. We identified the m

local structural context together with its likely position in the glycan structure (main

sialic acids (D).

134 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021

predict glycan immunogenicity and the pathogenicity of

E. coli strains, revealing predictive glycan motifs. We also

leverage the evolutionary information gained by SweetOrigins

to analyze glycan motifs that could be used for molecular-

mimicry-mediated immune evasion by commensals and

pathogens. Applying our glycan-alignment methodology to

the example of the capsular polysaccharides of Staphylo-

coccus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, we uncover a

potential connection to the enterobacterial common antigen

and hypothesize a mechanism for the increased virulence

mediated by these glycan motifs. Taken together, these

resources offer a powerful and generalizable platform for

studying and understanding the role of glycans in host-

microbe interactions.

RESULTS

Curating Glycan Datasets for Glycobiology and Glycan-
Mediated Host-Microbe Interactions
To investigate the role of glycans in host-microbe interactions,

we constructed a dataset of species-specific glycan sequences

that could be used to train machine-learning models. For this, we

gathered and curated a dataset with glycans from GlyTouCan

(Tiemeyer et al., 2017), UniCarbKB (Campbell et al., 2014), the

Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) (Toukach and Egor-

ova, 2016), and targeted literature searches (see STAR

Methods). To facilitate training deep-learning models on glycan

sequences, we only included glycans with fully elucidated se-

quences, including the determination of linkages between

monosaccharides. Our dataset contained 12,674 highly diverse

glycans with a deposited species association (Figure 1A; Table

S1) and included glycans from 1,726 species (corresponding to

39 taxonomic phyla; Figure 1B). Specifically, our dataset con-

tained 6,969 eukaryotic, 6,119 prokaryotic, and 152 viral gly-

cans. Because we included all species for which we could find

glycans, this dataset constituted a comprehensive snapshot of

currently known species-specific glycans, with glycans from

numerous bacteria, facilitating the study of glycan-mediated

host-microbe interactions.

We further reasoned that the inclusion of glycan sequences

without a deposited species label would strengthen the lan-

guage models we describe below. This approach is supported

by the success of transfer learning in the field of machine learning

(Howard and Ruder, 2018), in which models are initially trained

on large datasets without labels and then finetuned on smaller

datasets with labels. This makes more data available to learn

general patterns, such as sequence motifs, that can be lever-

aged to predict glycan properties. Accordingly, we curated a

separate dataset in which we used the databases mentioned

above to gather 19,299 unique glycan sequences, irrespective

of whether species information was available (Figure 1A;

STAR Methods; Table S2). To gain a comprehensive view of

glycobiology, we included all glycan categories, encompassing

cans with species information, up to the 10 most abundant classes for each

ost frequent monosaccharides following fucose in glycans (C), highlighting its

versus side branch). Additionally, we compared the binding behavior of several

Featurize
Input

/ // /

Language Model
(Glycoletters)

Classifiers
(Glycowords)

SweetTalk

Xt-1 Xt

LSTMRv LSTMRv LSTMRv

Xt+1

Yt-1 Yt Yt+1

2-3x

Embedding

A

Language Model Output

C Glycowords With
Existing Alphabet

Possible Realized

Data Processing

GlyTouCan Literature

D

Datasets

α2

β4
α3 β3 β3

Ser/Thr

α2

β4
α3 β3 β3

Ser/Thr

α2

β4
α3 β3 β3

Ser/Thr

α2

β4
α3 β3 β3

Ser/Thr

β3 β3

α3 β3

β4 α3

α2 β4

Fuc

Gal GalNAc
GlcNAc

tSNE Dim 1

Glycoletter Embeddings

Fuc

Glc
Neu

Man

B Glycowords

tS
N

E
D

im
2

Bonds

Gal

NeuNAc

Glc

α3 β3

10 –

30 –

-10 –

-30 –

-30

-10

30

10

N
um

b
e

r o
f G

ly
c

o
w

o
rd

s

Possible Realized

U
M

A
P

D
im

2

UMAP Dim 1

8 –

4 –

0 –

-4 –

-10

-6

-2

2

6

LSTMFw LSTMFw LSTMFw

19,299
Glycans

E F G

2-2-6
UMAP Dim 1

6

-8

-4

0

4

U
M

A
P

D
im

2

Non
-immuno

-genic

Immuno
-genic

N
um

b
e

r o
f U

nm
a

sk
e

d
G

ly
c

o
w

o
rd

s

Probability Immunogenic Probability Immunogenic

α3
α6
α6

α3

β2

β4 β4
α6

α2 α3 α3
α2

α6

α2 β4 β4 α3 β4 β4
α6

WT
α2 α3

α2 α6

1 2

3

3

1 2

2

α6 α3

α3 α6

β4 β21

1

2

1

1

1

α6 β4 β3 β4

WT

1 2

β4 β31

1

β3 β6

α6 α3

Fuc Gal GalNAcGlcNAc ManNAcGlc ManRhaNeuNAcNeuNGc Xyl

αGal

0.2

0.6

1.0

0.0

0.4

0.8

0.2

0.6

1.0

0.0

0.4

0.8

1 –

2 –
3 –

4 –
5 –

6 –
7 –

0.2

0.6

1.0

0.2

0.6

1.0

1 –

2 –

3 –

4 –

0.2

0.6

1.0

0.2

0.6

1.0

Homo sapiens

Non-Reducing Reducing

Homo sapiens

Non-Reducing Reducing

Ruminococcus
gnavus

Homo sapiens

High
MMannose

ghHig
haRh

NN-Glycans

nsO-Glycan

1012

108

104

100

(legend on next page)

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OPEN ACCESSResource

Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021 135

ll
OPEN ACCESS Resource

protein-, lipid-, and small molecule-associated glycans, as well

as capsular and extracellular polysaccharides.

In our dataset, we observed 1,027 unique monosaccharides or

bonds that were present in glycan sequences and comprised the

smallest units of an alphabet for a glycan language. Analogous to

natural language processing, we termed these entities ‘‘glycolet-

ters’’ and constructed ‘‘glycowords’’ by considering trisaccha-

rides (i.e., three monosaccharides and two connecting bonds,

or five glycoletters), yielding 19,866 unique glycowords in our da-

taset. With this, we sought to incorporate local structural infor-

mation into our models and enable the discovery of relevant mo-

tifs, which usually contain subsequences larger than a single

monosaccharide. Even larger substructures would preclude

the analysis of shorter glycans and lead to an exponential in-

crease in the size of the resulting vocabulary. We would also

like to note that although we chose trisaccharides as building

blocks, glycan substructures of any length can be used to build

a vocabulary for our models without considerable changes.

To make these data and analysis resources readily accessible

and facilitate further advances in glycobiology, we created Sug-

arBase, a comprehensive glycan database with metadata and

analytical tools based on this work (Figure S1A; Table S2;

https://webapps.wyss.harvard.edu/sugarbase). SugarBase of-

fers accessible glycan data, explorable glycan representations

learned by our language models, and many of the methods

developed here as tools, such as the local structural context

of any glycoletter (Figure S1B) and glycan alignments, described

below.

Reasoning that our glycan datasets constitute broad re-

sources for glycobiology and host-microbe interactions, we set

out to investigate host glycan substructures that could be

emulated by microbes for molecular mimicry. Analyzing the envi-

ronment of the monosaccharide fucose as an example, we

observed N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and galactose (Gal)

as typical connected monosaccharides (Figure 1C), which is

consistent with the fucosyltransferase substrate specificities an-

notated in glycosyltransferase family 10 (Lombard et al., 2014).

Thus, microbial glycans containing fucose could potentially

include either GlcNAc or Gal in direct proximity to maximize sim-

ilarity with host glycans. This insight aids in formulating hypoth-

Figure 2. Learning the Language of Glycans Revealed Regularities in S

(A) Building a language model for glycobiology. We used glycowords, overlapping

based bidirectional RNN, SweetTalk, that was trained by predicting the next glyc

symbol nomenclature for glycans (SNFG).

(B) Learned representation of glycoletters by SweetTalk. We visualized the embe

SNE). Areas enriched for modified monosaccharides of one type are colored.

(C) Comparing the abundance of possible and observed glycowords. Possible

exhaustive combination (36 bonds and 991 monosaccharides).

(D) Comparing the distribution of possible and observed glycowords. We gene

monosaccharides and bonds and formed their embedding by averaging their co

jection (UMAP) of these generated glycowords (blue) and all observed glycoword

(E) Glycan embeddings learned by the immunogenicity classifier. Embeddings fo

according to whether they were immunogenic (blue) or non-immunogenic (orang

(F) Glycoword masking to probe the immunogenicity classifier. Glycowords were

Reducing’’/‘‘Reducing’’) and used as input for the trained immunogenicity classifi

glycan is for prediction, with the bar representing the full-length glycan at the bo

(G) Glycan in silico alterations to probe immunogenicity classifier. For 4,000

monosaccharide or bond. If the resulting glycowords were observed, we used th

probability is plotted together with the altered glycan sequences, with the wildtyp

monosaccharide was modified. The addition of an ‘‘S’’ implies a sulfurylated mo

136 Cell Host & Microbe 29, 132–144, January 13, 2021

eses and identifying glycan motifs relevant for molecular mim-

icry, as we describe below. We also differentiated binding

orientation preferences for different sialic acids, a crucial mono-

saccharide type in host-pathogen interactions (Figure 1D;

Haines-menges et al., 2015), revealing a preference for the char-

acteristic human monosaccharide NeuNAc to be (a2-3)-linked,

relative to other sialic acids such as NeuNGc. These types of an-

alyses can directly lead to hypotheses of glycan motifs that can

be investigated by using the methods presented in this work.

Using Natural Language Processing to Learn the
Grammar of Glycans
Next, we used our curated dataset of 19,299 glycan sequences

(Table S2) to develop a deep-learning-based language model,

SweetTalk. For this, we chose a bidirectional recurrent neural

network (RNN; Figure 2A; Sherstinsky, 2020), because this

type of model has delivered state-of-the-art results for other bio-

polymers, such as protein sequences (Alley et al., 2019; Almagro

Armenteros et al., 2020; Strodthoff et al., 2020). Originally devel-

oped for human languages, RNNs exhibit memory-like elements

by predicting the next word given the preceding words (Sherstin-

sky, 2020); this enables RNNs to learn complex, order-depen-

dent interactions in proteins by viewing amino acids as letters

and predicting the next amino acid given the preceding

sequence (Alley et al., 2019). Two of the main usages for a trained

language model are as follows: (1) extracting a learned represen-

tation for each word and (2) finetuning the model for predicting

structural or functional properties of a sequence. For the former,

a representation or embedding that characterizes a word in

terms of context, usage, and meaning is constructed in the pa-

rameters of the trained model for each word in the vocabulary.

This learned representation can be used to quantify the similarity

of two glycan sequences or analyze language properties, which

we demonstrate with the analysis of molecular mimicry in host-

microbe interactions. The latter—finetuning a general language

model on a predictive task such as predicting pathogenicity—

is also known as transfer learning (Howard and Ruder, 2018;

Tan et al., 2018), and in our case it involves general glycan fea-

tures that are learned by the language model to predict func-

tional properties.

ubstructures and Can Be Used to Predict Glycan Immunogenicity

units consisting of three monosaccharides and two bonds, for our glycoletter-

oletter given previous glycoletters. Glycans are drawn in accordance with the

dding for every glycoletter by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-

glycowords were calculated from the pool of observed glycoletters and their

rated 250,000 glycowords by randomly sampling from the observed pool of

nstituent glycoletter embeddings. A uniform manifold approximation and pro-

s (orange) is shown.

r glycans from our immunogenicity dataset are shown via UMAP and colored

e).

er. Inferred immunogenicity probability indicates how crucial each region of a

ttom.

iterations, single monosaccharides or bonds were replaced with a random

em as input for the trained immunogenicity classifier. Inferred immunogenicity

e glycan found at the bottom. In case of ambiguity, a number indicates which

nosaccharide, whereas ‘‘Me’’ implies a methylated monosaccharide.

ll
OPEN ACCESSResource

Glycans are the only nonlinear biopolymer, with up to multiple

branches per sequence. To enable a language model despite

this branching, we extracted partially overlapping ‘‘glyco-

words’’ from the non-reducing end to the reducing end of gly-

cans in the bracket notation (Figure 2A), comprising three

monosaccharides and two bonds. These glycowords repre-

sented snapshots of structural contexts that characterize a

glycan sequence. By using monosaccharides and bonds as

‘‘glycoletters,’’ we then trained a glycoletter-based language

model, SweetTalk, predicting the next most probable glycolet-

ter given the preceding glycoletters in the context of these gly-

cowords (Table S3). This operation, instead of directly training

on full sequences, avoids learning specious relationships be-

tween glycoletters that are close in the bracket notation but

far apart in the actual glycan structure due to branching. We

then demonstrated the necessity of accounting for the order-

dependent information in glycans by training SweetTalk on

scrambled glycan sequences, randomizing the order but keep-

ing the composition of a sequence—this resulted in severely

degraded model performance, emphasizing the language-like

elements inherent in glycan sequences (Table S3). Analyzing

the learned embeddings of glycoletters after traini

## powerpoint

Occupational
Health Nurse

Roles of an
Occupational Health
Nurse

● Occupational health nurses work to prevent,
investigate, and treat workplace-related
illnesses and injuries.

● To prevent workplace injuries and illnesses
● Assess workplaces to identify possible

hazards
● These nurses also educate employers and

employees on how to prevent accidents and
injuries.

Direct Roles

● Occupational health nurses work closely with
both employers/employees to ensure that
workers stay safe in their working
environments

● They effectively communicate with employers,
employees, medical professionals, and
insurance companies

● They possess teaching skills in which they
educating individuals on workplace safety

● They pay attention to detail and
problem-solving skills are equally important.

Settings of an Occupational Health Nurse

Occupational health nurses work can often find
employment in hospitals and clinics. However, many
employers and companies will also hire these
nursing professionals. They work in all industries
and all different types of workplaces.

● manufacturing and production facilities
● hospitals
● medical centers
● as well as in other employment sectors,

including government.

Type of Medical Problems Occupational Health Nurses treat

● When an employee claims that an illness or
injury is related to his work, an occupational
health nurse will also investigate the incident
circumstances.

charts to determine whether a workplace
hazard could have caused the injury or
illness.

Type of Medical Problems Occupational Health Nurses treat

● Treating employees that get hurt or ill due to workplace hazards is another important responsibility of
occupational health nurses. This includes

○ tending to injuries
○ performing rehabilitation therapy after certain injuries.

● Occupational nurses will also screen new and prospective employees to ensure that they can perform
the duties required by their positions. This may include

○ physical examination
○ vision test
○ hearing test
○ drug or alcohol screening.

References

Occupational Health Nurse. EveryNurse.org. (2022, March 13). Retrieved April 4, 2022, from

https://everynurse.org/careers/occupational-health-nurse/#:~:text=Occupational%20health%20nurses%20work
%20to,to%20prevent%20accidents%20and%20injuries.

## Powerpoint

The MRI Race:
Brain Volume Deficiency in individuals with ADHD

Student Presenter

Department of Biology, East Central University

19 April 2019

Background

The MRI Race and Why We Care

Paper Citations

Papers

Paper #1

Paper #2

Paper #3

Single most common mental disorder affecting children1

5% of all children

Characterized by: Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

(1) American Psychiatric Association

Stanford Medicine 2015 (image)

ADHD is caused by a wide variety of things. These include problems during pregnancy, premature birth, genetics, and some other things that scientists are still trying to figure out. ADHD is the single most common mental disorder affecting children, affecting 5% of all children and 2.5 percent of adults. ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

I originally studied ADHD in my honors thesis. As a future developmental pediatrician I will diagnose and treat ADHD more than any other disorder. I have always been interested in the neurobiology behind ADHD, but using MRI to learn more about the specific structures and areas affected will benefit the future patients I look forward to serving.

3

The MRI race and why we care

Using MRI to visualize brain volumes:

Unique insight into ADHD brain volume deficiencies

National Institute of Mental Health 2007 (image)

Now we need to talk about the neurobiology of ADHD. Research shows that brains of those with AHD develop at a normal rate but is delayed by an average of three years in certain brain regions. If you look at this picture you can see that certain brain structures are delayed between the important ages of 7 and 13. For example the frontal cortex is delayed. The frontal cortex controls thinking, planning, and attention. All behaviors that are associated with ADHD.

4

Paper citations

Paper #1:

Hoogman M, Bralten J, Hibar DP, Mennes M, Zwiers MP, Schweren L, van Hulzen KJE, Medland SE, Shumskaya E, Jahanshad N, et al. Subcortical brain volume differences of participants with ADHD across the lifespan: an ENIGMA collaboration. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 16:1–39.

Paper #2:

Castellanos, F. X.; Lee, P. P.; Sharp, W.; Jeffries, N. O.; Greenstein, D. K.; Clasen, L. S. Developmental Trajectories of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Jama 2002, 288, 1740.

Paper #3:

Batty MJ, Liddle EB, Pitiot A, Toro R, Groom MJ, Scerif G, Liotti M, Liddle PF, Paus T, Hollis C. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2010;49(3):229–238.

____ = date of publication

Paper #1: SubCortical Brain Volume Differences of Participants with ADHD Across the Lifespan:
an ENIGMA Collaboration

Mega-analysis

1529 controls

Hoogman et al. 2017

Cliff Notes:

Size deficiency in all regions tested except the pallidum and thalamus

Psychostimulant medication & symptom severity: no effect on size

Paper #2: Developmental Trajectories of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Castellanos et al. 2002

139 controls

Cliff Notes:

1. Stimulant medication increases volumes of all structures tested, but not at levels similar to controls

Paper #3: Cortical Gray Matter in
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

24 controls

Cliff Notes:

Statistical deficit of the pars opercularis cortex

Hypothesis supported

Batty et al. 2010

Pars opercularis because of its connection to inhibitory control, a facet of ADHD behavior.

8

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Overview

Introduction

Paper #1

Pros:

Framing the problem and objectives in separate subsections

Paper #2

Pros:

Detailed literature review

Paper #3

Pros:

Good mix of subject and literature review

Cons:

Missing a hypothesis

Cons:

Abstract skimpy in context and methods; heavy in results

Cons:

Title is general

Methods

Paper #1

Pros:

Repeatable description of overall experiment

Paper #2

Pros:

Repeatable patient gathering/ screening

Paper #3

Pros:

Matched every ADHD case with a control with matching demographics

Cons:

Questionable if experiment can be run without error at every lab

Cons:

Unnecessary page-long description of statistics

Cons:

No plan for MRI scans w/ movement; All participants on medication; 1 female

Results

Paper #1

Pros:

Focused on the effects of secondary variables on specific structures

Paper #2

Pros:

Included data linking behavior ratings with brain structures

Paper #3

Pros:

Data presentation answers objectives and hypothesis

Cons:

2 graphs for 4 data tables

Cons:

1 graph for 3 data tables

Cons:

Used color to distinguish data in a graph

discussion

Paper #1

Pros:

Advocates for DSM update to lower stigma

Paper #2

Pros:

Openly discussed limitations of study

Paper #3

Pros:

Proposed future experiments

Cons:

Discussed limitations, but heavily overshadowed by positives

Cons:

Repeats results

Cons:

Discussed only having a medication group but overlooked past research on subject

13

Overview

Paper #1

Pros:

Paper #2

Pros:

Data tables easy to read and interpret

Paper #3

Pros:

Free space for eyes to rest

Cons:

Graphs at end of paper

Cons:

Results section of abstract absurdly long

Cons:

Smallest number of brain scans

14

Conclusion

My favorite: Paper #1; Hoogman et al. 2017

My least favorite: Paper #3; Batty et al. 2010

Each article added to this body of research in their own distinct way

Interesting Note: Papers 1 & 3 referenced paper 2

Any questions?

## Powerpoint

• Select either female offenders or offenders with mental health disorders for this assessment.
• Research the historical context for treatment of your selected population as well as their special needs.
• Review the literature on treatment programs intended for your population. Select a program that has empirical support for its effectiveness. Your selected program should be relevant to treatment of the population in your particular field of interest (police, courts, or corrections).

#### The Assignment

Create a PowerPoint presentation in which you address the following:

• Part I: Provide historical context for the treatment of and outcomes for your selected population in the criminal justice system.
• Part II: Describe the special needs of this population related to their treatment in your selected field of interest in the criminal justice system.
• Part III: Identify the program you selected. Provide an overview of the program, including what services are provided and how the needs of the population are addressed.
• Part IV: Provide empirical support that demonstrates the program’s effectiveness. Cite at least two research studies that have tested the outcomes of the program.

Be sure to include notes that you would use to deliver your presentation.

• 25

## powerpoint

Create a slideshow of your favorite Points of Interest from the World Regional Geography Workbook: The Essentials. The goal is that you work on this weekly with each region we study and by the end of the class you’ll have a geographic bucket list.

Slide One – title, name, class

Slide Two – North American Region

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 2F

Research 5 facts on both points of interest, paraphrase these facts into academic bullets (no full sentences or paragraphs)

Add an internet photo of both points of interest

Add reference citation for both points of interest

Slide Three – Middle American Region

Pick Two Points of Interest (one must be mainland and one must be islands) from the Mapping Checklist 3E and follow criteria above in italic

Slide Four -South America

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 4E and follow criteria above in italic

Slide Five – European Region

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the Mapping Checklist 5E and follow criteria above in italic

Slide Five – Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia Region

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the Mapping Checklist 6G or 6H and follow criteria above in italic

Slide Six – East Asia

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 7E and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Seven – South Asia

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the Mapping Checklist 8E and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Eight – Southeast Asia

Pick Two Points of Interest (one must be mainland and one must be insular) from the 9E Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Nine – North Africa and Southwest Asia

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 10I or 10J Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Ten – Subsaharan Africa

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 11E Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Eleven – Austral Region

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different countries) from the 12E Mapping Checkist and follow the criteria above in italic

Slide Twelve – Oceania

Pick Two Points of Interest (must be from different subregions) from the 13D Mapping Checklist and follow the criteria above in italic

References should be at the bottom of each slide, one for each point of interest (each slide will have two references.)

## PowerPoint

For this project you will create a PowerPoint presentation.  When completed it will consist of 9 to 10 slides. Slide 10 will be extra credit (+15 points).  Be sure to utilize chapters 24 + 25, along with others we do not have time to cover, of your textbook for this assignment, as the information there will be the base criteria for grading.

## Powerpoint

You have been hired as the manager for a new clinical lab company in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The lab is a nonprofit that serves low-income patients in the downtown area. The lab is in the process of setting its fees-for-services on individual services. The clinic director has estimated fixed costs of \$436,000, a volume of 18,500 tests, and variable cost rate of \$19.

## PowerPoint

7 to 10 slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

This week we will be covering respiratory disorders and the drugs used to treat them. For your assignment you will prepare a Power Point slide deck going over the medications and focusing on the step wise approach.

Describe the long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice, as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient. including adults and children.

Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.

Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.

Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.

Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.

• 4
• 10