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PSYCHOLOGY

Discussion: Psychological Disorders

 


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Diagnosing Disorders


Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source.

STEP 1: Respond to the following prompt in a post between 200 and 400 words:

· Pick one of the mental disorders you learned about in this module. Think of a fictional character who you think might fit, at least to some extent, that type of disorder. Consider cartoon characters, Disney princesses, favorite sitcom characters, etc. Do some more research on the disorder to write up a diagnosis. Explain which disorder the character may have, describe the disorder, then provide at least three evidences or examples of how or why that character meets the description of the mental illness.

Psychology

Sociological and Psychological Frameworks Presentation Guidance Administrative details:

Presentation Day:

This assignment is worth 50% of 30 credits towards your first year Assignment:

Create a presentation to explore an issue or concern facing social work today, through the application of research and theory from the disciplines of sociology and psychology. You must apply a sociological theory and a psychological theory to explain your issue. Make sure that you use sources of evidence (e.g. research articles and studies, books, policy guidelines, etc.) effectively and don’t forget to cite.

The main point of the assignment is to choose an issue that you are truly interested in; one that you want to understand better and want to present your ideas on it. There are a number of issues relevant to social work, some of which we have discussed during the module, some of which you will have heard in other modules or issues that you are aware of because you have read about or heard people speak about or based on your experience.

Examples of issues include but are not limited to: alcohol or substance abuse disorder, adoption, asylum seekers and refugees, racism and xenophobia, the care of people with mental health problems, foster care, community social work, Black Lives Matter, decolonising social work, austerity, Brexit (and its potential impact on SW), child protection, work with LGBTQ+ individuals/communities, care of homeless people, domestic abuse, child sexual exploitation, social work in schools, older peoples care, moral panics, the media perception of social work, the public perception of social work, youth offending, etc.

All work should:

• Be a PowerPoint presentation

• Include a topic title on the first slide labelled with your student number

• Your slides should be numbered. You should aim to give between 10-15 slides (roughly a minute per slide) including your title slide

• Include a reference list at the end of your main presentation slides (on a separate slide or slides) and use an appropriate referencing system to acknowledge the source of all material referred to in your slides

• Whilst not mandatory and you will not be marked upon this you might find it helpful to include notes under each slide as guidance to what you will say during the presentation.

Support and guidance resources

Knowledge and understanding: The teaching and learning in this module have focused on different sociological and psychological theories. We have discussed various concepts, their implications in making sense of the role and nature of social work, social work practices, service users, etc.

You will need to demonstrate that you understand at least one sociological and one psychological theory by applying both of them to the issue you are interested in. You can do this by first providing a general description of each of the theories and move to discuss what each theory might explain or say about the issue you are interested in.

You are not expected to provide an analysis that covers every possible aspect, instead think what are the specific areas of your topic that the chosen theories can better highlight and focus on those that you are more interested in (e.g. effects on service users, dominant practices in social work, service users or social workers behaviours, advocacy for marginalised and disadvantaged people, policy evaluation, etc.).

Application of data: In your assignment, make sure you consistently apply your knowledge and understanding of the issue by explaining what it is and why it is a relevant issue for social work today, e.g. who is affected, how many people might experience this issue and why is it important?

You will need to show that you can interpret relevant theories and concepts, referenced sources such as research evidence, statistics or policy guidelines that you might use in your presentation. This helps you to demonstrate your critical reasoning skills. Try to draw links or comparisons between concepts, alternative approaches and review the evidence that justifies selected approaches.

What is a criticism of those theories and which theory has made most sense to you in explaining why an issue has come about?

Problem-solving: In this assignment, you should demonstrate your problem solving by applying a sociological theory and a psychological theory to explain the issue. If for example your issue is poverty you need to demonstrate how your chosen sociological theory helps to better understand, explain or tackle poverty or aspects of it in society and how your chosen psychological theory allows us to better understand certain effects of poverty on a group of service users.

Communication and References: You should look to write a presentation that communicates your ideas effectively. Be sure to use the language and terminology associated with SW. Introduce your topic and the main parts of your presentation (identify the main aim of your presentation) in the beginning of your presentation. Include subheadings in your slides. In each of your slides add the most important information to illustrate or give a clear snapshot of what you will be saying while presenting this slide.

Be sure that you have used references to support your arguments, and make sure that you use in-text citations (at the end of a sentence rather than the end of a paragraph) and include a reference list according to referencing guidelines in the last slide(s) of your presentation.

Personal Learning and Transferable Skills: In this presentation demonstrate your own learning (both in terms of academic and professional knowledge) and how you have developed your understanding of the issue. This could be identified in a slide by the end of your presentation entitled personal learning. It is also important when you develop your discussion that you demonstrate a professional, safe and ethical approach to thinking about SW that do not marginalise vulnerable groups and individuals.

To show you have understood a concept it is not enough to simply mention it. You need to apply it to a context. You should discuss how it helps us to understand aspects of your particular issue, what the main implications in understanding the issue through such a lens are and what some of its weaknesses might be.

psychology

Counseling Disposition Reflection Worksheet


Directions: Review the dispositions document and select three dispositions that you currently meet. Complete the chart by listing the dispositions met as well as a description of how you meet the disposition. Include a citation and paraphrase the definition. Please note: you do not need to be actively practicing to complete this worksheet.

Disposition and Definition

Description of how the disposition is met (75-100 words)

1.

2.

3.

Directions: Now that you have identified dispositions that you currently meet, review the disposition document again and consider any dispositions that you do not meet. Complete the chart below by adding the two dispositions you do not meet as well as a preliminary plan in regards to how you plan to improve the identified dispositions.

Disposition and Definition

Description of how you plan to improve the disposition

(75-100 words)

1.

2.

© 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

PSYCHOLOGY

Final Project: Create a Facebook Page for a Psychologist from an Underrepresented Background

This project will be worth 50 points. For this assignment, you will select a Psychologist from an underrepresented background (including women and racial/ethnic minorities) and create a mock Facebook page for the Psychologist. You may complete this assignment as a two person team or individually.

Step 1: Select a Psychologist from an Underrepresented Background. You should do an internet search to find your psychologist.

Step 2: Add the following information to your Psychologist Facebook Template (see attachment for template):

1. Profile picture

2. General information: Name, location, date of birth, date of death 

3. Education history 

4. Work history

5. “About Me” section: Two paragraphs describing who this person is and an explanation of their most significant contributions to the field of psychology

6. Network: Theoretical approach this person’s work most closely fit (e.g., structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, gestalt, psychoanalytic, humanistic, evolutionary, biological,cognitive, biopsychosocial) and explain why this person’s work falls into this approach

7. Groups: make up AT LEAST THREE groups that your psychologist would join, including one group message to your members consisting of a short explanation of what the groups are and what the title means  

8. Friends: Include a minimum of six friends, be sure they have a good reason to be friends (attended the same University or have similar psychological perspectives) 

9. Add one more Facebook element for your psychologist that is not a requirement, for example: include a picture or graph related to their research.

Step 3: Submit your assignment through the assignment link – due by 11:59PM CST on Sunday

Step 4: Post your assignment in the discussion board: Final Project – Psychologist’s Facebook – due by 11:59PM CST on Sunday 

Final Project Rubric

 

Exemplary

Accomplished

Developing

Emerging

Points

Profile Picture, General Information, Education History, Work History, About Me, Network

All requirements are met. The sections are descriptive and complete. All information is accurate.(20)

All requirements are met. The sections are complete. All information is

accurate. (15)

Most of the

requirements are

met OR the sections are not complete OR some information is inaccurate. (10)

Some requirements are

missing OR most information is inaccurate. (5-0)

20

Groups

All requirements are met, and end product exceeds minimum expectations. Group names are insightful. (10)

All requirements are met. Group

names are representative

of the theorist. (7)

Most of the

requirements are met. Group names are

representative of the theorist. (4)

Some requirements are

missing. Most information is

elementary or inaccurate (3-0)

10

Friends

All requirements are met. Connections between your assigned historical

figure and the friends chosen provide insight and understanding into your historical figure’s life and work. (10)

All requirements are met. Connections between your

assigned historical figure and the friends chosen provide basic understanding of your historical figure’s life and work. (7)

Most  requirements are met. Connections

between your

assigned historical

figure and the friends

chosen provide basic

understanding of your historical figure’s life and work. (4)

Some requirements are not met. Information is inaccurate. (3-0)

10

You Decide

Your chosen element is creative and provides insight and understanding into your psychologist’s

life and work. (10)

Your chosen element provides

understanding of your psychologist’s life and work. (7)

Your chosen element

is somewhat beneficial in the task

to understanding your psychologist and his/her theory. (4)

Your chosen element is not

beneficial to understanding

your psychologist and his/her theory. (3-0)

10


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Bottom of Form

Top of Form

 

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

PSYCHOLOGY

Disorder At-a-Glance

STEP 1: Pick one of the disorders you read about in this module and learn more about it in order to make a “At-a-Glance” page with details about the disorder. Visit the National Institute of Mental Health and search for the disorder, read through the information, then scroll to the section on “Research and Statistics” or “Journal Articles or Reports” to find helpful links to outside information. Look elsewhere as well for details about the prevalence, signs, symptoms, details, and research related to the disorder. Keep track of all of your sources as you investigate.

STEP 2: In a format of your choosing (Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Canva, Infogr.am, Photoshop, Google Doc, etc.), create a simple 1 page, yet visually interesting “At-a-Glance” page with information that includes the following information about the disorder:


PSYCHOLOGY

Thinking about Industrial/Organizational Psychology


Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. 

STEP 1: Respond to ONE of the following questions in a post of at least 200 words:

1. After reading this module, what topic or topics in I/O psychology seemed most interesting to you? Why? What other things would you like to know about this topic?

2. One of your friends started a window washing business a few years ago, and his business has slowly grown. He’s now at the point where he needs to hire employees. What advice would you give him about how to conduct an interview? Use recommendations from your reading to support your answer.

Psychology

 

Part one: Identify different historical definitions of, and causal explanations for, LGBTQ orientations and sexual behavior
Part two: Describe the historical emergence of the LGBTQ community in the U.S.
Part three: Explain the limitations of positivistic theory in examining LGBTQ orientations
Part four: Analyze the interactional contexts and challenges in which individuals experience same sex attraction in the U.S. today.

250 word count 

PSYCHOLOGY

Thinking about Intelligence


Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. You should respond to at least two classmate’s posting by 11:59 pm CST on Sunday, with at least 75 words or more. 

STEP 1: Answer TWO of the following questions in a discussion post of at least 200 words:

1. Do you think that people get smarter as they get older? In what ways might people gain or lose intellectual abilities as they age?

2. When you meet someone who strikes you as being smart, what types of cues or information do you typically attend to in order to arrive at this judgment?

3. How do you think socio-economic status affects an individual taking an intellectual abilities test?

4. Should psychologists be asking about group differences (different race, sex, culture, etc.) in intellectual ability? What do you think?

5. Which of Howard Gardner’s 8 types of intelligence do you think describes the way you learn best? Why?

What Makes Smarts?

STEP 1: Think about the three smartest people you know. Who are they? In what ways are they smart? What do they do that sets them apart in intelligence?

STEP 2: Write a response between 150-250 words explaining why these people are smart and, based on your readings, what psychological principles contribute to their intelligence. Were they born that way? Which type of intelligence would Gardner say they possess the most of? Are they also creative or do they have high emotional intelligence?

Psychology

Module 4 Assignment 1: Midterm Essay

Overview

For this assignment, you will need to write a well thought out 1,000-word essay that demonstrates clear and thorough comprehension and evaluation of the material covered in this module. Please be sure to address each of the following in your essay:

· Sensation and perception are closely linked. What is the central distinction between the two?

· How do perceptual experiences affect our interpretations of the world around us?

· Explain how your own perceptual sets might create prejudice or discrimination?

Instructions

All essays must include an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement, (taking a clear position on your subject), followed by a main body with supporting arguments (organized using APA formatted headings and seriation), a summary conclusion, and an APA formatted reference page at the end. All essays must use Times New Roman 12pt or Verdana 10pt font, be double-spaced, have 1″ margins, and include a total word (minimum 1,000 words not including the reference page). You must use and reference 2 different high quality, academic, scholarly resources. If you use a website as a resource, please make sure it is high quality, scholarly, well-cited, and well-researched prior to referencing it. Wikipedia or similar references will not be accepted. Students must use APA style to cite within the body of the essay as well as on the reference page at the end of the essay. Please review the CCCOnline APA Toolkit, or the APA style guide provided on the Purdue Owl Website if needed. Refer to the Essay Rubric (located in the Course Syllabus) for grading criteria and point value distribution. 

Psychology

Learning about a disorder that you not familiar with can help you to understand the range of disorders that are present in modern day society. It can also give you an idea of the various ways in which psychological disorders affect others.

Note: If you are already familiar with these disorders, you can either choose one to research and learn more about OR you can choose a different disorder. Choose from one on this site: Symptoms & Treatments of Mental Disorders (Links to an external site.) 

To receive full credit, remember to also write three posts in the discussion: one original and two responses to other students. Provide scholarly, cited responses where applicable. Do not use Wikipedia. Use the library or reputable source to support your posts.

Most mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This manual is designed to help ensure accurate and consistent diagnoses based on observational symptoms. Classifying psychological disorders is useful in assisting therapists in developing treatment plans.

Choose one from below and characterize the distinguishing features of each of the following DSM-5 diagnostic categories:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Somatoform disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorders
  • Dissociative disorders
  • Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
  • Personality disorders

You can find the DSM-5 diagnostic categories in your webtext, p. 5.5, or by visiting psychiatry.org (Links to an external site.)  and searching the term “DSM-5.”

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    psychology

    Assignment #3 prompt

    you’ve crafted your case study. You’ve done your research on the topic. Now it’s time to identify some solutions in the form of a Parenting Action Plan.

    Your Parenting Action Plan should be about 2000-3000 word in length and follow APA style (7th edition). Be sure to use in-text citations and include a reference list.

    Copy and paste your case study at the beginning of your document to provide the context for your research essay. (This will not count towards your word total.)

    Your essay should be written in your own words and you should always cite any ideas that come from another source. Do not use quotations or copy verbatim from another author.   

    Your action plan can build on your existing research essay, but the action plan itself will include a few additional components (denoted with an * below). The research you have done should be carefully woven into your action plan. In other words, don’t just copy and paste your research essay and tack on more words. Use the research to justify the actions you are proposing.

    · Statement of the problem: A statement of the key issues that must be explored in order to resolve your case study.(This can be the same as the statement in your research essay)

    · Incorporation of at least 10 credible sources from within the past 10 years that can be used to support a parenting action plan. At least 5 of these sources must be scholarly social science research articles, and at least 3 of the sources must have been published within the last 2 years.

    · *Incorporation of parenting or developmental theories to provide a framework for the proposed action plan.

    · *Description of potential sites of impact (Step 6 of the Planning Table).

    · *Identify an action plan grounded in research that may address concerns posed by the case study (Step 7 of the Planning Table).

    · Correct use of in-text citations and corresponding reference list (APA 7th edition).

    · Use of APA 7th edition format (1” margins, standard font, double spacing, page numbers, etc.).

    · Demonstration of strong writing skills.

    PSYCHOLOGY

    Explaining Memory

    Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. You should respond to at least two classmate’s posting by 11:59 pm CST on Sunday, with at least 75 words or more. 

    STEP 1: In the discussion, write a post responding to both of the following prompts:

    1. Think of something you’ve learned so far in this course. Use one of the mnemonics or memory tricks you learned about in this module to help you remember a psychological concept. Explain your memory aid in a sentence or two.

    2. In at least 100 words, describe one of your earliest childhood memories and explain it in the context of what you learned in this module. How was it encoded, stored, and retrieved, and has it fallen prey to any memory failure?

    Stages of Development

    Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. You should respond to at least two classmate’s posting by 11:59 pm CST on Sunday, with at least 75 words or more. 

    STEP 1: In a discussion post of at least 200 words, demonstrate your understanding of concepts learned in this module by responding to the following prompt:

    · Pick an age: 1, 3, 7, 12, 15, 22, 35, 50, or 75. Think of your own experience or the experiences of those you know at this age. Consider the major developmental theories you learned about in this module (psychosexual, psychosocial, cognitive, and moral), and apply them to the age of your choosing. Describe either your own experiences, experiences of someone else, or an imagined situation at this age and use appropriate terms and definitions from the module to describe that stage of development. Do you agree with the developmental theories that describe this age? Why or why not?

    Developmental Toys Assignment

    STEP 1: Either go to a toy store or find some toys online. Pick toys that would be appropriate for each of the following ages:

    · 6 months old

    · 4 years old

    · 8 years old

    STEP 2: Describe the toy and its purpose.

    STEP 3: Describe both Piaget’s and Erikson’s stages of development at this age and explain why the toys you chose are appropriate for that age group. Add supporting evidence from your text. Each explanation should be in a paragraph or two between 100-150 words.


    Psychology

     

    1. Identify (list) three factors that are thought to cause Language Disorders and Stuttering
    2. Describe the Variability and Severity of characteristics within the Autism Spectrum
    3. Identify the Primary Impairments present in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
    4. Identify the factors related to the Biological Theoretical View regarding the causes of Autism Spectrum
    5. Identify (list) three types of Educational Assessments for students with severe and multiple disabilities
    6. Identify Several Disabilities that may accompany Cerebral Palsy
    7. What is Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele?
    8. Describe the Physical Limitations associated with Muscular Distrophy
    9. Identify present and future Interventions for the treatment of children and youth with Cystic Fibrosis
    10. What are the Distinctive Features of Refractive eye Problems, Muscle Disorders of the Eye, and Receptive Eye Problems?
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      Psychology

       

      After reviewing the Chp. 2 power point, please describe the differences between the central nervous system, somatic nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Also, describe the 4 lobes of the cebreral cortex and what each of their functions are.

      Your discussions must be a minimum of 2 paragraphs. Please use proper grammar and punctuation. 

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      psychology

      7

      Annotated Bibliography

      Aichatou Njoya

      UMGC

      Project Part II

      02/18/2022

      Annotated Bibliography

      Alonso-Stuyck, P. (2019). Which parenting style encourages healthy lifestyles in teenage children? Proposal for a model of integrative parenting styles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(11), 2057.

      This article discusses a versatile and integrative parenting style that can be easily adapted by parents to help their children thrive in a constantly changing environment. It also reveals the significance of promoting emotional intelligence in order to enhance healthy adolescent lifestyles and proper bonding with adults. The author is reliable considering she has a Ph.D. in Psychology and has extensive experience in family therapy. The article will be used in conjunction with other resources to find ways of minimizing the aggressive behavior of the teenage girl.

      Aymerich, M. D. M., Musitu, G., & Palmero, F. (2018). Family socialization styles and hostility in the adolescent population. Sustainability, 10(9), 2962.

      In this article, the authors explore the socialization attributes of parents and their impact on hostility in children. They present the results of a study on the prevalence of hostile children in indulgent and authoritarian families. The authors of this article have extensive knowledge of psychology and work for two universities in Spain. This article will be used together with others to explore how the affective involvement of parents impacts the teenage girl’s emotional and psychological behavior.

      Kirby, J. N. (2020). Nurturing family environments for children: Compassion-focused parenting as a form of parenting intervention. Education Sciences, 10(1), 3.

      This article explores how compassion-focused parenting can help parents improve their parenting styles in order to minimize behavioral, emotional, and social problems in their children. It reveals how this evidence-based parenting program addresses externalizing behavior problems to deal with conduct problems and compliance issues. The author currently works in the School of Psychology at the University of Queensland and has extensive experience in childhood behaviors and relevant remedies. The article will be used in conjunction with other resources to find ways of minimizing the aggressive behavior of the teenage girl.

      Gallarin, M., Torres-Gomez, B., & Alonso-Arbiol, I. (2021). Aggressiveness in adopted and non-adopted teens: The role of parenting, attachment security, and gender. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 2034.

      This article explores the relationship between attachment security, parenting practices, and aggressiveness in adolescents. An assessment of paternal and maternal effects is also done. The article explores factors such as parents’ acceptance, involvement, imposition, and coercion that affect children’s aggressiveness. The authors have PhDs in Psychology and have a lot of experience researching parenting styles. This article will be used in conjunction with other scholarly sources to explore how the paternal and maternal attributes of the parents impact the behavior of the teenage girl.

      Heizomi, H., Jafarabadi, M. A., Kouzekanani, K., Matlabi, H., Bayrami, M., Chattu, V. K., & Allahverdipour, H. (2021). Factors affecting aggressiveness among young teenage girls: A structural equation modeling approach. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology, and Education, 11(4), 1350-1362.

      This article explores the factors that lead to aggressiveness in teenage girls. The article acknowledges how the development of a girl through adolescence may impact her emotional and behavioral traits. The authors are credible considering the wealth of knowledge and experience between them ranging from psychology, public health, psychiatry, human health, and behavioral sciences. Together with other credible resources, this article will be used to explore how factors such as the home environment, loneliness, poor body image, and interpersonal factors, among others, may be fueling the teenage girl’s aggressive behavior.

      Jochimek, M., & Łada, A. B. (2019). Help or hindrance: The relationship of physical activity with aggressiveness and self-esteem in 16-year-old adolescents. Health Psychology Report, 7(3), 242-253.

      This article explores how physical activity relates to teenagers’ self-esteem and aggressiveness. It aims to find out if increased physical activity in a teenager based on his/her interests can minimize his/her aggression levels. The credibility of the authors is high considering one has extensive experience in physical education and sport while the other has vast experience in health psychology. This article will be used together with other relevant resources to find out if an intervention program involving physical activity may help minimize the teenage girl’s current aggressive behavior.

      Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C., Delgado, B., García-Fernández, J. M., & Rubio, E. (2019). Cyberbullying, aggressiveness, and emotional intelligence in adolescence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24), 5079.

      In this article, the authors explore how the negative interactions that teenagers have on social media can fuel their aggressiveness in real life. The article presents research carried out on the relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression with regards to a teenager being an aggressor, a victim, or a victim-aggressor. The authors have doctorates in psychology and extensive experience in adolescent aggressive behavior. The article will be used together with others to understand how the teenage girl associates with other people on online platforms and provide a means of creating community prevention programs to minimize the negative interactions on social media.

      Perra, O., Paine, A. L., & Hay, D. F. (2021). Continuity and change in anger and aggressiveness from infancy to childhood: The protective effects of positive parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 33(3), 937-956.

      This article works under the assertion that early signs of aggression in a person can be identified in infancy. Consequently, the article presents the results of research on how positive parenting and family risk factors impact behavioral problems in infants. The authors are credible due to their extensive experience in psychology, nursing, and midwifery. The article will be used together with other scholarly sources to reveal if the experiences of the teenage girl during childhood resulted in her current aggressiveness, in order to inform a suitable intervention.

      Putri, D. A., Yendi, F. M., Taufik, T., & Yuca, V. (2019). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) guidelines to reduce student aggressiveness. SCHOULID: Indonesian Journal of School Counseling, 4(3), 83-88.

      This article explores how rational emotive behavior therapy can be used to minimize aggressiveness in teenagers. The article divulges information on how this evidence-based intervention can influence teenagers to adopt positive behavior despite being impacted by negative factors in their lives. The authors have vast knowledge and extensive experience in counseling and psychology. This article will be used in conjunction with others to develop a suitable intervention to limit the aggressiveness of the teenage girl.

      Yuldasheva, M. B., & Ergashova, Z. (2021). Socio-psychological support adolescents with accentuations of character and aggressiveness. International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE), 4(2), 363-366.

      In this article, the authors present the results of research carried out on the accentuations of aggressive behavior and character in teenagers and relays the results of an empirical study. The article gives a comprehensive discussion of socio-psychological support aimed at facilitating ideal conditions for the proper growth of teenagers. The authors have a strong background in psychology and write credible scholarly and peer-reviewed articles. This article will be used in conjunction with other scholarly sources to create and implement correctional measures to minimize the aggressive behavior shown by the teenage girl.

      References

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      Psychology

      Based on your knowledge of the major personality theories, what personality factors and/or traits are associated with individuals’ social media use?  Be sure to select at least one (1) of the following theoretical perspectives of personality when forming your response.

      ·         Trait perspective

      ·         Motive perspective

      ·         Genetics, evolution, biological processes, and personality perspective

      ·         Psychoanalytic perspective

      ·         Psychosocial perspective

      ·         Learning perspective

      ·         Self-actualization perspective

      ·         Self-determination perspective

      ·         Cognitive perspective

      ·         Self-regulation perspective

       Discuss how those personality factors identified in Question 1 influence how and why people use social media.

      Psychology

      Explore, through the application of research, theory and knowledge from the disciplines of sociology and psychology, one of the main issues or concerns facing social work today in Asylum seekers in the united kingdom.

      psychology

      www.scimednet.org 13

      Paradigm Explorer 2021/1

      The Man who
      Introduced
      Soul to Science:
      Gustav Theodor
      Fechner
      Charles R Fox, O.D., Ph.D.

      This article provides a
      fascinating insight into an
      important but relatively
      neglected figure.

      In Carl Gustav Jung’s autobiography
      Memories, Dreams, Reflections
      (1961/1989), he talks about his medical
      education. Jung originally entered medical
      school intending to pursue internal
      medicine; as he progressed, he was invited
      to become an assistant to Fredrich von
      Müller and was on the path to specializing
      in this field. Throughout medical school,
      he was uninterested in psychiatry, a field
      generally held in contempt by the medicine
      of the time. What shifted his medical
      specialization to psychiatry was preparing
      for the state examination. As he was
      finishing up his exam preparations, he
      had a revelation upon read Krafft-Ebing’s
      Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie (Textbook of
      Psychiatry, 1879).

      “My excitement was intense, for it
      had become clear to me, in a flash of
      illumination, that for me the only possible
      goal was psychiatry. Here alone the two
      currents of my interest could flow together
      and in a united stream dig their own bed.
      Here was the empirical field common
      to biological and spiritual facts, which
      I had everywhere sought and nowhere
      found. Here at last was the place where
      the collision of nature and spirit became
      a reality.”

      My own career in psychology had a
      similar progression as my undergraduate
      interests in philosophy, theology,
      natural sciences, and biological sciences
      coalesced into the study of experimental
      psychology. It is only recently, since I
      have been studying and teaching the

      history of psychology, that I started truly
      understanding how the very roots of
      psychology included the scientific study of
      the soul.

      The concept of a human soul has a
      long history, yet modern science largely
      rejects this concept leaving it to the
      more traditional domains of theology
      and philosophy. The history of modern
      science, tracing from the Renaissance, to
      the Enlightenment, to Darwin’s theory
      of Evolution by Natural Selection, etc.,
      can be seen as a progressive movement
      away from the influence of theology
      and philosophy to a more mechanistic
      and material description of the universe;
      that is, a movement away from studying
      the soul. However, Gustav Fechner’s
      19th century founding of Psychophysics,
      which served as the beginning of
      modern psychology, was an attempt to
      formally study the human soul; that is,
      create a mathematical description of the
      relationship between the world described
      by physics and the human soul represented
      by consciousness.

      Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801 – 1887)
      came from a religious family. His father
      and grandfather were pastors and his
      mother came from a family of pastors.
      At the age of sixteen, he entered the
      University of Leipzig School of Medicine;
      this was the same year that Ernst Weber
      joined as a Dozent (a mid-level academic
      rank). During his medical education,
      his interest in religious faith decreased

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      Paradigm Explorer 2021/1

      while his interest in the natural sciences
      increased. Even so, he soon became
      disillusioned with his medical studies
      though he did complete a degree allowing
      him to teach. His disillusionment with
      medicine lead him to seek out lectures
      on sensory physiology by Weber and
      mathematics by Karl Mollweide. Both of
      these men worked in perception, an area
      of increasing interest for Fechner.

      In 1820, while still in medical school, he
      was introduced to ‘Natural Philosophy’
      through reading Lorenz Oken’s Lehrbuch
      zur Naturphilosophie (1809). Natural
      Philosophy was the prescientific,
      philosophical study of the physical
      universe; it is considered the precursor of
      modern natural science. In 19th century
      Germany, Naturphilosophie was an
      attempt to unify nature as seen in the
      romantic worldview of e.g., Johann
      von Goethe and Georg Hegel versus the

      more mechanical worldview of e.g., John
      Locke and Isaac Newton. Fechner was
      excited by Oken’s speculations about the
      unity of nature in contrast to medicine’s
      more mechanistic view. Fechner wrote
      “A new light seemed to me to illuminate
      the whole world and the sciences of the
      world; I was dazzled by it.” For the next
      four years, Fechner devoted himself to
      Naturphilosophie. However, he was
      critical of its methods and in fact wrote,
      under the pseudonym Dr. Mises, a satire
      on them (Stapelia mixta, 1824). He soon
      became frustrated by Naturphilosophie.

      Fechner earned his medical degree in 1822
      and the next year he started lecturing
      in physiology at his Alma Mater, the
      Leipzig Medical School. To help support
      himself, he also began translating Précis
      élémentaire de physique expérimentale
      (The element of experimental physics)
      by French physicist Jena Baptiste

      Biot. He noted that Biot, by following
      careful methods of experimentation and
      observation, produced precise results
      of the type missing in both Natural
      Philosophy and medicine. By 1824,
      Fechner changed his field and began
      doing research in and lecturing on
      physics. Still needing additional income,
      Fechner continued translating science
      writings and by 1830 he had translated
      more than twelve volumes of physics
      and chemistry. By 1834, with over 40
      publications in physics, he was appointed
      professor of physics at Leipzig and soon
      created the first Institute for Physics in
      Germany. A few years later, his interest
      in psychology began manifesting and,
      in 1838 and 1840, he published papers
      investigating the connection between the
      physical phenomenon of light and its
      subjective perception. At this same time,
      he wrote, again under the nom-de-plume
      of Dr. Mises, The Little Book on Life
      After Death maintaining that individual
      consciousness (i.e., soul) survived after
      death. This indicates Fechner’s lifelong
      dual interest in philosophical metaphysics
      and experimental science.

      Fechner’s professorship and heavy
      translating load resulted in a great deal of
      stress and, in the autumn of 1839, Fechner
      was emotionally exhausted and suffering
      from headaches, insomnia, lethargy, and
      symptoms of neurosis; modern authors
      suggest he was suffering from serious
      neurotic depression with hypochondriacal
      preoccupation. In addition to these
      physical and mental issues, Fechner was
      nearly blind. In doing his experimental
      work studying sensory after-images, he
      spent extended amounts of time looking
      directly at the sun. This resulted in a
      painful and debilitating eye disorder, most
      likely solar retinopathy. This disorder is
      damage to the nerves in the back of the
      eye (the retina) from prolonged exposure
      to solar radiation; these retinal nerves
      transmit information to primary visual
      cortex of the brain (and elsewhere) and
      allows us to see.

      Light was very painful for Fechner
      to the point where he had to live in a
      completely darkened room and to wear
      a blindfold; he was unable to read or
      write. In December 1839, he resigned his
      professorship and went into a lengthy
      period of seclusion. His mental health
      continued to decline, most likely due
      to ‘black patch psychosis.’ This is a
      condition seen in some patients who have
      both eyes patched closed and, in severe
      cases, can result in auditory and visual
      hallucinations as well as delusions. At the

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      Paradigm Explorer 2021/1

      time, little was known of these disorders
      and no medical treatment helped him;
      desperate, his doctors attempted a remedy
      from traditional Chinese medicine. This
      treatment resulted in no improvement and
      in fact created GI problems that quickly
      emaciated him.

      Fechner wrote that only two things
      prevented him from sinking into complete
      oblivion: the care of his wife and his
      religious faith (remember he came from
      a line of pastors). Slowly, a process of
      recovery began and by Christmas of 1843,
      Fechner believed “…God himself…”
      called him to do extraordinary things.
      Three years later he returned to a
      professorship at Leipzig. During his period
      of seclusion, his interests increasingly
      focused on metaphysics and, returning
      to Leipzig, he requested returning as a
      professor of philosophy. He had no formal
      lecturing responsibilities but voluntarily
      gave lectures, frequently on the soul. His
      1848 manuscript, Nanna, oder Über
      das Seelenleben der Pflanzen (Nanna, or
      About the Soul Life of Plants), contains
      his first explicit, philosophical treatment
      of the problem of the relationship of soul
      to body.

      In his 1851 book, Zend-Avesta oder über
      die Dinge des Himmels und des Jenseits
      (Zend-Avesta, or Concerning Matters of
      Heaven and the World to Come), Fechner
      set forth a more detailed theory of human
      soul-body relations. He postulated that
      human, indeed all things, had a soul and
      that the human soul has an effect on the
      body.1

      Fechner thought that this philosophical
      framework required a solid scientific
      foundation. He reported that on the
      morning of 22 October 1850, the general
      outline of the solution came to him and
      Fechner laid out the basic framework for
      psychophysics. It has been suggested that
      this general outline was highly influenced
      by earlier work of Weber but we have
      Fechner’s statement that it didn’t and, even
      though the two men were colleagues at the
      same university, Weber did not do much
      to emphasize this aspect of his work. Still,
      as Fechner developed his framework, he
      acknowledged Weber’s work and clearly
      differentiated his (Fechner’s) work from
      Weber’s. Between 1851 and 1860, Fechner
      worked out the rationale for measuring
      human sensory experience in terms of
      thresholds and just noticeable differences.
      That is, how much does a sensation have
      to change before we are consciously

      aware of it existing or being ‘noticeably
      different’.

      Most relevant here is his concept of the
      threshold. Fechner reasoned that we are
      constantly receiving stimulation from the
      world but we are not conscious of most of
      this information. The mind/soul somehow
      becomes consciously aware of some of it,
      that which is above threshold, while most
      of it remains unconscious, that is, remains
      below threshold. The key question is what
      are the conditions that allow unconscious
      things to raise to the conscious state
      and for conscious things to sink to the
      unconscious state. Fechner developed
      a formal procedure for measuring this
      process. Similarly, he formalized the
      concept of a differential threshold; that
      is, how much does a sensation have to
      change before we are consciously aware of
      the new stimuli being ‘noticeably different’
      from the original stimuli. With this work,
      Fechner developed a mathematic of the
      mind/soul.

      His 1860 book, Elemente der
      Psychophysik (Elements of Psychophysics),
      further developed this mathematical thesis
      stating that Elemente is “… a text of the
      exact science of the functional relations
      or relations of dependency between the
      body and the soul ….” With this, Fechner
      sought to use the techniques of science
      and mathematics to study the human
      soul. Fechner showed that non-physical
      events such as those of mind or soul, not
      only could be measured, but measured
      in terms of their relationship to physical
      events2. In achieving this milestone,
      Fechner established psychophysics as one
      of the core methods of the newly emerging
      scientific psychology. As Boring (1950)
      noted, before Fechner, there was only the
      early ‘philosophical psychology’ such as
      that of Gottfried Leibniz and John Locke
      and the more modern ‘physiological
      psychology’ such as that of Johannes
      Müller and Ernst Weber. Fechner’s
      experimental method began an entirely
      new wave in psychology, which became
      the basis for experimental psychology. His
      techniques and methods inspired Wilhelm
      Wundt, who created the first laboratory
      for the scientific study of conscious
      experience, opening the door to the
      scientific study of mind.

      As Fechner was putting the finishing
      touches on the Elemente, a young
      physician and neurophysiologist, Wilhelm
      Wundt, became a Dozent in physiology at
      Heidelberg. He began the study of sense

      perception that led to his 1862 Beiträge
      zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung
      (Contributions to the Theory of Sensory
      Perception). The Beiträge is notable
      for its introduction on methods that
      marked the emergence of Wundt’s
      plan for an experimental psychology.
      Rejecting a metaphysical foundation
      for psychology, Wundt argued that the
      study of consciousness was best done
      through newly emerging sciences including
      Fechner’s psychophysics. He stated that
      only this scientific approach would allow
      understanding of the “complex products
      of the unconscious mind.” Right before
      moving to Leipzig to accept a chair in
      philosophy in 1875, Wundt collected his
      physiology lectures into Grundzüge der
      physiologischen Psychologie (Principles
      of Physiological Psychology), the first
      comprehensive handbook of modern
      experimental psychology. In the Winter
      of 1879, he created the first laboratory
      devoted to original psychological research;
      its opening is usually thought of as the
      beginning of modern psychology.3

      When Wundt arrived at Leipzig, Fechner
      was a rather old man at 74 years old and
      had not been very actively involved in
      the life of the university for decades. Yet
      he was still an active and sought-after
      scholar. He received visits from such noted
      scholars as philosopher Franz Brentano,
      physicist Ernst Mach, psychologist Carl
      Stumpf, and American psychologist and
      Clark University President G. Stanley
      Hall. Sigmund Freud attended Fechner’s
      lectures in Leipzig and gave him the title
      “The great G. T. Fechner.” It is clear that
      Wundt was very close to Fechner. He
      delivered Fechner’s eulogy and inherited
      his papers. After Fechner’s death, Wundt
      and his associates edited and published
      Fechner’s largest posthumous publication,
      Theory of Measuring Collectives (1897),
      as well as an edited edition of Elements
      of Psychophysics (1889). Marking the
      centennial of Fechner’s birth, Wundt
      remembered him not only as the father
      of psychophysics, but also as a model, to
      his final days, of scientific and scholarly
      dedication.

      However, even though Wundt adopted
      Fechner’s psychophysical methods,
      he never adopted his metaphysics.
      In defining experimental psychology,
      Wundt established a modern psychology
      that existed between philosophy and
      physiology. In place of the metaphysical
      definition of psychology as a science of
      the soul, Wundt defined experimental

      16 www.scimednet.org

      Paradigm Explorer 2021/1

      psychology as a psychology of
      consciousness that precisely analyzes
      the processes of consciousness, to assess
      the complex psychological connections,
      and to find the laws governing such
      relationships. He specifically excluded the
      individual soul from his new psychology.
      Wundt also rejected any subconscious
      mental processes as a topic of scientific
      psychology. In Grundzuge, he specifically
      stated that the actively organizing
      processes that results in consciousness will
      no longer be explained by means of an
      immortal soul. In perhaps the only extant
      letter from Fechner to Wundt, Fechner
      stated:

      “I don’t see why we should argue about
      this anymore; I would rather not argue
      with you on this subject at all, since we
      are both convinced that we cannot change
      one another’s opinion on the issues at
      hand. You will continue to recognize
      spiritism as something that cannot be
      investigated, that is not factual, and I will
      continue to say that it is factual and will
      try to investigate it.”

      Fechner was not as popular among the
      younger generation of scientists who
      were warry of his metaphysical position
      in Nanna and Zend-Avesta. Wundt and
      others were part of a younger, more
      mechanistic generation of scientists who
      were trained after the Naturphilosophisch
      influence. For example, the physicists
      Hermann von Helmholtz (20 years
      Fechner’s junior) and Ernst Mach (37
      years Fechner’s junior) both adopted
      Fechner’s methods as they explored
      sensory physiology and perception but
      ignored his metaphysics. Wundt (31 years
      Fechner’s junior), in papers published
      in 1862 and 1863, drew attention to
      Fechner’s psychophysical methods while

      ignoring his metaphysics. However, to
      Fechner, psychophysics was not simply
      a useful methodology for approaching
      some problems in sensory physiology and
      experimental psychology; it was the way
      to discover the true connection between
      matter and soul.

      Even though psychology began as the
      formal scientific investigation of the
      soul, such work was soon abandoned
      in favor of studying the mind. Further,
      contemporary psychology frequently
      ignores the mind in favor of behavior with
      Behaviorism stating that mind is not a part
      of psychology. Still, modern areas such as
      cognitive science, cognitive and systems
      neuroscience, and artificial intelligence are
      reviving the scientific interest in mind, and
      perhaps we will soon see Fechner’s insight
      revived by a reintroduction of soul into
      modern scientific theory.

      Further Reading

      Biot, J. B. (1821). Précis élémentaire de
      physique expérimentale. (G. T. Fechner,
      Trans.). Paris: Déterville.

      Boring, E. G. (1929/1950). A History of
      Experimental Psychology. New York:
      Appleton-Century-Crofts.

      Fechner, G. T. (1824). Stapelia mixta. Leipzig,
      Germany: L. Voss.

      Fechner, G. T. (1836/2005). The Little Book
      on Life After Death (M. C. Wadsworth,
      Trans.). Boston, MA: Weiser Books.

      Fechner, G. T. (1851). Zend-Avesta oder über
      die Dinge des Himmels und des Jenseits; vom
      Standpunkt der Naturbetrachtung Leipzig,
      Germany: Voss.

      Fechner, G. T. (1860). Elemente der
      Psychophysik. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf
      und Härtel.

      Heidelberger, M. (2004). Nature from
      within: Gustav Theodor Fechner and his
      psychophysical worldview (C. Klohr, Trans.).
      Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

      Oken, L. (1809). Lorenz Oken’s Lehrbuch
      zur Naturphilosophie. Jena, Germany:
      Fromann.

      Wundt, W. (1862). Beiträge zur Theorie der
      Sinneswahrnehmung. Leipzig und Heidelberg.
      : C. F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung.

      Wundt, W. (1874/1902). Grundzüge der
      physiologischen Psychologie (E. B. Titchener,
      Trans.). Toronto, Ontario: York University,
      Classics in the History of Psychology.

      Charles R Fox, O.D., Ph.D. is a systems
      neuroscientist, rehabilitative optometrist,
      and psychologist who is currently Pro-
      fessor of Psychology with the Worcester
      State University (MA). He primarily
      teaches neuroscience and the history of
      psychology. He has written books, book
      chapters, and peer-reviewed research
      articles on the neuroscience of space per-
      ception and spatial orientation, clinical
      care, and liberal and professional educa-
      tion. Over the last decade, his work has
      lead him to consider the role of the un-
      conscious mind in the western scholarly
      tradition, especially scientific psychology.
      This lead to his current project with the
      working title ‘The Re-enchantment of
      Humankind’.
      http://worcester.academia.edu/Charles-
      Fox

      Endnotes

      1 We should note that Fechner’s view of
      soul was not the Judaic-Christian soul but
      rather that of panpsychism. For a modern
      discussion of panpsychism, see Philip Goff’s
      Galileo’s Error (2019)

      2 This relationship is formally described by
      the Weber-Fechner law that is still dominant
      in current experimental psychology.

      3 Wundt created a teaching laboratory in
      1876 but did not start doing experiments
      beyond class teandching until 1879. Similar
      to the case of William James’ teaching lab
      at Harvard (1875), teaching labs are not
      considered in this context.

      Pyrenees in May – David Lorimer

      psychology

      Create Your Parenting Case Study

      Aichatou Njoya

      BEHS 343 6381

      Professor Jia Li Liu

      January 31, 2022


      STEP 1: SCENARIO

      Behavioral Issues In Teens


      STEP 2: AGE GROUP OF INTEREST

      · 14-18 yrs

      · 18-21 yrs

       


      STEP 3: SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

      · lower

      · middle

       


      STEP 4: FAMILY COMPOSITION

      (include at least 2 of these details)

      · Parents are married.

      · The teenager has a brother and a younger sister.

      · She lives with both her parents and siblings.

      · Both parents work full time but are involved in the education of their children by helping with homework, checking the grades.

      · Other?


      STEP 5: TYPE OF PROBLEM

      · Schoolwork , homework and has the influence of social media and friends.

      · Behavioral Issue


      STEP 6: SITES OF IMPACT

      · The sites of impact are mostly at home but rarely happen at school.


      STEP 7: POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

      · Home Plan

      · Community Support Groups

      · Behavioral Health Plan

      · Special Programs/Supports

       

      The current case study involves a 19-year-old female from a middle-class family who has started to show aggressive behavior toward her parents who are trying to reprimand her because she often comes home late and fails her classes. She has a twenty-year-older brother and an eight-year-old younger sister who follow their parent’s rule and no known behavioral issues. Her parents are married and work full-time. Even though, they are busy with work, they are fully involved in the children’s success by helping with homework. I will discuss the case mostly in the context of home setting, but I will incorporate some social surroundings as well. However, a parenting action plan will be implemented to address and control this type of behavior. The plan will involve solutions such as participating in community support groups; following a behavioral health plan or therapy through a psychologist and getting involved in special programs (sports or doing community services).

      Psychology

      2/22/22, 3:14 PMRubric Assessment – PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22 – CCCOnline

      Page 1 of 2https://ccco.desire2learn.com/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_…8819&groupId=0&d2l_body_type=5&closeButton=1&showRubricHeadings=0

      Essay Rubric
      Course: PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22

      Criteria Excellent Very Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement No Evidence

      Content

      Critical Thinking

      Application of Source

      Material

      Organization

      Grammar and Style

      30 points

      Demonstrates strong

      knowledge of the materials

      by correctly representing

      knowledge from the readings

      and sources. Gives full and

      complete summary of the

      conclusions from relevant

      studies. Essay (not including

      the title page, abstract, or

      references) is at least 1,000

      words.

      24 points

      Some significant, but not

      major errors or omissions in

      demonstration of knowledge.

      Gives mostly full and

      complete information on the

      conclusions from relevant

      research studies. Word count

      is below 1,000 words.

      18 points

      Major errors or omissions in

      demonstration of knowledge.

      Gives some information on

      the conclusions from

      relevant research studies.

      Word count is below 700

      words.

      12 points

      Fails to demonstrate

      knowledge of the materials.

      Gives little or no information

      from relevant research

      studies. Word count is below

      500 words.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      30 points

      Provides strong original

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking of concepts.

      Analyzes and synthesizes

      information effectively from

      sources on the topic.

      24 points

      Provides adequate original

      thought with some

      significant, but not major

      errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Mostly analyzes

      and synthesizes information

      effectively from sources on

      the topic.

      18 points

      Major errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Analyzes and

      synthesizes some

      information effectively from

      sources on the topic.

      12 points

      Fails to demonstrate

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Does not

      effectively analyze and

      synthesize information from

      sources on the topic.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      25 points

      Sources are well or

      adequately chosen to

      provide substance and

      perspectives on the issue.

      Knowledge from the course

      is linked properly to source

      material. Uses two high-

      quality, academic, scholarly

      resources with accurate APA

      formatted in-text citations

      and references where

      appropriate.

      20 points

      Some significant, but not

      major problems with

      selection and linkage of

      sources. Uses two sources

      from high quality, academic,

      scholarly resources. In-text

      citations and references are

      provided but include minor

      APA formatting mistakes.

      15 points

      Major problems with

      selection and linkage of

      sources. Uses one high-

      quality, academic, scholarly

      resource. In-text citations

      and references are provided

      but are not formatted using

      APA and/or include

      numerous formatting

      mistakes.

      10 points

      Source selection is seriously

      flawed with no linkage to

      knowledge from the course.

      Sources are not academic or

      insufficient. Citations and

      reference page are partial

      and inaccurate.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      20 points

      Review is clearly organized,

      well written, and includes an

      introductory paragraph with

      a thesis statement, followed

      by a main body with

      supporting arguments

      (organized using APA

      formatted headings and

      seriation), a summary

      conclusion, and an APA

      formatted reference page at

      the end.

      16 points

      Small number of significant,

      but not major flaws in

      organization and writing. In a

      major way, does not conform

      to project requirements.

      12 points

      Major problems in

      organization and writing. In a

      significant way, does not

      conform to project

      requirements.

      8 points

      Essay is not well organized

      or well written, and is

      difficult to follow. Does not

      conform to project

      requirements.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      20 points

      Strong sentence and

      paragraph structure with few

      or no minor errors in

      16 points

      Small number of significant,

      but not major errors in

      grammar and spelling;

      12 points

      Inconsistent to inadequate

      sentence and paragraph

      development; work needed

      8 points

      Poor quality; unacceptable in

      terms of grammar and/or

      spelling; inappropriate

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      2/22/22, 3:14 PMRubric Assessment – PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22 – CCCOnline

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      Total

      Overall Score

      grammar and spelling.

      Utilizes an appropriate

      writing style that is clear and

      concise with no unsupported

      comments. Includes less than

      two APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      generally appropriate

      writing. Includes less than

      four APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      on grammar and spelling;

      does not meet program

      expectations. Includes less

      than six APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      writing style that interferes

      with clarity. Includes seven

      or more APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      Exemplary
      125 points minimum

      Proficient
      100 points minimum

      Developing
      75 points minimum

      Limited Evidence
      50 points minimum

      psychology

      Fechner Assignment

      PS450-02

      The history of modern science can be traced back to the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. Thus, this time in history can be understood as a progressive movement away from the influence of theology and philosophy, and toward a more mechanistic and material description of the universe (Fox, 2021). In its entirety, there was a progression away from studying the soul. How so?**

      Despite this progression, Gustav Fechner attempted to continue his formal study of the human soul. Fechner was doing something pretty unique here. What was the status of the human soul in pre-Fechner science – do some exploration**. His work in this area became known as Psychophysics, a term referring to the mathematical relationship between the physical world and the human soul (Fox, 2021). In this context, the human soul was represented by consciousness (Fox, 2021).

      While Fechner studied in medical school, he was exposed to and became devoted to Natural Philosophy, or Naturphilosophie. This study was considered the precursor of modern natural science, and had the goal of unifying nature (Fox, 2021). This unity was seen in the romantic worldview of Johann von Goethe and Georg Hegel (Fox, 2021). What was this romantic world view? Who were Goethe & Hegel & what was their worldview.**

      Fechner earned his medical degree in 1822 and began lecturing in physiology at the Leipzig Medical School, but his academic interests soon changed. After doing translation for Jena Baptiste’s, “Précis élémentaire de physique expérimentale”, or “The element of experimental physics,Fechner appreciated the precise results produced from careful experimentation and observation in physics, and as a result, changed his field to physics and began lecturing and researching in this discipline (Fox, 2021). This is basically good – but why was he translating physics? What was lacking in physiology of the time that was present in physics?**

      However, by 1839, Fechner resigned his professorship. This was due to a combination of physical and emotional symptoms resulting from the immense amount (of what**) stemming from his professorship (Fox, 2021). (was it simply his professorship – he had that since 1823**) Fechner’s symptoms included headaches, insomnia, and symptoms of neurosis, and he eventually developed a debilitating eye disorder (Fox, 2021). Why did he develop these disorders?** This eye disorder caused Fechner to be unable to read and write, which ultimately led to his resignation as a professor and his entering into a period of seclusion (Fox, 2021).

      After a lengthy process of recovery, Fechner returned to professorship in the field of philosophy (Fox, 2021). Why switch fields?** After some time, he determined that a scientific foundation was needed to explain the relationship between the physical world and the human soul, which began his study and development of psychophysics. Between 1851 and 1860, as part of his study of psychophysics, Fechner studied human sensation using thresholds and just-noticeable differences (Fox, 2021). He described the threshold as the point between where the mind/soul is consciously aware of physical stimulation, and where the mind/soul is not consciously aware of this information (Fox, 2021). This implies that there must be some conditions that allow some stimulations to occur unconsciously, and other conditions that allow stimulation to occur consciously (Fox, 2021). Essentially, there must be some relationship between the physical world and the mind/soul’s awareness of it. Why is this important?**

      The way in which Fechner studied psychophysics became a newly emerging scientific psychology. His methods inspired Wilhelm Wundt, a physician and neurophysiologist who created the first laboratory where the conscious experience could be scientifically studied (Fox, 2021). Why is this important?** Wundt felt that this study of the conscious experience was best done through Fechner’s psychophysics, which allowed understanding of the complexity of the unconscious mind (Fox, 2021). Overtime, Wundt and Fechner developed a close relationship, illustrated by the fact that Wundt edited and published Fechner’s Theory of Measuring Collectives and Elements of Psychophysics after Fechner’s death (Fox, 2021). Wundt remembered Fechner as the father of psychophysics (Fox, 2021).

      Reference

      Fox, C.R. (2021). The man who introduced Soul to Science: Gustav Theodor Fechner. Paradigm

      Explorer.

      psychology

      C Fox, Page 1/1

      21 February 2022

      PS450: Fechner & Psychophysics Assignment

      Gustav Fechner’s 19th century founding of Psychophysics, which served as the beginning of modern psychology, was an attempt to formally study the human soul; that is, create a mathematical description of the relationship between the world described by physics and the human soul represented by consciousness.

      You will read the manuscript “The Man who Introduced Soul to Science: Gustav Theodor Fechner” and write a critical analysis/response. Your response should be 5-8 pages and include the following:

      1) A summary of the reading describing the central points, issues, or themes.

      2) An explanation of the significance of this manuscript to the history of psychology

      3) A detailed explanation of the position described drawing on outside sources to shape your explanation. You should include the following:

      a. Define Fechner’s Psychophysics

      b. Naturphilosophie (Natural Philosophy) is considered the precursor of modern natural science. What was its goal?

      c. Fechner earned his medical degree in 1822 and became a Dozent in physiology at Leipzig Medical School. Within a couple of years his academic interests changed. What did they change to and what were the underlying reasons for the change?

      d. In December 1839, he resigned his professorship and went into a lengthy period of seclusion. Why?

      e. Between 1851 and 1860, Fechner worked out the rationale for measuring human sensory experience in terms of thresholds and just noticeable differences. What, in Fechner’s Psychophysics, is a threshold and what does it imply?

      f. What is Fechner’s relationship to Wilhelm Wundt?

      Psychology

      Psychology and Health

      Given the widespread use of digital technology, health psychologists are developing new and innovative ways to capture the attention of users and engage them in monitoring their own health behaviors. Interventions can start with well-designed websites for people who have diagnosed health problems, such as arthritis and other painful conditions. These sites provide tips for coping with illness, new research findings, alternative treatments, nutrition and exercise guidelines, and links to advocacy groups. In addition, some offer chat groups that allow individuals who might otherwise be suffering alone to share information and support with others who have similar experiences. The editorial notes that other creative ideas for using digital technology, including cell phones and PDA’s, to promote health behavior change represent a cost effective, easily accessible strategy for behavior change that may be the wave of the future.

      Health psychologists often emphasize the role of support groups in promoting and sustaining health behavior change. It also underscores the importance of self-monitoring as a key component of health behavior change programs. Discuss at least 3 specific ideas you have for using digital media to provide support and facilitate self-monitoring of health behaviors. How might cell phones and PDA’s be used to change specific health behaviors such as weight control, smoking, pain management, and others problems? Note that research shows that regular feedback on one’s progress, including comparisons with baseline measures and information about progress toward specific goals is most effective in producing health behavior change. Be sure to cite authoritative sources.

      Source: Editorial. (2009). Psychology and Health, 24 (6), 615-618.

      Psychology

       

      2, 12:00 AM

      Due Date & Time

      Apr 20, 2022, 11:59 PM

      StatusUpcomingAssessment TraitsRequires LopeswriteAssessment Description

      Complete the “Counseling Disposition Reflection Worksheet.”

      While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. 

      You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

      This assignment meets the following NASAC Standards:

      20) Understand the addiction professional’s obligation to adhere to generally accepted ethical and behavioral standards of conduct in the helping relationship.

      21) Understand the importance of ongoing supervision and continuing education in the delivery of client services.

      116) Demonstrate ethical behaviors by adhering to established professional codes of ethics that define the professional context within which the counselor works, in order to maintain professional standards and safeguard the client.

      120) Utilize a range of supervisory options to process personal feelings and concerns about clients.

      122) Obtain appropriate continuing professional education.

      124) Develop and utilize strategies to maintain physical and mental health.

      Psychology

      Module 6 Project: Improving “Little Albert”

      Overview

      Watch the following videos about Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment: log in is S01613748

      Into the Mind: Emotions

      References

      Films on Demand. (2011). Into the mind: Emotions [Video file]. BBC Worldwide Learning (original copyright 2010). https://fod-infobase-com.ccco.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=43511

      Thinking Critically About the “Little Albert” Study

      References

      Films on Demand. (2011). Thinking critically about the “Little Albert” study . BBC Worldwide Learning (original copyright 2010). https://ccco.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=151823&xtid=43511&loid=99516

      Worldwide Learning (original copyright 2010). https://fod-infobase-com.ccco.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=43511&loid=99516&tScript=0

      This experiment would not live up to ethical standards in the field today. For this assignment, you will be creating a project that illustrates your original ideas about the following: Considering the principles identified in the code of conduct for psychologist by the American Psychological Association – htts://www.apa.org/ethics/code. How might Watson and Rayner, who conducted the famous “Little Albert” study, have designed a more ethical study of conditioned emotional responses (CERs)?

      Be sure to include the following required elements in your submission:

      1. Your project illustrated all of the concepts listed above.

      2. A written summary of at least 200 words clarifying the visual representation you’ve created (in .doc or .rtf format).

      3. APA formatted reference information and in-text citations (provided within the summary and/or graphic representation as appropriate) for at least one resource in addition to the textbook.

      Instructions

      Infographic project: Provide a visual representation of your understanding of the concept in the form of an infographic (a visual image that represents data or information) using one of the below recommended tools, or something similar approved by your instructor.

      · Piktochart

      · Infogram

      · Canva

      · Microsoft Word (or equivalent)

      · Microsoft PowerPoint (or equivalent)

      Infographic submissions must be in the format of a .pdf, .png, .jpeg, .doc, or .docx. The recommended tools allow at least one of these options for the finished project. If you choose to use a different tool, please be sure that the finished project is submitted in one of the approved formats. The 4 types of infographic project page provides an overview of some general approaches that could be used when creating your project: Note: This project is well suited to the “Comparison” approach.

      Alternative Creative Project: In lieu of an infographic, it is acceptable to provide a creative textual representation of your understanding of the concepts (i.e. a poem, short story, a personal example, description of connections between concepts, etc.) If you choose this approach, please be sure to include the textual representation in addition to your 200-word summary. All text submissions must be in .doc or .rtf format.

      Psychology

      Module 7 Assignment: Final Essay

      Overview

      For this assignment, you will need to write a well thought out 1,000-word essay that demonstrates clear and thorough comprehension and evaluation of the material covered in this module. Please be sure to address the following in your essay:

      · Human memory is often compared to the workings of a computer. Based on your own experience, what are the advantages and limits of this comparison?

      · How do the features of sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory apply in this comparison?

      · How do the key factors and theories of forgetting apply in this comparison?

      Instructions

      All essays must include an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement, (taking a clear position on your subject), followed by a main point with supporting arguments (organized using APA formatted heading and seriation), a summary conclusion, and an APA formatted reference page at the end. All essays must use Times New Roman 12 pt or Verdana 10 pt font, be double-spaced, have 1″ margins, and include a total word count (1,000 word minimum not including the reference page). You must use and reference 2 different high quality, academic, scholarly resources. If you use a website as a resource, please make sure it is high quality, scholarly, well cited, and well-researched prior to referencing it. Wikipedia or similar references will not be accepted. Students must use APA style to cite within the body of the essay as well as on the reference page at the end of the essay. Please review the CCCOnline APA Toolkit, or the APA style guide provided on the Purdue Owl Website if needed.

      PSYCHOLOGY

      What I Learned

      Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. You should respond to at least two classmate’s posting by 11:59 pm CST on Sunday, with at least 75 words or more. 

      STEP 1: Think of different, specific, examples of things you have learned through the types of conditioning discussed in this module. Write a discussion post explaining the behaviors you learned, and identify the key “components” and vocabulary of the learning, such as the UCS, UCR, CS, CR, positive or negative reinforcement, shaping, etc. The entire post should be at least 200 words and respond to the following prompt:

      1. Describe one example of something learned through classical conditioning.

      2. Describe one example of something learned through operant conditioning.

      3. Describe one example of something learned through observational learning or latent learning.


      Top of Form

      Top of Form

      Psychology

      1

      Dream Infographic Summary

      Azra Ramic

      PSY101CC1

      03/03/2022


      Summary of the Visual Representation

      Emotional dreams are commonly caused by emotions of fear, anxiety, and surprise. I had a dream of being late for an exam. Having the exams, I had to study late hours and wake up early because I was anxious that I was not prepared. These emotions caused my dream, and I was in stress that I had events to attend to, do the assignments and at the same time revise for the final exams. The many events running on my mind indeed indicate that my dream was an emotional one. Psychoanalysis of the cognitive view of dream explained my dream exactly compared to other theories. Marti (2019) claims that if you don’t tackle bad emotions when you’re awake, your brain will try to resist them, which will lead the emotions to surface in your dreams.

      Sleep is an essential aspect to every individual, for me spending more hours doing the assignments and sleeping a few hours aroused a dream that I could fail the exam. Sleeping for fewer hours, one’s brain do not have time to organize information and regenerate it (Scarpelli et al., 2019). Therefore, having high emotions and stress made me dream because my mind had to process all the information I gathered from consciousness. I felt unprepared and did not achieve what I wanted, contributing to my dream.

      References

      Scarpelli, S., Bartolacci, C., D’Atri, A., Gorgoni, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2019). The functional role of dreaming in emotional processes. Frontiers in psychology10, 459.

      Marti, D. (2019, June 28). How Emotions Enter Our Dreams and Impact Our Health. https://wbplincoln.org/how-emotions-enter-our-dreams-and-impact-our-health

      Psychology

      This was originally intended as a journal entry for the week covering Psychology of the Workplace. Keeping that in mind, read through the below scenario, then write a “journal” entry in a Word document and upload it here for extra credit.

      See the details at the bottom of the instructions for scoring. Max score is 60 pts and minimum is 30. You will get 30 just for turning something in, but if you really put some thought into this you can earn enough to make up for a full day absent, or over 1/3 of an exam. Give it a go!

      =====

      SCENARIO:

      You have been hired by a nation-wide design firm and have been working remotely for over a year. Employees work remotely from nearly every state in the US. Even your interview for hiring was done remotely by phone call, so you have only met with your boss and a couple of colleagues via phone conference.

      After all this time, your company decides to get everyone together for some team building. So, at company expense, they fly all employees to the home office and hold a retreat weekend. Everything is covered from food to private hotel rooms–the works. Obviously the company is doing well and has a sizable budget. You decide you want to make this a long-term career and hope there is room for you to “climb the ladder” with promotions and recognition. You have the opportunity to make a lasting impression on your boss and others this weekend.

      While there, you discover that someone else has been claiming to be you for the past year, and has taken credit for all the hard work you’ve been doing. No one has ever met either of you, and the other person also has identification with your name on it.

      What will you do to prove to your boss that YOU are the one and only you?

      Write a plan of action for yourself in your journal.

      This should be about a page long or so, double-spaced. If it takes longer, that’s fine.
      But no more than two pages and no less than 3/4 of a page.

      You do not need a title page or anything else since this is a “journal entry.”

      60 pts = You covered all the bases and put considerable thought into this.
      By reading it I can tell the boss would have to recognize you as the real deal.

      45 pts = You have a lot of detail, but there are some flaws in your thinking
      and you will likely make the wrong first impression.

      30 pts = You managed to offend everyone in management and have been fired.

      Psychology

       

      Select a topic to research. For your research, you must use Google Scholar, the GCU Library, or another reputable site. Use Lecture 2 for a description of what is considered a scholarly article. Use APA formatting style for references. Create a title page and a reference list with 10 references from the last 5 years.

      While permalinks are not part of an APA citation, they do make the information easier to find in the future. At the end of the document, provide the permalinks for all sources (unless one is unavailable). For more information on how to locate the persistent links, review “Persistent Links” in the topic materials. 

      Include the following types of references:

      1. Book
      2. Journal articles
      3. Website
      4. Dissertation/thesis from a database
      5. Streaming video
      6. Book chapter

      Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

      This assignment uses a scoring guide. Please review the scoring guide prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

      AttachmentsTopic 2 Reference List Assignment Scoring Guide.docx 

      psychology

      in 250 word or more list and explain the major philosophical issues in psychology. lastly, provide a sentence for each issue that explains your thoughts on the issues.

      Psychology

      3/10/22, 6:38 PMM7 Assignment: Final Essay Assignment Submission Folder – PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22 – CCCOnline

      Page 1 of 2https://ccco.desire2learn.com/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=2593196&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=3335152

      Essay Rubric
      Course: PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22

      Criteria Excellent Very Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement No Evidence

      Content

      Critical Thinking

      Application of Source

      Material

      Organization

      Grammar and Style

      30 points

      Demonstrates strong

      knowledge of the materials

      by correctly representing

      knowledge from the readings

      and sources. Gives full and

      complete summary of the

      conclusions from relevant

      studies. Essay (not including

      the title page, abstract, or

      references) is at least 1,000

      words.

      24 points

      Some significant, but not

      major errors or omissions in

      demonstration of knowledge.

      Gives mostly full and

      complete information on the

      conclusions from relevant

      research studies. Word count

      is below 1,000 words.

      18 points

      Major errors or omissions in

      demonstration of knowledge.

      Gives some information on

      the conclusions from

      relevant research studies.

      Word count is below 700

      words.

      12 points

      Fails to demonstrate

      knowledge of the materials.

      Gives little or no information

      from relevant research

      studies. Word count is below

      500 words.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      30 points

      Provides strong original

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking of concepts.

      Analyzes and synthesizes

      information effectively from

      sources on the topic.

      24 points

      Provides adequate original

      thought with some

      significant, but not major

      errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Mostly analyzes

      and synthesizes information

      effectively from sources on

      the topic.

      18 points

      Major errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Analyzes and

      synthesizes some

      information effectively from

      sources on the topic.

      12 points

      Fails to demonstrate

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Does not

      effectively analyze and

      synthesize information from

      sources on the topic.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      25 points

      Sources are well or

      adequately chosen to

      provide substance and

      perspectives on the issue.

      Knowledge from the course

      is linked properly to source

      material. Uses two high-

      quality, academic, scholarly

      resources with accurate APA

      formatted in-text citations

      and references where

      appropriate.

      20 points

      Some significant, but not

      major problems with

      selection and linkage of

      sources. Uses two sources

      from high quality, academic,

      scholarly resources. In-text

      citations and references are

      provided but include minor

      APA formatting mistakes.

      15 points

      Major problems with

      selection and linkage of

      sources. Uses one high-

      quality, academic, scholarly

      resource. In-text citations

      and references are provided

      but are not formatted using

      APA and/or include

      numerous formatting

      mistakes.

      10 points

      Source selection is seriously

      flawed with no linkage to

      knowledge from the course.

      Sources are not academic or

      insufficient. Citations and

      reference page are partial

      and inaccurate.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      20 points

      Review is clearly organized,

      well written, and includes an

      introductory paragraph with

      a thesis statement, followed

      by a main body with

      supporting arguments

      (organized using APA

      formatted headings and

      seriation), a summary

      conclusion, and an APA

      formatted reference page at

      the end.

      16 points

      Small number of significant,

      but not major flaws in

      organization and writing. In a

      major way, does not conform

      to project requirements.

      12 points

      Major problems in

      organization and writing. In a

      significant way, does not

      conform to project

      requirements.

      8 points

      Essay is not well organized

      or well written, and is

      difficult to follow. Does not

      conform to project

      requirements.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      20 points

      Strong sentence and

      paragraph structure with few

      or no minor errors in

      16 points

      Small number of significant,

      but not major errors in

      grammar and spelling;

      12 points

      Inconsistent to inadequate

      sentence and paragraph

      development; work needed

      8 points

      Poor quality; unacceptable in

      terms of grammar and/or

      spelling; inappropriate

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      3/10/22, 6:38 PMM7 Assignment: Final Essay Assignment Submission Folder – PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22 – CCCOnline

      Page 2 of 2https://ccco.desire2learn.com/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=2593196&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=3335152

      Total

      Overall Score

      grammar and spelling.

      Utilizes an appropriate

      writing style that is clear and

      concise with no unsupported

      comments. Includes less than

      two APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      generally appropriate

      writing. Includes less than

      four APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      on grammar and spelling;

      does not meet program

      expectations. Includes less

      than six APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      writing style that interferes

      with clarity. Includes seven

      or more APA style guide

      mistakes within the paper

      itself.

      Exemplary
      125 points minimum

      Proficient
      100 points minimum

      Developing
      75 points minimum

      Limited Evidence
      50 points minimum

      Psychology

      Review the literature for articles on Recovery Model as an approach in the management of mental illness. Include at least one nursing research article.

      After reviewing the literature, formulate a thesis statement regarding how this recovery model can be used in the management of a specific psychiatric population (such as: patients with substance-dependence disorders, patients with depression, and others) belonging to a specific culture (such as: race/ ethnicity/ language, religion and spirituality, gender and sexual orientation, traditions and beliefs)

      Describe how the literature supports the thesis statement, or answers the question.

      Describe the role of the nurse in the Recovery Model with respect to providing care for the patient population belonging to a specific culture.

      Describe how you will use the Recovery Model as a student, or in your practice after you graduate.

      The paper should be written using the APA format.

      Use at least 5 references which are current ( published within the last 5 years)

      The paper should be 5 pages in length including the reference page; title page is not included in page count.

      PSYCHOLOGY

      Thinking about Social Psychology

      Post your answers to this discussion by 11:59 pm CST on Friday of this week, your main post should have at least 200 words or more and include a citation of at least one scholarly source. You should respond to at least two classmate’s posting by 11:59 pm CST on Sunday, with at least 75 words or more. 

      STEP 1: In a post of at least 200 words, respond to ONE of the questions below:

      1. Do you ever try to persuade friends or family members to do something? How do you try to persuade them? How do they try to persuade you? Give specific examples.

      2. If you were a social psychologist, what would you want to research? Why? How would you go about it?

      3. If you were a college professor, what would you do to increase the success of in-class learning teams? Consider what you learned about group behavior in this module.

      4. Have you ever been part of a group that made a poor decision and, if so, were any of the symptoms of groupthink present in your group? How could that be prevented?


      Psychology

       Assessment TraitsRequires LopeswriteAssessment Description

      Select three of the 10 references from your Reference List assignment. Create an annotated bibliography for each of the three references. 

      Each annotation must have 150-200 words, making a total of 450-600 words for the entire assignment. Each annotation should have the following elements:

      1. APA style reference of the article being annotated
      2. A paraphrased summary of the article (See note on paraphrasing below.)
      3. An assessment of why it is a scholarly reference
      4. A reflection on how it is applicable to your research

      Note: Go to the Student Success Center and search key words “Preparing Annotated Bibliographies” for help with this assignment.

      Follow these steps for all three references you chose.

      Note on Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing the ideas of others is a requirement in academic writing and graduate study. Paraphrasing is using your own words to restate ideas or information from a source material. As you write each annotation use the following paraphrasing guidelines.

      There are three main steps to paraphrasing:

      1. Identify the original idea(s) in the article.
      2. Identify general points regarding the idea(s).
      3. Summarize the general points of the article in your own words (paraphrase).

      Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

      A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

      AttachmentsUNV-502.R.Paraphrasing Chart.dotx 

      Psychology

      3/5/22, 7:00 PMRubric Assessment – PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22 – CCCOnline

      Page 1 of 1https://ccco.desire2learn.com/d2l/lms/competencies/rubric/rubrics_…8822&groupId=0&d2l_body_type=5&closeButton=1&showRubricHeadings=0

      Project Rubric
      Course: PSY101CC1 General Psychology I: SS3 (Carrie Garman) SP22

      Total

      Overall Score

      Criteria Exemplary Proficient Developing Limited Evidence No Evidence

      Content

      Critical Thinking

      Organization and Style

      25 points

      Demonstrates

      comprehension of related

      material from the module,

      using appropriate APA

      formatted references where

      appropriate (for at least 1

      high-quality source). Sources

      used are well or adequately

      chosen to provide substance

      and perspectives on the

      issue.

      20 points

      Some significant, but not

      major, errors in

      demonstration of

      comprehension of related

      material from the module.

      Includes at least 1 reference

      with minor APA formatting

      errors. Any sources used are

      well or adequately chosen to

      provide substance and

      perspectives on the issue.

      15 points

      Major errors in

      demonstration of

      comprehension of related

      material from the module.

      Includes at least 1 reference

      with significant APA

      formatting errors. Any

      sources used are well or

      adequately chosen to

      provide substance and

      perspectives on the issue.

      10 points

      Fails to demonstrate

      comprehension of related

      material from the module.

      Does not utilize an adequate

      reference to provide

      substance and perspectives

      on the issue.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      25 points

      Provides strong or adequate

      original thought, insight, and

      critical thinking about the

      concepts. Effectively

      analyzes and synthesizes

      accurate information on the

      topic.

      20 points

      Some significant, but not

      major errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Mostly analyzes

      and synthesizes accurate

      information on the topic.

      15 points

      Major errors or omissions in

      thought, insight, and critical

      thinking. Analyzes and

      synthesizes some

      information on the topic.

      Includes some inaccuracies.

      10 points

      Fails to demonstrate critical

      thinking, or to effectively

      analyze and synthesize

      information on the topic.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      15 points

      Project is clearly organized,

      well written, and meets all

      project requirements.

      12 points

      Small number of significant,

      but not major flaws in

      organization, writing, and

      meeting project

      requirements.

      9 points

      Major problems in

      organization, writing, and

      meeting project

      requirements.

      6 points

      Does not meet expectations

      for organization, writing, and

      project requirements.

      0 points

      Not submitted/Plagiarism

      suspected

      Exemplary
      65 points minimum

      Proficient
      52 points minimum

      Developing
      39 points minimum

      Limited Evidence
      26 points minimum

      PSYCHOLOGY

      PSYC-203 Disorders in the Media Paper

      Please see Canvas Rubric for detailed grading

      This assignment provides an opportunity for students to research more in depth, a disorder portrayed in the media within the area of Abnormal Psychology. The students will not only gain insight and information regarding the chosen topic, but an understanding of the process of research and its methodology.

      You will be writing a 4-5 page paper based on one of your Disorders in the Media homeworks. This page length does NOT include the Title page or the Reference page. Choose one of your Disorders in the Media homeworks (
      Excluding the Aging and Law & Society Homeworks
      ) and the character you analyzed for the assignment. You will be researching the causes (etiology), symptoms, and treatment of your character’s disorder
      using 5 references
      :

      1) You must use your Abnormal textbook as 1 of the references. But you should not spend most of the paper just citing the textbook. Your textbook should be used mainly in the conclusion as you discuss the appropriate Model of Abnormality to treat the disorder.

      2) Two of the references will be on the causes of your character’s disorder. One reference
      MUST be a Primary source
      from a peer-reviewed journal. The 2nd Reference can either be another Primary source or a secondary source*. Two of the references will be on the treatment for the disorder. One reference
      MUST be a Primary source
      from a peer-reviewed journal. The 2nd Reference can either be another Primary source or a secondary source*.

      *
      The following sources CANNOT be used in this paper: Wikipedia, someone’s blog, someone’s personal opinion/experience, any student paper written for a dissertation or Master’s degree.


      I will be checking the validity of your secondary sources, if you use them, when you turn in your APA Reference page. If any of your secondary sources are NOT valid/reliable you will be asked to find another source before doing your final paper! None of your references (Primary or Secondary) can be OLDER than 6 years!

      Your final written assignment MUST use all 5 references. You will submit the APA Reference page through Canvas by the due date on the calendar and it must be written as it will appear in your final paper. This means that you need all 5 Reference before your APA Reference Page is due. Once your APA Reference page is submitted you
      CANNOT
      change your topic.

      This paper will consist of:

      · Title Page

      · Introduction: Should include a clear concise thesis statement. This introduction should also include a brief presentation of the research you will be discussing in the paper in the order you discuss them.

      · Body of the paper: Should summarize/review all the references presented on your Reference page. This is where you will explain the causes and treatments for the disorder you have chosen.

      · Conclusion: Here you will apply the research on causes and treatments by examining the character you analyzed for the homework. You will discuss the causes and symptoms of the disorder as cited in your two References and whether these agree OR disagree with what was shown about your character in the media. Next you will discuss what treatment is used according to your references, and whether this was shown in the media about your character. Finally, using the discussion of the Models of Abnormality found in your textbook you will discuss the best model to treat the disorder your character has. Make sure you don’t just to name the Model (e.g. don’t just say the Cognitive Model would work best) but you must provide evidence to back up your decision. You should be citing your references, including your textbook when writing your conclusion.

      · Reference page – using APA referencing method

      psychology




      https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

      Once you have reached the page for the read the preliminary information and then click on “I wish to proceed” at the bottom of the page. You may choose any of the tests offered and you may take as many as you wish; however, I only want to you discuss one. Consider that Allport states the prejudice often involves prejudgment of individual because of their real or perceived group memberships. After completion of the tests discuss if your prejudices were accurate, discuss if you discovered you have prejudices you were not aware of. Did the results give an accurate report of your negative or positive prejudices. 

      Write at least 300 word well developed and well written response. Use APA formatting guide to create accurate citations and documentation to give credit for any resource material used in your response.  You are required to respond to at least two of your classmates’ post with well written depth responses. You must follow the guidelines to receive full credit for discussion boards. If you do not post, it will count as a 0. No additional postings after the deadline with be accepted. See rubric for grading.

      Every product you buy has been created and distributed using a series of processes that were designed to transform raw materials into goods or services. Operations management is the specialized area of management that focuses on improving these processes. The operations manager is responsible for inventory management, quality control, and scheduling production, among other duties. It is their job to make sure everything runs smoothly to ensure that there are no delays or quality issues. At the same time, it is their job to keep costs of production down and increase productivity. This applies to the service industry as well. In the service sector, companies are looking to increase efficiency while keeping costs low. The goal is for the customer to have a great experience. Today, the market demands more customized goods, and companies are responding.

      Review the Production in the 21st Century Case in your textbook and/or video at the following link

      https://tinyurl.com/9sb7e8h5 (opens in new window). Respond to the following questions in the discussion forum:

      1. Looking at the future of manufacturing in the United States, do you think U.S. companies are adapting to the challenges of global manufacturing?

      2. Why has just-in-time inventory control become a dominant production process used in the automobile industry? Can you name other industries where it would be effective?

      3. How do companies decide where to locate their facilities? Provide an example of a company that has located in North Carolina in recent years.

      psychology

      6

      1

      1

      1

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      3 3

      3

      4

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      5

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      11

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      13

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      15

      29%
      SIMILARITY INDEX

      29%
      INTERNET SOURCES

      14%
      PUBLICATIONS

      22%
      STUDENT PAPERS

      1 5%
      2 3%
      3 3%
      4 3%
      5 2%
      6 2%

      7 2%
      8 2%
      9 2%

      farah.docx
      ORIGINALITY REPORT

      PRIMARY SOURCES

      www.webmd.com
      Internet Source

      Submitted to Neath Port-Talbot College
      Student Paper

      www.sfidn.com
      Internet Source

      ro.co
      Internet Source

      www.medicalnewstoday.com
      Internet Source

      Submitted to Chester College of Higher
      Education
      Student Paper

      Psychcentral.com
      Internet Source

      Submitted to Dundee College
      Student Paper

      Submitted to Western Governors University
      Student Paper

      10 2%
      11 1%

      12 1%
      13 1%
      14 1%
      15 1%

      Exclude quotes Off

      Exclude bibliography Off

      Exclude matches Off

      Submitted to City of Glasgow College
      Student Paper

      Submitted to Colorado State University,
      Global Campus
      Student Paper

      link.springer.com
      Internet Source

      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
      Internet Source

      www.rsisinternational.org
      Internet Source

      www.myast.org
      Internet Source

      Psychology

       

      How would you prioritize training, location, and population when selecting practicum and your personal career plan? Why is it important that you consider these things? Cite one example of why this is important. 

      The DQ response must be 150-200 words and have at least one citation and one reference in APA format.

      psychology

      As a future counselor, it is important to have a plan for continued professional growth as well as an understanding of the required counseling dispositions. Additionally, it is considered good practice for addiction counselors to join an addiction counseling organization. Research a professional organization that you might join, such as the National Association for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC), your state’s counseling association, or another relevant professional organization. 

      Write a 1,200- to 1,750-word paper in the third person about the ethical and legal considerations of the developing counselor to include professional organizations and a plan for continued professional growth. Include the following in your paper:

      Ethical and Legal Viewpoints

      1. Beneficence/Stewardship: Describe the ethic of beneficence/stewardship from the perspective of addictions counseling. What might be some specific areas of addictions counseling practice where this ethic would affect your decision-making process?

      2. Self-Disclosure: Define professional disclosure. Discuss its benefits and downsides through the ethical lens of professional boundaries, impairment, and personal beliefs.

      3. Objectivity: Discuss objectivity from the Scope of Practice and Boundaries of Competence ethics. How are the three related? How can struggles in Scope of Practice and Boundaries of Competence result in failing to see clients clearly?

      4. Self-Monitoring: How can counselors prevent professional burnout?

      5. Spirituality: How can counselors maintain spirituality in and out of practice?

      6. Counseling Dispositions: A review of three counseling dispositions as well as an analysis in regards to personal strengths and challenges in regards to the selected dispositions.

      Professional Organization Review

      Write a professional organization overview that includes the following:

      1. Current issues addressed by the organization that are relevant to the counseling profession. Note: These items are usually listed on the association’s website, but you may research elsewhere for one or two current issues in the field. Examples of current issues could include lobbying efforts for particular populations or specialties in the field, proposed or changing laws/regulations, high-profile court cases involving ethical violations, or the like.

      When writing the paper, consider the following level-one APA headings to help organize the content:

      1. Ethical and Legal Viewpoints

      2. Professional Organization Review

      Include a comprehensive reference page that lists the sources used at the end of the document. The paper should be written in the third person. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

      This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

      A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

      Attachments


      UNV-502.RS.CounselorDispositions.docx

      Psychology

      In your own words, based on your text, describe the basic tenets of
      Freudian psychoanalysis.
      Compare and contrast the concepts of standardization, reliability, and
      validity in assessment instruments. Briefly characterize and differentiate psychodynamic, attachment,
      behavioral, learning, and cognitive theories as they relate to the etiology
      of bipolar and depressive disorders.

      Psychology

       

      Values can be found in the individual, ethics in groups or organizations, and laws in larger societies.  What other differences are there between values, ethics, and laws? Why are there ethics for counselors? Depending on your program of study, which codes of ethics will you abide by and why? How can the ACA, AACC, NAADAC, or applicable professional code of ethics help you in providing treatment to someone with different values than your own?

      Psychology

      Thinking Routines operate as tools for promoting thinking.  In responding to this Discussion Board topic/question the Thinking Routine of “What Makes You Say That?” is to be used.

      Question #2

      After studying the material on The Serial Position Effect (in the chapter on “Memory”) which indicates “we tend NOT to recall information which is found in the middle of a long list of material” what do you now believe about trying to remember long lists of things?  GIVE YOUR REASONING WITH EVIDENCE about WHAT MAKES YOU SAY THAT.

      PSYCHOLOGY

      Hello, please go to the presentation by clicking the link below

      https://1drv.ms/p/s!AryuqN6DpsXDviQ5qJsnOAVzCg6J

      You can add some information to the notes part.

      We need to introduce both people (SHERYL SANDBERG and ADAM GRANT) on the presentation, so you can find some significant information about them.

      Don’t forget to copy the website links and paste them to the last presentation where it says references.

      You can also find some statistics about gender diversity and women’s struggles in the corporate world.

      Psychology

      Choose one diverse population of interest as highlighted in this week’s readings and discuss what information was gained from the article addressing that population which would influence how a student would approach addiction treatment with someone from that population. Length: 300-400 words 

      Psychology

       

      Before starting this activity, make sure you read the following:

      1. CORE Chapter 3-Print Awarness
      2. CORE Chapter 4-Letter Knowledge

      Watch and analyze the following content:

      While observing the videos and drawings:

      1. List the behaviors you can recognize that are consistent with Print Awareness and/or Letter Knowledge, and 
      2. Explain and justify why you think the evidence relates to Print Awareness and/or letter Knowledge.

      In your discussion of 1 and 2 above, make sure to include specific references to what the children are doing and saying.

        • 10

        Psychology

         Imagine a parent is afraid of or resistant to a program in their child’s high school that will be making condoms available to students. Using research findings from the reading convince the parent that the program is a good thing. 

        • 15

        Psychology

          

        1. What was the research or review question that the authors asked, and what were their main findings?

        2. What are the implications of their findings for the real world (meaning what should be done given the findings, either to help people or improve research on the topic?)

        • 2 months ago
        • 20

        psychology

         Please reply to the discussion question with a 200-word minimum 

        6) Both classical and operant conditioning can involve learning that is entirely unconscious to the learner (i.e., you aren’t even aware that you’ve been conditioned).  Now that we know about both types of conditioning, please reflect on your life and provide us with at least one example of how you’ve been conditioned (either through classical or operant conditioning).  Please use the proper terminology (e.g., UCS/UCR and CS/CR associations if Classical Conditioning or Positive/Negative Reinforcement/Punishment if Operant Conditioning) when discussing your example.  Please be specific. 

        7) Think of a time when you forgot something.  Now that we know how memory works, why do you think you forgot this information?  What kind of strategies could you have used to learn it better and protect yourself from forgetting?  Please be specific.

        8) We constantly rely on heuristics to make quick decisions and solve problems.  After learning about some of our heuristics and biases (e.g., anchoring heuristic, availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic, confirmation bias), can you identify a time in your life when a heuristic/bias led you to an incorrect solution or conclusion about something?  Please explain in detail.  What can you do to avoid this from happening in the future? 

        9) We know that development is the result of a complex interaction between nature and nurture (i.e., our genetics and our environment), but if you had to pick, which do you think has the greatest influence on our development?  Why?  Please provide specific examples from physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. 

        10) What is something that you REALLY struggle with finding the motivation to do?  Given the research on motivation, why do you think this is?  Using the motivational theories that we’re learning about, what could you do to increase your level of motivation for this activity?  Please be specific. 

        • 2 months ago
        • 5

        Psychology

        Recommend one FDA-approved drug, one off-label drug, and one nonpharmacological intervention for treating your chosen disorder in older adults or pregnant women.
        Explain the risk assessment you would use to inform your treatment decision  making. What are the risks and benefits of the FDA-approved medicine? What are the risks and benefits of the off-label drug?
        Explain whether clinical practice guidelines exist for this disorder, and if so, use them to justify your recommendations. If not, explain what information you would need to take into consideration.
        Support your reasoning with at least three current, credible scholarly resources, one each on the FDA-approved drug, the off-label, and a nonpharmacological intervention for the disorder.
          • 10

          Psychology

            

          1. How do the cognitive symptoms of anorexia impact someone’s thoughts and behavior, and why can anorexia be difficult to treat?

          2. What are some of the differences (psychologically/safety-wise) between street-based sex workers and sex workers who work independently online (like the ones in Dr. Koken’s study)? And which of the two groups does science know more about, and why?

          3. From your reading “Beyond Discrete Categories” by Dunham and Olson, why do they say studying variation (like intersex people) is beneficial for science overall? What is wrong with just studying the majority?

          4. What are some of the most common rape myths in the United States – and how are gender role teachings connected to them? How might these myths contribute to people’s false belief that false rape accusations are common?

          5. From your reading “Combating HIV stigma in health care settings: what works?” by Laura Nyblade and team, what was shown about the existence of HIV stigma among medical professionals? What impact could HIV stigma have on patients? What does the research team suggest would help combat HIV stigma in healthcare settings and among healthcare professionals?

          • a month ago
          • 45

          psychology

           Please reply TO EACH discussion question with a 200-word minimum 

          1)  As a whole, humans wish they could be happier and experience less stress.  Given what we’re learning, what are some of the things someone could do to decrease their level of stress and increase their level of happiness?  Consider using yourself (or friends and family members) to provide detailed examples and please be specific.

          2) Which major approach to understanding personality (e.g., Psychodynamic, Learning, Biological, Trait) do you identify with the most?  In other words, which do you feel best represents how your personality was formed?  Why?  Please be specific and use examples if you can.

          3) We learn about some of the major Psychological Disorders in Chapter 13.  Which disorder (or set of disorders) fascinated you most?  Why?  Try to connect the disorder to a character from a TV show or movie.  You do NOT need to discuss your personal experience with psychological disorders, but if someone chooses to, PLEASE be respectful!

          4) Pick one of the major psychological disorders we learned about in Chapter 13 (it can be the one you wrote about in the Chapter 13 Discussion).  Given what we know about the different types of therapy and treatment, how would you go about treating the disorder?  Please be sure to explain your reasoning.  Do you feel this type of treatment is generally the best?  Why?  What could be an alternative method of therapy/treatment?  

          5) We will often change the way we feel and the way we behave due to compliance or obedience, but sometimes, we’ll change as a result of no direct social pressure (i.e., we’ll conform).  After learning about how the social world can affect the way people think, feel, and behave, what did you find to be the most fascinating concept(s)?  Why?  Where have you seen this exemplified in your life?

          • a month ago
          • 5

          Psychology

          an assessment of the importance of wellbeing in the workplace and identification of the

          different factors affecting wellbeing that can impact physically and psychologically and upon

          relationships, affecting health, commitment and performance.

            • 10

            Psychology

            Begin Reading

            Table of Contents

            Newsletters

            Copyright Page
            In accordance with the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, the scanning, uploading, and electronic sharing of any part of

            this book without the permission of the publisher constitute unlawful piracy and theft of the author’s intellectual
            property. If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior written permission

            must be obtained by contacting the publisher at permissions@hbgusa.com. Thank you for your support of the
            author’s rights.

            Introduction

            In the Swiss canton of St. Gallen, near the northern banks of Lake Zurich, is a village
            named Bollingen. In 1922, the psychiatrist Carl Jung chose this spot to begin building
            a retreat. He began with a basic two-story stone house he called the Tower. After
            returning from a trip to India, where he observed the practice of adding meditation
            rooms to homes, he expanded the complex to include a private office. “In my retiring
            room I am by myself,” Jung said of the space. “I keep the key with me all the time; no
            one else is allowed in there except with my permission.”

            In his book Daily Rituals, journalist Mason Currey sorted through various sources
            on Jung to re-create the psychiatrist’s work habits at the Tower. Jung would rise at
            seven a.m., Currey reports, and after a big breakfast he would spend two hours of
            undistracted writing time in his private office. His afternoons would often consist of
            meditation or long walks in the surrounding countryside. There was no electricity at
            the Tower, so as day gave way to night, light came from oil lamps and heat from the
            fireplace. Jung would retire to bed by ten p.m. “The feeling of repose and renewal that
            I had in this tower was intense from the start,” he said.

            Though it’s tempting to think of Bollingen Tower as a vacation home, if we put it
            into the context of Jung’s career at this point it’s clear that the lakeside retreat was not
            built as an escape from work. In 1922, when Jung bought the property, he could not
            afford to take a vacation. Only one year earlier, in 1921, he had published
            Psychological Types, a seminal book that solidified many differences that had been
            long developing between Jung’s thinking and the ideas of his onetime friend and
            mentor, Sigmund Freud. To disagree with Freud in the 1920s was a bold move. To
            back up his book, Jung needed to stay sharp and produce a stream of smart articles and
            books further supporting and establishing analytical psychology, the eventual name
            for his new school of thought.

            Jung’s lectures and counseling practice kept him busy in Zurich—this is clear. But
            he wasn’t satisfied with busyness alone. He wanted to change the way we understood
            the unconscious, and this goal required deeper, more careful thought than he could
            manage amid his hectic city lifestyle. Jung retreated to Bollingen, not to escape his
            professional life, but instead to advance it.

            Carl Jung went on to become one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth
            century. There are, of course, many reasons for his eventual success. In this book,
            however, I’m interested in his commitment to the following skill, which almost
            certainly played a key role in his accomplishments:

            Deep Work: Professional activities performed in a state of distraction-free concentration that push your
            cognitive capabilities to their limit. These efforts create new value, improve your skill, and are hard to
            replicate.

            Deep work is necessary to wring every last drop of value out of your current
            intellectual capacity. We now know from decades of research in both psychology and
            neuroscience that the state of mental strain that accompanies deep work is also
            necessary to improve your abilities. Deep work, in other words, was exactly the type
            of effort needed to stand out in a cognitively demanding field like academic psychiatry
            in the early twentieth century.

            The term “deep work” is my own and is not something Carl Jung would have used,
            but his actions during this period were those of someone who understood the
            underlying concept. Jung built a tower out of stone in the woods to promote deep work
            in his professional life—a task that required time, energy, and money. It also took him
            away from more immediate pursuits. As Mason Currey writes, Jung’s regular journeys
            to Bollingen reduced the time he spent on his clinical work, noting, “Although he had
            many patients who relied on him, Jung was not shy about taking time off.” Deep work,
            though a burden to prioritize, was crucial for his goal of changing the world.

            Indeed, if you study the lives of other influential figures from both distant and
            recent history, you’ll find that a commitment to deep work is a common theme. The
            sixteenth-century essayist Michel de Montaigne, for example, prefigured Jung by
            working in a private library he built in the southern tower guarding the stone walls of
            his French château, while Mark Twain wrote much of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
            in a shed on the property of the Quarry Farm in New York, where he was spending the
            summer. Twain’s study was so isolated from the main house that his family took to
            blowing a horn to attract his attention for meals.

            Moving forward in history, consider the screenwriter and director Woody Allen. In
            the forty-four-year period between 1969 and 2013, Woody Allen wrote and directed
            forty-four films that received twenty-three Academy Award nominations—an absurd
            rate of artistic productivity. Throughout this period, Allen never owned a computer,
            instead completing all his writing, free from electronic distraction, on a German
            Olympia SM3 manual typewriter. Allen is joined in his rejection of computers by
            Peter Higgs, a theoretical physicist who performs his work in such disconnected

            isolation that journalists couldn’t find him after it was announced he had won the
            Nobel Prize. J.K. Rowling, on the other hand, does use a computer, but was famously
            absent from social media during the writing of her Harry Potter novels—even though
            this period coincided with the rise of the technology and its popularity among media
            figures. Rowling’s staff finally started a Twitter account in her name in the fall of
            2009, as she was working on The Casual Vacancy, and for the first year and a half her
            only tweet read: “This is the real me, but you won’t be hearing from me often I am
            afraid, as pen and paper is my priority at the moment.”

            Deep work, of course, is not limited to the historical or technophobic. Microsoft
            CEO Bill Gates famously conducted “Think Weeks” twice a year, during which he
            would isolate himself (often in a lakeside cottage) to do nothing but read and think big
            thoughts. It was during a 1995 Think Week that Gates wrote his famous “Internet Tidal
            Wave” memo that turned Microsoft’s attention to an upstart company called Netscape
            Communications. And in an ironic twist, Neal Stephenson, the acclaimed cyberpunk
            author who helped form our popular conception of the Internet age, is near impossible
            to reach electronically—his website offers no e-mail address and features an essay
            about why he is purposefully bad at using social media. Here’s how he once explained
            the omission: “If I organize my life in such a way that I get lots of long, consecutive,
            uninterrupted time-chunks, I can write novels. [If I instead get interrupted a lot] what
            replaces it? Instead of a novel that will be around for a long time… there is a bunch of
            e-mail messages that I have sent out to individual persons.”

            The ubiquity of deep work among influential individuals is important to emphasize
            because it stands in sharp contrast to the behavior of most modern knowledge workers
            —a group that’s rapidly forgetting the value of going deep.

            The reason knowledge workers are losing their familiarity with deep work is well
            established: network tools. This is a broad category that captures communication
            services like e-mail and SMS, social media networks like Twitter and Facebook, and
            the shiny tangle of infotainment sites like BuzzFeed and Reddit. In aggregate, the rise
            of these tools, combined with ubiquitous access to them through smartphones and
            networked office computers, has fragmented most knowledge workers’ attention into
            slivers. A 2012 McKinsey study found that the average knowledge worker now spends
            more than 60 percent of the workweek engaged in electronic communication and
            Internet searching, with close to 30 percent of a worker’s time dedicated to reading
            and answering e-mail alone.

            This state of fragmented attention cannot accommodate deep work, which requires
            long periods of uninterrupted thinking. At the same time, however, modern knowledge

            workers are not loafing. In fact, they report that they are as busy as ever. What
            explains the discrepancy? A lot can be explained by another type of effort, which
            provides a counterpart to the idea of deep work:

            Shallow Work: Noncognitively demanding, logistical-style tasks, often performed while distracted. These
            efforts tend to not create much new value in the world and are easy to replicate.

            In an age of network tools, in other words, knowledge workers increasingly
            replace deep work with the shallow alternative—constantly sending and receiving e-
            mail messages like human network routers, with frequent breaks for quick hits of
            distraction. Larger efforts that would be well served by deep thinking, such as forming
            a new business strategy or writing an important grant application, get fragmented into
            distracted dashes that produce muted quality. To make matters worse for depth, there’s
            increasing evidence that this shift toward the shallow is not a choice that can be easily
            reversed. Spend enough time in a state of frenetic shallowness and you permanently
            reduce your capacity to perform deep work. “What the Net seems to be doing is
            chipping away my capacity for concentration and contemplation,” admitted journalist
            Nicholas Carr, in an oft-cited 2008 Atlantic article. “[And] I’m not the only one.”
            Carr expanded this argument into a book, The Shallows, which became a finalist for
            the Pulitzer Prize. To write The Shallows, appropriately enough, Carr had to move to
            a cabin and forcibly disconnect.

            The idea that network tools are pushing our work from the deep toward the shallow
            is not new. The Shallows was just the first in a series of recent books to examine the
            Internet’s effect on our brains and work habits. These subsequent titles include
            William Powers’s Hamlet’s BlackBerry, John Freeman’s The Tyranny of E-mail, and
            Alex Soojung-Kin Pang’s The Distraction Addiction—all of which agree, more or
            less, that network tools are distracting us from work that requires unbroken
            concentration, while simultaneously degrading our capacity to remain focused.

            Given this existing body of evidence, I will not spend more time in this book trying
            to establish this point. We can, I hope, stipulate that network tools negatively impact
            deep work. I’ll also sidestep any grand arguments about the long-term societal
            consequence of this shift, as such arguments tend to open impassible rifts. On one side
            of the debate are techno-skeptics like Jaron Lanier and John Freeman, who suspect
            that many of these tools, at least in their current state, damage society, while on the
            other side techno-optimists like Clive Thompson argue that they’re changing society,
            for sure, but in ways that’ll make us better off. Google, for example, might reduce our
            memory, but we no longer need good memories, as in the moment we can now search
            for anything we need to know.

            I have no stance in this philosophical debate. My interest in this matter instead
            veers toward a thesis of much more pragmatic and individualized interest: Our work
            culture’s shift toward the shallow (whether you think it’s philosophically good or bad)
            is exposing a massive economic and personal opportunity for the few who recognize
            the potential of resisting this trend and prioritizing depth—an opportunity that, not too
            long ago, was leveraged by a bored young consultant from Virginia named Jason Benn.

            There are many ways to discover that you’re not valuable in our economy. For Jason
            Benn the lesson was made clear when he realized, not long after taking a job as a
            financial consultant, that the vast majority of his work responsibilities could be
            automated by a “kludged together” Excel script.

            The firm that hired Benn produced reports for banks involved in complex deals.
            (“It was about as interesting as it sounds,” Benn joked in one of our interviews.) The
            report creation process required hours of manual manipulation of data in a series of
            Excel spreadsheets. When he first arrived, it took Benn up to six hours per report to
            finish this stage (the most efficient veterans at the firm could complete this task in
            around half the time). This didn’t sit well with Benn.

            “The way it was taught to me, the process seemed clunky and manually intensive,”
            Benn recalls. He knew that Excel has a feature called macros that allows users to
            automate common tasks. Benn read articles on the topic and soon put together a new
            worksheet, wired up with a series of these macros that could take the six-hour process
            of manual data manipulation and replace it, essentially, with a button click. A report-
            writing process that originally took him a full workday could now be reduced to less
            than an hour.

            Benn is a smart guy. He graduated from an elite college (the University of Virginia)
            with a degree in economics, and like many in his situation he had ambitions for his
            career. It didn’t take him long to realize that these ambitions would be thwarted so
            long as his main professional skills could be captured in an Excel macro. He decided,
            therefore, he needed to increase his value to the world. After a period of research,
            Benn reached a conclusion: He would, he declared to his family, quit his job as a
            human spreadsheet and become a computer programmer. As is often the case with such
            grand plans, however, there was a hitch: Jason Benn had no idea how to write code.

            As a computer scientist I can confirm an obvious point: Programming computers is
            hard. Most new developers dedicate a four-year college education to learning the
            ropes before their first job—and even then, competition for the best spots is fierce.
            Jason Benn didn’t have this time. After his Excel epiphany, he quit his job at the
            financial firm and moved home to prepare for his next step. His parents were happy he

            had a plan, but they weren’t happy about the idea that this return home might be long-
            term. Benn needed to learn a hard skill, and needed to do so fast.

            It’s here that Benn ran into the same problem that holds back many knowledge
            workers from navigating into more explosive career trajectories. Learning something
            complex like computer programming requires intense uninterrupted concentration on
            cognitively demanding concepts—the type of concentration that drove Carl Jung to the
            woods surrounding Lake Zurich. This task, in other words, is an act of deep work.
            Most knowledge workers, however, as I argued earlier in this introduction, have lost
            their ability to perform deep work. Benn was no exception to this trend.

            “I was always getting on the Internet and checking my e-mail; I couldn’t stop
            myself; it was a compulsion,” Benn said, describing himself during the period leading
            up to his quitting his finance job. To emphasize his difficulty with depth, Benn told me
            about a project that a supervisor at the finance firm once brought to him. “They wanted
            me to write a business plan,” he explained. Benn didn’t know how to write a business
            plan, so he decided he would find and read five different existing plans—comparing
            and contrasting them to understand what was needed. This was a good idea, but Benn
            had a problem: “I couldn’t stay focused.” There were days during this period, he now
            admits, when he spent almost every minute (“98 percent of my time”) surfing the Web.
            The business plan project—a chance to distinguish himself early in his career—fell to
            the wayside.

            By the time he quit, Benn was well aware of his difficulties with deep work, so
            when he dedicated himself to learning how to code, he knew he had to simultaneously
            teach his mind how to go deep. His method was drastic but effective. “I locked myself
            in a room with no computer: just textbooks, notecards, and a highlighter.” He would
            highlight the computer programming textbooks, transfer the ideas to notecards, and
            then practice them out loud. These periods free from electronic distraction were hard
            at first, but Benn gave himself no other option: He had to learn this material, and he
            made sure there was nothing in that room to distract him. Over time, however, he got
            better at concentrating, eventually getting to a point where he was regularly clocking
            five or more disconnected hours per day in the room, focused without distraction on
            learning this hard new skill. “I probably read something like eighteen books on the
            topic by the time I was done,” he recalls.

            After two months locked away studying, Benn attended the notoriously difficult
            Dev Bootcamp: a hundred-hour-a-week crash course in Web application
            programming. (While researching the program, Benn found a student with a PhD from
            Princeton who had described Dev as “the hardest thing I’ve ever done in my life.”)

            Given both his preparation and his newly honed ability for deep work, Benn excelled.
            “Some people show up not prepared,” he said. “They can’t focus. They can’t learn
            quickly.” Only half the students who started the program with Benn ended up
            graduating on time. Benn not only graduated, but was also the top student in his class.

            The deep work paid off. Benn quickly landed a job as a developer at a San
            Francisco tech start-up with $25 million in venture funding and its pick of employees.
            When Benn quit his job as a financial consultant, only half a year earlier, he was
            making $40,000 a year. His new job as a computer developer paid $100,000—an
            amount that can continue to grow, essentially without limit in the Silicon Valley
            market, along with his skill level.

            When I last spoke with Benn, he was thriving in his new position. A newfound
            devotee of deep work, he rented an apartment across the street from his office,
            allowing him to show up early in the morning before anyone else arrived and work
            without distraction. “On good days, I can get in four hours of focus before the first
            meeting,” he told me. “Then maybe another three to four hours in the afternoon. And I
            do mean ‘focus’: no e-mail, no Hacker News [a website popular among tech types],
            just programming.” For someone who admitted to sometimes spending up to 98
            percent of his day in his old job surfing the Web, Jason Benn’s transformation is
            nothing short of astonishing.

            Jason Benn’s story highlights a crucial lesson: Deep work is not some nostalgic
            affectation of writers and early-twentieth-century philosophers. It’s instead a skill that
            has great value today.

            There are two reasons for this value. The first has to do with learning. We have an
            information economy that’s dependent on complex systems that change rapidly. Some
            of the computer languages Benn learned, for example, didn’t exist ten years ago and
            will likely be outdated ten years from now. Similarly, someone coming up in the field
            of marketing in the 1990s probably had no idea that today they’d need to master digital
            analytics. To remain valuable in our economy, therefore, you must master the art of
            quickly learning complicated things. This task requires deep work. If you don’t
            cultivate this ability, you’re likely to fall behind as technology advances.

            The second reason that deep work is valuable is because the impacts of the digital
            network revolution cut both ways. If you can create something useful, its reachable
            audience (e.g., employers or customers) is essentially limitless—which greatly
            magnifies your reward. On the other hand, if what you’re producing is mediocre, then
            you’re in trouble, as it’s too easy for your audience to find a better alternative online.
            Whether you’re a computer programmer, writer, marketer, consultant, or entrepreneur,

            your situation has become similar to Jung trying to outwit Freud, or Jason Benn trying
            to hold his own in a hot start-up: To succeed you have to produce the absolute best
            stuff you’re capable of producing—a task that requires depth.

            The growing necessity of deep work is new. In an industrial economy, there was a
            small skilled labor and professional class for which deep work was crucial, but most
            workers could do just fine without ever cultivating an ability to concentrate without
            distraction. They were paid to crank widgets—and not much about their job would
            change in the decades they kept it. But as we shift to an information economy, more
            and more of our population are knowledge workers, and deep work is becoming a key
            currency—even if most haven’t yet recognized this reality.

            Deep work is not, in other words, an old-fashioned skill falling into irrelevance.
            It’s instead a crucial ability for anyone looking to move ahead in a globally
            competitive information economy that tends to chew up and spit out those who aren’t
            earning their keep. The real rewards are reserved not for those who are comfortable
            using Facebook (a shallow task, easily replicated), but instead for those who are
            comfortable building the innovative distributed systems that run the service (a
            decidedly deep task, hard to replicate). Deep work is so important that we might
            consider it, to use the phrasing of business writer Eric Barker, “the superpower of the
            21st century.”

            We have now seen two strands of thought—one about the increasing scarcity of deep
            work and the other about its increasing value—which we can combine into the idea
            that provides the foundation for everything that follows in this book:

            The Deep Work Hypothesis: The ability to perform deep work is becoming increasingly rare at exactly
            the same time it is becoming increasingly valuable in our economy. As a consequence, the few who
            cultivate this skill, and then make it the core of their working life, will thrive.

            This book has two goals, pursued in two parts. The first, tackled in Part 1, is to
            convince you that the deep work hypothesis is true. The second, tackled in Part 2, is to
            teach you how to take advantage of this reality by training your brain and transforming
            your work habits to place deep work at the core of your professional life. Before
            diving into these details, however, I’ll take a moment to explain how I became such a
            devotee of depth.

            I’ve spent the past decade cultivating my own ability to concentrate on hard things. To
            understand the origins of this interest, it helps to know that I’m a theoretical computer
            scientist who performed my doctoral training in MIT’s famed Theory of Computation
            group—a professional setting where the ability to focus is considered a crucial

            occupational skill.

            During these years, I shared a graduate student office down the hall from a
            MacArthur “genius grant” winner—a professor who was hired at MIT before he was
            old enough to legally drink. It wasn’t uncommon to find this theoretician sitting in the
            common space, staring at markings on a whiteboard, with a group of visiting scholars
            arrayed around him, also sitting quietly and staring. This could go on for hours. I’d go
            to lunch; I’d come back—still staring. This particular professor is hard to reach. He’s
            not on Twitter and if he doesn’t know you, he’s unlikely to respond to your e-mail.
            Last year he published sixteen papers.

            This type of fierce concentration permeated the atmosphere during my student
            years. Not surprisingly, I soon developed a similar commitment to depth. To the
            chagrin of both my friends and the various publicists I’ve worked with on my books,
            I’ve never had a Facebook or Twitter account, or any other social media presence
            outside of a blog. I don’t Web surf and get most of my news from my home-delivered
            Washington Post and NPR. I’m also generally hard to reach: My author website
            doesn’t provide a personal e-mail address, and I didn’t own my first smartphone until
            2012 (when my pregnant wife gave me an ultimatum—“you have to have a phone that
            works before our son is born”).

            On the other hand, my commitment to depth has rewarded me. In the ten-year
            period following my college graduation, I published four books, earned a PhD, wrote
            peer-reviewed academic papers at a high rate, and was hired as a tenure-track
            professor at Georgetown University. I maintained this voluminous production while
            rarely working past five or six p.m. during the workweek.

            This compressed schedule is possible because I’ve invested significant effort to
            minimize the shallow in my life while making sure I get the most out of the time this
            frees up. I build my days around a core of carefully chosen deep work, with the
            shallow activities I absolutely cannot avoid batched into smaller bursts at the
            peripheries of my schedule. Three to four hours a day, five days a week, of
            uninterrupted and carefully directed concentration, it turns out, can produce a lot of
            valuable output.

            My commitment to depth has also returned nonprofessional benefits. For the most
            part, I don’t touch a computer between the time when I get home from work and the
            next morning when the new workday begins (the main exception being blog posts,
            which I like to write after my kids go to bed). This ability to fully disconnect, as
            opposed to the more standard practice of sneaking in a few quick work e-mail checks,
            or giving in to frequent surveys of social media sites, allows me to be present with my

            wife and two sons in the evenings, and read a surprising number of books for a busy
            father of two. More generally, the lack of distraction in my life tones down that
            background hum of nervous mental energy that seems to increasingly pervade people’s
            daily lives. I’m comfortable being bored, and this can be a surprisingly rewarding
            skill—especially on a lazy D.C. summer night listening to a Nationals game slowly
            unfold on the radio.

            This book is best described as an attempt to formalize and explain my attraction to
            depth over shallowness, and to detail the types of strategies that have helped me act on
            this attraction. I’ve committed this thinking to words, in part, to help you follow my
            lead in rebuilding your life around deep work—but this isn’t the whole story. My
            other interest in distilling and clarifying these thoughts is to further develop my own
            practice. My recognition of the deep work hypothesis has helped me thrive, but I’m
            convinced that I haven’t yet reached my full value-producing potential. As you struggle
            and ultimately triumph with the ideas and rules in the chapters ahead, you can be
            assured that I’m following suit—ruthlessly culling the shallow and painstakingly
            cultivating the intensity of my depth. (You’ll learn how I fare in this book’s
            conclusion.)

            When Carl Jung wanted to revolutionize the field of psychiatry, he built a retreat in
            the woods. Jung’s Bollingen Tower became a place where he could maintain his
            ability to think deeply and then apply the skill to produce work of such stunning
            originality that it changed the world. In the pages ahead, I’ll try to convince you to join
            me in the effort to build our own personal Bollingen Towers; to cultivate an ability to
            produce real value in an increasingly distracted world; and to recognize a truth
            embraced by the most productive and important personalities of generations past: A
            deep life is a good life.

            PART 1

            The Idea

            Chapter One

            Deep Work Is Valuable

            As Election Day loomed in 2012, traffic at the New York Times website spiked, as is
            normal during moments of national importance. But this time, something was different.
            A wildly disproportionate fraction of this traffic—more than 70 percent by some
            reports—was visiting a single location in the sprawling domain. It wasn’t a front-page
            breaking news story, and it wasn’t commentary from one of the paper’s Pulitzer Prize–
            winning columnists; it was instead a blog run by a baseball stats geek turned election
            forecaster named Nate Silver. Less than a year later, ESPN and ABC News lured
            Silver away from the Times (which tried to retain him by promising a staff of up to a
            dozen writers) in a major deal that would give Silver’s operation a role in everything
            from sports to weather to network news segments to, improbably enough, Academy
            Awards telecasts. Though there’s debate about the methodological rigor of Silver’s
            hand-tuned models, there are few who deny that in 2012 this thirty-five-year-old data
            whiz was a winner in our economy.

            Another winner is …

            Psychology

            The Oedipus Complex

            This essay presents a discussion of the origins of the Oedipus complex, beginning with its Freudian

            conception and subsequent Kleinian developments.1 I will give an overview on the evolving

            importance of the primal scene (the parental sexual relationship) presenting the argument that the

            contemporary understanding of the primal scene as an imagined space allows for an interpretation

            of the Oedipal complex that does not succumb to heteronormative bias. I will then compare Freud

            and Britton’s differing understandings of the pathogenic potential of the Oedipal complex. Finally, I

            will utilise a vignette taken from my work with a three year old boy to demonstrate how an

            understanding of the Oedipus Complex can provide insight into a child’s internal world.2

            Little Hans and the Freudian Oedipus Complex

            Freud situates the Oedipus complex during the phallic phase of psychosexual development, in

            which transfer of the libido to the genitals as the main erogenous zone occurs (1905). Freud

            demonstrates how the changes associated with this stage can manifest in increasing sexual curiosity

            and masturbatory impulses through the depiction of Little Hans’, ‘interest in widdlers’, and

            compulsion to ‘touch his member’ (1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.2). Also ‘typical,’ Freud argues,

            ‘of the sexual development of children,’ is a growing sexual desire for the Mother (1909, SE10, PEP

            Archive, p.2). This is presented as a prominent feature of Hans’s behaviour, he is labelled a, ‘little

            Oedipus who wanted to […] be alone with his Mother and sleep with her’ (1909, SE10, PEP

            Archive, p30). Freud demonstrates how Hans’s sexual feelings towards his Mother, engenders the

            fear of his Father’s retaliation; now his rival by necessity, locating what Segal refers to as the,

            1 For the purpose of this essay, I will focus on the male Freudian Oedipus complex, a decision informed by the
            abundance of male Oedipalmaterial in Little Hans, and the overwhelming consensus that the phallocentricity of
            Freudian understanding of female sexuality is,‘narrow and ignorant’(Klauber, 2019, p.10).

            2 All names included have been changed to ensure confidentiality.

            ‘conflicting impulses, […] anxieties and defences,’ that this engenders as central to the formation of

            the Oedipal complex (1989, p.1).

            For Freud, this rivalry manifests both as an ongoing castration anxiety that draws its origins in

            Hans’s Mother’s threat to ‘cut off your widdler’ (1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.2) , and his

            unconscious ‘death wishes’ towards his father (1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.30). Crucially, as Hans

            also loves his Father ‘deeply,’ (1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.30), the repression and then

            displacement of his negative feelings for his father onto horses, works as a defence, allowing him to

            fear and hate a phobic object, without conflict. If Hans’s fear of horses is presented as pathogenic,

            the repression of his conflicting emotions surrounding his parents is not. Freud suggests that Hans’s

            phobia could even be perceived as advantageous as it ‘directed his parents attention’ to the

            ‘unavoidable difficulties’ associated with typical Oedipal anxieties (1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.

            34).

            For Freud, the resolution of the Oedipus complex ‘would go to its destruction […] from the effects

            of it’s internal impossibility’ (1924, p.395). As little Hans discovers, ‘the barrier against

            incest’ (Freud, 1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.8) , necessitates a repression of his sexual desires

            towards his mother, which allows for the internalisation and identification with his father, an

            indication of a successful resolution of the male Oedipal complex (1924). Hans’s phantasy in which,

            ‘the plumber came and first he took away my behind with a big pair of pincers and then he gave me

            another, and then the same with my widdler’ (Freud, 1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.25) , is seen as

            symbolic of his internalised identification with his father and the resolution of his castration anxiety.

            It is pertinent to acknowledge that the presentation of internalised identification as the ideal, betrays

            both the heteronormative bias of the social structure contemporary to Freud, and what Wakefield

            cites as a phallocentric lack of consideration concerning the role of maternal containment within

            Little Hans (2007).

            Klein’s Oedipal Situation

            Through her psychoanalytic work with infants, Klein reshapes the Freudian Oedipus complex,

            alluding to an infantile Oedipal relationship with the parents that occurs prior to the phallic phase,

            referred to as the ‘Oedipal situation.’ (Britton, 1989, p. 83). Klein emphasises the importance of the

            relationship to the breast, which is experienced as two different part objects, sometimes the loved,

            nurturing breast, and sometimes the hated, withholding breast . The manifestation of this state, in

            which the perception of the world is split into good and bad, defines what Klein refers to as the

            paranoid schizoid phase. Klein states that the aim of this phase, is to work towards acceptance that

            the hated breast is also the loved breast, or the depressive position (Fear, 2018).

            Klein posits the depressive position as central to the development of the Oedipal situation because

            recognition of the Mother as not a ‘sole and permanent possession’ engenders a ‘recognition of the

            parental sexual relationship.’ (Britton, 1989, p. 84). In this way Klein connects Freud’s concept of

            mourning, where the phantasy version of an ideal world must be surrendered to achieve a realistic

            understanding of the world (1917) , with the process of working through the Oedipus complex,

            where the infantile version of the ‘ideal’ Mother must be surrendered. However, Klein, also betrays

            a heteronormative bias as she corroborates Freud’s theory that Oedipal resolution is ultimately

            achieved through identification with the parent of the same sex (Fear, 2018).

            The Evolving Importance of the Primal Scene

            Fear states that Freud ‘believed the child to have a knowledge of the primal scene’ (2018, p. 16).

            However, in Little Hans, it is contextualised as important in relation to the Oedipal complex

            predominantly because it reveals Hans’s unconscious knowledge of the sex act, and is utilised as a

            means to strengthen the argument that Hans wants to ‘take possession of his mother,’ as his Father

            does (Freud, 1909, SE10, PEP Archive, p.8).

            For Klein the primal scene features more centrally in the Oedipal situation. What Klein refers to as

            the epistemophilic impulse, or desire to know what the parental couple excludes the infant from, is

            key in her resolution of the Oedipal situation (Fear, 2018). Knowledge of the primal scene places

            the child in the position of the ‘observing third,’ a position that when tolerated, engenders the

            understanding that it is possible to be alone but not abandoned, crucial for development and

            learning. (Fear, 2018, p.26).

            Britton expands on the importance of the primal scene, stating that an acceptance of the link

            between the Oedipal couple can lead not only to a crucial understanding of the difference in the

            relationship between parents and children, but the possibility of a beneficial perception of parental

            intercourse which is not just excluding but creative (Britton, 1989). Britton also refers to the primal

            scene as ‘the place where [in it’s perpetual absence] the object spends its invisible existence.’ (2003,

            p. 20). Here, Britton presents a configuration of the primal scene that is representative of an

            imagined space rather than a literal act, a metaphor that describes the need for infantile recognition

            of the mother or primary carer’s existence outside of the mother-infant dyad. Crucially, this does not

            rely on a heteronormative familial configuration, or even an Oedipal couple. Therefore, Britton

            shifts the centrality of the Oedipal drama away from heteronormative ideals and gender

            identification, towards the separation anxiety of the infant and the ability to tolerate being alone.

            Pathological potential

            Freud emphasises the enduring affects of the Oedipal complex in the phallic stage, as an ‘infantile

            trace’ that helps determine an individual’s sexuality in adolescence (1905, p. 363), arguing that the

            ‘finding of an object’ in puberty (1905, p. 357) is heavily influenced by the Oedipal complex, ‘this

            first and most significant of all sexual relations’ (1905, p. 358). Freud therefore signposts the

            ‘detachment from parental authority’ (1905, p. 361) at adolescence as an essential factor in

            preventing ‘disturbances of psychosexual development’ (1905, p. 362).

            However, Freud states that at ‘every stage in the course of development […] a certain number are

            held back’ (1905, p. 361), individuals who regress, or remain fixated on their childhood libido

            object choice may experience a pathogenic expression of their Oedipal complex during later life

            (1905). While Freud’s pathology of sexual inversions, such as homosexuality proves controversial

            for the contemporary reader, his understanding of the Oedipal complex’s crucial role in adulthood

            neurosis paved the way for developments in contemporary psychoanalytic thought.

            Britton disagrees with Freud in that he argues, ‘each new life situation, at each stage of

            development, and with each major addition to experience or knowledge’ requires a re-working of

            the Oedipus complex (1992, p. 38). This is not presented as pathogenic in itself, but as essential to

            development. However, Britton also cites the importance of the Oedipal complex in relation to

            neurosis, referring to Oedipal illusions as ‘defensive organisations’ that seek to ‘deny the psychic

            reality of the parental relationship’ (1989, p. 99). Britton utilises Bion’s concept of containment to

            discuss when an unresolved Oedipal complex becomes pathogenic, arguing if the mother has an

            ‘existing precarious status’ as a container, the further threat of acknowledging the relationship with

            the father could ‘spell disaster’ (1989, p. 90).

            Oedipus complex within a Nursery setting

            To further elucidate an understanding of the Oedipal complex, I will look in detail at a moment

            from my work in a Private Nursery with a 3 year old, ‘Tom.’ I have been working with Tom for

            eight months. This vignette is taken from the week in which Tom was informed that his Mother is

            five months pregnant with her second child. Tom’s parents are a married heterosexual couple.

            Extract:

            ‘What are you going to draw?’ I ask Tom. ‘My house!’ he says, reaching for a crayon and

            drawing a large connected circle. ‘Next, he draws a small stick figure inside the circle.

            ‘This is Tom and Mummy!’ He draws a much larger stick figure next to the Tom figure.

            ‘What are mummy and Tom doing in the house?’ I ask. ‘Resting on the sofa!’ says Tom.

            ‘What about Daddy?’ I ask. ‘In the garden!’ says Tom, and he draws a stick figure outside

            of the circle. ‘He loves digging up the plants!’

            I found the symbolic potential of Tom’s drawing illuminating. The placement of his figures, with

            him and his Mother inside the house, and his father outside seemed suggestive of an Oedipal

            phantasy; the desire to be alone with his Mother and remove his Father. In light of his Mother’s

            recent pregnancy, the large containing circle could be symbolic of a womb-like space. If Britton’s

            suggestion that, ‘each new life situation,’ requires a re-working of the Oedipal complex (1992, p.38)

            is considered, it could be argued that Tom is demonstrating an unconscious desire to regress to the

            Mother-infant dyad as a defence against the Oedipal anxieties engendered by the prospect of a

            sibling.

            Tom’s depiction of his Father’s digging could be indicative of Tom’s unconscious knowledge of his

            role in the primal scene. More likely, I feel that it represents the way in which Tom may have

            unconsciously attributed the perceived destruction of his family to his Father. Tom may be

            projecting his anger into his Father; perhaps as a regressive form of splitting that acts as a defence

            against the knowledge that his Mother has decided to have another child, and therefore does not

            solely belong to him. By attributing the blame to his Father, the ‘good mother’ is protected. It seems

            that Tom is working through his Oedipal anxieties through the medium of symbolic play, playing

            out his unconscious phantasies.

            The concept of the OedipalComplex can therefore be beneficially utilised as a way to understand

            childhood behaviour. While the resolution of both the Freudian and Kleinian Oedipus Complex

            focus perhaps detrimentally on gender identification, by bringing childhood and infantile

            unconscious phantasy about the parental couple into the forefront, their theories paved the way for a

            contemporary understanding of the Oedipus complex as a means to understand separation anxiety

            and how to be tolerate being alone. These issues are crucial to the development of the mind, both in

            childhood and adulthood.

            Bibliography

            Britton, R. (1992). ‘The Oedipus situation and the depressive position’ In R. Anderson (Ed.), New

            library of psychoanalysis, 14. Clinical lectures on Klein and Bion (pp. 34-45). New York, NY, US:

            Tavistock/Routledge

            Britton, R. (2003) Sex, death and the Superego. London: Karnac Books.

            Britton, R. (1989) ‘The missing link: parental sexuality in the Oedipus complex’ in R. Britton,

            Feldman M and O’Shaugnessy, E (1st ed.) The Oedipus complex today. Clinical implications.

            London: Karnak Books, pp. 83-101.

            Fear, R. (2018) The Oedipus complex : solutions or resolutions?. London: Routledge

            Freud, S. (1909) ‘Analysis of a Phobia in a 5 year old boy (Little Hans)’ , in The standard edition

            of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. vol.10. Viewed on PEP Archive [online]

            via EBSCOhost (authenticated resource) , pp.1-42

            Freud, S. (1905 ) ‘Three essays on the theory of sexuality’ in The essentials of Psychoanalysis

            Sigmund Freud London:Vintage, 2005, pp. 277-375.

            Freud, S. (1924 ) ‘The Dissolution of the Oedipus complex ’ in The essentials of Psychoanalysis

            Sigmund Freud London:Vintage, 2005, pp. 395-401

            Klauber, T. (2019) ‘The Oedipus Complex (and touching on the super-ego). Introducing the

            concept of the Oedipus complex and developments in thinking about it since Freud’ , M7:

            Working with children, young people & families: a psychoanalytic observational approach. The

            Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation. Unpublished.

            Wakefield, J. (2007) ‘Little Hans and Attachment Theory: Bowlby’s Hypothesis Reconsidered

            in Light of New Evidence from the Freud Archives’, The psychoanalytic study of the child,

            62(1), pp. 61-91

            A reasonably coherent presentation that follows an argument or line of
            thinking.

            Psychology

            In memory of Amos Tversky

            Contents

            Introduction

            Part I. Two Systems

            1. The Characters of the Story

            2. Attention and Effort

            3. The Lazy Controller

            4. The Associative Machine

            5. Cognitive Ease

            6. Norms, Surprises, and Causes

            7. A Machine for Jumping to Conclusions

            8. How Judgments Happen

            9. Answering an Easier Question

            Part II. Heuristics and Biases

            10. The Law of Small Numbers

            <5>
            11. Anchors

            12. The Science of Availability

            13. Availability, Emotion, and Risk

            14. Tom W’s Specialty

            15. Linda: Less is More

            16. Causes Trump Statistics

            17. Regression to the Mean

            18. Taming Intuitive Predictions

            Part III. Overconfidence

            19. The Illusion of Understanding

            20. The Illusion of Validity

            21. Intuitions Vs. Formulas

            22. Expert Intuition: When Can We Trust It?

            23. The Outside View

            24. The Engine of Capitalism

            Part IV. Choices
            25. Bernoulli’s Errors

            26. Prospect Theory

            27. The Endowment Effect

            28. Bad Events

            29. The Fourfold Pattern

            30. Rare Events

            31. Risk Policies

            32. Keeping Score

            33. Reversals

            34. Frames and Reality

            Part V. Two Selves

            35. Two Selves

            36. Life as a Story

            37. Experienced Well-Being

            38. Thinking About Life

            Conclusions

            Appendix A: Judgment Under
            Uncertainty

            Appendix B: Choices, Values, and Frames

            Acknowledgments

            Notes

            Index

            Introduction

            Every author, I suppose, has in mind a setting in which readers of his or her
            work could benefit from having read it. Mine is the proverbial office
            watercooler, where opinions are shared and gossip is exchanged. I hope
            to enrich the vocabulary that people use when they talk about the
            judgments and choices of others, the company’s new policies, or a
            colleague’s investment decisions. Why be concerned with gossip?
            Because it is much easier, as well as far more enjoyable, to identify and
            label the mistakes of others than to recognize our own. Questioning what
            we believe and want is difficult at the best of times, and especially difficult
            when we most need to do it, but we can benefit from the informed opinions
            of others. Many of us spontaneously anticipate how friends and colleagues
            will evaluate our choices; the quality and content of these anticipated
            judgments therefore matters. The expectation of intelligent gossip is a
            powerful motive for serious self-criticism, more powerful than New Year
            resolutions to improve one’s decision making at work and at home.

            To be a good diagnostician, a physician needs to acquire a large set of
            labels for diseases, each of which binds an idea of the illness and its
            symptoms, possible antecedents and causes, possible developments and
            consequences, and possible interventions to cure or mitigate the illness.
            Learning medicine consists in part of learning the language of medicine. A
            deeper understanding of judgments and choices also requires a richer
            vocabulary than is available in everyday language. The hope for informed
            gossip is that there are distinctive patterns in the errors people make.
            Systematic errors are known as biases, and they recur predictably in
            particular circumstances. When the handsome and confident speaker
            bounds onto the stage, for example, you can anticipate that the audience
            will judge his comments more favorably than he deserves. The availability
            of a diagnostic label for this bias—the halo effect—makes it easier to
            anticipate, recognize, and understand.

            When you are asked what you are thinking about, you can normally
            answer. You believe you know what goes on in your mind, which often
            consists of one conscious thought leading in an orderly way to another. But
            that is not the only way the mind works, nor indeed is that the typical way.
            Most impressions and thoughts arise in your conscious experience without
            your knowing how they got there. You cannot tracryd>e how you came to
            the belief that there is a lamp on the desk in front of you, or how you
            detected a hint of irritation in your spouse’s voice on the telephone, or how

            you managed to avoid a threat on the road before you became consciously
            aware of it. The mental work that produces impressions, intuitions, and
            many decisions goes on in silence in our mind.

            Much of the discussion in this book is about biases of intuition. However,
            the focus on error does not denigrate human intelligence, any more than
            the attention to diseases in medical texts denies good health. Most of us
            are healthy most of the time, and most of our judgments and actions are
            appropriate most of the time. As we navigate our lives, we normally allow
            ourselves to be guided by impressions and feelings, and the confidence
            we have in our intuitive beliefs and preferences is usually justified. But not
            always. We are often confident even when we are wrong, and an objective
            observer is more likely to detect our errors than we are.

            So this is my aim for watercooler conversations: improve the ability to
            identify and understand errors of judgment and choice, in others and
            eventually in ourselves, by providing a richer and more precise language to
            discuss them. In at least some cases, an accurate diagnosis may suggest
            an intervention to limit the damage that bad judgments and choices often
            cause.

            Origins

            This book presents my current understanding of judgment and decision
            making, which has been shaped by psychological discoveries of recent
            decades. However, I trace the central ideas to the lucky day in 1969 when I
            asked a colleague to speak as a guest to a seminar I was teaching in the
            Department of Psychology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Amos
            Tversky was considered a rising star in the field of decision research—
            indeed, in anything he did—so I knew we would have an interesting time.
            Many people who knew Amos thought he was the most intelligent person
            they had ever met. He was brilliant, voluble, and charismatic. He was also
            blessed with a perfect memory for jokes and an exceptional ability to use
            them to make a point. There was never a dull moment when Amos was
            around. He was then thirty-two; I was thirty-five.

            Amos told the class about an ongoing program of research at the
            University of Michigan that sought to answer this question: Are people
            good intuitive statisticians? We already knew that people are good
            intuitive grammarians: at age four a child effortlessly conforms to the rules
            of grammar as she speaks, although she has no idea that such rules exist.
            Do people have a similar intuitive feel for the basic principles of statistics?
            Amos reported that the answer was a qualified yes. We had a lively debate
            in the seminar and ultimately concluded that a qualified no was a better

            answer.
            Amos and I enjoyed the exchange and concluded that intuitive statistics

            was an interesting topic and that it would be fun to explore it together. That
            Friday we met for lunch at Café Rimon, the favorite hangout of bohemians
            and professors in Jerusalem, and planned a study of the statistical
            intuitions of sophisticated researchers. We had concluded in the seminar
            that our own intuitions were deficient. In spite of years of teaching and
            using statistics, we had not developed an intuitive sense of the reliability of
            statistical results observed in small samples. Our subjective judgments
            were biased: we were far too willing to believe research findings based on
            inadequate evidence and prone to collect too few observations in our own
            research. The goal of our study was to examine whether other researchers
            suffered from the same affliction.

            We prepared a survey that included realistic scenarios of statistical
            issues that arise in research. Amos collected the responses of a group of
            expert participants in a meeting of the Society of Mathematical
            Psychology, including the authors of two statistical textbooks. As expected,
            we found that our expert colleagues, like us, greatly exaggerated the
            likelihood that the original result of an experiment would be successfully
            replicated even with a small sample. They also gave very poor advice to a
            fictitious graduate student about the number of observations she needed
            to collect. Even statisticians were not good intuitive statisticians.

            While writing the article that reported these findings, Amos and I
            discovered that we enjoyed working together. Amos was always very
            funny, and in his presence I became funny as well, so we spent hours of
            solid work in continuous amusement. The pleasure we found in working
            together made us exceptionally patient; it is much easier to strive for
            perfection when you are never bored. Perhaps most important, we
            checked our critical weapons at the door. Both Amos and I were critical
            and argumentative, he even more than I, but during the years of our
            collaboration neither of us ever rejected out of hand anything the other
            said. Indeed, one of the great joys I found in the collaboration was that
            Amos frequently saw the point of my vague ideas much more clearly than I
            did. Amos was the more logical thinker, with an orientation to theory and
            an unfailing sense of direction. I was more intuitive and rooted in the
            psychology of perception, from which we borrowed many ideas. We were
            sufficiently similar to understand each other easily, and sufficiently different
            to surprise each other. We developed a routine in which we spent much of
            our working days together, often on long walks. For the next fourteen years
            our collaboration was the focus of our lives, and the work we did together
            during those years was the best either of us ever did.

            We quickly adopted a practice that we maintained for many years. Our

            research was a conversation, in which we invented questions and jointly
            examined our intuitive answers. Each question was a small experiment,
            and we carried out many experiments in a single day. We were not
            seriously looking for the correct answer to the statistical questions we
            posed. Our aim was to identify and analyze the intuitive answer, the first
            one that came to mind, the one we were tempted to make even when we
            knew it to be wrong. We believed—correctly, as it happened—that any
            intuition that the two of us shared would be shared by many other people
            as well, and that it would be easy to demonstrate its effects on judgments.

            We once discovered with great delight that we had identical silly ideas
            about the future professions of several toddlers we both knew. We could
            identify the argumentative three-year-old lawyer, the nerdy professor, the
            empathetic and mildly intrusive psychotherapist. Of course these
            predictions were absurd, but we still found them appealing. It was also
            clear that our intuitions were governed by the resemblance of each child to
            the cultural stereotype of a profession. The amusing exercise helped us
            develop a theory that was emerging in our minds at the time, about the role
            of resemblance in predictions. We went on to test and elaborate that
            theory in dozens of experiments, as in the following example.

            As you consider the next question, please assume that Steve was
            selected at random from a representative sample:

            An individual has been described by a neighbor as follows:
            “Steve is very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful but with little
            interest in people or in the world of reality. A meek and tidy soul,
            he has a need for order and structurut and stre, and a passion for
            detail.” Is Steve more likely to be a librarian or a farmer?

            The resemblance of Steve’s personality to that of a stereotypical librarian
            strikes everyone immediately, but equally relevant statistical
            considerations are almost always ignored. Did it occur to you that there
            are more than 20 male farmers for each male librarian in the United
            States? Because there are so many more farmers, it is almost certain that
            more “meek and tidy” souls will be found on tractors than at library
            information desks. However, we found that participants in our experiments
            ignored the relevant statistical facts and relied exclusively on resemblance.
            We proposed that they used resemblance as a simplifying heuristic
            (roughly, a rule of thumb) to make a difficult judgment. The reliance on the
            heuristic caused predictable biases (systematic errors) in their
            predictions.

            On another occasion, Amos and I wondered about the rate of divorce
            among professors in our university. We noticed that the question triggered

            a search of memory for divorced professors we knew or knew about, and
            that we judged the size of categories by the ease with which instances
            came to mind. We called this reliance on the ease of memory search the
            availability heuristic. In one of our studies, we asked participants to answer
            a simple question about words in a typical English text:

            Consider the letter K.
            Is K more likely to appear as the first letter in a word OR as the
            third letter?

            As any Scrabble player knows, it is much easier to come up with words
            that begin with a particular letter than to find words that have the same
            letter in the third position. This is true for every letter of the alphabet. We
            therefore expected respondents to exaggerate the frequency of letters
            appearing in the first position—even those letters (such as K, L, N, R, V)
            which in fact occur more frequently in the third position. Here again, the
            reliance on a heuristic produces a predictable bias in judgments. For
            example, I recently came to doubt my long-held impression that adultery is
            more common among politicians than among physicians or lawyers. I had
            even come up with explanations for that “fact,” including the aphrodisiac
            effect of power and the temptations of life away from home. I eventually
            realized that the transgressions of politicians are much more likely to be
            reported than the transgressions of lawyers and doctors. My intuitive
            impression could be due entirely to journalists’ choices of topics and to my
            reliance on the availability heuristic.

            Amos and I spent several years studying and documenting biases of
            intuitive thinking in various tasks—assigning probabilities to events,
            forecasting the future, assessing hypotheses, and estimating frequencies.
            In the fifth year of our collaboration, we presented our main findings in
            Science magazine, a publication read by scholars in many disciplines. The
            article (which is reproduced in full at the end of this book) was titled
            “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” It described the
            simplifying shortcuts of intuitive thinking and explained some 20 biases as
            manifestations of these heuristics—and also as demonstrations of the role
            of heuristics in judgment.

            Historians of science have often noted that at any given time scholars in
            a particular field tend to share basic re share assumptions about their
            subject. Social scientists are no exception; they rely on a view of human
            nature that provides the background of most discussions of specific
            behaviors but is rarely questioned. Social scientists in the 1970s broadly
            accepted two ideas about human nature. First, people are generally

            rational, and their thinking is normally sound. Second, emotions such as
            fear, affection, and hatred explain most of the occasions on which people
            depart from rationality. Our article challenged both assumptions without
            discussing them directly. We documented systematic errors in the thinking
            of normal people, and we traced these errors to the design of the
            machinery of cognition rather than to the corruption of thought by emotion.

            Our article attracted much more attention than we had expected, and it
            remains one of the most highly cited works in social science (more than
            three hundred scholarly articles referred to it in 2010). Scholars in other
            disciplines found it useful, and the ideas of heuristics and biases have
            been used productively in many fields, including medical diagnosis, legal
            judgment, intelligence analysis, philosophy, finance, statistics, and military
            strategy.

            For example, students of policy have noted that the availability heuristic
            helps explain why some issues are highly salient in the public’s mind while
            others are neglected. People tend to assess the relative importance of
            issues by the ease with which they are retrieved from memory—and this is
            largely determined by the extent of coverage in the media. Frequently
            mentioned topics populate the mind even as others slip away from
            awareness. In turn, what the media choose to report corresponds to their
            view of what is currently on the public’s mind. It is no accident that
            authoritarian regimes exert substantial pressure on independent media.
            Because public interest is most easily aroused by dramatic events and by
            celebrities, media feeding frenzies are common. For several weeks after
            Michael Jackson’s death, for example, it was virtually impossible to find a
            television channel reporting on another topic. In contrast, there is little
            coverage of critical but unexciting issues that provide less drama, such as
            declining educational standards or overinvestment of medical resources in
            the last year of life. (As I write this, I notice that my choice of “little-covered”
            examples was guided by availability. The topics I chose as examples are
            mentioned often; equally important issues that are less available did not
            come to my mind.)

            We did not fully realize it at the time, but a key reason for the broad
            appeal of “heuristics and biases” outside psychology was an incidental
            feature of our work: we almost always included in our articles the full text of
            the questions we had asked ourselves and our respondents. These
            questions served as demonstrations for the reader, allowing him to
            recognize how his own thinking was tripped up by cognitive biases. I hope
            you had such an experience as you read the question about Steve the
            librarian, which was intended to help you appreciate the power of
            resemblance as a cue to probability and to see how easy it is to ignore
            relevant statistical facts.

            The use of demonstrations provided scholars from diverse disciplines—
            notably philosophers and economists—an unusual opportunity to observe
            possible flaws in their own thinking. Having seen themselves fail, they
            became more likely to question the dogmatic assumption, prevalent at the
            time, that the human mind is rational and logical. The choice of method
            was crucial: if we had reported results of only conventional experiments,
            the article would have been less noteworthy and less memorable.
            Furthermore, skeptical readers would have distanced themselves from the
            results by attributing judgment errors to the familiar l the famifecklessness
            of undergraduates, the typical participants in psychological studies. Of
            course, we did not choose demonstrations over standard experiments
            because we wanted to influence philosophers and economists. We
            preferred demonstrations because they were more fun, and we were lucky
            in our choice of method as well as in many other ways. A recurrent theme
            of this book is that luck plays a large role in every story of success; it is
            almost always easy to identify a small change in the story that would have
            turned a remarkable achievement into a mediocre outcome. Our story was
            no exception.

            The reaction to our work was not uniformly positive. In particular, our
            focus on biases was criticized as suggesting an unfairly negative view of
            the mind. As expected in normal science, some investigators refined our
            ideas and others offered plausible alternatives. By and large, though, the
            idea that our minds are susceptible to systematic errors is now generally
            accepted. Our research on judgment had far more effect on social science
            than we thought possible when we were working on it.

            Immediately after completing our review of judgment, we switched our
            attention to decision making under uncertainty. Our goal was to develop a
            psychological theory of how people make decisions about simple
            gambles. For example: Would you accept a bet on the toss of a coin where
            you win $130 if the coin shows heads and lose $100 if it shows tails?
            These elementary choices had long been used to examine broad
            questions about decision making, such as the relative weight that people
            assign to sure things and to uncertain outcomes. Our method did not
            change: we spent many days making up choice problems and examining
            whether our intuitive preferences conformed to the logic of choice. Here
            again, as in judgment, we observed systematic biases in our own
            decisions, intuitive preferences that consistently violated the rules of
            rational choice. Five years after the Science article, we published
            “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk,” a theory of choice
            that is by some counts more influential than our work on judgment, and is
            one of the foundations of behavioral economics.

            Until geographical separation made it too difficult to go on, Amos and I
            enjoyed the extraordinary good fortune of a shared mind that was superior
            to our individual minds and of a relationship that made our work fun as well
            as productive. Our collaboration on judgment and decision making was the
            reason for the Nobel Prize that I received in 2002, which Amos would have
            shared had he not died, aged fifty-nine, in 1996.

            Where we are now

            This book is not intended as an exposition of the early research that Amos
            and I conducted together, a task that has been ably carried out by many
            authors over the years. My main aim here is to present a view of how the
            mind works that draws on recent developments in cognitive and social
            psychology. One of the more important developments is that we now
            understand the marvels as well as the flaws of intuitive thought.

            Amos and I did not address accurate intuitions beyond the casual
            statement that judgment heuristics “are quite useful, but sometimes lead to
            severe and systematic errors.” We focused on biases, both because we
            found them interesting in their own right and because they provided
            evidence for the heuristics of judgment. We did not ask ourselves whether
            all intuitive judgments under uncertainty are produced by the heuristics we
            studied; it is now clear that they are not. In particular, the accurate intuitions
            of experts are better explained by the effects of prolonged practice than by
            heuristics. We can now draw a richer andigha riche more balanced
            picture, in which skill and heuristics are alternative sources of intuitive
            judgments and choices.

            The psychologist Gary Klein tells the story of a team of firefighters that
            entered a house in which the kitchen was on fire. Soon after they started
            hosing down the kitchen, the commander heard himself shout, “Let’s get
            out of here!” without realizing why. The floor collapsed almost immediately
            after the firefighters escaped. Only after the fact did the commander realize
            that the fire had been unusually quiet and that his ears had been unusually
            hot. Together, these impressions prompted what he called a “sixth sense
            of danger.” He had no idea what was wrong, but he knew something was
            wrong. It turned out that the heart of the fire had not been in the kitchen but
            in the basement beneath where the men had stood.

            We have all heard such stories of expert intuition: the chess master who
            walks past a street game and announces “White mates in three” without
            stopping, or the physician who makes a complex diagnosis after a single
            glance at a patient. Expert intuition strikes us as magical, but it is not.
            Indeed, each of us performs feats of intuitive expertise many times each

            day. Most of us are pitch-perfect in detecting anger in the first word of a
            telephone call, recognize as we enter a room that we were the subject of
            the conversation, and quickly react to subtle signs that the driver of the car
            in the next lane is dangerous. Our everyday intuitive abilities are no less
            marvelous than the striking insights of an experienced firefighter or
            physician—only more common.

            The psychology of accurate intuition involves no magic. Perhaps the
            best short statement of it is by the great Herbert Simon, who studied chess
            masters and showed that after thousands of hours of practice they come to
            see the pieces on the board differently from the rest of us. You can feel
            Simon’s impatience with the mythologizing of expert intuition when he
            writes: “The situation has provided a cue; this cue has given the expert
            access to information stored in memory, and the information provides the
            answer. Intuition is nothing more and nothing less than recognition.”

            We are not surprised when a two-year-old looks at a dog and says
            “doggie!” because we are used to the miracle of children learning to
            recognize and name things. Simon’s point is that the miracles of expert
            intuition have the same character. Valid intuitions develop when experts
            have learned to recognize familiar elements in a new situation and to act in
            a manner that is appropriate to it. Good intuitive judgments come to mind
            with the same immediacy as “doggie!”

            Unfortunately, professionals’ intuitions do not all arise from true
            expertise. Many years ago I visited the chief investment officer of a large
            financial firm, who told me that he had just invested some tens of millions of
            dollars in the stock of Ford Motor Company. When I asked how he had
            made that decision, he replied that he had recently attended an automobile
            show and had been impressed. “Boy, do they know how to make a car!”
            was his explanation. He made it very clear that he trusted his gut feeling
            and was satisfied with himself and with his decision. I found it remarkable
            that he had apparently not considered the one question that an economist
            would call relevant: Is Ford stock currently underpriced? Instead, he had
            listened to his intuition; he liked the cars, he liked the company, and he
            liked the idea of owning its stock. From what we know about the accuracy
            of stock picking, it is reasonable to believe that he did not know what he
            was doing.

            The specific heuristics that Amos and I studied proviheitudied de little
            help in understanding how the executive came to invest in Ford stock, but a
            broader conception of heuristics now exists, which offers a good account.
            An important advance is that emotion now looms much larger in our
            understanding of intuitive judgments and choices than it did in the past.
            The executive’s decision would today be described as an example of the
            affect heuristic, where judgments and decisions are guided directly by

            feelings of liking and disliking, with little deliberation or reasoning.
            When confronted with a problem—choosing a chess move or deciding

            whether to invest in a stock—the machinery of intuitive thought does the
            best it can. If the individual has relevant expertise, she will recognize the
            situation, and the intuitive solution that comes to her mind is likely to be
            correct. This is what happens when a chess master looks at a complex
            position: the few moves that immediately occur to him are all strong. When
            the question is difficult and a skilled solution is not available, intuition still
            has a shot: an answer may come to mind quickly—but it is not an answer
            to the original question. The question that the executive faced (should I
            invest in Ford stock?) was difficult, but the answer to an easier and related
            question (do I like Ford cars?) came readily to his mind and determined
            his choice. This is the essence of intuitive heuristics: when faced with a
            difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without
            noticing the substitution.

            The spontaneous search for an intuitive solution sometimes fails—
            neither an expert solution nor a heuristic answer comes to mind. In such
            cases we often find ourselves switching to a slower, more deliberate and
            effortful form of thinking. This is the slow thinking of the title. Fast thinking
            includes both variants of intuitive thought—the expert and the heuristic—as
            well as the entirely automatic mental activities of perception and memory,
            the operations that enable you to know there is a lamp on your desk or
            retrieve the name of the capital of Russia.

            The distinction between fast and slow thinking has been explored by
            many psychologists over the last twenty-five years. For reasons that I
            explain more fully in the next chapter, I describe mental life by the metaphor
            of two agents, called System 1 and System 2, which respectively produce
            fast and slow thinking. I speak of the features of intuitive and deliberate
            thought as if they were traits and dispositions of two characters in your
            mind. In the picture that emerges from recent research, the intuitive System
            1 is more influential than your experience tells you, and it is the secret
            author of many of the choices and judgments you make. Most of this book
            is about the workings of System 1 and the mutual influences between it
            and System 2.

            What Comes Next

            The book is divided into five parts. Part 1 presents the basic elements of a
            two-systems approach to judgment and choice. It elaborates the distinction
            between the automatic operations of System 1 and the controlled
            operations of System 2, and shows how associative memory, the core of

            System 1, continually constructs a coherent interpretation of what is going
            on in our world at any instant. I attempt to give a sense of the complexity
            and richness of the automatic and often unconscious processes that
            underlie intuitive thinking, and of how these automatic processes explain
            the heuristics of judgment. A goal is to introduce a language for thinking
            and talking about the mind.

            Part 2 updates the study of judgment heuristics and explores a major
            puzzle: Why is it so difficult for us to think statistically? We easily think
            associativelm 1associay, we think metaphorically, we …

            psychology

            PSY-101:
            Principles of Psychology

            Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology

            PSYCHOLOGY
            ● The scientific study of the mind and behavior
            ● Has its origins in Philosophy

            ○ Our early psychologists were philosophers!
            ● Became its own discipline when they started

            using scientific methods to test
            their ideas

            SUBDIVISIONS
            ● The general field of Psychology can be broken down into

            MANY subdivisions that focus on specific areas
            ● For example:

            ○ Clinical Psychology
            ○ Developmental Psychology
            ○ Health Psychology
            ○ Industrial-Organizational Psychology
            ○ Social Psychology

            CAREERS
            ● Although a graduate degree is required for most

            psychological careers, an undergraduate degree
            in psychology is VERY useful

            Workers with

            Bachelor’s

            Degrees in

            Psychology are

            EVERYWHERE

            PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
            ● There are different ways of studying how people think

            and behave (i.e., practicing Psychology)
            ○ We call these different “ways” perspectives

            THE MAJOR PERSPECTIVES

            THE NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE
            ● Considers how people function biologically
            ● Includes study of heredity and evolution

            ○ The role of NATURE in development
            ● Deals with connections of nerve cells, instincts,

            and drug treatments for mental disorders
            ● Fastest growing field given technological

            advances

            THE NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE
            We’ll answer questions such as:
            ● What does our brain actually do?
            ● What are the effects of drugs and alcohol on our mind and

            behavior?
            ● What’s happening in the brain to those with mental illness?
            ● Why can two people experience the same thing in different

            ways?
            ● How do we see, hear, taste, touch, and smell?

            THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
            ● Sigmund Freud’s Psychology
            ● Suggests that our behavior is motivated by inner

            forces of which we have little awareness and
            control of
            ○ Our unconscious drive us!

            ● Examines dreams to understand the
            unconscious

            THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
            We’ll answer questions such as:
            ● How does personality develop?
            ● Why do people suffer from mental illness?
            ● How can we treat those suffering from a

            psychological disorder?

            THE BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
            ● Focuses on observable behavior that can be measured

            ○ Argues that we are all just products of our
            environments

            ● The role of NURTURE in development

            “Give me a dozen healthy infants…and my own specified world to bring them
            up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any
            type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, and yes, even a thief,
            regardless of his talents, tendencies, abilities…” (Watson, 1924)

            THE BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
            We’ll answer questions such as:
            ● Why do we have phobias?
            ● Why do we choose (or choose not) to go to work and

            school?
            ● How can we get someone to do something we want

            them to do?
            ● How can we get someone to STOP doing something?

            THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
            ● Focuses on how people think, understand, and

            know about the world
            ● Suggests that the human mind processes

            information like a computer
            ○ Information processing theories

            THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
            We’ll answer questions such as:
            ● How does our memory work?
            ● What are some strategies to help us learn?
            ● Is our memory of events reliable?
            ● Can someone truly be a multitasker?
            ● Why do we forget things?

            THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
            ● Argues that people naturally strive to grow, develop,

            and be in control of their lives and behavior
            ● Emphasizes “free will” not “determinism”

            ○ Not concerned with biology, the unconscious, or
            the environment

            ● This type of psychology aims to enrich people’s lives
            and help them achieve self-fulfillment

            THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
            We’ll answer questions such as:
            ● What motivates us?
            ● Can we treat mental illness with love?

            SOME OTHER QUESTIONS…
            ● What does it mean to be intelligent?
            ● Why do we procrastinate?
            ● What factors led to your development?
            ● Why are people prejudiced towards others?
            ● How can you get someone to be attracted to you?
            ● Are you a psychopath?

            HELP ME BUILD
            A BETTER CLASS!

            ● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or
            remove from these slides?

            ● Could I ask better discussion questions for this
            topic? What are they?

            Please use this google doc to share your feedback

            The material for these slides was adapted from:

            Introduction to Psychology
            An open-access text written and edited

            by multiple individuals and organizations

            Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA

            Psychology

            1. After reading the book Deep Work, by Cal Newport, answer all questions in the file Deep Work.

            2. Taken together, the lessons of the Deep Work book can be applied to life under COVID.  For your thinking challenge, come up with a deep work plan for the Spring semester of 2021.  Be as specific as possible, and remember that it is better to do less things but well, than many things poorly.  

            Our boy Cal Newport came up with a time-block planner here:    https://www.timeblockplanner.com  

            The above two questions need to be completed by January 5

            3. After reading Thinking Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman, answer all questions in the document “Thinking Fast and Slow”.

            4. After listening to the two podcasts, develop a personal philosophy on how to change your mind:

            Put it together in a list of bullet points to remind yourself go how to think about the world in the next year.  For full credit, you need to incorporate the information from both podcasts and both books.



            https://freakonomics.com/podcast/change-your-mind/



            https://freakonomics.com/podcast/why-is-my-life-so-hard/

            Psychology

            Tronick, EZ;

            The mutual regulation model: The infant’s self and interactive regulation
            coping and defensive capacities

            pp. 177-194

            Tronick, EZ;, (2007) The neurobehavioral and social-emotional development of infants and
            children, New York: W. W. Norton & Co

            Staff and students of Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust are reminded that copyright subsists in this
            extract and the work from which it was taken. This Digital Copy has been made under the terms of
            a CLA licence which allows you to:

            access and download a copy;•
            print out a copy;•

            Please note that this material is for use ONLY by students registered on the course of study as
            stated in the section below. All other staff and students are only entitled to browse the material and
            should not download and/or print out a copy.

            This Digital Copy and any digital or printed copy supplied to or made by you under the terms of this
            Licence are for use in connection with this Course of Study. You may retain such copies after the
            end of the course, but strictly for your own personal use.

            All copies (including electronic copies) shall include this Copyright Notice and shall be destroyed
            and/or deleted if and when required by Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust.

            Except as provided for by copyright law, no further copying, storage or distribution (including by e-
            mail) is permitted without the consent of the copyright holder.

            The author (which term includes artists and other visual creators) has moral rights in the work and
            neither staff nor students may cause, or permit, the distortion, mutilation or other modification of
            the work, or any other derogatory treatment of it, which would be prejudicial to the honour or
            reputation of the author.

            Course of Study: CDR – Child Development Research/Developmental Science

            Title: The neurobehavioral and social-emotional development of infants and children

            Name of Author: Tronick, EZ;

            Name of Publisher: W. W. Norton & Co

            Psychology

            Referencing, paper style, citations
            Have a timetable!!!!
            What’s involved in writing a paper
            Demonstrating that I am learning the outcomes to meet the academic awards
            Showing you have grasped something – why you’re writing
            Who are you writing for? Someone that’s marking your paper. What will they find helpful? How
            can you arrange your writing to make it straightforward for them to look at it and assess
            What exactly do you want to write about? Think of exactly what. Condense your material
            What do you need to write about?

            Clarify the task
            – Pay attention to guidance of what the task is, assessment criteria, block of guidance in

            handbook

            Thinking and planning
            – Identify style of approach:
            – Plan your time for all papers

            Provide a structure
            – beginning/introduction
            – Middle (that does what the introduction says!)
            – Gathering together/conclusions
            – Signposting where needed (ie headings)

            Illustration and evidence
            – Make appropriate use of work discussion/observational material
            – Make responsible use of theoretical references (pay attention to assessment criteria)
            – Confidentiality of disguising identity
            – Respect theoreticians by referencing their work/original concepts

            Criteria: this paper is mainly to be observation led and reflection and use theory to help with
            guiding yourself towards thinking of material ie suppose to use theory sparingly the theory
            should match the observation. Pay attention to criteria to structure. Use theory to demonstrate
            that something has come up that you have understood.
            This occurs and the theory states i should expect this but i don’t think its relevant? Questioning.

            When describing concept: projective identification ie think about giving an explanation a short
            one, if referring freud’s transference – actually reference what you’re talking about. Demonstrate
            in paper where he discusses this ie Dora case study.

            Reviewing your observational material

            – Looking through observational material for paper – make the material say as much as it
            possibly can to help illustrate and the direction where you’re moving thingsin the paper.

            – Expanding on sentences with details in essay paper using a one liner from observation
            material for example

            – Referencing it as (observation 30, jane is 11 months old) for example.

            Critique and proofread
            – After paper put together proofread and critique
            – Critique: review your writing to see if you can enhance it. To make it better. Create 3

            sentences rather than one very long sentence. Notice whether answering question ie
            critical reflective skill.

            – Reading your writing to check your relevant, your achieving the task, writing is clear,
            straightforward and delivers what you need it to deliver.

            – Look at the language you’ve used and whether you’ve gone at the top of it. Instead of 4
            adjectives use 2? Concise.

            – Linking sections to make a point or discuss: need to be clear and straightforward.
            Reduced instead of long.

            – Proofreading: written english at an academic level

            Confidentiality & plagiarism
            – For whose benefit are you adding the details; is it relevant? For the marker etc.
            – Which details are relevant; put it out initially to flow but go back and have a look to see if

            can get rid of/change.

            Anonymising your writing – use pseudonyms, not initials (you, families, organisation)
            – Don’t give specific details broaden out – not the town/area working in – is it in an inner

            city? Rural area? Small town? Area of community affluent? Or deprived?

            Sameness and difference – if someone from morocco just say north african/middleeastern
            Family: young professional, middle age etc just converting broad details to convey message
            Gender – include. In relation to families involved with or clients working with.
            What’s the meaning? HOW ARE THESE DETAILS RELEVANT. Similarity of your
            culture/heritage and the family you’re observing?

            Plagiarism
            – Read around the topic and use their reading to write understanding gained

            Citation & referencing
            – In text citation name the author at the point that you use them in your paper.
            – Give date of the book/paper where the author has presented those ideas.
            – Referencing: reference list at the end, final list of submission
            – Don’t use bibliography – only those referred to in paper.

            Reference; in body all ideas correctly referenced but at the end when drawing ideas dont need
            to references gain. Only exception if you introduced a new idea in conclusion should be
            avoided.
            Cite websites name if no author or date

            Referencing Harvard style
            – All the in text citations need to correspond to reference list – fulll reference listed

            following harvard style in alphabetical order. If using same idea again cite again in body
            of text but no need in conclusion.

            – In text citation: (surname, YEAR)
            – (Stark, 2008) if it was a reference from group of people reference the name of

            organisation ie (Tavistock & Portman Library, 2010)
            – If you have used year or surname in a sentence you can take it out of brackets; in this

            1935 article (Rogers) it was noted that…
            – Can write Stark (2008)
            – Several authors up to 3: all need to be there. (Surname1, Surname2, Surname3, YEAR)
            – More than 3 authors (Surname1 et al.,YEAR) et al in italics.

            Quotes:
            – Lee and kirby (1962, p.6) put in page numbers when quoting something.
            – Long quote – still need to put page numbers but don’t need to put quotation marks can

            just use indents.
            – To cite sigmund freud you need to add information on the edition with the date of

            publication of the original text.
            – Standard edition (Freud, 1920, SE18, p.45) penguin or pelican (Freud, 1920, PFL11,

            p.281) PEP Archive: (Freud, 1920, SE18, PEP Archive, paragraph 7)

            Referencing a book:
            – Surname, I. (YEAR) Title of the book. Town: Publisher.
            – Kamala, K. (2018) How I learned how not to stretch myself.
            – If more than 3 authors all need to go in there all 20 etc.
            – If this is not a first edition, add the edition number. Goes afte the title – after the dot.
            – For collection of published works: add the original year of publication of the paper differs

            the year of publication of the book. Year in brackets original publication and the year
            underneath for freud etc not in brackets.

            Referencing an article
            Author, I. (YEARpaper) ‘Title of paper’, Name of the journal, Volume (Issue), webpage,
            Website: Author, I. (YEAR) Title pf the page. Available at URL (Accessed: date)

            Referencing a powerpoint:
            Author, I. (YEAR) ‘Title of presentation’ [powerpoint presentation]. Module code: Module title.
            Name of institution. Available at URL of the VLE (Accessed: date)

            Email of librarian to ask q’s about referencing : mlubrun@tavi-port.ac.uk

            M7 WORKSHOP; WORK DISCUSSION
            Due in June. 4000 words not including reference. Material integrated with theories. How has my
            work role been impacted by the pandemic. Don’t think its not interesting, or its too obvious.
            Assessment criteria very important.

            – Show evidence that you’ve thought deeply about your work role, including evidence that
            you’ve thought about the emotional impact of you carrying out your work role

            – Not Asked to write about therapeutic work but thinking about what it feels like you to
            arrive, doing your job, what it feels like for the person you’re working with

            – Unconscious processes between workers; violin teacher writing about the unconscious
            processes

            – Writing about cultural diversity and sameness and difference – evidence you’ve thought
            about this. Including cultural identities, language, issues of gender, disability. What does
            it feel like, showing your understanding of different perspectives and how they are
            enacted in your work role

            – Observer role: are you able to use the skills that you’re developing in infant observation
            seminar, step back and think from more of a observer perspective – what’s going on
            here, what are the processes that are going on for everyone involved.

            – Reflections of why am I feeling like that? Make sense of it from observer perspective.
            – Gather understanding overtime; not to rush conclusions or make judgements

            prematurely. Showing curiosity. Capacity to wonder. Student writing: im not sure what to
            make of what’s going on in this interaction but i had some ideas that it might be this or
            that. Assessed in quality of thinking and that includes, not sure and some ideas i think it
            may be is that.

            – Marked on reflectivity.
            – Illustrate paper; 1000 words approx, presented tehthe way in work discussions.
            – Include few, relevant theoretical texts, ie child development & psychoanalytic theory.

            Choose your work discussion write ups carefully ie ideas first, work material and then
            pick theories from child development & psychoanalytical theories to bring in and support
            your argument.

            – Some seminar links will have been made. So you can link to paper,
            – Detailed notes: set out your situation, ie only got these 3 moments so drawing material

            from those 3 moments due to situation.
            – Structure of paper: focusing on adolescents/children. you’re writing about your

            experience of your working role. There isnt a set title for this paper. Can just call it work
            discussion paper.

            – Start with intro, introduce setting, intro to what you’re exploring in the paper. Following
            development of child working with? Short term interventions/relationships? Strengths &
            limitations of working situation. If you’re trying to make a point think of material which
            example will capture the theory or idea. What exactly is it illustrating. Include theory only
            when its defo supporting example.

            – Should only use between 3-6 pieces of theory that helps support argument and
            discussion you’re having.

            Workshop Infant Obs 1
            3 different tasks for this paper.

            Task 1: 12 or more observations both 1500 words.
            – Submit a portfolio of 2 infant obs from early and from further on write ups
            – Reflective piece of writing based on observational material presented about emotional

            experience of baby observed.
            – Each one should be about one video scenario.

            Content of reflective piece; experience of observing by video. How the video obs ended. The
            beginnings, endings, taking thoughtful stance. Thinking of impact of being an observer. Be on
            the tightrope of something called an observer stance – think in a way of a mental discipline.
            What will the infant experience will be moment to moment and try not to get distracted by whats
            going on in the surroundings. Interaction of infant and imagining it as a tightrope – impossible to
            be perfectly in an observer role.
            Skills will develop. Starting the discipline of noticing when you fall off the tightrope, wat made me
            lose focus that i couldn’t concentrate on infant’s experience? Write ups include ….. To think
            about why your mind went awol in that moment in your infant obs seminar.
            Developing skills as an observer.

            – Reflective piece on your own experience. Its not a focus of theoretical understanding.
            – Think of a vignette draw your experience of it then link with a psychoanalytic theory.

            Focus on your experience and the baby’s experience.
            – Think about your development as an observer – first pieces may be more gaps, less

            detailed, further on more detail less gaps etc.
            1 or 2 themes to gather the material. In depth thinking. Outline of development so far but like to
            see thinking in detail about these specific materials that you;ve got in a vignettes or 2 vignettes.

            Task 2: delayed and completed less than 12 by submission date
            – Portfolio comprising one infant obs from first 12 obs.
            – Include reflective piece of writing including broader ideas; attempt to finding suitable

            finding, meetings with professionals, potential parents and what you’ve learned.
            – Extracts from reflective journal to evidence your reflection
            – Experience of early weeks and months, focus on baby’s emotional development and

            interactions.
            – Reflection: 2300 words. Could talk about experience of covid and how thats affected the

            search. Reflect on experience of being part of observation seminar during this time.

            Submitting essays
            At the front of essay – need to have a cover sheet boxes to tick for confidentiality.
            Save as word doc or PDF. When saved save it as student number and the name of essay ie
            infant obs 1 or work discussion 1.

            Writing an Academic Essay child development
            research
            1800 words
            Assessment criteria
            quantitative/qualitative
            Specificity/Generalisability
            Universal/Culturally specific
            sameness/difference
            Validity for critical

            Critically reflect – can make reference to their acknowledgement of their criticals. Have you
            reflected on it? Does it make sense to you? Are they measuring what they’re saying? Or if
            you’ve spotted they’ve overlooked something.

            Validity – can we say this is beyond urban middleclass families, is it really universal. A lot of
            people aren’t looked at or considered. Measuring something that they’re not realising they’re
            measuring. All papers are entirely collertive they’ve controlled what they can not as specific a n
            animal study so always areas that can slip in that we wouldn’t notice. So what have they
            actually measured and the thing that they’re stating is the cause of the outcome.

            correlation / causation relationship
            Correlation – one thing happens another thing happens at the same time, can’t be sure that A
            causes B.
            Causation – A causes B.

            Quantitative vs qualitative and how does that relate to specificity and generalisability
            – One experience can’t generalise but even with quantitative – amount of data you have

            and where it comes from to generalise.

            Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of CDR -breadth and depth, show that you’re able
            to understand the breadth of research.
            Demonstrate a clear line of argument – question is always about a specific area and the most
            interesting areas make an argument about why those findings are important.
            Chronological ideas

            Your marker has a marking sheet – read your paper it’s good but we are only allowed to
            comment in boxes next to criteria, if you don’t meet the criteria limited to marking.

            Theory 1 Paper
            1800 words
            Understanding of concept supported by relevant primarily and secondary source texts.
            Theoretical and links between understanding of it and other modules. Theory paper.
            Main focus is the theories.

            Keep it tight and to the point with theory and less on examples. Not all background detail
            essential with this.

            Primary source – core texts, papers by the original authors. Access to more applied papers that
            might discuss how those concepts are used clinically in a contemporary context would be
            secondary.

            Key core psychoanalytic theorists and then the secondary is adding onto their readings,
            developing on the core thinkers. Don’t just do secondary read the full primary and secondary.

            Assessment criteria
            – When you get your first paper back can see markers comments next to other box where

            criteria is.
            – Evidence that you’ve internalised and understood these ideas so they come out in your

            voice. Talk about these concepts with confidence.
            – Include reference to questions of diversity in relation to PA framework – understanding of

            diversity in when these concepts started and what they’re based on, now how
            psychoanalytic concepts can be used with a diverse population. Can these concepts be
            applied in cross cultures or can be more cultural specific.

            – Specificity and generalisability. Think about your race.
            – Critical perspectives; how can the concepts help us understand things projective

            processes playing a part in racism etc.
            – How does the issue of diversity and difference play into transference?
            – Demonstrate understanding of concepts in relation to observational work. Have to bring

            something of own experience into this. Only using material to demonstrate
            understanding of theoretical concepts.

            Introduce topic and define relevant PA concepts 900 words
            – Balance, good to adopt a position to argue from a perspective but have to be careful.

            Show that you understand the concepts and which are the key papers that are the go to
            points. Differences in opinions within a context show that you recognise that.

            psychology

            PSY-101:
            Principles of Psychology

            Chapter 2: Psychological Research

            WHY IS RESEARCH IMPORTANT?
            ● We need a way of knowing if our beliefs are

            supported
            ● Research that uses the scientific method allows us

            to make predictions based upon our beliefs, and
            then observe whether or not those predictions come
            true under controlled conditions
            ○ Allows us to separate fact from opinion so we

            can make better decisions

            THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
            Five main steps

            1. Identify question of interest
            2. Formulate an explanation (i.e., a theory)
            3. Make a specific prediction (i.e., a hypothesis)
            4. Collect and analyze data from an observation

            or experiment
            5. Communicate the findings (then back to step 1)

            APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
            The major research methods

            ● Case Study
            ● Naturalistic Observation
            ● Survey Research
            ● Correlational Methods
            ● Experimental Methods

            CASE STUDY
            ● An in-depth, intensive investigation of a single

            person or a small group
            ● Get LOTS of data about the condition being

            studied
            ● However, can’t generalize findings to other

            people

            NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
            ● Observe naturally occurring behavior

            ○ What do people actually do?
            ● Very valid (i.e., accurate) results
            ● However, no control over the study

            ○ The researcher just watches
            ● Researcher should be hidden and stay as

            objective as possible

            SURVEY RESEARCH
            ● A sample of people is chosen to represent a larger

            group of interest (i.e., the population)
            ○ Asked a series of questions about their

            knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors
            ● Ideally achieve a large representative sample

            ○ Allows for generalizations to the population
            ● We assume accurate self-data

            CORRELATIONAL METHODS
            ● Two variables are examined to determine

            whether they are associated (or “correlated”)
            ○ As one variable changes, does the other

            change along with it?
            ● Great for making predictions
            ● However, we CANNOT infer causality

            EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
            ● Investigates the causal relationship between two

            or more variables by:
            1. Randomly splitting a sample into two groups
            2. Changing one variable within only one of those

            groups in a controlled situation
            3. Observing the effects of that change by

            comparing the two groups on another variable

            EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
            Independent Variable (IV)
            ● The thing that is changed (i.e., manipulated) by the

            experimenter
            ● The two groups are made different ONLY on this variable

            Dependent Variable (DV)
            ● The thing that is measured
            ● Expected to change along with changes of the IV
            ● We use this to compare the two groups after the manipulation

            EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
            Experimental group
            ● Receives the change (i.e., manipulated IV)
            Control group
            ● Is not changed (i.e., no manipulated IV)

            We compare the experimental group with the control group on the DV
            to see if they’re different
            ● If different, we argue that the difference must have been due to the

            manipulation (i.e., the changed IV caused the change in the DV)

            RESEARCH ETHICS
            Ethical Guidelines:
            ● Protect people from physical and mental harm
            ● Protect participants’ privacy
            ● Assure that participation is voluntary
            ● Inform participants about procedures

            Research must be approved by an IRB (Institutional Review Board)
            ● An impartial committee convened to determine whether or not the

            research study follows ethical guidelines
            ● Weren’t necessarily established until 1979

            TO WRAP UP…
            ● NOT ALL RESEARCH IS SCIENTIFIC!
            ● Please be critical of everything you see and hear

            ○ Have some healthy skepticism
            ● Just because someone has done “research” in no

            way implies that it was methodologically valid
            research

            HELP ME BUILD
            A BETTER CLASS!

            ● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or
            remove from these slides?

            ● Could I ask better discussion questions for this
            topic? What are they?

            Please use this google doc to share your feedback

            The material for these slides was adapted from:

            Introduction to Psychology
            An open-access text written and edited

            by multiple individuals and organizations

            Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA

            Psychology


            introduction

            1. What is deep work?

            2. What example of influential individual using depth sounds the most interesting to you, and why?

            3. What are network tools?

            4. Why does the author have no stance in the debate between techno-optimism and techno-pessimism?  What it that debate about?

            5. The book describes the story of Jason Benn, summarize it as if you were telling the story to a friend that has not read the book.

            6. The author says that “deep work is not a nostalgic affectation… but a skill that has big value today”. How does that value manifest for a college student like yourself?


            Chapter 1. Deep work is valuable

            7. What are the High-skilled workers that the book talks about?

            8. What is the insight from Sherwin Rosen’s 1981 paper.  

            9. What is deliberate practice and how does it relate to the topic of depth in work

            10. What is the proposed neurological mechanism for deliberate practice, and what are the implications for a college student.

            11. What is the insight gained from Sophie Leroy’s paper “Why is it so hard to do my job?” again, discuss implications for yourself.


            Chapter 2. Deep work is rare

            1. Generally speaking, why does the author claim that deep work is rare?

            2. What are some trends in the business world that seem to work against deep work?  How do these trends manifest in the life of a college student like yourself?

            3. “Twitter is crack for media addicts. It scares me, not because I’m morally superior to it, but because I don’t think I could handle it. I’m afraid I’d end up letting my son go hungry.” What do you think George Packer was trying to say with that quote?

            4. What is attention fragmentation? 

            5. Explain the “metric black hole”

            6. How does the metric black hole explain the extreme (and obscene) growth of executive salaries?

            7. How do you understand the section on bussyness as a proxy for productivity?

            8. Why do you think it is so easy to fall for the illusion of business and productive being the same?

            9. What do you think is the value of a shipping company printing “like us on facebook” on its trucks? The author uses the anecdote of him noticing a truck with that legend as an example of what?

            10. How do you think that the “metric black hole” manifest itself in college life?


            Chapter 3. Deep work is meaningful

            11. The book takes an almost deferential view of craftsmanship.  Why is craftmanship so appealing to the author?  Do you have any personal experience, either yourself being a craftsperson, or someone else in your family of among your friends, that relates to Ric Furrer’s experience?

            12. How do our brains construct our worldview, according to the book?

            13. What are some of the benefits of cultivating intense concentration?

            14. Examine the last 10 emails that you responded to. How many are related to shallow concerns (you define what shallow means)?

            15. What is ESM?

            16. There is a counterintuitive result in the ESM studies regarding free time vs. work time.  What is it?

            17. What is flow? How have you experienced?

            18. What is nihilism? And how is it related to the enlightenment in the view of Dreyfus and Kelly?

            19. Dreyfus and Kelly say “The task of a craftsman is not to generate meaning, but rather to cultivate in herself the skill of discerning the meanings that are already there” Do you agree with them?

            20. The author claims that work satisfaction does not come from getting a rarefied job, but on having a rarefied approach to your job.  Why is that?   Here is the definition of rarefied:

            rarefied: of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style.

            Rule #1. Work Deeply

            1.      The book explains four deep work philosophies.   What are they (explain them briefly).
            2.         Which of these philosophies might be the best fit for your current status as a college student? What are some possible challenges to fulfilling that philosophy?
            3.         Newport makes an argument in favor of creating rituals.  What is it? What kind of rituals is he talking about?
            4.         Some of the “grand gestures” described in the book are outside the reach of most of us.  However, if you have a deadline or a work/school commitment that requires deep concentration, what are some of the grand gestures that are within your reach?
            5.         The book suggests four disciplines, what are they? Why are they important?  And which ones would you like to experiment with?
            6.         What is a “wildly important” goal that you have now or will have in the near future?
            7.         As a student, you can have lag measures and lead measures for your progress and performance. Make a short list of each (a couple of each type will do).
            8.         What are the arguments in favor of idleness?
            9.         How do you incorporate idleness in your life?


            Rule # 2. Embrace Boredom

            10.         Newport is quite skeptical of will power and motivation as the driving force towards a focused life. Why is that?
            11.         Listen to this interview with Clifford Nass. 



            https://www.sciencefriday.com/person/clifford-nass/


              and summarize as if you were telling it to your family and friends.
            12.         What are some of the most outrageous ways in which you have noticed the on-demand distraction culture? You can talk about yourself, or about other people.
            13.         Why is it that Newport doesn’t see the habit of looking at one’s phone when waiting in line for 30 seconds as innocent and benign?
            14.         What is the difference between taking breaks from focus and taking breaks from distraction?
            15.         I have noticed that when I am about to start a really difficult task at work, like writing a discussion in a paper, or answering a reviewer, I often go to infotainment websites, or all of the sudden I am in the market for new shoes.  What would be your advice to me?  Why do you think it happens?
            16.         How did Teddy Roosevelt approach his schoolwork?
            17.         What is productive meditation according to Newport?
            18.       What school or work task that you are currently tackling could benefit from productive meditation?
            19.       Map out a structure for your deep thinking about a school or work problem following the suggestions in the section “Suggestion #2 Structure your deep thinking”.


            Rule #3. Quit social media

            20.     Why does Tristan Harris think that our phones are a slot machine?
            21.     What is the “any benefit” approach to tool selection?
            22.     What is the craftsman’s approach to tool selection?
            23.     Newport suggests that we don’t use the internet to entertain ourselves.  Why, and what alternatives does he suggest?  Do you see any counter argument to that suggestion?
            24.     Newport has some really harsh words about how social media “short circuits” the connection between hard work and reward.  What is his argument?

            25.   This is the definition of a customer:  a person or organization that buys goods or services from a store or business. In social media, what do people buy, and how do they pay for it?  If they don’t pay for it with money, how do social media companies make money?

            Psychology


            Chapter 1

            1. What are the characters of the story in the book?

            2. What does each character do?

            3. Are they ever in conflict? If so, how?

            4. Explain the Muller-Lyer illusion.

            5. Are the two characters (systems) really in the brain, or are there simply a shorthand for the author to explain things?

             


            Chapter 2

            6. Try the add-1 task under the mental effort section.  How does it feel?

            7. What would happen to your pupils as you do difficult tasks?

            8. How did Kahneman use that observation in his research in a basement room?

            9. What are some of the tasks that demand effort?

            10. What is “executive control”?

             


            Chapter 3

            11.  What is Kahneman’s intuition about walking and thinking at the same time?

            12. Explain ego-depletion to a non-expert that is very intelligent.  For example, your parents (assuming they are not psychologists)

            13. Why does Kahneman call system 2 “lazy”?

            14. What is the Oreo experiment about? 

            15. Go back to the introduction of the book.  The second paragraph to be precise, and find the definition of a thinking bias. What is it?

            Chapter 7

            1. System 1 jumps to conclusions, in what situations is that efficient?

            2. In what situations is that inefficient?

            3. Daniel Gilbert suggests that to understand something, you need to do what first?

            4. What is confirmation bias?

            5. What is the Halo effect, and how was is demonstrated in the Alan vs Ben example?

            6. What is WYSIATI?

            7. In the context of WYSIATI what is overconfidence? 

            8. What are framing effects? Give an example other than the 90% fat free

             

            Chapter 8

             

            9. What is the message of troubling research done by Todorov regarding political candidates?

            10. In what other situations could you imagine the same phenomenon happening and with what consequences?

            11. Figure 8 is used for an explanation of a task that is easy for system 1, and a task that is hard for system 1.  What are they?

            12. Why does Kahneman say that there is a mental shotgun?

            Chapter 9.

            13. Why does Kahneman say that we substitute questions?

            14. What are the implications of such substitutions?

            15. Think of an example of you substituting a question with negative consequences. Tell me what was the real question, what was the simpler question, and how you substituted one for the other.

            16. What is the definition of a heuristic?

            17. What are the mood and the affect heuristics?


            Chapter 10

             

            1. At the beginning of the Chapter, Kahneman gives an example of how we look for causes even when they do not exist.  He calls it the “law of small numbers”, give a similar example translating it into COVID19.  The main thing I am looking for is you understanding the principle, so do not simply copy and paste substituting cancer with COVID.

            2. Why does Kahneman say that sustaining doubt is harder that sliding into certainty?

            3. In the city of Metropolough mothers give birth in two hospitals: “Large hospital” where about 500 births occur per day, and “tiny clinic”, where about 5 births occur per day. Assume that the probability of a baby being boy is .5. Which one of the two hospitals is more likely to have 80% of births being boys in one day and why?

            If you are a computer scientist, for fun, you can program a simulation of this problem.

            4. What does basketball have to do with this chapter?


            Chapter 11

            5. What is the anchoring effect?

            6. Give an example of anchoring if you wanted to sell me a car.

            7. What are the two possible explanations of the anchoring effect?

            8. There are a number of really interesting examples of anchoring phenomena in the chapter. Summarize them and explain it to your family as if you were talking to them in the kitchen table.

            9. How is it that anchors are another example of WYSIATI?

             


            Chapter 12

            10. What is the availability heuristic?

            11. Recall the principle from the readings last week: often, when we try to answer a difficult question, we substitute it for a simpler one, and we do not notice that substitution.  What is the substitution in play in the availability heuristic?

            12. Explain to your family the example in the book about keeping the house tidy.

            13. At the end of the chapter, there is a small section on power and intuition.  What is the main message?


            Chapter 14.

             

            14. In the chapter he uses the term “base rates”. What does that mean?

            15. The test that Tom W took in the story is of “uncertain validity”.  How do people judge that part of the story?

            16. Going back to the dinner table with your family, how does this chapter inform why it is so hard to fight malicious use of social media that delivers half-truths and lies?


            Chapter 13

            1. For chapter 13 there is only one question.  It is critical that you first read the chapter, uninterrupted and undistracted. Then, think about how this chapter informs our current situation.     Write two paragraphs about how this chapter relates to our world in this summer of 2020.  I am not asking you to get to a particular conclusion, but to use what you learned in this chapter to question your and other people’s ideas.


            Chapter 16

            2. Kahneman uses the word stereotype in a related, but not identical, meaning than how the word is typically used.  Explain the similarities and differences. 

            3. I have a radical view about stereotyping in a social context.  It is absolutely never ok.   Kahneman says that there are valid stereotypes.  Can the two positions be compatible? If so, how?  


            Chapter 17.

            4. Explain regression to the mean to your family.

            5. How does regression to the mean explain that most Olympic medalist are not children of Olympic medalists?

            6. Think of an example from any part of your life in which regression to the mean might explain a phenomenon.

            If you haven’t yet, listen to the podcast



            https://freakonomics.com/podcast/change-your-mind/



            https://freakonomics.com/podcast/why-is-my-life-so-hard/

            Chapter 35

            1. According to classic economic theory, for rational agents what two forms of utility are supposed to match?  In your answer explain what the two forms are about?

            2.  Do they match? 

            3. What is a hedonimeter?

            4. Explain Figure 15. What does it show and what are the consequences of what is shown?

            5. What are Peak-end rule, and Duration neglect?  Apply them to a positive and a negative experience in your life.

            6. What is the difference between experience and memory that Kahneman talks about?

            Chapter 36


            1. What are the findings of Ed Diener and his students?


            2. What is an amnesic vacation in the chapter? 

            psychology

            Paper Option #1 Nature/Nurture
            Developmental science focuses on the various contributions to development, and whether they lean toward the genetic side of things (nature) or environmental (nurture). Choose from one of the following topics discussed in the modules:

            · child obesity

            For this paper, review the module material on your specific topic. Then, write a paper describing in detail the “nature” (primarily genetic, inherited) contributions to this condition as well as the “nurture” contributions. You will need to conduct Internet research and cite the sources to obtain additional information on your topic. For example, explaining the inherited reasons for a child to be obese will require that you visit, read, summarize, and cite medical sites on the Internet. It is crucial that you rephrase material in your own words and cite it or put phrases from the sources in quotation marks and cite them. No more than a few sentences should be directly quoted in order for you to receive credit for writing this paper (in other words, no credit is given for a paper that is a string of other people’s quotes). As a general rule of thumb, at least 1.5 pages should focus on “nature” contributions to theat hand and at least 1.5 pages should focus on “nurture” contributions.

            Your research must include at least two journal articles or books. Websites can be very helpful and informative, but your final paper must include full, published research articles or books on the topic. Sources should be reputable and consistent with what you learned in the module as well as other sources. Google Scholar and PDF articles from the Internet can be helpful resources. Make sure you use good search terms when trying to find articles. You may want to start broad (for example, “bystander effect”), and then narrow to your particular area. This paper requirement means that you need to include at least two primary sources in your paper; articles from the Internet can be included, but they would be in addition to the two minimum primary sources. Primary sources are firsthand accounts; thus, they involve the author writing about his or her own work.

            It is recommended that you spend at least a page and a half discussing “nature” for this topic and a page and at least a half discussing “nurture.” Finally, conclude the paper by indicating which side (nature, nurture) gives the strongest contribution to this condition or whether they are both needed. For example, for child obesity, is genetics alone a sufficient cause for a child to be obese, or are poor eating habits necessary along with a genetic predisposition? The paper should follow the following format:

            Psychology

            Shuttleworth, Judy

            Psychoanalytic theory and infant development

            pp. 22-51

            Miller, Lisa; Rustin, Margaret; Rustin, Michael; Shuttleworth, Judy, (1989) Closely observed
            infants, London: Duckworth

            Staff and students of Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust are reminded that copyright subsists in this
            extract and the work from which it was taken. This Digital Copy has been made under the terms of
            a CLA licence which allows you to:

            access and download a copy;•
            print out a copy;•

            Please note that this material is for use ONLY by students registered on the course of study as
            stated in the section below. All other staff and students are only entitled to browse the material and
            should not download and/or print out a copy.

            This Digital Copy and any digital or printed copy supplied to or made by you under the terms of this
            Licence are for use in connection with this Course of Study. You may retain such copies after the
            end of the course, but strictly for your own personal use.

            All copies (including electronic copies) shall include this Copyright Notice and shall be destroyed
            and/or deleted if and when required by Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust.

            Except as provided for by copyright law, no further copying, storage or distribution (including by e-
            mail) is permitted without the consent of the copyright holder.

            The author (which term includes artists and other visual creators) has moral rights in the work and
            neither staff nor students may cause, or permit, the distortion, mutilation or other modification of
            the work, or any other derogatory treatment of it, which would be prejudicial to the honour or
            reputation of the author.

            Course of Study: M7 Y1 Theory – Theoretical Perspectives Year 1. Strand 1: Psychoanalytic
            Theory

            Title: Closely observed infants

            Name of Author: Miller, Lisa; Rustin, Margaret; Rustin, Michael; Shuttleworth, Judy

            Name of Publisher: Duckworth

            Psychology

            i

            Nurturing
            Natures

            This new edition of the bestselling text, Nurturing Natures, provides an indis-
            pensable synthesis of the latest scientific knowledge about children’s emotional
            development. Integrating a wealth of both up- to- date and classical research
            from areas such as attachment theor y, neuroscience, developmental psychol-
            ogy and cross- cultural studies, it weaves these into an accessible, enjoyable text
            that always keeps in mind children recognisable to academics, practitioners and
            parents.

            It unpacks the most significant influences on the developing child, includ-
            ing the family and social context. It looks at key developmental stages from life in
            the womb to the pre- school years and right up until adolescence, covering impor-
            tant topics such as genes and environment, trauma, neglect or resilience. It also
            examines how children develop language, play and memor y and, new to this edi-
            tion, moral and prosocial capacities. Issues of nature and nurture are addressed
            and the effects of different kinds of early experiences are unpicked, creating a
            coherent and balanced view of the developing child in context.

            Nurturing Natures is written by an experienced child therapist who has
            used a wide array of research from different disciplines to create a highly read-
            able and scientifically trustworthy text. This book should be essential reading
            for childcare students, for teachers, social workers, health visitors, early years
            practitioners and those training or working in child counselling, psychiatr y and
            mental health. Full of fascinating findings, it provides answers to many of the
            questions people really want to ask about the human journey from conception
            into adulthood.

            Graham Music is a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist at The
            Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust and an adult therapist in private
            practice.

            ii

            This page intentionally left blank

            iii

            Nurturing Natures

            Attachment and Children’s Emotional,
            Sociocultural and Brain Development

            Second Edition

            Graham Music

            iv

            This edition published 2017
            by Routledge
            2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

            and by Routledge
            711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

            Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

            © 2017 Graham Music

            The right of Graham Music to be identified as author of this work has been
            asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright,
            Designs and Patents Act 1988.

            All rights reser ved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
            utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
            known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any
            information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the
            publishers.

            Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered
            trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent
            to infringe.

            First edition published 2011 by Psychology Press

            British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
            A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Librar y

            Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
            CIP data has been applied for.

            ISBN: 978- 1- 138- 10143- 2 (hbk)
            ISBN: 978- 1- 138- 10144- 9 (pbk)
            ISBN: 978- 1- 315- 65693- 9 (ebk)

            Typeset in Times
            by Out of House Publishing

            v

            This book is dedicated to my dad,
            who I loved deeply and miss dearly.

            vi

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            C
            o
            n
            te

            n
            ts

            vii

            vii

            Contents

            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiv

            1 Introduction: the blind men
            and the elephant 1

            NATURE AND NURTURE 2
            MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES 3
            UN- NURTURED AND FERAL CHILDREN 6
            THE CHAPTERS 7

            Part I

            BEGINNINGS OF EMOTIONAL
            AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 11

            2 Life begins: from conception
            to birth 13

            OBSERVING THE UNBORN BABY 15
            WHERE DOES PARENTAL INFLUENCE START? THE

            MEETING OF BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 16
            LASTING EFFECTS, SOCIAL EFFECTS 18

            C O N T E N T S

            viii

            viii

            BEING BORN 20
            KEY POINTS 21

            3 Born to relate 23

            IMMATURITY 24
            BONDING: HUMANS ARE NOT GREY- LAG GEESE 25
            INFANT IMITATION AND CONTINGENCY 28
            ATTUNEMENT, AFFECT REGULATION AND MARKING 29
            MATERNAL INSTINCT QUESTIONED: ABANDONMENT AND INFANTICIDE 30
            ENTRAINMENT, CULTURE AND BECOMING ONE OF US 31
            KEY POINTS 33

            4 Infant coping mechanisms, mismatches
            and repairs in relating 35

            IT TAKES TWO TO TANGO: BLIND BABIES, PREMATURE BABIES
            AND SENSITIVE BABIES 37

            EARLY EMOTIONAL DEFENCES 39
            MISMATCHES AND DODGES 40
            THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND OTHER MENTAL

            HEALTH PROBLEMS 43
            KEY POINTS 46

            5 Empathy, self and other minds 47

            EARLY PRECURSORS OF UNDERSTANDING OTHER MINDS 48
            DEVELOPMENTAL LEAPS FROM NINE MONTHS AND ONWARDS 50
            THEORY OF MIND 53
            MIRROR NEURONS AND RIZZOLATTI’S MONKEYS 54
            EXCEPTIONS: NEGLECTED, MALTREATED AND AUTISTIC CHILDREN 55
            KEY POINTS 57

            Part II

            OVERARCHING BODIES OF IDEAS 59

            6 Attachment 61

            ATTACHMENT THEORY’S SECOND PHASE: AINSWORTH’S
            STRANGE SITUATION TEST AND CRITTENDEN’S DYNAMIC

            MATURATIONAL MODEL 63

            C O N T E N T S

            ix

            ix

            ATTACHMENT INSIDE US 66
            TRANSMISSION OF ATTACHMENT 68
            ATTACHMENT THEORY AND CULTURE 70
            ATTACHMENT AND DISORDERS 72
            KEY POINTS 73

            7 The importance of culture 75

            SOME DIFFERENCES 77
            SOCIOCENTRIC AND EGOCENTRIC, DYADS AND GROUPS 79
            WHAT IS UNIVERSAL OR NATURAL? BREASTFEEDING AND EMOTIONS 82
            CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT 84
            CULTURES FRAME OUR THOUGHTS, PHYSIOLOGY AND BRAINS 85
            KEY POINTS 86

            8 Biology and the brain 89

            BRAIN BASICS: NEUROPLASTICITY AND NEURO- GLIA 90
            BRAINS, NERVOUS SYSTEMS AND BODIES 92
            EVOLUTION AND BRAIN AREAS 95
            HORMONES AND OPIATES 98
            EMAPTHY, CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, ATTENTIONAL AND

            CREATIVE NETWORKS 100
            MALTREATMENT 102
            HOPE OR HOPELESS? 103
            KEY POINTS 104

            9 Epigenetics, evolution and how
            nature meets nurture 107

            EPIGENETICS AND EVOLUTION 108
            NURTURING NATURE IN ACTION 109
            ORCHIDS AND DANDELIONS 111
            SINS OF THE FATHERS AND LAMARCK 112
            GENES AFFECT BEHAVIOURS IN SELF AND OTHERS 113
            GENE ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND CAUTION 114
            KEY POINTS 115

            C O N T E N T S

            x

            x

            Part III

            DEVELOPMENTAL CAPACITIES AND STAGES 117

            10 Language, words and symbols 119

            PARENTESE AND INFANT- DIRECTED SPEECH 122
            CULTURE AND LANGUAGE 123
            INTERSUBJECTIVITY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING 124
            LANGUAGE AND BRAINS 126
            LANGUAGE AND EMOTIONAL PROCESSING 128
            LANGUAGE ABILITY AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGE 129
            KEY POINTS 130

            11 Memories: learning who we are and
            what to expect 131

            THE BRAIN AS PREDICTOR OF THE FUTURE 132
            MEMORIES OF EVENTS AND FACTS 134
            EPISODIC AND AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY 136
            TRAUMA, MEMORIES AND FORGETTING 138
            KEY POINTS 141

            12 Play: fun, symbolising, practising
            and mucking about 143

            EARLY PLAY 145
            PLAY IN OTHER SPECIES AND ROUGH AND TUMBLE 146
            DIFFERENT KINDS OF PLAY, DIFFERENT KINDS OF LEARNING 147
            PLAY AS A WINDOW INTO THE PSYCHE 149
            PLAY, PRETENDING, SYMBOLISM AND GROWING MINDS 151
            KEY POINTS 153

            13 Boys, girls and gender 155

            SOCIAL LEARNING 157
            DIFFERENT CULTURES, DIFFERENT GENDERS 158
            UNCERTAIN GENDERS 159
            A WEAKER SEX? GENDER AND THE IMPACT OF EARLY EXPERIENCES 162
            VENUS AND MARS: LANGUAGE AND DIFFERENT PLANETS 163
            GENDER PREFERENCES 164
            DIFFERENT GENDERS, DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESENTATIONS 165

            C O N T E N T S

            xi

            xi

            TESTOSTERONE AGAIN, AND OTHER HORMONES 166
            KEY POINTS 167

            Part IV

            NOT JUST MOTHERS 169

            14 Nonmaternal care and childcare 171

            ADOPTION IS COMMON IN SOME SOCIETIES 173
            PURCHASED NONMATERNAL CHILDCARE: NURSERIES 174
            NURSERIES, NANNIES, GRANNIES AND CHILDMINDERS 178
            KEY POINTS 180

            15 Middle childhood, siblings, peers
            and group life 181

            SIBLINGS AND EARLIER INTERACTIONS 183
            SWITCH POINTS: PEERS, PARENTS AND ATTACHMENT 184
            POWER OF THE GROUP 186
            PEERS: ARE THEY MOST IMPORTANT? 189
            TEMPERAMENT 190
            KEY POINTS 192

            16 The place of fathers 193

            BIOLOGICAL PRIMING 195
            CHILDREN WITH A FATHER AND A MOTHER 197
            CHILDREN WITHOUT A BIOLOGICAL FATHER PRESENT: SINGLE

            MOTHERS, LESBIAN PARENTS AND STEP- FATHERS 199
            PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM RESEARCH ON FATHERS 201
            KEY POINTS 203

            17 Moving towards adulthood 205

            THE ADOLESCENT BRAIN 208
            SCREENS, THE CONNECTED WORLD AND OTHER ADDICTIONS 211
            BECOMING LESS ATTACHED 214
            SEX AND ROMANCE 216
            RISKS, PROBLEMS AND RESILIENCE 217
            KEY POINTS 219

            C O N T E N T S

            xii

            xii

            Part V

            CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY EXPERIENCES 221

            18 Trauma, neglect and their effects 223

            NEGLECT 224
            MALTREATMENT, TRAUMA AND ABUSE 227
            DISORGANISED ATTACHMENT 229
            LONG- TERM EFFECTS 231
            KEY POINTS 232

            19 Resilience and good feelings 235

            POSITIVE EMOTIONS AND HEALTH 237
            OPTIMISM IS NATURAL IN CHILDREN 239
            RESILIENCE 240
            AMBIVALENCE AND EMOTIONAL COMPLEXITY 243
            HAPPINESS: EUDEMONIC AND HEDONISTIC 245
            RESILIENCE, INTERVENTIONS, AND PROXIMAL AND DISTAL IMPACTS 247
            KEY POINTS 249

            20 Moral development, antisocial and
            prosocial behaviour 251

            PRIMED FOR GOODNESS 252
            ATTACHMENT AND EMPATHY 253
            HOW STRESS MAKES US LESS PROSOCIAL 255
            IMPULSIVENESS, SELF- CONTROL AND AGGRESSION 256
            AGGRESSION: HOT AND COLD BLOODED KINDS 257
            EMOTIONS AND REASON 259
            GENES 261
            EVOLVED TO BOTH COOPERATE AND COMPETE 262
            THEM AND US 263
            KEY POINTS 264

            21 Conclusions: earlier experience
            and its longer- term consequences 267

            PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCES 269
            ADVERSE EXPERIENCES AND THE BODY 271

            C O N T E N T S

            xiii

            xiii

            WHAT CHANGE IS POSSIBLE? 272
            CONCLUSIONS 275

            GLOSSARY 279
            REFERENCES 285
            INDEX 356

            xiv

            xiv

            Acknowledgements

            A book like this inevitably owes its existence to lots of people. Probably my great-
            est debt is my patents, clients and super visees who have forced me to constantly
            rethink what I need to know in order to help. Equally important are the inspira-
            tional writers, researchers and teachers who have led the field and paved the way,
            who I hope I have sufficiently acknowledged in the text.

            Many have generously helped me with this book, particularly in reading
            sections and giving their thoughts. I would like to thank Liz Anderson, Lindsay
            Barton, John Cape, Colin Campbell, Robert Chapman, Ginny Clee, Geraldine
            Crehan, Hilar y Dawson, Martin Doyle, Simon Edwards, Rich Faulding, Amanda
            Glass, Danny Goldberger, Paul Gordon Jeremy Holmes, Juliet Hopkins, Sally
            Hodges, Rob Jones, Krisna Catsaras, Andy Metcalf, Helen Odell- Miller, Nick
            Midgely, Graham Puddifoot, Jane O’Rourke, Asha Phillips, Sara Rance, Roz Read,
            Michael Reiss, Janine Sternberg, Allan Sunderland, Annie Swanepoel and Helen
            Wright. A  special thanks to Teresa Robertson and Lawrence Dodgson whose
            illustrations bring alive the neuroscience chapter.

            I am particularly grateful to all the students I have taught who have forced
            me to get my thinking straight and who have been so inspiring in their enthusiasm.

            Big thanks too to the editorial team at Psychology Press, notably Lucy
            Kennedy and Michael Fenton.

            Last but certainly not least I am most grateful to Sue and Rose, for putting
            up with me and my foibles, and for still being there after my too frequent and
            lengthy disappearances into the land of computers, cyberspace and heavy tomes.

            Some words and concepts might not be familiar to readers, I  have included a
            glossar y at the back of the book. Words that appear in the glossar y are written in

            A note on the text

            A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S

            xv

            xv

            bold when they are first used. Also, for want of finding a better term, I have used
            the word ‘Western’ a lot throughout the text to denote the social, cultural and
            economic influences derived primarily from European and American societies,
            as well as the intellectual traditions within which most academic thinking, such
            as in psychology, has been situated. I am ver y aware that this word cannot do the
            huge job asked of it.

            newgenprepdf

            xvi

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            1

            1

            C h a p t e r   1

            Introduction: the blind

            men and the elephant

            Nature and nurture 2
            Multiple perspectives 3
            Un- nurtured and feral children 6
            The chapters 7

            newgenprepdf

            I N T R O D U C T I O N

            2

            2

            This book is about how a human baby, a tiny bundle of biological inherit-
            ances, develops into a particular psychological, emotional and social being.
            I  describe many recent increasingly rigorous yet exciting research find-
            ings. This is a big complex subject and our understanding of how people
            develop from an infancy with multiple potentials into a unique adulthood,
            how early beginnings affect later functioning, has grown beyond all meas-
            ure. The fast and relentless march of new research has led to the need for
            this second edition. Although there is so much written on these subjects,
            this is mainly scattered in a vast array of scholarly books, chapters and
            journal articles, and my aim has been to distil such research into a digest-
            ible form that can provide a sound knowledge base, and a jumping off point
            for further exploration.

            The question of the relative importance of nature or nurture is a theme that runs
            throughout this book. Whether people arrive with ready- formed personalities,
            or are primarily influenced by nurture and experiences, has been debated as
            far back as records begin. In the post- war period many argued that humans are
            ‘blank slates’ who could be moulded by parents and others (Pinker, 2002). An
            opposing view is that genes rather than parents are the main influence on chil-
            dren’s development (Harris, 2009). Both views are too simplistic and we now
            know that neither nature nor nurture is dominant. Children are born with differ-
            ent temperaments and genetic endowments, and if 100 children are subjected
            to similar influences then each will respond in different ways. Yet we will still see
            common patterns emerge. For example, children reared in poor- quality orphan-
            ages, who receive little human contact, are less likely than most to develop good
            language skills, to build secure attachments, or to have a strong understanding
            of the minds and emotions of others.

            Throughout this book I keep in the foreground the fact that humans always
            develop within a context. The psychoanalyst and paediatrician Winnicott (1958)
            famously stated that there is no such thing as a baby, by which he meant that we
            can only ever understand a baby in relation to the important people in its life.
            Similarly systemic thinkers have long argued that an individual is only under-
            standable in relation to his or her context (Bateson, 1972). I tr y to bear in mind
            the way human development needs to be understood from a bioecological per-
            spective (Bronfenbrenner, 2004), taking account of biological inheritance, but
            also the various systems children are nested in, whether microsystems such as
            family, school or neighbourhood, or larger societal macrosystems.

            We are increasingly aware of the complexity of contexts and the non- linear
            ways in which development takes place. From the moment of sexual intercourse,
            and indeed before, there are trains of influences. At conception there is straight
            away a genetic inheritance from both parties. The newly conceived foetus car-
            ries all kinds of biological predispositions but is interacting with, influencing, and

            Nature and nurture

            I N T R O D U C T I O N

            3

            3

            being influenced by its environment. Depending on one’s culture the developing
            foetus will hear and remember different sounds in utero, will imbibe different
            smells, and be subject to different rhythms. Some foetuses share the womb with
            a twin, which again is a different experience. If the mother’s state of mind is
            highly anxious then stress hormones cross the placenta and affect the unborn
            baby. Genetic inheritances alongside prenatal influences can lead some babies
            to be labile and hard to soothe, and others more robust or calm. Parents too can
            be more or less competent, and live in more or less stable or supportive environ-
            ments, and the meeting of each mother– baby pair results in unique relationship
            patterns and potentials.

            This book will examine what makes personality development understand-
            able and even predictable. So much can influence later outcomes. Are there older
            siblings in place who affect an infant’s development? Is the baby raised in a cul-
            ture where there are nearly always many adults around, like in hunter- gatherer
            societies, or with an isolated, inexperienced, and unhappy mother? Is this baby
            born into a culture that believes infants should be carried all the time, or one
            that believes that babies should be placed at the end of the garden in a pram? Is
            the baby long awaited and desired, or the result of an accident? If the mother is
            not ver y confident then is there an experienced father, or friend or grandparent
            around? Are the parents relatively affluent, or living in poverty or amidst urban
            degradation or violence?

            Our understanding of such trajectories has increased hugely. However
            development rarely follows a linear path where X always causes Y, and research
            these days often follows a more ‘fuzzy’ logic (Kosko, 1993). One can no longer
            straightfor wardly ask, for example, if non- parental childcare is a good thing for
            young children. We have to ask what kind of childcare (whether nurseries, nan-
            nies, or childminders), of what quality, for what kind of children with what genes,
            from which kinds of background, at what age, and how each form of childcare
            might affect either cognitive, social, or emotional development. Each factor
            added into the equation adds further complexity while also aiding understanding.

            The first edition suggested that the controversies of the nature/ nurture
            debate were now less relevant, and in the last few years burgeoning epigenetic
            research has left us in no doubt that our genes are expressed quite differently
            depending on the kinds of experiences we have. Despite massive hopes for the
            human genome project, we now know that biological inheritance, while extremely
            influential, by no means holds all the cards, and this will become evident in many
            of the chapters to come.

            So many perspectives are now needed to really understand human development.
            I liken the subject to the ancient Indian fable of the blind men and the elephant.
            In this, each blind man touched a different part of the elephant’s body, such as
            the tusk, trunk or leg, and each disagreed about what the elephant was really like.

            Multiple perspectives

            I N T R O D U C T I O N

            4

            4

            One blind man felt the elephant’s leg and insisted it is like a pillar, while another
            felt its ear and knew that the elephant was like a hand fan. The same can happen
            when thinking about children’s development. We now understand much more
            about neurobiology and how different experiences affect brain development. Yet
            this knowledge is only one small part of the stor y. Anthropologists and historians
            can teach us how childrearing varies across cultures and epochs, and other vital
            perspectives such as attachment theor y, developmental and social psychology,
            mother– infant interaction, psychoanalytic and systemic theor y, behavioural and
            cognitive science, genetics and evolutionar y theor y, all illuminate other aspects
            of the mythical elephant.

            I at times cite research on animals such as rats or monkeys. Because
            something is true of another animal does not mean that it is also true for
            humans. Typical is the misinterpretation of research about bonding; grey- lag
            geese might bond with the first creature they see after bir th but humans do
            not. Yet animal research can illuminate human development, par ticularly as so
            many of our biological and brain systems are shared with other species. Typical
            is how humans use similar biological and brain systems to most mammals in
            stress or terror.

            Lack of space stops me describing in detail the various research meth-
            ods used in the studies I  quote. I  hope it will become clear how researchers
            use extraordinar y ingenuity to devise experiments, and for those interested in
            the detail of research methodology I  would point to more specialist texts (e.g.
            Breakwell, 2006; Coolican, 2009). For example, even though babies cannot
            speak, researchers can work out what infants prefer, such as that they favour
            human faces, and we learn this by watching which pictures babies look at most,
            or by physiological tests such as measuring heart rates. Some kinds of research
            look at the fine grain of childhood experiences, such as examining the physical
            response in babies who unexpectedly lose their mother’s attention. Much of this
            is qualitative, looking at people’s experience, using obser vation and interpreting
            meanings. Other research is more ‘macro’ and quantitative, often examining
            huge samples of data using complex calculations in longitudinal studies, for
            example looking at a huge birth cohort to tease out the effect of experiences
            such as maltreatment.

            Some research is in naturalistic settings, perhaps seeing how language
            develops in family homes, while other research is undertaken via artificial experi-
            ments in laboratories, maybe looking at what parts of the brain light up when
            people are shown alarming pictures. Each form of knowledge can add something
            extra to the overall picture. We can tr y to understand particular experiences,
            such as that most one- year- olds cr y when their mothers leave them on their own.
            We also need to understand how this links to broader understandings, such as
            why it is that not all one- year- olds cr y when left. We might find that some babies
            are born temperamentally prone to cr y more than others, but also that some
            babies become used to being alone and learn not to cr y out. From here one can
            look at samples, maybe of the non- cr ying babies, and find out if similar early
            experiences generally have a similar long- term effect. Each kind of research

            I N T R O D U C T I O N

            5

            5

            has its strengths and flaws. Microstudies are often too small to generalise from,
            but huge meta- analyses, such as the effect of emotional neglect across differ-
            ent cultures, do not necessarily compare like- for- like phenomena. I  have relied
            heavily on published peer reviewed articles, some of which could be critically
            ‘deconstructed’ methodologically, while others might in time be superseded or
            reinterpreted. Hopefully, on balance the research quoted in this book illuminates
            important aspects of experience and is as reliable as possible.

            Expectations and unconscious biases of researchers can also influence
            results. An early and classic example is how experimenters were told (wrongly)
            that the rats they were using for experiments were bred to be good with mazes.
            These rats ended up navigating mazes far better than similar rats labelled as bad
            at mazes (Rosenthal and Fode, 1963). The obser ver often affects the obser ved,
            especially when the obser ved is alive and sentient. Another early experiment
            (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968) exemplifies this point. Teachers were told that
            the children in their class had been tested and some were predicted to have a
            learning spurt. In fact there was no truth to this, the children had been randomly
            labelled. The labelling had such an effect on the teachers’ non- conscious expec-
            tations that these particular children showed a huge rise in their achievement
            levels. Because such subtle biases can creep into research practice, a degree of
            caution is always sensible.

            It is also possible to do research using the wrong assumptions. A  good
            example was early research in America in the 1950s which supposedly ‘proved’
            that having a father present in a boy’s life made him more masculine (Leichty,
            1978). The evidence seemed to be there. Researchers developed a measure for
            masculinity and found that sons whose fathers spent time with them had more
            of these masculine traits. These days boys whose fathers spend more time with
            them are often more socially skilled and take on less rigid gender roles (Barker
            et al., 2004). Children of course like to emulate those they love and admire, and
            in America in the 1950s the role model was often a tough masculinity that has less
            purchase today. The original researchers maybe answered the question as best
            they could but used the wrong assumptions. Burman (2007) in particular has
            helpfully urged a critical approach to developmental research and has cautioned
            against normative and moral assumptions hidden in it. Ideas about what is ‘nor-
            mal’ all too often hide cultural and other biases.

            It is never helpful to uncritically accept research methodologies, and I would
            always encourage reading with a critical eye. I  take it for granted that beliefs
            about what is true can change over time and that scientists might only be able see
            one version of reality (Kuhn, 1970), often a culturally dominant one (Feyerabend,
            1993). I  also agree with Popper’s (1959) idea that we ‘should’ always be test-
            ing our ideas and that good scientists are always prepared to be proven wrong.
            I work on the assumption that one can honestly seek to get nearer what seems
            truer, according to the definitions of truth we currently use. Our knowledge is
            always provisional; we are all like the blind men groping in the dark. However,
            I am more interested in seeing what we can learn from the research rather than
            aiming to critically deconstruct as many findings as possible. In these exciting

            I N T R O D U C T I O N

            6

            6

            times we have much information from different fields that helps us grope for an
            increasingly reliable view with more assurance.

            There are areas I  have inevitably had to leave out of this book. Due to
            space I do not describe, except peripherally, children’s cognitive development, a
            subject I believe is more than adequately dealt with in most traditional develop-
            mental psychology texts. Similarly, this book is not about physical development
            and milestones. I have attempted to keep the emphasis primarily on emotional,
            social, and psychobiological issues.

            From conception the developing human is influenced by and is influencing its
            environment. Some children receive loving, attuned care, while others suffer
            violence or abuse, and a few other children receive little human input and are
            left much to their own devices. Humans have sur vived and expanded across the
            planet so successfully through extraordinar y versatility in adapting to differ-
            ent environments. Just as people thrive in Arctic snow, in oxygen deprived high
            altitudes and in Saharan deserts, so too can humans sur vive and develop while
            receiving loving, empathic care, or strict and regimented care, or even abuse or
            neglect. The developing brain will grow differently in each of these situations.
            This is called experience dependence, which suggests that brain development
            differs depending on the kinds of experiences one has.

            There is also something called experience expectance, which refers to
            input that humans are primed ready to receive, and without which certain more
            usual, traits do not come online. Food, water and oxygen are the obvious physi-
            ological examples. A kitten needs light for its visual capacities to come on- stream
            and if blindfolded at a critical time in its development it will never see normally
            (Hubel and Wiesel, 1970). Human infants similarly need certain experiences in
            order for capacities like language to come fully online. This did not happen for
            some children who tragically were neglected in the worst institutional orphan-
            ages (Rutter et al., 2007). I will later describe research showing how only some
            of these ‘caught up’ with their peers, while others fell behind in language, social
            abilities, and physical development. As we will see, we need particular experi-
            ences for capacities like empathy or altruism to come online.

            This gives the lie to the idea of ‘noble savages’ (Rousseau, 1985) who thrive
            untainted by the influences of civilisation. It also suggests that particular experi-
            ences are needed to make people ‘properly’ human, whatever we mean by this. The
            absence of expected human contact can have devastating consequences. Many
            such children are described as wild or ‘feral’, which often means something like
            ‘without civilising influence’, ‘subhuman’ or ‘like animals’. Such children lack what
            most experience from the first moments of life, such as basic care and actively learn-
            ing from close relationships. Children imbibe and become part of cultural rules and
            ways of being, what the social theorist Bourdieu (1977) calls the habitus. However,
            some children have meagre experiences of human life to adapt to and learn from.

            Un- nurtured and feral

            psychology

            PSY-101:
            Principles of Psychology

            Chapter 3: Biopsychology

            SOMETHING TO REMEMBER:
            Everything psychological is biological!

            ● Our thoughts, memories, feelings, and behavior can all be
            traced back to the vast interconnected electrochemical
            network that is our nervous system

            EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION
            ● Organisms that are better suited for their environment will

            survive and reproduce
            ○ Their traits will get passed on

            ● Organisms that are poorly suited for their environment will
            die off
            ○ Their traits will NOT get passed on

            ● We are a result of at least 3.5 BILLION years of this
            evolutionary process

            NEURONS
            ● The fundamental component of “us”

            ○ Everything you think, feel, or do is a result of the
            chemical messages being sent by neurons

            ● We could have as many as 1 TRILLION neurons
            throughout our entire nervous system

            ● They fire “all or none”

            NEURONS
            We should grow familiar with the essential parts of a neuron:
            ● Dendrites, the axon, the myelin sheath, and terminal buttons

            THE SYNAPSE:
            The space where neurons meet

            NEUROTRANSMITTERS
            ● Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to a

            dendrite of a receiving neuron (e.g., dopamine, serotonin,
            oxytocin, GABA)

            ● Different neurotransmitters have different psychological and
            behavioral effects. For example:
            ○ Dopamine: Pleasure and reward
            ○ Serotonin: Regulates mood (e.g., happiness)
            ○ Oxytocin: Love and social bonding
            ○ GABA: Calming

            THE
            NERVOUS
            SYSTEM

            THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
            ● Central Nervous System

            ○ Consists of the brain and spinal cord
            ● Peripheral Nervous System

            ○ Everything that branches off of the spinal cord
            ■ Somatic division: Responsible for conscious

            voluntary movements
            ■ Autonomic division: Responsible for controlling

            organs that function automatically

            THE EVOLUTION OF OUR BRAIN
            ● The “first brain” (i.e., the central core)

            ○ Breathing, heartbeat, fight or flight response
            ○ Share with lizards, snakes, and birds

            ● The “second brain” (i.e., the limbic system)
            ○ Emotional responses, memory
            ○ Share with dogs and cats

            ● The “new brain” (i.e., the cerebral cortex)
            ○ Problem solving, social skills, language
            ○ Share with other primates (like chimps)

            THE BRAIN

            We should grow familiar
            with the basic function of
            each major lobe:
            ● Frontal
            ● Parietal
            ● Temporal
            ● Occipital

            TO WRAP UP…
            The Astonishing Hypothesis

            “A person’s mental activities are entirely due to the behavior of
            nerve cells, glial cells, and the atoms, ions, and molecules that
            make them up and influence them.”

            ● In other words… we are the result of a vast and complex
            association of neurons and their electrochemical reactions.
            ○ EVERYTHING PSYCHOLOGICAL IS BIOLOGICAL

            HELP ME BUILD
            A BETTER CLASS!

            ● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or
            remove from these slides?

            ● Could I ask better discussion questions for this
            topic? What are they?

            Please use this google doc to share your feedback

            The material for these slides was adapted from:

            Introduction to Psychology
            An open-access text written and edited

            by multiple individuals and organizations

            Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA

            Psychology

            Fraiberg, Selma H.

            Ghosts in the nursery: a psychoanalytic approach to the problem of
            impaired infant-mother relationships

            pp. 164-196

            Fraiberg, Selma H. (editor), (1980) Clinical studies in infant mental health. The first year of life,
            London: Taylor & Francis Ltd

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            Course of Study: M7 Y1 Theory – Theoretical Perspectives Year 1. Strand 1: Psychoanalytic
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            Title: Clinical studies in infant mental health. The first year of life

            Name of Author: Fraiberg, Selma H. (editor)

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            Psychology

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            Psychology

            1

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            2

            Attachment Theory

            Introduction

            Attachment theory encompasses a broad body of research over several decades. In the first part of

            this paper I will introduce the topic and the range of relevant research I have studied. In the second

            part I will focus on a journal article by Juliet Hopkins, “Overcoming a child’s resistance to late

            adoption: how one new attachment can facilitate another” (2000). I have chosen this topic as in my

            work with looked after children, particularly adolescents moving towards leaving care, I find myself

            confronted often with the power of the predictive reach of attachment theory yet simultaneously

            questioning whether these patterns of attachment established in early life can be altered.

            Introduction to Attachment theory and range of relevant research studied

            Attachment theory offers us a profound understanding of the importance of early relationships and

            how they impact on child development. From its initial conception by the psychiatrist and

            psychoanalyst John Bowlby (1969), attachment theory has become an important area of research

            over the last fifty years, particularly in relation to child development. Whilst not forgetting his roots

            in psychiatry and psychoanalysis, Bowlby was also influenced by the science of evolutionary theory

            and what drives the human biological instinct to survive (Music, 2017). To begin with Bowlby

            focussed his attention on how young children responded to separation from their parents by

            observing their behaviours, what emerged was that not only did young children require their basic

            physical needs to be met such as food or shelter, but they also have, “a biological need for a

            protective attachment figure, the absence of which causes serious psychological difficulties” (Music,

            2017, p. 62). Attachment began as a need from an infant for proximity to their primary care giver,

            most importantly during moments of distress or alarm.

            3

            The parent or primary care giver serves as what Bowlby termed a ‘secure base’ to which the infant

            can return to when in a state of fear or anxiety. Attachment is relational, the child attaches to the

            parent and the parent attends to the child’s physical and emotional needs, Bowlby referred to what

            happens between them as affectional bonds (Music, 2017). It is important to say that these

            affectional bonds can be formed with more than one individual, attachments can be made to several

            significant figures in an infant’s life, and indeed throughout their life into childhood and beyond. It is

            often however, the caregiver with whom an infant spends the majority of their time in the first

            twelve months of life to whom the most significant attachment is made. This raises the question of

            those infants who have had multiple care givers. This may be for cultural reasons, or in more

            unfortunate circumstances there may have been multiple placements if parents or families are

            unable to provide adequate care in the home.

            Security of attachment and how it is measured

            Following on from Bowlby’s research which focussed more on proximity of a child to their care giver,

            there was more of an emphasis placed on the quality of the mother’s availability when she is with

            her child, meaning how sensitive and responsive she is to their needs. If an infant comes to know

            that their mother will consistently, not only be physically but also emotionally available in times of

            distress, then they will develop a sense of safety and security (Hopkins & Phillips, 2009). It was Mary

            Ainsworth (1978) a colleague of Bowlby’s who devised a test to measure the security of the

            attachment formed between a mother and their twelve month old infant, this is known as the

            Strange Situation Test, Hopkins and Phillips summarise this well,

            “In this standardised test the infant is left briefly alone in a strange room and then reunited

            with his mother: his reactions on reunion are considered indicative of the nature of his

            security with his mother, since they reveal the expectations he has developed about her

            physical and emotional availability when he is afraid.” (2009, p. 40).

            4

            Four categories emerged from the analysis of the infant’s reactions, secure attachment, insecure-

            avoidant attachment, insecure-ambivalent attachment and disorganised attachment. Securely

            attached infants become upset when left alone. They seek out and settle with their mother on

            reunion and then seek to be put down and continue their play with toys that are available in the

            room. These children have a trust that their mother can be relied upon to respond in a predictable

            and timely manner to their distress. Those classified as insecure-avoidant become anxious during the

            separation (displayed by their increased heart rate) but tend not to show this distress to their care

            giver. On reunion they ignore the caregiver, do not seek comfort and can actively avoid it when

            offered. These children may also surreptitiously watch the care giver and perhaps approach them,

            but not display any negative affect. This behaviour suggests that these care givers can usually

            manage their infant’s positive emotions but struggle when they display negative emotions. (van

            Rosmalen, van Ijzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg, 2014). Those classified as insecure-ambivalent

            become markedly upset during the separation and display ambivalent behaviour when reunited with

            their care giver. They cry loudly and seek immediate contact with the caregiver but do not settle and

            appear conflicted between wanting to be held but also wanting to express their anger and

            frustration at being left. This clinging but simultaneous pushing away can suggest that this infant’s

            experience of soothing from their caregiver has been inconsistent. We can think of these three

            classifications as organised coping mechanisms for staying in contact, both physically and

            psychologically with one’s primary caregiver.

            The final classification, disorganised attachment, was identified some years after Ainsworth’s initial

            research (Main & Solomon, 1986). On reunion these infants can display contradictory behaviours

            such as approaching but doing so backwards or another example is freezing completely when the

            caregiver enters the room. Such a child has not been able to develop an organised strategy which

            can suggest that their experience of their caregiver has been confusing, unpredictable and even

            frightening. Disorganised attachment is often synonymous with abuse or neglect where the

            caregiver has been both the source of the fear whilst also being the source of the care or security.

            5

            What the Strange Situation Test shows us is the human capacity to assess and predict the safety of

            situations is firmly established by the time an infant has reached just twelve months of age.

            Attachment behaviours change or adapt depending on the environment, the child forms predictions

            about the world and how to respond to it in order to achieve a desired sense of safety. The patterns

            of behaviour that emerge lead us to Bowlby’s concept of ‘internal working models’. This is a place

            where psychoanalysis and attachment theory meet, Music describes these as, “a non-conscious

            model in their minds, an internal representation of themselves in relation to others.” (2017, p.66).

            Fonagy et al. (1993) found that the security of an infant’s attachment with both their parents at

            twelve and eighteen months could be predicted based on assessment of the parents own

            attachment styles (as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (Main et al., 1985)) before the

            baby is even born. This confirmed Fraiberg’s (1980) hypothesis that a person’s own childhood

            conflicts can resurface when one has their own children. However, this predictive reach of

            attachment through the generations must also be explored with caution. It is important to consider

            when thinking about children who may have suffered early abuse or neglect, whether changes in

            patterns of attachment can happen with thoughtful, consistent and attuned attention from care

            givers, and when required, therapeutic intervention from professionals as discussed below.

            There is also debate as to how applicable attachment theory is across cultures having been

            formulated in western society. This is also discussed below in the context of the chosen paper.

            Critical reflection on ‘Overcoming a child’s resistance to late adoption: how one new attachment

            can facilitate another’ Hopkins, J. (2000)

            The reason I chose this paper is that often with disorganised attachment in children who have

            suffered severe abuse and/or neglect there can be little hope. In the context of my work with

            adolescents transitioning from care to independent living, Hopkins offers some insight into the

            6

            potential successes of psychotherapeutic interventions informed by attachment theory. After a brief

            summary of the paper, I will firstly address the scope and limitations of case studies. Secondly, I will

            highlight the absence of cultural and/or racial context given in the paper, examining the challenges

            this bring in interpreting the paper more generally, particularly in the context of my own work with

            predominately Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) young people.

            The paper addresses some of the challenges that can arise for late-adopted children in their ability

            to form an attachment to their new parents. Hopkins uses the lens of attachment theory to examine

            the psychotherapy of a nine-year-old boy named Max, over the course of two years. She explores

            how a disorganised pattern of attachment can have its roots in early neglect and trauma. We get an

            insight into the intervention with Max which helps him work through early negative attachment

            models and their connected feelings of ‘fright without solution’. The defensive strategies established

            which were useful in frightening or unpredictable circumstances have become not only redundant

            but also disturbing and obstructive to the formation of new attachments to his adoptive family.

            While ultimately a successful intervention I will examine the case study in more detail below.

            Case studies and qualitative research more generally play an integral role in highlighting

            psychoanalytic concepts, consider for example Freud’s seminal paper detailing a fragment of analysis

            of Dora which led to the emergence of the concept of transference (1905). Hopkins describes a

            successful intervention showing a causal link between therapy and Max’s newly earned attachment

            to his adoptive parents. The rich context provided in the paper is hugely informative. However, case

            studies are limited for the very same reason. They highlight a very specific context and set of

            circumstances, some of which may be transferable, but others less so. In contrast quantitative

            studies (e.g. Fonagy et al., 1993), attempt to highlight the predictive power of attachment theory

            more generally. Ultimately a full description of the predictive power of attachment theory requires

            both qualitative and quantitative research.

            7

            This paper offers great insight into successful therapeutic intervention but lacks description of Max’s

            cultural or ethnic background and what consideration was given to this, if any, at the time of

            adoption. Significantly culture has been shown to play an important role in the quality of

            attachments formed (Erdman, 2010). In a similar vein, the paper could have offered a broader

            understanding if consideration had been given to the similarity or difference of ethnicity within the

            therapeutic relationship. In my own experience as a white woman working with majority BAME

            young people it has been valuable to name any racial or cultural differences and to explore any

            impediments to the work that may accompany them. Equally if there are many similarities it can be

            helpful to acknowledge them and what they might bring.

            What Hopkins offers is a rich example of how, with therapeutic support, children who have

            experienced trauma can overcome extensive difficulties in forming attachments. Hopkins mentions

            that Max’s adoptive parents are receiving support in parallel to Max, however a deeper

            understanding of Max’s intervention may have been gained by expanding on this work.

            Conclusion

            The extensive body of work around attachment theory continues to give us a way to understand the

            behaviour of young children not merely as a reaction but an intelligent and highly adaptive response

            to their environment from infancy. Whilst it’s predictive reach is strong it is by no means unalterable

            as we have seen in the case of Max above. Attachments can continue to be formed throughout the

            life cycle which offers some hope for those children that have had negative early experiences.

            8

            References

            Ainsworth, M.D. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. New

            Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

            Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. London: Hogarth.

            Erdman, Phyllis jt. editor, & Ng, Kok-Mun jt. editor. (2010). Attachment. Expanding the cultural

            connections. New York: Routledge.

            Fonagy, P. Steele, M. Moran, G. Steele, H. and Higgitt, A., 1993. ‘Measuring the ghost in the nursery:

            An empirical study of the relation between parents’ mental representations of childhood

            experiences and their infants’ security of attachment.’ Journal of the American Psychoanalytic

            Association, Volume 41(4), pp.957-989.

            Fraiberg, S. H, Adelson, E, & Shapiro, V. (1980). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to

            the problem of impaired infant-mother relationships. Clinical studies in infant mental health. The

            first year of life. (pp. 164–196). London: Tavistock Publications.

            Freud, S. (1953) ‘Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria (’Dora’)’, in The standard edition of the

            complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 7. 1901-1905. A case of hysteria. Three essays

            on sexuality. Other works. London: Hogarth Press. (pp. 1–123).

            Hopkins, J. (2000) ‘Overcoming a child’s resistance to late adoption: How one new attachment can

            facilitate another’, Journal of Child Psychotherapy, Volume 26(3), pp. 335-347.

            Hopkins, Juliet, & Phillips, Gail. (2009). Some contributions of attachment theory and research. The

            handbook of child and adolescent psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic approaches. London:

            Routledge. (pp. 38–50).

            Main, M. Kaplan, N. and Cassidy, J., 1985. Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to

            the level of representation. Monographs of the society for research in child development, pp.66-104.

            9

            Main, M. and Solomon, J. (1986) `Discovery of an insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment

            pattern’, in T. Brazelton and M. Yogman (eds) Affective Development in Infancy.New Jersey:

            Norwood, pp. 95-124.

            Music, G. (2017). Nurturing natures: Attachment and children’s emotional, sociocultural and brain

            development. 2nd edn. Routledge.

            van Rosmalen, Lenny, van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marion J. (2014). ABC+

            D of attachment theory. the Strange Situation procedure as the gold standard of attachment

            assessment. The Routledge handbook of attachment. Theory (pp. 11–30). New York: Routledge.

            Psychology

            ESSAY TITLES (2020-21)

            Theoretical Perspectives Year 1
            Strand 1: Psychoanalytic Theory

            Please select one of the following psychoanalytic topics studied this year:

            a) Psychoanalysis, cultural diversity, sameness and difference and the Unconscious
            or

            b) Observing the unconscious – projective processes and defences against anxiety

            In your essay, address the following aspects:

            1. Introduce the topic in your own words and define the relevant psychoanalytic concepts
            drawing on the theoretical papers you have studied. (900 words approx.)

            2. Illustrate your understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts by explaining their relevance
            to an example from your observation or work. (900 words approx.)

            For full details of the assessment task, please see module description in handbook.

            psychology

            PSY-101:
            Principles of Psychology

            Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

            SENSING THE WORLD AROUND US
            Sensation

            ● Activation of the sense organs by a source of
            physical energy

            Perception
            ● Sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and

            integration of stimuli carried out by the sense
            organs and brain

            SENSATION VS. PERCEPTION

            ● The physical sensation of the two squares is
            identical
            ○ The light entering your eye from each are the same

            ● Our brains perceive them being different shades
            based upon expectations
            ○ We expect a “checker pattern” and assume the “white”

            square is lighter because a shadow is cast over it

            TURNING DOWN OUR
            NEURAL RESPONSES

            Sensory Adaptation
            ● An adjustment in sensory capacity after

            prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli
            ● Allows us to “tune out” unchanging (and

            potentially unimportant) stimuli

            THE VISUAL SYSTEM
            You should be able to describe
            the basic anatomy of the visual
            system:

            ● Cornea
            ● Iris
            ● Pupil
            ● Lens
            ● Retina
            ● Fovea
            ● Optic Nerve

            THE CELLS OF THE RETINA
            Rods

            ● Concentrated in the periphery
            ● Work well in low-light conditions

            Cones
            ● Concentrated in the fovea
            ● Work well in bright light and allow us to detect

            color

            HOW WE SEE
            1. Light waves enter the eye through the pupil
            2. Lens focuses the light on the retina
            3. Rods and cones “fire” in response to the light
            4. These neural impulses travel through the optic

            nerve to the brain for processing

            OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY
            ● There’s no color in the image when it changes over

            ○ Your brain adds color as an afterimage
            ● Your rods and cones get fatigued from overstimulation

            ○ When the image changes, we can only perceive the
            opponent process of those respective cells
            ■ Red → Green
            ■ Blue → Yellow
            ■ Black → White

            THE AUDITORY SYSTEM

            HOW WE HEAR
            1. Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate
            2. Vibrations move ossicles (i.e., middle ear bones)
            3. Movement of ossicles moves fluid in the cochlea
            4. Movement of the fluid in the cochlea moves hair

            cells on basilar membrane
            5. Movement of the hair cells creates neural impulses

            that are sent to the brain for processing

            THE OTHER SENSES
            Taste and Smell

            ● Molecules (e.g., of food) bond to receptors on the tongue
            (taste buds) and in the nose (olfactory cells)

            ● When molecules attach to these receptors, neural impulses
            are created and sent to the brain for processing

            THE OTHER SENSES
            Touch, Temperature, and Pain

            ● Cells throughout the skin (and other bodily tissues) respond
            to pressure, vibrations, and stretch

            ● When cells fire in response to stimuli, neural impulses are
            created that are sent to the brain for processing

            MANAGING PAIN
            “Flood the pain gate”

            ● Create extra sensory information from area surrounding
            the source of pain
            ○ e.g., heavily massage whole foot after bumping toe

            “Close the pain gate”
            ● Refocus attention on something other than the pain

            ○ e.g., tickle a child and be silly after they bump their toe

            GESTALT PRINCIPLES
            ● Help us explain how we organize visual sensory

            information
            ● Our perceptions are subjective

            ○ Influenced by bias, past experiences, and
            expectations

            ○ They’re our brain’s “best guesses”
            ○ Can be incredibly inaccurate

            THE TAKEAWAY…
            ● The way you perceive the world is just that. The way

            “YOU” perceive the world
            ● No one person is living an objective reality

            HELP ME BUILD
            A BETTER CLASS!

            ● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or
            remove from these slides?

            ● Could I ask better discussion questions for this
            topic? What are they?

            Please use this google doc to share your feedback

            The material for these slides was adapted from:

            Introduction to Psychology
            An open-access text written and edited

            by multiple individuals and organizations

            Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA

            psychology

            1) PSY-101 is required by almost every undergraduate program.  Why do you think this is?  In other words, how can an education in psychology help you?  Do you believe that developing an understanding of psychology will make a difference in your life?  Why?  (200 WORDS)

            Psychology

            Freud, Sigmund

            Case history and analysis

            pp. 22-100

            Freud, Sigmund; Strachey, James; Freud, Anna; Richards, Angela, (1955) The standard edition of
            the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, London: Hogarth Press

            Staff and students of Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust are reminded that copyright subsists in this
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            neither staff nor students may cause, or permit, the distortion, mutilation or other modification of
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            Course of Study: M7 Y1 Theory – Theoretical Perspectives Year 1. Strand 1: Psychoanalytic
            Theory

            Title: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud

            Name of Author: Freud, Sigmund; Strachey, James; Freud, Anna; Richards, Angela

            Name of Publisher: Hogarth Press

            Psychology

            118

            C H A P T E R T E N

            Projective processes:
            gangs, bullying, and racism

            Groups and gangs

            W
            hen does a group become a gang? Hamish Canham
            (2002) defines a gang mentality as one in which de-
            structive forces have taken over. It is paranoid-schizoid

            functioning where there is no thinking, only a need to rid oneself
            of parts of the personality that might expose the individual (or
            group) to feelings of neediness, ignorance, or weakness. Within the
            personality, this is achieved by imposing a reign of terror on the
            vulnerable parts. In gang behaviour, the reign of terror is directed
            towards other groups. A gang is anti-thought, anti-parents, and
            anti-life.

            Hamish offers a commentary on William Golding’s The Lord of
            the Flies and tracks the way in which the boys lose touch with an
            idea of parental function and give way to the lure of the gang. He
            draws attention to the way in which Ralph and Piggy manage to
            impose some structure by making the rule about the conch: in com-
            munity meetings, boys cannot speak unless they are holding the
            conch. At the beginning of their time on the island, the older boys
            are in touch with the idea of rules (which Hamish suggests are a
            representation of parental function), and they agree to this arrange-

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            119G A N G S , B U L LY I N G , A N D R A C I S M

            ment. Later, the rule is cast aside, the conch smashed, and order is
            overthrown in an outpouring of paranoid-schizoid behaviour.

            Jack, the leader of the choir, represents the pull in the group
            away from feeling lonely, afraid and dependent on each other
            for survival. The de-personalisation that sets in is represented
            by the dyes with which these boys begin to daub their faces.
            Jack, in particular, is gripped by an idée fixe which is that their
            survival is dependent on killing the pigs which inhabit the
            jungle interior of the island. This culminates in a horrific scene
            where a sow with a litter of suckling piglets is killed by Jack
            and his band of followers.
            This action represents most dramatically the gang mentality
            at work. Faced with a life without parents to look after them,
            vulnerability and loss is projected into the pig family, with
            the piglets made into the orphans the boys feel themselves to
            be. As those who have read the novel will know, this cruelty
            extends to brutal savagery from Jack and his gang towards the
            other boys, in particular Piggy, who is killed towards the end
            of the book.
            Piggy is an overweight, asthmatic boy who has an ability to
            see the truth of their situation and to continue thinking about
            what needs to be done to ensure the survival of everyone. Pig-
            gy’s thoughtfulness and insight is under constant attack from
            the gang. They steal his glasses—representing his capacity to
            see—and eventually they kill him. Ralph is the character who
            struggles most between the lure of the gang and his desire
            not to lose the capacity to think. As he is pulled towards the
            gang, Golding describes a shutter coming down in Ralph’s
            mind. This shutter seems to cut him off from what he knows
            he should be doing—keeping the fire going, looking after the
            younger children, building shelters and keeping everyone
            working together. It represents the temptation for him to for-
            get these responsibilities and to join Jack’s gang who seem
            to be leading a life free from these worries as they hunt for
            pigs.
            It is most striking that the only two characters in the book
            who make reference to their families in any significant way are
            Piggy and Ralph. It seems that it is this ability to keep alive a
            sense of helpful, loving parental figures that sustains these two
            boys and helps them not to climb into identification with the
            parodies of powerful grown-ups as Jack and his followers do.
            [pp. 119–120]

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            120 T H E L E A R N I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P

            Children and young students in schools are not faced with this
            kind of ordeal, involving total separation from adult control and
            protection. However, there may be times when the experience of
            groups or individuals will have some elements in common with
            what is described in the novel, and their emotional responses may
            be similar.

            Hamish Canham summarizes what can be seen as the teacher’s
            (or school institution’s) role as follows:

            The presence of figures in authority who can maintain a thought-
            ful and considerate attitude towards all those for whom they
            have responsibility inclines people towards groupings rather
            than “ganging”. This may be within a family, the classroom,
            work place or in government. The presence of these figures is,
            of course, not sufficient in itself, for they will be distorted by the
            perceptions of those reliant on them. This relationship is crucial
            and is centrally determined by the results of working through
            the Oedipus complex in individuals. [p. 125]

            The internal world and the gang state of mind

            This brings us back to the question of what is going on in the
            internal worlds of children and young people who, as Hamish
            suggests, distort their perception of external reality such that they
            cannot make use of thoughtful, concerned adults. He writes about
            a “ganging” within the mind, which drives children towards gangs
            in the external world or turns them into nasty, scheming bullies.
            “The dominant and destructive parts of the self take hostage what
            they feel to be those other parts which would expose them to
            feelings of neediness, littleness and ignorance and they do so by
            imposing a reign of terror on those other parts.” In this state of
            mind, the individual is clinging to the illusion of omnipotence
            and omniscience; there is no separation from the object and no
            acknowledgement of dependency. The parent in the internal world
            is a nasty, narcissistic version, seeking only to rid him/herself of
            any awareness of vulnerability or need for others.

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            121G A N G S , B U L LY I N G , A N D R A C I S M

            Bullies and victims

            The bullies of school stories (e.g., Flashman in Tom Brown’s School-
            days, Squeers in Nicholas Nickelby) fit neatly into this psychological
            account of extreme splitting and projection. They are unrelenting
            in their attacks on their victims and continue with their escalating
            cruelty until such time as they get their just deserts. Most of the
            time, the situation is much less polarized. If paranoid-schizoid
            functioning and the depressive position are seen as states of mind
            between which all human beings oscillate, then it follows that
            everyone is capable of bullying behaviour of one kind or another.
            When interviewed sensitively and encouraged to be honest, most
            children admit to having at one time or another bullied a weaker
            member of the class, a younger sibling, or an animal. Most children
            can also describe interactions or relationships in which they have
            been the victims of bullying. They are also able to speak eloquently
            about how they understand the motivation behind bullying, seeing
            very clearly that the bully is trying to get rid of feelings he does
            not want to have.

            The cliché about there being a coward inside every bully is,
            of course, accurate. However, a psychoanalytic account would
            suggest that the perceived threat comes as much from within the
            individual as from the external world. If, after an episode of bul-
            lying behaviour, the individual is able to get back in touch with
            good internal objects and associated depressive functioning, he
            will be able to think about his own culpability and to feel some
            remorse. If this is not possible, the bully is indeed in a terrifying
            world, one in which his hostile projections lodge in objects which
            then become all the more toxic and threatening, as the fear of re-
            taliation increases. When bullying becomes entrenched, the bully
            has to redouble his efforts to make sure that there is no chink in
            his armour. Part of this is likely to be to surround himself with a
            gang—a group of followers who have their own reasons for stick-
            ing close to the bully. The leader of the gang works hard to make
            sure that everybody knows it would be dangerous to leave—a
            clear projection of his own knowledge that he would be in danger
            without them. This is the theme of many books and films as well
            as the school stories mentioned above. The Mafia, for example, is

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            122 T H E L E A R N I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P

            not an organization that people choose to leave or, indeed, where
            there is room for independent thought!

            Origins of the gang state of mind

            In terms of child development and early experience, the lamenta-
            ble internal situation of the hardened bully or gang member may
            come about in a number of ways. Hamish Canham (2002) draws at-
            tention to the kinds of experiences that, in his view, may create the
            “gang state of mind”. He refers to the impact of extreme anxiety
            and the tendency in human beings to look for someone to blame.
            He also identifies deprivation in terms of a deficit in containment
            in early life, which he suggests renders the individual less able
            to hold on to depressive position functioning and more likely to
            resort to projection and splitting. He writes about the impact of
            abuse and the way in which children who have been the victims
            of abusive treatment often seek to rid themselves of the feelings
            of fear, anger, guilt, and shame by passing on the experience, by
            vacating the position of victim and putting another in their place.

            CASE ILLUSTRATION: ROBERT

            Robert was a bully. At 10 years of age, he had a reputation in his
            school for terrorizing anyone who was smaller or weaker than
            he was. His teachers knew what he got up to but could rarely
            catch him at it. If they did see him, for example, leaning over
            a younger child against a wall in a corner of the playground,
            they would try to intervene, but he would quickly put a posi-
            tive spin on what he was doing and his hapless victim would
            corroborate his story. He was usually flanked on either side by
            boys of physical bulk and low intelligence. They considered
            themselves to be highly privileged to have been singled out by
            him, and if they ever felt a tinge of discomfort about what they
            were seeing, they were very quickly pulled back into line.

            Robert seemed entirely comfortable in his position as leader of
            his gang. Without actually causing physical hurt, he managed
            to provide himself and his followers with extra money, extra

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            123G A N G S , B U L LY I N G , A N D R A C I S M

            food, the best seats in the dining hall, and first turn on the foot-
            ball pitch. He was intimidating. He was also capable of making
            his own classmates fall about with laughter, and they looked on
            with some satisfaction as he tried out a bit of mockery (verbal
            bullying) of an inexperienced supply teacher.

            Shortly before he was due to visit possible schools in advance
            of secondary transfer, he was accused of going into the girls’
            toilets and of looking up the girls’ skirts. A 9-year-old girl
            had been upset at home, and her parents came into the school
            to complain. The head teacher subsequently spoke to Robert,
            who first denied it and then broke down and begged him not
            to tell his father. The next day, having received a call from the
            head and a letter giving the reasons for a three-day exclusion,
            Robert’s father stormed into school. He barged past the recep-
            tionist and straight into the head teacher ’s room, demanding
            an explanation. Towering over the head’s desk, he shouted that
            his boy was innocent and that it was just typical of this school to
            pick on an innocent child. He thumped the desk as he said that
            if there was any more trouble of this kind, he would make life
            miserable for the head, adding that he did not need anyone to
            tell him how to bring up his child. If there was any punishment
            to be meted out, he would do it himself.

            A very much cowed Robert returned to school three days later.
            The head spoke to him immediately and suggested he see the
            school counsellor. The counsellor continued to see him until
            he moved on to secondary school. Sessions were filled with a
            great deal of empty bravado, but Robert did manage to talk
            more honestly as the relationship developed, and his bullying
            behaviour diminished over the last few months of his primary
            school career. The counsellor came to understand that Robert
            was terrified of growing up. He had very little internal sense
            of supportive adults who would help him to do so. He was
            sure that he would be bullied in secondary school and that his
            father would mock him for it. He was already mocked by his
            older brothers for not being more sexually advanced, hence
            his exploit in the girls’ toilets. He had no confidence in his
            academic ability and so believed that physical strength was his
            only way of staying “ahead of the game”. Being “ahead of the

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            124 T H E L E A R N I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P

            game” seemed to be his version of being able to survive—phys-
            ically, emotionally, and psychologically. The counsellor was
            convinced that Robert was treated harshly at home, but he was
            fiercely loyal to his father and would not give anything away
            about his home life.

            The way in which Robert fits in with Hamish Canham’s descrip-
            tion of the development of a gang state of mind is clear. At 10 years
            old, he has a model in his mind which is of needing to make him-
            self feel better by making others feel worse. He surrounds himself
            with supporters and provides himself with stolen goods to boost
            his flagging self-esteem. He cannot dwell on his fears for the future
            and is heavily identified with his bullying father. Mockery threat-
            ens him from without and from within. It is a hopeful sign that his
            counsellor managed to make some contact with a more vulnerable
            and honest aspect of Robert, and one would want to think that a
            similar resource would be made available for him in secondary
            school. The onset of puberty, with all the associated physical, psy-
            chological, and emotional changes, could so easily throw him back
            into an identification with a gang leader.

            Envy and the bully

            I want to broaden the discussion about deprivation in the inter-
            nal world and make some links with deprivation in the external
            world and with the destructive forces of envy. It is absolutely clear
            that poverty does not, of itself, breed destructive envy. If there is
            a secure internal structure based on experiences of containment
            and of having been helped to negotiate separation, the materially
            impoverished individual is unlikely to be consumed by envy of
            his richer neighbour. However, where internal deprivation of the
            kind Hamish describes meets external deprivation, there is fertile
            ground for envy and hatred. Poverty and deprivation may then be
            used by individuals to justify their membership of gangs which,
            they argue, only exist to right the perceived injustice. This is a
            particular danger when the impoverished individual is constantly
            brought up against the affluence of others. There have been major
            changes in this aspect of the external-world context since the early

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            125G A N G S , B U L LY I N G , A N D R A C I S M

            psychoanalytic theorists were struggling to reach an understanding
            of projective processes. This kind of provocation—the provocation
            of relative wealth—can be seen in inner cities, where rich and poor
            communities live side by side. It can also be seen in communities
            where there is widespread poverty and despair but where satellite
            television suggests that there is a shiny, exciting world just out of
            reach. Envy of what others seem to have acquired without effort is
            one of the major determinants of the gang state of mind. Globaliza-
            tion, advertising, ideas of instant wealth and fame, and the preoc-
            cupation with celebrity all serve to challenge the sense of identity
            of the individual, and particularly so if feelings of relative poverty
            resonate with an internal picture that is full of deprivation.

            Racism

            Bullying and racism are different in some important detail but also
            have much in common with each other. I do not intend to suggest
            that a psychological account of racism can replace a sociological
            or political account. As Stephen Frosh (1989) suggests, racism, like
            sexism, is deeply embedded in Western society, having its external,
            historical roots in economic and political oppression. However, the
            question to be addressed is whether a psychological understand-
            ing of the internal dynamics of racism can contribute anything of
            value to those who are charged with responsibility for managing
            the issue in our schools. Frosh makes the point that it is the rac-
            ist fear and hatred in the psyche of individuals that perpetuates
            institutionalized racism.

            This is a debate that is often felt to be too risky to address. Our
            language in health, education, and social care is peppered with
            phrases that are designed to make everyone feel more comfort-
            able—“working with difference”, “anti-discriminatory practice”,
            “cultural sensitivity”, and so on. These may be worthy aims, but
            they all too easily serve to inhibit thought, in that they sanitize
            and oversimplify an area of discourse that is rife with passionate
            feelings of love, hatred, and fear. I want to be clear that I am not
            dodging the question of how schools can make a contribution to
            the anti-racist cause, but, rather, arguing that enhanced under-
            standing of the mechanism within individuals must surely make

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            126 T H E L E A R N I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P

            a contribution to thinking about the curriculum and about whole-
            school policies.

            The racist individual

            On an individual level, racism is another manifestation of pro-
            jective processes. The racist targets a particular individual or an
            ethnic group, who become the recipients of a cluster of hostile
            projections. Thoughts and feelings that the individual does not
            want to own get attached to a racial identity. That race is then
            hated because of the characteristics that have been attributed to it
            and feared because there is an unconscious expectation that there
            will be retaliation. The racist has to ensure that he is justified in
            his hatred, and this he does—in a similar way to the bully—by
            gathering like-minded supporters around him and by justifying
            his position with arguments about the way in which the hated
            race has brought it on itself. Economic realities such as pressure on
            housing or benefits are brought into the argument in the service of
            bolstering a system that is actually about generating paranoid fear
            and hatred in an attempt to manage internal anxiety. Envy fuels the
            racism when the racist thinks he sees the hated group succeeding
            where he feels himself to be failing.

            Fear of difference and change

            It is easy to write or speak about “the racist”. It is much more dif-
            ficult to address aspects of fear, prejudice, and intolerance in our-
            selves. In the chapter on beginnings and endings (chapter 6), I have
            written about the tendency in the human psyche to try to hold onto
            the status quo, actively resisting forces that challenge our assump-
            tions and threaten our equilibrium. “Working with difference” and
            “celebrating diversity” suddenly become much more challenging
            notions if we are genuinely open to new experience and really al-
            low for the fact that we might need to change our perspective and
            that change involves discomfort.

            For my own generation, growing up in the 1950s and early
            1960s, ignorance was a major part of the picture. The idea of “The

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            127G A N G S , B U L LY I N G , A N D R A C I S M

            Commonwealth” was a comfortable cocoon in which to hide from
            the realities of inequality, exploitation, and oppression. Childhood
            songs, rhymes, and stories were racist in content, but we did not
            know it (consciously) and were not called upon to be ashamed
            of reciting them. Things have moved on since then, and children
            now have the benefit of a more rounded version of history and
            first-hand knowledge of other ethnic groups and other cultures.
            Schools have played a vital role in educating children over several
            generations about each other’s histories and cultural identities,
            and this has done much to eradicate some of the stereotyping and
            racist assumptions which, historically, were based on ignorance.

            The situation in the early twenty-first century is very different.
            Mass migration has continued to grow over the past fifty years,
            and we now live in much more mixed communities. We are also
            subject to the inexorable impact of world news and commentary.
            Social divisions are now racialized in a way that can all too read-
            ily be used to legitimize the words or behaviour of the racist in-
            dividual.

            Cooper and Lousada (2005) make some interesting points in
            a paper that they call “The Psychic Geography of Racism”. They
            suggest that in the last decade or more, there has been a loss of
            the “believed-in family”, by which they mean that there has been
            a change in the relationship between citizen and state. “Upon
            the quality of the relationship between citizen and state depends
            the depth or shallowness of social concern” (p. 86). They suggest
            that in the past there was a relationship with an idea of the “Wel-
            fare State”, which was built on assumptions of benign leadership
            where government and those in positions of authority would con-
            cern themselves with the needs of all those for whom they have
            responsibility. The population now knows much more about the
            actual people and institutions who are invested with these respon-
            sibilities and so has developed a much more cynical attitude.

            Cooper and Lousada’s thesis is that with the loss of the
            “believed-in family” comes the loss of a capacity for concern for
            the stranger. Acceptance of the stranger gives way to fear of the
            stranger and the growth of “nationalism, racial and social indiffer-
            ence”. Schools reflect the society they serve, and I would suggest
            that there is something one might call the “believed-in” school
            institution where there is sufficient containment from the senior

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            128 T H E L E A R N I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P

            management team for tolerance and concern to hold sway. If the
            “believed-in” school is undermined, there is fertile ground for pro-
            jective processes (ganging, bullying, and racism) to take hold.

            Whole-school policies

            Anti-racist and anti-bullying policy statements are important doc-
            uments that give a clear message to staff, pupils, and parents as
            to what is and is not acceptable in school. Many local authorities
            now require that any incidence of bullying or racist behaviour be
            recorded. The record becomes part of the annual report from each
            school and, in that sense, is a public document. A thoughtfully con-
            structed policy can be a genuine indication that a school is aiming
            to offer a “believed-in-family” context for learning and teaching. It
            can also, in some instances, be used defensively, as if the existence
            of a statement can in some way guarantee a tolerant and inclusive
            institution. Children and teachers should, of course, be prevented
            from speaking or behaving in a racist way. The curriculum should,
            of course, be genuinely multicultural, reflecting the experience of
            every member of the school community. All this is part of thought-
            ful and containing (Bion, 1961) management of the institution.

            However, prejudice cannot be managed didactically. Teach-
            ing tolerance and understanding is a much more complicated
            task. There is a danger that Personal and Social Education (PSE)
            becomes infected by unconscious anxiety and unwittingly settles
            for teaching “about” diversity, never finding a safe way to explore
            some of the more primitive fears and feelings that groups have
            about difference. There is also a danger that the teaching takes
            up a rather comfortable “us” and “them” position, encouraging
            “us” to make space for “them” (the newcomers) and not address-
            ing the nature of the minority experience and the feelings “they”
            have about “us”. In my view, the very use of the word “minority”
            highlights one of the most powerful unconscious forces: the need
            to reassure oneself that one is in …

            psychology

            PSY-101:
            Principles of Psychology

            Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

            CONSCIOUSNESS
            Level of awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and
            feelings we experience at a given moment

            ● Wakefulness
            ● Daydreaming
            ● Sleep
            ● Intoxication
            ● Meditative
            ● Hypnotic

            SLEEP
            Why do we spend about a third of our lives sleeping?

            ● A clean brain is a healthy brain
            ○ Waste products are removed from our brain cells

            while we sleep
            ● Learning and memory

            ○ We consolidate memories during sleep to help the
            brain remain plastic for the upcoming day

            ● Physical development
            ○ Growth hormones released during sleep

            STAGES OF SLEEP
            Stage 1

            ● Waves similar to awake, but very relaxed; Easily awoken
            Stage 2

            ● Slower, more regular wave pattern; Deep relaxation
            Stages 3 & 4

            ● Heart rate and breathing slow dramatically
            ● Not “refreshed” if woken

            REM – Rapid Eye Movement
            ● Paralyzed muscles; Dream state

            DREAMS
            Freud’s take

            ● A window to the unconscious

            More realistically…
            ● A byproduct of the memory consolidation process

            SLEEP PROBLEMS
            Sleep debt & deprivation can lead to:

            ● Depression
            ● Stress
            ● Suppressed immune function
            ● Impairment similar to drunkenness

            Insomnia
            ● Issues for at least 3 nights a week for at least one month
            ● Can be due to:

            ○ Use of stimulants, lack of exercise, medications, stress

            DRUGS AND INTOXICATION
            Depressants

            ● Decrease central nervous system activity
            ○ E.g., alcohol and the release of GABA

            Stimulants
            ● Increase central nervous system activity

            ○ E.g., coffee and the release of Adenosine
            Opioids

            ● Pain relief and feelings of euphoria
            ○ E.g., fentanyl mimics our natural pain killing mechanisms

            Hallucinogens
            ● Change perceptual experiences

            ○ E.g., marijuana and the Endocannabinoid System

            DRUG ADDICTION
            Physical / Physiological dependence

            ● Brain prepares for use by giving us the opposite effect
            (e.g., we feel pain if addicted to an opioid)
            ○ Referred to as withdrawal
            ○ Typical dose brings us back to baseline, but then

            we need an extra dose to get “high”
            ● Referred to as building a tolerance

            OTHER STATES
            Hypnosis

            ● VERY misrepresented in media
            ● Person enters a hyper-relaxed state and becomes

            susceptible to the power of suggestion

            Meditation
            ● Refocus of attention

            ○ E.g., Mindfulness
            ● Can help manage stress, pain, and sleep problems

            HELP ME BUILD
            A BETTER CLASS!

            ● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or
            remove from these slides?

            ● Could I ask better discussion questions for this
            topic? What are they?

            Please use this google doc to share your feedback

            The material for these slides was adapted from:

            Introduction to Psychology
            An open-access text written and edited

            by multiple individuals and organizations

            Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA

            Psychology

            ESSAY TITLES (2020-21)

            Theoretical Perspectives Year 1
            Strand 2: Child Development Research

            Please select one of the following Child Development Research topics studied this year:

            a) Primed to Relate
            or

            b) Ruptures and Repairs

            In your essay, address the following aspects:

            1. Introduce this topic and the range of relevant research you have studied for this subject.
            (1000 words approx.)

            2. Choose a piece of research, or a study exploring different pieces of research* in the topic
            you have chosen. Critically reflect on the scope and limitations of the study/ies described
            including how they might/might not address diversity and difference. (800 words approx.)

            * Please note, if you choose a study which explores different pieces of research, this cannot be a
            chapter from the core syllabus text “Nurturing Natures” (Graham Music).

            For full details of the assessment task, please see module description in handbook.

            Psychology

            Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust

            Assessment Front Sheet

            ALL written assignments MUST be submitted with this cover sheet. Assignments submitted without this or with an incomplete cover sheet will not be accepted.

            Student Number: 1800481 Course Code: PA7073

            Unit Name: Theoretical Perspectives Y1: Strand 1: Psychoanalytic Theory

            Unit Number: Unit 3.1 Submission Date: 26/04/2021                                    

            Word Length (not including appendices and end/footnotes): _______________________________

            Essay Title (if applicable): Observing the unconscious – projective processes and defences against anxiety

            Confirmation: Please tick the following boxes to confirm:

            1. I confirm that the word length falls within the word length tariff for this assignment

            2. I confirm that I have taken all reasonable measures to ensure anonymity of all the patients, clients, professionals and institutions referred to in this assignment

            3. I confirm that this submission is my own work and the ideas and written work of others has been identified and correctly referenced

            Theoretical Perspectives 1: Psychoanalytic Theory

            Introduction

            Observing the unconscious – projective processes and defences against anxiety

            In this essay, I will be demonstrating an understanding of

            Psychoanalytic Theory and Infant Development Judy Shuttleworth

            · Object relations model as an experience that develops within the individual affecting present in different ways and less directly to do with the past causing the present.

            · Klein’s internal world. ‘ baby is pre-programmed to prefer human face and voice above other visual and auditory stimuli to feel comforted’

            · Brazelton dynamic interactions’ baby movements smooth and rhythmic for human contact contrasting with jerky movements with a mere object.

            · Klein view – meeting of instinctual needs with an external object not only results in a satisfying experience but initiates beginnings of mental development. The match between infant’s needs and and the object’s capacities, the external world can be brought into the infant’s mental grasp and thought about as well.

            Paragraph 2

            Paragraph

            Conclusion

            In your essay, address the following aspects:

            1. Introduce the topic in your own words and define the relevant psychoanalytic concepts drawing on the theoretical papers you have studied. (900 words approx.)

            2. Illustrate your understanding of the psychoanalytic concepts by explaining their relevance to an example from your observation or work. (900 words approx.)

            v1.1 October 2015

            1

            2