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Marketing homework help

Florida Atlantic University

Mr. Coffee Plan

Consumer Behavior

Eileen Acello

Apr 28, 2022

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 3
Situational Analysis 3
Strengths 3
Weaknesses 5
Opportunities 5
Threats 7
Research 7
Lessons Learned 10
Gabriella Romeo 10
Connor Asarch 10
Vivek Goyal 10
Brandon Yates 10
Evaluation of the Campaigns 11
Appendix A 12
Appendix B 19
References 20


Situational Analysis

Identifying Mr. Coffee’s product and service strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are crucial in learning about the company’s internal capabilities as well as environmental or external factors. Through this SWOT analysis, we can better assess the brand’s image and values to appeal to the younger demographic.

References-

In order to help Mr. Coffee be one step ahead of their competition and attract the 18-24 demographic, we have found three ways for Mr. Coffee to improve. We believe Mr. Coffee can become more attractive to Gen Z by becoming more eco-friendly, creating a subscription service, and having a rewards program. From reviewing our survey results, 50.4% of our respondents stated that an eco-friendly company will influence them to buy a product (Group 1, 2022). Although we did not interview our peers about an eco-friendly company, we did find that Gen Z is focusing on purchasing products from companies that have a positive impact on the environment (Karidis,2017). Nowadays, the younger generation is prioritizing products from companies they believe are environmentally sustainable. Brands are beginning to advertise products that are attractive to customers due to the recycled materials they are using. A lot of the retailers are advertising their products online, which is where Gen Z spends most of their time. Gen Z is starting to influence the older generations to focus on sustainability when purchasing products. In a survey conducted, all generations are shown to spend an extra ten percent on sustainable products (Staff WWD, 2021). The impact Gen Z is having on many generations is extremely important for the economy and sustainability of the world.

To continue to influence the younger demographic, we believe having a subscription service for Mr. Coffee products and partners will influence purchasing decisions. In our survey, we received responses that 44.6% of our respondents are currently part of a subscription service. Even though only 44.6% of respondents are subscribed to subscription services, most Gen Z’s are starting to use subscription services more. Throughout our interviews, we asked some extra questions about subscription services and many of the respondents stated they would use a subscription service if the product tasted better than other competitors and was cost efficient. Subscription services are becoming one of the fastest growing trends (Mole 2019). Subscription services have grown over 100% each year in the past five years. Gen Z has grown up with a desire to consume everything on demand, and this has led to a tendency for them to avoid making a purchase unless they have already tried it first. This is why monthly subscription packages are great for Mr. Coffee (Mole 2019). Aside from having certain items, monthly subscription boxes are also useful in advertising new products because the company can put products that subscribers would typically not find in a store.

Lastly, we believe a rewards program would influence Gen Z to purchase Mr. Coffee products. Many people travel to Starbucks or Dunkin Donuts for their coffee rather than making one at home. The issue we face is these two thriving coffee shops offer a rewards program which influences consumers to continue to purchase coffee from them. Marketers are constantly creating new ways for consumers to purchase their products. In order to engage Gen Z, lots of advertising needs to be done through social media like Instagram, TikTok, Facebook, etc. Most of the time, Gen Z is using social media, which influences purchasing decisions. As Gen Z overtakes the Baby Boomers as the largest generation in the world, brands need to evolve their strategies to meet the needs of this new generation. According to a study, Gen Z spends over 4 hours a day on their mobile devices (Wise Marketing Staff 2021). Today, consumer loyalty programs are valued at around $2.5 billion, and the industry is expected to grow to $10 billion by 2027. However, to remain successful, brands need to expand their digital connections and find ways to connect with their consumers (Wise Marketing Staff 2021). We believe if Mr. Coffee created a rewards program, it would influence more people to make their coffee at home.

References-

Karidis, Arlene, (2017, December 5). Millennials Buy Products they believe are ecofriendly and companies are responding. Waste360. Retrieved April 14, 2022, from https://www.waste360.com/generators/millennials-buy-products-they-believe-are-ecofriendly-and-companies-are-responding

Mole, S. (n.d.). The rise of the subscription: How gen Z is changing the way we consume new products. Gen Z Insights – Presented by UNiDAYS. Retrieved April 14, 2022, from https://www.genzinsights.com/rise-of-the-subscription

Staff, W. W. D. (2021, December 6). Report shows influence of gen Z on other demographic groups. WWD. Retrieved April 14, 2022, from https://wwd.com/sustainability/business/first-insight-report-1235010394/

Wise Marketing Staff (2021, May 18). Winning young consumers with a relevant mobile loyalty program. The Wise Marketer – Featured News on Customer Loyalty and Reward Programs. Retrieved April 14, 2022, from https://thewisemarketer.com/channels/mobile-loyalty/winning-young-consumers-with-a-relevant-mobile-loyalty-program/

Marketing homework help

This is what you need to do:

1) Read the Dr Pepper case study

2) Address this task on one PowerPoint slide:

Use a similar approach as Dr Pepper to understand the customers of the company we work with better.

Marketing homework help

This is what you need to do:

1) Use a framework relevant to internal analysis to analyse the case company.

2) Answer this question on one PowerPoint slide:

Which internal factors should the case company consider in their expansion? Why are these the most important factors?

Marketing homework help

2

Kawtar Ben Hadouch

BUS 480 CAPSTONE

Southern States University

4/17/2022

Executive summary

This business is a French bakery; the business is focused on giving its customers quality products and a unique customer experience. Therefore, its mission is ‘to bake innovative products with great taste and make the customer eating experience more satisfying .’The company focuses on the quality of its products to its customers. It also works towards achieving customer satisfaction. The vision of the business is ‘to be the most trusted French bakery offering the most innovative and unique recipes to its customers’. ‘The bakery will also offer different products to its customers. These products are made by trying new recipes which accommodate all the customers including those who need special diet and those with health complications. In addition, the recipes used are unique from those of the competitors due to the special ways used in making them. The products offered include macaron, baguette, croissant madeleines, Paris Brest, St. honoree, honoree and mille-feuille. I will be seeking finance from investors (Index & Index, 2019). This business will grow to become an international business in the future. the plan is to start laying the foundation for a big business, and seeking financial help from the investors will help me achieve this goal funding will also be done through bank loans with infests which I will be able to pay over a period of agreed time. This is because I would like to have much control of the business to make better decisions and implement innovations easily. Loans will enable me to keep much control of my business since the lenders do not control over the business. There is a detailed plan that will help the business in resource allocation to enable the business reach its goals through effectiveness across all the sectors of the business for instance marketing, production etc. which is ensured by proper allocation of resources.

Company description

The company is a bakery that makes different French pastries as mentioned in the executive summary. The business is designed to bring a change in the baking industry. A business plan is needed which will ensure that the business is able to offer its products to the customers. Firstly, the business differentiates itself in the market through its different recipes. Instead of following the existing recipes new ones are developed through collecting customer data to identify the needs of customers which are not met by existing bakeries. The business aims to change the idea of baking from just fixed recipes to the recipes that best fit the customers’ needs. Therefore, when the company has all its customers’ information, most recipes are developed and tried to ensure they meet those needs (Gorard et al., 2018). Customers with health issues such as lactose intolerant or customers who have health issues such as low sugar levels or high sugar levels are considered by making products that fit their needs—for instance, making products with high sugar levels for the customers with low sugar levels. My market is people of all ages, both men and women and children. All the people enjoy delicious foods, and therefore they are all targeted in the market. The products are not highly-priced and can easily be afforded by all households, from the wealthy to the middle class to the low-income earners. People with health issues are also included by ensuring their needs are factored in during the process of development of the product. My competitive advantage is the uniqueness of my products. I will not just develop products that exist in the market, but I will come up with unique recipes that meet the customers’ needs. Therefore my products will have a unique taste that gives my brand a unique competing advantage.

References

Index, S. P., & Index, G. (2019). Executive summary. Minderoo Foundation, available at: www. globalslaveryindex. org/2019/findings/executive-summary/>(accessed 31 December 2019).

Gorard, S., Siddiqui, N., & See, B. H. (2018). Philosophy for Children: Evaluation report and executive summary.

Marketing homework help

What is similar?

– huge sign waiver button, helpful but kinda overtakes the site. More aesthetic

– top menu is similar with logos and menu

– same content but the format on the computer is much better

What is different?

– Mobile website is more flawed. The top section doesn’t load properly

– just format

– website on computer has video on top which adds some fun

What done could be done better?

– Mobile app format can be improved

– sign waiver is too big especially on phone

– interested in tour button is out of context, doesn’t show what the product is

– it looks links but their not links, could possibly maybe connect descriptions or insta posts of the event

Mobile experience vs computer

– computer is easier to read

– computer makes more sense

– mobile is just changed for a phone but not done well

Ideas how to make the user experience frictionless between mobile and PC version

– the top either needs to both have a video, videos draw people in and it looks fun

– waiver button needs adjustment

– photos need to be relative to product for both sites

– mobile needs be a little more user friendly

– more aesthetic and better flow

April 11th Notes

Needs and objectives:

● mobile device website

● larger social media pressense

○ promoting their instagram

○ active, daily

● Instagram, Gen Z LONGER HOURS, college students

Competitors:

● only in denver

● Denver boozecruise

● Denver bike and brew, barcalls

● Pedal Hopper Denver (really good)

● barcicle

Target market: millennial (facebook), tourists, college students,

Our problem is with social media presence, we need insta and tiktok

there is a tiktok called pao.denver that shows fun stuff to do in denver and they should pay them to promote them

Marketing homework help

1. Please download Boston Beer Company case and carefully read it.

2. Discuss the following questions in 4~5 pages (Times new roman 11pt, 1inch margin, 1.5 spaced)
– Should Boston Beer attack the light beer market? If yes, why and how? If no, why and what should they do?
– What is the specific contribution of each form of market research—taste tests, ZMETs, consumption data, etc.—to each of your recommendations?
– How does Boston Beer get “heard” in such a noisy marketplace?
– What could you have done at the start of the Field Study and what can you do now to insure that you really help Boston Beer management?

Format: MS Word, 1-inch margin, 1.5 spaced, font size 11, Times new roman 

Marketing homework help

In 2021, CNBC published a list of 50 most innovative start-up companies. They are called disruptors and include (1) Stripe, (2) Impossible Foods, (3) SentnelOne, (4) Checkout.com, (5) Clear, (6) Lineage Logistics, and (7) TytoCare.

Select any of these seven entrepreneurial companies to write a research paper. The paper should be 10 -12 pages in length (excluding cover page, table of contents, and references), type-written and double-spaced. Note that the executive summary page, which summarizes key issues and ideas presented in the paper, should be single-spaced.

Follow the following guidelines in writing the paper:

▪ Cover page (company name, your name, university and college name, semester/year, course name/number/section, and instructor name).

▪ Table of contents (Show page number for each section of the paper).

▪ Executive summary. This full page is page number 1 for your research paper.

▪ The company. In this section, discuss the company history, nature of its business (i.e., the kind of goods or services offered), and its delivery method to customers (e.g., online, physical outlets, intermediaries). The company’s target customers (e.g., children, ladies, investors) and target market (e.g., local, national, international). Provide data about market size in terms of customers. Strategic assets of the company (e.g., patents, unique technology, leadership, other core and distinctive competencies). What is the purpose of its creation and competitive advantage?

▪ Analysis. Analyze the company financial information (if available) with tables and graphs showing profit/loss statements and balance sheet for most recent year.

▪ Company creativity: How creative is the company’s business model (e.g., introduction of new or improved goods/services, the company’s ability to become profitable in the future). Explain in detail.

▪ Competitors. Discuss at least two major competitors of the company that you have selected. The discussion should be focused on products, target markets, company size in terms of assets/employees, and other relevant factors. Is the company competitively sound in your judgement?

▪ Company future prospects: What is the future prospect of the company? Explain. If the company becomes a public enterprise (if it’s not already so), would you buy its stocks? Explain.

▪ Vision, mission, goals, objectives. On the basis of your research, develop your own vision and mission statements for the company. Also, develop two goals, and two objectives for each goal.

▪ SWOT analysis. Develop the SWOT table. The table should contain at least five factors (variables) for each component of the analysis (i.e., S, W, O, and T).

▪ Strategy statement: On the basis of the SWOT analysis, write down a strategy statement for the company (see McDonald’s strategy statement in the lecture notes posted on the course Blackboard).

▪ Recommendation. List three key recommendations for the company in strategic areas such as diversification, integration, or other initiatives.

▪ This is an individual (and not group) research project. You need to search the company reports, trade Journals, academic publications, books, and other published materials.

▪ Begin your research early in the semester. This is a major undertaken.

▪ You must use at least ten references.

▪ Follow the American Psychological Association (APA) writing style (manual) for citing the references. Keep in mind that the author’s name, title of the publication, date of publishing, and the publication name are all required.

▪ Examples:

Articles:

McDonald, Sammy (2020). Entrepreneurial Strategies in Canada, Journal of Strategy, Structure,

and Teams, 10 (7),100-110.

Books:

Fred R. David and Forest R. David (2017). Strategic Management, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall,

Inc, 77-79.

Marketing homework help

Industry structure and competitor analysis

Maximum length: report 750 words (max) + appendix 1500 words (max) (excluding references)

Objective: Conduct an industry structure and competitor analysis.

Directions:

1. Select a company from the following options: Air New Zealand, Fletcher Building, Fonterra, Spark, or The Warehouse Group. 

2. Use industry and competitor analysis tools and techniques to analyse the industry structure and competitors of the company you choose.

3. Research data to support your analysis. Adopt a company-report style (vs academic-report style). Incorporate graphs and tables within the body of the document (instead of the appendix). Include the sources of information in the graph/table where the information is presented. 

4. In this report, you should highlight the most important industry structures and provide a detailed analysis of existing and/or potential competitors. The basis for selecting important factors and competitors should be your detailed analysis of the industry and competitors using appropriate tools and frameworks. Please note that in the report you should not explain the tools or frameworks but use them effectively and report on what you find/conclude using them.

5. Include the detailed analysis and the tools you use in the appendix.

6. The report should include:

A. Short introduction

B. Summary of the main findings of your analysis and the main insights (there will probably be subsections in this part)

C. Conclusion

D. Appendix

7. Footnotes are the preferred location for in-text references. Include a final list of references cited. This style is also referred to as the Chicago style. 

8. Refer to the rubric for guidance about how you will be assessed.

9. For guidance on where to find relevant data, please use the consult relevant databases.

Marketing homework help

Ingenuity in Entrepreneurial Practice 1

Ingenuity in Entrepreneurial Practice

by

Name of Student

Course Name: Course Code

Professor’s Name

Institution of Affiliation

Date

Introduction

In the contemporary market, the advancement in technological approach in marketing has brought about various issues. Many entrepreneurs have striven to employ various techniques to creatively solve problems revolving market strategies to boost efficiency in trading. Diverse business men have applied ingenuity in practice among other approaches as a process of problem solving. (Siqueira and Honig, 2019) refers ingenuity as an entrepreneurial ability to apply imaginative problem solving approach to create innovative new ventures and value within the constraints in structure and the resource. Problem solving process integrates current inventions, the trend in culture and the society in business drawing a strong base for the market economies. In the current report, we shall critically evaluate the ingenuity practice by identifying the factors that verify its usefulness to problem solving in entrepreneurship.

Creative problem solving process is a multistage process that initiates at identifying the emergence of the problem, interventions to solve the problem, discovering the solution, and finally verification of the solution to the existing problem. While creative entrepreneurs develop new and origin trends in product line ingenuity is the entrepreneur’s ability to solve difficult problems in business that are unique applying a creative approach. Constraints in the market is a common experience among various business operators. However, the success of the business depends on the capabilities of the entrepreneur to analyze and develop informed decisions.

(Burgemans 2002), suggests two fundamental approaches that characterize problems solving process into induced and autonomous problem generation. In induces problem causation, the problem is seen to emerge independently from the actors that cause it. On the other hand, the autonomous causation views the problem generation as an accidental aspect on how the entrepreneurs define their goal and objectives.

Marketing homework help

Instructions for the TED TALK assignment, Congratulations!! You have been asked to give a TED TALK. What an incredible honor. Your TED TALK
must focus on our class and what you may have learned through your participation. Write your TED TALK as
you would give it in front of a very interested audience. Use the two pages to write out your speech. It is
expected that you will use most of the space requested (hint!!!). Use 12-point Times Roman, 1.5 line spacing.
WRITE IT WELL, and don’t mess with the TEMPLATE. DUE: April 22nd, 2022 (Friday) by 12:00 (NOON).

In this course I learned about organization Behavior, like:

Organizing our time

Schedule our things for success

How politics affect us as in the path of our success a life

How hurracanes and storms affects our environment and how it affects business

How family affect us

How the crisis affects business and how it affect for our future and jobs

How mental health is really important for success and how it affect us.

And how the social skills help us to grow as an important person and how it helps businesses and people to success

Marketing homework help

Instructions: for the template

Locate a recent article that focuses on a topic similar to the class presentation. Please give me the reference/website for the article in the space provided. Any format for the references is fine as long as it is accessible. In the box below your reference/citation, address the following: 1) the central/focal points of the article, 2) how it “fits”/contributes to lecture material, 3) questions that were left unanswered or things you wish were covered, 4) how it may affect your job/career/life in the years to come. You need not address all four, but you need to be thorough in your chosen approach.

Things to know about me:

I’m a Bolivian just arrived to usa to my college fsu I live in Tallahassee. my major is marketing and I’m planning to open my night clubs and restaurants here in the usa when I finish college.

Im 20 years old

I am currently a junior

Currently in FSU

From Bolivia

Just arrived 3 months ago to Tallahassee from Bolivia.

This are the articles I picked up for the 7 different.

They have to be 7 different articles for 7 different sections 2

https://www.livescience.com/ways-covid-19-changed-the-world-2020.html

https://www.helpguide.org/articles/depression/depression-symptoms-and-warning-signs.htm

https://www.hippo.com/blog/united-states-dangerous-places-live

https://www.forbes.com/sites/zackfriedman/2019/05/22/millennials-disillusioned-future/?sh=5d200e54353e

https://www.vox.com/2014/12/2/7313827/workplace-homicide-murder-violent

https://www.forbes.com/sites/bonniemarcus/2017/04/04/what-i-learned-about-office-politics-that-changed-my-career/?sh=1ff664806168

https://www.workplacementalhealth.org/mental-health-topics/depression

Marketing homework help

Khanh Nguyen

Craig Clark

MRKG 1331 Sections: 86001 and 86002

April 17, 2022

Product pricing strategy

Determining the pricing strategy for a new product or service is an integral part of the development process of a project. It is a step that determines the amount you will charge for your products, which is crucial in maintaining sales and keeping the revenue levels healthy to stay afloat. Therefore, pricing strategy entails all the processes and methods a business uses to set the prices for its goods and services. An effective pricing strategy builds and solidifies your customers’ trust and ensures business goals are realized. The cost of a price reflects the perceived value to its potential customer. It paints a picture of the features of the product, like usability, durability, quality, and popularity. A cheap item could be favorable in a competitive market, but some customers will view it as having low value (Haron, A.2016).

When choosing the price strategy to use on your products and services, there are a couple of things to consider to maximize your chances of optimizing the price of the product or service. The objective of the strategy is to ensure a successful entry into the market during the launch. In the pioneer stage, the first step in determining the price is estimating the demand for the product. Nike is a well-known brand worldwide, so the number of potential buyers is relatively high. Therefore, a challenging task in this step is exploring the preferences and tastes of the potential buyer to ensure the product in some way satisfies these needs. Prospective buyers can be asked, in a disguised way, the amount they are willing to pay for a product that satisfies their tastes and preferences. Another thing to consider at this stage of estimating demand is possible retaliation from competitor companies and the repercussions on demand.

The second step of the pioneer stage is deciding on the market target. After designing a specific shoe, Nike has to make strategic decisions on promotional plans to reach the target market. The new shoe brand is designed to reach a part of the entire population. This is usually a joint task for production and pricing. In production, projections about the cost of the final product are made to ensure that the production costs are captured in the final cost of the product. Thus, the price design vividly captures the capital expenditures and variable costs. The third step to consider is a promotion plan. The promotional strategy in pioneer is an investment in the product that will not be recovered until when the market has been established. At this stage, the plan is to obtain an optimum balance between the price to fix and the promotion model to maximize profits for a more extended period. During the launch, the price of the product is usually set to ensure a high margin profit to recover the revenue spent on the pioneering promotion and initial dealer discounts (Modak et al. 2010).

The last step of the pioneering stage is choosing the distribution channels. Distribution channels are the intermediaries between the producer and the final consumer of a product. The pricing procedure must consider the estimated cost of moving products through those channels. These distribution channel costs govern the factory price since it directly impacts the consumer price. The distribution costs can be considered partly promotional and distributive costs. These costs cover warehousing, handling, transportation, and order-taking. These costs are dynamic since constant fluctuations exist depending on production volumes, sales volumes, and other economic factors. There are three distribution channels: wholesalers, retailers, and direct-to-consumer sales. Determining the price for these different channels is a process that considers the current economic trend, penetration of the channel, the skimming level of the price, and premium selling options. When customers are more concerned with economic factors, the prices should be low, and thus production costs should be lowered. If there is a need to penetrate the market, the factory price for the channels should be considered and lowered to attract more customers. When there is a feasible option for premium selling, the high-quality products are produced and sold at correspondingly high prices to the distribution channels (Lancioni, 2005).

The last strategic decision to make is to determine the launching price, which lies between choosing a high initial price that skims the benefits of demand or having low prices from the onset to act as a promotional strategy to penetrate the market. The best strategy for a new product is price skimming. This strategy is all about fixing the price of the product or service high enough to maximize consumer demand and then gradually lowering the price over time. This strategy entails having high prices blended with heavy promotional campaigns in the early market development. Demand for a product is more inelastic with respect to price during the initial stages of the market than later. On the other hand, promotional elasticity is relatively high for high-priced products. Thus, a blend of heavy promotional campaigns and high pricing will yield more success during a new product launch. Price skimming also takes full advantage of the market part that is insensitive to price and also captures the remaining part of the market with the subsequent decrease in prices (Khouja et al. 2010). Price skimming imitates the systematic process of book editions, where it starts with a costly limited personal edition and ends with a cheaply priced paperback.

The fear of facing the unknown in the elasticity of demand also favors the choice of price skimming. Predicting the cost of operation with the increased market is problematic given that the design of the product may change depending on the efficiency of the production process. During the initial stages of production and distribution, huge cash expenditures make it difficult for the company to finance product flotation depending on future revenues. After fixing the launch price, policies for prices in later stages are to be determined. These policies will indicate the product’s approaching maturity. The policies will constantly be checked for signs of weakening in brand preference, the narrowing variations in products considered the best designs and the standard designs, the entry in force of other competitors, and market saturation. These are indicators of the competitive status of the product in the market.

Channels of distribution to be used

The choice of a distribution channel is a critical process in ensuring the success of a new product. There are factors that determine the distribution channel to use. The nature of the product determines whether to use a longer or shorter route of distribution. A direct-distribution channel is desired for perishable and custom-made products, whereas durable and standardized goods can be distributed using more extended distribution channels. Products requiring specialized technical skills must also be sold directly to the consumer. Nike shoes are durable standard products, and hence, the best channel of distribution is through the indirect long-distance channel. The nature of the market may also dictate the channel of distribution you opt for. A large market size spreading over a large geographic area desires a more extended distribution channel involving many wholesalers and retailers. The target market for Nike products is spread worldwide, so the desired distribution channel is indirect.

Having a more extended distribution channel contributes to the promotional efforts of the company. They conduct point-of-sale pushing, which will increase sales volumes for the company. Distributors also conduct local advertising as they find ways to increase sales. Distribution channels also have personal contact with the customer, and they will get feedback from the customer about the products (Karray, 2013). Thus, they will provide feedback that will be vital in maintaining product demand in the market.

References

Haron, A. J. (2016). Factors influencing pricing decisions. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences5(1), 1-4.

Karray, S. (2013). Periodicity of pricing and marketing efforts in a distribution channel. European Journal of Operational Research228(3), 635-647.

Lancioni, R. A. (2005). A strategic approach to industrial product pricing: The pricing plan. Industrial marketing management34(2), 177-183.

Modak, N. M., Panda, S., & Sana, S. S. (2016). Pricing policy and coordination for a distribution channel with manufacturer suggested retail price. International Journal of Systems Science: Operations & Logistics3(2), 92-101.

Khouja, M., Park, S., & Cai, G. G. (2010). Channel selection and pricing in the presence of retail-captive consumers. International Journal of Production Economics125(1), 84-95.

Marketing homework help

Sample Cover Page

BUSMGT 716 Strategy Capstone

External Analysis Report

Team number: #

Student Name

Student ID

Contribution percentage

Guidelines for your Group assignment – 3000 words

· Suggestions are provided in the next three pages.

· You should analyse three major areas for this report: (i) macroenvironment analysis, (ii) microenvironment, and (iii) market detailes

· Prepare this report in a company style report with graphs, pictures, tables, and other visually engaging methods (and not academic report)

· Use Chicago citation for this report and other reports that follow (and not APA report)

· In the next three pages, you will see recommedned areas to cover and the word limits

DELETE THIS BOX BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR GROUP ASSIGNMENT

You must cover the following areas for your group report:

1. Introduction (150 words)

· Purpose of this report and what you hope to achieve

· Structure of the report – what is covered in each section

2. Company background (200 words)

· Provide details of the company – its year of establishment, ownership, products, location, size in terms of staff, revenue, profit, any other specific details about the company

3. Macroenvironment analysis (750-850 words)

· Application and findings from the macro-environment analysis tools like PESTLE, STEEPLE, CAGE, etc.

DELETE THIS BOX BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR GROUP ASSIGNMENT

4. Microenvironment (750-850 words)

· Application and findings from the micro-environment analysis tools like Porter’s Five Forces, Strategic Group Analysis, etc.

DELETE THIS BOX BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR GROUP ASSIGNMENT

4. Market analysis (750-850 words)

· Application and findings from the Market Analysis: Identifying market segment using STP, Customer Analysis and Customer Persona, Estimate of the target market size, etc.

· Identifying main competitors and conducting competitor analysis, perceptual maps, etc.

· Is the main customer the end-user or a distributor or both?

· What are the main channels to engage and reach the customers (both traditional and online through SEO/SEM & SMO/SMM), etc

5. Opportunities & Threats / Summary of findings (200 words)

· Identify the main opportunities and threats from the external environment analysis (You can only find OT of SWOT, and not SW)

· Don’t list out ‘all’ the OTs but only those that you think are critical for your full report.

DELETE THIS BOX BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR GROUP ASSIGNMENT

References

[Use Chicago refernce list]

Appendices

2

Marketing homework help

5

Microsoft Corporation

I. Strategic Profile and Case Analysis Purpose
()

Microsoft company one of the largest technology companies in the world. Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded the company in 1975. Currently, Microsoft’s company chief executive officer is Satya Nadella. Microsoft corporation has its headquarters in Redmond, Washington, United States. Microsoft company has continuously improved its financial performance over time. Microsoft company has continuously recorded an increase in revenues over the years. According to last financial year, Microsoft company recorded total revenue of $168.088 billion, an increase from $143.015 billion recorded in 2020. The company has recorded a net income of $61.271 billion. Microsoft company deals in several products, including software and electronics.

II. Situation Analysis
()

a. General environmental analysis ()

Microsoft corporation is affected by environmental factors, which are political since the company operates in different countries across the world. Economic and socio-cultural factors have a significant effect on the performance of Microsoft corporation. Economic and socio-cultural factors have a significant effect on the number of sales made by the company. The corporation abides by the legal procedures of the countries in which it operates by following the laws concerning waste disposal.

b. Industry analysis ()

Microsoft corporation is the global leader in technology. Technological products of Microsoft companies, such as Microsoft Office, and Microsoft Windows, among other Microsoft software, have remained in the technological industry. Recently Microsoft personal computers sales have increased, and demand for

c. Competitor analysis()

Microsoft corporation faces competition from several companies. Among Microsoft’s competitors includes Apple, Google, HP, Oracle NetSuite, Sony, IBM, and Samsung, among many other companies. Microsoft faces competition in all products which the company produces for the market.

III. (SWOT Analysis

Strength of Microsoft

Microsoft has a Large number of customers across the world. Microsoft corporation has over 75 million customers across the globe. Microsoft company has the second-largest market share and high market capitalization. Microsoft corporation sells products in many countries across the globe, and the company has been experiencing constant market growth. Microsoft’s brand has earned a high reputation across the globe, which makes the demand for the company’s products high.

Weaknesses

Cybercrime activities have negatively affected window operating systems. There is little innovation in Microsoft corporation compared to the company’s competitors such as Apple, Google, and even Amazon.

Opportunities

Partnership and acquisitions. Microsoft Corporation has an opportunity to enter into partnerships with other companies or acquire other companies for its growth. The development of cloud-based software services is another key opportunity for the company to invest. Carry-out innovations and investment in artificial intelligence and diversification of several company products is another key opportunity in which Microsoft company can invest.

Threats

Microsoft company faces threats that include cybercrimes and piracy, changing customer preferences, stiff competition, and workforce-related criticism.

Microsoft corporation is a profitable organization. The company registered an operating profit margin of 36.38% net profit margin of 38.50%. The company recorded a return on assets of 21.6%, which indicates that every dollar spent on assets could generate 21.6 cents. The company’s current ratio of 2.25 indicates that the company has high liquidity. The company can meet all its current liabilities.

IV. Strategy Formulation
(Remember Chapters 4-9)

a. Current Strategy
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies, M&A, Alliances

b. Microsoft’s current corporate and business strategy expands through innovations to achieve market excellence. Microsoft corporation aims to expand to different markets across the world.

c. Strategic alternatives to the strategies in (a) above

The strategic alternative of Microsoft corporation is to expand through mergers and acquisitions.

d. Alternative evaluation (different from what is currently being used by the organization, if applicable)

The alternative for Microsoft corporation is to expand through diversification by introducing new product lines.

V. Strategic

a. Action items

Establish an organizational committee to assess the feasibility of acquisition and merging.

Development of research plans

Choosing leadership of groups

b. Action plan

Identify the company for potential merger or acquisition.

Meeting with the organization’s leadership

Carrying out the valuation of the company.

Sign Acquisition documents and make payment for acquisition value.

References

Bakhshi, Z., Balador, A., & Mustafa, J. (2018, April). Industrial IoT security threats and concerns by considering Cisco and Microsoft IoT reference models. In 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW) (pp. 173-178). IEEE.

King, R. K. (2004). Enhancing SWOT analysis using triz and the bipolar conflict graph: a case study on the Microsoft Corporation. Proceedings of TRIZCON2004, 6th Annual Altshuller Institute, 25-27.

Warner, J. P. (2019). Microsoft: A Strategic Audit.

Marketing homework help

Graphical user interface, text, application, email  Description automatically generated

Text  Description automatically generated

Case Study Assignment 7

Part one

1. What did Western Digital and Honda do in order to sustain its employees during the months that the plants were closed?

2. Should they have provided additional assistance to them in some way?

3. What about other local flood victims and the broader community?

4. Considering that these plants in Thailand are located in an area that is prone to flooding, should these companies consider shifting production elsewhere? Why or why not?

Please note that this is a write up of two pages to three pages max by itself.

Part two

In reference to either of the two cases covered , what precautions were established? What additional precautions do you feel were needed? Please note that this is a write up of one page to two page max by itself.

Marketing homework help

155

T h e P u r p o s e o f T h i s C h a p t e r

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

• Calculate the correct order quantities and order times using the par stock,
Levinson, and theoretical methods.

• Determine the optimal inventory level.

• Explain the benefits and problems of using only the theoretical method
for determining inventory levels.

9C H A P T E R
The Optimal

Amount

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CHAPTER 9 The Optimal Amount156

INTRODUCTION

The correct order size and its counterpart, the correct order time, are prob-
ably the most important keys to inventory management. Without a reasonable
idea of the optimal order size and time, you cannot maintain an ideal inven-
tory level of food, beverages, and nonfood supplies.

OPTIMAL INVENTORY LEVEL

Years ago, few hospitality operators concerned themselves with inventory
management concepts. When the industry was smaller, was less complex and
competitive, and inventory costs were minor, the occasional overbuy or stock-
out was a forgivable offense. Today, such a casual attitude is rare. Ordering is no
longer haphazard. The emphasis now is on holding the optimal inventory; that
is, management seeks to determine the amount of inventory that will adequate-
ly serve the operation without having to suffer the costs of excess inventory.

A principal objective of inventory management is to maintain only the necessary amount of
food, beverages, and nonfood supplies to serve guests without running out of anything, but not
to have so much inventory that occasional spoilage and other storage costs result.1 We also need

to develop a cost-effective ordering procedure; for example, a buyer does not
want to spend an excessive amount of time, money, and effort to order mer-
chandise because this will increase the hospitality operation’s cost of doing
business.

These objectives are more easily recited than achieved. Quite commonly,
an individual manager may not know the exact value of inventory that should
be on hand.

Over the years, hospitality operators have tried to devise ways of computing as accurately as
possible the ideal amount of inventory that should be maintained to conduct business effective-
ly and efficiently. Nonetheless, a major portion of the inventory management efforts that are car-
ried out in our industry still rely heavily on rules of thumb. For instance, as mentioned in
Chapter 7, many practitioners rely on a percentage of sales to guide their inventory management
decisions. Recall that this percentage-of-sales concept suggests, for instance, that a full-service
restaurant operation requires an inventory of food, beverage, and nonfood supplies to be equal
to about 1 percent of annual sales volume.

A buyer can use other rules of thumb to determine the amount of inventory needed to
service guests adequately. As mentioned in Chapter 7, the typical foodservice operation
could devise an inventory management strategy to ensure that the food inventory that is
kept on hand at all times does not exceed about one-third of a normal month’s total food
costs. Also, in a fast-food restaurant, the general feeling is that the food inventory should
turn over about three times per week, or about 156 times per year. Consequently, the buyer’s

correct order size The
order size that minimizes
the ordering costs, invento-
ry storage costs, and stock-
out costs.

correct order time The
order time that minimizes
the ordering costs, invento-
ry storage costs, and stock-
out costs.

optimal inventory level
The amount of inventory
that will adequately serve a
hospitality operation’s
needs without having to
incur the costs associated
with excess inventory.

ordering procedures
Standardized process used
by the buyer to ensure that
the correct amounts of
needed products are
ordered at the appropriate
time.

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Correct Order Size and Order Time: A Common Approach 157

inventory management strategy should include an ordering procedure that
maintains this approximate inventory turnover target.

Most industry practitioners view inventory as an investment. Like any
other investment, this one must offer a return. Unfortunately, an inventory
investment does not lend itself to a precise calculation of return, as does, say,
a certificate of deposit, whereby an investor can depend on an exact percent-
age of return each year.

CORRECT ORDER SIZE AND ORDER TIME:

A COMMON APPROACH

Most part-time and full-time buyers use a relatively simple approach to calcu-
late the best order size and order time. This approach is sometimes referred to
as the par stock approach. The buyer usually accepts the supplier’s delivery
schedule—for example, twice a week. The buyer then determines a par stock,
that is, a level of inventory items that he or she feels must be on hand to main-
tain a continuing supply of each item from one delivery date to the next.

The buyer accepts the supplier’s delivery schedule because he or she prob-
ably cannot change it without incurring an exorbitant delivery charge. If, how-
ever, the buyer’s company represents a very large order size, the supplier might
make concessions. In addition, the buyer normally accepts the ordering sched-
ule the supplier dictates; he or she places the order at a certain time prior to
the actual delivery. For example, a call no later than Monday morning may be
required to ensure a delivery on Tuesday morning.

Assume, for example, that the buyer feels that he or she needs six cases of
tomato paste on hand to last between orders. On Monday morning, just
before placing the order, the buyer counts the number of cases of tomato paste
on hand. Suppose that 11⁄2 cases are left. If it is expected that half a case will be
used that day, one case will be left on Tuesday morning. The par stock is six. The buyer then sub-
tracts what he or she feels will be on hand Tuesday morning from the par stock (6 minus 1) and
orders five cases.

Another way to calculate the order size is for the buyer to subtract what is on hand—in this
situation, 11⁄2 cases—from the par stock of six cases and enter an order for 41⁄2 cases. Either way,
the emphasis is on setting an acceptable par stock level and then ordering enough product to
bring the stock up to that level. (This concept is a bedrock of our industry. For example, most
bars set up a certain par stock level that must be on hand before opening for the afternoon or
evening. The bartender on duty is responsible for counting what is on hand, subtracting this
from what should be on hand, and then replenishing the overall inventory of beverages, food-
stuffs, and nonfood supplies accordingly.)

Par stocks sometimes change. In a restaurant that does a lot of banquet business, the par stock
for tomato paste might fluctuate monthly or even weekly. This fluctuation can complicate mat-
ters, but buyers usually can solve the problem just by adding to the par stock the extra amount

inventory turnover Equal
to: (actual cost of products
used, or sold, divided by
the average inventory value
kept at the hospitality
operation).

par stock approach to
ordering Method used to
determine the appropriate
amount to order. Involves
setting par stocks for all
items and subtracting the
amount of each item on
hand to calculate the order
sizes.

delivery schedule
Purveyor’s planned shipping
times and dates.

par stock The maximum
amount of a product you
want to have on hand.
When reordering the
product you want to buy
just enough to bring you
up to par.

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CHAPTER 9 The Optimal Amount158

of tomato paste needed specifically for any emergency or extra business volume, such as a ban-
quet next week. So, for instance, buyers might order enough to reach their par stock level, plus
additional product to be their “safety” stock or to use for the banquet.

The buyer, then, normally uses the following procedures when employing the par stock
approach:

1. Accept the suppliers’ stipulated ordering procedures and delivery schedules.
2. Decide when it would be desirable to order enough product to bring the stock level of any

particular item up to par. This decision is normally influenced by the amount of storage
facilities the buyer has, how expensive the inventory item is, and the shelf life of the prod-
ucts the buyer orders. For example, if a preferred supplier delivers meat twice a week, and
if the meats are expensive, perishable items, a buyer would most likely set a par stock to
last about three or four days. For some inexpensive, nonperishable operating supplies,
such as paper towels, the buyer might want to order once every three months.
Consequently, he or she sets the par stock large enough to last for three months under
normal operating conditions.

3. Set par stocks for all food, beverages, and nonfood items—enough to last between regu-
larly scheduled deliveries.

4. When ordering, subtract what is on hand from the par stock. Then include any addition-
al amount necessary to cover extra banquets, increased room service, seasonal patronage,
a safety stock perhaps, and so forth.

5. Shop around, if necessary, and enter this order size at the time the supplier designates or
at some agreed-upon time.

6. Periodically reevaluate the stock levels, and adjust them as needed. For instance, if you
change suppliers and the new purveyor’s delivery schedule is different, you must adjust
accordingly.

No magic formula is associated with the par stock concept. It is a trial-and-error process. If
six cases are too many, the number can be adjusted downward. If it is too low, it can be increased.
The trial-and-error procedure requires small amounts of management attention on a continuing
basis; in time, however, these can add up to a significant amount. Nevertheless, the work involved
is quite simple and lends itself to volume swings in overall sales, as well as in sales of individual
products. The par stock concept works quite effectively in the hospitality industry.

The concept works so well for several reasons. Most important, there is only a slight differ-
ence in annual storage and ordering costs between a theoretical order size and a more practical
order size. (An extended discussion of a theoretical calculation of optimal order size and order
time is included later in this chapter.) Another reason is the relative predictability of deliveries.
The third reason is that most hospitality operations undergo major modifications in their cus-
tomer offerings only occasionally. For the most part, menus, sleeping accommodations, and bar
offerings remain unchanged, thereby giving a buyer sufficient time to determine acceptable par
stock levels for each inventory item. Finally, if a considerable sum has already been invested in a
hospitality operation, an inventory level that is a few hundred dollars more than a theoretical
optimal amount will tend to generate little concern.

The major drawback to the par stock method is its emphasis on setting only the par stock
level, to the possible detriment of the broader view of inventory management. Generally, the
optimal amount of inventory on hand is related to annual storage costs, ordering costs, and

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Correct Order Size and Order Time: Another Approach 159

stockout costs. If acceptable par stocks are achieved, these costs will probably be minimized.
However, these concepts may not be examined directly, and, as a result, a buyer may be unaware
of the complete picture.

This innocence, or ignorance, can cause problems. For instance, buyers often have an oppor-
tunity to purchase large amounts of a product at reasonable savings. The problem arises when
buyers have little conception of the increase in storage costs that will accompany this huge order.
(As with the par stock approach, though, some rule-of-thumb methods can be used to evaluate
the economics of large orders, as discussed in Chapter 10.)

Regardless of its potential drawbacks, the par stock approach is common and works fairly
well. It does not, however, represent the only approach to determining correct order size and
order time.

CORRECT ORDER SIZE AND ORDER TIME:

ANOTHER APPROACH

Another approach used in the hospitality industry is just a bit more complicat-
ed than the par stock approach. We call this approach the Levinson approach,
since Charles Levinson was one of the very first persons to address these ideas for-
mally in his book, Food and Beverage Operation: Cost Control and Systems
Management, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989). Much of the
material in this section of our text is adapted from Levinson’s volume. This book
is now out of print. However, you might be able to find a used copy at Amazon
(www.amazon.com) or on eBay (www.ebay.com).

Buyers using the Levinson approach will employ the following procedures:
1. Accept the suppliers’ stipulated ordering procedures and delivery schedules.
2. Determine the best time to place orders with the suppliers. For instance, fresh dairy prod-

ucts may be ordered daily, fresh meats and produce may be ordered perhaps every third
day, and other less perishable items may be ordered less frequently. Consequently, the buy-
ers’ work follows a reasonably predictable routine, in that they have enough work to keep
busy each week, even though they are not ordering exactly the same items each day or
each week.

3. Before ordering, forecast the amount of merchandise that will be
needed during the period of time between regularly scheduled deliv-
eries. The forecasting procedure includes the following steps:
a. Forecast the expected total number of customers, based usually on

past history.
b. Forecast the expected number of customers who will order each

specific menu offering, also based on past history. One way to do
this is to compute a popularity index for each menu item. To
determine a menu item’s popularity index, divide the number sold
of that particular menu item by the total number of all menu items
sold; this will give you a percentage, which is the menu item’s popu-
larity index.

Levinson approach to
ordering Method of
determining the appropri-
ate order sizes. Takes into
account forecasted sales,
portion sizes, and yield
percentages when calculat-
ing the amount of prod-
ucts to order.

forecasting An attempt to
predict the future. Current
and historical information
is used to estimate what
might happen over the
near or long term. Referred
to as sales forecasting when
attempting to predict
future sales.

popularity index Another
term for menu mix per-
centage.

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CHAPTER 9 The Optimal Amount160

For example, if you project that you will serve 2,500 customers next week and you
know that, based on past history, 25 percent of all customers eat T-bone steaks, then you
can estimate that 0.25 × 2500, or 625 customers, will eat a T-bone steak.

c. Determine the number of raw pounds of each ingredient needed to satis-
fy your projected sales. To do this, first you must figure out the portion
factor (PF) and the portion divider (PD) for each ingredient that you
need to satisfy your sales forecast. The PF is computed as follows:

PF = 16 oz. / Amount of ingredient needed for one serving (in ounces)

The PD is computed as follows:

PD = PF × (The ingredient’s edible- (i.e., servable-) yield percentage)

The edible yield percentage is computed in one of two ways: (1) you
accept the supplier’s estimate of edible yield, or (2) you conduct your own yield
tests for each and every ingredient; that is, you use the ingredients for a while
and compute an average of unavoidable waste. This will give you a good idea
of the edible yield percentage you can expect to derive from each ingredient.

d. Compute the order sizes for all items. An order size is equal to the num-
ber of customers you feel will consume an ingredient divided by the PD
for that ingredient—this will give you the order size in raw pounds.
(Essentially, the PD is the expected number of servings per pound.)

4. Adjust this order size, if necessary, to account for stock on hand, extra banquets, increased
room service, seasonal patronage, perhaps a safety stock, and so forth.

5. Shop around, if necessary, and enter the order size at the time the supplier designates or
at some agreed-upon time.

6. Periodically revise the order time if necessary, as well as the PD of each ingredient if, for
instance, you decide to change suppliers and the new supplier’s ingredients have a differ-
ent yield percentage than those you are currently purchasing. (In Chapter 10, we discuss
the procedures used to determine whether another supplier’s ingredient provides more
value to you, even though it might appear that it has more waste. We also revisit the con-
cept of the EP cost.)

INGREDIENT SERVING SIZE (OZ.) EDIBLE YIELD (%)

Steak 12 80

Beans 4 90

Potatoes 4 75

portion factor (PF) Equal
to (16 ounces divided by
the number of ounces
needed for one serving).
Alternately, equal to (1,000
milliliters divided by the
number of milliliters need-
ed for one serving).
Alternately, equal to (1,000
grams divided by the num-
ber of grams needed for
one serving).

portion divider (PD)
Equal to an item’s (portion
factor (PF) multiplied by
its edible yield percentage).

edible yield percentage
Another term for yield
percentage.

Example I

Given the following data, compute the number of raw (AP) pounds needed of each ingredient for a

banquet for 500 people.

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Correct Order Size and Order Time: Another Approach 161

Example II

Given the following data, compute the number of cases needed to serve 1,575 customers.

Ingredient: Iceberg lettuce

Serving size: 4 ounces

Edible yield: 75 percent

Minimum weight per case: 36 pounds

Solution:

PF = 16 / 4 = 4.00

PD = 4.00 × 0.75 = 3.00

Number of raw (AP) pounds needed = 1575 / 3.00 = 525 lb.

Number of cases needed = 525 lb. / 36 lb. per case = 14.58 (approximately 15 cases)

Example I (continued)

Solution:

Compute each ingredient’s PF:

PF(steak) = 16 / 12 = 1.33

PF(beans) = 16 / 4 = 4.00

PF(potatoes) = 16 / 4 = 4.00

Compute each ingredient’s PD:

PD(steak) = 1.33 × 0.80 = 1.06

PD(beans) = 4.00 × 0.90 = 3.60

PD(potatoes) = 4.00 × 0.75 = 3.00

Compute the order size, in raw (AP) pounds, for each ingredient:

Order size (steak) = 500 / 1.06 = 472 lb.

Order size (beans) = 500 / 3.60 = 139 lb.

Order size (potatoes) = 500 / 3.00 = 167 lb.

Example III

Given the following data, compute the number of gallons needed to serve 2,000 customers.

Ingredient: Prepared mustard

Serving size: 1⁄2 ounce

Edible yield: 95 percent

Solution:

PF = 16 / 0.5 = 32.00

PD = 32.00 × 0.95 = 30.40

Number of raw (AP) pounds needed = 2000 / 30.40 = 65.79 lb.

Number of raw (AP) ounces needed = 65.79 × 16 oz. per lb. = 1052.64

Number of gallons needed = 1052.64 oz. / 128 oz. per gal. = 8.22 (approximately 9 gallons)

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CHAPTER 9 The Optimal Amount162

CORRECT ORDER SIZE AND ORDER TIME:

VARIATIONS OF THE LEVINSON APPROACH

The procedures in the preceding Examples I, II, and III are appropriate for items purchased in
pound units. However, the Levinson approach can be adapted for use with any purchase unit.
The general formula for the PF needs to be altered to accommodate the specific purchase unit.
The unit of purchase is divided by the portion size as depicted in that unit of purchase. For
instance, if you purchase liter containers of liquor, the numerator for your PF calculation would
be 1,000 milliliters, and the denominator would be the portion size of liquor, in milliliters. The
computation of the PD remains the same.

Example I

Given the following data, compute the number of liters (l) needed to serve 250 customers.

Ingredient: Gin

Serving size: 55 milliliters

Servable yield: 95 percent

Solution:

PF = 1000 / 55 = 18.18

PD = 18.18 × 0.95 = 17.27

Number of liters needed = 250 / 17.27 = 14.48 (approximately 15 liters)

Example II

Given the following data, compute the number of cases needed to serve 500 customers.

Ingredient: Lobster tail

Serving size: 2 tails

Servable yield: 100 percent

Number of tails per case: 50

Solution:

PF = 50 / 2 = 25

PD = 25 × 1.00 = 25

Number of cases needed = 500 / 25 = 20 cases

Example III

Given the following data, compute the number of kilograms (kg) needed to serve 125 customers.

Ingredient: Fresh spinach

Serving size: 90 grams

Edible yield: 60 percent

c09TheOptimalAmount.qxd 11/11/10 7:08 PM Page 162

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AN: 492785 ; Feinstein, Andrew Hale, Stefanelli, John M..; Purchasing : Selection and Procurement for the Hospitality Industry
Account: s7348467

Correct Order Size and Order Time: Combination Approach 163

CORRECT ORDER SIZE AND ORDER TIME:

COMBINATION APPROACH

It is reasonable to expect the typical buyer to use a combination of the procedures just discussed
to determine the proper order sizes and order times. For instance, a buyer could use the par stock
approach to maintain sufficient stock for the normal, predictable business needs of the hospital-
ity operation. However, when a buyer needs stock for special events, such as banquets and other
similar functions, he or she could adopt the Levinson approach, or some variation thereof, when
determining the correct order amount and order time.

Example III (continued)

Solution:

PF = 1000 / 90 = 11.11

PD = 11.11 × 0.60 = 6.67

Number of kilograms needed = 125 / 6.67 = 18.74 (approximately 19 kilograms)

PURCHASING FROM THE CHEF’S PERSPECTIVE
Jean Hertzman, Ph.D., CCE, Assistant Professor, Department of Food and Beverage Management,

William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas

Do all these PF and PD calculations seem a little confusing? Don’t feel
alone. They would be a mystery to the average chef. Although executive

chefs spend more and more of their time performing cost control and

human resources functions, most chefs would rather cook and develop new

menu items than spend a lot of time crunching numbers. Therefore, they

want to use as simple a formula as possible to determine the quantity of

food to purchase.

Chefs rely on the formula of AP (As Purchased) = EP (Edible Portion) ÷

Edible Yield Percentage to determine the amount of product to order. They

basically skip one step of the Levinson approach. But before we use the for-

mula, let’s make sure that you know exactly what the Edible Yield Percentage

means.

Let’s use the example of asparagus. If you buy whole asparagus, but use only the tips for service, you

trim off a lot of stems in the process. The amount cut off would be the trim loss, and the amount left would

be the edible portion. If you started with one pound (16 ounces) of asparagus and had 10 ounces of

asparagus tips after cutting, your yield percentage would be 10 ounces divided by 16 ounces per pound

or approximately 63 percent. If you were determining the yield percentage of other products, for example

roasted meat, you might also have to take into account trimming off the fat, shrinkage during cooking, hav-

ing unusable portions after cutting, and other factors.

Chef Jean Hertzman

c09TheOptimalAmount.qxd 11/11/10 7:09 PM Page 163

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EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 4/18/2022 8:06 PM via AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
AN: 492785 ; Feinstein, Andrew Hale, Stefanelli, John M..; Purchasing : Selection and Procurement for the Hospitality Industry
Account: s7348467

CHAPTER 9 The Optimal Amount164

PURCHASING FROM THE CHEF’S PERSPECTIVE (continued)

As discussed in this book, the most accurate method for determining the yield percentage is to

conduct your own yield test. In that way, you know exactly what you have left using your particular

foodservice operation’s specific procedures. However, calculating yield percentages for all the differ-

ent foods you use can be time and labor intensive. A quicker method is to use supplier estimates of

edible yield percentages. However, suppliers may overstate the percentage so that their product

looks like a better buy or understate the percentage so that you buy more of their product. You might

want to consider a third alternative. There are two excellent sources that give yield percentages for

just about every product you can imagine: The Book of Yields: Accuracy in Food Costing and

Purchasing by Francis Lynch (also available on CD-ROM) and Chef’s Book of Formulas, Yields, and

Sizes by Arno Schmidt. These chefs have spent years calculating portion sizes and percentages just

to make your life a little easier.

Now let’s use the yield percentage in the AP formula. Suppose a banquet chef wants to serve 4

ounces of asparagus tips as a side vegetable to 800 people. Therefore, she needs 4 ounces × 800 or

3,200 ounces (200 lbs) EP of asparagus. But she knows that the yield percentage of asparagus is only

63 percent. Therefore, she really needs 3,200 ounces divided by .63 or 5,080 ounces as purchased.

Translate that to pounds and she would order 318 pounds of asparagus. If she only ordered 200 pounds,

she would have to skimp on the portion sizes or lots of guests would not be getting their vegetable that

evening.

Here is another example. A chef serves a great hot roast beef sandwich using top round of beef roast-

ed fresh daily. A 15-pound top round yields 12 pounds of meat after cooking, removing the external fat,

and slicing. Each sandwich uses 6 ounces of cooked beef and the restaurant sells them to 200 hungry

guests daily. How many top rounds does the chef need to buy for each day?

12 lbs EP ÷ 15 lbs. AP = .80 or 80% edible yield percentage

6 ounces × 200 sandwiches = 1,200 ounces EP

1,200 ounces ÷ .80 = 1,500 ounces or 94 lbs AP

If the top rounds weigh 15 pounds each, then the chef has to decide whether to order 6 and run out

of product or whether to order 7 and have some left for sandwiches or soup the next day. Most would play

it safe and order 7 top rounds of beef.

Chefs use this method because the most important thing for them to know is how much food to pur-

chase, rega

Marketing homework help


Evaluation Rubric (Written Report):

NAME____________________________________________________________________

LEVEL 4

4 points

LEVEL 3

3 points

LEVEL 2

2 points

LEVEL 1

1 point

Context and Background Information

Clearly developed with the appropriate details

Developed with most of the appropriate details

Developed with few of the appropriate details

No context or background information

Content

Information/topic is interesting and realistically portrayed

Information/topic is interesting but not realistically portrayed

Information/topic is realistically portrayed but not interesting

Information/topic is neither interesting, nor realistically portrayed

APA Format

Used APA format correctly through paper

Used APA format correctly most of the time

Used APA format some of the time

Did not use APA format correctly

Used a compelling chart, table, or map to illustrate something in the paper

A compelling chart, table, or map was used correctly to illustrate a point in the paper

Used a chart, table, or map to illustrate a point in the paper

Used an ineffective chart, table, or map

Did not use a chart, table, or map

Opening

Excellent opening

Good opening

Fair opening

Ineffective opening

Body of paper

Excellent body of paper detailing two to three main points

Good body of paper detailing two to three main points

Fair body of paper; illustrates one or more than three main points

Ineffective body of paper

Closing

Excellent closing

Good closing

Fair closing

No closing or ineffective closing

References

Included a list of all references used and all references were cited correctly

Included a list of all references used and most of the references were cited correctly

Included a list of all references used and most were not cited correctly

Did not include a list of references used and/or they were not cited correctly

Writing Skills

Writing is totally free of errors

There are occasional errors

There are more than occasional errors

Errors are frequent

Format

Format is appropriate and enhances the understanding of the topic in a creative and dramatic manner throughout the paper

Format is appropriate and enhances the understanding of the topic in an effective manner for most of the paper

Format is appropriate and enhances the understanding of the topic some of the time

Format is not appropriate and does not enhance the understanding of the topic

TOTAL POINTS _____________ _____________ ______________ ______________

(40 points possible)

Marketing homework help

Battery Sharing

Blayne Kelly

Marketing Principles

Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College

April 27, 2022

Summary

Our initial product is the iPhone X & newer. The initial product has wired and wireless charging but with this innovation, you will be able to share battery charging through bluetooth and our app. Our app will work similar to Cash App and Venmo but with battery percentages that you are sending to your peers with low battery percentage.

Company Background

Apple was founded on April 1, 1976 by two college dropout students, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Their goal was to make computers small enough for people to have in their homes or offices.

The lines of business include iPhone, Services, Mac, iPad, as well as its Wearables, Home, and Accessories unit.

The industries that Apple competes in are Consumer electronics, software and online services.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths- You will not have to worry about bringing a charger everywhere you go.

Weaknesses- The battery percentage gained by the other phone may not last as long as you charging your phone with a charger.

Opportunities- Maximize profit.

Threats- Competition of other phone companies like Android who may try and produce the same product.

Strategic Analysis

To ensure and lower the chances of people’s phones dying all around the world.

To exchange battery life between others.

To make sure your phone never dies again.

Competitive Analysis

Market Segmentations

Age and Gender – All ages and genders who own a phone could use this product from perspectives of being in need of charge.

Spending Power – This medium expensed item would allow all classes of people the ability to purchase.

Reasons for buying – Main reasons for buying the product would be to obtain the charge from another person with a small usage charge and receive a higher battery percentage to get you through the day without your phone dying.

Competition : Major brands such as Samsung may choose to create a similar item for a cheaper price.

Target Market : Teenagers and adults who own phones or tablets.

Differentiation : Our innovative product would be different than others out there due to the intense charging power through one app to give your phone lasting life for the entirety of the day.

Marketing Mix

Product- Our product will be available for all iPhone users with an iPhone X and newer.

Price- We will charge $10.99 a month.

Place- Our product will be available in the App Store.

Promotion- We will promote our product internationally since Apple products have a high density in other countries as well as the US.

Implementation Plan & Marketing Calendar

We decided to roll out our project app and promote through many channels such as Walmart, Target, Best Buy, and any phone networking places where Apple phones can be purchased, as well as, through social medias and television commercials. The estimated time period for our product to get around in the market is approximately one to six months after initial release of the app. The product would be a permanent sales option for continued and future use and sales.

Battery Sharing

Thank you for shopping!

Marketing homework help

College Student’s Depression

Jasmin Linthicum

Course Discovery Writing

Professor Aguiar

Date Due 02/24/2022

College Student’s Depression

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is a common and severe health issue that affects how someone feels, thinks and acts. The most common symptoms of depression are; having bad moods and feeling very sad, losing interest in the activities that were once fun, loss of appetite, which in turn will lead to massive weight loss or gain that is not related to dieting and difficulty in concentrating, thinking or making decisions (LeMoult & Gotlib, 2019).

People become depressed due to various factors; some of the significant social factors that bring about depression include; encountering traumatic events, separation from parents or caregivers and being bullied. Personality some people are inclined towards experiencing depression. For instance, people who tend to hold worries, have a low-self-esteem, are perfectionists and are very sensitive towards negative criticism naturally have a higher likelihood of facing depression.

Depression throughout history has always been a health problem for people. According to articles written by philosophers and writers throughout humanity’s history, there is depression, which is a health condition. The articles also include some of the continuous struggles that have been made to find a solution on treating this condition. For instance, the ancient Greeks and Romans had different thinking on depression. Some of the literature shows that the Greeks had a notion that depression was a form of evil spirit possession and used exorcism techniques like; beatings and starvation as “treatments” to cure a person. On the other hand, the Romans thought depression was a combination of biological and psychological issues and employed gymnastics, special diet, herbal medicine and music to treat the patients (Taquet et al., 2020).

In our present day, some of the startling statistics concerning depression are; depression affects approximately one in fifteen adults, that is close to 6.8% annually, and a projection of an estimated one in six persons will encounter depression at a given point in their life, that is around 16.7%. Studies show that females are more likely to experience depression compared to the men. Clinicians have also found that depression is more likely to occur during the late teens to mid-20s. This age group indicates that college students are the ones who are likely to suffer most from the effect of depression.

Depression in college students has affected their social life adversely by lowering their mood, feelings and self-esteem. It has also affected their school life by; making it challenging to handle their schoolwork and losing interest in activities like sports. It has led to emotional outbursts such as anger, faulty self-assessments, and lack of energy. Some of the statistics that show the extent of this problem are; the overall rate of college students that have been reported to have depression is about 45% (Moeller & Seehuus, 2019).

Suicide has become the third leading cause of death among college students; 76% of those reported depression. Their first encounter was their mid-20, and nearly two-thirds of students who developed substance abuse issues reported experiencing depression. These statistics indicate that this is a significant health crisis among college students.

Another significant factor that makes this a significant issue is that close to 75% of the students experiencing depression are reluctant to seek help and medication. This brings about an additional risk of harmful outcomes like; dropping out of college, performing poorly academically, the risk of substance abuse and a high chance of committing suicide in the event of a full depression (Ramón-Arbués et al., 2020).

Depression among college students is a serious mental issue that affects in a big way how the student thinks and behaves and can lead to significant emotional, functional and physical issues. So it is crucial to understand the causes and effects of this issue among the students and how it can be treated and even prevented.

Some of the research approaches that can be employed to be able to identify depression in college students include; getting help from the parents, this is by developing an approach of getting to know from different parents on the well-being of the child, to be able to assess some of the most common symptoms that could show depression. This is an essential aspect as it will be easier also to train the parent on how to handle and provide support if the child is undergoing depression, through; preparing the child for the unexpected, the importance of staying close, encouraging healthy habits and developing a plan that is focused on student mental health (Park & Zarate Jr, 2019).

Another research method is designing a purpose design questionnaire that includes records of sociodemographic data, such as; age, sex, year of study and performance in studies. The questionnaire will consist of questions that will help measure the rate of depression among the students. A number of colleges will be picked and select representatives to participate and increase statistical power. To increase the accuracy of the research, it is essential to ensure that there is a proportional stratified sampling of the colleges so that all the different age groups are represented. Also, in the sampling process, the number of representatives to be obtained from each college will be determined by calculations and proportional to size probability.

References

LeMoult, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2019). Depression: A cognitive perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 69, 51-66.

Moeller, R. W., & Seehuus, M. (2019). Loneliness as a mediator for college students’ social skills and experiences of depression and anxiety. Journal of adolescence, 73, 1-13.

Park, L. T., & Zarate Jr, C. A. (2019). Depression in the primary care setting. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(6), 559-568.

Ramón-Arbués, E., Gea-Caballero, V., Granada-López, J. M., Juárez-Vela, R., Pellicer-García, B., & Antón-Solanas, I. (2020). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress and their associated factors in college students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7001.

Taquet, M., Quoidbach, J., Gross, J. J., Saunders, K. E., & Goodwin, G. M. (2020). Mood homeostasis, low mood, and history of depression in 2 large population samples. JAMA Psychiatry, 77(9), 944-951.

Marketing homework help

8/25/2021

1

Chapter 1:
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and

Being

Learning Objective:

1.1 Consumer behavior is a process.

1.2 Marketers have to understand the wants and needs of different consumer
segments.

1.3 Our choices as consumers relate in powerful ways to the rest of our lives.

1.4 Our motivations to consume are complex and varied.

1.5 Technology and culture create a new “always on” consumer.

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What Is Consumer Behavior?

The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase,
use, or dispose off products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and

desires.

1

2
3

4

5 1

3
4

Identify Need Explore Options
Form

Consideration Set
Select

Purchase
and Use Dispose

A consumer is a person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase and then disposes
of the product (may not be the end-user)

Stages in Consumption Process

– How does a consumer decide that he/she
needs a product?

– What are the best sources of information to
learn more about alternatives?

– How are consumer attitude towards a
product formed or changed?

– What cues do consumers use to identify
superior alternatives?

– Is acquiring a product stressful or pleasant
experience?

– What does the purchase say about the
consumer?

– How do situational factors such as time,
pressure, store displays affect consumer’s
purchase decisions?

– Does the product provide pleasure or
perform its intended function?

– How is the product eventually disposed and
what are the environmental consequences?

– What determines whether a consumer is
satisfied and will buy that product again?

– Does this consumer share his/her experience
with others and influence their decision?

PREPURCHASE
ISSUES

PURCHASE
ISSUES

POST PURCHASE
ISSUES

CONSUMER’S PERSPECTIVE MARKETER’S PERSPECTIVE

3

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Objective 2:

Marketers have to understand the wants and needs of different consumer
segments.

Customize the product for different segments Keep the product the same but position it
differently based on the target

Introduce different product lines for different segment

Customer Segmentation

• Usage Pattern
• Demographics
• Lifestyles/ Psychographics
• Behavior

5

6

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4

Customer Segmentation: Usage Pattern

• 80/20 rule (Pareto Principle):
20 percent users account for
80% of sales (Heavy users)

1 % of pet owners buy 80%
of Iams pet food.

1.2 % of beer drinkers account for 80%
of Budweiser sales.

• Customer Tenure
• Occasion or Timing
• Engagement Level

Customer Segmentation: Demographics

Demographics: Observable aspects of the consumers

• Age
• Gender
• Family structure
• Social class/income
• Race/ethnicity
• Geography

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Customer Segmentation: Psychographics/ Lifestyles

• Consumers may share demographic characteristics but have very different
lifestyles

• The way we feel about ourselves, the things we value, the things we like to
do in our spare time .

Customer Segmentation: Buying Behavior

• Relationship Marketing

• Nurtures long-term personal connections between your brand and your customers

• Increases customer engagement, satisfaction, and retention.

• 5% increase in customer retention efforts can result in a 25-95% increase in company revenues.

• Interact with the consumers on a regular basis

• Brands as partners

• Comes handy during tough times like bad economic conditions, bad press,

controversy, introduction of competitors, etc.

9

10

8/25/2021

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Customer Segmentation: Buying Behavior

• Database Marketing

• tracks specific consumers’ buying habits very
closely

• crafts products and messages tailored precisely to
people’s wants and needs

• getting easier with Big Data and advanced
computation power

• easier for companies to notice an anomaly in their
customers’ buying pattern

• intervene with appropriate incentive

Objective 3:

Our choices as consumers relate in powerful ways to the rest of our lives.

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Role Theory:

Daughter/ Sister (Family)

Student/ Instructor (Work)

Friend (Social)

Runner (Hobby)

Play multiple identities in our lives

The criteria I use to evaluate products/ type of product/ relationship with product can be very different based on the
role I am playing while making the decision

– safety can be my priority

– evaluate in terms of efficiency –
how it helps with my work

– how it helps me connect/ have fun

Consumer-Product Relationships

• Products which help to establish the user
identity

Self-concept
attachment

• Products which serve a connection with the
past self.

Nostalgic
Attachment

• The product is a part of the user’s daily
routine.Interdependence

• The product elicits emotional bonds of
warmth, passion or other strong emotions.Love

Consumers can have different types of relationships with their products – consumers may develop relationships
with brands over time.

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Popular culture marketing:

Popular culture marketing:

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Objective 4:

Our motivations to consume are complex and varied.

• Motivation is the processes that lead people to behave as they do.
• It occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy.

Motivation – Need vs Want

Needs can also be hedonic (i.e., an experiential
need, involving emotional responses or fantasies)

Needs can be utilitarian(i.e., a desire to achieve some
functional or practical benefit, like consuming green

vegetables for nutritional reasons)

• Need – Something a person must have to live or achieve a goal
• Want – A specific manifestation of a need that personal and cultural factors determine

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Technology and culture create a new “always on” consumer:

Social Media Virtual Brand Community Smart Devices

– Internet has provided more channels for the firms to reach their consumers
– Has empowered consumers in ways people didn’t image only a couple decades ago.

– Unhappy with service – voice your discontent on twitter and tag the firm
– Really happy with something – post a photo on Instagram

– More advanced AI based technology – change how we behave, how we consume.

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Marketing homework help

Mobile Tactics for Spindrift: An Update

Spindrift has an excellent opportunity to reimagine their mobile marketing platform due to their
existing online presence and loyal customer base. Four tactics in particular are promising and
include an improved mobile site, targeted e-mail campaign, mobile application, and community-
based social media efforts. Successful implementation of these tactics will help improve user
engagement, brand loyalty, and a frictionless experience for customers.

It is not enough to just have a mobile site; Spindrift must capitalize on the opportunity to engage
with the user journey and reprioritize content for mobile users and embrace responsive design.
At present, the Spindrift mobile site is good, but not great. The few differences between the web
and mobile sites are a side menu on mobile, as opposed to a banner menu. Additionally, the
mobile site provides a highly accessible link to Spindrifts drink selection. However, Spindrift
could do more to connect their mobile users to other engagement points like providing easy
access to social media buttons or adding a more visible link to their cocktails section of their
website. If a mobile user is accessing the site because they are shopping for Spindrift, they may
also want to see what other ingredients they may need to buy from the store. Spindrift should
also dive deeper into the possibilities of responsive design. Daniel Rowles in Mobile Marketing
defines responsive design as “developing one site that will display appropriately for each device
it is viewed on.” This is opposed to building unique sites for different devices, and cuts down on
upgrade costs. Additionally, responsive sites provide a great user experience and for that reason
are preferred by Google and other search engines according to Ventura. Another benefit with
responsive design is flexibility (Mobile 1st). Because responsive websites are not device-specific,
Spindrift is less bound by device and has more opportunity to design a website that can be
accessed by multiple devices.

Beyond their website, Spindrift has the opportunity to bulk up their email engagement. Despite
asking for customer’s emails, Spindrift does not appear to use their contacts for engagement
purposes. By creating messages that reach customers with valuable information and emotional
appeals, Spindrift can touch their consumer in another place to say front of mind and relevant.
Some emotional appeals that could work well for Spindrift include: hope/optimism, curiosity,
and self-improvement (SocialMediaToday). Additionally, Spindrift could consider using email
as a way of distributing coupons or announcing new flavor releases. Mail Chimp reports an
average click through rate for e-coupon emails of 2.23%. For Restaurants, the closest industry to
food and beverage, this number was much lower at 1.34%. While a higher click through rate is
not necessarily a sign of success, it is one metric available to evaluate possible content. By
distributing emotionally appealing and value-providing content in the form of a coupon,
Spindrift can leverage its existing customer records as an additional communication channel with
customers.

Applications have grown in relevance and serve as great potential connection points with
customers. For Spindrift to be successful with a mobile application, you must have interest and
buy-in from existing customers and provide value far beyond what is available on the mobile
site. Seltzer water is a relatively low involvement purchase for many consumers, which does not
make the product an ideal candidate for an app. However, there is opportunity through

gamification to put forward an engaging and valuable app to customers. Similar to Starbucks,
Spindrift could look to deploy an app-based rewards system that tracks and rewards top Spindrift
consumers (Clevertap). By scanning a QR code on the can, users could gain points and access to
swag or discounts as they gain points for purchasing the beverages. Additionally, Spindrift could
provide users statistics about their drinking careers, such as the number of real fruits a customer
has consumed in their lifetime of Spindrift drinking. Or, what farms and charities their purchases
have supported. Depending on the complexity of the app, Spindrift may want to deploy a native
app that can handle more complexity and is easily accessible through the app stores (Clearbridge
Mobile). Interest could be gauged by launching a lower-cost web-based app, but the lack of
features may impair the success to a fatal degree if the app cannot deliver enough value.

Lastly, social media serves as a great opportunity for Spindrift to connect with two niche
communities that consume the seltzer: people who drink it as an alcohol alternative and people
who drink it as cocktail mixer. These groups may appear to be in conflict with one another, but
can be served very relevant content that meets their needs. By utilizing Socialmention.com, our
team identified two subreddits that independently can engage the two communities. The first is
r/Gin, a subreddit where users discuss different Gins and cocktail recipes, occasionally
mentioning Spindrift as a mixer. The other is r/stopdrinking, where users can encourage each
other on their sober journeys and share products that help them navigate sobriety. Both
subreddits offer opportunities for social listening and customer feedback, essential pieces in a
successful social media presence. Creating sharable and engaging content will keep customers
invested in the brand and extend reach through a digital version of word of mouth advertising.
Beverage company Innocent does this through cute packaging and witty and relatable copy
(Moondust Agency).

By utilizing a combination of these mobile tactics, Spindrift can expand their brand reach beyond
the point of purchase to engage and re-engage customers. Though a large upfront cost, deploying
a multi-channel mobile strategy like this one protects Spindrift from future mobile disruptions
and provides content flexibility.

References

[Infographic] A Guide to Mobile App Development: Web vs. Native vs. Hybrid. (2018).
Retrieved 8 February 2021, from https://clearbridgemobile.com/mobile-app-development-
native-vs-web-vs-hybrid/

Dibenedetto, M. (2020). The Best Marketing Campaigns From the Food & Beverage Sector —
Moondust Social Media & Content Agency. Retrieved 8 February 2021, from
https://www.moondustagency.com/knowledge-center/best-food-beverage-social-campaigns

Email Marketing Benchmarks | Mailchimp. (2019). Retrieved 8 February 2021, from
https://mailchimp.com/resources/email-marketing-benchmarks/

Insights About Responsive Web Design in Mobile Marketing By Mobile1st. (2016). Retrieved 8
February 2021, from https://mobile1st.com/responsive-web-design/

Jain, A. (2020). 7 of the Best Examples of App Gamification | CleverTap. Retrieved 8 February
2021, from https://clevertap.com/blog/best-examples-of-app-gamification/

Responsive vs. Adaptive Website Design – Ventura Web Design. Retrieved 8 February 2021,
from https://www.venturawebdesign.com/responsive-vs-mobile-website-design/

Rowles, D. (2017). Mobile Marketing (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page Limited.

Spindrift – Social Mention search. (2021). Retrieved 8 February 2021, from
http://socialmention.com/search?q=Spindrift&t=all&btnG=Search&start=15

Walker-Ford, M. (2021). 11 Email Design Trends to Improve Your Email Marketing Strategy in
2021 [Infographic]. Retrieved 8 February 2021, from
https://www.socialmediatoday.com/news/11-email-design-trends-to-improve-your-email-
marketing-strategy-in-2021-in/593521/

Marketing homework help

After completing this lesson, students should be able to: 

In a 4 pages paper based on your internship course experience and the learning  objectives achieved during the course, review your internship experience successes and challenges leading to growth. You should demonstrate in your paper a description of your professional portfolio and include any evidence of accomplishment and skill development or recognition that you have acquired this session and how it will contribute to your portfolio.

Provide at least two (2) peer-reviewed sources. If you have completed this CLA2 assignment in an internship course prior to this class, select new examples and sources to support your response. For questions, contact your instructor. 

Your paper should be formatted in APA style. Include at least two (2) peer-reviewed sources related to course material taken in your academic program. 

All peer-reviewed sources should be from:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1oFSkrpeKnVQFPX_KOfLS7zy4Jwhe7GrG

My Background should be ralated to the paper: I am studying a MBA program and also I am working at plastic surgery clinic as a graphic designer and marketing assistant in Arcadia, California, US. Because our doctor and most of the stuffs are original from China. So our main target market is Chinese and Asian…….My main job is advertising design (patients before and after photography and retouching, brochure design, price list design, promotion banner design, website content, email design, social media advertising design,) and assists our marketing team to cooperate with Chinese market(dealmoon, world journal).  

Marketing homework help

1

Khanh Nguyen

Craig Clark

MRKG 1331 Sections: 86001 and 86002

March 27, 2022


Product/Service, Product Life Cycle Strategy

Nike has successfully identified the demands of its target group by designing items that are easily functional and generate a feeling of community. When it comes to promoting its goods, Nike depends extensively on advertising, particularly those that feature well-known sportspeople and celebrities. When it comes to attracting new clients, Nike employs several sales promotion techniques, including the usage of discount coupons. Luxurious garments and shoes and top-of-the-line surf and skateboard gear, golf clubs, and related items are all part of the Nike brand’s product line. In terms of support, Nike sneakers are top-notch (Lorette, 2022). The solid rubber and herringbone pattern used in Nike products enhance the wearer’s help and comfort. Shoes made by Nike are known for their combination of lightness and durability, resulting in flexible and comfortable shoes to wear.

Without sacrificing performance, Nike Air cushioning minimizes the weight of the sneaker. Athletes use less energy when they are wearing lighter shoes. Athletes depend on the cushioning in their shoes to last, so Nike Air is built to do just that (Lorette, 2022). Running with Nike Free shoes provides a sense of liberation and a secure grip, and natural flexibility in the feet. Individuals may improve their performance by working these muscles. By doing all this, my product ends up solving the needs of my target market.

The product life cycle is usually the normal progression of a product’s lifespan. Development, introduction, expansion, maturation, and decline are the five phases that make up the product’s life cycle (Cox, 1967. As the product evolves via its life cycle, the variety of marketing approaches utilized at each stage is also diverse in response to the changing demands of the product. This will describe how my marketing efforts will change with each phase in the product life cycle.

Development Stage

At this point, the product could still be a concept, in the course of being created, or not yet on the market. It’s not time to start executing marketing techniques yet; the firm is still studying and strategizing about promoting its new product, rather than doing so (Cox, 1967. This phase’s marketing efforts will comprise methods to bring attentiveness to Nike’s product to prospective customers via special promotions and marketing campaigns.

Introduction Stage

The introduction phase of the life cycle begins as soon as Nike’s product reaches the market. When a new product is first introduced, sales are often low since people aren’t aware of it (Cox, 1967. Currently, marketing costs are considerable due to the extensive work necessary to raise public knowledge of the product. At this point in the product’s life cycle, the promotion mix includes strategies for establishing a bazaar and spurring sales of the produce.

Growth Stage

A product’s life cycle moves to the growth phase as more people take notice of my Nike’s development and so as sales rise (Cox, 1967. At this point, my product must have a distinct brand identity to stand out from competitors in the market. It’s important to show clients why this product is better than their competition’s, which is constructing brand preference.

The maturation phase of the product life cycle occurs when the product has surpassed its competitors (Cox, 1967. Throughout this period, customers who transfer to my brand from competitors will often get special discounts and incentives as part of the marketing mix.

Decline Stage

The decline phase of a product’s life cycle begins when the market for the product has been saturated. During this time, both the marketing strategy and effort are reduced (Cox, 1967). During this stage, my company will keep clients who have been devoted to the product, but it will not be able to bring in additional sales from these customers. The marketing strategy that is still in place throughout the decline stage focuses on image reinforcement to maintain a favourable brand image on the sight of the product’s devoted consumers.

Packaging used

In every way, Nike comes out on top. Recycling and reusable cardboard materials will be used to make the most famous and contemporary Nike box, which has clean, symmetrical lines, a major tick, and an orange backdrop. The clean, reusable orange bioplastics and the orange box take on the same character when used with a certain marketing approach (Lorette, 2022). They are likely to get a larger part of the market than any other sports firm because they provide more items to more customers in more markets. Like many industry leaders, Nike will place a high priority on the customer and the significance of delivering a high-quality product.

References

Lorette, K. (2022). 8 Ways Adobe Creative Cloud Can Help Grow Your Business. Small Business – Chron.com. Retrieved 26 March 2022, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/adobe-creative-cloud-grow-business-13771091.html

Cox, W. E. (1967). Product life cycles as marketing models. The journal of business40(4), 375-384.

Marketing homework help


Innovative Product Assignment

Assignments –Students will select a company to create a marketing plan for a new product concept that you believe offers the greatest ROI to your firm. Please keep in mind that this concept must be consistent with, or compliment, the existing mission of the company. Your written report and presentation slides must include the following sections:

1. Executive Summary of Your Plan

2. Company Background (company, history, line(s) of business, and industry it competes in)

3. SWOT Analysis

4. Strategic Analysis a) Mission, vision and core competencies/competitive advantages of your company/firm b) Description of your new product concept c) Goals and rationale behind the concept d) Alignment of concept with firm (how do they fit or complement each other?)

5. Competitive Analysis a) How is the market segmented? b) Who is the competition? c) Who is your target market? d) Why is it different from your competitors?

6. Marketing Mix a) Product (packaging, features, contents, flavors, size etc.) b) Place: distribution channel, extent of distribution, which methods and why did you choose them? c) Promotion: which method or combination of methods (advertising, PR, promotion, personal selling) did you choose and why, if advertising, which type of media and why? d) Pricing: what is your pricing strategy and your rationale?

7. Implementation Plan & Marketing Calendar: how will you roll out your product? How long will it take? Is it temporary or permanent?

Marketing homework help

Instructions

For this assignment, you will create an annotated spreadsheet describing the cost analysis strategies and decision-making approaches of your selected governmental entity. 

You will also write a 2 to 3-page paper discussing the following:

· Evaluate the tools used by the entity to calculate current and project future costs.

· Consider the mix of mandatory and discretionary spending.

· Assess the alignment of budget decisions and policy goals.

· Explain the entity’s approach to capital planning.

· Discuss prioritization, compromise, and decision-making approaches.

· Provide specific examples where appropriate.

· Evaluate the effectiveness of this process; make two or more recommendations to improve the process.

Length: 1 spreadsheet with a 2 to 3-page explanatory brief, not including title and reference pages

References: Include a minimum of 3 scholarly resources.

The completed assignment should address all the assignment requirements, exhibit evidence of concept knowledge, and demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the content presented in the course. The writing should integrate scholarly resources, reflect academic expectations, and current APA standards, and adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Marketing homework help

1

College Student’s Depression

Jasmin Linthicum

Course Discovery Writing

Professor Aguiar

Date Due 02/24/2022

College Student’s Depression

2

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is a common and severe

health issue that affects how someone feels, thinks and acts. The most common symptoms of

depression are; having bad moods and feeling very sad, losing interest in the activities that were

once fun, loss of appetite, which in turn will lead to massive weight loss or gain that is not related

to dieting and difficulty in concentrating, thinking or making decisions (LeMoult & Gotlib, 2019).

People become depressed due to various factors; some of the significant social factors that

bring about depression include; encountering traumatic events, separation from parents or

caregivers and being bullied. Personality some people are inclined towards experiencing

depression. For instance, people who tend to hold worries, have a low-self-esteem, are

perfectionists and are very sensitive towards negative criticism naturally have a higher likelihood

of facing depression.

Depression throughout history has always been a health problem for people. According to

articles written by philosophers and writers throughout humanity’s history, there is depression,

which is a health condition. The articles also include some of the continuous struggles that have

been made to find a solution on treating this condition. For instance, the ancient Greeks and

Romans had different thinking on depression. Some of the literature shows that the Greeks had a

notion that depression was a form of evil spirit possession and used exorcism techniques like;

beatings and starvation as “treatments” to cure a person. On the other hand, the Romans thought

depression was a combination of biological and psychological issues and employed gymnastics,

special diet, herbal medicine and music to treat the patients (Taquet et al., 2020).

In our present day, some of the startling statistics concerning depression are; depression

affects approximately one in fifteen adults, that is close to 6.8% annually, and a projection of an

estimated one in six persons will encounter depression at a given point in their life, that is around

Christian Aguiar
All of these statistics come from research, so you need to cite them using an in-text citation like we learned in class. Luckily, we’re reviewing them again today (3/17).
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
This is another place where you need to cite your source. Which literature tells us this?
Christian Aguiar
I like the historical context, Jasmin. This could be a great way to begin the script for your video, too.
Christian Aguiar
Since this is an argument based on research – it draws on what scientists know about depression – you need to make it clear what the source is.
Christian Aguiar
Do you mean “personally, some people are inclined…” or perhaps that “some people’s personalities are inclined”?
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Remember, the colon (:) introduces a list like this; the semicolon (;) connects two complete thoughts.
Christian Aguiar
Great context, Jasmin. For your reader to understand your topic, they will need to first understand what depression is. This is a strong opening move.
Christian Aguiar

3

16.7%. Studies show that females are more likely to experience depression compared to the men.

Clinicians have also found that depression is more likely to occur during the late teens to mid-20s.

This age group indicates that college students are the ones who are likely to suffer most from the

effect of depression.

Depression in college students has affected their social life adversely by lowering their

mood, feelings and self-esteem. It has also affected their school life by; making it challenging to

handle their schoolwork and losing interest in activities like sports. It has led to emotional

outbursts such as anger, faulty self-assessments, and lack of energy. Some of the statistics that

show the extent of this problem are; the overall rate of college students that have been reported to

have depression is about 45% (Moeller & Seehuus, 2019).

Suicide has become the third leading cause of death among college students; 76% of those

reported depression. Their first encounter was their mid-20, and nearly two-thirds of students who

developed substance abuse issues reported experiencing depression. These statistics indicate that

this is a significant health crisis among college students.

Another significant factor that makes this a significant issue is that close to 75% of the

students experiencing depression are reluctant to seek help and medication. This brings about an

additional risk of harmful outcomes like; dropping out of college, performing poorly academically,

the risk of substance abuse and a high chance of committing suicide in the event of a full

depression (Ramón-Arbués et al., 2020).

Depression among college students is a serious mental issue that affects in a big way how

the student thinks and behaves and can lead to significant emotional, functional and physical

issues. So it is crucial to understand the causes and effects of this issue among the students and

how it can be treated and even prevented.

Christian Aguiar
Same here, Jasmin. What does this evidence suggest about what might be lacking in colleges, or what college students need?
Christian Aguiar
Before continuing with more evidence, Jasmin, you should explain the significance of this evidence. Do college students need more help? More support?
Christian Aguiar
Can you find a study on how depression impacts schoolwork or activities?
Christian Aguiar
Can you find a scholarly study that explores WHY students might be reluctant to seek help? Are all students equally reluctant? Are there factors that influence them?
Christian Aguiar
I’ve underlined two sections that are both, in a sense, working thesis statements. I think this second one would work better, as it provides an argument you can develop step by step.
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Is this perhaps a continuation of the “some of the statistics” line above? If so, it needs to be in the same paragraph, Jasmin, otherwise your reader will get confused as I have here.
Christian Aguiar
Since there’s just one stat here, it would make more sense to present it directly.
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
Christian Aguiar
This is a strong link between the background and the working thesis, which comes in the next paragraph.
Christian Aguiar

4

Some of the research approaches that can be employed to be able to identify depression in

college students include; getting help from the parents, this is by developing an approach of getting

to know from different parents on the well-being of the child, to be able to assess some of the most

common symptoms that could show depression. This is an essential aspect as it will be easier also

to train the parent on how to handle and provide support if the child is undergoing depression,

through; preparing the child for the unexpected, the importance of staying close, encouraging

healthy habits and developing a plan that is focused on student mental health (Park & Zarate Jr,

2019).

Another research method is designing a purpose design questionnaire that includes records

of sociodemographic data, such as; age, sex, year of study and performance in studies. The

questionnaire will consist of questions that will help measure the rate of depression among the

students. A number of colleges will be picked and select representatives to participate and increase

statistical power. To increase the accuracy of the research, it is essential to ensure that there is a

proportional stratified sampling of the colleges so that all the different age groups are represented.

Also, in the sampling process, the number of representatives to be obtained from each college will

be determined by calculations and proportional to size probability.

References

LeMoult, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2019). Depression: A cognitive perspective. Clinical Psychology

Review, 69, 51-66.

Christian Aguiar
These aren’t quite research approaches, Jasmin – research approaches would be your lenses, like psychological or educational impacts. These are solutions you could propose.

5

Moeller, R. W., & Seehuus, M. (2019). Loneliness as a mediator for college students’ social skills

and experiences of depression and anxiety. Journal of adolescence, 73, 1-13.

Park, L. T., & Zarate Jr, C. A. (2019). Depression in the primary care setting. New England

Journal of Medicine, 380(6), 559-568.

Ramón-Arbués, E., Gea-Caballero, V., Granada-López, J. M., Juárez-Vela, R., Pellicer-García, B.,

& Antón-Solanas, I. (2020). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress and their

associated factors in college students. International Journal of Environmental Research and

Public Health, 17(19), 7001.

Taquet, M., Quoidbach, J., Gross, J. J., Saunders, K. E., & Goodwin, G. M. (2020). Mood

homeostasis, low mood, and history of depression in 2 large population samples. JAMA

Psychiatry, 77(9), 944-951.

Marketing homework help

We are working with Italian guy that want to open his own coffee van in a specific area in UK.

I have to do for him a marketing plan.

Marketing Plan 

· Analyse and review his chosen marketing platforms (Potentially link some good examples of professional accounts) 

· Tik-Tok 

· Local marketing (Forest commissions, clubs, newspapers, trade communities) 

· Google search results (Search engine optimization, etc.)  

 

Marketing homework help

SMMP – Phase Six Worksheet

MKT235 – Social Media Marketing


Each week, you will submit an additional Phase and receive feedback from your instructor.

Please use this worksheet to complete Phase Six of the SMMP.

In Unit 8, you will merge and submit a final draft of the 6 phases of the SMMP.

Please refer to the attached instructions and grading rubric for the full assignment details.


SWOT Analysis

S

Strengths

W

Weaknesses

O

Opportunities

T

Threats

List Apple’s Weaknesses

List Apple’s Threats

· Macro-Environmental Forces:

Marketing homework help

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

1 | P a g e

January 2013

Resilient Response and Recovery at Western Digital:

After the Thai Flood1

As raging floodwater rushed through various broken spots along the dike at the Bang Pa-in (BPI)
industrial estate, which is located approximately 40 miles north of Bangkok and 5 miles south of
Ayutthaya in the Chao Phraya River basin, the BPI estate flood-fighting team had to retreat for
their own safety on October 15, 2011. Throughout the night, heavy rain continued to fall and
strong floodwater kept rising. All factories within the BPI estate became flooded.

At daybreak on October 16, Joe Bunya (SVP, Hard Disk Operations Asia, WD (a Western
Digital company) and his management team toured their inundated hard disk drive (HDD)
factory at the BPI estate (BPI plant in short) on a boat. Their hearts sank as they saw that certain
critical equipment (some weighing more than 5 tons) for producing sliders located on the ground
floor was completely submerged under 6 feet of corrosive floodwater.2 Recognizing that the
entire factory was contaminated and that critical equipment on the ground floor could not be
replaced for many months, Joe and his management team felt the immediate need to save their
factory.

1 This case is jointly prepared by Mr. Joe Bunya (Senior Vice President, Hard Drive Operations Asia, WD (a Western
Digital company)), and Christopher Tang (Edward Carter Professor of Business Administration at UCLA Anderson
School of Management). This case is intended for MBA class discussion. ©UCLA Anderson School of Management,
2013.
2 The slider is the body of material that supports the actual drive head in a hard disk. The slider slides over the
surface of the disk, carrying the head at a consistent height above the disk for reading and writing.

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As a way to keep customers and investors informed of the situation, Western Digital Corporation
(issued the following press release on October 17: “WDC today announced that it has extended
the suspension of its operations in Thailand. Over the weekend, rising water penetrated the Bang
Pa-in Industrial Park flood defenses, inundating the company’s manufacturing facilities there
and submerging some equipment….. All WD employees in Thailand remain safe.” At the same
time, the popular press (Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Computerworld, etc.) speculated
that it would take multiple quarters for WD to restore its operations in Thailand.3

With a resilient response and recovery and the perseverance of all WD employees in Thailand,
President and CEO John Coyne officially re-opened the plant at BPI on November 30, 2011 –
only 46 days after its closure. Coyne remarked that, “While much work remains to be done over
the next several quarters to reach our pre-flood manufacturing capabilities, the progress thus far
is significantly ahead of our original expectations and is a tribute to the dedicated and effective
actions of our employees, contractors and Thai government agencies, the efforts of our supply
partners and the support of our customers.” 4

On January 13, 2012, the BPI plant produced the first slider unit after the flood, exceeding
internal and external expectations. Sampan Silapanad (VP, Magnetic Head Operations)
attributed this speedy recovery (one week ahead of WD’s internal schedule) in his remark: “The
recovery has proven that WD employees have exceptional passion and perseverance. We did
everything to make the plant equal or better than the pre-flood condition.”5

3 See http://www.techcycle3.com/files/Thailand_flooding_impact_on_HDD_supplies_12aNov2011_2_.pdf for a
compilation of various commentaries from the press.
4 Source: “Western Digital: Flood Response and Recovery,” Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in
Thailand, Vol. 1, 2012.
5 Source: Sabayjai, S., “WD credits staff for turnaround after floods,” The Nation, April 23, 2012.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

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Thailand Floods in 2011

Thailand is prone to seasonal floods that tend to occur in the North and spread down the Chao
Phraya River through the central plains. Over the years, the Thai government has developed
various flood control systems such as dams, canals, drainage tunnels, etc. Unfortunately, rainfall
over northern Thailand from March to July in 2011 was over 300% above the normal level. As
the rate of incoming flow of rainwater was higher than the discharging rates at various dams in
the northern part of Thailand, most dams were almost full by the beginning of October in 2011.
As floodwaters were moving south along the Chao Phraya River, major cities such as Ayutthaya
and Bangkok were facing an imminent flood.

Despite the efforts of the Thai government and various international organizations such as the
United Nations, floodwaters inundated northern parts of the capital city of Bangkok. Flooding
persisted in some areas until mid-January 2012, ultimately causing over 800 deaths and affecting
over 13 million people. With 65 out of 77 provinces declared flood disaster zones, over 7,700
square miles of farmland was severely damaged. According to the Federation of Thai Industries,
the estimated damage was at least 185 billion Baht (1 US$ = 30 Thai Baht). This includes 95
billion Baht damage on Thai industry, 25 billion Baht damage on Thai agriculture, and 65 billion
Baht damage on residential properties.

The flood in 2011 disrupted the supply chain operations in certain key industries in Thailand.
Besides the fact that Thailand accounts for 30% of global trade in rice, over 40% of the world’s
hard disk drives were produced in Thailand and most of them were concentrated in the Bangkok-
Ayutthaya corridor. Also, in addition to tourism, Thailand is a major automotive parts producer
for many Japanese car companies such as Toyota and Honda, and a major producer for many
Japanese digital camera companies such as Canon, Nikon, and Sony. As such, the 2011 flood in
Thailand created major global supply chain disruptions in the automotive industry (due to a
shortage of parts) and the computer industry (due to a shortage of hard disks). The World Bank

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estimated 1.5 trillion Baht (US$50 billion) in economic damages and losses due to the 2011
flood in Thailand.

Western Digital in Thailand

As the market became saturated and highly competitive, various hard disk drive companies such
as Hitachi, Maxtor, and Samsung were acquired by giants such as Western Digital and Seagate.
After a series of mergers and acquisitions, there were only three key HDD companies left by the
end of 2011 (Exhibit 1): Toshiba captures 15% of the market, and the rest of the market is
equally divided between Western Digital and Seagate.

Headquartered in Irvine, California, Western Digital Corporation (www.westerndigital.com) is a
global provider of hard disk drives, networking equipment and home entertainment products
under the WD, HGST and G-Technology brands. Western Digital is the largest producer of
HDDs in the world, with approximately US$16 billion in annual revenue as of the third calendar
quarter of 2012.

Through a series of foreign and domestic investments that began in the 1980s, Thailand became
a major producer of hard disks by 2010. To achieve cost synergies (by reducing freight costs)
and supply chain efficiency (shorter cycle time, better coordination, and lower inventory),
Thailand has developed a cluster of industries associated with hard disk drives manufacturing.
Specifically, this cluster includes hard disk component parts manufacturing (such as motors,
suspensions, disk media, disk heads (sliders), etc.) as well as hard disk assembly operations.

To leverage skilled labor at low cost and to leverage the Thai government’s tax incentives, WD
established two HDD plants in Thailand (at the Bang Pa-in and Navanakorn industrial estates
located in Ayutthaya Province and Pathum Thani Province, respectively) in 2003.6 By the end
of 2011, WD was employing over 38,000 people (including 2,000 engineers and scientists) and
had become the largest foreign employer in Thailand. The country was producing 60% of all of
WD’s hard disks. The remaining 40% were produced in the other plant located in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. Because the BPI plant produced sliders (magnetic heads for reading and
writing on the disk surface) for different types of HDDs for notebook PCs, desktop PCs, other
consumer electronic products and external storage devices, the BPI plant inundation affected the
production of most classes of HDDs. In addition to the closure of both plants in Thailand that
performed hard disk assembly operations, there were serious concerns about shortages of various
mechanical hard disk components because many of WD’s parts suppliers in Thailand were
inundated.7

6 Seagate’s HDD plant located in Korat (northern part of Thailand) was not affected by the 2011 Thai flood.
7 Source: Western Digital Updates —
http://www.wdc.com/en/company/thailandupdates/ThailandFloods2011FAQ.pdf

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Before the Flood – Identifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Risks

According to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters in Belgium
(www.emdat.be), the number of floods in Asia has been growing at an exponential rate, as
indicated by 1910-2010 statistics. Unlike earthquakes, floods are more predictable in terms of
timing and location, and companies can develop plans for better preparedness and mitigation.
Knowing Thailand to be flood-prone, WD has developed its Business Continuity Plan (BCP)
to safeguard its employees and facilities (in addition to the plans developed by the Thai
government and by the BPI estate).

While the BPI had built a dike to surround its 750-acre estate, WD’s 7-acre BPI plant also had a
designated BCP team that performed the following tasks before the flood:

1. Monitor and assess risks. Monitored the rain forecast, floodwater level, conditions of
dams and dikes in surrounding regions and areas, and assessed the likelihood of the flood
and the potential impact on the plant and WD’s suppliers in Thailand.

2. Proactive measures. Prepared the plant against floodwater entering it, including
sandbags, water pumps, generators, first-aid kits, and essential food. In addition, the
team prepared evacuation plans that included the detailed mapping of bus routes.

3. Mitigation plans. Developed mitigation and contingency plans by moving inventories
and some equipment from the ground floor to higher floors to avoid potential damage
from floodwaters.8 In addition, the team worked with management in Thailand,
Malaysia, and the United States to develop contingency plans in case production at the
BPI plant was disrupted. Specifically, WD prepared a plan to shift much of its
production to Malaysia should the BPI plant shut down.

4. Communication plans. Develop communication plans with all employees, all key
suppliers, and all other WD units throughout the company.

During the Flood – Resilient Response

As the BCP team continued to monitor the flood situation, they found that the information
obtained from various sources, including government authorities, appeared to be inconsistent.9
At the same time, after the estate flood-fighting team’s unsuccessful efforts in repairing various
breaks (including a 60-foot-long one) at the dike surrounding the BPI estate, strong floodwater
was gushing through various places and entering the BPI plant. Despite piles of sandbags and

8 WD was unable to move some of the heavy equipment (weighing more than 5 tons) to higher floors.
9 Despite the Thai government’s efforts in establishing the Emergency Operations Center for Flood, Storm and
Landslide in August 2012 that was intended to coordinate warning and relief efforts, the government has been
criticized for giving mixed or conflicting information. Some foreign companies also thought there was a lack of
accurate and timely information provided in English, preventing them from being better prepared. Prime Minister
Yingluck Shinawatra immediately responded to the press that the Thai government will invest in water
management to ensure that such flooding does not happen again (source: cnbc.com).

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water pumps, the floodwater continued to rise. To ensure safety, all WD employees were asked
to evacuate the facility and a security team was appointed immediately to secure the company’s
property.

At the same time, the WD management team assembled at Sofitel Hotel in Bangkok and
deployed various contingency plans. These included:

• Ensuring employees’ safety and well-being. To ensure employees’ safety, strict safety
standards and protocols were enforced by a dedicated EHS (Environment, Health and
Safety) team. Before starting any work, the team got together and planned the process
with safety as the number one priority. During the cleanup, workers were required to
wear U.S. industry-standard protective gear. The EHS team would perform frequent
audits to ensure strict compliance to the agreed upon process. Every employee and
worker was urged to take the safety issue seriously. Even though both plants in Thailand
were closed, the WD management team did not want to overburden employees’
livelihood, especially when their homes were also flooded. So to build trust and loyalty,
WD decided to keep all 38,000 employees on the payroll at 75% pay during the recovery
period.10

• Minimizing supply chain disruption. Knowing that WD’s customers typically had about
two weeks of inventory on hand and distributors had about a four-week supply, WD
decided to reduce the impact on its customers by shifting production from Thailand to
Malaysia during the recovery period. To accomplish this, WD immediately ramped up
the Malaysian facilities to full capacity.11

• Reducing recovery time by saving submerged equipment. Recognizing that some critical
and heavy equipment was in 6-foot-deep floodwater and understanding that this
equipment could not be replaced quickly and cheaply, WD managed to get divers to
retrieve that submerged equipment. However, because the equipment was extremely
heavy, these divers had to unbolt the submersed machinery, dissemble it into different
pieces (kits) under water, and then move the kits to higher floors.12

• Maintaining consistent communication. WD developed a plan to communicate
information in a consistent and timely manner to all employees, all key suppliers, and all
WD units. A temporary small command center was initially set up at the Sofitel Hotel in
Bangkok, which was unaffected by the flood at the beginning. Later on, with support
from one of WD’s business partners, Siam Commercial Bank (SCB), WD moved its
command center to SCB’s central office in Bangkok. This was the location where the
information from the frontline people at the flood site was received and communicated to
headquarters on a daily basis. Management also visited the site every few days to get
firsthand information and to provide support to the ground troops as needed. SMS
messaging was used as a means to keep the entire workforce informed of the recovery
progress. Also, WD headquarters in Irvine issued updated news on its website to ensure
that customers and investors were fully informed of the situation.

10 Sabayjai, S., “WD credits staff for turnaround after floods,” The Nation, April 23, 2012.
11 Source: TechCentral, “WD shifts operations to Malaysia in wake of Thai floods,” October 25, 2011.
12 Source: Romero, J., “The Lessons of Thailand’s Flood,” November 2012, Spectrum, IEEE.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

7 | P a g e

After the Flood – Speedy Recovery

To restore the inundated factory at the BPI estate and resume manufacturing operations as soon
as possible, the temporary office at the SCB headquarters building in Bangkok was also used as a
command center to manage the recovery operations in parallel. At the same time, all key
employees commuted to work during the recovery period, even though their homes were
flooded. Immediately after the flood receded at the BPI estate, WD began recovery operations,
which involved:

• Establishing a decontamination process. After the floodwater was removed, WD started
the decontamination process by spraying the entire interior of the facility with special,
non-hazardous chemicals to remove films of dirt, mildew, mold, grime, etc., from the
ceilings, walls, and air ducts prior to the demolition work.

• Restoration. Besides restoring the main power, WD assessed those kits retrieved by the
divers earlier. By reassembling the kits to rebuild various refurbished machines, WD
managed to salvage 80% of the equipment.

• Monitoring progress. SCB provided WD with computer hardware, phone lines, and
access to the Internet, albeit with limited bandwidth. WD’s IT department established a
line of communication with Corporate using “live meeting.” The command center
received daily, verbal reports from the frontline people at the sites and was able to keep
Corporate informed of progress and the recovery plan.

• Coordination and communication. WD worked with its suppliers to ramp up production
in Malaysia to reduce the impact on customers. Besides continued communication with
different stakeholders, WD hosted a four-day seminar for over 20,000 employees at
Thammasat University (Rangsit campus) in Thailand to ensure that WD employees
received updates and the company’s recovery plans.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

8 | P a g e

The Sun Shines Again

Strong leadership and well-executed contingency and recovery plans helped WD’s BPI plant to
be re-opened by President and CEO Coyne on November 30 just 46 days after the plant closure.
That was weeks ahead of the internal schedule. This speedy recovery can be seen as
phenomenal, especially when considering that many companies, including Honda, took 6 months
to recover. To recognize the resilient response and speedy recovery at the BPI plant, all 2,500
WD Presidential Awards in 2011 were given to various WD employees in Thailand.

WD’s production capacity had been affected significantly at the end of 2011. As reported in IHS
iSuppli Research in February 2012, WD shipped 28.5 million HDDs in the fourth quarter of
2011, which was about half of the 52.2 million HDDs it shipped in the same quarter the year
before. As such, WD slipped to the number two spot after Seagate at the end of 2011. Even
though WD reported that the flood in 2011 cost the company US$199 million, WD managed to
restart its slider production in January 23, 2012.

While investors were concerned about the earnings of WD, their concerns were lifted when the
price of HDDs continued to rise as the supply of HDDs fell in 2011. The underlying reason was
that, even though Seagate’s factory in Thailand was not affected, there was a shortage in the
supply of the components for hard disk manufacturing because many hard disk components
suppliers in Thailand were also flooded. As a result, there was a 29% reduction in the number of
HDDs produced in Thailand in the fourth quarter of 2011. As the supply of HDDs fell, the
average HDD price increased from US$51 to US$66: a 30% increase in the same quarter. As
reported by IHS iSuppli in June 2012, the price of HDDs will remain high until 2014.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

9 | P a g e

WD recovered faster than industry analysts expected. By the end September 2012, WD’s
operations in Thailand were restored to the pre-flood level. This great news has major potential
effects. Firstly, shipments would increase as more customers have stronger confidence in WD.
Secondly, as the selling price of HDDs is “sticky,” WD’s revenue and profit would continue to
rise. Moreover, in the second quarter of 2012, WD had completed the acquisition of Hitachi’s
hard disk division. WD also set a new record by shipping more than 71 million HDDs with over
US$4.8 billion in revenue and earned a record profit of US$745 million (Exhibit 2).
Furthermore, as investors regained confidence about WD, the company’s stock price bounced
back to the pre-flood level despite drops in stock prices during the flood period.

After suffering from serious flood damage in Thailand in October 2011, it is remarkable that WD
reclaimed the number one spot in the HDD market by the end of the second quarter of 2012.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

10 | P a g e

Upon reflection, WD’s SVP Bunya remarked: “The resilient response and speedy recovery at the
WD plant in Thailand is a strong reflection of the core values formed and nurtured by President
and CEO John Coyne: Passion, Action, Productivity, Perseverance, Innovation, Integrity and
Teamwork – PAPPII TWO (Together We Outperform). These values were the foundation of
WD’s successful recovery from the 2011 flood.” 13

Looking ahead, WD is wondering about the following issues:

1. While the response and recovery were successful in fighting the flood, is there something
WD can do to improve its Business Continuity Plan?

2. Should WD rely only on the Thai government and the BPI estate to control flooding? If
no, then what shall WD do?

3. Knowing that Thailand is prone to floods, should WD consider shifting its production
elsewhere?

13 Source: “Western Digital: Flood Response and Recovery,” Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in
Thailand, Vol. 1, 2012.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

11 | P a g e

Exhibit 1. Recent mergers and acquisitions in the HDD industry.

Joe Bunya and Christopher TangTeaching Case UCLA Anderson School of Management

12 | P a g e

Exhibit 2. Income Statement of WDC (as of September 2012)

Source: Investing Business Week Research, accessed December 2012.

Marketing homework help

Thursday, 21 April 2022

BCT 717 Report

Week 3 Q2 2022

Agenda

1.

Company reports

Audience?

Purpose?

2.

Purpose of the Appendix

3.

Main body of the report

4.

Final points:

introduction/conclusion/Chicago

referencing

2.

Use

industry

and competitor analysis tools

and

techniques to

analyse

the industry structure and

competitors

of the company you choose.

3.

Research data to support your analysis. Adopt a

company

report style (vs academic

report styl

e

)

.

Assignment

Brief:

Audience and

Purpose

An Industry Structure and Competitor

Analysis Report

Who would be interested in reading this

type of report? (audience)

Why would they want to read this

report? (purpose)

Assignment

Brief: Appendix

appendix 1500

words (max)

(

excluding

references)

5.

Include the detailed

analysis and the tools you

use in the appendix

.

6.

The report should include:

1.

Short introduction

2.

Summary of the main findings of your

analysis and the main insights (there will

probably be subsections in this part)

3.

Conclusion

4.

Appendix

Appendi

x

NOTE

this

example is

for a

different

assignment!

Assignment

Brief: Main Body

report 750

words (max)

6

. The report should include

:

1.

Short introduction

2.

Summary of the main findings of your

analysis and the main insights (ther

e will

probably be subsections in this part

)

3.

Conclusion

4.

Appendix

4. In this report, you should highlight the most

Assignment important industry structures and provide a

Brief – Part 3 detailed analysis of existing and/or potential competitors. The basis for selecting important factors and competitors should be your detailed analysis of the industry and competitors using appropriate tools and frameworks. Please note that in the report you should not explain the tools or frameworks but use them effectively and report on what you find/conclude using them.

Assignment

Brief: Main Body

3

. Research data to support your analysis. Adopt

a com

pany

report style

(

vs academic

report

style).

Incorporate graphs and tables within the

body of the document (instead of the ap

pendix

)

.

Include the sources of information in the

graph/table where the information is presented

.

Example Body

Sections of

Reports

Study extracts from the main body parts of

two reports (A and B) about the company,

Comvita Limited.

Which report seems to better match the

expectations for what should be in the main

body of a report

for this assignment? Why?

Note: these examples are from a different

assignment. Part of your assignment is

to

select the appropriate tools for analysi

s

.

Example Body

Sections of

Reports

B

does a better job of synthesizing details

from different tools/frameworks to identify key

insights. These insights are then supported by

specific pieces of evidence.

A

seems to just ‘dump’ the information from

the Appendix into the main body. The overall

structure would have been okay, if maybe they

had summarized the most important factors

from each analysis better.

Note: these examples are from a different assignment. Part o

f

your assignment is to select the appropriate tools for analysis

.

How A could be improved? By focussing on the key insights from each analysis ..e.g.


And then supporting these claims with specific evidence External Factors Influencing the Industry From a PESTEL analysis (see Appendix), the most important external factors influencing this industry appear to be ….

Competitive Forces Influencing the Industry

Using Porter’s Five Forces framework (see Appendix), it is clear that that strongest competitive forces in the industry are ….

Approach

Use

tools/frameworks to capture detailed information

in the Appendix.

Analyse

and review the detailed information to identify

key factors influencing the structure of the industry

and competitor dynamics.

This forms

the key findings/insights from your analysis.

In the main body of your report, these become the

important CLAIMS, which you then support by

selecting relevant evidence/data.

Final points

Introduction

Introduce essential information about the

company (main business/market

etc

)

Identify the industry it operates in

Map the report (what will it talk about)

Conclusion

Summarise

the insights

/key findings about the

industry structure/competition.

Maybe focus on highlighting the challenges ..?

Chicago referencing

List of references/bibliography AFTER Appendix

S

tyle of Report

Thursday, 21 April 2022

Questions?

Marketing homework help

Running head: WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 1

Walt Disney: Pricing Strategies

Writer

University

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 2

Walt Disney’s Pricing Strategies

Various factors influence the five pricing strategies: premium pricing, penetration pricing,

economy pricing, psychological pricing, and promotional pricing.

Four key factors might influence the selection of the premium strategy. First, if the

company wants to insinuate high quality. The resultant consumer perception can help elevate or

maintain a premium brand value. Second, if the company intends to market to high-net-worth

individuals belonging to an exclusive group or image as demonstrated at essay help. Third, if the

company seeks to recover investments in the product quickly. Fourth, the company has many

versions of the same product. This fourth factor is the reason why the strategy is grouped under

product-line pricing strategies (Hughes & Kapoor, 2010, p. 466).

Penetration pricing is utilized for new products. Therefore, the main factor influencing

pricing is a new product status. Unlike premium pricing, which is largely influenced by product

line and the company sets high prices to suggest high-quality/luxury, penetration pricing involves

setting low prices to build market share quickly.

The main factor influencing the selection of economy pricing is an objective to sell at the

bare minimum price that returns a profit for the company. The company can sell the product to the

masses due to the low prices. The strategy is similar to penetration pricing due to the low prices,

but unlike penetration pricing, another factor is given extra consideration, namely, setting the price

above the break-even price. Whereas premium pricing is used when the company intends to sell to

high-income groups, economy pricing largely targets the masses to obtain greater profits.

Under psychological pricing, the main factors influencing strategy selection include the

company’s intention to encourage consumers to purchase based on emotional responses rather

than economically rational responses; and when the offerings are consumer products (Hughes &

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 3

Kapoor, 2010, p. 466). Premium pricing is ideal for both business and consumer products, but

psychological pricing, such as setting the price at $4.99 instead of $5 might not evoke emotional

responses for business products as it does for consumer products.

Whereas a luxury brand might emphasize the product in its 4Ps marketing mix, an ordinary

brand that prides in low-cost products might emphasize pricing. The latter company is likely to

adopt a promotional pricing strategy to emphasize its price competitiveness. A company might

also use promotional pricing to launch a new product, combining both penetration pricing by

setting a low price, and promotional pricing by embracing odd pricing and discounts.

Although Disney’s pricing is complex, the company largely employs a premium pricing

strategy. According to Baisya (2013), Disney is a premium brand and sets prices that are

significantly higher than similar products from competitors. Market sentiments show that the

company is nearly pricing out the middle class and recently adopted a dynamic pricing approach

to take into account seasonal changes (Cameron, 2019). The company combines its premium

marketing strategy with other strategies in some cases where it deems appropriate. For instance, in

a bid to even out demand through the year, Disney charges high prices during peak demand and

low promotional prices during periods of low demand. In another example of the company’s

pricing strategy, the launch of Disney Plus, Disney’s streaming service akin to Netflix, offers

important insights. The company adopted a penetration pricing strategy for the launch. Disney set

the launch price at $7 as a monthly subscription compared to Netflix’s $13. This penetration

pricing surprised many, leading some to wonder whether the price was “too cheap for the premium

brand” (Hollis, 2019). The company also uses psychological pricing as it indicates the monthly

subscription fee for Disney Plus as $6.99. Despite the complex pricing, Disney’s approach is

largely a premium pricing strategy as it commands a premium brand.

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 4

Disney, as a premium brand, has positioned itself favorably to charge premium prices for

its products. The company occasionally raises its prices. As indicated above, there are concerns

over whether the company is setting prices that are beyond the reach of the middle class. Despite

such sentiments, the company’s market share is growing and the brand remains successful.

Accordingly, the premium pricing is effective because the company has nurtured a premium brand

backed by high-quality products and an effective marketing strategy. As noted by Santos (2012),

Disney epitomizes the meaning of pricing power. Get any business essay help here. The company,

owing to its brand value, is in a favorable position to charge premium prices and still retain

customers. In this regard, Disney understands brand value and its implications for pricing. By

maintaining a high brand value, the company maintains its strong position to use a premium

pricing strategy.

Another factor that helps the premium pricing strategy is the focus on an exclusive market

niche. The company is in an unrivaled position to influence its market niche. This factor offers

Disney significant leverage to charge premium prices. Disney theme parks, for instance, not only

present a world of fantasy and fun that represent a niche market, but also entice customers to

return. The nurtured strong relationship with consumers gives Disney additional power to charge

high prices.

Disney largely aligns its pricing strategy with the messaging in promotions. While

launching the new streaming service, Disney Plus, the company emphasized the low price in its

“massive marketing campaign” (Sutton, 2019). This penetration pricing strategy has helped the

service to gain a large number of subscriptions in a relatively short period. In line with the

premium pricing strategy, the company emphasizes its brand value and quality of products in the

messaging in promotions. An example is the messaging in promotions for the company’s theme

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 5

parks. One promotion had the message “That’s the power of magic – you can fly”. Another

example is visible in Disney’s slogans that feature prominently in marketing campaigns. One such

slogan is “The happiest place on earth”. This slogan alludes to the value that the Disney brand

gives consumers.

A notable element of Disney’s messaging in its promotions is the tendency to insinuate the

high brand value of the Disney brand. This is perhaps a cautionary measure the company uses to

nurture and maintain its brand value even when adopting pricing strategies that set low prices. The

widely promoted Disney Plus, despite emphasizing the low price, set based on a penetration

pricing strategy, equally emphasized the value of the product. Figure 1 below is an example of a

campaign promoting Disney Plus at the time of its launch and features the tag “Plus up your day”.

This tag emphasizes the value the product offers to consumers.

Figure 1: Source Sutton, 2019

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 6

In line with the promotional pricing strategy, Disney uses messaging in promotions using terms

such as “discounts for the family” and “offer valid for a limited time”. These instances show the

connection between Disney’s pricing strategy and messaging in promotions.

WALT DISNEY PRICING STRATEGIES 7

References

Baisya, R. K. (2013). Branding in a competitive marketplace. SAGE Publications.

Hughes, R. J., & Kapoor, J. R. (2010). William M. Pride. Retrieved from

Essay Help

Santos, P. (2012, June 4). Disney And The Power Of Pricing Power. Retrieved from

https://seekingalpha.com/article/636651-disney-and-the-power-of-pricing-power

Cameron, S., (2019, January 5). Disney World is getting so expensive it’s pricing out the middle

class. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.nl/disney-world-expensive-middle-

class-2018-12/

Hollis, N. (2019, April 15). Is Disney Plus too cheap for the premium brand? Retrieved from

http://www.millwardbrown.com/global-navigation/blogs/post/mb-blog/2019/04/15/is-

disney-plus-too-cheap-for-the-premium-brand

Sutton, K. (2019, November 14). Disney+’s Massive Marketing Campaign Is Just Getting Started.

Retrieved from https://www.adweek.com/digital/disney-plus-massive-marketing-

campaign-just-getting-started/

Marketing homework help

Learning outcomes

· Identify and understand key theories, models and frameworks underpinning strategic management.

· Critically evaluate information obtained by applying relevant strategic management theories, models and frameworks.

· Conduct strategic analysis by integrating various theories, models and frameworks while demonstrating critical and creative thinking.

· Collaborate to solve business cases using relevant theories, models and frameworks.

· Summarise and communicate analysis and recommendations in a professionally presented manner.

What is strategy

Strategy: An integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions designed to exploit core competencies and gain a competitive advantage.

Strategy IS

PLAN

Direction, intended strategy, course of action into the future

A path to get from here to there

POSITION

Positioning oneself in the market: product/application, geography,

customer, practice

“Creation of a unique and valuable position“

PERSPECTIVE

An organization’s fundamental way of doing things

Internal perspective

PLOY

Competitive maneuvering

Outwitting the competition

PROCESS

The process may be more important than the outcome

Strategy process as a learning tool

Outcome

Prodecure

Levels of strategy

Corporate strategy

“Which businesses

should we be in”

Business strategy

“Value creation & capture”

Operational / functional strategy

Marketing, operations, HR, innovation, etc…

Models of strategic decision making & analysis

20

Vision & Mission

Vision Mission

· A picture of • In which business does the firm

· What a firm wants to be want to compete

· What it wants ultimately to achieve

· Which customers does it want to

· An effective vision serve

· Stretches and challenges the organisation

· Reflects a firm’s values and aspirations

· Is enduring, despite changing environmental conditions

21

Some examples: Mission and Vision

Mission:

3

M is committed to actively contributing to sustainable development through

environmental protection, social responsibility, and economic progress.

to save people money so they can live better

“To

organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful

Vision:

3

M products enhancing every home. 3M innovation improving every life.

Be the destination for customers to save money, no matter how they want to shop

“to provide access to the world’s information in one click”

Typical elements of a strategy

Vision

Targets

(

financial & non

financial)

Strategic initiatives

Strategy

s

tatement

Market definition

Business model design

Mission

Values

Strategy statement: Example

HBR

Collis

&

Rukstad

(2008)

Next week

· The external environment

· Required reading: Chapter 2

· Required reading: Porter’s Five Forces that shape strategy • Don’t forget you preparation (poste a comment).

Marketing homework help

Course structure

716

Identifying

problems

Analysing

customers

Analysing

context

Analysing

distribution

Analysing

resources

Strategy

develop

ment

Strategy

evaluation

Implement

ation

Introduc

tion

Today

Learning objectives

1.

Analysing market data

2.

Learning about segmentation, targeting and

positioning

3.

Learning about distribution

4.

Explain pricing

4

Agenda

Who is the customer?

Segmentation

Positioning

Distribution channels

Pricing and margins

Customers

Who and how many?

6

Classic strategy mistake:

“We don’t want to overly define our customers because many people could use our products”

Customer in ‘small red car market’

Jaguar F type Toyota Corolla

NZ RRP $144K – 255K NZRRP $29K – 39K

7300 Corolla

;

7%

“Jaguar 548 new vehicles “sold in registrations in 2021 up from 2021 of new 140 in 2007 – a 291% growth passenger car sales in in 14 years” NZ”

8

Market data: Yoghurt example

Source: Passport

28.5

29.0

29.5

30.0

30.5

31.0

31.5

32.0

32.5

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Volume (000 tonnes)

Yoghurt

24,000.0

24,500.0

25,000.0

25,500.0

26,000.0

26,500.0

27,000.0

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Volume (tonnes)

New Zealand Milk Yoghurt

82.8

83.2

83.6

84.0

84.4

84.8

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Percentage of total

New Zealand Milk Yoghurt

0

5

10

15

20

25

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Volume (tonnes)

New Zealand Non

Animal Derived

Proteins Yoghurt

Target market process

Four bases for market segmentation

Graphic source: https://surabhiudas91.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/nestle

slim

milk

segmentation

targeting

and

positioning/

Application to small car market

The market segments differ for the two ‘small red cars’

Examples

Market size – estimation

· Market size can be estimated based on the size of the targeted market segment, frequency of purchase, and price paid each time.

· E.g., 1000 customers; buys 1 set of shampoo/conditioner per month; $20 each purchase = $20,000 per month (or $240,000 per year) – customer profile can help!

· Once we select the target market, we can decide how to position our product – reach out to them and make them perceive the uniqueness of product and how it meets their needs.

Caution: making sense of the market data

BEWARE:

· Market boundaries (what is included in the definitions)

· Wholesale or retail $; or volume?

· Market share? (share of what and long-run?)

· Data sources and calculation methods?

· Market growth by segment?

Target market size estimates are important for sales forecasts

· It is not straight forward to find specific market size data for your product, especially for SMEs

Positioning map

competitors

Map your product or service relative to alternatives

Dimensions

based on what is important to

target

customer

Identify gaps

4

Ps or 7 Ps of marketing?

Not theories but taxonomies

activities and a checklist for

strategy

Who is the primary customer?

“Averaged”

or

individual customers?

End

user

or

distribution channel?

Important: Product

market fit

Aligning ‘product offering’ to ‘customer needs’ of

the target market is critical

Need to regularly check the STP process

Is there a creative way of identifying target

customers?

Customer focused strategy – main points

1. Identify the customer that best matches your firm’s values and capabilities – and offers the best profit potential

2. Understand what that customer values – in detail

– and track the customer’s purchasing behaviour

3. Implement a business model that allows your firm to best satisfy the primary customer’s needs and preferences

4. Build systems to flag changes in customer needs

Source: Simons (2014)

Distribution Channels

21

Distribution channels

Consumer products

Graphic source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/marketing

spring2016/chapter/putting

it

together

place

distribution

channels/

Distribution channels

another diagram

Graphic source: http://www.pjmconsult.com/index.php/services/distribution

channels

Distribution channels

Push vs Pull

Source: http://rachanachadha.blogspot.com/2014/09/distribution.html

How to use distribution details?

To find out the main distributors or specialized

distributors

To know which channels are being used by your

main rivals.

You may choose the same channel or find one with

no (or less) competition for your product

Pricing

different types

Source: https://www.mbaskool.com/business

concepts/marketing

and

strategy

terms/18091

pricing

strategy.html

Simple channel pricing model

Manufacturer

Wholesaler

Distributor

Buyer

RRP

$ 10.00

Actual price paid $ 7.50

)

% discount

(25

Cost to distributor $ 5.00

% margin of $

2.50

33

Cost to wholesaler $ 3.40

32

1.60

% margin of $

Variable cost to produce $ 2.50

% margin of $

0.90

26

Covers

:

Sales

Promotion

Overheads

ROI

Covers

:

Distribution

Promotion

Wastage

Overheads

ROI

Covers

:

Warehousing

Logistics

Overheads

ROI

Note: Goods and services tax not included

Logical errors in pricing

· Cost plus (lazy or wasted opportunity)

· Low prices are an obstacle in future (reduction is easy but increasing is tricky)

· Discounting too quickly & frequently (are you targeting the right customers?)

· The “lower price = higher volume” delusion

· Assuming that competitors will not reduce their prices

· May not translate to higher demand/volume – see example

Example: Reduce price 20% to achieve

40

% increase in volume

Unit price:

$10

Reduce 20%

$8

Unit

c

ost:

$5

$5

Contribution margin:

$5

$3

Unit sales:

10000

Increase 40%

14000

Revenue:

$100,000

$112,000

Total contrib. margin:

$50,000

$42,000

Digital Marketing

· Promotion of products or brands using different forms of electronic media

· E.g., 71 per cent of consumer more likely to purchase from brands they follow on social media

Graphic source: https://fourweekmba.com/distribution

channels/

Search engine

SEO or SEM?

Social media

SMO or SMM?

Preparing for your workshops

· Identifying your customer by market segmentation process – segmenting, targeting, positioning

· Use of reliable databases and other sources is important – may need more than one source

· Create a customer persona that best represents the targeted market segment (humanize it with characteristics)

· Estimate the market size – price x units sold in a period

· Identify the main distribution channels to reach the target customer?

· What digital strategies are most appropriate?

Marketing homework help

Page 1 of 1

The purpose of this assessment is to provide an opportunity to the participants to develop a real-life

case study by observing existing marketing activity in a Saudi organization. The organization name is

Zamil air conditioners (http://www.zamilac.com/about-us/ )

Instructions: Read the general instructions before starting the case study.

 Identify an organization /person practicing marketing activity.

 Identify an issue/problem which can be used to supplement the theory.

 Write the case study in the past tense.

 The maximum number of words allowed = 2000.

Key Deliverables: The case study must have three parts:

1) Opening paragraph

 Who is the main protagonist?

 Who is the key decision-maker?

 What is the problem/issue?

 When does the case take place?

 Where the case took place – organization, city?

 Why does the issue or problem arise?

2) Body of case study

 Tell the whole story – usually in a chronological order

 Typically contain general background, business environment, company

background, and specific issue details.

 Use publically available information through official websites.

 Add tables and pictures as annexures.

3) Concluding paragraph

 Provide a summary of the case to reiterate the main issues or raise new

questions.

Marketing homework help

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qplTmlM4ZU

Watch above video and then submit a one page write up here. In this write-up, you will teach someone everything that was learned from the video. This is not a simple summary or regurgitation of information. Rather, you must organize the information and explain it in a way that helps someone else learn the material. You can use bullet points, diagrams, prose, or any other format that helps teach the material effectively.

Marketing homework help

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PA C I F I C
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STUDY HACK #17
Use Google Docs to take notes in

class, then transform these
notes into exam revision.

Sam, student, Adelaide

This book has all the tools for you to
ace this subject. What’s stopping you?

BE AMBITIOUS

Gain a real
understanding

of the strategic
management
process and

how it is used
in the global

economy

Local and
international
case studies
demonstrate

theory put into
practice in

real-life business
situations

Support your
learning with
experiential

exercises that
give you the
opportunity
to put your
knowledge

into practice

Hanson_7e_sb_51116_CVR.indd All Pages 4/6/21 11:46 am

Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalisation

7th Edition

Dallas Hanson

Kim Backhouse

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Michael A. Hitt

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Robert E. Hoskisson

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 24 23 22 21

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

1 PART 1 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS 1
1 Strategic management and strategic

competitiveness 2

2 The external environment: opportunities,
threats, industry competition and competitor
analysis 34

3 The internal organisation: resources, capabilities,
core competencies and competitive advantages 72

2 PART 2 STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY FORMULATION 101
4 Business-level strategy 102

5 Competitive dynamics 131

6 Corporate-level strategy 161

7 Acquisition and restructuring strategies 189

8 International strategy 218

9 Cooperative strategy 252

3 PART 3 STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY
IMPLEMENTATION 283

10 Corporate governance 284

11 Organisational structure and controls 321

12 Strategic leadership 355

13 Strategic entrepreneurship 386

4 PART 4 CASE STUDIES 411
Introduction: A summary of the case analysis process 412

Case 1: JB Hi-Fi Ltd acquisition of The Good Guys 415

Case 2: Challenges at Australia Post 426

Case 3: Nyrstar NV: a case study in a failed vertical
integration strategy 432

Case 4: Pfizer 442

Case 5: Atlassian 454

Case 6: The Sunshine Coast UNESCO Biosphere
Reserve and Smart City: a new governance
opportunity in a post-pandemic world? 458

Case 7: CrossFit at the crossroads 465

Case 8: The movie exhibition industry: 2018
and beyond 482

Case 9: Pacific Drilling: the preferred offshore driller 506

Case 10: The trivago way – growing without
growing up? 522

Case 11: The Volkswagen emissions scandal 539

Case 12: Otis in the global elevator industry 549

Case 13: Dick Smith: the fall of an Aussie icon 555

GLOSSARY 566
NAME INDEX 572
SUBJECT INDEX 580

v

C O N T E N T S
GUIDE TO THE TEXT XII
GUIDE TO THE ONLINE RESOURCES XIV
PREFACE XVI
ABOUT THE AUTHORS XVIII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS XXI

1 PART 1 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS 1
1 Strategic management and strategic

competitiveness 2

Opening case study: McDonald’s and brand recognition 3

The strategic management process 4

The competitive landscape 7
The global economy 8

Strategic focus: Starbucks is a new economy
multinational yet has had failures in key markets 9
The march of globalisation 10
Technology and technological changes 11

Strategic focus:
The core of Apple: technology and innovation 14

The I/O model of above-average returns 15

The resource-based model of above-average
returns 17

Vision and mission 19
Vision 19
Mission 20

Stakeholders 21
Classifications of stakeholders 21

Strategic leaders 23
The work of effective strategic leaders 24
Predicting outcomes of strategic decisions 25
Ethical dimensions 25

STUDY TOOLS 27

2 The external environment: opportunities,
threats, industry competition and competitor
analysis 34

Opening case study: Drilling for oil: risks and rewards 35

The general, industry and competitor
environments 38

External environmental analysis 39
Scanning 40
Monitoring 40
Forecasting 41
Assessing 41

Segments of the general environment 41
The demographic segment 42
The economic segment 44
The political/legal segment 46
The sociocultural segment 47
The technological segment 49
The global segment 50
The physical environment segment 51

Strategic focus: Target (Tar-zhey) is trying to navigate in
a new and rapidly changing competitive landscape 52

Industry environment analysis 53
Threat of new entrants 54
Bargaining power of suppliers 57
Bargaining power of buyers 57
Threat of substitute products 58

Strategic focus: German performance/luxury cars: if
you’ve seen one, have you seen them all? 58
Intensity of rivalry among competitors 59
Interpreting industry analyses 61

Strategic groups 61

Competitor analysis 62
Ethical considerations 64

STUDY TOOLS 65

vi

3 The internal organisation: resources, capabilities,
core competencies and competitive advantages 72

Opening case study: Large pharmaceutical companies,
big data analytics, artificial intelligence and core
competencies: a brave new world 73

Analysing the internal organisation 75
The context of internal analysis 75
Creating value 76
The challenge of analysing the internal organisation 77

Resources, capabilities and core competencies 79
Strategic focus: Tangible and intangible resources as the
base for core competencies 80
Resources 80
Capabilities 83
Core competencies 83

Building core competencies 84
Strategic focus: Procter & Gamble: using capabilities and
core competencies to create value for customers 85
The four criteria of sustainable competitive advantage 86
Value chain analysis 89

Competencies, strengths, weaknesses and
strategic decisions 92

STUDY TOOLS 94

2 PART 2 STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY FORMULATION 101
4 Business-level strategy 102

Opening case study: Clonakilla Wines in a quality niche
position 103

Customers: their relationship with business-
level strategies 105
Effectively managing relationships with
customers 105
Reach, richness and affiliation 106
Who: determining the customers to serve 107
What: determining which customer needs
to satisfy 107

How: determining core competencies necessary to
satisfy customer needs 108

The purpose of a business-level strategy 109

Business models and their relationship with
business-level strategies 109

Types of business-level strategies 110
Cost leadership strategy 112
Differentiation strategy 115
Focus strategies 119
Integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy 120

Strategic focus: Apple vs Samsung vs Huawei: the battle
for smart technology 121

STUDY TOOLS 125

5 Competitive dynamics 131

Opening case study: Tesco PLC: a case study in
competitive behaviour 132

A model of competitive rivalry 134

Competitor analysis 135
Market commonality 136

Strategic focus: Competitive rivalry in fast fashion: a
constant stream of actions and responses 137
Resource similarity 138

Drivers of competitive actions and responses 139

Competitive rivalry 141
Strategic and tactical actions 141

Likelihood of attack 142
First-mover incentives 142
Organisational size 144
Quality 144

Likelihood of response 145
Type of competitive action 146
Actor’s reputation 146
Dependence on the market 147

Competitive dynamics 147
Slow-cycle markets 147
Fast-cycle markets 148

viiCONTENTS

Strategic focus: The emergence of competitive rivalry
among battery manufacturers: who will establish the
most attractive market position? 150
Standard-cycle markets 152

STUDY TOOLS 153

6 Corporate-level strategy 161

Opening case study: The quintessential diversified
organisation 162

Purpose of corporate-level strategies 163

Levels of diversification 164
Low levels of diversification 165
Moderate and high levels of diversification 166

Strategic focus: Acciona’s related diversification and
renewable energy growth 166

Reasons for diversification 167

Value-creating diversification: related constrained
and related linked diversification 169
Operational relatedness: sharing activities 170
Corporate relatedness: transferring of core
competencies 170
Market power 171

Strategic focus: Alphabet’s evolution through
diversification 172
Simultaneous operational relatedness and corporate
relatedness 174

Unrelated diversification 174
Efficient internal capital market allocation 174
Restructuring of assets 176

Value-neutral diversification: incentives and
resources 176
Incentives to diversify 177
Resources and diversification 178

Value-reducing diversification: managerial motives
to diversify 179

STUDY TOOLS 182

7 Acquisition and restructuring strategies 189

Opening case study: Strategic acquisitions and a people-
focused integration of those acquisitions are vital
capabilities of Atlassian 190

The popularity of merger and acquisition
strategies 192
Mergers, acquisitions and takeovers: what are the
differences? 192

Reasons for acquisitions 193
Increased market power 193
Overcoming entry barriers 195

Strategic focus: Cross-border acquisitions by
organisations from emerging economies:
leveraging resources to gain a larger global footprint and
market power 196
Cost of new product development and increased speed
to market 198
Lower risk compared to developing new products 199
Increased diversification 199
Reshaping the organisation’s competitive scope 200
Learning and developing new capabilities 200

Problems in achieving acquisition success 201
Integration difficulties 201
Inadequate evaluation of target 202
Large or extraordinary debt 203
Inability to achieve synergy or harvest benefits 203
Too much diversification 204
Managers overly focused on acquisitions 205
Too large 205

Effective acquisitions 206

Restructuring 208
Downsizing 208
Downscoping 209
Leveraged buyouts 209
Restructuring outcomes 209

STUDY TOOLS 211

viii CONTENTS

8 International strategy 218

Opening case study: An international strategy powers
ABB’s future 219

Identifying international opportunities 221
Incentives to use international strategy 221
Three basic benefits of international strategy 222

International strategy types 224
International business-level strategy 225
International corporate-level strategy 227

Environmental trends 230
Liability of foreignness 230
Regionalisation 231

Choice of international entry mode 232
Exporting 232
Licensing 233
Strategic alliances 234
Acquisitions 235
New wholly owned subsidiaries 236
Dynamics of mode of entry 236

Strategic focus: Mondelez International: a global leader in
snack foods 237

Risks in an international environment 238
Political risks 238
Economic risks 239

The challenge of international strategies 240
Managing international strategies: size and complexity 240
Limits to international expansion 241

Strategic focus: Mexico’s FEMSA: building its international
prowess 241

Strategic competitiveness outcomes 242
International diversification and returns 242
Enhanced innovation 243

STUDY TOOLS 244

9 Cooperative strategy 252

Opening case study: Global cars, with a twist 253

Strategic alliances as a primary type of
cooperative strategy 254

Types of major strategic alliances 255

Strategic focus: Samsung Electric is using diversifying
alliances to reduce its dependence on Google’s Android
operating system 256
Reasons organisations develop strategic alliances 258

Strategic focus: Industrial clusters: geographic centres
for collaborative partnering 260

Competition-reducing strategy 263

Business-level cooperative strategy 263
Complementary strategic alliances 264
Competition response strategy 266
Uncertainty-reducing strategy 266
Assessing business-level cooperative strategies 266

Corporate-level cooperative strategy 267
Diversifying strategic alliance 267
Synergistic strategic alliance 268
Franchising 268
Assessing corporate-level cooperative strategies 269

International cooperative strategy 269

Network cooperative strategy 270
Alliance network types 271

Competitive risks with cooperative strategies 272

Managing cooperative strategies 273

STUDY TOOLS 275

3 PART 3 STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY
IMPLEMENTATION 283

10 Corporate governance 284

Opening case study: General Electric’s complex
diversification strategy makes evaluation difficult for
board directors 285

Separation of ownership and managerial control 288
Agency relationships 288
Product diversification as an example of an
agency problem 290
Agency costs and governance mechanisms 291

ixCONTENTS

Ownership concentration 292
Ownership structures of companies in Australia 293
The increasing influence of institutional owners 293

Board of directors 293
Board of directors process 296
Enhancing the effectiveness of the board of directors 297
Executive compensation 298
The effectiveness of executive compensation 299

Strategic focus: Has more governance scrutiny made
large CEO compensation packages more reasonable? 300

Market for corporate control 301

International corporate governance 302
Corporate governance in Australia 302
Corporate governance in Germany and Japan 306
Corporate governance in China 307
Corporate governance in Spain 308

Governance mechanisms and ethical behaviour 308
Strategic focus: Rewarding top executives of one of the
most poorly governed banks in the world: Westpac 309
Corporate governance and organisation performance 311
Corporate social responsibility 311

STUDY TOOLS 313

11 Organisational structure and controls 321

Opening case study: Changing McDonald’s organisational
structure and controls: a path to improved performance 322

Organisational structure and controls 323
Organisational structure 324
Organisational controls 325

Relationships between strategy and structure 326

Evolutionary patterns of strategy and
organisational structure 327
Simple structure 328
Functional structure 328
Multi-divisional structure 328
Matches between business-level strategies and the
functional structure 329

Matches between corporate-level strategies and the
multi-divisional structure 332

Strategic focus: Globalisation and beer 333

Strategic focus: General Electric’s decline, new strategy
and reorganisation 339
Matches between international strategies and
worldwide structure 340
Matches between cooperative strategies and network
structures 344

Implementing business-level cooperative
strategies 345

Implementing corporate-level cooperative
strategies 346

Implementing international cooperative
strategies 347

STUDY TOOLS 348

12 Strategic leadership 355

Opening case study: Meg Whitman: a pioneering strategic
leader 356

Strategic leadership and style 358

The role of executive managers 360
Executive management teams 361

Managerial succession 363
Strategic focus: Women in leadership 365

Key strategic leadership actions 366
Determining strategic direction 366
Effectively managing the organisation’s resource
portfolio 368
Sustaining an effective organisational culture 370

Strategic focus: Organisational culture: is it really that
important? 372
Emphasising ethical practices 373
Leadership and corporate social responsibility 374
Establishing balanced organisational controls 375

STUDY TOOLS 378

x CONTENTS

13 Strategic entrepreneurship 386

Opening case study: Today it is gas and diesel: tomorrow
it is likely to be electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, and
driverless cars and trucks 387

Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial
opportunities 389

Innovation 389
Product innovation 391

Entrepreneurs 391

International entrepreneurship 392

Internal innovation 393
Incremental and radical innovation 393

Implementing internal innovations 394
Cross-functional product development teams 395
Facilitating integration and innovation 396
Creating value from internal innovation 396

Innovation through cooperative strategies 397
Strategic focus: Social networking websites facilitate
innovation: application software innovation 398

Innovation through acquisitions 399
Strategic focus: Will these acquisitions lead to innovation
success or to strategic failure? 400

Creating value through strategic
entrepreneurship 401

STUDY TOOLS 403

4 PART 4 CASE STUDIES 411
Introduction: A summary of the case analysis process 412

Case 1: JB Hi-Fi Ltd acquisition of The Good Guys 415

Case 2: Challenges at Australia Post 426

Case 3: Nyrstar NV: a case study in a failed vertical
integration strategy 432

Case 4: Pfizer 442

Case 5: Atlassian 454

Case 6: The Sunshine Coast UNESCO Biosphere
Reserve and Smart City: a new governance
opportunity in a post-pandemic world? 458

Case 7: CrossFit at the crossroads 465

Case 8: The movie exhibition industry: 2018
and beyond 482

Case 9: Pacific Drilling: the preferred offshore driller 506

Case 10: The trivago way – growing
without growing up? 522

Case 11: The Volkswagen emissions scandal 539

Case 12: Otis in the global elevator industry 549

Case 13: Dick Smith: the fall of an Aussie icon 555

GLOSSARY 566
NAME INDEX 572
SUBJECT INDEX 580

xiCONTENTS

xii

Strategic management and strategic
competitiveness

CH
AP

TE
R

1
Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge
needed to:
LO1 analyse the components of the strategic management process
LO2 describe the competitive landscape and explain how globalisation and

technological changes shape it
LO3 use the industrial organisation (I/O) model to explain how companies can earn

above-average returns
LO4 use the resource-based model to explain how companies can earn above-

average returns
LO5 describe vision and mission and discuss their value
LO6 define and classify the four major stakeholder groups and describe their ability

to influence organisations
LO7 describe the work of strategic leaders.

Learning Objectives

2

BK-CLA-HANSON_7E-210018-Chp01.indd 2 08/02/21 12:49 PM

McDonald’s in Australia is part of a global empire of fast-
food restaurants. McDonald’s has achieved substantial
international success over the years, with its restaurants
spread widely throughout the world. Brand recognition
is huge: many people know about, and are customers
of, McDonald’s. For example, a recent survey found that
88 per cent of people recognise the golden arches and
associate them with McDonald’s. Each day, about 69
million people eat at a McDonald’s store, which equates

to almost 0.8 per cent of the world’s population. In 2018,
McDonald’s had 37 855 total restaurants globally located
in 120 different countries and 14 155 stores in the US
alone. China has 2223 stores compared with Japan 2975,
the UK 1261, Canada 1443 and Australia 920. Globally,
McDonald’s hires 1.9 million employees, and it hires
approximately one million employees per year in the
USA. In 2018, its annual revenue was $21 billion and its
net income was $5.9 billion.

McDonald’s: Restaurant expansion since 1955.

Source: https://mcdonalds.com.au/about-maccas/maccas-story.

Given that McDonald’s includes a toy in about 20
per cent of its sales, it is considered the world’s largest
distributor of toys. Each year, McDonald’s distributes
1.5 billion toys globally, which is more than Mattel
and Hasbro. McDonald’s decided early to move into
international markets, and now one can find the golden
arches in far-flung locations around the globe.

In Australia, ‘Maccas’ (the locals’ name for the
organisation) is thriving, with flexible offerings, ‘gourmet
coffee’ and fresh-food bars. These have been successful
moves. The UK arm has also been responsive to
consumer demand; for example, it accommodates
consumers who ask what goes into their food, providing
information to staff that allows them to respond, and it
promotes jobs in the chain as upwardly mobile.

China is a promising arena but there are continuing
pressures there, with high levels of rivalry from KFC.
There are now over 2000 McDonald’s outlets in China,
which is approximately one-third the number of KFC
outlets. KFC has around 5919 stores and is presently
considered the most popular fast-food chain in China.

In India, where historically the brand was relatively
small with only 400 stores compared with China, Japan
and Australia, McDonald’s turned a corner when it
announced in May 2019 that it had finally acquired full
ownership of Connaught Plaza Restaurants. This entity
had run the global giant’s operations in north and east
India – from its long-estranged business partner Vikram
Bakshi. The association between Bakshi and McDonald’s
commenced in 1995 when, under a 25-year deal, the

McDonald’s and brand recognition

OPENING CASE STUDY

N
u

m
b

er
o

f
re

st
au

ra
n

ts

0

5000

10 000

15 000

20 000

25 000

30 000

35 000

40 000

1000

1968

45 000

2000

1972

5000

1978 1986

25 000

1999

38 000

2020

9000

CHAPTER 1
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIC COMPETITIVENESS

3

BK-CLA-HANSON_7E-210018-Chp01.indd 3 2/8/21 7:23 PM

Definitions or
explanations of
important key terms are
located in the margin
for quick reference.

Guide to the text
As you read this text you will find a number of features in every

chapter to enhance your study of strategic management and help
you understand how the theory is applied in the real world.

CHAPTER-OPENING FEATURES

Knowledge objectives
Identify the key concepts
that the chapter will cover
with the learning objectives
that start each chapter.

Opening Case study
Gain an insight into how
strategic management
theories relate to the real
world through the case
study at the beginning of
each chapter.

1

2
1

2

FEATURES WITHIN CHAPTERS

As we can see from t he open ing case, McDonald’s organ isations in Aust ralia, t he U K,
Ch ina, Ind ia, Japan and t he USA a re all in d i fferent compet it ive posit ions. Therefore,
we can conclude that they are not equally competitive (i.e. they are unable to achieve
similar strategic competitiveness). In the USA, the organisation is now using the strategic
management process (see Figure 1.1) as the foundation for changes to the commitments,
decisions and actions it undertook to pursue strategic competitiveness and above-average
terms. It may well succeed, given time.1

The strategic management process
As explained in the opening case, McDonald’s is trying to enrich its traditional approach
globally with more marketing and by making its stores more responsive to local consumers’
needs. A study conducted to identify the factors that contribute to the success of top corporate
performers shows why the organisation is doing this. This study found that the top performers
were entrepreneurial, were market oriented (possessing effective knowledge of the customers’
needs), used valuable competencies and offered innovative products and services.2

The t y pes of behav iou rs ex h ibited by top per for mers l i ke McDona ld’s represent a
strategic management process (see Fig u re 1.1), wh ich is a f u l l set of com m it ments,
decisions and actions required for an organisation to achieve strategic competitiveness
and earn above-average returns. The organisation’s first step in the process is to analyse
its external environment and internal organisation to determine its resources, capabilities
and core competencies – the sources of its ‘strategic inputs’. We will now analyse each of
the different components of the strategic management process.

Strategic competitiveness is achieved when an organisation successfully formulates
and implements a value-creating strategy. A strategy is an integrated and coordinated set
of commitments and actions designed to exploit core competencies and gain a competitive
adva ntage. W hen choosi ng a st rateg y, orga n isat ions ma ke choices a mong compet i ng
alternatives as the pathway for deciding how they will pursue strategic competitiveness. 3

In this sense, the chosen strateg y indicates what the organisation will do as well as
what the organisation will not do. A n organisation’s strateg y also demonstrates how it
differs from its competitors.

strategic management
process
the full set of commitments,
decisions and actions
required for an organisation
to achieve strategic
competitiveness and earn
above-average returns

strategic competitiveness
achieved when an
organisation successfully
formulates and implements a
value-creating strategy

strategy
an integrated and coordinated
set of commitments and
actions designed to exploit
core competencies and gain a
competitive advantage

two partners formed a 50:50 joint venture company –
Connaught Plaza Restaurant – to set up outlets in the
north and the east under the franchisee model. To date,
McDonald’s has two business entities in India. Amit Jatia’s
Hardcastle Restaurants runs the McDonald’s business
in southern and western India. McDonald’s India is
committed to sourcing almost all of its products from
within the country. For this purpose, it has developed
local Indian businesses, which can supply the highest-
quality products required for its Indian operations.

The McDonald’s empire is obviously difficult to control
and constantly presents country-specific challenges.
Clever strategy is important for its continued survival and,

for the company, hopefully, its growth post the Covid-19
pandemic.

Sources: C. Smith, 2020, 50 interesting McDonald’s statistics and facts
2020, DMR Business Statistics, https://expandedramblings.com/index.php/

mcdonalds-statistics, 28 May; R. Darling, 2019, Thanks to the Happy Meal,
McDonald’s is the largest toy manufacturer, http://www.considerable.com,

6 November; 2019, KFC is most popular food chain in China, http://www.
businessinsider.com, 8 March; The Economic Times, 2019, Vikram Bakshi is

finally out, and McDonald’s India is lovin’ it, ET Online, https://economictimes.
indiatimes.com/industry/services/hotels-/-restaurants/vikram-bakshi-is-

finally-out-and-mcdonalds-india-is-lovin-it/articleshow/69309704.cms?utm_
source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst, 14 May; T.

DiChristopher, 2015, McDonald’s new CEO faces many problems, CNBC, http://
www.cnbc.com/2015/01/29/how-mcdonalds-new-ceo-can-turn-around-the-

company.html, 29 January; FT Reporters, 2015, McDonald’s and its challenges
worldwide: A market-by-market look, Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/intl/

cms/s/0/f8ac22fc-a7c1-11e4-8e78-00144feab7de.html#slide0, 29 January.

4 PART 1: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS

BK-CLA-HANSON_7E-210018-Chp01.indd 4 08/02/21 12:49 PM

KEY TERMS WITH MARGIN DEFINITIONS

Examine the ways in which key concepts are applied in
a business context, using real situations and familiar
local and international companies. The Strategic Focus
boxes are categorised to emphasise the focus: general,
ethics, technology, sustainability and globalisation.

STRATEGIC FOCUS BOXES

Strategy Now margin

Marketing homework help

Sample Case: A Domestic Garment Company

You are on the management team of a rapidly growing, privately-held apparel company that had
$80 million in sales last year and is projecting $150 million for next year. The company’s
operations are entirely U.S.-based, an anomaly in an industry that has moved almost all
manufacturing to foreign countries in search of cheap labor. Your company has succeeded by
targeting a niche market that will pay more for fashionable styles, making the speed and flexibility
of operations more important than the price. Your company is also unique in its employee
policies. Poor working conditions are common at many apparel factories in the U.S. and abroad,
and the industry is besieged by public criticism of labor practices. Yet a fundamental tenet of your
company is the belief that apparel manufacturing should be profitable without exploiting workers.
Management has worked hard since the company’s inception to treat employees as well as
possible, and it has developed a reputation for these efforts.

This summer your team found the company could not keep pace with orders. You added a second
shifty and hired 1,000 new sewers to staff it, bringing the total number of sewers to 3,000. During
the summer months, all employees worked full-time (eight-hour shifts, five per week) and often
overtime to meet sales needs and replenish dwindling inventories.

The date is September 1 and it has become clear that the company’s inventory is growing too
large. Sales across the industry are usually slow during the winter months, and you know the
company must slow its production. Each of the 3,000 sewers assembles an average of 20 dozen
pieces per day. Based on projected orders and the maximum inventory you can afford to carry,
production cannot exceed 4,000,000 dozen pieces between October 1 and April 1. Therefore, you
must determine how to reduce your actual production over that six-month period to only two-
thirds of full capacity. Wages for sewers are not based on the number of pieces they sew. The
efficiency of production at your company is partly responsible for the high wages workers earn.

Typical industry practice in the U.S. and abroad is to lay-off excess labor for the winter season,
with no severance pay or other assistance and no promise of rehire. Many of your sewers have
lost their jobs elsewhere during the slow season for several years. However, if your company
made such a move it would contradict the company’s philosophy regarding the treatment of
employees as valued partners. Laying workers off seems like it would be a significant defeat in
this respect, with possible repercussions in employee motivation and public relations. Also, your
team has invested several thousand dollars in training each employee, and you are concerned that
new sewers may not be skilled enough to meet the steep climb in orders anticipated in the spring.
If workers are laid off, there is no guarantee that you will be able to rehire the same people in the
spring. However, the company cannot afford to pay workers to do nothing for six months, and
many workers will likely return to the company if they fail to match your wages or working
conditions elsewhere.

1

Assume you are the manager that must address the company’s excess labor problem during the
upcoming period of slow sales (i.e., you are the decision-maker). What would you do now? Keep
in mind, there is no union and there are no other specific policies or agreements that mandate the
basis (e.g., seniority) for prioritizing which sewers might be affected by your decision. Analyze
and format your analysis according to the case instructions given in class.

Sample Answer

Step 1: Ethical Issue(s)
One ethical issue in this case is compliance with the Worker Adjustment and Retraining
Notification Act (WARN). As discussed in Chapter 8, WARN protects workers, their families,
and communities by requiring employers to provide notification 60 calendar days in advance of
plant closings and mass layoffs. A covered mass layoff occurs when 50 to 499 employees are
affected during any 30-day period at a single employment site, if these employees represent at
least 33 percent of the employer’s workforce where the layoff will occur, and the layoff results in
an employment loss for more than six months. If the layoff affects 500 or more workers, the 33
percent rule does not apply. It is now September 1 and it has become clear that the company’s
inventory is growing too large. I presently employ 3000 sewers and must reduce the capacity by
two-thirds during the months of October – March. If I choose to reduce the overcapacity by
laying off a proportionate number of sewers, this would result in approximately 1000 sewers
temporarily losing their job. Since this would qualify as a mass layoff under WARN, the earliest I
could provide the minimum 60 day’s notice and then layoff 1000 sewers would be November 1.
Therefore, I must consider the requirements of WARN when making my decisions.

Another ethical issue in this case concerns the ethical process of dismissing employees through
layoffs. Also in Chapter 8, the authors state that before dismissing an employee, management
should follow a rational and unbiased decision-making process and analyze carefully the reasons
leading to that decision. The organization must ask itself whether its treatment of the employee
follows the appropriate procedures for that type of discharge. In addition, the company must
guard against preferential treatment. Although I am contemplating reducing the company’s
overcapacity through layoffs, I must carefully analyze the situation keeping in mind that one of the
fundamental tenets of my company is the belief that apparel manufacturing should be profitable
without exploiting workers. Management has worked hard since the company’s inception to treat
employees as well as possible, and it has developed a good reputation for these efforts. Therefore,
as an ethical manager I need to carefully analyze the situation taking into account the effects of
my decision to solve the excess capacity problem on the key stakeholders while making sure my
decision solves the problem.

Step 2: Key Stakeholder Analysis
Manager/Decision Maker (Me)
1. I hope to find a way to effectively reduce production capacity to only two-thirds of full

capacity for the months of October through March.

2

2. I hope to maintain as much speed and flexibility of operations as possible since this is of vital
importance to our organization.

3. I hope to uphold one of my company’s fundamental beliefs of being profitable without
exploiting workers.

4. I am concerned that new sewers may not be skilled enough to meet the steep climb in orders
anticipated in the spring.

5. I fear a poor decision will demotivate my present employees.
6. I fear a poor decision will result in negative public relations for our company.
7. I want to make a decision that shows my superiors that I am a capable manager.

Sewers
8. They fear losing their job and having no income from October through March.
9. If they do not lose their job, they fear having their wages reduced since production must be

cut and they are paid on a piece rate basis.

Shareholders/Owners
10. They hope to maximize the return on their investment which usually translates into increased

profits.

Company
11. It hopes to maintain its level of profitability (it cannot afford to pay workers to do nothing

for six months).
12. It does not want to exploit workers.

Customers
13. They desire quality, fashionable clothing.

Community
14. Local businesses fear losing business due to the loss of income of laid-off workers or the

reduced income of all workers if there is no layoff.

Step 3: Decision(s) and Analysis
Decision(s):
Decision #1: I would gather the 3000 sewers together in a meeting and tell them of the need to
reduce capacity to only two-thirds of full capacity for six months. I would then tell them that each
sewer’s pay will be reduced up to one-third in amount for the six-month period. I would also tell
the sewers that if any person cannot take such a drastic cut in pay, those persons will be laid-off
and 60 days thereby qualifying for state unemployment benefits. I would also tell those sewers
who chose to be laid-off that they would have hiring preference when sales increased after the
slow winter months. (Note the amount of reduced pay for the remaining sewers would depend on
how many sewers chose to be laid-off thereby increasing the work for those who chose to remain,
and the cost savings generated by Decision #2 below.)

3

Decision #2: I would gather managers and administrative personnel whom I had authority over an
offer them the same deal as the sewers: they could either be laid-off with the ability to draw state
unemployment benefits or continue working at a reduced pay level which would depend on how
much cost savings are generated by this decision and Decisions #1 and #3. Any manager or
administrative personnel who chose to be laid-off would also have hiring preference when sales
increased after the slow winter months.

Decision #3: I would tell each group of employees at their respective meetings that I plan on
continuing to work for the company at up to one-third less pay for the six-month time period.

How These Decisions Resolve the Ethical Issue: The ethical issues dealt with complying with the
WARN Act and how I should address my company’s excess labor problem during the upcoming
period of slow sales. By asking employees to work at one-third less pay, I avoid laying off those
employees and the violating the WARN Act. Those employees who do choose to be laid-off will
be given 60 days notice before the layoff becomes effective which also complies with the WARN
Act. Finally, by giving employees the choice of continuing to work at reduced pay, I am using
layoffs as a last resort. By asking all employees of the organization, including myself, to work at
reduced pay instead of just the sewers, I am treating all workers fairly.

Nonconsequentialist Analysis of Decisions
Integrity: Consistency between our stated values and behavior; demonstrating the courage to do
the right thing regardless of the costs (a.k.a. moral courage). All of my decisions show that I
acted with integrity, but especially Decision #3. By voluntarily taking a pay cut along with the
other employees, my behavior is consistent with the stated values of my company even though
this will cost me a significant amount of money. I am doing the right thing even though it is going
to cost me up to one-third of my salary.

Autonomy: Exercise authority in a way that provides others with information they need. Decisions
#1 and #2 show that I have provided others with the information they need to make an informed
decision. In Decision #1, I explained the need to reduce production costs to the sewers and gave
them the option of being laid off or working at a reduced rate. Similarly, in Decision #2, I
explained the same situation and gave the same options to my managers and administrative
personnel.

Loyalty: A special moral responsibility to promote and protect the interests of certain people,
organizations, etc. In this situation, I have a moral responsibility to all of my key stakeholders to
protect their interests the best I can given the situation. Decisions #1, #2, and #3 financially hurt
the sewers, managers, administrative personnel, and myself, but this harm is spread evenly over all
of these stakeholders instead of just one stakeholder.

Impartiality: Rules are applied equally among every human being involved or affected—no matter
who the human being is—or what his or her relationship is with the person administering the
rules. Again, Decisions #1, #2, and #3 spread evenly the financial harm to the sewers, managers,

4

administrative personnel, and myself. I could have simply allowed the sewers to bear the brunt of
the cutbacks, but that would violate my company “rule” not to exploit workers thereby also
violating the impartiality subcharacteristic.

Consequentialist Analysis of Decisions
Costs:
2. Some speed and flexibility will be lost to the extent that sewers choose to be laid-off under

Decision #1.
5. All three of my decisions will cause a reduction in employee pay, no matter what option is

chosen, which will have some demotivating effect.
9. Sewers who choose to stay based on Decision #1 will have their wages reduced.
14. All three of my decisions will reduce total employee income thereby harming local

businesses.
Decision #2: Managers and administrative personnel will also have their income reduced up to

one-third or be laid-off.
Decision #3: I will have my income reduced by up to one-third.

Benefits:
1. All three of my decisions effectively reduce production capacity to only two-thirds of full

capacity for the months of October through March.
2. Most of the speed and flexibility will be retained because I feel that most workers will choose

the option of reduced pay over being laid off in Decision #1.
3. All three of my decisions uphold one of my company’s fundamental beliefs of being profitable

without exploiting workers.
4. In Decisions #1 and #2, I believe most of my present workers will choose the option of

reduced pay over being laid off therefore requiring the hiring of few new workers in the
spring.

6. I believe my three innovative decisions where I treated sewers, management, and myself the
same will garner positive public relations for our company.

7. Although somewhat risky, I feel my three innovative decisions will more than show my
superiors that I am a capable manager.

8. Since Decision #1 gives sewers the option of keeping their job or being laid off, they will get
to keep their job if they want it.

10. All three of my decisions maintain current company profitability thereby allowing
shareholders to continue to maximize the return on their investment.

11. All three of my decisions allow the company to retain its level of profitability since
production capacity will be reduced by one-third.

12. None of my decisions exploit the workers.
13. Since I believe most sewers will elect to keep their job under Decision #1, we will retain most

of our quality sewers thereby allowing us to continue to meet customer needs for quality,
fashionable clothing.

Decisions #1 and #2: Since laid-off employees will be given re-hiring preference after the
slowdown, we will be able to rehire mostly former employees who have already been trained

5

and know the company. This policy should help maintain morale and productivity both in the
short-term and long-term.

Decision #3: Since I am willing to reduce my pay along with my coworkers, I believe they will
view me in a more favorable light leading to enhanced team cohesiveness and higher job
satisfaction.

Analysis:
The benefits clearly outweigh the costs in this situation. Although our company will lose some
flexibility and motivation of our workforce during the downturn, this is far less than if the sewers
were simply laid off. In return, our company will be able to remain profitable without exploiting
workers, maintain most of its flexibility, maintain a highly skilled and motivated workforce over
the long-term, and meet our customer and community demands and obligations.

6

Marketing homework help

Today’s learning objectives

· Understanding the competitors and competitive behaviour

· Define, describe and analyse competitive behaviour

· Understand how to use models to analyse competitive behaviour and interactions

Agenda

· Competitors

· AMC

· Break

· Competitive dynamics

· Competitive blind spots

Competition

· Industry vs strategic group vs firm

· Industry

· Nr of firms

· Concentration

· Strategic groups

· Who are the relevant firms in the industry?

· Firm

· Who are competitors?

· How to compete?

The roots of competitive strategy

The classics

Some managerial takes

Competitors

• Competitors: Firms operating in the same market, offering similar products and targeting similar customers

Easton, G. (1988). Competition and marketing strategy.

European Journal of Marketing,

Clark, BH. & Montgomery DB (1999). Journal of Marketing, 63, Page 72. Managerial Identification of Competitors. 22(2), Page 33.

Competitor analysis

· Same markets

· Market focus vs industry focus

· Market overlap and importance • Similar resources

· In terms of types and amounts

AMC framework

(Cap)ability

· Awareness

· Does the competitor know you are there?

· Motivation

Motivation

· Does the competitor have a reason to respond to your actions?

· Capabilities

· Does the competitor have the means to respond to your actions?

Awareness

3

3

Action types and characteristics

12

12

· Timing

· First, second, late

· Frequency

· Speed

· Type

· Strategic

· R&D

· Market entry (product/geo)

· Alliances

· Acquisitions

· Tactical

· Pricing

· Advertising

· Product

· Quality

Model of competitive dynamics

Market

commonality

Resource

similarity

Competitors

Awareness

Motivation

Capability

Drivers of

behaviour

Likelihood and

type of attack

Likelihood and

type of

response

Rivalry

Market

position

Performance

Outcomes

Competitive blind spots

Competitive

Blind Spots

Misjudging

industry

boundaries

Poor

identification of

the competition

Overemphasis

on competitors’

visible

competence

Overemphasis

on where, not

how

Faulty

assumptions

about the

competition

Paralysis by

analysis

Next week

· The internal organisation

· Required reading: Chapter 3

· Required reading: Competing on Resources

· Don’t forget you preparation (poste one comment).

Marketing homework help

Data Collection Make-Up – Organizational Behavior (Spring 2022)

Congratulations!! You have been asked to give a TED TALK. What an incredible honor. Your TED TALK must focus on our class and what you may have learned through your participation. Write your TED TALK as you would give it in front of a very interested audience. Use the two pages to write out your speech. It is expected that you will use most of the space requested (hint!!!). Use 12-point Times Roman, 1.5 line spacing.


WRITE IT WELL
, and don’t mess with the TEMPLATE. DUE:
April 22nd, 2022 (Friday) by 12:00 (NOON).





Continue Below

Continue Below

Marketing homework help

Dr Pepper Snapple
Group, Inc.
Energy Beverages

In early September 2007, Andrew Barker emerged from a lengthy discussion
on the energy beverage market in the United States. As a brand manager for
Snapple beverages at the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc., he was charged with
assessing whether or not a profitable market opportunity existed for a new en­
ergy beverage brand to be produced, marketed, and distributed by the company
in 2008. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. was the only major domestic nonal­
coholic beverage company in the United States without a significant branded
energy drink of its own.

Energy beverages are broadly defined as drinks that provide a consumer
with a boost of energy. The central ingredient in most energy beverages is caf­
feine derived from the guarana bean. Other common ingredients include tau­
rine, ginseng, carnitine, and B vitamins. Energy drinks are considered functional
beverages. Other functional beverages include sports drinks, ready-to-drink tea,
enhanced fruit drinks, soy beverages, and enhanced water.

The decision to explore a new energy beverage was made by senior com­
pany management as part of a cOt”porate business strategy to focus on oppor­
tunities in high-growth and high-margin beverage businesses. As part of this
strategy, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. launched the Accelerade RTD brand, a
ready-to-drink sports drink, in late May 2007. Barker believed that the decision
to introduce the Accelerade RTD brand into a new beverage market for the com­
pany (sports drinks) was similar to the situation he faced with recommending
whether or not Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. should introduce a new branded
product into the energy beverage market.

The cooperation of Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. in the preparation of this case is grate-
fully acknowledged. This case was prepared by Professor Roger A. Kerin, of the Cox School of
Business, Southern Methodist University, as a basis for class discussion and is not designed to
illustrate effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Certain case information
is disguised and not useful for research purposes. All financial, market, and other information is
through 2007, unless otherwise noted. Brand names of D r Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. are regis­
tered trademarks and used with permission. Copyright © 2009 by Roger A. Kerin. No part of this
case may be reproduced without written permission of the copyright holder.

92 CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC.

Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. is a major integrated brand owner, bottler, and
distributor of nonalcoholic beverages in the United States, Mexico, and Canada.
In 2007, the company posted net sales of $5.748 billion. Eighty-nine percent of
company net sales were generated in the United States, 4 percent in Canada, and
7 percent in Mexico and the Caribbean.

Scope of Company Operations

In the United States and Canada, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. participated
primarily in the flavored carbonated soft drink (CSD) market segment. The com­
pany’s key brands are Dr Pepper, 7UP, Sunkist, A&W, and Canada Dry. The com­
pany also sells regional and smaller niche brands. In the CSD market segment,
the company is primarily a manufacturer of beverage concentrates and fountain
syrups. Beverage concentrates are highly concentrated proprietary flavors used
to make syrup or finished beverages. The company manufactures beverage con­
centrates that are used by its own bottling operations as well as sold to third­
party bottling companies. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. had an 18.8 percent
share of the U.S. CSD market segment in 2007 (measured by retail sales), which
increased from 18.5 percent in 2006 according to ACNielsen. The company also
manufactures fountain syrup that is sold to the foodservice industry directly,
through bottlers or through third parties.

In the non-CSD market segment in the United States, Dr Pepper Snapple
Group, Inc. participated primarily in the ready-to-drink tea, juice, juice drinks,
and mixer categories. The company’s key non-CSD brands are Snapple, Mott’s,
Hawaiian Punch, and Clamato, in addition to regional and smaller niche brands.
The company manufactures most of the non-CSDs as ready-to-drink beverages
and distributes them through its own distribution network and through third
parties or direct to customers’ warehouses. In addition to non-CSD beverages,
the company manufactures Mott’s apple sauce as a finished product. Exhibit 1
displays representative company-owned brands in the United States.

Source: Courtesy of Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc.

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC. 93

In Mexico and the Caribbean, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. participated pri­
marily in the carbonated mineral water, flavored CSD, bottled water, and vegetable
juice categories. Its key brands in Mexico include Pefiafiel, Squirt, Clamato, and
Aguafiel. In Mexico, the company manufactures and sells its own brands through
both its own bottling operations and third-party bottlers. In the Caribbean, the com­
pany distributes its products solely through third-party distributors and bottlers.

Company Strengths

Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. senior executives have identified seven key
strengths that the company brings to the marketplace. Each is summarized below.

Strong Portfolio of Leading, Consumer-Preferred Brands Dr Pepper
Snapple Group, Inc. owns a diverse portfolio of well-known CSD and non-CSD
brands. Many brands enjoy high levels of consumer awareness, preference, and
loyalty rooted in their rich heritage, which drive. their market positions. This
diverse portfolio provides bottlers, distributors, and retailers with a wide variety
of products and provides a foundation for growth and profitability. The com­
pany is the number one flavored CSD company in the United States according to
ACNielsen. In addition, it is the only major beverage concentrate manufacturer
with year-over-year market share growth in the CSD market segment in each
of the last four years ended 2007, according to ACNielsen. Its largest brand,
Dr Pepper, is the number two flavored CSD in the United States, according to
ACNielsen, and the Snapple brand is a leading ready-to-drink tea. Overall, in
2007, more than 75 percent of Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. volume was gen­
erated by brands that hold either the first or second position in their category.
The strength of these key brands has served as a platform for launching innova­
tions and brand extensions such as Dr Pepper Soda Fountain Classics, Motts for
Tots, and Snapple Antioxidant Waters.

Integrated Business Model Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. management be­
lieves its brand ownership, bottling, and distribution are more integrated than the
U.S. operations of its principal competitors and that this differentiation provides
the company with a competitive advantage. The company’s integrated business
model also provides opportunities for net sales and profit growth through the
alignment of the economic interests of its brand ownership and its bottling and
distribution businesses.

Strong Customer Relationships Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. brands have
long-standing relationships with many of its top customers. Company products are
sold to a wide range of customers, from bottlers and distributors to national retail­
ers, large foodservice, and convenience store customers. The company has strong
relationships with some of the largest bottlers and distributors, including those af­
filiated with Coca-Cola and PepsiCo; some of the largest and most important U.S.
retailers, including Walmart, Safeway, Kroger, and Target; some of the largest food­
service customers, including McDonald’s, Yum! Brands (KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell,
Long John Silver’s, and A&W All-American Food), and Burger King; and conve­
nience store customers, including 7-Eleven.

Attractive Positioning Within a Large, Growing, and Profitable Market
Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. holds the number three position in each of the
United States, Canada, and Mexico beverage markets. Each of these markets is
well positioned to benefit from emerging consumer trends such as the need for
convenience and the demand for products with health and wellness benefits. In

94 CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNI1Y ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

addition, the company participates in many of the growing categories in the liquid
refreshment beverage market, such as ready-to-drink teas. The company does not
participate significantly in colas, which have declined in CSD volume share from
70.0 percent in 1991 to 57.4 percent in 2006 in the United States, according to Bever­
age Digest, a major trade publication. Nor does the company participate significantly
in the bottled water market segment, which is a highly competitive and generally
low-margin market segment. Following its acquisition by Coca-Cola, Energy Brands,
Inc. terminated its distribution agreement with the company on August 30, 2007, for
Glaceau brand products, including vitamin water, fruit water, and smart water.

Broad Geographic Manufacturing and Distribution Coverage Dr Pepper
Snapple Group, Inc. has 21 manufacturing facilities and approximately
200 distribution centers in the United States, as well as four manufacturing pro­
cesses. Company warehouses are located at or near bottling plants and geograph­
ically dispersed across sales regions to ensure company products are available to
meet consumer demand. The company manages transportation of its products
using its own fleet of delivery trucks, as well as third-party logistics providers
on a selected basis. Following recent bottling acquisitions and manufacturing in­
vestment, the company has broad geographic coverage with strategically located
manufacturing and distribution capabilities, enabling it to better align its opera­
tions with customers, reduce transportation costs, and have greater control over
the timing and coordination of new product launches.

Strong Operating Margins and Significant, Stable Cash Flows The breadth
and strength of the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. product portfolio have en­
abled the company to generate strong operating margins which, combined with
relatively modest capital expenditures, have delivered significant and stable cash
flows. These cash flows create stockholder value by enabling the company to
consider a variety of alternatives, such as investing in its business, reducing debt,
and returning capital to its stockholders.

Experienced Executive Management Team The Dr Pepper Snapple Group,
Inc. executive management team has an average of more than 20 years of experi­
ence in the food and beverage industry. The team has broad experience in brand
ownership, bottling, and distribution, and enjoys strong relationships both within
the industry and with major customers. In addition, the management team has
diverse skills that support operating strategies, including driving organic growth
through targeted and efficient marketing, reducing operating costs, enhancing
distribution efficiencies, aligning manufacturing and bottling and distribution in­
terests, and executing strategic acquisitions.

Company Business Strategy

There are six key elements of the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. business strategy
as described by executive management. Each capitalizes on company strengths.

Build and Enhance Leading Brands Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. has a
well-defined strategy to allocate marketing and sales resources. The company
uses an ongoing process of market and consumer analysis to identify key brands
that have the greatest potential for profitable sales growth. For example, in 2006
and 2007, the Snapple product portfolio was enhanced by launching brand exten­
sions with functional benefits, such as super premium teas and juice drinks and
Snapple Antioxidant Waters. Also, in 2006, 7UP was relaunched with 100 percent
natural flavors and no artificial preservatives, thereby differentiating the 7UP

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC. 95

brand from other major lemon-lime CSDs. The company intends to invest most
heavily in its key brands to drive profitable and sustainable growth by strength­
ening consumer awareness, developing innovative products and brand exten­
sions to take advantage of evolving consumer trends, improving distribution, and
increasing promotional effectiveness.

Focus on Opportunities in High-Growth and High-Margin Categories
Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. is focused on driving growth in its business in
profitable and emerging categories. These categories include ready-to-drink teas
and functional beverages. For example, the company recently launched Snapple
super premium teas and juices, Snapple enhanced waters, and Accelerade RTD, a
protein-enhanced sports drink. The company also intends to capitalize on oppor­
tunities in these categories through brand extensions, new product launches, and
selective acquisitions of brands and distribution rights. Senior management be­
lieves the company is well positioned to enter into new distribution agreements
for emerging, high-growth third-party brands in new categories that can use its
bottling and distribution network. The company can provide these brands with
distribution capability and resources to grow. These brands, in turn, can provide
the company exposure to growing segments of. the market with relatively low
risk and capital investment.

Increase Presence in High-Margin Channels and Packages Dr Pepper
Snapple Group, Inc. is focused on improving its product presence in high-margin
channels, such as convenience stores, vending machines, and small independent
retail outlets, through increased selling activity and significant investments in
coolers and other cold drink equipment. The company intends to significantly
increase the number of branded coolers and other cold drink equipment over
the next few years, which is expected to provide an attractive return on invest­
ment. The company also intends to increase demand for high-margin products
like single-serve packages for many key brands through increased promotional
activity and innovation.

Leverage the Company’s Integrated Business Model The company’s inte­
grated brand ownership, bottling, and distribution business model provides op­
portunities for net sales and profit growth through the alignment of the economic
interests of its brand ownership and its bottling and distribution businesses. The
company intends to leverage its integrated business model to reduce costs by cre­
ating greater geographic manufacturing and distribution coverage and to be more
flexible and responsive to the changing needs of large retail customers by coordi­
nating sales, service, distribution, promotions, and product launches.

Strengthen the Company’s Route-to-Market Through Acquisitions The
recent acquisition and creation of the Dr Pepper Snapple Bottling Group is part of
a longer-term initiative to strengthen the route-to-market for the company’s prod­
ucts. Additional acquisitions of regional bottling companies will broaden geo­
graphic coverage in regions where the company is currently underrepresented,
enhance coordination with large retail customers, more quickly address changing
customer demands, accelerate the introduction of new products, improve collab­
oration around new product innovations, and expand coverage of high-margin
channels.

Improve Operating Efficiency The company’s recently announced restruc­
turing will reduce selling, general, and administrative expenses and improve
operating efficiency. In addition, the integration of recent acquisitions into the

96 CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

company’s bottling group has created the opportunity to improve manufacturing,
warehousing, and distribution operations. For example, the company has created
multiproduct manufacturing facilities that can provide a sales region with a wide
variety of products at reduced transportation and co-packing costs.

THE ENERGY BEVERAGE MA RKET IN THE UNITED STATES

Excluding coffee, energy beverages were the fourth largest nonalcoholic bever­
age category in the United States in 2006 after carbonated soft drinks, sports
drinks, and bottled water. However, it was the fastest growing beverage category.

Energy Beverage Sales Growth

As a practical matter, the energy beverage market is defined by major brands,
including Red Bull, Monster Energy, Rockstar, and literally hundreds of simi­
larly positioned brands. These brands produced estimated retail dollar sales of
$6.2 billion in 2006 according to the market research firm Packaged Facts. Off­
premise sales through convenience stores, supermarkets, and mass merchandis­
ers accounted for 71 percent of total retail sales in 2006. On-premise retailers,
such as restaurants and nightclubs, accounted for 29 percent of total retail sales.
From 2001 to 2006, total energy beverage retail sales grew at an average annual
rate of 42.5 percent. In 2006, an estimated 153 million energy beverage cases
were sold across all retail channels (one case is equivalent to 36 8-ounce contain­
ers, or 288 ounces).

Industry analysts were projecting an average annual growth rate of 10.5 per­
cent from 2007 to 2011. The slower growth rate was attributed to market maturity,
increased price and packaging competition, and the entrance of hybrid energy
beverages, such as energy water, energy fruit drinks, ready-to-drink energy teas,
and energy colas.

Energy beverage sales in 2006 were dwarfed by CSD sales of $72 billion
according to Beverage Digest. However, CSD sales posted an average year-over­
year growth rate of 2.5 percent between 2001 and 2006 and were projected to
decline 1 to 2 percent annually through 2011.

The Energy Beverage Consumer

The heavy user of energy beverages consists of males between the ages of 12 and 34
(see Exhibit 2). Average U.S. per capita consumption of energy beverage drinkers
increased by 14 percent since 2004, reaching 4.32 8-ounce servings per month in
2006. Energy beverages are most often consumed in the afternoon followed by
morning consumption. Most consumers drink energy beverages at home, in the
car, and at work/school. The major reasons why consumers drink energy bever­
ages include an energy boost, mental alertness, refreshment, and taste. Energy
beverage consumers limit their choice to only 1.4 different brands, on average,
which suggests brand loyalty in this market.

Energy Beverage Off-Premise Retail Channels

Convenience stores and supermarkets are the dominant off-premise retail chan­
nels for energy beverages. In 2006, convenience stores accounted for 74 percent
of off-premise retail dollar sales, down from 81 percent in 2004. Supermarkets
recorded 14 percent of off-premise retail sales in 2006, up from 11 percent

\0
–l

U.S. Population Profile and Energy Beverage Users in 2006

Age Gender Race and Ethnicity

Servings/ Race&
Age % of U.S. Servings/ Gender % of U.S. Montb3 Ethnic % of U.S. Servings/
Category Population1 % Users2 MontlJ3 Category Population1 % Users2 Category Category Population1 % Users2 Montb3

12-17 10% 31% 4.92 F Adult 39% 10% NA Hispanic 15% 27% 4.48
18-24 9% 34% 4.93 FTeen 5% 27% NA African 13% 21% 4.69

American
25-34 14% 22% 4.29 M Adult 34% 17% NA Asian 4% 16% 3.49
35-44 15% 25% 4.16 MTeen 6% 34% NA Caucasian 66% 12% 4.31
45-54 14% 9% 4.14 F Total 51% 19% 3.87 Others 2% NA NA
55+ 23% 3% 2.83 M Total 49% 26% 4.60

Notes: 1 % of U.S. Population is based on U.S. Census estimates for 2oo6.
2 % Users represents the percentage of individuals in a specific user category that have consumed an energy beverage in the past year. Therefore, the percent user figures
do not total 100 percent. (Source: Mintel/Simmons National Consumer Survey, Fall 2006)
3 Servings/Month is the average number of 8-ounce servings consumed per month by a specific user category. (Source: Mintel/:Simmons National Consumer Survey, Fall 2006)

98 CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNI1Y ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

Estimated 2006 Dollar Sales and Unit Volume Market Share of U.S.
Energy Beverage Competitors

Competitor {Major Brands)

Red Bull (Red Bull)

Hansen Natural Corporation (Monster Energy)

Pepsi-Cola (SoBe Adrenaline Rush; AMP Energy)

Rockstar (Rockstar)

Coca-Cola (Full Throttle; Tab Energy)

Others (including private labels)

Estimated Market Share

Dollar Sales Unit Case Volume

43% 30%

16 27

13 10

12 17

10 10

6 6

100% 100%

Source: Mintel Energy Drinks, March 2007; Beverage Digest Fact Book, 2007; and “Energy Drinks
Boost U.S. Beverage Market,” Beveragedaily.com, March 12, 2007.

in 2004. Industry analysts expected continued sales erosion in the convenience
channel in the future. Wal-Mart’s share of energy beverage off-premise retail
sales increased from 5.4 percent in 2004 to 7.4 percent in 2006.

In general, energy beverage manufacturers with a broad product line and
an extensive distribution network have had the greatest success in gaining shelf
space in supermarkets and mass merchandisers for their brands. Product turn­
over is a key consideration among convenience stores. Brands with a limited
product line that can demonstrate high turnover are stocked while those with
low turnover are discontinued by convenience stores.

Major Energy Beverage Competitors

Five competitors dominate the U.S. energy beverage market: Red Bull North
America, Hansen Natural Corporation, Pepsi-Cola, Rockstar, Inc., and Coca-Cola.
These companies, and their individual brands, account for 94 percent of dollar
sales and unit volume in the United States. Exhibit 3 shows the dollar sales and
unit volume market shares for the five competitors.

Red Bull North America Red Bull North America markets the Red Bull brand
in the United States through a network of independent distributors. The com­
pany is a subsidiary of Red Bull GMBH headquartered in Austria. The brand was
the energy beverage market pioneer when it was introduced to the United States
in 1997. It remains the market leader in dollar sales and unit volume. However,
its dollar market share has declined in recent years from 82 percent in 2000 to
43 percent in 2006. This decline has been attributed to the entry of new,
aggressive competitors, and brands with lower prices. The Red Bull brand was
supported by a $39.6 million U.S. media expenditure in 2006 and an estimated
$60.9 million media expenditure in 2007.1

Hansen Natural Corporation Hansen Natural Corporation markets a variety
of nonalcoholic beverages in the United States. Monster Energy is its most promi­
nent energy drink. The brand was introduced in 2002. Monster Energy sales have
benefited from recent distribution agreements. For example, Anheuser-Busch

1 Media expenditure figures for individual brands were reported in company Form 10-K documents
and TNS Media Intelligence, AdSpender Online at tns-mi.com.

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC. 99

wholesalers distributed the brand to retailers in different territories in the United
States in 2007. Anheuser-Busch also distributes Monster Energy to on-premise re­
tailers including bars, nightclubs, and restaurants in territories selected by Hansen.
In early 2007, Hansen announced that PepsiCo Canada would be the exclusive
master distributor of Monster Energy throughout Canada. The Monster Energy
brand was supported by a $61,100 U.S. media expenditure in 2006 and an esti­
mated $153,800 media expenditure in 2007.

Pepsi-Cola Pepsi-Cola, a division of PepsiCo, markets AMP Energy and SoBe
Adrenaline Rush energy beverage brands. AMP Energy was introduced in 2001.
SoBe Adrenaline Rush entered the market in 2003. Both brands are marketed
through the Pepsi-Cola distribution system in the United States. In addition,
Pepsi-Cola markets a wide range of juice-based energy drinks and Mountain Dew
MDX, a carbonated energy drink. Neither AMP Energy nor SoBe Adrenaline Rush
was supported by significant U.S. media expenditures in 2006.

Rockstar, Inc. Rockstar, Inc. is a producer of alcoholic, juice, cola, and energy
drinks. Its Rockstar Energy brand was introduced in 2001. The brand is distributed
in the United States and Canada by the Coca-Cola-Company, except in the Pacific
Northwest and Northern California where Rockstar retains its original distributors.
U.S. media expenditures for the Rockstar brand were minimal in 2006. The esti­
mated media expenditure in 2007 was $41,500.

Coca-Cola The Coca-Cola Company markets the Full Throttle and sugar-free
Tab Energy brands through its distribution network. Full Throttle was introduced
in 2003, Tab Energy in 2006. The company has been acquiring smaller energy
beverage brands and pursuing licensing agreements to distribute independent
energy brands, such as Rockstar. Full Throttle was supported by $7.3 million in
U.S. media expenditures in 2006 and an estimated $492,300 in 2007. The Tab
Energy introduction was supported by a $12.6 million U.S. media expenditure in
2006, which resulted in a 2.3 percent dollar market share. The estimated media
expenditure in 2007 was $20,500.

Product Proliferation and Price Erosion

The energy beverage market has experienced product proliferation and price
erosion in recent years. Product proliferation resulted from line extensions,
new packaging and sizes, and market segmentation. Major competitors have
extended their product lines and now offer beverages in regular and sugar-free
varieties and different flavors. They have introduced multi-packs and increased
single-serve package sizes, from the original 8.3-ounce Red Bull package to
16-ounce and 24-ounce packages. (Tab Energy came in a 10.5-ounce package.)
Finally, competitors are targeting segments in the energy beverage market.
For example, women were the target market for Tab Energy; Coca-Cola is
believed to be developing a brand called “Rehab” for people with hangovers;
industry analysts expect Rockstar to introduce Rockstar 21, which is premixed
with alcohol; and the Full Throttle Demon sub-brand is targeted at young
Hispanic men.

Significant price erosion also exists. Energy beverage prices declined
30 percent from 2001 to 2006. Industry analysts attribute this decline to
(1) larger package sizes that have a lower price per ounce; (2) the introduction
of multi-packs, which offer a lower price per ounce, and (3) increasing avail­
ability in supermarkets and mass merchandisers, including Walmart, that oper­
ate with lower retail gross margins than convenience stores.

100 CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

According to ACNielsen, the average retail selling price per case for brands in
major off-premise retail channels in late 2007 is shown below.2

All Off-Premise Supermarkets and Mass Convenience

Brand Channels Merchandisers Only Stores Only

Red Bull $68.00 $63.00 $70.00

Monster Energy 37.00 32.00 39.00

Rockstar 37.00 32.00 38.00

Full Throttle 36.00 32.00 38.00

AMP Energy 38.00 35.00 39.00

Tab Energy 49.00 45.00 55.00

Channel Average 44.00 40.00 46.00

Red Bull enjoyed a price premium in off-premise retail channels. Other brands
were competitively priced with each other.

THE ENERGY BEVERAGE MARKET OPPORTUNITY

Andrew Barker and his team recognized that senior executives at Dr Pepper
Snapple Group, Inc. expected that energy beverages presented a profitable mar­
ket opportunity for the company. Therefore, any proposal to enter the energy
beverage market would require a marketing strategy for a branded energy drink,
including a first-year sales and profit projection.

Marketing Plan Considerations

The introductory marketing plan for a branded energy drink would require the
identification of a target market and marketing mix as well as a recommended
budget for the launch.

Target Market Industry analysts estimated that there were about 43 million
energy drink users in the United States, or about 18 percent of the U.S. popula­
tion 12 years of age or older. Males, between the ages of 12 and 34, were the
heaviest users of energy beverages. They were estimated to account for about
70 percent of energy beverage consumption. Energy brands, except for Tab
Energy with its focus on female consumers, targeted this population demographic.

Product Line and Brand Positioning Existing brands typically offer regular
and sugar-free varieties. Regular energy beverages have an 80 percent share of
the market; sugar-free has 20 percent. Single-serve package sizes range from
8.3 ounces to 24 ounces. The 8.3-ounce size is the most popular due largely to
Red Bull, the market leader, which uniquely markets this size. The 16-ounce size,
representing about 50 percent of case sales in convenience stores, has posted the
fastest growth, increasing 1 50 percent since 2004. Multi-packs represent a small
portion of case sales and typically are marketed through supermarkets and mass
merchandisers.

2 The average retail case prices reflect all available package sizes and multi-packs for each brand. All
prices are rounded to the nearest dollar. Channel average price is rounded to the nearest dollar and
represents a simple column average.

DR PEPPER SNAPPLE GROUP, INC. 101

Brand positioning. in the energy beverage market typically emphasizes an
energy boost, mental alertness, refreshment, and taste. Brand slogans reflect this
positioning:

Red Bull:

Monster Energy:

Full Throttle:

Tab Energy:

“Red Bull Gives You Wings”

“Unleash the Beast”

“Go Full Throttle or Go Home”

“Fuel to Be Fabulous”

Rockstar Energy positions itself as the most powerful energy drink with an
“edgier” message focusing on “active and exhausting lifestyles-from athletes to
rock stars.”

Marketing Channel Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. bottlers and distributors
deliver to all types of off-premise retailers where energy beverages are sold.
However, company bottlers and distributors did n<?t serve all areas of the United
States. By early 2008, the company expected to have bottlers and distribution
centers in place that would serve 80 percent of the U.S. market for energy bever­
ages. Historically, new energy beverage brands were introduced exclusively to
the convenience store channel in single-serve pa

0
ckages because of higher profit

margins and then migrated to other channels.
Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. distributed Monster Energy in selected U.S.

territories on behalf of Hansen Natural Corporation in 2007. 3 Monster Energy dis­
tribution would end effective November 10, 2008.

Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Selling Price and Channel Margins
Single-serve energy beverage drink retail prices have generally settled at roughly
$2.00 per single-serve package, regardless of package size. As a consequence,
larger single-serve packages are priced lower on a per-ounce basis than smaller
packages.

Estimated retail, wholesale, and manufacturer energy beverage margins, on
a per-case basis, vary within a fairly tight range. 4 Retailers, such as supermarkets
and convenience stores, typically report gross margins in the range of 40 percent
(for supermarkets) to 50 percent (for convenience stores), based on the manu­
facturer’s suggested retail pr

Marketing homework help

Welcome to our Essay Exam for MGMT 398U, Spring 2022. When you clicked the link to open
this Google Doc, it prompted you to make a copy of the document on your individual Google
Drive. You will submit the URL in the assignment on D2L to submit this exam.

Click the blue “Share” button in the upper right corner to make sure the sharing permissions are
set so that I can see the document without requesting access. If I can’t access the document
when I go to grade it, that will count toward a late submission. There are a variety of resources
online for information about sharing settings; or, please let me know if you have any questions
about this.

Please rename the file with your full name in the document name prior to moving ahead.

Essay Exam Grading

There are two questions on this exam and a total of 20 points are available for this assignment.
Each question is worth 8 points and there are 4 points available overall. Please see the rubrics
below for detailed grading.

Please note: citation style doesn’t matter for this — what I’d like to see is an explicit reference to
the materials using the author’s full name and a title of the work being cited, if relevant (the title
isn’t necessary for citing the discussion threads).

Question 1 Rubric Possible Points

Incorporates and cites ideas from class materials 2

Shares an opinion (agree / disagree, and why) on ideas from class materials 2

References, cites, and builds on an idea from a colleague from a Week 1 to 4
discussion thread

2

Provides a company-specific example 1

Falls within the word limit and addresses the questions posed 1

Total 8

Question 2 Rubric Possible Points

Incorporates and cites ideas from class materials 2

Shares an opinion (agree / disagree, and why) on ideas from class materials 2

References, cites, and builds on an idea from a colleague from a Week 1 to 4
discussion thread

2

Provides a company-specific example 1

Falls within the word limit and addresses the questions posed 1

Total 8

Overall Essay Exam Rubric Possible Points

Appropriate syntax and sentence structure 2

Submitted before deadline (8pm on Sunday, 5/1) 1

Formatting & Access: Filename includes preferred full name and sharing access
is provided without requiring a request from the instructor

1

Total 4

Essay Questions

Please use 300 to 500 words to answer each question. Between your two answers, you should
have no more than 1,000 words.

1. How would you advise a company to integrate design thinking and innovation leadership into
their culture? What should a company think about in terms of the framing of the “Exponential
Age”?

Please provide more than one example of how design thinking and/or innovation
leadership could be modeled within an organization – values that a company can focus
on and actions that they can encourage their leaders to take to bring these concepts to
life inside their organization. What are some components that they should watch out for
as a result of this integration?

2. You and your imaginary team will be using the concept of Blue Ocean Strategy OR the
concept of shared value (please pick one) to create a new product or business model inside
an existing organization.

Please explain the key components that you and your team would look for to determine
whether you had successfully implemented either a Blue Ocean Strategy OR a shared
value strategy. What are two organizations that have successfully implemented the
strategy you’ve chosen and what are some indicators that they used these strategies,
i.e. what did they notice within the company as a result of these strategies?

Marketing homework help

COURSE CODE:BCO223 COURSE NAME: SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING FINAL PROJECT Task brief & rubrics

FINAL PROJECT – PLAN REPORT TASK: Develop a Social Media Marketing Plan

You should imagine that you are working for a small or medium size company that chooses to develop a social media campaign plan. Assume that you are presenting IN A WRITTEN REPORT your plan to the main stakeholders of the company for their approval. A key element of the assignment is how realistic you are in your proposal.

Your plan must include:

· What the company does and its market.

· What you want to achieve with the social media campaign and why (Business Objectives and Social media goals)

· The plan of action, the steps you will take, estimated time spans (actions, timing etc)

· Key messages to transmit (a short video/image with the proper text, message and Call to Action) (tools for videos, Canvas, animoto or any other tool)

· Key metrics by which you will measure success or failure.

· An indication of the resources you need to dedicate to it like HR, FINANCIAL, TECH etc.

Be realistic and do an educated guess in the numbers that you cannot support them with arguments.

Formalities:

· Wordcount: 2000 words of the report

· Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total wordcount.

· Font: Tahoma 12,5 pts.

· Text alignment: Justified.

· The in-text References and the Bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

· Submission: REPORT Sunday MAY 8th via Moodle at 23:59

· Weight: This task is a 60% of your total grade for this subject.

· Group of 2 people

Summative assignments: https://euruniedu-my.sharepoint.com/:w:/g/personal/pablo_gilardini_euruni_edu/EcI00uOombFCh4Kbiu6cAwsBrF3hMUxf2xADMXzyl8x-Hw?e=gcidrK

https://euruniedu-my.sharepoint.com/:b:/g/personal/pablo_gilardini_euruni_edu/EekNmUztfMJBvmWY1XMjwFQBZ-K9vruYM91q_5Usmt77CA?e=N5oVuz

https://casecent.re/p/181452

https://casecent.re/p/175463

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

· Design the social media marketing plan and apply it to reach specific social media objectives

· Analyse the social community and application of brand strategies

RUBRICS SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING PLAN

 

Excellent 

90-100 

Good 

80-89 

Fair 

70-79 

Marginal Fail 

60-69 

Fail

<60

Knowledge

(30%)

Demonstrates exceptional coherence of ideas for knowledge and understanding of the key concepts of social media marketing, plan is realistic.

Demonstrates good knowledge and understanding of key concepts of social media marketing at a good level.

The presentation demonstrates a satisfactory level of knowledge and understanding of concepts at this basic level but there is little evidence of research

Demonstrates poor knowledge and lack of understanding of the key concepts of social media marketing. There is no evidence of credible wider research

Demonstrates extremely poor knowledge and lack of understanding of the key concepts in social media marketing. There is no evidence of credible wider research

Plan coherence

(30%)

The plan has been very well researched and prepared, is very realistic and could form the basis of a social media marketing plan.

The plan has been well prepared, is quite realistic, but would need minor amendments and/or additions in order to form the basis of a social media marketing plan.

The plan has been quite well prepared, but it would improve with further clarification prior to its execution. Most of the assumptions are realistic, but some are unreasonable.

The plan is insufficient. Either it would require further clarification before execution, or it is unrealistic, either in scope or outcome.

The plan is inadequate. Either it would require further clarification before execution, or it is unrealistic, either in scope or outcome.

Application

(30%)

Work shows an appropriate and relevant attempt to place knowledge in the context of social media marketing.

The presentation shows some attempt to place knowledge in the context of social media marketing.

There is some attempt to place knowledge in the context of social media marketing.

There is almost no attempt to place knowledge in the context of social media marketing.

There is no attempt to place knowledge in the context of social media marketing.

Communication

(10%)

Provides a very clear plan, using conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with a very high degree of effectiveness.  

Provides a clear plan, using conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with considerable effectiveness. 

Provides a somewhat clear plan, using conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with some effectiveness.

Plan is somewhat unclear. There is a lack of use of conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline.  

Answer is unclear. Lack of use of conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline.  

Marketing homework help

Today’s learning objectives

· Understanding the firm’s external environment

· Define, describe and analyse the general and the industry environment

· Understand how to use the Five Forces model

· Understand strategic groups

Agenda

· The general environment

· The industry environment

· Five forces analysis

· Strategic groups

The general environment

4

The external environment

· Turbulent, complex, uncertain, ambiguous

· We have only incomplete knowledge of it

· Sets constrains

· Gives rise to opportunities

¾ Strategy represents a firm’s attempt to adapt to/shape its external environment

The external environment

General environment

Value chain (buyers/suppliers)

Industry

Strategic group

Firm

Environmental analysis

· Scanning

· Keeping up to data with what is happening

· Trying to identify ‘meaningful’ events

· Monitoring

· Following meaningful events more closely

· Forecast

· Try to predict how such meaningful events may influence the future

· Assessing

· Determining how to react to changes in the environment

Elements of the general environment

· Demography

· E.g. population size, structure, distribution, income, etc.

· Economy

· GDP, inflation, interest, etc.

· Political/legal • Laws, political systems, regulations, etc.

· Sociocultural • Attitudes, beliefs, preferences, values, etc.

· Technological • New knowledge domains, technical changes, new technologies, etc.

· Global/regional

· Globalisation, regionalisation, institutional, cross-country, cross-border, etc.

· Natural/Physical

· Climate change, energy consumption, etc.

3

The industry environment

10

What is an industry?

A group of firms producing similar products, for similar

customers with similar resources

Defining industry boundaries is crucial in industry and

competitor analysis

Various definitions and classifications exist (ANZSIC, GICS,

NACE, SIC, NAICS)

Most of these are based on similarity in production

methods

¾

Caution: Similarity in products, similarity in customers and

similarity in resources are all important (not just production

methods)

Five Forces analysis

Competitive

rivalry

Threat of

new entry

Power of

suppliers

Threat of

substitutes

Power of

buyers

Threat of new entrants

· Barriers to entry

· Economies of scale ↑

· Supply (production) and demand side (switching, distribution, differentiation)

· Capital requirements ↑ (but capital can be raised)

· Incumbency advantages ↑

· Government policies ↑ ↓

· Threat of retaliation

· History of retaliation ↑

· Incumbent position and resourcing ↑

· Incumbent ability to compete on price ↑

Power of suppliers

· Concentration of supplier industry ↑

· Suppliers are large and few

· Small revenue dependence of suppliers ↑

· Suppliers products are important (or differentiated) ↑

· Switching suppliers products is costly ↑

· No or only few substitutes for suppliers products exist ↑

· Suppliers can threaten to forward integrate ↑

Power of buyers

· Concentration of buyer industry ↑

· Buyers are large and few (buy large volumes)

· Buyers have low switching costs ↑

· Buyers can threaten to backward integrate ↑

· The products are a significant cost for the buyer ↑

· The seller has undifferentiated products ↑

· Buyers have a high reliance on products (e.g. quality) ↓

· The seller can influence end-users ↓

Threat of substitutes

Substitutes are products that fulfil the same/similar need in a different manner

· Buyers have low switching costs ↑

· Substitutes are cheaper ↑

· Substitutes perform equally or better ↑

· The seller has undifferentiated products ↑

Industry rivalry

· Many competitors ↑

· Competitors equal in size ↑

· Slow industry growth ↑

· High exit barriers ↑

· Rival commitment to/reliance on the industry ↑

· Rivalry is mostly price based ↑

· Price based competition develops when: switching costs are low, products are undifferentiated, high fixed costs, low marginal costs, perishable products, capacity needs to be increased in large chucks

Strategic groups

· Groups of firms within and industry that are relatively similar (e.g., pursue similar strategies) vis-à-vis other groups of firms in the industry

· Usually more intense competition within strategic groups than between strategic groups

· Mobility barriers (similar to entry/exit barriers) intensify competition within groups

· Dimension for categorisation are industry specific and divers

Technological leadership, quality, pricing, distribution, service

Next week

· Competitive dynamics

· Required reading: Chapter 5

· Required reading: Predicting your competitors reactions

· Don’t forget you preparation (poste one comment).

12

Marketing homework help

Military Profession

By: Andra Mobley

CS212

1

UNPROFFESIONAL ATTIRE

Explain what the scientific method is and indicate what steps are involved (include your source).

2

List everything that you know about the situation with Buddy

3

Resources

Provide a list of resources using APA formatting. Also use intext citations throughout the PPT to indicate when you are relying on a particular source.

4

Marketing homework help

Write a research paper using evidence to support a thesis that addresses your research question examining a current issue or event in the news from the perspective of your field of study. The audience is people who are generally educated but do not have extensive knowledge of your field or topic.

(Thesis Statement: The cause of financial instability among large business because increase in interest rates, negative shocks to nonbank balance sheets such as a stock market decline.)

Note that it is possible to earn a B on this assignment by using only six sources, including three scholarly journal articles. To earn an A will require an additional two sources.

As you write your paper, be sure to include the following:

an introductory paragraph that includes your thesis statement. The introduction is meant to engage your readers and orient them to the topic, and the thesis statement should clearly state your position or central claim to be supported in the body of your paper.

any definition of terms or background information that your reader is likely to need to understand your paper

focused body paragraphs that begin with topic sentences and use transitions as needed. This is where you will support the thesis using arguments and evidence. Use the sentence outline you developed in class to guide you.

a concluding paragraph that reiterates the thesis, summarizes key points of the paper, and leaves the reader with the “So what?”

an APA reference list that includes all of the sources cited in the text of the paper, in alphabetical order

This paper should be at least 2000 words, including references.

Marketing homework help

Today’s learning objectives

· Understanding the firm’s internal organisation

· Define, describe and analyse resources, capabilities and core competencies

· Understand how to use the VRIO model

· Understand value chain analysis

Agenda

· External environment and internal organisation

· Resources

· Capabilities

· Core competencies

· Value chains analysis

4

External environment and internal organisation

What a firm can do:

Function of resources, capabilities and

core competencies

INTERNAL

ORGANISATION

What a firm might do:

Function of opportunities/threats in the

firm’s external environment

EXTERNAL

ENVIRONMENT

Matches

Industries matter to business performance

Porter (2008)

Industry and business performance

3

Value – what is it?

· What do you associate with ‘value’ in the context of a business?

· Products/services/activities that fulfil (unmet) customers wants/needs (Customer jobs)

· Create gains

Discussion

· Remove pains

· Customer’s willingness to pay

· Firms need to create value to be viable (in the medium to longer

term)

· Firms create value by bundling, leveraging, and exploiting resources, capabilities and core competencies in unique ways

Resources

CORE COMPETENCIES

· Inputs/assets used to produce products/deliver services

· Very broad in scope

· Control vs ownership

CAPABILITIES

· Tangible

· Financial

· Organisational

· Physical

· Technological

· Intangible

RESOURCES

Tangible/Intangible

· Human

· Innovation

· Reputation

Resource categories

Category

Includes:

Financial

Money, assets and financial stocks: they are generally the company’s borrowing capacity, the ability to raise new capital and the amount of internal fund generation

Physical

Tangible property the firm uses in production and administration:

examples are plant and equipment, location, the amenities available at the location, minerals, energy resources and land

Human

Knowledge, training, experience and business ideas of the entrepreneur, team of employees and managers

Organisational

Firm’s structure, routines, information generation, decision-making and planning systems

Technical

Laboratories and R&D facilities, testing and quality control technologies, patents, licenses, trademarks and copyrights

Reputational

Perceptions of the firm by society and its environment: examples are brand loyalty or global image

CORE COMPETENCIES

CAPABILITIES

RESOURCES

Tangible/Intangible

Capabilities

CORE COMPETENCIES

· The combination, interaction and usage of resources

· Use to complete organisational tasks

· Experience of how to combine these

¾What we have (resources) vs. what we can do with it

(capabilities) > Putting into action

CAPABILITIES

· Collection of processes/routines

· Repetitive activities and how they are done

· A single process can be a resource

· How are things done?

RESOURCES

Tangible/Intangible

· Who signs off on what?

· Often exist in specific functional areas: Distribution, HR, marketing, management, R&D, etc.

From resources to capabilities


http://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=1154157


6

“Historically the company thought of itself as being at the end of the world, you don’t go

through New Zealand to get to anywhere, but South America was one place that could

change that paradigm.

There is a big unserved flow of passengers from Australasia and Southeast Asia to South

America and New Zealand is uniquely positioned geographically for that because it sits

better than Australia

it is a more intermediate point.“

Stephen Jones, Chief Strategy, Networks & Alliances Officer

3

Criteria in resource/capability analysis

· Value:

· Can the resource/capability be used to exploit an opportunity/neutralise a threat?

· Rare:

· Do competitors have similar/equivalent resources/capabilities? • Imitable:

· Can others easily imitate the resources/capabilities?

· Depends on: Path dependencies (history), casual ambiguity, social complexity

· Organisationally embedded:

· Is the firm organised to leverage the resources/capabilities?

Core competencies

CORE COMPETENCIES

· The capabilities that are central to the success of an organisation

· Those that are built around VRIO/VRIN resources/capabilities

Valuable?

Rare?

Imitable?

Organised?

Implications

No

Competitive disadvantage

Yes

No

Yes

Competitive parity

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Competitive advantage (short term)

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Competitive advantage (longer term)

CAPABILITIES

RESOURCES

Tangible/Intangible

Core competencies

https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/gx/en/unique-solutions/capabilities-driven-strategy.html

Firm specific bases of value creation

Based on Prahalad & Hamel (1990)

Value chain

• The chain of activities the organisations engages in when converting inputs to outputs

Supply

Operations

Distribution

Marketing

After sales

IT

Finance

HR

Customer

value

Value chain analysis

· All components in the value chain are assessed in relation to competitors

· Activities should contribute to customer value and should be performed better or on par with competitors

· These may include activities that competitors cannot perform

· Beware of interdependencies and interactions between activities

· Outsourcing can be a way to access value-creating activities that an organisation lacks, but beware of ‘hollowing out’.

Next week

· Business level strategy

· Required reading:

· Chapter 4

· The great repeatable business model

· CASE 8: The movie exhibition industry: 2018 and beyond

· Don’t forget you preparation (poste one comment).

14

Marketing homework help

BBA221 Marketing Research Task brief & rubrics

Assignment 1 Task

Individual Marketing Research Paper

Topic: The student must develop a Marketing Research project based on a clear marketing problem or opportunity, detailing the objectives, and explaining why
they chose their research design method and how they arrived at their results.

Instructions and Grading Criteria

• Discuss the marketing relevance of the research question you will be developing (20%)
• Explain why you chose the specific research design selection and the sample design methods (20%)
• Discuss the development of the questionnaire or the choice of secondary data (20%)
• Analyze and interpret the data using a specific conceptual model presented in your work (20%)
• Build a strategic marketing recommendation to appropriately address the targeted market segment (10%)
• In addition, 10% of the grade will be allocated to the structure of the work.

The student must structure arguments, facts and figures coherently to support the statements made for each element of the topic. The structure of the work
should comprise the following sections:

Structure of the Assignment

a) Cover page: The first page must contain the full name of the student, the logo of the school, the date, as well as the name of the course and the name of
the professor.

b) The Table of Contents.
c) Introduction: Background, Scope and Method of Investigation.
d) Critical Discussion: Analysis using theories and models studied in class, and use of facts, figures, graphs and visual material.
e) Conclusion.
f) Bibliography.
g) Appendices.

Requirements

• Based on the chosen company, the student should be able to research appropriate information to frame their work by developing clear objectives to which
the assignment will answer.

• Students must consider the use of theories and models, the flow and progression of their critical analysis, overall clarity, structure and coherence of their
answers. Students will be graded on their capacity to prioritize, synthetize, discuss and evaluate the topic based on different perspectives.

• The work should be between 1500 and 2000 words (excluding the Table of Contents, Bibliography and Appendices).

• All statements made must be supported by facts, figures and references.
• All sources of information must be referenced using the Harvard Referencing System
• The task should be completed as a professional report and submitted (uploaded) in PDF format.

Formalities:

• Wordcount: 1500 – 2000
• Font: Arial 12,5 pts.
• Text alignment: Justified.
• The in-text References and the Bibliography must be in Harvard’s citation style.

Submission: Week (12) – Via Moodle (Turnitin). Sunday 1 May 2022 23h59.

Weight: This task is a 60% of your total grade for this subject.

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

• All

Rubrics:

Exceptional 90-100 Good 80-89 Fair 70-79 Marginal fail 60-69
Knowledge &

Understanding
(20%)

Student demonstrates
excellent understanding of
key concepts and uses
vocabulary in an entirely
appropriate manner.

Student demonstrates
good understanding of the
task and mentions some
relevant concepts and
demonstrates use of the
relevant vocabulary.

Student understands the
task and provides minimum
theory and/or some use of
vocabulary.

Student understands the task
and attempts to answer the
question but does not
mention key concepts or uses
minimum amount of relevant
vocabulary.

Application (30%) Student applies fully
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies mostly
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies some
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class. Misunderstanding
may be evident.

Student applies little relevant
knowledge from the topics
delivered in class.
Misunderstands are evident.

Critical Thinking
(30%)

Student critically assesses
in excellent ways, drawing
outstanding conclusions
from relevant authors.

Student critically assesses
in good ways, drawing
conclusions from relevant
authors and references.

Student provides some
insights but stays on the
surface of the topic.
References may not be
relevant.

Student makes little or none
critical thinking insights, does
not quote appropriate
authors, and does not
provide valid sources.

Communication
(20%)

Student communicates
their ideas extremely
clearly and concisely,
respecting word count,
grammar and spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas clearly and
concisely, respecting word
count, grammar and
spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas with some
clarity and concision. It
may be slightly over or
under the wordcount limit.
Some misspelling errors
may be evident.

Student communicates their
ideas in a somewhat unclear
and unconcise way. Does not
reach or does exceed
wordcount excessively and
misspelling errors are
evident.

Marketing homework help

Each week, you will submit an additional Phase and receive feedback from your instructor.

Please use this worksheet to complete Phase Five of the SMMP.

In Unit 8, you will merge and submit a final draft of the 6 phases of the SMMP.

Please refer to the attached instructions and grading rubric for the full assignment details.

Media Marketing

· Campaign Analytics:

· Collecting The Data:

Marketing homework help

1

Case Instructions

Overall Instructions

1. When using material from the chapter, outline, and/or lectures, remember that you do not

have to cite any material quoted from these sources in this course.

2. Each case is an INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT, not a group assignment. I expect your
answers to be your own thoughts and written in your own words! (See the discussion in

your Syllabus regarding ECU’s Academic Integrity Policy.)

3. Save your file as a Word 2003 document (“.doc”), Word 2007 document (“.docx”), Word

2010 document (“.docx”), Word 2013 (“.docx”) or in “rtf” format. DO NOT USE

MICROSOFT WORKS OR SAVE YOUR FILE IN ANY OTHER FORMAT. I WILL

NOT BE ABLE TO ACCESS YOUR FILE AND THEREFORE WOULD HAVE TO

GIVE YOU A GRADE OF “0.”

4. Save the file as “CaseX” and then your last name, first name initial, and middle initial. For

example, my last name is obviously “Jones,” my first name initial is “C,” and my middle

initial is “C.” Therefore, I would save my Case 1 file as “Case1ScottMD”; my Case 2 file as

“Case2ScottMD”; and my Case 3 file as “Case3ScottMD.” If you do not have a middle

name, enter your first name initial twice. If you have more than one middle name, use the

initial of your first middle name only. DO NOT LEAVE SPACES IN YOUR FILE

NAME because it prevents me from properly archiving your file.

5. Type your answers according to the “Formatting Instructions” above. (Instructor’s Note:

Failure to following the format when completing this assignment can cost you a significant

number of points). Then, save your file according to instructions 3 – 4 above,

PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER (grammatical errors in your paper can cost you significant

points), then submit it BEFORE the deadline as shown on your Blackboard Calendar.

6. Submit your file by clicking on the “Exercise/Case Assignments” Tab in the left-hand frame

in Blackboard. Then click on the assignment titled “Case X” and scroll down until you see

the words “Attach File” and the buttons to the right titled “Browse My Computer” and

“Browse Course.” Click the “Browse My Computer” button and attach your file (DO NOT

type your answer to this exercise in the “Submission” text box). When you see that your file

has been properly attached, click the “Submit” button. (To access each case assignment

you must have scored at least a 90% on Chapter 10’s Practice Quiz.)

2

Formatting Instructions

Step 1: Ethical Issue(s) (10 points)
1. Use one paragraph to tell me what your ethical issue is and why? If you have more than one

ethical issue, write and explain each issue in a separate paragraph?

2. In the first sentence of your paragraph, simply tell me what the ethical problem/issue was in

this case without explaining why?

3. In the next sentences of your paragraph, describe the ethical issue using information from

your book, outlines, and/or lectures? Also state the chapter from your book that supports

your answer? (Note: Ethical issues in the cases you do in this class will come from

Chapters 5 – 10.)
4. In the next sentences of your paragraph, use facts from the case to support your answer?

5. In the final sentence of your paragraph, use a concluding sentence to wrap everything up?

6. CAUTION: Do not make any decisions at this time. You are simply identifying and

explaining the ethical issue(s) facing you as the decision-maker at this point. In addition, do

not discuss ethical issues facing others in the case—again, I am only concerned with

whether you can identify the issues facing you as the decision-maker.

Step 2: Stakeholder Analysis (10 points)
1. Starting with the decision-maker (you), identify and list in sentence form ALL your

stakes in the decision to be made. Stakes are what you hope to gain, fear losing, or want

given the situation and the decision or decisions you must eventually make. THEY ARE

NOT DECISIONS.

2. Identify the other key stakeholders as specifically as possible and then identify and list in

sentence form NO MORE THAN TWO important stakes facing each key stakeholder. Key

stakeholders are individuals or groups that are essential to solving the ethical issue(s)

identified in Step 1 above. (Instructor’s Hint: They are usually, but not always, mentioned in

the case so use that as a starting point.)

3. Explain each stake for each stakeholder in a separate sentence and make sure you use

complete, grammatically correct sentences.

4. SEQUENTIALLY NUMBER YOUR STAKES (see the sample case and answers).

Step 3: Decision(s) and Analysis
Decision(s) (10 points)

1. Determine what the most ethical decision or decisions are that resolve all of the ethical

issues you identified in Step 1. List and describe each decision in a separate paragraph

labeling them sequentially (e.g., Decision #1, Decision #2, etc.) as shown in the sample case

and answers.

2. VERY IMPORTANT: Make sure you do not make alternate decisions. Alternate

decisions are “either-or” decisions. For example, if I stated in the sample case that my

Decision #1 was to lay off one-third of the sewers and my Decision #2 was to cut all sewers’

pay by one-third, these would be alternate decisions in this case. There is no way to

implement both decisions at the same time and, therefore, no way to analyze which decision

is the most ethical.

3. After listing and describing all of your decisions, explain how they resolve all of the ethical

issues you identified in Step 1 of the case.

3

Nonconsequentialist Analysis of Decisions (10 points)

1. Review all of the 26 SUBCHARACTERISTICS identified on the Six Pillars of Character

Outline in Chapter 2 (i.e., ones with an “(S)” after them) asking yourself if any ONE of your

decisions violates that subcharacteristic. If any one of your decision(s) violates a

subcharacteristic, it is not an ethical decision using a nonconsequentialist analysis. For

example, if I decided to immediately layoff 1000 sewers in the sample case, that decision

violates the WARN Act and violates the lawfulness subcharacteristic. That decision would

not be an ethical decision and I would need to start over.

2. If none of your decision(s) violates one of the 26 subcharacteristics, then choose the

STRONGEST FOUR subcharacteristics that you feel support your decision(s) as being the

most ethical.

3. In a separate paragraph for each subcharacteristic:

A. First, type the name of the subcharacteristic with a “:” after it.

B. Second, copy and paste the EXACT definition of the subcharacteristic used in the Six

Pillars of Character Outline.

C. Third, explain in detail how a specific decision or decisions uphold the

subcharacteristic identified.

Consequentialist Analysis of Decisions (10 points)

1. BASED ON YOUR DECISIONS ABOVE, categorize every stake identified in Step 2 as

either a cost, a benefit, or part cost and benefit. DO NOT RE-NUMBER YOUR STAKES.

2. Categorize any additional costs and benefits generated by your decisions.

3. Analyze your costs and benefits identified in #1 and #2 above. Do the benefits outweigh the

costs? If so, your decision(s) are ethical using a consequentialist analysis. If not, your

decision(s) are unethical using a consequentialist analysis and you need to start over.

4. If you believe the benefits outweigh the costs, argue why you believe so in no more than one

paragraph.

Marketing homework help

BCO121-BCN15498 ETHICS IN BUSINESS Task brief & rubrics

Task

• Individual task

• Instructions: Prepare an ethical report of a company of your choice and a 5-10 minutes class presentation. The report must include:

1. Introduction

2. Company’s information.

2.1. Mission, vision, values and corporate philosophy

2.2. Company’s background

2.3. CSR policy

2.4. Code of Ethics

2.5. Geographical markets

2.6. Products and/or services

2.7. Stakeholders

3. Ethically controversial actions made in the recent past.

4. Analysis of these controversial actions from an ethical perspective. Apply class framework

5. Corrective actions undertaken by the company if they are any.

6. Recommendations you make to the company.

7. Bibliography and sources of information

• Submit your task as a pdf document through Turnitin on Moodle. Please refer to the formalities section for format instructions. (you just need to submit

your analysis in a word-pdf document. You don’t need to upload presentation slides).

Formalities:

• Wordcount: 1,500

• Presentation requirements: 5-10 minutes presentation

• Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total wordcount.

• Font: Arial 12,5 pts.

• Text alignment: Justified.

• The in-text References and the Bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

Submission: Week 12 – Class time (Tuesday 26/04/2022 – 08:00 a.m.). Presentations to be held on week 12 and 13.

Weight: This task is a 35% of your total grade for this subject.

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

• Outcome 1: determine how to improve the responsibility of business on respecting human rights and the natural environment, promoting human

development and contributing to a better society;

• Outcome 2: communicate in terms of responsibility and accountability.

• Rubrics

Exceptional 90-100 Good 80-89 Fair 70-79 Marginal fail 60-69

Knowledge &
Understanding

(15%)

Student demonstrates
excellent understanding of
key concepts and uses
vocabulary in an entirely
appropriate manner.

Student demonstrates
good understanding of the
task and mentions some
relevant concepts and
demonstrates use of the
relevant vocabulary.

Student understands the
task and provides minimum
theory and/or some use of
vocabulary.

Student understands the task
and attempts to answer the
question but does not
mention key concepts or uses
minimum amount of relevant
vocabulary.

Application (40%) Student applies fully
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies mostly
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.

Student applies some
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class. Misunderstanding
may be evident.

Student applies little relevant
knowledge from the topics
delivered in class.
Misunderstands are evident.

Critical Thinking
(20%)

Student critically assesses
in excellent ways, drawing
outstanding conclusions
from relevant authors.

Student critically assesses
in good ways, drawing
conclusions from relevant
authors and references.

Student provides some
insights but stays on the
surface of the topic.
References may not be
relevant.

Student makes little or none
critical thinking insights, does
not quote appropriate
authors, and does not
provide valid sources.

Visual presentation
(25%)

Creatively designed slides
or similar means are used.
Right amount of
information included.
Speakers were engaging

Somehow attractive
presentation is used. Right
amount of information
included. Speakers are
somehow engaging

Presentation attractiveness
fluctuates. Some relevant
information is missing.
Speakers’ engagement is
poor.

Presentation feels
unattractive. Important
information is clearly missing.
Speaker’s engagement is
nonexistent.

Marketing homework help

M8.4 Assignment: Communicating Across Cultures

In Module 7, you were introduced to and began working on this assignment. Please take the remainder of the week to complete. Here is a reminder of the activity.

The global nature of organizations is on the rise. Therefore, navigating a diverse workforce and adjusting to cross-cultural issues is of the utmost importance. In that light, consider the following scenario:

As the senior manager of a large software development firm, you have been assigned the oversight of a team of employees tasked with marketing a software program meant to track employee productivity. You will market the software primarily in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Your immediate supervisor has informed you that the international team will convene in four weeks at your corporate headquarters, then travel back to their home countries. You are tasked with creating a marketing plan that will sell your software through the world, and the following individuals will be on your team:

Hong Yu (China)

Sofia Schmidt (Germany)

Brian Cole (US)

Chao Lin (China)

Ivan Rosker (Russia)

Megan Chang (Japan)

Liling Woo (China)

Marie Mayer (Germany)

Marco Aurora (Italy)

Bokamoso Rolong (South Africa)

All of the team members are fluent in English, as well as their native language. Keep in mind the cultural diversity of your team.

Instructions

You will create a PowerPoint which you will present via Zoom. Your presentation should include the following:

An introduction of yourself to your team, including your background and position.

Your plan to senior management on how you will communicate with the team and discuss how you will overcome language and technology barriers that may occur when communicating with those throughout the world.

A new “Code of Communication” that will detail the rules that are expected when communicating/interacting with others on the team (for instance, how often meetings will be held, how team members will communicate with others ((e.g., respect for diverse opinions, etc.)), how you will address conflict, etc. In other words, you should discuss all aspects of how differently you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format.

Your PowerPoint should consist of 6-8 slides, and your video presentation should be at least eight minutes in length.

You must research at least 2 resources from the Excelsior Library and cite them in your transcript using APA format (7th edition.) Remember to include a link to your recording as well as a copy of your transcript.

***If you need accommodations under ADA to complete this assignment, don’t hesitate to get in touch with your professor for an alternative assignment.*** 

Library and Multimedia Resources

Use the EC Library resources to properly cite your work (Login to the EC Library is required):

Human Resources Research Guide (Links to an external site.)

Plagiarism & Copyright  (Links to an external site.)

Excelsior Library Writing Help  (Links to an external site.)

APA Citation Help  (Links to an external site.)

Excelsior College Online Writing Lab (OWL)  (Links to an external site.)

You can use any recording tool of your choice for your video. However, the following offers tips you may find useful:

Multimedia Tip Sheet

Zoom Instructions Download Zoom Instructions

Please note: This is a required artifact for your E-portfolio.

Evaluation

Assignments as a whole are worth 20% of your final grade. This assignment is due Sunday by 11:59 PM EST and will be assessed using the Communicating Across Cultures Rubric.

References

Outcomes

Course Q & A

Return to Learning Pathway

Rubric

Communicating Across Cultures Video Presentation Rubric

Communicating Across Cultures Video Presentation Rubric

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

5 pts

25 pts

25 pts

15 pts

15 pts

15 pts

Total Points: 100

5 to >4.0 pts

Exemplary

You provide a concise, well-articulated, description of your background and position.

4 to >3.0 pts

Satisfactory

You provide a concise, description of your background and position. Minor points need further clarification.

3 to >2.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

You provide a brief description of your background and position. The description is vague and needs more information, so the audience has a better understanding of your role.

2 to >0.0 pts

Unacceptable

You identify yourself and attempt to provide a brief overview. Major details are missing, inadequately described, leaving your audience unable to understand your role.

0 pts

No Points

This criterion was not addressed. You did not adhere to the Academic Honesty Policy.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Evidence-based Communication Plan

25 to >22.0 pts

Exemplary

You succinctly addressed how you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format. You focused on a Code of Communication.

22 to >19.0 pts

Satisfactory

You addressed how you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format. You focused on a Code of Communication.

19 to >16.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

You did not adequately address how you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format. You did not focus on a Code of Communication.

16 to >0.0 pts

Unacceptable

You did not adequately address how you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format. You did not focus on a Code of Communication.

0 pts

No Points

You did not address how you will manage communication in a global, diverse team that interacts largely in the online format. You did not focus on a Code of Communication.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

PowerPoint Presentation

25 to >22.0 pts

Exemplary

The PowerPoint presentation exceeds the information requirements of the assignment. The length of the presentation exceeded the 8-minute requirement. Information is presented in a logical sequence/structure and reflects your deep understanding and effective summarization. You used various presentation props and tools creatively and effectively to enhance persuasion visually and auditorily, attracting the audience with the natural and consistent flow from slide to slide throughout the entire delivery of the presentation.

22 to >19.0 pts

Satisfactory

The PowerPoint presentation meets the information requirements of the assignment. The length of the presentation met the 8-minute requirement. Information is presented in a logical sequence/structure and reflects your understanding and effective summarization. You used some various presentation props and tools effectively to enhance persuasion visually and auditorily, attracting audience with the natural and consistent flow from slide to slide throughout the entire delivery of the presentation.

19 to >16.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

The PowerPoint presentation does not meet the information requirements of the assignment. The number of slides was lower than requested. The length of the presentation was less than the 8-minute requirement. Information is not presented in a logical sequence/structure and reflects your cursory understanding and summarization. Some of your presentation props and tools are used effectively to enhance persuasion visually and auditorily.

16 to >0.0 pts

Unacceptable

The PowerPoint presentation does not meet the information requirements of the assignment. The number of slides was lower than requested. The length of the presentation was less than the 8-minute requirement. Information is not presented in a logical sequence/structure and does not reflect an understanding and summarization. No presentation props and tools are used creatively and effectively to enhance persuasion visually and auditorily, attracting the audience with the natural and consistent flow from slide to slide throughout the entire delivery of the presentation.

0 pts

No Points

There is no PowerPoint presentation that meets the information requirements of the assignment. The length of the presentation was well below the 8-minute requirement. You did not adhere to the College’s Academic Honesty Policy.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Connection with Audience

15 to >12.0 pts

Exemplary

The material is presented clearly with the intended audience in mind (i.e., clear and relevant explanations are presented). Examples, details, and language is interesting and relevant, as well as used effectively to keep the audience engaged and connected with the presentation.

12 to >9.0 pts

Satisfactory

The material is presented clearly with the intended audience in mind; however, further explanation of some ideas would enhance the clarity. Examples, details, and language are appropriate. More relevant examples would facilitate a stronger connection with the audience.

9 to >5.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

The material is presented at too high or too low of a level for the intended audience, making it difficult for the speaker to engage and connect with the audience. Examples, details, and language are inappropriate or irrelevant for the audience. Presentation indicates a lack of interest or confusion on the part of the presenter.

5 to >1.0 pts

Unacceptable

There is no consideration of the audience taken into account.

1 to >0 pts

No Points

Video requirement is missing. You did not adhere to the College’s Academic Honesty Policy.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Body Language

15 to >12.0 pts

Exemplary

Non-verbal behavior is well-maintained, with appropriate body language used effectively to enhance persuasion. Good posture and eye contact are maintained appropriately throughout the entire delivery of video.

12 to >9.0 pts

Satisfactory

Non-verbal behavior is generally well- maintained, good posture and eye contact is maintained appropriately throughout the entire delivery of video. Some inappropriate body language may have been used, though not enough to be distracting.

9 to >5.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

There are moments during the video when good posture, eye contact, and body language is maintained, though inconsistently. At times, eyes were darting in different directions at inappropriate times, and distracting postures and body language.

5 to >1.0 pts

Unacceptable

There is no body language involved; the student simply stayed in one position during the entire duration of the video.

1 to >0 pts

No Points

Video requirement is missing. You did not adhere to the College’s Academic Honesty Policy.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Use of Sources as Evidence

15 to >12.0 pts

Exemplary

Your selected resources are credible, and have clear relevance with the topic at hand, and are used as sources of evidence to support claims made. You selected at least two sources from Excelsior’s library to make strong arguments for/against claims. APA style was followed.

12 to >9.0 pts

Satisfactory

Some of your selected resources from Excelsior’s library are credible and have relevance with the topic at hand,and are used as sources of evidence to support claims made. Including additional sources would have strengthened the support of certain claims. APA style was followed.

9 to >5.0 pts

Minimally Responsive

Most of your selected resources are not credible and are not relevant to your topic. You did not use Excelsior’s library to locate sources. An insufficient number of resources were used. APA style was followed.

5 to >1.0 pts

Unacceptable

Your selected resources are not credible and are not relevant to your topic. You did not use Excelsior’s library to locate sources. An insufficient number of resources were used. APA style was not consistently followed.

1 to >0 pts

No Points

Your selected resources are not credible and are not relevant to your topic. You did not use Excelsior’s library to locate sources. You did not use Excelsior’s library to locate sources. APA style was not followed. You did not adhere to the College’s Academic Honesty Policy.

Marketing homework help

Page 1 of 2

Case 2: Beefman Steakhouse
The Beefman Steakhouse Restaurant (BSR) was established shortly after the Oklahoma Land
Rush of 1889. Its founders insisted on serving only the best steaks by raising and slaughtering
their own cattle; however, the founders had no systematic way of grading their beef to ensure
the best quality on a consistent basis. In 1923, the United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) began grading beef. Although there are eight levels of USDA graded beef, there are
generally only three USDA grades of beef that a person would buy in a supermarket, a butcher
shop, or a restaurant: Prime, Choice, or Select. Of all the beef produced in the U.S., less than
2% is certified as USDA Prime. Anyone that has savored a USDA Prime Graded Steak knows
that it is delightfully tender and juicy with a buttery flavor that makes it distinctively superior to
any other steak. Unfortunately for the BSR, most of its homegrown beef did not grade out as
Prime. Consequently, the BSR began purchasing USDA Prime beef on the open market in 1924
from various local vendors, a practice that continues today.

In addition to grading the quality of beef, the federal government also inspects beef. The
Federal Meat Inspection Act’s (FMIA) two main purposes are to prevent adulterated or
misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat
products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also
apply to imported meat products, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.
USDA inspection of poultry was added by the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA). The
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) authorizes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to
provide inspection services for all livestock and poultry species not listed in the FMIA or PPIA,
including venison and buffalo.

Recent events, however, have called into question the effectiveness of government inspections
of meat. Three months ago, Michael Jones and his family ate dinner at a Burgers Galore
restaurant in Tacoma, Washington, where Michael enjoyed his “Kid’s Meal.” (Instructor’s Note:
Assume Burgers Galore is a large, multinational restaurant similar to McDonald’s.) The next
day, Michael was admitted to Children’s Hospital and Medical Center in Seattle with severe
stomach cramps and bloody diarrhea. Several days later, Michael died of kidney and heart
failure. At the same time, 300 other people in Idaho, Nevada, and Washington who had eaten at
Burgers Galore restaurants were poisoned with E. Coli bacteria, the cause of Michael’s death.
By the end of the outbreak, more than 600 people nationwide were affected. After a month
investigation, it was determined that the E. Coli tainted meat came from one packing plant in
Washington where the meat had not been inspected before shipment.

Examples of illness rooted in unsafe meat are not isolated incidents. Bad or undercooked meat
causes an estimated 4,000 deaths and 5 million illnesses annually, according to the federal
government’s Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Advocacy groups place part of the blame on
insufficient federal government inspectors and part of the blame on consumers themselves. For
example, the USDA recommends the minimum temperature of steak to be 145°F to kill off any
bacteria such as E. Coli. Cooking steak to this temperature is classified by chefs as “medium”
and by many gourmets as overcooked. “Medium rare,” 130° – 135°F, is the temperature range
at which steaks are at their most tender, juicy, and flavorful, but this temperature is insufficient
to kill most meat-borne bacteria.

Page 2 of 2

The BSR is still recognized today as one of the best restaurants in the United States for quality
steaks, serving only USDA Prime graded beef. It has various cuts of steaks and cooks them to
each customer’s preference: rare – 120°F, medium-rare – 130°F, medium – 140°F, medium-
well – 150°F, and well done – 160°F. It estimates that over 70% of its customers prefer their
steaks cooked no more than medium-rare. However, the national news also reported yesterday
that Burgers Galore agreed to settle a class-action lawsuit brought by plaintiffs with minor E.
Coli effects for $12 million. Two other suits, brought on behalf of children who went into comas,
were settled for $3 million and $15.6 million, respectively. As the owner of the BSR, what will
you do? Analyze and format your analysis according to the case instructions.

  • Case 2: Beefman Steakhouse

Marketing homework help

Key Learning Points

One of the main goals of marketing is to assist businesses in understanding and responding to their customers’ needs and expectations while also keeping them informed about how the company might meet those needs. When you use marketing correctly, you’ll find this cycle easier if you keep in touch with your customers. It doesn’t have to imply that you should write and regularly call (though it may), but it suggests that you should do whatever it takes to learn a great deal about your clientele’s qualities, values, interests, and ways of behaving. When a business accepts the marketing concept, it goes to great lengths to learn as much as possible about its customers, with the option of basic marketing, product, and even system decisions based on this information (Gyenge et al., 2021). Instead of starting with anything else, such as a creation limit or imaginative development, these organizations start with the clients’ needs and move backward to create value.

Marketing Strategy

The marketing strategy refers to a company’s approach to creating and delivering customer value. Typical companies adopt a marketing strategy to identify target customers and service funnels. Subsequently, the process involves four steps:

Market segmentation: the division of the target market into distinct groups of consumers with unique needs, attributes, or behaviors for targeting using separate products of marketing and public relations strategies (Yaneva, 2020). Clients who respond similarly to a company’s marketing strategy comprise. A market segment is a group of clients who respond to the company’s marketing strategy.

Market targeting: evaluating the engaging quality of each market segment and identifying which segment to pursue.

Positioning: placing a product in the minds of buyers to provide unique benefits compared to competing items.

Differentiation: a process that creates superior customer value in an organization’s marketing strategy. However, managing the marketing strategy requires companies to perform market analysis, create suitable marketing plans, implement marketing strategies, and measure and evaluate the outcome of marketing strategies.

Customer Value and Satisfaction

Customer value is a fundamental requirement for any organization’s marketing strategy. It also allows companies to acquire, retain, and satisfy consumer needs within the target market segment (Lamb et al., 2021). Besides that, it enhances the capacity of organizations to build long-lasting relationships with consumers. Accordingly, delivering customer value entails focusing on four key elements of the marketing strategy. Typical companies offer consumer products that offer consumer value and are essential to overall marketing strategies. Hence, businesses must focus on four key attributes for creating customer value, as discussed below.

1. Fulfill an emotional value in the target market. Consumers typically look for products that save time, reduce effort, eliminate risks, and their organizational ability.

2. Satisfy consumers’ emotional needs, aesthetics and entertainment needs. Companies that excel in this approach include Apple, Netflix, and Tesla.

3. Provide clues wire motivation, self-actualization, and sense of belonging from non-proud people that have utility and are beneficial.

4. Creating customer value is an essential requirement in marketing. Therefore, businesses should focus on the social aspects of providing customer value within their industry.

Strategic Marketing

There are a few tools that an organization, or SBU, can employ to manage the critical bearing of its consumer market. For example, the most commonly used marketing strategies are Ansoff’s basic open door lattice, the Boston Consulting Group, and the General Electric marketing models. Choosing which option to utilize depends on two modes that define the efficacy of a company to maintain its competitiveness in the marketplace and preview awesome consumer values.

References

Gyenge, B., Máté, Z., Vida, I., Bilan, Y., & Vasa, L. (2021). A new strategic marketing management model for the specificities of e-Commerce in the supply chain. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 16(4), 1136-1149.

Lamb, W. C., Hair, F. J., McDaniel, C. (2019). MKTG13. Principles of marketing, 13th Edition ISBN: 978-0-357-12780-3

Yaneva, D. (2020). Importance of the marketing environment analysis in the process of strategic marketing decision-making. Economics & Law, 2(2), 24-32.

Marketing homework help

SMMP – Phase Six Worksheet

MKT235 – Social Media Marketing


Each week, you will submit an additional Phase and receive feedback from your instructor.

Please use this worksheet to complete Phase Six of the SMMP.

In Unit 8, you will merge and submit a final draft of the 6 phases of the SMMP.

Please refer to the attached instructions and grading rubric for the full assignment details.


SWOT Analysis

S

Strengths

W

Weaknesses

O

Opportunities

T

Threats

List Apple’s Weaknesses

List Apple’s Threats

·
Macro-Environmental Forces:

Marketing homework help

The Main Customer:

The holistic Hair market entry strategy has been indirect even in New Zealand. Holistic Hair sales through pharmacies, salons, health stores, and online channels. The company’s income has grown during its establishment, and it would not be advisable to change customer distribution while entering the United States market. Through this mechanism, Holistic Hair’s primary customer is a distributor. When an American distributor orders from Holistic Hair, either directly or indirectly, the distributor becomes the customer. Adopting a distributor as a customer strategy is Holistic Hair has tried the strategy and worked in other markets. In addition, Holistic Hair will not deal with cultural differences common when a firm enters a new market directly. Further, Holistic Hair will deal with distributors who understand the local market better and can deal with customer acquisition, documentation, and deal with custom technicalities they are familiar with that Holistic Hair would find challenging to handle. Consequently, the distributors will represent Holistic Hair in the distribution, advertising, and marketing of the products in the United States. Amazon professional beauty store, premier beauty, Sephora, and other large beauty product shopping sites are good choices. However, close customer relations, complete control over all transactions, and high profits will be limited through the distributor as a customer strategy.  

The Main Channels To Engage And Reach The Customers:

Choice of main channels to engage the customers is important. In the 21st century, information flow from the manufacturers to the consumer is important. Holistic Hair can utilize both traditional advertising methods and online methods can be applied to engage the customer. In the recent past, consumers have been shifting information search electronic word of mouth, review sites, and social networking sites from offline in the past. Consumer’s reliance on peer opinion over traditional marketing and promotion techniques has also increased recently. Currently, less than 40% of customers trust traditional marketing and promotion channels, more than 90% trust word of mouth from family and friends, and more than 70% trust reviews from online consumers. Holistic Hair can effectively enhance its online presence by engaging customers for reviews on its website and social media pages with this kind of data. At the same time, Holistic Hair can offer discounts and gifts for any referrals for their products to loyal consumers and have traditional advertising and promotion methods to cater to the 40% market share that does not trust online presence. 

Marketing homework help

10

3

4

6

9

11

12

Sp.

Article Error

Sp.

Missing “,” Article Error

Article Error

P/V

Coord. Conjunction

Missing “,”

7

10

15

15

31

35

36

36

39

Coord. Conjunction

3

6

27

37

18

19

21

23

32

15

8

8

13

14

14

20 20

22

41

16

Sp.

Article Error

Sp.

Sp.

Article Error

16

24

25

29

30

38

17

26

40

18

Article Error Coord. Conjunction

Article Error

Prep.

Missing “,”

Run-on

Article Error

P/V

11

Article Error

Article Error

6

21 Run-on Frag.

Article Error

Article Error Frag.

Article Error

4
4

8

9

12

28

22

23

Sp.

Sp.

Run-on Sp.

Frag.

11

42

26

Possessive

Coord. Conjunction

Article Error

Article Error

Proofread

33

34

Wrong Article

Sp.

Article Error

Wrong Article

Sp.

Sp.Missing “,”

Article Error

1

2

5

17

27

28

29

30

Frag.

Article Error

Article Error

2

4

5

6

9

11

17

31
32

1

12

28

20%
SIMILARITY INDEX

17%
INTERNET SOURCES

6%
PUBLICATIONS

16%
STUDENT PAPERS

1 1%
2 1%
3 1%
4 1%
5 1%
6 1%
7 1%
8 1%
9 1%

Group Assignment.docx
ORIGINALITY REPORT

PRIMARY SOURCES

Submitted to Anglia Ruskin University
Student Paper

myassignmenthelp.com
Internet Source

www.jec.senate.gov
Internet Source

Submitted to Franklin University
Student Paper

rd.springer.com
Internet Source

Submitted to University of Auckland
Student Paper

Submitted to Drexel University
Student Paper

www.statista.com
Internet Source

Submitted to Florida International University
Student Paper

10 1%
11 1%
12 1%
13 1%
14 1%
15 1%
16 <1%
17 <1%
18 <1%
19 <1%
20 <1%
21 <1%

Submitted to Coventry University
Student Paper

www.citethisforme.com
Internet Source

Submitted to Louisiana State University
Student Paper

Submitted to UI, Springfield
Student Paper

www.cosmeticsdesign-asia.com
Internet Source

Submitted to Colorado Technical University
Student Paper

Submitted to Temple University
Student Paper

Submitted to Oklahoma State University
Student Paper

Submitted to RMIT University
Student Paper

Submitted to University of Melbourne
Student Paper

Www.statista.com
Internet Source

repository.ihu.edu.gr
Internet Source

22 <1%
23 <1%
24 <1%
25 <1%
26 <1%

27 <1%
28 <1%
29 <1%
30 <1%
31 <1%
32 <1%

Submitted to Kaplan University
Student Paper

www.truthinadvertising.org
Internet Source

www.uoascientific.com
Internet Source

Submitted to Macquarie University
Student Paper

Submitted to Southern New Hampshire
University – Continuing Education
Student Paper

Submitted to University of Wales Swansea
Student Paper

www.population-world.info
Internet Source

Submitted to Wawasan Open University
Student Paper

www.peta.org
Internet Source

Submitted to Auckland Institute of Studies
Student Paper

Submitted to Haddonfield Memorial High
School
Student Paper

33 <1%
34 <1%
35 <1%
36 <1%
37 <1%
38 <1%
39 <1%
40 <1%
41 <1%
42 <1%

Exclude quotes Off

Exclude bibliography Off

Exclude matches Off

www.evolutionssalonofasheville.com
Internet Source

en.wikipedia.org
Internet Source

irl.umsl.edu
Internet Source

www.state.gov
Internet Source

egyptinnovate.com
Internet Source

siepr.stanford.edu
Internet Source

wicworks.fns.usda.gov
Internet Source

www.engr.pitt.edu
Internet Source

www.chemistscorner.com
Internet Source

www.grandviewresearch.com
Internet Source

FINAL GRADE

15/0
Group Assignment.docx
GRADEMARK REPORT

GENERAL COMMENTS

Instructor

PAGE 1

Strikethrough.

S/V This subject and verb may not agree. Proofread the sentence to make sure the subject
agrees with the verb.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Strikethrough.

PAGE 2

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Comment 3

keep as one sentence

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Comment 4

will be

Strikethrough.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Missing “,” Review the rules for using punctuation marks.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Comment 6

Finally the report will provide…

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word. Consider using the article
the.

Strikethrough.

P/V You have used the passive voice in this sentence. You may want to revise it using the
active voice.

Strikethrough.

Comment 9

The products include…

Strikethrough.

Comment 11

Domestically,

Comment 12

Keep this in the present tense

Strikethrough.

Coord. Conjunction Review the rules for combining sentences.

Missing “,” Review the rules for using punctuation marks.

PAGE 3

Coord. Conjunction Review the rules for combining sentences.

PAGE 4

Strikethrough.

PAGE 5

Comment 15

unclear – can you rewrite this?

PAGE 6

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Comment 16

Clear and strongly expressed

PAGE 7

Comment 17

present tense

PAGE 8

Comment 18

give

Strikethrough.

Strikethrough.

PAGE 9

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Coord. Conjunction Review the rules for combining sentences.

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Prep. You may be using the wrong preposition.

Missing “,” Review the rules for using punctuation marks.

Run-on This sentence may be a run-on sentence.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word. Consider using the article
the.

P/V You have used the passive voice in this sentence. You may want to revise it using the
active voice.

PAGE 10

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

PAGE 11

Comment 21

Make sure you refer to this

Run-on This sentence may be a run-on sentence.

Frag. This sentence may be a fragment or may have incorrect punctuation. Proofread the
sentence to be sure that it has correct punctuation and that it has an independent clause
with a complete subject and predicate.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word. Consider using the article
the.

Frag. This sentence may be a fragment or may have incorrect punctuation. Proofread the
sentence to be sure that it has correct punctuation and that it has an independent clause
with a complete subject and predicate.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

PAGE 12

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Comment 22

This is a little unclear. Are women with kinky hair the ones who are worried about their
health etc? Perhaps rewrite this

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Run-on This sentence may be a run-on sentence.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Comment 23

Put this on the next page

Frag. This sentence may be a fragment or may have incorrect punctuation. Proofread the
sentence to be sure that it has correct punctuation and that it has an independent clause
with a complete subject and predicate.

PAGE 13

Possessive Review the rules for possessive nouns.

Strikethrough.

Coord. Conjunction Review the rules for combining sentences.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Strikethrough.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Comment 26

Put on the next page

Proofread This part of the sentence contains an error or misspelling that makes your
meaning unclear.

PAGE 14

Wrong Article You may have used the wrong article or pronoun. Proofread the sentence
to make sure that the article or pronoun agrees with the word it describes.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

Wrong Article You may have used the wrong article or pronoun. Proofread the sentence
to make sure that the article or pronoun agrees with the word it describes.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Sp. This word is misspelled. Use a dictionary or spellchecker when you proofread your
work.

Missing “,”

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word.

PAGE 15

Frag. This sentence may be a fragment or may have incorrect punctuation. Proofread the
sentence to be sure that it has correct punctuation and that it has an independent clause
with a complete subject and predicate.

Comment 27

Unclear – can you rewrite this?

Comment 28

customer?

Article Error You may need to use an article before this word. Consider using the article
the.

Comment 29

repeated ords from pervious sentence – us another word

Article Error You may need to remove this article.

Comment 30

searching to…

PAGE 16

Comment 31

Write a short conclusion or summary.

Comment 32

Mostly clear, well-researched and referenced, but some sentences are unclear. Re-write
these, as shown.

Provide a conclusion.

PAGE 17

Marketing homework help

BCO225 – CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR FINAL Task brief & rubrics

Task: Written summative assignment

Customer Behavior Strategy

This assessment is a written submission exam and will be released in week 12 of the course.

Use examples to illustrate your point. Include links and images

1. Explain how a company can influence the consumer behavior along the customer journey online and offline. Use an example to

explain how a brand interact online and offline and how both worlds are connected. What is the role of CRM in this interactions.

2. What is cognitive dissonance and how brands can define clusters taking into account this consumer behavior? Explain it using

an example and define how a company could use it to define the strategy per cluster.

3. Explain how DIY is a successful phenomenon among consumers? Is it a win-win situation? Use an example of a company that is

using this strategy successfully.

4. Explain how luxury brands manage to connect with the customer. Highlight differences and commonalities vs mass market

brands.

5. Explain how we can influence consumer behavior through an educational campaign. Use an example to explain a successful

educational campaign.

The report should be in word document format and must be uploaded to a Turnitin folder created on the course Moodle platform.

Formalities:

o Word: Word count: 2000 words.

o Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total word count.

o Font: Arial, size 12,5

o Text alignment: Justified

o The in-text References and the Bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

Submission: Week (13) – Via Moodle (Turnitin). Submission deadline Sunday 8th of May 2022 at 23:59 CEST

Weight: This task is a 60% of your total grade for this subject.

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

Outcome 1: Understanding Customer behavior and Consumer Needs

Outcome 2: Understanding Customer relationship

Outcome 3: Understanding Customer research

Outcome 4: Understanding Customer journey

Rubrics

Exceptional 90-100 Good 80-89 Fair 70-79 Marginal fail 60-69

Knowledge &
Understanding

(20%)

Student demonstrates
excellent understanding of
key concepts and uses
vocabulary in an entirely
appropriate manner.

Student demonstrates
good understanding of the
task and mentions some
relevant concepts and
demonstrates use of the
relevant vocabulary.

Student understands the
task and provides minimum
theory and/or some use of
vocabulary.

Student understands the task
and attempts to answer the
question but does not
mention key concepts or uses
minimum amount of relevant
vocabulary.

Application (30%) Student applies fully
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.
Customer needs, Maslow,
behavior and attitude,
Customer journey, loyalty
program, retention,
customer experience, CRM

Student applies mostly
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class.
Customer needs, Maslow,
behavior and attitude,
Customer journey, loyalty
program, retention,
customer experience, CRM

Student applies some
relevant knowledge from
the topics delivered in
class. Misunderstanding
may be evident.
Customer needs, Maslow,
behavior and attitude,
Customer journey, loyalty
program, retention,
customer experience, CRM

Student applies little relevant
knowledge from the topics
delivered in class.
Misunderstands are evident.
Customer needs, Maslow,
behavior and attitude,
Customer journey, loyalty
program, retention,
customer experience, CRM

Critical Thinking
(30%)

Student critically assesses
in excellent ways, drawing
outstanding conclusions
from relevant authors.

Student critically assesses
in good ways, drawing
conclusions from relevant
authors and references.

Student provides some
insights but stays on the
surface of the topic.
References may not be
relevant.

Student makes little or none
critical thinking insights, does
not quote appropriate
authors, and does not
provide valid sources.

Communication
(20%)

Student communicates
their ideas extremely
clearly and concisely,
respecting word count,
grammar and spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas clearly and
concisely, respecting word
count, grammar and
spellcheck

Student communicates
their ideas with some
clarity and concision. It
may be slightly over or
under the wordcount limit.
Some misspelling errors
may be evident.

Student communicates their
ideas in a somewhat unclear
and unconcise way. Does not
reach or does exceed
wordcount excessively and
misspelling errors are
evident.

Marketing homework help

716

Course structure

Business

models

Identifying

Problem

Analysing

customers

Analysing

context

Analysing

distribution

Analysing

resources

Strategy

develop

ment

Strategy

evaluation

Implement

ation

Today

Learning objectives

1.

Gain a broad perspective of the resources

available to firms and how to value these

2.

Understand the resource

based view of strategic

planning

4

Agenda

1.

Firm resources defined

Resource location

Resource ownership

Valuation difficulties

2.

Resource

based view (VRIO analysis tool)

Knowledge

People

Time

Money

Partnerships and alliances

3.

Resources analysis models

Value chain analysis

Business Model Canvas

Internal environment and resources

Diagram  Description automatically generated

Owning versus controlling

Owning may be good but consider opportunity cost

Controlling is more important, not owning

Rent them, as long as contracts are enforceable

e.g. licence, employment, lease

Borrow or co

opt them, but limited time for use?

e.g. strategic alliances, Joint Ventures

Location inside or outside the firm?

e.g., reputation, tacit knowledge

Resources and Capabilities

· Tangible: physical, processing plant, organizational and technological

· Intangible: human, reputation, creativity/innovation

· Capabilities: A company’s ability to deploy resources; knowledge and use of resources through processes, information exchange, systems, etc

Competitive advantage comes from how the resources are employed rather than merely possessing them

Firm resource categories and items

Table  Description automatically generatedSource: Grant (1991); Chetty & Wilson (2003)

Value of resources

· Entrepreneurs requires (assumes) people to hold different values about the value of resources

· Information asymmetries

· Entrepreneurs have the insight to see how a price is set too low and that through adding value or moving resource it can be sold at a higher price

· Resource owners must not be able to see that same value

· Economies in constant disequilibrium because new information alters the value of resources

Source: Shane and Venkataraman, 2000

Resources as the basis of profitability

Source: Grant (1991)

Resource

based

strategy process

Source: Grant (1991)

https://

a

futurism.com/

w

ne

y

compan

s

allow

yo

u

o

t

monetiz

e

r

you

c

geneti

a

dat

/

Resources

Discussion of some business examples

Boutique

Small hotel

Bakery

Software developer

Resources leading to competitive

advantage

VRIO model

VRIO framework criteria

Value

:

Resources are valuable when they can exploit an

opportunity or neutralize a threat.

Rare

:

Valuable resources are possessed by a small

number of competing firms.

Imperfectly imitable

:

Competing firms cannot obtain the

valuable and rare resources.

Organization

:

The firm’s ability to integrate, build, and

reconfigure its resources better than its rivals.

VRIO

model used for resource analysis

Or some

Example

VRIO Framework – reflection

Advantages

· Separate strategic resources from operational resources

· Helps identify unused competitive advantages to transform into sustained competitive advantages

· Entrepreneurs can understand which activities are important or rank them

· Identify gaps and allocate resources to areas that gives them greatest returns

Disadvantages

· May not account for all the resources and activities

· The sustainable competitive advantage (or lack of it) could change quickly due to environment

Characteristics of select resources

Knowledge as a resource

· Path dependent – knowledge encourages further development of knowledge

· Non-rivalry (and non-depleting) – one person’s use of an idea does not preclude another from using it at the same time

· Irreversibly transferrable – once I know it I cannot give it back (e.g. secrets)

· High initial costs but low marginal cost – expensive to gain but cheap to reproduce (e.g. piracy)

· Substitutable – can replace other forms of resources (less use of labour or transport)

Pricing knowledge

Data

information

knowledge

wisdom are not the

same

Intellectual capital of company = difference

between market value at sale of company and asset

(

book) value on balance sheet

Asymmetric information between buyer and seller

can’t tell you information before purchase

Buyer needs expertise to judge value

People (humans) as a resource

Somewhat controlled but

never owned (not slavery)

Who owns employee

knowledge?

Who paid for the training?

Who owns employee

business relationships or

company data?

Time as a resource

Limited; cannot be bought

“Cash burn” rate for start

ups

Limited time before

competitor imitates

innovation

Time available for success

(

Perlow

et. al. 2002)

Too fast or too slow?

Early mover or late mover?

Linked to implementation of

a plan

Characteristic of time as a resource

Cash as a resource

Test against VRIO model….

Only a potential resource; flexible means of trading

for productive resources

Valuable but not rare: competitive parity

Partnerships & alliances as a resource

NOT Every relationship or network connections is a

partnership

Means of accessing additional resources

Complementary resources?

Not central to core competencies?

But controlling?

Two other

frameworks

for resource

analysis

Porter’s Value Chain analysis

How to identify competitive

advantage?

Every firm has value creating

activities

Five primary activities and

four support activities

Primary activities should

help create value that

exceeds the cost

generate

profit

Source of competitive

advantage can be from one

or more activities

Example of a value chain

McDonalds

Business Model Canvas (BMC)

The BMC is a shared language for

describing, visualizing, assessing and

changing business models.

The BMC describes the

rationale

of how an

organization

creates

,

delivers

and

captures

value

Key issues


Creates value


Delivers value


Captures value

Business model canvas

Example 1

Example 2

Summary

· Resources underpin strategy

· Broad set of tangible and intangible elements of business might be resources

· Important resources are difficult to value:

· Knowledge, people, time, relationships

· Resource control is central; ownership less so

· Creating value and delivering it is central to strategy process

· Understanding the relationships among business stakeholders helps in strategy development.

References

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

Chetty, S., & Wilson, H. I. (2003). Collaborating with competitors to acquire resources. International Business Review, 12(1), 61-81.

Das, T. K. (1991). Time: The hidden dimension in strategic planning. Long Range Planning, 24(3), 49-57.

Freeman, S., Edwards, R., & Schroder, B. (2006). How smaller born-global firms use networks and alliances to overcome constraints to rapid internationalization. Journal of International Marketing, 14(3), 33-63.

Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, 33(3), 114135.

Perlow, L. A., Okhuysen, G. A., & Repenning, N. P. (2002). The speed trap:

Exploring the relationship between decision making and temporal context. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5).

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.

Marketing homework help

1

Case Grading Procedure

Your grade from each case analysis is determined using the following assessment rubrics:

 Ethical Decision-Making Rubric – EDR

 School of Business Writing Assessment Rubric – WAR

Review each of the rubrics below to see what is expected of you.

Your grade will be calculated as follows:

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑒 = 0.85 (
𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐸𝐷𝑅

50
) + 0.15 (

𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑊𝐴𝑅

70
)

The total case grade will be out of 50 points.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑒 × 50

2

Ethical Decision-Making Rubric
Evaluators are encouraged to assign a zero to any work sample or collection of work that does not meet minimum performance levels.

Case Analysis Steps Standards Points

Ethical Issues:

Issue Identification All ethical issues are

properly identified (4

points)

Most ethical issues are

properly identified (3

points)

Some ethical issues are

properly identified (2 – 1

points)

No ethical issue is

properly identified (0

points)

Issue Definitions/Descriptions

and Factual Support
Of those ethical issues

identified, all are

adequately defined/

described and supported

by case facts (6 points)

Of those ethical issues

identified, most issues

identified are adequately

defined/ described and

supported by case facts (5

– 4 points)

Of those ethical issues

identified, some issues

identified are adequately

defined/ described and

supported by case facts (3

– 1 points)

No issue identified is

adequately

defined/described and

supported by case facts (0

points)

Stakeholder Analysis:

Stakeholder Identification All key stakeholders are

properly identified (6

points)

Most key stakeholders are

properly identified (5 – 4

points)

Some key stakeholders are

properly identified (3 – 1

points)

No key stakeholder is

properly identified (0

points)

Identification of Stakes Of those stakeholders

identified, all important

stakes are properly listed

(4 points)

Of those stakeholders

identified, most important

stakes are properly listed

(3 points)

Of those stakeholders

identified, some important

stakes are properly listed

(2 – 1 points)

Of those stakeholders

identified, no important

stakes are properly listed

(0 point)

Ethical Decisions
All short- and long-term

ethical issues are resolved

through the use of ethical

decisions (10 points)

Most short- and/or long-

term ethical issues are

resolved through the use

of ethical decisions (9 – 6

points)

Some short- and/or long-

term ethical issues are

resolved through the use

of ethical decisions (5 – 1

points)

Alternate decisions or

unethical decisions are

used to attempt to resolve

the ethical issues

identified (0 points)

Nonconsequentialist Analysis:

Subcharacteristic Identification

and Definition

Four of the top

subcharacteristics are

properly identified and

properly defined (4 points)

Three of the top

subcharacteristics are

properly identified and

properly defined (3 points)

Two of the top

subcharacteristics are

properly identified and

properly defined (2 points)

One of the top

subcharacteristics is

properly identified and

properly defined (1 point)

Subcharacteristic Justification
All subcharacteristics are

properly used to justify

why chosen decisions are

ethical (6 points)

Most of the

subcharacteristics are

properly used to justify

why chosen decisions are

ethical (5 – 3 points)

Some of the

subcharacteristics are

properly used to justify

why chosen decisions are

ethical (2 – 1 points)

None of the

subcharacteristics are

properly used to justify

why chosen decisions are

ethical (0 points)

Consequentialist Analysis:

Stakeholder Stake Categorization All stakes identified in the

stakeholder analysis are

properly categorized as a

benefit and/or cost (8

points)

Most stakes identified in

the stakeholder analysis

are properly categorized as

a benefit and/or cost (7 – 5

points)

Several stakes identified in

the stakeholder analysis

are properly categorized as

a benefit and/or cost 4 – 1

(points)

No stakes identified in the

stakeholder analysis are

properly categorized as a

benefit and/or cost (0

points)

Identification of Decision Benefits/

Costs
All benefits and/or costs

of decisions are properly

categorized (2 points)

Several benefits and/or

costs of decisions are

properly categorized (1

points)

No benefits and/or costs of

decisions are properly

categorized (0 points)

Total

3

School of Business Writing Assessment Rubric:

This written assessment rubric is designed around business writing assignments, including reports. The rubric is sectioned in three parts: correctness, style, and content. Each item
in the table is evaluated on a scale of 5 – 1, with 5 being the highest and 1 being the lowest.

Correctness: This phase of writing is actually editing. The correctness phase ensures that writing conforms to standard English and document formatting. This phase identifies

adherence to grammar, spelling, punctuation, reading level, and document formatting based on standard business document formats.

Grammar

5 Writer establishes credibility with nearly perfect grammar.

4 Document contains some errors in grammar, but none that challenge reader understanding.

3 Document contains several errors in grammar that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or persuasive errors in grammar that create barriers to reader understanding and seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive errors in grammar and destroys the writer’s credibility.

Spelling

5 Writer establishes credibility with nearly perfect spelling.

4 Document contains some spelling errors, but none that challenge reader understanding.

3 Document contains several spelling errors that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or persuasive spelling errors that create barriers to reader understanding and seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive spelling errors and destroys the writer’s credibility.

Punctuation (using U.S. English rules)

5 Writer establishes credibility with nearly perfect punctuation.

4 Document contains some errors in punctuation, but none that challenge reader understanding.

3 Document contains several errors in punctuation that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or persuasive errors in punctuation that create barriers to reader understanding and seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive errors in punctuation and destroys the writer’s credibility.

Reading Level

5 Writer establishes credibility with words that are on a level that is understandable to the intended audience.

4 Document contains parts that have reading level errors, but none that challenge reader understanding.

3 Document contains several reading level errors that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or persuasive reading level errors that create barriers to reader understanding and seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive errors reading level that destroys the writer’s credibility.

Document Format (Design and Appearance)

5 Document uses design elements (white space, line spacing, indents, margins, titles and sub-titles, font size and style, etc.) that follow standard business
formats for the type of document assigned.

4 Document is clean, but the appearance could be improved by more closely following and adhering to standard business formats for the type of document
assigned.

3 Document has an amateurish look to it and/or is in need of a more professional appearance that follows standard document formats for the type of document
assigned. The audience may be confused.

2 Document appears sloppy and unprofessional, and that sloppiness will certainly cause the audience to be confused.

1 Document looks as if the writer does not care about the appearance. The audience is completely confused and the appearance may even be misleading.

4

Style: This phase of writing goes beyond correctness. This phase involves evaluating the student work for word choice (choosing the right words), audience, writing effective

sentences, developing logical paragraphs, and setting an appropriate overall tone.

Words

5 Document uses words that are clear, concrete, vigorous, concise, and positive (when appropriate).

4 Document uses words are mostly clear, concrete, vigorous, concise and positive, but no word usage errors that challenge the reader’s understanding or hurt the
writer’s credibility.

3 Document contains several errors in word usage that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or pervasive word usage errors that create barriers to understanding and seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive errors in word usage that destroys the writer’s credibility.

Audience

5 Document is written for a clearly defined audience and has addressed that audience expertly and the writer has expertly followed the directions of the
assignment/task.

4 Document audience is clear and the writer has done a good job of addressing the intended audience.

3 Document’s treatment of the audience is somewhat confusing; the writer does not seem to understand the audience of the document and may not have clearly
understood the assignment/task.

2 Document’s treatment of the audience appears unprofessional and/or it is not clear who is being addressed, and the writer has not followed the directions for
this assignment/task.

1 Document makes no effort to connect with an audience.

Sentence Style: Flow of Writing

5 Document uses clear, concise writing, making it easy to read. The writer used a variety of sentence types that effectively subordinate ideas (complex),
coordinate relationships (compound), and add emphasis (simple).

4 Document uses a writing style and sentence structure that is good, but perhaps the writer could have written more clearly and/or written more concisely.

3 Document has some awkward and clumsy style, and/or the writer uses sentence structure that is unsophisticated.

2 Document has little coherent structure in the sentence style and is confusing.

1 Document’s sentence structure and sentence style is completely disorganized.

Paragraph Development

5 Document flow within paragraphs is logical and consistent, developing a single idea consistently. The writer uses effective transitional words, pronouns,
repetition when appropriate, parallel structure and controls paragraph length..

4 Document flow within paragraphs sometimes lacks consistent and logical development or sometimes overlooks effective transitional words, pronouns, repetition
when appropriate , parallel structure and paragraph length, but does not create barriers to understanding and does not seriously hurt the writer’s credibility.

3 Document flow within paragraphs is sometimes confusing, and may hurt the writer’s credibility.

` 2 Document paragraph development has little coherent structure and is confusing, and will hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document paragraph development is completely disorganized.

Overall Tone

5 Document is confident, courteous and sincere, and nondiscriminatory.

4 Document is mostly confident, courteous and sincere, and nondiscriminatory, but does not hurt the writer’s credibility.

3 Document contains several errors in tone that begin to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document contains frequent or pervasive tone errors that create barriers to understanding and hurt the writer’s credibility.

1 Document contains excessive errors in tone that destroys the writer’s credibility.

5

Content: This phase of writing includes the following: is the content appropriate for the purpose of the assignment; is the purpose clear to the audience; is the writing sensitive to the

needs of the reader; is all of information necessary; is any needed information missing; and evidence (ethics)?

Appropriate Purpose

5 Document is appropriate for the purpose of the assignment.

4 Document mostly identifies the purpose, but does not hurt the writer’s credibility.

3 Document identifies the purpose, but fails to completely associate the purpose with the assignment and begins to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document purpose is confusing and does not address the assignment effectively.

1 Document fails to identify the purpose.

Sensitivity to Audience Needs

5 Document is sensitive to the needs of the audience and the assignment.

4 Document is mostly sensitive to the needs of the audience and the assignment, but does not hurt the writer’s credibility.

3 Document begins to lack sensitivity to the audience and the assignment needs, and may hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document need is confusing and does not address the assignment effectively.

1 Document fails meet the audience and assignment needs.

Content

5 Document contains all necessary content for the purpose of the assignment.

4 Document mostly includes all necessary content, but does not hurt the writer’s credibility.

3 Document omits some content for the purpose of the assignment, and begins to hurt the writer’s credibility.

2 Document omits enough content to effectively complete the purpose of the assignment.

1 Document fails to include major portions of required content to complete the assignment.

Evidence (Ethics)

5 Document has excellent use of research and sources, helping strengthen/build the document’s main point(s) with this material.

4 Document makes good use of research and sources; in a few places the document’s main point(s) could have been strengthened with additional evidence.

3 Document would be substantially strengthened with more/better evidence, and/or the evidence presented is formatted in an incorrect, sloppy, or distracting way.

2 Document is weak because of the lack of evidence and support, and/or the evidence used is formatted so poorly that it’s difficult to tell what is cited.

1 Document’s use of evidence is unacceptable for a college-level writer.

Marketing homework help

Page 1 of 23

Consumers/Marketing Ethics
Outline

I. Introduction
A. Opening Case Comments

1. As an illustration of the complex moral relationship between businesses and
their consumers, Shaw and Barry outline a brief history of the manufacture and
marketing of cigarettes to the public, and then ask the following questions:
a. What are the responsibilities to consumers of companies that sell

potentially or (in the case of cigarettes) inherently harmful products?
b. To what extent do manufacturers abuse advertising?
c. When is advertising deceptive?
d. Can advertisers create or at least stimulate desires for products that

consumers would not otherwise want or would not otherwise want as
much?

e. How, if at all, should advertising be restricted?
2. With the sale of goods to the public comes responsibility on the part of the

manufacturer and advertiser.
a. Government has some responsibility to protect the public from hazardous

or mislabeled goods.
b. However, what responsibilities do companies have toward their

consumers? How can goods be promoted while respecting the choices of
individuals?

3. Chapter 6 examines the following topics:
a. Marketing and a framework for marketing ethics.
b. Product safety, legal liability, and regulation.
c. Responsibilities of business to consumers concerning product quality,

prices, labeling, and packaging.
d. Deceptive marketing promotion and the FTC.
e. “Reasonable” vs. “ignorant” consumer standards.
f. The social desirability of advertising, free speech, and consumer needs.

B. Chapter Learning Objectives – After completing this chapter students should be able

to:
1. Understand the basis for business’s responsibility to consumers and the

imbalance of power between sellers and buyers.
2. Trace the evolution of the relationship between business and consumer from a

philosophy of caveat emptor to the due care theory.
3. Identify and evaluate the systems that have been put in place to regulate

products and services, protect consumers, and ensure corporate compliance.
4. Delineate the responsibilities of business with regard to safety, product quality,

fair pricing, packaging and labeling, and marketing promotion.
5. Assess the merits of the arguments for and against advertising.

Page 2 of 23

II. Marketing
A. Overview

1. A key to understanding the legal and moral obligations businesses owe to
consumers is by first looking at marketing and the rights and obligations of both
businesses and consumers.

2. Marketing is defined as “the performance of business activities that direct the
flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user.”

3. Because consumer choices are so important for business survival, ethical
problems in trying to persuade consumers to purchase a business’s goods
and/or services is inevitable.

B. Framework for Marketing Ethics
1. Most of the ethical problems in marketing involve three ethical concepts:

fairness (or justice), freedom, and well-being.
a. Fairness is a central concern because it is a basic moral requirement of

any market transaction—and the result of successful marketing is always
a market transaction.

b. Freedom is at issue in marketing with respect to having a range of
consumer options.

c. Well-being is a consideration in evaluating the social impact of products
and advertising, as well as product safety.

2. These three principles of fairness, freedom, and well-being can be expressed
in the four-point Bill of Rights for Consumers that President John F.
Kennedy proclaimed in 1962 (a.k.a. consumerism). These rights are:
a. The right to be protected from harmful products (well-being).
b. The right to be provided with adequate information about products

(fairness).
c. The right to be offered a choice that includes the products that consumers

truly want (well-being and freedom).
d. The right to have a voice in the making of major marketing decisions

(freedom).
3. This movement arose despite the fact that business had long operated on the

basis of the marketing concept, which stresses consumer satisfaction.
4. Traditionally, businesses are understood to have several rights, which are

limited only by the usual rules of fair market exchanges. These rights are:
a. The right to make decisions regarding the products offered for sale, such

as their design and style.
b. The right to set the price for products and all other terms of sale, including

warranties.
c. The right to determine how products will be made available to consumers.
d. The right to promote products in any way that producers choose.

5. Thus, the consumer movement sought to balance the rights of businesses with
this new list of consumer rights.

III. Product Safety

A. Overview
1. Business’s responsibility for understanding and providing for consumer needs

derives from the fact that citizen-consumers are completely dependent on
business to satisfy their needs.

2. The complexity of an advanced economy and the necessary dependence of
consumers on business to satisfy their many wants increase business’s
responsibilities to consumers—particularly in the area of product safety.

Page 3 of 23

3. Statistics suggest that faith in the conscientiousness of business is sometimes
misplaced.

B. The Legal Liability of Manufacturers
1. The 1916 MacPherson v. Buick Motor Car case expanded the liability of

manufacturers for injuries caused by defective products.
a. Prior to MacPherson, consumers could recover damages only from the

retailer of the defective product.
1) Rationale: A manufacturer’s liability for damage caused by a defective

product was based on a contractual relationship.
2) Under contract law, the “privity doctrine” only allows the contracting

parties to sue one another (e.g., the consumer-buyer and the retailer-
seller).

3) Since manufacturers were not part of the contractual exchange, they
were not in privity of the contract and therefore could not be sued.

b. Although never a legal doctrine, one can categorize the pre-MacPherson
era as adopting the caveat emptor (“let the buyer beware”) doctrine.
1) According to the doctrine of caveat emptor, consumers were held to

the ideal of being knowledgeable, shrewd, and skeptical in their
purchases.

2) This meant that the consumer was entirely responsible if harmed by a
purchased product unless he/she could show some breach of contract
and was in privity to the contract.

2. The MacPherson decision recognized the 20th century economic reality of large
manufacturing concerns and national systems of product distribution.
a. Among other things, local retailers are not as likely as large

manufacturers to be able to bear financial responsibility for defective
products that injure others.
1) Thus, MacPherson changed the “public policy” between consumers

and manufacturers.
2) It looked at the old privity system and determined that the privity

system did not represent what was in the best interest of the
public—this is what we mean by public policy.

3) Since local retailers are not as likely as large manufacturers to be able
to bear responsibility for defective products that injure others,
MacPherson determined that what was in the best interest of the
public would be to shift this burden to those who were in a better
position (i.e., manufacturers).

4) How were they in a better position?
a) Manufacturers can control the quality of the goods they

manufacture.
b) They can better absorb these costs increase through reduced

profits or increasing prices.
5) Relate this back to our discussion of the changing “social contract”

between corporations/businesses and their stakeholders that we
discussed in Chapter 5.

6) You should also note that this is a utilitarian approach.
b. MacPherson adopted a “due-care” theory of the manufacturer’s duty to

consumers.
1) Due care is the idea that consumers and sellers do not meet as

equals and that the consumer’s interests are particularly vulnerable to
being harmed by the manufacturer, who has knowledge and expertise

Page 4 of 23

the consumer does not have.
2) According to the due-care theory, manufacturers have an obligation,

above and beyond any contract, to exercise due care to prevent the
consumer from being injured by defective products.

3) In law, the concept of due care manifests itself in the tort of
negligence.
a) A tort can be simply defined as a noncontractual, civil wrong.

Explain.
b) Negligence can be simply defined as failure to exercise a duty of

due care.
c) A simple legal definition of due care is carelessness or failure to

act as a reasonable person would act given the same or similar
circumstances.

d) Under the tort theory of negligence, the injured party can sue the
party that was negligent (i.e., failed to act with due care); the
injured party does not have to be in privity to the negligent party
because negligence is based on tort law, not contract law.

c. As the concept of due care spread, it superseded the old doctrine of
caveat emptor.

3. Strict Product Liability – Despite its support for the due-care theory and for a
broader view of manufacturer’s liability, the MacPherson case still left the
injured consumer with the burden of proving that the manufacturer had been
negligent (i.e., acted carelessly).
a. Problems:

1) Negligence is often difficult to prove.
2) A product might be unsafe despite the manufacturer’s having

exercising due care.
b. These problems led to a further policy shift adopted in the 1960 New

Jersey case of Hennington v. Bloomfield Motors and the 1963
California case of Greenman v. Yuba Power Products.

c. This new approach to product safety adopted a strict liability approach.
1) According to the strict liability approach, the manufacturer of a

product has legal responsibilities to compensate the user of that
product for injuries suffered due to a defective aspect of the product,
even though the manufacturer has not been negligent in permitting
the defect to occur.

2) Because liability is not dependent on fault (i.e., carelessness or
unreasonableness) in this approach, sometimes the term “no-fault
liability” will also be used to describe this approach.

3) Like negligence, strict liability is a tort. It is not based on contract
therefore no privity requirement need be shown.

d. Negligence versus Strict Liability – Two important differences:
1) Proof: In negligence, the plaintiff must show that the defendant

breached its duty of care (i.e., acted carelessly or unreasonably); in
strict liability, the plaintiff must simply show that the product was
defective.

2) Parties Subject to Suit: In negligence, the plaintiff can sue only those
parties who were alleged to be careless in the manufacture or selling
of the product; in strict liability, the plaintiff can sue any party who sold
the good in its defective state. Explain.

e. Critics of strict product liability contend that the doctrine is unfair because

Page 5 of 23

even if the manufacturer acts reasonably it can be held liable.
f. The argument for strict product liability is basically utilitarian.

1) First, its advocates contend that only such a policy will induce firms to
bend over backward to guarantee product safety.

2) Second, proponents of strict liability contend that the manufacturer is
best able to bear the cost of injuries due to defects.

3) Note: These were the same arguments used in MacPherson to adopt
the due care standard.

C. Government Safety Regulation
1. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) was created in 1972 by

the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA).
a. Its job is to “protect the public against unreasonable risks associated with

consumer products.”
b. Because the CPSC regulates potentially dangerous consumer products, it

issues product safety standards for consumer products that pose an
unreasonable risk of injury.

c. If a consumer product is found to be imminently hazardous—that is, its
use can cause an unreasonable risk of death or serious injury or illness—
the manufacturer can be required to recall, repair, or replace the product
or take other corrective action.

d. Alternatively, the CPSC can seek injunctions, bring actions to seize
hazardous consumer products, seeks civil penalties for knowing violations
of the Act or its rules, and seek criminal penalties for knowing and willful
violations of the Act or its rules.

e. A private party can sue for an injunction to prevent violations of the Act or
its rules and regulations.

2. In undertaking its policing function, the CPSC aids consumers in evaluating
product safety, develops uniform standards, gathers data, conducts research,
and coordinates product safety laws (local, state, federal) and enforcement.

3. Compared with many other developed European countries, the U.S. regulates
fewer products (relying more on media attention, pressure from consumer
advocacy groups and the threat of lawsuits to protect consumers), and many
products escape effective regulation.

4. Economic Costs – Safety regulations do protect consumers, but they add to
the cost of products.
a. Question: Is the expense worth it?

5. Consumer Choice – Consumers may dislike some mandated safety
technology, but in other cases safety regulations may prevent individuals from
choosing to purchase a riskier, though less expensive, product.
a. Preventing consumers from being able to choose a cheaper but riskier

product can have both economic and ethical drawbacks.
6. Legal Paternalism – Regulating consumer choice also raises the issue of legal

paternalism.
a. Legal paternalism is the idea that the law may justifiably be used to

restrict the freedom of individuals for their own good.
b. Shaw and Barry state that paternalism is a large issue that cannot be

done justice here, but regard to safety regulations, three comments are in
order.
1) First, some product safety affects not just consumers who purchase

products but also third parties.
a) However, regulating these products on or product features can be

Page 6 of 23

defended on nonpaternalistic grounds.
2) Second, anti-paternalism gains plausibility from the view that

individuals know their own interests better than anyone else does and
that they are fully informed and able to advance those interests.
a) However, paternalists state that in the increasingly complex

consumer world, the assumption that consumers know their own
interests better than anyone else is doubtful.

3) Third, the controversy over legal paternalism pits the values of
individual freedom and autonomy against social welfare.
a) Shaw and Barry say that in the end, one may have to examine

paternalistic product safety legislation case by case and try to
weigh the conflicting values and likely results.

D. Problems with Regulation
1. Regulatory agencies often succeed in protecting interests of consumers and

stressing business responsibility. However, regulation is not always effective.
a. Shaw and Barry give numerous examples on pages 299 – 300.
b. They also discussed two areas: self-regulation and automobile safety.

2. Self-Regulation – Businesses generally prefer self-regulation, competition,
and voluntary safety standards set by their own industry.
a. But self-regulation can easily subordinate consumer interests to profit

making when the two goals clash.
b. Under the guise of self-regulation, businesses can end up ignoring or

minimizing their responsibilities to consumers.
3. Automobile Safety – The auto industry has a long and consistent history of

fighting against safety regulations. Some examples:
a. The industry successfully lobbied the federal government to delay the

requirement that cars be equipped with air bags or automatic seat belts.
b. In the late 1990s, the industry denied that car passengers are at a greater

risk of serious injury or death caused by collisions with pickups or SUVS
than with automobiles.

c. However, as car buyers become better informed, automobile
manufacturers are rethinking Lee Iacocca’s old bromide “Safety doesn’t
sell.”

E. The Ethical Responsibilities of Business Regarding Product Safety – Note I added
the word “Ethical” here to emphasize that we are not just concerned with laws;
otherwise, this would be a business law course. I also added the words “Regarding
Product Safety” because we will be covering other areas of ethical responsibilities
regarding consumers in this chapter.
1. Simply obeying regulations and laws does not exhaust the moral

responsibilities of business in the area of consumer safety.
2. However, when it comes to product safety, the exact nature of business’s moral

responsibilities is difficult to specify, because much depends on the particular
product or service being provided.
a. Often times business ethicists cite a business’s moral obligation of “do no

harm.”
b. However, numerous products produced may cause harm or may have

side effects.
1) My Example: Automobile manufacturers know that a number of the

vehicles they produce will be involved in accidents. Can they make an
automobile perfectly safe? Yes, is called a tank. The problem is how
many of us could afford such a vehicle. So the general moral

Page 7 of 23

obligation of “do no harm” does not help us much.
3. Nevertheless, attending to the following points would go a long way in helping

business behave morally with respect to consumer safety: (Make sure you
understand these and know the examples that illustrate each.)
a. Businesses should give safety the priority warranted by the product.

Factors in safety control that ought to be considered include:
1) Cost;
2) What is specified by law;
3) The seriousness of the injury that the product can cause; and
4) The frequency of injuries.

b. Business should abandon the misconception that accidents occur
exclusively as a result of product misuse and abuse, and that they are
thereby absolved of all responsibility.

c. Business must monitor the manufacturing process itself.
1) For example, businesses should periodically review working

conditions and the competence of key personnel.
d. When a product is ready to be marketed, businesses should have their

product safety staff review their market strategy and advertising for
potential safety problems.

e. When a product reaches the marketplace, businesses should make
available to consumers written information about the product’s
performance.

f. Businesses should investigate consumer complaints in a timely manner.
4. Morally speaking, no one is asking for an accident- and injury-proof product,

only that a manufacturer do everything reasonable to approach that ideal.
a. Shaw and Barry go on to give examples of companies and industries that

do not act morally and two companies, JCPenney and Johnson Wax, that
have acted morally.

IV. Product Quality – I am going to make each of these subareas a major heading because it

is easier to outline the material and it also shows that they are just as important to
consumers as product safety.
A. Overview

1. The demand for high-quality products is closely related to a number of themes
mentioned in the discussion of product safety.
a. Most people would agree that business bears a general responsibility to

ensure that the quality of a product measures up to the claims made
about it and to reasonable consumer expectations.

b. They would undoubtedly see this responsibility as deriving primarily from
the consumer’s basic right to get what he or she pays for.

2. There are numerous ways in which business assumes responsibilities to
consumers for product quality and reliability, a few of which will be discussed
here.

B. Express Warranties – Goods only, not services.
1. Express warranties are the claims that sellers explicitly state.

a. Assuming that the buyer relies on this explicit statement when purchasing
the goods, the express warranty becomes part of the contractual
transaction between the buyer and the seller.

2. Express warranties can be created in one of three ways:
a. By an affirmation of fact or promise about the goods.

1) Statements of opinion (puffing) or value do not create an express

Page 8 of 23

warranty. Explain and give examples (e.g., “this car will go 250 mph”
versus “this car is fast”)

2) Note: The goods do not have to be of poor quality here, only that they
do not meet the seller’s promise.

b. By a description of the goods.
1) Explain and give examples (on the outside of a 5 pound package of

potatoes it says, “Idaho Potatoes”).
2) Note: The goods do not have to be of poor quality here, only that they

do not meet the seller’s description.
c. By a model or sample of the goods.

1) Model – one of a kind or a prototype.
2) Sample – one of many.
3) The express warranty is created here by the quality or performance of

the model or sample.
4) Give Las Vegas hotel carpeting example.

3. Problems:
a. Since express warranties are contractual in nature, the law allows the

seller to disclaim or limit the warranty in most circumstances.
1) Disclaiming a warranty means to cancel it. Example: “Seller makes

no express warranties on its products.” These goods sold “as is.”
2) Limiting a warranty means limiting the remedy available to the buyer.

Example: “If buyer is not 100% satisfied with the product, buyer can
exchange it for one of equal or lesser value.” Note, I cannot get my
money back.

b. Since express warranties are contractual in nature, the privity doctrine
applies in most circumstances. However, the law has expanded the privity
doctrine here to include manufacturers, not just retailers, if the
manufacturer is the one making the express warranty. Explain.

C. Implied Warranties
1. An implied warranty is one that the law derives by inference from the nature

of the transaction or the relative situations or circumstances of the parties.
a. Unlike express warranties, implied warranties automatically arise from

the transaction; the seller does not have to make an explicit statement.
b. However, like express warranties, implied warranties are contractual in

nature.
c. There are two major types of implied warranties: the implied warranty of

merchantability and the implied warranty of fitness for a particular
purpose.

2. The implied warranty of merchantability is created when goods are sold by a
merchant seller. Note: All that is required is a sale; no statement need be
made.
a. A merchant seller is a person who normally sells goods of this kind.

Explain.
b. Goods are tangible, movable personal property and are divided into two

categories for purposes of the implied warranty of merchantability: food
goods and non-food goods.
1) Food goods are defined as any good consumable on or off the

premises of the seller. Give examples.
2) Non-food goods are any good that is not a food good. Give

examples.
c. Food Good Standard: To be considered merchantable, food goods must

Page 9 of 23

be fit to eat on the basis of consumer expectations—that is, would a
reasonable consumer consuming such goods find them fit to eat.
1) My Example: Blue Ship Tea Room case specializing in homemade

fish chowder and bone being stuck in woman’s throat versus male in
grandma’s cherry pie.

d. Non-Food Good Standard: To be considered merchantable, non-food
goods must be fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are
sold.
1) My Example: Using a dining room chair to stand on versus sit on and

it breaks.
3. The implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose is created when the

following conditions are met:
a. The seller or lessor has reason to know the particular purpose for which a

buyer or lessee will use the goods;
b. The buyer or lessee is relying on the skill and judgment of the seller or

lessor to select suitable goods; and
c. The goods do not meet the buyer’s or lessee’s expressed needs.
d. Example: Buying a pipe for a leaky sink at hardware store.
e. Thus, the goods must be fit for a particular purpose as opposed to a

ordinary purpose.
4. Problems:

a. Since implied warranties are contractual in nature, the law allows the
seller to disclaim or limit the warranty in most circumstances.
1) Disclaiming Example: “Seller makes no implied warranty of

merchantability on its products.” These goods sold “as is.”
2) Limiting Example: “If buyer is not 100% satisfied with the product,

buyer can exchange it for one of equal or lesser value.” Note, I cannot
get my money back.

b. Since the implied warranties are contractual in nature, the privity doctrine
applies in most circumstances. However, the law has expanded the privity
doctrine here to protect non-buyers in the buyer’s family, household, or
guests of the buyer. Explain using propane grill example.

5. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act was enacted as an attempt to improve
the quality of warranties given by manufacturers to consumers. As such, it only
applies to consumer goods—goods sold primarily for personal, family, or
household use. Explain.
a. The Act does not regulate the safety or quality of consumer goods but

does seek to make consumer warranties easier to understand, to prevent
deceptive warranty practices, and to provide a relatively effective method
of enforcing warranty obligations.

b. The Act prohibits a disclaimer of implied warranties whenever one of
the following occurs:
1) An express written warranty is given; or
2) A service contract is made with the consumer within ninety days after

the sale (a service contract is where the warrantor promises to
service and repair a product for a set period of time in exchange for a
fixed fee).

D. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) of 1938 – This and related
laws govern a number of areas dealing with product quality that you need to be
exposed to.
1. The FDCA is administered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Page 10 of 23

a. The FDA is empowered to regulate food, food additives, drugs,
cosmetics, and medicinal devices.

2. Regulation of Food – The FDCA prohibits the shipment, distribution, or sale of
adulterated food.
a. Food is deemed adulterated if it consists in whole or in part of any “filthy,

putrid, or decomposed substance” or that is otherwise “unfit for food.”
1) Note that food does not have to be entirely pure to be distributed or

sold—it only has to be unadulterated.
2) For example, the FDA has set ceilings/”action levels” for certain

contaminants, or “defects,” as the FDA likes to call them from various
foods. Some of these action levels are:
a) Golden Raisins – 35 fly eggs per eight ounces.
b) Popcorn – 2 rodent hairs per pound.
c) Shelled Peanuts – 20 insects per 100 pounds.
d) Canned Mushrooms – 20 maggots per 3 1/2 ounces.
e) Tomato Juice – 10 fly eggs per 3 1/2 ounces.

b. The FDCA also prohibits false and misleading labeling of food products.
In addition, it mandates affirmative disclosure of information on food
labels, including the name of the food, the name and place of the
manufacturer, and a statement of ingredients.

3. Regulation of Drugs – The FDCA gives the FDA the authority to regulate the
testing, manufacture, distribution, and sale of drugs.
a. The Drug Amendment to the FDCA, enacted in 1962, gives the FDA

broad powers to license new drugs in the United States through a formal
application process.

b. It allows the FDA to withdraw approval of any previously licensed drug.
c. It requires all users of prescription and nonprescription drugs to receive

proper directions for use and adequate warnings about any related side
effects.

d. It prohibits the manufacture, distribution, or sale of adulterated or
misbranded drugs.

4. Regulation of Cosmetics – Under the FDCA, the FDA has issued regulations
that require cosmetics to be labeled, to disclose ingredients, and to contain
warnings if they are carcinogenic (cancer-causing) or otherwise dangerous to a
person’s health.
a. The FDA’s definition of cosmetics include substances and preparations

for cleansing, altering the appearance of, and promoting the
attractiveness of a person. Ordinary household soap is expressly
exempted from this definition.

b. The manufacture, distribution, or sale of adulterated or misbranded
cosmetics is prohibited.

c. The FDA may remove from commerce cosmetics that contain
unsubstantiated claims of preserving youth, increasing virility, growing
hair, etc.

5. Regulation of Medicinal Devices – The Medicinal Device Amendment to
the FDCA in 1976 gave the FDA authority to regulate medicinal devices, such
as heart pacemakers, kidney dialysis machines, defibrillators, surgical
equipment, and other diagnostic, therapeutic, and health devices.
a. The mislabeling of such devices is prohibited,
b. The FDA is empowered to remove “quack” devices from the market.

6. Other Acts Administered by the FDA – In addition to the FDCA, the FDA

Page 11 of 23

administers the following statutes and amendments to the FDCA:
a. Pesticide Amendment of 1954 – Authorizes the FDA to establish

tolerances for pesticides used on agricultural products.
b. Food Additives Amendment of 1958 – Requires FDA approval of new

food ingredients or articles that come in contact with food, such as
wrapping and packaging materials.

c. Color Additives Amendment of 1960 – Requires FDA approval of color
additives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics.

d. Animal Drug Amendment of 1968 – Requires FDA approval of any new
animal drug or additive to animal food.

e. And the list goes on
E. The Ethical Responsibilities of Business Regarding Product Quality

1. Again, simply obeying regulations and laws does not exhaust the moral
responsibilities of business in the area of product quality.

2. In addition, consumers today are more militant than ever in their insistence on
product quality and on getting exactly what they paid for. Therefore, attending
to the following points would go a long way in helping business behave morally
with respect to product quality:
a. Have we lived up to any promises explicitly made to the consumer?
b. Have we lived up to any promises implicitly made to the consumer?
c. Have we provided the consumer with adequate information about the

product?
d. Is this information written in a clear and concise manner?
e. Are any warnings related to product quality conspicuous?

Marketing homework help

Second Edition

Mobile Marketing

How mobile technology is revolutionizing
marketing, communications and advertising

Daniel Rowles

Contents

Cover
Title Page
Contents
List of figures
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Dedication

Introduction
Looking in the wrong direction
Focus on the user journey
The human element
Disruption
Back to basics

PART ONE Mobile marketing in perspective

01 Introduction

02 Understanding the user journey
Technology for the sake of technology
User journey and context
Mobile and multi-channel marketing
A multi-screen journey
User journey examples
Local intent
Content marketing
The stages of the user journey
Content mapping
Value proposition and user journey

03 Technology change and adoption
Forty years of radical change
Integrated devices

Smartphone adoption
Global variations
Benchmarking marketing activity

04 Disruption and integration
The death of in-store retail
Convenience, choice and transparency
Business culture
Single-customer view
Next step: marketing automation
Mobile as a change enabler

05 Devices, platforms and technology: why it doesn’t matter
Mobile-compatible is not mobile-optimized
Technology challenges
Audience segmentation
Frictionless technology

06 The future of mobile marketing
Exponential development
Technology as an enabler
The near future
Making things easier
The distant future
A guaranteed future prediction

PART TWO The tactical toolkit

07 Introduction

08 Mobile sites and responsive design
Start with the fundamentals
Mobile site options
Mobile design principles: mobile sites vs desktop sites
Technology and jargon in perspective
What responsive design really means
The three-step quick and dirty guide to a responsive website
A user-centred approach to mobile sites
Mobile sites: conclusions

09 Mobile and e-mail
Focusing on mobile users
Focusing on relevance
E-mail and the user journey
Selecting an e-mail service provider
Gaining opt-ins and building a list
List segmentation
E-mail templates and design
E-mail marketing: conclusions

10 How to build an app
Bolstering value proposition
The app-building process
Specification and wireframing
Interaction and visual design
Technical development and testing
App store submission
App marketing
App maintenance
Customer support
Freelancers vs agencies
Native apps vs web apps
Platform wars
Building an app: conclusions

11 Social media and mobile
User journey and value proposition
Mobile social media experience
Informing your social media approach
Policy and planning
Outreach, engagement and ego
Social measurement
Social media advertising
Mobile social media: conclusions

12 Mobile search
Defining mobile search
Desktop vs mobile results
Search engine optimization (SEO)

Link building
Mobile SEO: conclusions
Paid search
PPC fundamentals
PPC considerations
Working with PPC agencies
Mobile SEO and PPC working together
Mobile search: conclusions

13 Mobile advertising
Mobile advertising objectives
App advertising
Ad networks vs media owners
Targeting options
Creative options
Mobile ad features
Ad reporting and analytics
Mobile advertising: conclusions

14 Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR)
Augmented reality in perspective
Adoption levels
Beyond visual AR
Virtual reality in perspective
Virtual reality and mobile
Virtual reality and 360 images
Virtual reality innovation
Augmented and virtual reality: conclusions

15 Quick response (QR) codes
QR codes in perspective
Practical applications
QR code adoption
The most important thing to understand about QR codes
Making your QR code beautiful (well, less ugly anyway)
Practical guide to using QR codes in the real world
QR codes: conclusions

16 Location-based devices and beacons

Location-based services
Location check-ins
Integrated data
The opportunity of beacons
Beacon adoption: conclusions

17 Near field communication (NFC) and mobile payments
Near field communication
Mobile payments

18 Instant messenger (IM) apps and short messaging service (SMS)
IM vs SMS in perspective
SMS is personal
Types of SMS communications
SMS app links
IM bots and live chat
IM and SMS: conclusions

19 Mobile analytics
The marvels of Google Analytics
Setting up Analytics
Core reports
Multi-Channel Funnels
Tracking code

PART THREE Mobile marketing checklists

20 Introduction

21 Checklists
Mobile marketing strategy
Mobile site development
Building your app
Social media and mobile
Mobile search

22 Conclusions

References
Index

Copyright

List of figures

FIGURE 2.1 The sales funnel
FIGURE 2.2 Avinash Kaushik’s See, Think, Do, Care framework
FIGURE 3.1 The DynaTAC 8000x: a snip at $3,995 in 1983
FIGURE 3.2 Smartphone adoption as a percentage of population
FIGURE 3.3 Smartphone penetration top countries
FIGURE 3.4 Consumer Barometer tool
FIGURE 3.5 Global digital statistics
FIGURE 4.1 Achieving a single-customer view
FIGURE 6.1 Microsoft HoloLens: augmented reality wearable technology
FIGURE 8.1 Effective responsive sites
FIGURE 8.2 WordPress software
FIGURE 8.3 Website built in WordPress using downloadable responsive theme
FIGURE 8.4 Website built in WordPress on an iPhone
FIGURE 8.5 Mobile design and development: key elements of user-centred approach
FIGURE 8.6 Example wireframe in Balsamiq Mockups
FIGURE 9.1 Using an ESP to preview e-mail display on various e-mail clients
FIGURE 9.2 Using Google URL builder to generate tracking code for an e-mail

campaign
FIGURE 9.3 Considering each step in the user journey and going beyond a last-click

mentality
FIGURE 9.4 Previewing your e-mail’s appearance on a wide range of clients and

devices using Litmus.com
FIGURE 9.5 The easy-to-use interface for sending A/B split-test campaigns using

MailChimp.com
FIGURE 11.1 Google Trends: search for the word ‘iPhone’
FIGURE 11.2 Google Trends: word comparison
FIGURE 11.3 Analysis of a Twitter account using Klear
FIGURE 11.4 Klout: social media influence scoring platform
FIGURE 11.5 Influential Twitter users on the topic of starting a business
FIGURE 11.6 Facebook: the impact on audience size of boosting a post
FIGURE 12.1 Google’s Mobile-Friendly test
FIGURE 12.2 Mobile search: results based on location term
FIGURE 12.3 Mobile search: results based on user location

FIGURE 12.4 Selecting mobile trends in the Keyword Planner
FIGURE 12.5 Keyword variations and volumes of searches on mobile devices
FIGURE 12.6 Google Trends: comparing search terms
FIGURE 12.7 Search engine optimization: key elements of the page
FIGURE 12.8 Page title: main line of the Google search result
FIGURE 12.9 Open Site Explorer from Moz.com
FIGURE 12.10 Mobile paid search in Google
FIGURE 12.11 Google AdWords: adjusting bids according to device
FIGURE 13.1 IAB Mobile Rising Stars ad units
FIGURE 14.1 The Marriot Blippar beermat
FIGURE 14.2 ‘Blipped’ beermat launching interactive experience
FIGURE 14.3 The Oculus Rift (PC-based) and Gear VR (mobile phone-based)

headsets
FIGURE 14.4 The Google Cardboard VR headset
FIGURE 15.1 QR code for Mobile Marketing
FIGURE 15.2 QR code with embedded image and gradient of colour
FIGURE 15.3 QR code with image merged into the code
FIGURE 16.1 An Estimote beacon in a retail environment
FIGURE 17.1 Business cards with embedded NFC chips (MOO)
FIGURE 17.2 NFC-enabled print ad in Wired magazine
FIGURE 18.1 Bank of America: SMS for easy app download
FIGURE 18.2 Facebook Messenger bots
FIGURE 19.1 Devices: volume of mobile visitors and devices used
FIGURE 19.2 Visitor Flow report: how mobile users travel through your site
FIGURE 19.3 Advanced Segments report: mobile vs other site traffic
FIGURE 19.4 Acquisition + Search Console: search term analysis
FIGURE 19.5 Acquisition + Advanced Segments: social media traffic analysis
FIGURE 19.6 Goal Report + Advanced Segments: completed mobile vs desktop

goals
FIGURE 19.7 Multi-Channel Funnels: understanding the user journey

Foreword

It’s clear that mobile devices are having a profound impact not only on how we
communicate on a daily basis, but also on how we interact and engage with individuals
and organizations of all types.

At the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) we see time and time again that
practitioners, and those studying business of any type (whether they consider themselves
marketers or not), need a better understanding of the digital landscape. We also see that
landscape changing incredibly quickly and that mobile is playing a major part in this.

In this fast-changing environment, knowledge of both the strategic impact and the
tactical issues around mobile marketing will become increasingly important,
particularly as this naturally overlaps into areas such as social media.

Daniel has worked extensively with CIM, helping our members and customers to
navigate their way through this exciting and fast-moving environment. He is a respected
authority on all things digital and as such is the ideal guide for your mobile marketing
journey.

Chris Daly, Chief Executive, CIM

Acknowledgements

There are many people who have encouraged and assisted me in writing this book and I
have named a few of them here.

Firstly, to the small and perfectly formed Target Internet team. Very special thanks to
Susana, our incredible commercial director, without whom we wouldn’t have the
successful business we have today (she is also a dab hand at back-office admin!).
Thanks to Ciaran for motivating and cajoling me to keep things on track generally, and
for letting me steal his ideas (particularly on the future of mobile in the transport
industry. I’m not so grateful for his obsession with QR codes!). Thank you to Marie for
her tireless efforts in making my ramblings into professional-looking content every
month. Many thanks to Hemangi for her incredible hard work and expertise in building
our technical assets. Thank you to Pete, our newest team member, for making me realize
I need to up my game in writing and for constantly giving us a fresh and engaging tone.

Another huge thank you to the very inspirational and talented Jonathan Macdonald for
making the introduction that led to this book (and its second edition!). The free wine is
on me next time we spend 12 hours in an airport lounge.

And finally, a massive thank you to all of you who read this book, visit Target
Internet, listen to the Digital Marketing podcast, follow me on Twitter and very kindly
give me an audience with whom to engage and share my ideas.

This book is dedicated to my ever patient, beautiful and
straight-talking wife Susana, without whom it would still

be on a to-do list somewhere.

This is also a great opportunity to get my kids’ names in
print, so they can show all their friends and I can score

many, many ‘awesome dad’ points. I love you both
dearly, Teresa and Charlie.

Introduction

Mobile is not a channel like social media, outdoor advertising or search; it is something
that impacts all of the other marketing channels, both online and offline. It is a
fundamental shift in human behaviour that we need to understand, and we need to adjust
how we operate accordingly. We can’t separate ‘mobile marketing’ from other marketing
activity, and therefore the very term itself can be misleading. Mobile Marketing is dead!

This book aims to be a practical guide to understanding and using mobile marketing
for organizations of different types and sizes around the globe. However, in order to do
this, we need to start by defining what we really mean by mobile marketing.

Looking in the wrong direction
The most common mistake made in mobile marketing is to focus on the device. When we
focus on the smartphone or tablet that someone is using we instantly start to look in the
wrong direction. I’ll explain why.

How big does a phone need to get before it becomes a tablet? What about if my
laptop has a touchscreen? Does it then become a tablet? What if my tablet has a
keyboard? Is it still a mobile device? The reality is that the merging and extremely fast
evolution of mobile devices is already out of date by the time we have adjusted to it.

What we need is a strategy and an implementation plan that allow us to make
maximum use of the technology available without getting bogged down with the devices
we are planning for (although we will address device planning later in this book).

Focus on the user journey
Mobile marketing is actually all about understanding the user journey. Understanding
what individuals (even when acting as part of larger organizations) want to achieve.
This could be anything from educating themselves to booking a cinema ticket, but
whatever the objective, we need to understand how the technologies that make up
mobile marketing can be used to help achieve the goals of an individual.

The human element

Our mobile devices are by nature very personal to us. We carry them with us, use them
when we are moving from place to place and they help make our lives easier (or at least
should do!) If I try and broadcast generic marketing messages through your mobile
device they are even less likely to work than through other channels. Generally
speaking, when you are on a mobile device you have less time, you are focused on a
specific goal and you are ‘in the moment’. And this is exactly why mobile marketing is
so essential and requires us to think about marketing in a very different way.

Disruption
As you work through this book you’ll learn about the practicalities of building apps,
mobile websites and technologies like near field communication (NFC). All we are
really doing, though, is arming ourselves with tools for a world where the shift in
marketing has been profound.

We’ll explore how media consumption has radically changed, how people are using
multiple screens at once (think how often you watch TV without a smartphone to hand)
and how the idea of a mobile device starts to become obsolete when you are wearing
those devices (we’ll explore this later too).

So what can we do in such a fast-changing and disruptive market? We focus on the
basics.

Back to basics
I’ve worked with many of the world’s largest and fastest-changing organizations over
the last 18 years, advising them how they can best use digital technologies to achieve
their business objectives. No matter what the topic, be it social media search
optimization or e-mail marketing (both of which are part of mobile marketing), I always
come back to basics. Set your objectives, understand your target audience, select the
appropriate tools, channels and content and then deploy, test and learn. Mobile
marketing is absolutely essential and mobile marketing is dead.

How to get the most out of this book

The book is split into three key parts.

Part One Mobile marketing in perspective

This part will give you an understanding of who the mobile consumer is, a core view of the

technology involved and how it impacts you, and finally, how to set objectives for your
mobile marketing.

Part Two Tactical toolkit

This part explores the core technologies, techniques and tools involved in mobile marketing.
Here we explore things like mobile payments, mobile sites, apps and NFC. Jump straight to
this section if you need some hands-on tips and techniques.

Part Three Checklists
This short and final section will help you set a mobile strategy and make sure you aren’t
missing anything. It comprises some practical checklists and a step-by-step planning tool for
creating your mobile strategy.
You can also get all the latest on mobile marketing by visiting
http://www.targetinternet.com/mobilemarketing.

PART ONE
Mobile marketing in perspective

01
Introduction

It’s very easy to start thinking about mobile marketing from the perspective of the tactics
we are planning to implement: that great idea for an app, a beautifully designed
responsive website or a clever idea for using mobile payments. The reality, just with
any digital marketing activity, is that it’s generally a very good idea to take a step back
and fully understand what we are trying to achieve and the environment we are working
in.

Part One therefore is all about understanding the broader environment we are working
in. It will help you understand who the mobile consumer is, get a core view of the
technology involved and finally show you how to set objectives for your mobile
marketing.

This core knowledge will help you inform your strategy before you start to embark on
the tactical journey of implementing your mobile marketing campaigns (which is
covered in detail in Part Two).

Although this section explores some of the latest statistics and developments in
mobile marketing, we also acknowledge that this is a fast-paced environment with
constant change. For that reason, we have pointed out numerous resources along the
way, as well as compiling the best of these on our website.

This first part of the book is also here to stop you wasting time and money by
highlighting some of the key risks of mobile marketing. It is very easy to be seduced by
new technologies that offer fantastic creative opportunities. However, without the
grounding of how this fits into an overall strategy and a clear measurement framework to
tie things back to our objectives, there is huge potential to be very busy without being
productive in any way.

I still see, on an almost daily basis, Facebook pages for the sake of Facebook pages
and mobile apps for the sake of apps. This generally starts in one of two ways. Either
somebody senior says, ‘Why don’t we have an app? Go make an app!’ or somebody
comes up with a half-baked idea that starts its life without any proper planning. The end
results are generally disappointing and costly. This then gives the impression that mobile
is costly, complicated and ineffective. In reality, any marketing done in this way is
generally a disaster.

This section, however, is not about looking at the negative. It’s all about embracing

the huge and exciting potential that mobile marketing offers and doing so in a risk-
mitigated way. This will help you make the most of your resources and should save you
a lot of stress.

What Part One will help you do

Make sure you have a clear view of the environment you are working in.
Understand how mobile makes up part of the user journey.
Set your objectives and understand the mobile technologies that might help you achieve
these objectives.
Highlight some of the key risks you will face along your mobile marketing journey.
Understand how to cope with a fast-changing environment and see how our website can
help you stay up to date and on top of the latest developments:
http://www.targetinternet.com/mobilemarketing.

02
Understanding the user journey

We can now interact with businesses from pretty much anywhere we have some form of
internet connection. On the bus, travelling by train or whilst walking along. This image
of mobile marketing being all about mobility in its purest sense is often used, but defies
the reality of how we are actually using mobile devices in the majority of cases. Most
mobile usage is done at home, in the office or somewhere else stationary, and most of it
is about ‘me’ time (Gevelber, 2016).

So if it’s actually not about using your phone when moving, why is Hotels.com’s
‘Hotel Booked in Freefall’ video (TheJTHolmes, 2011) so successful (attracting over 1
million views in YouTube at time of publishing) and often quoted as a great example, as
it is in Google’s excellent Mobile Playbook.

Well, first of all it’s a fun and engaging concept that grabs your attention. Somebody
trying to book a hotel room on a phone whilst jumping out of a plane is a fairly extreme
idea! However, it achieves its objectives as a piece of marketing because it
demonstrates and reinforces a key value proposition. That is the idea that Hotels.com
makes it quick and easy to book hotels.

This alignment with value proposition and what the consumer actually wants is
essential, and although it sounds obvious, is more often than not completely missed in
mobile marketing campaigns. The reason that this basic concept of alignment with
consumer requirements is missed is that we (or the partners and agencies we work with)
are blinded by the technology and creative options.

The consumer and business-to-business

Very often when we talk about ‘mobile consumers’ we immediately start to think about
somebody buying a product in a shop or a website. However, I think we should look at the
consumer in a broader context, and part of this will include anyone that is engaging with our
mobile marketing in some way.

For this reason, when we talk about the mobile consumer, we will also be considering
those making business-to-business (B2B) purchasing decisions. Clearly the requirements of
somebody checking the reviews of a movie are very different to those of somebody checking
information on the supplier they are about to meet, but they do hold the same principle in

common. That is, that we need to understand what this consumer is trying to achieve and in
what context.

In many cases mobile marketing is dismissed in the B2B environment as something that is
more suited to business-to-consumer (B2C) marketing, but I would argue that the whole
point of mobile is its personal nature and the need to understand the target audience’s
objectives and context.

Business users mix their personal and business time on mobile devices, and with social
platforms like LinkedIn it is possible for this line to become even further blurred. For
example, I may be relaxing and staying up to date with my social contacts and I may be
looking at the LinkedIn app as part of this.

We clearly need to look at B2B and B2C marketing differently, but many of the same core
principles apply. At the core of this is understanding our target users’ needs and context, then
using mobile marketing to service these needs and making sure they align with our business
objectives.

Technology for the sake of technology
Just because we can build an app doesn’t mean we should (in fact you really need to
think about mobile sites before apps in the majority of cases, but more on that later).
Using technology inappropriately without setting objectives or having a clear business
case is nothing new.

From my experience, the majority of business Twitter and Facebook accounts are set
up with little or no idea whatsoever of why they’re being created. It happens because
somebody senior has decided it’s a good idea without understanding it, somebody junior
did it without asking anyone, or someone in the business has seen that competitors are
doing it so feel an opportunity is being missed. It doesn’t mean it’s necessarily the
wrong channel or a bad idea, but anything done without objectives or a business case is
generally doomed to failure.

This lack of strategy isn’t isolated to mobile marketing. One of my favourite examples
demonstrates how this applies to digital marketing generally. Dave Chaffey is a well-
respected digital marketing author (as well as being an excellent lecturer, public speaker
and someone whose opinion I respect). He runs a website called SmartInsights.com that
provides digital marketing advice and stimulates conversation on the topic. As such he
regularly asks his audience how many of them are carrying out any form of digital
marketing and how many of them have a strategy behind this activity. Every time this
questionnaire is run, the results come back the same. Nearly 70 per cent of those asked
are carrying out digital marketing activities with no strategy. Although this is only a
small sample survey, it does identify a key trend that I can back up from my many years
of working with organizations to improve their digital marketing efforts.

Now, to be fair, this 70 per cent might be doing the right things, for the right reason,
measuring effectively and achieving their business objectives. Although I’m pretty sure
that’s not the case for all of them. Even if it were, they probably wouldn’t know it, as
they have no strategy against which to measure their success.

User journey and context
Understanding the user journey is going to be essential to the success of our mobile
marketing, so let’s try and understand this in a bit more detail. We need to understand
what our target audience might want to achieve, understand their path to doing this, see
how mobile fits in, and then provide the right experiences and content to achieve these
objectives.

Some of this will be the ‘discovery phase’ (also referred to as push, stimulus and in a
dozen other ways!) where we are trying to build awareness, educate and stimulate some
form of further action.

Some will be in the ‘engagement phase’. These are activities that are driving
engagement, experiences and moving toward the users’ final objectives.

The different techniques and technologies are shown in Table 2.1, and we’ll explore
them in more detail in Part Two of this book. However, we first need to identify how
they fit together.

The line between discovery and engagement becomes increasingly blurred as we
move into location-based interaction (engaging with a brand when in-store, for
example), but these phases can start to lay a foundation for us when thinking about where
mobile fits into the user journey. However, this is currently a fairly one-dimensional
model that only really talks about mobile marketing techniques, whilst acknowledging
that things like offline marketing may exist.

TABLE 2.1 Discovery and engagement phases in mobile marketing

Discovery Phase Engagement Phase

Mobile e-mail Mobile sites

Mobile display ads Apps

Mobile paid search Mobile-optimized social

Mobile organic search Mobile payment and couponing

Offline stimulus (QR codes, etc) Location-based interaction (NFC etc)

Push notifications

Mobile and multi-channel marketing
The reality of all marketing is that there generally isn’t one thing that makes you buy a
product or choose a supplier. Generally, there is a huge range of factors that make you
prefer one brand over another, choose a supplier or buy a particular detergent.
Marketing is all about understanding this process.

As marketers we can model, measure and use all sorts of tools to try and understand
this buying process, and this is where digital marketing has its greatest strengths. We
have access to more data and more capability to measure the user journey than ever
before. However, the missing piece in this measurement puzzle has been the interaction
between online and offline marketing. We’ll still face some challenges with this, but
quite often mobile can act as the bridge between offline and online.

Mobile marketing will generally be part of the user journey and many other channels
may be involved, some digital and some not. The journey is very unlikely to be a linear
one, and many channels and types of content may be revisited several times, in no
particular order, and we may not have any visibility on many of the steps in the journey.

A multi-screen journey
As well as needing to consider a wide range of channels being involved in any user
journey, we need to realize that there will also be a number of different ‘screens’
involved, and very often we will be using multiple screens at the same time. For
example, at key TV viewing times, around 80 per cent us will be watching TV whilst
using another device (Young, 2016).

To consider the full range of screens we need to take into account smartphones, tablet
devices, desktops/laptops, wearables (such as smart watches), TV and, with the advent
of driverless cars and the increase in driver services such as Uber, in-car screens. This
broadens our view of mobile to such an extent that the only way to address it effectively
is to focus on the user journey.

The growth of in-vehicle screens

With the advent of widely adopted driving services such as Uber and Didi (the largest car-
hailing app in China), we are increasingly using our mobile devices whilst travelling by road.
However, this is only the tip of the iceberg in regard to in-vehicle screen viewing when we
consider the imminent growth of driverless cars.

If you are on your 45-minute commute in a driverless car, your attention clearly won’t be
needed for driving. So what will you be doing with your time? You’ll be looking at a screen,

and I’m sure initially this will be on your own mobile devices. However, consider the fact
that the entire car interior is currently geared toward the driver and driving position. As this
becomes unnecessary, the entire car interior can be focused on entertainment and interaction.
Why use your tiny mobile device screen, when the entire car interior could be dedicated to
having interactive screens? It’s early days at the time of writing for driverless cars, but
already companies like Ford are patenting ideas for radical new car interiors focused on
bringing more screens into the vehicle (McMahon, 2016).

User journey examples
Let’s take a look at two real-world user journeys all the way through to purchase and
consider how different channels are working together.

B2B example
I need a new hosting company for my business website. I’m responsible for the
website’s reliability and I have had some bad experiences previously, ending in my
website being down and me being frustrated and embarrassed. This buying decision is
primarily motivated by risk mitigation, but I also need to make sure that my website will
be fast and any provider will give me the opportunity to expand and improve my web
offering, so I need flexibility and performance. This is not a decision I will make
without being well informed and the user journey is made up of multiple steps,
including, but not limited to:

doing numerous searches for suppliers;
reading online reviews of these suppliers;
signing up for newsletters from each of these suppliers;
asking opinions from my social network on LinkedIn and Twitter of their experiences;
completing several diagnostic tools to understand what kind of hosting I actually
need;
reading websites that talk about the technology behind hosting to educate myself about
the technology;
signing up for newsletters from the sites that helped me educate myself;
talking to colleagues and trusted partners at unrelated events

Marketing homework help

Final Assignment

This is an individual task. The student must submit it as a report.

Imagine this scenario: You are the marketing chief of the brand of your choice in the entertainment industry. The revenue has gone down by 30% and you are losing clients. You know that an excellent social media marketing plan can prevent losing more clients and help the company to expand in its market. Elaborate a complete social media marketing plan explaining your strategy.

The social media marketing plan has to cover:

· Cover

· Table of Contents

· Introduction: Brief overview of the selected brand.

· Goals and Objectives of the social media marketing plan

· Social Media Presence (Where is the brand now and which tone are you aiming for?)

· Social Media Listening (Identify your main competitors and the influencers of your market. Where are you situated in relation to them?)

· Target

· Competitive analysis

· New Actions and new strategies

o Create one content as an example
o Select the platforms and the resources o Stablish the schedule

· Conclusions and Evaluation (How will you evaluate the strategies?)

· Bibliography

Now that you have elaborated the plan, you must obtain the green light from the CEO of the company. You will do a 5-minute presentation explaining the plan.

The presentation must include the brief overview, goals and objectives, competitive analysis, new actions and strategies and the conclusions. Be ready to answer all the questions that the CEO of the company (in this case, the professor) may have about your social media marketing plan.

Formalities:

· Wordcount: 2500- 3000 words.

· Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total wordcount.

· Font: Arial 12,5 pts.

· Text alignment: Justified.

· The in-text References and the Bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

Marketing homework help

Company Description

Table Of content

Services Overview

Marketing Plan

Operational PLan

Business Overview

Financial plan

Mobile Site

#

Company Description

Who are we?

Pet industry

Founded in New York, NY in 2022

A online website provides dog day care services, pet grooming, pet transportation and pet photography.

Partnership with lyft

petHouse

When you are looking for professional services for your pets, join PetHouse community. Choose the best service,enjoy unlimited pet care.

Vision Statement

Mission

Statment

A pet-Loving community, your pets are sure to love here.

Background Statistics

Change in U.S. online pet supplies spending due to coronavirus in March 2020

Average annual expenditure on pets

1.7.2013

If possible, omit the brief descriptions of the agreements and simply state them aloud.

4

Business overview

Log in App

Users

Business

single user

Friends/family

Businesses

Independent Service provider

Schedule information input

Provide services

Competition Analysis

Threat

T

Strong competition of local pet stores and online stores

Opportunity

O

Combine pet photography with pet daycare, pet grooming services together

Better experience

Digital marketing

Weakness

W

Not widely Known

limited payment options

Strength

S

Complicated services for people who don’t have time but wanna spoil their pets

Experienced pet services providers with verified licenses

Offers/coupons/activities

provide a pet community section for pet owners to share their stories

Segmentation

#

Age: 20-40, Both men and women; college degree; white-collar; busy-working; affordable services

Extrovert; care pets living ; media consumption habits, special purposes(eg: celebrate pet birthday)

People from cities in the U.S

Spending a large portion of their leisure income on pets;provide best care for pet’s respective life stages.

Products and Service

Pet Photography

Daycare Service

Pet Grooming

Pet Photography

Concept

Studio

Ordinary/ Art/ Customized

Online Reservation

Outdoor

For guest who wish to shoot outside, like park/ street etc

Travel

For guest who wants to travel take a photographer to document their pets’ lives

Home

For guest who wants to shoot at home

Other Service

Pets Grooming

Walk the pets

Pets cloths

Products

Marketing

PLan

E-mail

Mobile banner

Events

Printing Ad

Social Media

(Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Tiktok)

Image

Marketing Objectives:

boost the experience of customers with our services,

build up mutually trust and strengthen consumers’ brand loyalty

Email

Concept

Image

Our customers have the choice to either sign up for our email updates or not. they also have the choice to unsubscribe our email news at anytime!

Our delivery time would be the time when the day time, is about between 6am-9am and 2:30-4pm. Sending frequency is 2-3 times per week.

Subscribe:

Frequency

Includes exclusive offers and deals – free gifts, voucher, discounts

New Products launched

A reminder will be sent after knowing customers have left something in their shopping cart without checkout.

Campaign promotions

Content:

Social Media

Marketing on Social Media platforms:

Hold hashtag contests regularly to have people engaged and know more about the brand

Stimulate watchers to share and comment

Enhance brand awareness

Ins:3 post / day

Facebook: 30 post / week

Twitter: 50 post / week

Upload short clips to

spread good comments

from others and improve

watchers interest

Share Pethouse’s service short video or moments.

5 Clips/ day

Youtube

Pre-roll Ad

Instagram/ Facebook/twitter

Tiktok

15s advertising content is mainly to introduce our Pethouse.

PR

Collaborate with pet bloggers or influencers with pets for brand promotion

3ads / A week

Mobile Banner

Concept

Introducing Pethouse service

Offer Deals

Direct link for design and purchase

Direct download link

After clicking on the picture, it will be linked to the set portal, so it can increase website traffic, and can place Banner on related websites for more accurate placement, such as pet food store. Interested consumers can order services more quickly and directly.

Pethouse

Pethouse

Why?

Visualize the process of playing

Expand the reach

Place

Pet Park

Playground

Shopping mall

Pet Store

Results

Gather feedback

Address the pain point of knowledge gap

Shareable

Direct response

Improve customer experience

Events

Financial Plan

Total revenue from products and Services (per year) :

420*30*12=151,200 dollars

ROI= Net Return on Investment/Cost of investment*100%

=151,200/600,000

=25.2%

There are two main types of pet house services for pets, one is pet photograph and the other is to help pet grooming (bathing, grooming). Since the service project will incur some labor costs and equipment consumption costs, its profit will be lower than that of product sales. We conservatively estimate that we receive 20 guests every day( Include online and offline), each consumer spends 70 dollars, and the daily income is 1400 dollars. Deducting labor costs and equipment digestion costs, take 30% out of it, our profit is about 420 dollars per day.

Balance Sheet

Concept

Service

about us

Event

help

18

123456@gmail.com

xxxxxx

23456@gmail.com

xxxxxx

xxxxxx

female

xxxxxx

xxxxxx

Dog

11/11 3PM-5PM Pet Photography

XX/XX XPM-XPM Pet Photography

XX/XX XPM-XPM Grooming

XX/XX XPM-XPM Daycare

XX/XX XPM-XPM Grooming

19

Pet Photography

3 PM

5PM

Dog xxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx

pet photography

daycare

grooming

20

xxxxxxxxxxxx

xxxxxxxxxx

xx/xx

xxxx

21

xx/xx 2pm-5pm xxx park dog only

xx/xx 10am-2pm xxxshop discount sale

xx/xx 3pm-5pm xxxshop cat service

xx/xx petxxx.com zoom training event

22

Thank You

23

Marketing homework help

Role of Promotion in Marketing

Promotion can generally be referred to as a type of marketing strategy that is used to enlighten target audiences about the advantages of a product or service and is usually compelling in nature. Lamb et al. (2020) argues that “few goods or services, no matter how well developed, priced, or distributed, can survive in the marketplace without effective promotion” (p. 819). This more or less affirms the importance of promotion to the perseverance of goods and services in the market. However, promotion can be utilized, however, by a concept called “promotional strategy.”

Promotional strategies are carefully crafted plans that are designed for the best use of promotion, for example, sales promotion, social media, advertising, and so on, in order to realize the company’s goals and marketing objectives, while a comparative advantage can be seen as a collection of special characteristics of a firm, in addition to its products and services, that the target market recognizes as preferable to the products and services of the competition.

The Effects of Advertising

Advertising can be defined as a popular form of promotion, especially for customer-packaged goods and services (Lamb et al., 2020, p. 869). In simpler words, advertising is the tactic utilized to bring products, services, etc., to the notice of the general public. Basically, advertising is done to make the public aware of a company’s products.

The effects that advertising has on customers are diverse. For example, advertising can further strengthen a consumer’s positive attitude towards a specific brand, either for a specific product or service, or the brand in general.

The Major Types of Advertising

There are two popularly known major types of advertising They are: institutional advertising and product advertising. Institutional advertising is also known as “corporate advertising” and is usually engineered to promote, remold, or establish the image or identity of a corporation. It mostly involves persuading the target audience to maintain a positive attitude towards the company and its goods and services. Product advertising, on the other hand, aims to reveal and promote the particular advantages of a company’s particular good or service.

The Importance of The Key Learning Points

1. Promotion, as discussed earlier, is used to enlighten specific audiences about the availability and advantages of a product or service. In a typical marketing environment, for example, in the beverage market, if a company is willing to release its goods or services into the market, it first has to gain recognition for those products and/or services. This can be done by marketing those products, and one of the most celebrated strategies of marketing is promotion. Basically, promotion makes a business unique and differentiates it from its competitors.

2. The most apparent importance of advertising in a marketing environment is that it can speed up the growth of a business while increasing the exposure of the company’s brand to the relevant customers. Advertising can help a new business reach specific audiences with positive and enlightening messages that can bring in customers. Advertising is mainly done by companies to convince the market of the superiority of their products and/or services.

3. In a marketing environment, following conventional beliefs does not always work. If I establish a business and I convince myself that advertising the way that other companies, with similar orientation and products, are advertising, I might actually be digging a proverbial grave for my business. This is because what works for one business might not work for mine. This is why the types of advertising are important because, as a business owner, I should be able to evaluate the types and mediums of advertising and see which one will work best for my business. For example, advertising a mobile phone on a social media site would be easily accessible to young customers on a social media site. (Hazelden, 2019).

References:

Lamb, W. C., Hair, F. J., McDaniel, C. (2019). MKTG13. Principles of marketing, 13th Edition ISBN: 978-0-357-12780-3

Hazelden, B. (2019). “Importance of Advertising in Business.” Small Business – Chron.com, 12 Feb. 2019, https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-advertising-business-3260.html

Marketing homework help

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review Chapters 9 and 12 in your textbook, read PR News

Case Studies

 (Links to an external site.)
, Today’s Top Stories on

PR Newswire

 (Links to an external site.)
and

The Biggest PR Disasters of 2020

 (Links to an external site.)
.

For the final paper, you will be evaluating the public relations  practices of an organization based on all of the chapters in the text and required resources in this course.

Develop a paper that answers the following items based on an organization of your choice. You may pick any organization as long as your choice has information available to address the following:

· Analyze how the organization uses public relations to create a brand and influence public opinion.

· Assess the messaging in this organizations press releases or internal communications.

· Compare a news article about an event involving this organization with an official press release on the same event.

· How does messaging differ from external news on key issues? How is it similar?

· Assess how the selected organization is adapting to the social media sites and other venues in the 21st century.

· Examine this organizations use of social media to communicate with its audience.

· Evaluate how this organization addresses public opinion on social media.

· Summarize how you think public opinion on social media influences their decisions.

· Analyze this organization’s communication style with special publics such as employees, management, and the media.

· Determine what communication channel(s) you would use to communicate with stakeholders, employees, management, and the media on behalf of this organization (use social media, email, employee meeting, etc.). Why?

· Analyze a crisis that the organization has faced or is facing and how it was or is being handled by the organization.

· Discuss the decision-making process of the organization when addressing the issue.

· Summarize the company’s communication models used when addressing the crisis.

· Analyze the long-range and short-range public relations plans around this crisis.

· Compare and contrast the public relations campaigns of your organization and another organization. If your organization is for-profit, select a nonprofit organization for your comparison organization, and if your organization is nonprofit, select a for-profit.

· As it relates to the organization you selected, compare the different communication needs for an audience/stakeholders in government, corporate/business, and nonprofit organizations.

· What is the approach in their messages and where is their focus?

The Public Relations Practices final paper

· Must be eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to

APA Style

 (Links to an external site.)
as outlined in the Writing Center’s

APA Formatting for Microsoft Word

 (Links to an external site.)

.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of paper in bold font

· Space should appear between the title and the rest of the information on the title page.

· Student’s name

· Name of institution (The University of Arizona Global Campus)

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Due date

· Must utilize academic voice. See the

Academic Voice

 (Links to an external site.)
resource for additional guidance.

· Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

· For assistance on writing

Introductions & Conclusions

 (Links to an external site.)
and

Writing a Thesis Statement

 (Links to an external site.)
, refer to the Writing Center resources.

· Must use at least six scholarly, peer-reviewed, credible sources in addition to the course text.

· The

Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources

 (Links to an external site.)
table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source.

· To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view

Quick and Easy Library Research

 (Links to an external site.)
tutorial, which introduces the University of Arizona Global Campus Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.

· Must document any information used from sources in APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s

APA: Citing Within Your Paper

 (Links to an external site.)

.

· Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the

APA: Formatting Your References List

 (Links to an external site.)
resource in the Writing Center for specifications.

Carefully review the 
Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)
 for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Marketing homework help

What aspects of the skill are you strong in?

What aspects of the skill do you feel confident in?  

Why do you feel that these are your strengths?  

What aspects of the skill would you like to get better at?

What aspects of the skill do you feel less confident about?

Why are these the areas you would like to develop?

Why do you feel less confident in these aspects of the skill?

By the end of your time at Strayer, how would you like to be using your skill?

What accomplishment would you like to achieve, using your skill? 

Review what you wrote in the desired outcomes section, above. Then, write one sentence that states how you plan to use your skill to achieve your desired accomplishment. Develop an action plan that includes things you can do now to begin working towards your goal.

 What barriers do you need to overcome to reach your goal?

What challenges do you anticipate?

What specific actions are needed to acquire knowledge and build upon your skill?

●       Step 1:

●       Step 2:

●       Step 3:

(Add more steps if necessary.)

identify 1–2 individuals who can support you as you develop your skill.

After you identify each supporter, explain how each one will help you meet your goal.

 For example, will they provide feedback? Can they teach you certain aspects of the skill?

●       Supporter 1:

Supporter 2:

STEP ONE:

●       Identify one larger personal goal

●       Identify one academic goal

●       Identify one professional goal

Note: These can be the ones you identified in the Week 4 Assignment or new ones.

STEP TWO:

Explain how developing your skill will help you achieve your personal, academic, and professional goal. 

Marketing homework help

1

Land and Nature Jerky Analysis

Student’s Name

Instructors Name

Course

Date

Land and Nature Jerky Analysis

1.
Trade promotion in 2018

The ratio of revenue to cost=$1304,265$280487

=5:1


Consumer Promotion in 2018

The ratio of revenue to cost =$1340104

=4:1

Based on the ratio of trade promotion and consumer promotion in 2018, the data depicts that the trade promotion is more profitable than the consumer promotion under the industry average. On the data provided in the computation, the ratio of the revenue to cost on the trade promotion is 5:1 showing that the revenue earned per the cost incurred in the promotion is higher; hence the profitability of the organization Is earned. On the other hand, the ratio in 2018 on the consumer promotion on revenue to cost ratio is 4:1 showing that more revenue is earned per cost of the promotion. The trade promotion earns more revenues than the consumer promotion in comparing the promotions. According to the industry averages, the more the company attempt to create awareness of the products to consumers, the more it is likely to make more revenues in trade promotion than in consumer promotion.

The increase in the consumer and trade promotions, respectively, could result in more profits that would necessitate the company to save more from paid and owned media budget to promotions in 2018. The company’s intention to invest more in consumer promotion than trade promotion would raise its profitability; hence, it is necessary to have the industry averages to determine the best strategy to apply. Land and Nature should invest more in the trade promotion as anticipated in the 2018 computation of ratio, and the company has higher chances of incurring more revenues. The trade promotion aims to push the marketing communication to motivate the retailers and maintain distribution relationships and loyalty to maintain the supplier relationship. The marketing expenses incurred on the trade promotion are less than consumer promotion in consideration of the industry averages hence a company that attempts to use the trade promotion has higher chances of earning more revenues.

2. Return on marketing investment


Return on marketing investment on trade promotion


In 2018

ROMI= (Incremental gross profit earned-cost of marketing investment))

ROMI= ($1304,265-$280,487)($280487)

=3.65


In 2019

ROMI= ($1368495-$294300)

=3.65


Return on marketing investment on consumer promotion



ROMI= (Incremental gross profit earned-cost of marketing investment))


In 2018

ROMI= ($1340104-$367152) ($367152)

= 2.65


In 2019

ROMI = ($1406710-$385400)

= 2.65

3. Trade Promotion Results

The return on marketing investment on trade promotion is 2.65 in 2018 and 2019. The strategies used by the land and Nature investment include using value-added bonuses. The bonuses provided o the traders enhance the continued product loyalty and a suitable relationship between the retailers and business results in suitable revenue accumulation. In both 2018 and 2019, the return on marketing investment is fixed due to continued bonuses to the distributors to create a good relationship with the customers. The provision of bonuses to the customers results in an improved customer base, resulting in high loyalty that attracts more customers for the product. The consumers being attracted results in higher revenues which are essential for reducing the marketing cost that increases the returns on marketing investment. The provision of the value-added bonuses results in the accumulated estimation of the return on marketing investment for the year 2020.

Offering discounts through price reduction results in more customer attraction to the traded products. The consumer has the legit need to have the products that if can afford. The company’s continuous progress to using the price reduction and discount strategy improves the trade promotion technique, resulting in a maintained return on marketing investment. Discounted products have a higher rate of supplies and sales, resulting in more customer attraction and retention, resulting in increased revenue and low cost of marketing. The maintained return on marketing on investment is due to the continued progress of maintaining the customer’s loyalty by proving them with the necessities to create loyalty for the products and awareness. Since the values provided in the records show that the trade promotion has been incurring the same value of return on marketing investment, the company must focus on adding more bonuses to customers to maintain the ROMI in the year 2020 or increase. Thee continue progress of the company to offer bonuses to the retailers and distributors, helps in retaining customers and results in more supplies and improved product awareness.

Consumer Promotion Results

The use of digital coupons of buy one get one free is one of the strategies used to enhance customer promotion in the company. The digital coupons are used to retain customers by attracting more new customers to try new products. The attraction of new customers results to return on marketing investment be higher. Based on the customer promotion technique used, the technique earned a 2.65 return on marketing investment ton both 2018 and 2019. The need to have a strategy that encourages the customer to buy a product and get one free result to a higher rate of a rerun on investment ton marketing. The productivity of the customer promotion used can be achieved through the extent to which the customers trust the strategy; hence the company must offer free samples for trials. The use of the free samples and buy one get one free should be used progressively in 2020 for the return on marketing investment to be increased.

The use of social media to contest to earn more money to save results in creating product awareness and sharing pictures in social media concerning products that Land and Nature offer create more awareness, resulting in a higher customer base. When cutters are aware of the products, they can purchase them online through online shopping, resulting in more sales and more return on marketing investment. The 2018 and 2019 return on investment on customer promotion shows that the company did not use more of the customer promotion technique since the values were less. To ensure that in 2020, the company earns more returns on marketing investment, it has to employ the use of social media to ensure that the salespersons can interact with customers to understand their needs and areas that need to be modified. The necessity for the use of social media leads to a high rate of product awareness to a wide range of customers, higher revenues, less marketing cost, and an increased customers base. In 2018 and 2019, the company did not enroll in using the social media technique in most of its products; hence, its awareness is limited. The company should be content to use social media to ensure that return on marketing investment in 20202 increases.

Marketing homework help

A Skills Approach: Excel 2016 Chapter 10: Working with Macros

Step 1
Download
start file

Challenge Yourself 10.3
In this project, you will record a macro to calculate grade totals and modify it in VBA. You will then run the macro
on a second set of grades.

Skills needed to complete this project:

• Saving a Macro-Enabled Workbook or Template
• Adding the Developer Tab to the Ribbon
• Recording a Macro
• Modifying a Macro Using VBA
• Customizing the Quick Access Toolbar
• Adding a Custom Tab to the Ribbon
• Adding a Macro to a Form Control Button
• Running a Macro

1. Open the start file EX2016-ChallengeYourself-10-3. The file will be renamed automatically
to include your name.

2. If the workbook opens in Protected View, enable editing so you can make changes to the
workbook.

3. Save the file as a macro-enabled workbook with this file name :
[your initials]EX2016-ChallengeYourself-10-3

4. Display the Developer tab. (If you already have the Developer tab enabled, skip to step 5.)

5. Begin with the ClassAnalysis worksheet active.

6. Create a macro to calculate yearly totals and yearly averages for each student.

a. Name the new macro: CalculateGrades

b. Include the keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+G

c. Include the description: Calculate student totals and averages

d. In G1, create a column heading: Total

e. In H1, create a column heading: Average

f. Click cell A2.
g. Format the data as a table using the Table Style Medium 7 table style. Be sure to include the

table header row.
h. In the Total column, use the SUM function to calculate the yearly total for each student.
i. In the Average column, use the AVERAGE function to calculate the yearly average for

each student.
j. Autofit columns G and H.

7. Edit the CalculateGrades macro to use the Blue, Table Style Medium 6, or Table Style Medium
6 table style instead of Table Style Medium 7.
Hint: Edit this line in the VBA code:
ActiveSheet ListObjects(“Table1”) TableStyle = “TableStyleMedium7”

1 | Page Challenge Yourself 10.3 Last Updated 12/11/17

A Skills Approach: Excel 2016 Chapter 10: Working with Macros

8. Add the CalculateGrades macro to the Quick Access Toolbar for just this workbook.

9. Create a macro to display the table Total row and display the class average for each assignment. Hint:
to display the table Total row, check the Total Row check box on the Table Tools Design tab, Table
Style Options group.
a. Name the new macro: ShowTotalRow

b. Do not include a keyboard shortcut.

c. Include the description: Show Total row with averages

d. Display the table Total row.

e. Change the text in the first cell of the Total Row to: Class Averages

f. Select Average in the Total row for columns C:H.

10. Create a macro to hide the table Total row. Hint: This macro has only one action: Uncheck the Total
Row check box on the Table Tools Design tab, Table Style Options group.
a. Name the new macro: HideTotalRow

b. Do not include a keyboard shortcut.
c. Include the description: Hide the Total row

11. If you have permission, create a new custom Ribbon tab for the macros.

a. Name the new custom tab: My Macros

b. Name the new custom group: Challenge Macros

c. Add the three macros you created during this project.

12. Add a form button to the ClassAnalysis worksheet to run the CalculateGrades macro.
a. Place the button to cover cells J1:L2.

b. Edit the button label text to: Calculate Grades

13. Add a form button to the ClassAnalysis worksheet to run the ShowTotalRow macro.
a. Place the button to cover cells J4:L5.

b. Edit the button label text to: Show Assignment Averages

14. Add a form button to the ClassAnalysis worksheet to run the HideTotalRow macro.
a. Place the button to cover cells J7:L8.
b. Edit the button label text to: Hide Assignment Averages

15. Test the Show Assignment Averages and Hide Assignment Averages buttons.

16. Clear all content and formatting from rows 1:10. Caution: If you delete the rows, you will delete the
buttons as well. Instead, use the Clear All command from the Home tab, Editing group.

17. Go to the Class101B worksheet and copy the data in cells A1:F10.

18. Go to the ClassAnalysis worksheet and paste the copied data beginning in cell A1.

19. Run the CalculateGrades macro using any method.

20. Use the Show Assignment Averages button to run the ShowTotalRow macro.

2 | Page Challenge Yourself 10.3 Last Updated 12/11/17

A Skills Approach: Excel 2016 Chapter 10: Working with Macros

Step 2
Upload &
Save

Step 3
Grade my
Project

21. Save the workbook.

22. If you are going to submit this project in SIMnet, save a copy of it as a regular Excel workbook
(without macros).

NOTE: When saving, a message will appear starting with “The following features cannot be saved in
macro-free workbooks”. Click Yes to continue saving the file as a macro-free Excel workbook.

23. If you added a custom tab to the Ribbon, you may want to remove it before closing the workbook.

24. Close the workbook.

25. Upload and save the regular Excel workbook file.

26. Submit project for grading.

3 | Page Challenge Yourself 10.3 Last Updated 12/11/17

  • Challenge Yourself 10.3

Marketing homework help

1

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15

Overall “media weight” is not really very useful.
GRPs do not measure actual reach.

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Awareness plateau – an ad no longer gains additional awareness with additional
media exposure
ROI
A commercial is considered to be experiencing wear-out when it ceases to produce
significant attitudinal or behavioral impact with additional media exposure.

https://www.aaaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Communicus-Wearout.pdf

27

S-shaped response curve

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CPM = $70

SB 2016
Ad cost: $5 million (record breaking)

Estimated 114.4 million viewers. CPM: 43.71
Actual viewers declined to 111.3. CPM: 44.92

Super Bowl LVI (2022) averages audience of 112.3 million viewers, is most-watched
show in five years

CPM 62.5

32

Continuity!

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34

35

From interview of Thales Teixeira, Harvard Professor, by McKinsey partner Dave
Edelman

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Push marketing is geared to helping the retailer to sell (via merchandising,
promotions, display, equipment, pricing)

Pull marketing is geared toward driving the consumer.

40

Company has a desire to achieve certain sales goals within a specific time frame.

Company’s collaborators (e.g., distribution channel) has power and wants.

Typically companies use customer incentives to achieve three primary goals: manage
the timing of customers’ purchases, selectively reach specific segments; and respond
to competitive promotions.

41

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Sahni, Chintagunta and Zou 2017
We find that the offers cause the average expenditure to increase significantly, by
$3.03 (a 37.2% increase) during the promotion window. However, the redemption
rate of these offers is low. Importantly, ninety percent of these gains are not
through redemption of the offers. The individuals who spent more on the platform
in the past are more responsive to the offers; and the effect of the offers is
significantly higher among individuals who did not transact on the platform in the
year before the offer was given. Interestingly, the promotion causes carryover to the
week after the promotion expires; we find that spending increases by $1.55 in the
week after the offer expires. Additionally, we find evidence for cross category
spillovers to non-promoted products – offers not applicable to a ticket genre cause
an increase in spending in that genre. We conclude that emailed offers can serve as a
form of “advertising” for the firm’s products rather than tools of price discrimination.

49

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52

Want to gain distribution, encourage stock at certain levels (for example, prior to
running a consumer promotion), encouraging the channel to promote.

Push Marketing

Shelf Space Higher levels of inventory to limit stockouts Effort
Coop advertising offset the impact of competitive promos

53

General Motors ran a price promotion “You pay what we (employees) pay” in the
summer of 2005 that was imitated after five weeks by it two major U.S. competitors.
Increased sales, but at a loss of $5000 per vehicle. Overall negative impact.
Cadillac sponsored a Super Bowl post-game show to promote the ability of its V-
Series cars to hit 60 mph in less than five seconds. Created a special Web site
promoting a “Five Second Film Competition”- shoot and upload a five-second film on
any topic. More than 2.5 million consumers visited the site, 2600 submited films, in
the four months following the promotion, Cadillac V-series sales jumped by 25%.

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One interesting idea is to spend more time attempting to design promotions that are
easy for consumers to adopt and difficult for competitors to imitate.

Home Depot – employing Olympic athletes. Flexible work week and benefits. Created
stronger links to the Olympics than many other Olympic sponsors. Plus lots of
publicity.

65

66

67

Marketing homework help

Answer each of these 3 questions thoroughly ( usually several paragraphs would be adequate).
Number and create space between each answer

1. Discuss the NFL’s current strategy for global market entry. How has this strategy changed
and why did the NFL make these changes?

2. Discuss the major environmental challenges that the NFL has encountered and how they
have addressed these.

3. Examine each aspect of the global marketing mix for the NFL International Series compared
with the marketing mix for NFL Europa.

Please submit your assignment according to the instructor’s instructions.

Marketing homework help

PSYCHOLOGY
THE SCIENCE OF
SENSORY MARKETING
New research suggests that many industries are missing
opportunities to connect with customers’ senses.

For two decades marketers in a variety of industries have been building ex-pertise in reaching consumers through
the five senses—learning to deploy cues, such
as the sting from a swig of mouthwash and
the scritch-scratch sound of a Sharpie pen,
that can intensify perceptions of brands. The
past year has brought a rush of interest in the
subject among academics. New research sug-
gests that we’re about to enter an era in which
many more consumer products companies
will take advantage of sense-based marketing.

Much of the new research centers on
“embodied cognition”—the idea that without
our conscious awareness, our bodily sensa-
tions help determine the decisions we make.
For example, people who had briefly held a
warm beverage were more likely than peo-
ple who had held a cold one to think that a
stranger was friendly; this was demonstrated
in an experiment by Lawrence E. Williams, of
the University of Colorado at Boulder, and
John A. Bargh, of Yale. And warm ambient
temperatures prompted people to conform

of our brains. The author of the 2013 book
Customer Sense: How the 5 Senses Influence
Buying Behavior, Krishna got into the field
bec ause she was fasc inated by certain
questions: Why does wine taste better in
a wine glass than in a water glass? Why is
an ad showing a piece of cake more engag-
ing when the fork is placed to the right of
the cake? Why does the smell of cinnamon
make a heating pad seem to work better?
Krishna realized that the senses amplify
one another when they are congruent in
some way. Bec ause cinnamon suggests
warmth, it can enhance a heating pad’s ap-
peal and apparent effectiveness. Such influ-
ences are subtle—and that’s exactly why they
are so powerful. Consumers don’t perceive
them as marketing messages and therefore
don’t react with the usual resistance to ads
and other promotions.

Thinking about sensory effects is an
established practice in some consumer in-
dustries, such as food, cosmetics, and hos-
pitality. For example, Hershey’s has long
been aware that the tactile pleasure people
get from unwrapping the foil around a Kiss
transforms an ordinary piece of chocolate
into a special experience. But many com-
panies are taking their thinking much fur-
ther. Consider this campaign by Dunkin’
Donuts in South Korea: When a company
jingle played on municipal buses, an atom-
izer released a coffee aroma. The campaign
increased visits to Dunkin’ Donuts outlets
near bus stops by 16% and sales at those
outlets by 29%. Another example is Olay
Regenerist thermal facial products, which
are engineered to generate heat upon appli-
cation (although heat isn’t necessary to their
functioning) to signal that they are working.

Automakers have paid close attention to
the senses for years: Designers work hard to
optimize the feel of knobs, the solid noise
of a door shutting, and the distinctive new-
car smell. Recently they have turned to ad-
vanced technologies. For instance, in its 2014
M5 model, BMW mikes and amps the engine
sounds through the car speakers, even when
the audio system is turned off. The idea is to
enhance the car’s sporty feel.

to a crowd, a finding of researchers led by
Xun (Irene) Huang, of Sun Yat-sen University
(see the exhibit below).

Marketing researchers are “starting to
realize how powerful the responses to non-
conscious stimuli can be,” says S. Adam
Brasel, an associate professor of marketing
at Boston College. Work on embodied cogni-
tion has begun “blowing up on the academic
side,” he adds. At the 2014 Association for
Consumer Research’s North American con-
ference, Brasel heard more papers on sen-
sory research presented than at any previous
conference. That same year the Journal of
Consumer Psychology published a special is-
sue on embodiment and sensory perception,
with a focus on how sensory inputs can drive
consumer behavior.

Aradhna Krishna directs the Sensory
Marketing Laboratory at the University of
Michigan and is considered the foremost
expert in the field. She says that many com-
panies are just starting to recognize how
strongly the senses affect the deepest parts

WARMTH INDUCES PEOPLE TO CONFORM
Research participants in a warm room (versus a cool but not uncomfortable one)
reported feeling closer to the people around them, and they were more likely to:

say they would buy the TV
remote preferred by most
of the other participants;

match their stock price
predictions to those of
previous participants;

and bet on the “favorite”
in a hypothetical
horse race.

SOURCE “WARMTH AND CONFORMITY: THE EFFECTS OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PRODUCT PREFERENCES AND FINANCIAL
DECISIONS,” BY XUN (IRENE) HUANG, MENG ZHANG, MICHAEL K. HUI, AND ROBERT S. WYER JR.

28  Harvard Business Review March 2015

IDEA WATCH

Still, in wide swaths of consumer indus-
tries, companies remain focused solely on
visual attributes and give little thought to
other sensory effects. Product developers
and marketers need to change that, Krishna
says. Bank executives should make sure that
branch offices exude the reassuring, wealth-
suggesting aromas of wood and leather.
Manufacturers of products with embedded
motors should think about those products’
sounds—are they tinny whines or solid, low-
pitched hums? Luxury clothing manufactur-
ers doing business online should consider
what message is conveyed when goods are
shipped in bubble wrap versus high-quality
crinkly paper.

For managers looking to learn about
sensory stimuli, the new academic work
reveals striking instances of senses’ affect-
ing attitude, mood, and even memory more
profoundly than words ever could. An ex-
periment Krishna conducted with May O.
Lwin, of Singapore’s Nanyang Technological
University, and Maureen Morrin, then of
Rutgers University, is just one example. The
three found that imbuing pencils with the
unusual scent of tea tree oil dramatically
increased research subjects’ ability to re-
member the pencils’ brand and other details.
Whereas those given unscented pencils ex-
perienced a 73% decline in the information
they could recall two weeks later, subjects
given tea-tree-scented pencils experienced a
decline of only 8%.

“In the past, communications with cus-
tomers were essentially monologues—com-
panies just talked at consumers,” Krishna
says. “Then they evolved into dialogues, with
customers providing feedback. Now they’re
becoming multidimensional conversations,
with products finding their own voices and
consumers responding viscerally and sub-
consciously to them.”

Such conversations, she emphasizes,
should be at the center of product innovation
and marketing for many brands. Every con-
sumer company should be thinking about de-
sign in a holistic way, using the senses to help
create and intensify brand personalities that
consumers will cherish and remember.KY

LE
H

IL
TO

N

Tech company employees who used their firm’s social
platform to chat about leisure interests like food and sports
were less likely to be laid off, according to recent study.

“SOCIAL NETWORK EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND JOB SECURITY:
EVIDENCE FROM THE ADOPTION OF A SOCIAL NETWORKING TOOL,” BY LYNN WU

TAKING SENSORY COMMUNICATION
TO A WHOLE NEW LEVEL”
Chuck Jones is the chief design and R&D officer at Newell Rubbermaid, a 112-year-old
maker of tools, pens, and other products. He spoke with HBR about the company’s
new emphasis on sensory marketing and design. Edited excerpts follow.

Why is Newell Rubbermaid investing in sensory
inputs? The field is evolving quickly, and our
corporate growth game plan, which focuses
broadly on design, positions us to take advantage
of the latest research. Last year we opened
a design center next to Western Michigan
University and staffed it with physiologists and
also experts in perception. Someone familiar
only with our past efforts would be stunned.
And we’ve expanded our definition of human
sciences research.

How so? Conventional marketing research
looks at opinions. We also study unconscious
behaviors and human cognitive and physical
processing to extract principles that we can
apply to Sharpie pens or high-performance
pliers, for example.

Pliers? We’re putting a lot of energy into the
heft, feel, and ergonomics of cutting pliers for
skilled trades. There’s a similar effort in packaging.

Why packaging? Many of our fine writing
instruments are given as gifts, so there’s a
ritual quality to opening the package. We
pay close attention to the “hand,” or feel,
of the material; the resistance it
presents (more is better, within
limits); the sounds it makes; and
the way the package opens, as a
series of disclosures—an unveiling
of the product, if you will. Our
thinking about packaging takes
sensory communication to
a whole new level.

THE IDEA IN PRACTICE

March 2015 Harvard Business Review 29

HBR.ORG

TRADE
NOT AS GLOBAL AS WE THINK
Our hyperconnected world isn’t as tightly linked
as it was during the peak of globalization, in
2007—just before the financial crisis hit. That’s
the message from the DHL Global Connectedness
Index 2014.

The index uses flows of trade, capital, people,
and information to show how entwined we
citizens of the world are. It measures those flows
along two dimensions: Depth reflects the volume
of international activity, while breadth reflects
its geographic distribution. For example, tourism
in the Bahamas scores high on depth, because
a lot of people travel there, but low on breadth,
because most come from one country, the U.S.

The index calculates the connectedness of each
nation by combining depth and breadth. It also
tracks connectedness on a worldwide level.

MANY LEADERS HAVE LOST GROUND
Fully half the 26 most-connected countries in 2013 have
become less connected since 2007—and often the declines
are steep. The financial crisis and recession caused trade flows
to plummet. Capital has been largely flat, as has the number
of people studying or working outside their home countries.
Information flows have been rising fast, but they started from
a low base; even now less than 20% of internet traffic crosses
borders, and fewer than 5% of telephone calls do.

DEPTH BUT NOT BREADTH
Worldwide, the volume of flows has rebounded since the
recession—but those gains have been offset by continued
declines in geographic distribution.

SOURCE “DHL GLOBAL CONNECTEDNESS INDEX 2014,” BY PANKAJ GHEMAWAT AND
STEVEN A. ALTMAN

1.1

1.0

0.9

2005 LEVELS=1

1.2

’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’12 ’132005

1.0456

Depth
1.2223

GLOBAL CONNECTEDNESS
1.0435

Breadth
0.9630

IDEA WATCH HBR.ORG

30  Harvard Business Review March 2015

THE MOST-CONNECTED COUNTRIES

CONNECTEDNESS SCORE (0–100)

89

84

83

79

78

74

71

69

64

61

77

73

70

68

62

66

59

2007

84 IRELAND

83 SINGAPORE

81 BELGIUM

80 LUXEMBOURG

78 SWITZERLAND

76 UK

DENMARK
GERMANY

72 SWEDEN

70 HONG KONG

67 HUNGARY

UAE

TAIWAN

FINLAND

FRANCE

AUSTRIA

SOUTH KOREA

THAILAND

ITALY

NORWAY

MALAYSIA

64 U.S.

68 ISRAEL

65 ICELAND

SPAIN

73

66

63

2013

69

89 NETHERLANDS

Copyright 2015 Harvard Business Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Additional restrictions
may apply including the use of this content as assigned course material. Please consult your
institution’s librarian about any restrictions that might apply under the license with your
institution. For more information and teaching resources from Harvard Business Publishing
including Harvard Business School Cases, eLearning products, and business simulations
please visit hbsp.harvard.edu.

Marketing homework help

Examination

Instructions:

There are four questions in total. (25 points each).

The case below references the following case: Pets.com Inc: Rise and Decline of a Pet Supply Retailer

Final Exam: Please read the case Pets.com, and analyze the case based on the following questions in order to rejuvenate the marketing strategies for Pet.com.

1. Please provide a thorough SWOT analysis with detailed and logical reasoning for each item of the SWOT you have identified.
2. Based on the SWOT analysis, please (a) identify target market(s) (be specific) and (b) provide positioning statement(s) for each target market identified. In addition, you need to (c) justify why such targeting and positioning strategies are chosen.
3. Provide at least two new objectives for the new marketing mix strategy to rejuvenate the existing unsuccessful marketing strategy. Remember the criteria for writing good objectives. Please explain and justify your objectives.
4. Based on your objectives in question 3, please provide at least three supporting tactics for EACH of the four elements of marketing mix. Please explain and justify each tactic.

Also, consider the following:

90-100 points
An excellent response. This response is very polished, superb and there is little room for improvement. A excellent response: is well organized, an interesting read, provides insight about the topic being addressed and draws conclusions that are supported. It makes substantial use of information and concepts from class and other sources to draw those conclusions.

80-89 points
A good response (above average). The response is well written, thoughtful, fairly error free with few organizational problems. Good transitions. Neat/Clean. It also makes some connection between the case and concepts covered in class and other sources.

70-79 points
A average response. Nothing very striking. Few errors but rather dry or superficial. Only the obvious is stated with no real insights. Basically only the guiding questions are answered.

60-69 points
A poor response (below average). This is a poorly written, poorly organized project. Again, only the obvious is stated with no insight or support for conclusions drawn.

59 or below
Unsatisfactory. A response of this nature seems to be thrown together with little or no thought. It is not organized, is poorly written, shows no insight, and draws no conclusions.

Marketing homework help

Round 1

A picture containing graphical user interface  Description automatically generated

Graphical user interface, text, application, email  Description automatically generated

Chart, pie chart  Description automatically generated

Chart  Description automatically generated

Graphical user interface  Description automatically generated with medium confidence

Chart  Description automatically generated

Table  Description automatically generated

Graphical user interface, text, application, email  Description automatically generated

Diagram  Description automatically generated with low confidence

This is my first round. I didn’t know that I needed to choose specific products from the first round because I didn’t know the rules very well at that time. I only created three brand campaigns, so the first round did not work well.

Marketing homework help

Week 9 Reflection:

This course is “Advertising and Sales Promotion Management”, please answer according to the content in PDF.

Please provide two reflections. Focus your reflections on the following readings:

• “Neuromarketing: What You Need to Know.” Do you think you are likely to use neuromarketing techniques? (in Harvard Course Reader)

• “What’s the Value of a Like?” Leslie K. John, Daniel Mochon, Oliver Emrich, Janet Schwartz (in Harvard Course Reader).

• Mighty 5 Assessment: http://criticalkpi.com/analyzing-utahs-mighty-5-advertising-campaign-in-tableau/ (Links to an external site.) (What else would you like to know?)

Marketing homework help

D1 Return on Marketing Investment: Pizza Hut Korea’s Case

17

INSTRUCTIONS

When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times.

Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt.

On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective.

Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies.

Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented.

Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations.

BACKGROUND

Pizza Hut Korea was a successful business for almost 15 years, until it experienced a decline between 2000 and 2008. With the hiring of a new CEO, the company has shown a turnaround, using the Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI) tool. This case study focuses on how the use of marketing performance analytics helped Pizza Hut Korea establish a disciplined decision making process for selecting and evaluating marketing campaign investments. (Lee & Yoo, 2013, p. 1662).

PROMPT

Read the Case Study Return on Marketing Investment: Pizza Hut Korea’s Case

 (Links to an external site.)

 and review the module resources. Answer the questions about the case study. Make sure to support your answers with relevant scholarly resources.

Tasks:

In the discussion forum, answer the following:

How can calculating Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) drive determinations of worthwhile marketing investments?

Justify the importance of using the ROMI tool to predict marketing performance.

In response to your peers, do you agree with their justification of the importance of the ROMI tool? What key elements should, or should not, be included in their justification?

Support your answers using relevant, scholarly resources and citations in APA format.

Responses should comprise 200-600 words.

References

Lee, S. & Yoo, S. (2012). Return on Marketing Investment: Pizza Hut Korea’s Case

 (Links to an external site.)

.

Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. It is recommended that you write your post in a document first. Check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors. When you are ready to make your initial post, click on the “Reply”. Then copy/paste the text into the message field, and click “Post Reply.” 

To respond to a peer, click “Reply” beneath her or his post and continue as with an initial post.

Evaluation

This discussion will be graded using the discussion board rubric. Please review this rubric, located on the Rubrics page within the Start Here module of the course, prior to beginning your work to ensure your participation meets the criteria in place for this discussion. All discussions combined are worth 20% of your final course grade.

Marketing homework help

After completing this lesson, students should be able to: 

Demonstrate an understanding of and relevance to your academic career by making a connection between knowledge learned in the classroom, your professional work journal and practical problems in an off-campus work environment. 

Identify your strengths, weaknesses, and areas of interest, based on your practical work experience. 

Demonstrate your ability to produce a professional work journal and describe its use. 

In Weeks 3-7 you were directed to keep a professional work journal (Please refer to Week 2 for a review of instructions). Now you will review your work journal entries and arrange some of them into an essay. The essay will reflect upon those five weeks of experiences recorded in your journal and what you have learned.  Include how they may have furthered your career or caused you to rethink your career goals.  Your essay should include your experiences, observations, and the key concepts based on the internship and business course experience. The CLA1 assignment will be a Turnitin paper of 4 pages. 

Your paper should be formatted in APA style. Include at least two (2) peer-reviewed sources related to course material taken in your academic program. 

The most important thing you have to mention in this paper is I interviewed our manager (class required, I attached interview below). The paper’s content should be specific related to Marketing area below……  

INTERVIEW :

1. Is this position of manager a challenge for you? What is the biggest challenge of a manager? 

The biggest challenge as a manager is making sure everything runs smoothly. No matter how well the day is going, there are some instances you can’t prepare for.  

 

2. Do you like your position of manager? Could you explain that? 

 Yes, the position as a manager is extremely rewarding. I am constantly learning new things every day. 

 

3. In our company, you have two roles, manager and consultant. How do you balance two of these positions? 

 Balancing between the two roles requires a lot of effort. Some days I am immersed in my role as a consultant and end up neglecting my managerial responsibilities. I have found that notetaking and creating to-do lists help me stay focused.

My Background: I am studying a MBA program and also I am working at plastic surgery clinic as a graphic designer and marketing assistant in Arcadia, California, US. Because our doctor and most of the stuffs are original from China. So our main target market is Chinese and Asian…….My main job is advertising design (patients before and after photography and retouching, brochure design, price list design, promotion banner design, website content, email design, social media advertising design,) and assists our marketing team to cooperate with Chinese market(dealmoon, world journal).  

Marketing homework help

In September 2008, Forbes dubbed the NFL “the strongest sport in the world.” With annual
league revenues of roughly $6.5 billion and each of the 32 NFL teams worth $1 billion on
average (compared to only four professional soccer teams worldwide worth over $1 billion), the
NFL is one of the most lucrative and financially resilient sports leagues worldwide. Forbes’s
August 2008 list of the world’s best-paid athletes, however, does not have a single football
player. It is populated by soccer, tennis, and basketball players; motorcycle and auto racers;
and golfers.
One reason that football players do not make the list of the world’s best-paid athletes is because
American football is American. It does not have effective international appeal. Even baseball, a
game some might consider more American than football, has gained a substantial following in
Japan and Latin America. But considering the amount of athletes’ earnings that come from
marketing contracts, it’s no surprise that the top 10 (and in fact the top 20) are dominated by
sports that hold a much more global appeal. For all its success, the vast majority of the NFL’s
market remains in the United States.

Over the years, numerous attempts have been made to export American football overseas. Its
most recent endeavor, NFL Europa, closed down in 2007 without any plans for a replacement.
NFL Europa had lost money for 15 years straight and was largely being used by NFL owners as
a place to stash extra players during training camp.
Over the last two years, the NFL has started trying another tack—the NFL International Series.
It is a program that exports real NFL games overseas. In 2007, the New York Giants and Miami
Dolphins played the first NFL game in London’s Wembley Stadium to a sold-out crowd of over
83,000 fans, followed in 2008 by the New Orleans Saints and San Diego Chargers.
The original game in 2007 proved that offering the real thing to an international audience could
generate a lot of excitement, and the game itself provided the Giants a momentum boost in the
midst of a run that ended with a Super Bowl victory. In 2007, the teams arrived in London only a
couple of days before the match. In 2008 (hoping to increase exposure), the teams were
brought over at the beginning of the week. They held practices throughout the week to which
the media was granted access, along with press conferences. Perhaps one of the biggest
boosts was the agreement the league reached with the BBC to broadcast the game live, which
would potentially add an additional 2 million viewers. Previously, NFL games could be viewed
only on a British pay channel, which garnered about 120,000 viewers per week.

Though the program is still young, it has produced promising results, with the 2009 game
between the New England Patriots and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers drawing the largest
attendance yet, largely due to Tom Brady’s popularity in the UK. The NFL confirmed a 2010
International series between the Denver Broncos and the San Francisco 49ers in late October
2010. In the meantime, the NFL has identified education as a key factor in sustaining interest in
London (and other potential foreign markets). After the 2007 game, the league performed
surveys among Londoners about what they liked best about the game. One of their top answers
was the strategy. Compared to more internationally popular games like soccer, American
football is extremely complex, and if viewers don’t understand it, it will be difficult for them to
appreciate its strategic value. To help with this, the NFL launched an interactive Web site to
help present new fans with the basics of American football in laymen’s terms. With a cast of
fictional characters playing roles in a fictional football organization, led by the hard-nosed Coach
Stilo who quizzes viewers on what they’re learning as they go, and guest appearances by real
NFL football players without their helmets, viewers are led through a series of 18 episodes in
which they learn the basic terminology, positions, plays, and strategy. The Web site is available
in English, Spanish, French, Japanese, and Mandarin. In places like China, the terminology

does not translate well, so the league has invented a nomenclature that better fits with the
language. All in all, the NFL believes that a better understanding of the game will make a huge
difference in drawing fans in as it continues promoting American football overseas.

SOURCES: Lacey Rose, “The World’s Best-Paid Male Athletes,” Forbes, August 8, 2008; Tom
Van Riper and Kurt Badenhausen, “Top-Earning Female Athletes,” Forbes, July 22, 2008; Kurt
Badenhausen, Michael Ozanian, Christina Settimi, “The Richest Game,” Forbes, September 11,
2008; Len Pasquarelli, “NFL Europa Failed to Produce Players, Profi ts,” ESPN, June 29, 2007;
Mike Carlson, “Saints Put on a Show for ‘Home’ Crowd at Wembley,” NFL.com, October 27,
2008; Lisa Altobelli, “Think Globally: NFL Visits England to Increase Awareness of Football,”
Sports Illustrated, October 24, 2008; Associated Press, “NFL Hoping Rules, Jargon Doesn’t
Prevent Chinese from Learning Game,” ESPN, June 29, 2007; Matthew Futterman, “Football
Tries a New Play to Score Overseas,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2008.

Marketing homework help

ClassAnalysis

Student ID Last Name Word Excel PowerPoint Access
1001 Brown 90 89 92 93
1002 Jackson 78 82 85 80
1003 Smith 91 75 89 88
1004 Juarez 98 95 95 100
1005 Jones 67 65 57 69
1006 Black 82 89 91 92
1007 Carson 100 98 97 99
1008 Omari 78 80 77 75
1009 Erkstrom 87 93 90 88

Class101A

Student ID Last Name Word Excel PowerPoint Access
1001 Brown 90 89 92 93
1002 Jackson 78 82 85 80
1003 Smith 91 75 89 88
1004 Juarez 98 95 95 100
1005 Jones 67 65 57 69
1006 Black 82 89 91 92
1007 Carson 100 98 97 99
1008 Omari 78 80 77 75
1009 Erkstrom 87 93 90 88

Class101B

Student ID Last Name Word Excel PowerPoint Access
1010 Zhu 90 92 92 100
1011 Davidson 72 78 88 90
1012 Alvarez 91 75 89 88
1013 Brown 90 80 85 85
1014 Jones 67 65 57 69
1015 Swanson 82 89 91 92
1016 Lawson 75 80 85 88
1017 Shores 78 80 77 75
1018 Beck 95 90 98 75

Marketing homework help

SELF AND SOCIAL AWARENESS 

Definition: Understanding your personal strengths and limitations; recognizing your thoughts, emotions, and intentions; being open to receiving feedback; and identifying how your behaviors impact others. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: Self awareness can help you find the right career for you, know when it’s time to leave your current job, and make you a stronger leader. (Swerdlow, 5) 

TECHNOLOGY 

Definition: Being able to confidently and effectively use technology to be productive, complete goals and tasks, and maintain a competitive advantage. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: 78% of today’s jobs require familiarity with technology, and digitally intensive jobs are growing faster and pay more than non-digital roles. (Southern New Hampshire University, 6) 

PRODUCTIVITY 

Definition: Strategizing, organizing, and effectively managing your time and priorities. Why it Matters for the Future of Work: High performers can be up to 800 percent more productive than other workers, drastically cutting down the time and money needed to complete large tasks – something managers always value. (Keller, 7) 

INITIATIVE 

Definition: Thinking independently, seeing what needs to be done, and taking action without being prompted. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: Initiative has become more important in modern workplaces, as employers rely on people who have the courage to push their teams forward. (Mind Tools, 8) 

RESULTS DRIVEN 

Definition: Acting with a sense of urgency and focus to reach goals, without compromising integrity or quality. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: As companies use more freelancers, they need those workers to be results-driven so projects stay on track. (Do, 9) 

COMMUNICATION 

Definition: Actively seeking and delivering information, clearly articulating ideas, effectively listening, and confidently connecting to various audiences, settings, and situations. Why it Matters for the Future of Work: Communication is one of the top five skills that will be important in the future across all industries…and that employers currently find lacking. (Gilchrist, 10) 

RELATIONSHIP BUILDING 

Definition: Effectively working with others and establishing, cultivating, and leveraging networks

over time. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: 85% of all open job positions are filled through personal connections. (Adler, 11) 

PROBLEM SOLVING 

Definition: Identifying and framing problems, exploring ideas, and creating effective, ethical, and evidence-based solutions. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: Problem solving is important in every industry, and this skill gives an especially notable edge in management positions. (CareerBuilder, 12) 

INNOVATION 

Definition: Creatively thinking and coming up with new ideas and solutions to solve old problems. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: 84% of business executives believe that innovation is important, but only 6% are satisfied with their company’s performance in that area. (McKinsey & Company, 13) 

AGILITY 

Definition: Embracing change and effectively adapting when things around you are constantly in motion. 

Why it Matters for the Future of Work: In one survey, 79% of executives said that the future of work will be based on specific projects instead of roles, meaning that having the agility to adapt quickly will be extremely important. (Lyons, 14)

Marketing homework help

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HBS Professor Emeritus John A. Quelch and Ohio University Professor Katherine B. Hartman prepared this case solely as a basis for class discussion
and not as an endorsement, a source of primary data, or an illustration of effective or ineffective management. Although based on real events and
despite occasional reference to actual companies, this case is fictitious and any resemblance to actual persons or entities is coincidental.

Copyright © 2020 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685,
write Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www.hbsp.harvard.edu. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or
otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School.

9 – 9 2 0 – 5 6 3
A P R I L 3 0 , 2 0 2 0

J O H N A . Q U E L C H

K A T H E R I N E B . H A R T M A N

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

“I really do not like Mondays,” Kathy Ayers, Vice President of Marketing and Communications for
Land and Nature (L&N) Jerky Company, thought as she reflected on her afternoon meeting with L&N’s
CEO, Tim Ryan. During the meeting, Ayers and Ryan had reviewed L&N’s actual, expected, and
forecasted income statements from 2018 through 2020 (Exhibit 1). Ryan explained, “For 2020, we hope
to run at 80% capacity. That will lead to 4% growth in revenue, assuming the same variable cost
percentages that we have now, and a 3% increase in fixed costs. Our forecast operating profit for 2020
is currently 5.2% of sales, well short of the 7% target headquarters has for the company.”

Startled, Ayers looked at Ryan, who stated, “I want your team to help me achieve this goal. By next
week’s leadership meeting, I need you to analyze the effectiveness of our consumer and trade
promotions and make recommendations for the 2020 budget to ensure we use our resources wisely.”

Although relieved her budget was not being cut again, Ayers needed to ensure Ryan understood
the importance of promotions. She said, “We cannot increase sales, stimulate demand, and encourage
trial without consumer promotions. Trade promotions are less essential, but they have helped us secure
new accounts, encouraged our partners to stock more inventory, and generated point-of-purchase
discounts passed along from our partners to consumers.”

Ryan paused briefly before responding. “I think you’re right, but we must have some numbers to
support that hypothesis,” he said. “Corporate wants us to justify our position that promotions expense
translates to revenue because if it does not, why should we spend it?”

After meeting Ryan, Ayers called Steve Ham, L&N’s Chief Financial Officer. “Steve, can you get
some numbers together for me?” she asked. “I need to first calculate return-on-marketing-investment
(ROMI) for both consumer and trade promotions and then consider how to adjust the budget to
maximize ROMI.”

To Ayers’s surprise, Ham replied, “I have been working on that for the past week. Give me an hour
to finish it.” Now, Ayers was on her way to Ham’s office with her notes and planned budget.

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2021 to Apr 2022.

920-563 | Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

2 BRIEFCASES | HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL

Meat Jerky Industry in the United States

The meat jerky industry included companies that dehydrate (or cure), season, and package meat
into meat jerky products. In 2018, estimated sales were $1.3 billion ($67.3 million in profit) with
projected annual growth of 2.7%.1 On average, operating profit margins were approximately 5%.2

Products

Meat jerky was a nutrient-dense, shelf-stable meat that was made lightweight by drying; a pound
of meat or poultry weighed about four ounces after being made into jerky. 3 It was made from lean cuts
of whole muscle. Meat was sliced into thin strips or restructured muscle by grinding and processing
whole muscle to form a more uniform shape. Most jerky was sold in plastic, multi-serve bags.

In 2018, beef had 79% of total U.S. jerky sales. Less than 20% of jerky sales came from other meats
such as turkey, chicken, pork, and game such as deer, elk, salmon, and buffalo.4 Analysts predicted
beef jerky revenue would decline and sales of innovative flavors and healthier meats would increase.5

Meat snacks were made from processed meats, including both muscle and fat, typically formed into
sticks that were encased like sausage, and often sold in single-serving packages. The nutritional
contents of jerky and meat snacks differed considerably. For example, in 2019, a one-ounce serving of
Oberto’s All-Natural Original Beef Jerky was 70 calories with 0.5g of fat and 10g of protein, while a
one-ounce serving of Slim Jim’s Original Beef Stick was 140 calories with 11g of fat and 6g of protein.

Competitive Landscape

In 2018, the top three competitors accounted for 60% of total sales in the U.S. market. 6 The largest
was Link Snacks, Inc. (26%), which produced beef jerky, turkey jerky, beef sticks, and meat and cheese
packs under the brand name Jack Link’s. The Oberto Sausage Company was the second-largest
competitor (19%). It produced and sold beef jerky, salami, pepperoni, and other snack sausages under
the brand name Oh Boy! Oberto. Slim Jim, produced by a division of Conagra Brands Inc., was the
third-largest competitor (15%). It offered a wide variety of meat sticks, meat snacks, and dried sausages.

The remaining industry revenue included numerous smaller companies and hundreds of single-
person operations. Many of them offered premium-quality products. For example, Chef’s Cut Real
Jerky offered protein-rich jerky targeted to golfers, and Country Archer Jerky Co. produced gourmet
jerky, sticks, and bars made with “premium and clean” ingredients. 7

Rapid revenue growth had also spurred industry consolidation, with global food companies
acquiring small jerky producers. As examples, Hershey’s purchased KRAVE in 2015, General Mills
acquired EPIC Provisions in 2016, and Premium Brands Holding Corporation purchased Oberto in
2018. These companies used their power to secure limited shelf space.

The bases of competition were product price-quality, channel relationships, and innovation-
differentiation. 8 Most consumers were price sensitive, yet those concerned with quality were loyal to
competitively priced brands. Producers needed relationships with meat producers to ensure steady
access to inputs as well as distributors to secure shelf space in stores. Innovation and differentiation
helped earn consumer interest, command higher prices, and secure product placement. These efforts
included new flavor profiles, all-natural or organic variations, and artisanal (small batch) handcrafted
product lines that were targeted at athletes, hikers, and campers.

L&N considered KRAVE, EPIC, Chef’s Cut, and Country Archer as its direct competitors. L&N had
products that were similarly priced (per ounce) to their competitors’, but the other companies had more

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2021 to Apr 2022.

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky | 920-563

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL | BRIEFCASES 3

product items than L&N. EPIC sold 4 flavors of traditional jerky, 6 flavors of meat steaks, and 12 flavors
of meat bars using 9 different meats. Chef’s Cut sold eight flavors of traditional jerky and six flavors of
meat sticks. Country Archer sold 11 flavors of traditional jerky and 7 flavors of meat sticks.

Markets and Distribution

Most sales of meat jerky were derived from grocery wholesalers (78%). The remainder were sold
directly to supermarkets and convenience stores (12.5%) or exported to other countries (9.5%).9 Grocery
wholesalers supplied supermarkets, convenience stores, and others with a range of packaged snack
foods, including meat jerky. However, the grocery wholesaler market share had been decreasing as
online ordering systems enabled automatic repurchasing directly from producers.

In 2018, U.S. retail sales of meat snacks were $3.6 billion. 10 Using inflation-adjusted prices, retail
sales had increased 29% between 2013 and 2018 and were forecasted to continue to grow an additional
19% by 2023.11 Convenience stores generated 72% of retail revenue, and supermarkets accounted for
approximately 20%. 12

According to a survey of U.S. consumers, 13 42% of households had purchased meat snacks at least
once during the previous three months. Among consumers aged 18–34, 54% of men and 33% of women
reported purchasing meat snacks themselves. Exhibit 2 provides excerpts from the survey.

L&N’s competitors relied increasingly on promotions to retain existing customers and attract new
ones. The typical revenue-to-cost ratio for consumer promotions in the jerky industry was 5:1, where
every dollar spent should produce an additional five dollars in revenues. The typical revenue-to-cost
ratio for trade promotions in the meat snack industry was 4:1.

Land and Nature (L&N) Jerky Company
Located in Nebraska, L&N was an independent subsidiary owned by KB Holdings, a global food

company. Until 2014, L&N had slowly expanded its product lines to include a variety of premium-
quality, all-natural jerky that was available in stores throughout the Great Plains. In 2014, KB Holdings
purchased L&N to build its portfolio of all-natural, eco-friendly products by expanding L&N’s
distribution nationwide. Surveys suggested that jerky consumers considered L&N one of the top five
brands among all-natural artisan jerky and meat snacks.

Philosophy & Production

Ayers had joined L&N because she believed in its focus on sustainability; L&N sourced its products
from sustainable farms and produced products using eco-friendly practices. It processed only
traditional meats (beef, turkey, and pork) to scale production responsibly and efficiently. The company
also supported conservation efforts and nonprofit organizations.

Unlike competitors that used co-packers, L&N processed purchased meat in its own production

facility. It employed 20 workers and used USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) guidelines
for jerky processing: strip preparation, marination, antimicrobial interventions, surface preparation
and lethality (i.e., the process for destroying pathogenic microorganisms), drying, and post-drying
heating. 14 Managing its own facilities improved quality control and lowered production costs.

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This document is authorized for use only by Katherine Tang in MGT 247 Advertising & Promotions Winter 2021-22 taught by Margaret Campbell, University of California – Riverside from Dec
2021 to Apr 2022.

920-563 | Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

4 BRIEFCASES | HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL

Product and Pricing

In 2019, L&N’s product mix included two lines: traditional beef jerky and meat strips. L&N’s jerky
was made from whole muscle beef and came in four flavors: regular, teriyaki, barbeque, and habanero.
Strips were introduced as an extension to L&N’s product mix in 2013. They were made from beef,
turkey, and pork using restructured muscle. Strips were offered in three unique flavor combinations:
chipotle-lime turkey, apple-walnut pork, and dark chocolate, and blackberry beef. In 2016, L&N’s
chipotle-lime turkey strip won a national award from the American Cured Meat Championships. In
2018, jerky accounted for 42% of L&N’s revenue, strips for 58%.

Since 2015, L&N wholesale prices for jerky and strips were $3 and $1, respectively. In 2017, L&N
reduced its jerky package size from 2.2 to 2.0 ounces and its strip package size from 0.8 to 0.7 ounces
to address rising material costs while maintaining prices. In 2019, jerky was sold in resealable pouches
for $5.49 MSRP. Retailers frequently discounted jerky; the average retail price in 2019 was $4.99. Strips
were sold in individual, vacuum-sealed packages for $1.99 MSRP. They offered fewer price discounts
on strips; the average retail price in 2019 was $1.89. Although products were competitively priced
against premium national brands, L&N had one of the highest price-per-ounce MSRP.

Positioning and Customers

In 2016, Ayers had convinced Ryan to reposition L&N’s products. L&N situated itself as an artisanal
heritage brand that made hand-crafted, better-for-you products, and it began promoting its products
as high-quality, protein-rich, and all-natural. Its packaging emphasized grams of protein per serving,
all-natural ingredients, and minimal processing. L&N’s products were labeled as certified paleo,
gluten-free, and grain-free. Its practices for meat sourcing practices allowed L&N to be the only
national meat jerky producer permitted to label its products using three AGW (A Greener World)
certifications: Certified Grassfed, Certified Non–GMO, and Animal Welfare Approved.

Rather than using a Wild West theme to differentiate its products, L&N used bold graphics and
vibrant colors. The primary colors of its meat steak strip packaging varied by flavor: apple red (apple-
walnut pork); lime green (chipotle-lime turkey); and blackberry purple (dark chocolate and blackberry
beef). In addition, L&N differentiated itself from other artisanal jerky brands—which usually used
sophisticated, artistically rendered images—by using cartoon-rendered food icons. Branding choices
positioned L&N products as offbeat and quirky.

The market study that Ayers had commissioned showed that L&N had strong brand awareness
among meat snack consumers (75% aided recall), which was comparable to competitors such as
KRAVE, EPIC, Country Archer, and Chef’s Cut. According to the study, 12% of consumers surveyed
had purchased an L&N product at least once in the previous three months; 40% of those surveyed had
purchased any meat snack during that period. Consumers who had purchased L&N’s products tended
to be college-educated, working adults with household incomes of $75,000–$99,999.

Compared to the average meat snack consumer, L&N customers were more likely to look at
ingredients before buying snack foods (42% vs. 28%) and less likely to identify low price as important
to their purchase decision (16% vs. 39%). The study also suggested that L&N’s customers were far more
likely to look for labels like L&N’s AGW certifications than the average jerky buyer was (39% vs. 27%).
Exhibit 3 compares L&N customers to all customers who purchased meat snacks.

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2021 to Apr 2022.

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HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL | BRIEFCASES 5

Distribution

As a subsidiary of KB Holdings, L&N enjoyed strong distribution. In the United States, 70% of
supermarket chains, 44% of convenience stores, and 36% of independent grocers stocked at least one
L&N product. KB Holdings managed reordering, restocking, and delivery for all retail accounts in
exchange for 10% of L&N‘s revenue; typical grocery wholesaler distribution fees ran from 15% to 30%.
L&N also considered its relationship with KB Holdings to be a major competitive advantage. Unlike
independent, wholesale distributors that often represented several jerky brands, KB Holdings had a
vested interest in L&N’s long-term revenue and profit growth.

L&N’s jerky pouches were offered near other jerky products on hanger shelves. Strips were sold
from L&N display boxes located near nutrition bars. Independent of KB Holdings, L&N managed its
own advertising, consumer promotions, and trade promotions through a three-person sales and
marketing team, which had developed successful point-of-purchase displays in convenience stores that
increased impulse purchases. L&N’s annual survey of distributors indicated strong satisfaction with
product quality (95%), inventory turn (91%), relationship (88%), and trade promotions (81%).

L&N’s Integrated Marketing Communications
Ayers arrived at Ham’s office and sat down. She gave him a copy of her notes and budget and began

to explain. “As you know, we conceptualize L&N’s marketing communications strategy using three
components: (1) strategic intent, including the communication goals and target audience; (2) strategic
execution, including message/story and media; and (3) strategic impact, including budget and
effectiveness metrics. In 2019, our goal was to build a preference for our products and increase the
likelihood of purchase. We targeted mainly existing customers, but we also targeted consumers who
expressed interest in jerky or meat snacks online. We shared our message primarily through paid and
owned online media. We also used consumer and trade promotions to build demand.”

L&N’s paid media included social media ads, search ads, and image-rich display ads. Its owned
media included a mobile-friendly website and company-sponsored social media content that used a
combination of humor and emotional (feel-good) appeals. For example, the L&N website shared
information about sustainability practices as well as funny animal pictures and videos.

L&N had recently finished negotiations with a company to outsource a portion of paid and owned
media. The company specialized in targeting and delivering marketing content using marketing
automation, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. By outsourcing, L&N estimated it would
reduce its 2020 paid and owned media budget from $700,000 to $500,000.

L&N invested heavily in consumer promotions, which were pull marketing communications
intended to induce end users to purchase L&N’s products at the point of sale. Consumer promotions
also encouraged trial among new customers; L&N commonly used digital coupons (e.g., buy-one-get-
one and cents-off) and instant savings stickers on packages. L&N also invested in social media contests
in which participants earned money to be donated to a sustainable nonprofit organization. For
example, L&N invited participants to share pictures of nature via social media. It then selected five
entries as finalists and asked followers to vote for their favorite. L&N donated $50,000 to the preferred
nonprofit of the winning photographer and $10,000 to the nonprofit of the runner-up. L&N alternated
promotions monthly so that it offered consumer promotions during even months (February, April,
June, August, October, and December).

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2021 to Apr 2022.

920-563 | Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

6 BRIEFCASES | HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL

Ayers explained, “Consumer promotions will drive most of our revenue generation. We get a lot of
positive feedback on social media when we offer promotions that consumers like. Our customers
especially love to re-share contests and promotions that benefit social and environmental causes they
support. Our loyal customers are one of our greatest assets.”

L&N also invested in trade promotions, which were push marketing communications designed to
motivate retailers to sell products to consumers and to maintain distributor relationships and loyalty.
L&N’s trade promotions included discounts off invoice prices, free cases with minimum orders, shelf
talkers (i.e., signs attached to a shelf that were designed to attract a customer’s attention, and
performance discount incentives for verifiable merchandising/advertising support). L&N regarded
this effort as key for getting retailers to carry L&N products; it estimated that half its accounts would
discontinue carrying L&N’s products without them. L&N alternated promotions monthly; it offered
trade promotions during odd months (January, March, May, July, September, and November).

Ayers explained: “I am not sure about the effectiveness of our trade promotions. Our trade partners
tell us that our timing, duration, and frequency of trade promotions are very effective and that our
shelf talkers and vibrant packaging are distinct visuals. In addition, thanks to KB holdings, we have
fewer out-of-stock issues and higher inventory turn-over rates than our competitors do. However,
although our goal is for retailers to pass along discounts to stimulate demand rather than build their
own inventory, we cannot control how our partners manage their inventory or stock our products.”

Ham told Ayers. “I just finished these estimates. Using historical sales records, expected organic
growth, and the 2018 and 2019 monthly marketing expenses (Exhibit 4), I estimated incremental
revenue for trade and consumer promotions (Exhibit 5). I think this information will help you estimate
ROMI for promotions for the 2020 budget, which includes $700,000 for owned and paid media, $400,000
for consumer promotions, and $300,000 for trade promotions. Unfortunately, I do not have the data to
calculate incremental revenue for media spending.” Ayers thanked Ham for the information.

Decision

As Ayers walked back to her office, she reflected on Ryan’s request during their earlier meeting:

I want you to estimate L&N forecasted 2020 operating profit (Exhibit 1) using three
options: reduce L&N’s total promotion budget by 30%, increase L&N’s consumer
promotions by $200,000, or increase L&N’s trade promotions by $200,000. Because we can
reduce our paid and owned media budget by 30%, the first option explores whether we
can achieve our profit goal by reducing promotion spending. Options two and three,
increasing consumer promotions and increasing trade promotions, respectively, would
reallocate the savings from the paid and owned media budget to promotions. I want to
invest all the savings into one category, to maintain existing programs while increasing
investments in new programs. I do not want to invest more money into both consumer
and trade promotions because it will split the focus of your team.

Ayers replied, “Beyond these calculations, we must consider both strategic and financial issues.
L&N must differentiate our products from those of our competitors. Our positioning and emphasis on
better-for-you ingredients have been effective, but the competitive landscape is changing.”

Ryan said, “I might agree, but remember that you have under a week to do your analyses and make
your recommendation. I look forward to hearing what your data suggest.”

For the exclusive use of K. Tang, 2022.

This document is authorized for use only by Katherine Tang in MGT 247 Advertising & Promotions Winter 2021-22 taught by Margaret Campbell, University of California – Riverside from Dec
2021 to Apr 2022.

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky | 920-563

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL | BRIEFCASES 7

Exhibit 1: L&N Consolidated Income Statement

2018 ($) 2019 (expected) ($) 2020 (forecasted) ($)
Revenue $9,585,000 $10,064,000 $10,480,000
Variable Costs
Raw materials $4,715,820 $5,253,538 $5,470,560
Production $747,630 $785,012 $817,440
Distribution $958,500 $1,006,425 $1,048,000
Gross profit $3,163,050 $3,019,025 $3,144,000
Fixed Costs
Wages $843,480 $896,000 $920,000
Marketing $1,293,975 $1,358,000 $1,400,000
G&A $277,965 $272,000 $280,000
Operating profit $747,630 $493,025 $544,000

Exhibit 2: Select Results from a 2017 National Consumer Survey*

Jerky or Meat Snack Purchases (over the previous three months)
• Meat source: beef (80%), chicken (49%), turkey (45%), bison (34%), game – elk or venison

(24%), and salmon (26%)

• Reasons for consumption: satisfy a craving (43%), to relieve stress (43%), to satisfy hunger
(35%), eat on the go (24%), for energy (26%), and as something healthy (8%)

• Flavors: regular (55%), teriyaki (29%), peppered (18%), spicy (16%), smoked / mesquite
(14%), hickory (11%), and barbeque (11%)

Purchase Interest by Product Characteristics
• Product forms: prime cuts (41%), variety packs (38%), and snack bars (27%)

• Preferred attributes: tasty (44%), unique (38%), natural (37%), premium (33%), a
trustworthy brand (33%), and healthy (31%)

• Feel-good attributes: grass-fed (28%), preservative-free (26%), and humanely raised (24%)

* Sample: an online survey of 2,000 adults living in the United States

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This document is authorized for use only by Katherine Tang in MGT 247 Advertising & Promotions Winter 2021-22 taught by Margaret Campbell, University of California – Riverside from Dec
2021 to Apr 2022.

920-563 | Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

8 BRIEFCASES | HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL

Exhibit 3: Select Results from 2019 L&N Consumer Survey*
L&N

Buyers
Any Meat

Snack

Demographics
Male, 25–34 52% 54%
Female, 25–34 41% 33%
Income $75,000–$99,999 43% 36%
Degree earned (Bachelors or higher) 42% 30%

Purchase Behaviors
Made from prime cuts 50% 41%
Better-for-you (e.g., low salt, high fiber, added
nutrients)

37% 26%

Feel-good (e.g., grass-fed, free-range, organic) 39% 27%
Artisanal (hand-crafted in small batches) 24% 18%
Low carbohydrate (e.g., paleo, keto) 17% 10%
Look at ingredients 42% 28%
Price-sensitive 16% 39%
AGW certifications 39% 27%

* Sample: an online survey of 2,000 adults living in the United States

Exhibit 4: L&N’s Marketing Costs (US$)

Costs
2018 (Actual)
Owned and paid media $646,336
Trade $280,487
Consumer $367,152

2019 (Expected)
Owned and paid media $678,300
Trade $294,300
Consumer $385,400

Exhibit 5: L&N’s Incremental Revenue (US$)

Revenue
2018 (Actual)
Owned and paid media (unknown)
Trade $1,304,265
Consumer $1,340,104

2019 (Expected)
Owned and paid media (unknown)
Trade $1,368,495
Consumer $1,406,710

For the exclusive use of K. Tang, 2022.

This document is authorized for use only by Katherine Tang in MGT 247 Advertising & Promotions Winter 2021-22 taught by Margaret Campbell, University of California – Riverside from Dec
2021 to Apr 2022.

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky | 920-563

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL | BRIEFCASES 9

Endnotes

1 IBISWorld Industry Report OD4826 Meat Jerky Production in the US, December 2018, via IBISWorld database, accessed July
2019.

2 IBISWorld Industry Report.

3 USDA, Jerky and Food Safety 2011, https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-
answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/meat-preparation/jerky-and-food-safety/ct_index,, accessed July 2019.

4 IBISWorld Industry Report.

5 IBISWorld Industry Report.

6 IBISWorld Industry Report.

7 ”America’s Top Entrepreneurs,” Inc. Magazine, August 2018, https://www.inc.com/inc5000/index.html, accessed July 2019.

8 IBISWorld Industry Report.

9 IBISWorld Industry Report.

10 Beth Bloom, “Salty Snacks–US” (March 2019), via Mintel Academic database.

11 Bloom.

12 IBISWorld Industry Report.

13 Caleb Bryant, “Salty Snacks–US” (April 2017), via Mintel Academic database.

14 USDA, FSIS Compliance Guideline for Meat and Poultry Jerky Produced by Small and Very Small Establishments 2014
Compliance Guideline, https://meathaccp.wisc.edu/doc_support/asset/Compliance-Guideline-Jerky-2014.pdf, accessed July
2019.

For the exclusive use of K. Tang, 2022.

This document is authorized for use only by Katherine Tang in MGT 247 Advertising & Promotions Winter 2021-22 taught by Margaret Campbell, University of California – Riverside from Dec
2021 to Apr 2022.

  • Meat Jerky Industry in the United States
    • Products
    • Competitive Landscape
    • Markets and Distribution
  • Land and Nature (L&N) Jerky Company
    • Philosophy & Production
    • Product and Pricing
    • Positioning and Customers
    • Distribution
  • L&N’s Integrated Marketing Communications
  • Decision
  • Exhibit 1: L&N Consolidated Income Statement
  • Exhibit 2: Select Results from a 2017 National Consumer Survey*
  • Exhibit 3: Select Results from 2019 L&N Consumer Survey*
  • Exhibit 4: L&N’s Marketing Costs (US$)
  • Exhibit 5: L&N’s Incremental Revenue (US$)
  • Endnotes

BriefCases_Masthead_via HBS cases_3

920-563 | Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky | 920-563

9-920-563

APRIL 30, 2020

John A. Quelch

Katherine B. Hartman

Promoting Land and Nature Jerky

“I really do not like Mondays,” Kathy Ayers, Vice President of Marketing and Communications for Land and Nature (L&N) Jerky Company, thought as she reflected on her afternoon meeting with L&N’s CEO, Tim Ryan. During the meeting, Ayers and Ryan had reviewed L&N’s actual, expected, and forecasted income statements from 2018 through 2020 (Exhibit 1). Ryan explained, “For 2020, we hope to run at 80% capacity. That will lead to 4% growth in revenue, assuming the same variable cost percentages that we have now, and a 3% increase in fixed costs. Our forecast operating profit for 2020 is currently 5.2% of sales, well short of the 7% target headquarters has for the company.”

Startled, Ayers looked at Ryan, who stated, “I want your team to help me achieve this goal. By next week’s leadership meeting, I need you to analyze the effectiveness of our consumer and trade promotions and make recommendations for the 2020 budget to ensure we use our resources wisely.”

Although relieved her budget was not being cut again, Ayers needed to ensure Ryan understood the importance of promotions. She said, “We cannot increase sales, stimulate demand, and encourage trial without consumer promotions. Trade promotions are less essential, but they have helped us secure new accounts, encouraged our partners to stock more inventory, and generated point-of-purchase discounts passed along from our partners to consumers.”

Ryan paused briefly before responding. “I think you’re right, but we must have some numbers to support that hypothesis,” he said. “Corporate wants us to justify our position that promotions expense translates to revenue because if it does not, why should we spend it?”

After meeting Ryan, Ayers called Steve Ham, L&N’s Chief Financial Officer. “Steve, can you get some numbers together for

Marketing homework help

868

� 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. ● Vol. 31 ● March 2005
All rights reserved. 0093-5301/2005/3104-0017$10.00

Reflections

Consumer Culture Theory (CCT):
Twenty Years of Research

ERIC J. ARNOULD
CRAIG J. THOMPSON*

This article provides a synthesizing overview of the past 20 yr. of consumer re-
search addressing the sociocultural, experiential, symbolic, and ideological aspects
of consumption. Our aim is to provide a viable disciplinary brand for this research
tradition that we call consumer culture theory (CCT). We propose that CCT has
fulfilled recurrent calls for developing a distinctive body of theoretical knowledge
about consumption and marketplace behaviors. In developing this argument, we
redress three enduring misconceptions about the nature and analytic orientation
of CCT. We then assess how CCT has contributed to consumer research by
illuminating the cultural dimensions of the consumption cycle and by developing
novel theorizations concerning four thematic domains of research interest.

T he past 20 yr. of consumer research have produced aflurry of research addressing the sociocultural, expe-
riential, symbolic, and ideological aspects of consumption.
In this article, we offer a thematic overview of the moti-
vating interests, conceptual orientations, and theoretical
agendas that characterize this research stream to date, with
a particular focus on articles published in the Journal of
Consumer Research(JCR). Owing to the length constraints
of this forum, we regrettably cannot give due consideration
to the full spectrum of culturally oriented consumer research
that appears in other publication venues such as the Euro-
pean Journal of Marketing; Culture, Markets, and Con-
sumption; International Journal of Research in Marketing;
Journal of Consumer Culture; Journal of Marketing; Jour-

*Eric J. Arnould is E. J. Faulkner Professor of Marketing and Director
CBA Agribusiness Programs, 310 C CBA, Department of Marketing, Uni-
versity of Nebraska–Lincoln, NE 68588-0492, e-mail (earnould2@unl.edu).
Craig J. Thompson is the Gilbert and Helen Churchill Professor of Marketing,
University of Wisconsin–Madison, 4251 Grainger Hall, 975 University Av-
enue, Madison, WI 53706; e-mail (cthompson@bus.wisc.edu). We thank
Dawn Iacobucci for the opportunity to orchestrate this reflection on the field
and Soren Askegaard, Russ Belk, David Crockett, Susan Dobscha, Fuat Firat,
Guliz Ger, Kent Grayson, Doug Holt, Steven Kates, Al Muñiz, Jeff Murray,
Hope Schau, John Sherry, and Alladi Venkatesh for thoughtful commentary
on earlier versions. Most of all, we thank our many colleagues who have
inspired our thinking on matters of culture and consumption.

nal of Material Culture; Research in Consumer Behavior;
and a host of books and edited volumes. Accordingly, our
thematic review is by no means intended to be exhaustive
or all inclusive.

Over the years, many nebulous epithets characterizing this
research tradition have come into play (i.e., relativist, post-
positivist, interpretivist, humanistic, naturalistic, postmod-
ern), all more obfuscating than clarifying. Each fails to sig-
nify the theoretical commonalities and linkages within this
research tradition. They either place too much emphasis on
methodological distinctions or they invoke overly coarse and
increasingly irrelevant contrasts to a presumed dominant
consumer research paradigm. A more appropriate and com-
pelling academic brand would focus on the core theoretical
interests and questions that define this research tradition.
Accordingly, we offer the term “consumer culture theory”
(CCT).

This CCT is not a unified, grand theory, nor does it aspire
to such nomothetic claims. Rather, it refers to a family of
theoretical perspectives that address the dynamic relation-
ships between consumer actions, the marketplace, and cul-
tural meanings. While representing a plurality of distinct
theoretical approaches and research goals, CCT researchers
nonetheless share a common theoretical orientation toward
the study of cultural complexity that programmatically links
their respective research efforts. Rather than viewing culture

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CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY 869

as a fairly homogenous system of collectively shared mean-
ings, ways of life, and unifying values shared by a member
of society (e.g., Americans share this kind of culture; Jap-
anese share that kind of culture), CCT explores the hetero-
geneous distribution of meanings and the multiplicity of
overlapping cultural groupings that exist within the broader
sociohistoric frame of globalization and market capitalism.
Thus, consumer culture denotes a social arrangement in
which the relations between lived culture and social re-
sources, and between meaningful ways of life and the sym-
bolic and material resources on which they depend, are me-
diated through markets.

The consumption of market-made commodities and de-
sire-inducing marketing symbols is central to consumer cul-
ture, and yet the perpetuation and reproduction of this sys-
tem is largely dependent upon the exercise of free personal
choice in the private sphere of everyday life (Holt 2002).
The term “consumer culture” also conceptualizes an inter-
connected system of commercially produced images, texts,
and objects that groups use—through the construction of
overlapping and even conflicting practices, identities, and
meanings—to make collective sense of their environments
and to orient their members’ experiences and lives (Kozinets
2001). These meanings are embodied and negotiated by
consumers in particular social situations roles and relation-
ships. Further, consumer culture describes a densely woven
network of global connections and extensions through which
local cultures are increasingly interpenetrated by the forces
of transnational capital and the global mediascape (Appa-
durai 1990; Slater 1997; Wilk 1995).

Perhaps most important, CCT conceptualizes culture as
the very fabric of experience, meaning, and action (Geertz
1983). Owing to its internal, fragmented complexity, con-
sumer culture does not determine action as a causal force.
Much like a game where individuals improvise within the
constraints of rules (Bourdieu 1990), consumer culture—and
the marketplace ideology it conveys—frames consumers’
horizons of conceivable action, feeling, and thought, making
certain patterns of behavior and sense-making interpreta-
tions more likely than others (Askegaard and Kjeldgaard
2002; Holt 1997; Kozinets 2002; Thompson and Hirschman
1995).

This “distributed view of cultural meaning” (Hannerz
1992, 16) emphasizes the dynamics of fragmentation, plu-
rality, fluidity, and the intermingling (or hybridization) of
consumption traditions and ways of life (Featherstone 1991;
Firat and Venkatesh 1995). While a distributive view of
culture is not the invention of CCT, this research tradition
has significantly developed this perspective through empir-
ical studies that analyze how particular manifestations of
consumer culture are constituted, sustained, transformed,
and shaped by broader historical forces (such as cultural
narratives, myths, and ideologies) and grounded in specific
socioeconomic circumstances and marketplace systems.

Other colleagues have produced overviews of CCT’s phi-
losophy of science foundations and methodological orien-
tations (Anderson 1986, 1988; Arnold and Fischer 1994;

Bristor and Fischer 1993; Firat and Venkatesh 1995; Hirsch-
man 1993; Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy 1988; Hudson and
Ozanne 1988; Murray and Ozanne 1991; Sherry 1991;
Sherry and Kozinets 2001) and domain-specific reviews of
its substantive contributions (Belk 1995; Mick et al. 2004;
Sherry 2004). Rather than replicate prior efforts, we provide
a thematic framework that profiles four major interrelated
research domains that are explored by CCT researchers. We
further suggest that this body of research fulfills recurrent
calls by Association for Consumer Research (ACR) presi-
dents and other intellectual leaders for consumer research
to explore the broad gamut of social, cultural, and indeed
managerially relevant questions related to consumption and
to develop a distinctive body of knowledge about consumers
and consumption (Andreasen 1993; Belk 1987a, 1987b; Fol-
kes 2002; Holbrook 1987; Kernan 1979; Lehmann 1996;
Levy 1992; MacInnis 2004; Olson 1982; Richins 2001;
Sheth 1985; Shimp 1994; Wells 1993; Wright 2002; Zaltman
2000). In sum, CCT is an interdisciplinary research tradition
that has advanced knowledge about consumer culture (in all
its heterogeneous manifestations) and generated empirically
grounded findings and theoretical innovations that are rel-
evant to a broad constituency in the base social science
disciplines, public policy arenas, and managerial sectors.

DEMYTHOLOGIZING (WHAT CONSUMER
CULTURE THEORY IS NOT)

We offer this review both as an entree for those who have
not followed the development of CCT and as an integrative
frame of reference for those who have. While CCT research
has witnessed tremendous growth over the last 20 yr., PhD
programs in marketing (the primary academic constituency
of the ACR/JCR community) remain oriented around mi-
croeconomic theory, cognitive psychology, experimental de-
sign, and quantitative analytical methods. Accordingly, most
consumer researchers have not received training in the the-
oretical traditions and research methodologies common in
CCT research. This circumstance, coupled with some lin-
gering vestiges of the 1980s paradigm battles, has given rise
to three enduring misunderstandings about CCT that impede
appreciation of its aims, analytic logics, and disciplinary
contributions.

First and foremost among these myths is that consumer
culture theorists study particular contexts as ends in them-
selves; therefore, the argument goes, CCT contributes little
to theory development in consumer research (Lehmann
1999; Simonson et al. 2001). To paraphrase Geertz’s (1973)
famous axiom, however, consumer culture theorists do not
study consumption contexts; they study in consumption con-
texts to generate new constructs and theoretical insights and
to extend existing theoretical formulations. Consumer cul-
ture theory has its historical roots in calls for consumer
researchers to broaden their focus to investigate the ne-
glected experiential, social, and cultural dimensions of con-
sumption in context (Belk 1987a, 1987b; Holbrook and
Hirschman 1982). Thus, the field, rather than the laboratory,

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870 JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH

became the natural context for CCT. However, the resulting
diversity of investigative contexts (see table 1) makes it easy
to lose sight of the theoretical forest and to classify these
studies on the basis of their topical setting—the flea market
study, the Star Trekstudy, the skydiving study—rather than
the theoretical questions interrogated in that research setting.
This mistake would be analogous to classifying experimen-
tal research in terms of its research stimuli, thus leading to
discussions of the beer and wine study, the camera study,
or the cake mix study.

A second misconception is that the primary differences
between CCT and other traditions of consumer research are
methodological. Unquestionably, qualitative data and an array
of related data collection and analysis techniques have been
quite central to CCT (Arnould and Wallendorf 1994; Belk,
Sherry, and Wallendorf 1988; Kozinets 2002; Mick 1986;
Murray and Ozanne 1991; Spiggle 1994; Thompson, Locan-
der, and Pollio 1989). This methodological predilection fol-
lows from the aims that drive CCT rather than from a passion
for qualitative data or vivid description per se. Consumer
culture theory focuses on the experiential and sociocultural
dimensions of consumption that are not plainly accessible
through experiments, surveys, or database modeling (Sherry
1991), including such issues as product symbolism, ritual
practices, the consumer stories in product and brand mean-
ings, and the symbolic boundaries that structure personal and
communal consumer identities. However, CCT neither ne-
cessitates fidelity to any one methodological orientation nor
does it canonize a qualitative-quantitative divide. Consumer
culture theory researchers embrace methodological pluralism
whenever quantitative measures and analytic techniques can
advance the operative theoretical agenda (e.g., Arnould and
Price 1993; Coulter, Price, and Feick 2003; Grayson and Mar-
tinec 2004; Grayson and Shulman 2000; McQuarrie and Mick
1992; Moore and Lutz 2000; Sirsi, Ward, and Reingen 1996).

Given this commitment to multimethod investigations
of consumption phenomena in natural settings, it is ironic
that CCT research is misperceived in some disciplinary
quarters as a sphere of creative expression, voyeurism,
entertaining esoterica, and sonorous introspection of lim-
ited relevance to consumer research’s broader theoretical
projects or the pragmatic interests of managers and policy
makers. Accordingly, we observe that the occasional JCR
article on introspection (Gould 1991) or the use of poetry
as a mode of representation (Sherry and Schouten 2002)
sometimes looms larger in the disciplinary imagination
than in the day-to-day conduct of CCT research itself.
To adopt the vernacular of the behavioral decision theory
(BDT) tradition, this myth manifests a classic judgment
bias—availability—whereby a few exceptional and con-
troversial experimental moments in the CCT tradition
take (social) cognitive precedence over its baseline re-
search activities.1

1These controversial experimental moments (e.g., Gould 1991) do serve
an important function within the CCT tradition by periodically testing its
epistemic boundaries, calling for renewed reflections on the relationships
between the knower and the known, and forcing reconsideration of status

Although JCR is not a managerial journal, this myth of
irrelevance arose, in part, from the ferment of the 1980s
paradigm-broadening controversies (see Lutz 1989), which
also inspired reflections on the relationships between con-
sumer research and its academic, public, and business con-
stituencies. Most particularly, Belk (1986, 1987b) and Hol-
brook (1987) cautioned that being unduly wedded to a
managerial perspective posed formidable barriers to inves-
tigating consumption in its full experiential and sociocultural
scope and to developing an autonomous discipline of con-
sumer behavior that would not be regarded as a subspecialty
of marketing, advertising, or the base disciplines. In the
fervor of those debates, such calls for an ecumenical con-
ception of relevance were sometimes misconstrued as a re-
nunciation of managerial relevance.

At that time, consumer researchers most typically defined
managerial relevance in terms of a rational choice paradigm
and its corresponding focus on purchase behavior. However,
subsequent developments, such as customer relation man-
agement, lifestyle and multicultural marketing, and the pro-
liferation of so-called identity brands (Holt 2003), have
brought consumer meanings to the center of managerial con-
cerns, and consequently ethnographic methods have become
commonplace in applied market research (Frank 1997; Os-
borne 2002). In hindsight, even during the disciplinary tur-
moil of the 1980s, it would have been possible to argue that
an understanding of consumer symbolism and lifestyle ori-
entations is essential to successful marketing strategies (see
Levy 1959, 1981) and to have anticipated many of Wells’s
(1993) discovery-oriented proposals for enhancing the rel-
evance of consumer research.

As we will detail in the next section, the dominant thrust
of CCT research addresses issues that are highly relevant
to social scientific, managerial, and public policy constitu-
encies. Consumer culture theory is organized around a core
set of theoretical questions related to the relationships among
consumers’ personal and collective identities; the cultures
created and embodied in the lived worlds of consumers;
underlying experiences, processes and structures; and the
nature and dynamics of the sociological categories through
and across which these consumer culture dynamics are en-
acted and inflected. In pursuit of this project, CCT research
draws from an interdisciplinary body of theory to develop
novel analytic theoretical frameworks that can illuminate
the sociocultural dynamics that drive the consumption cycle
and to advance a theoretical conversation that has arisen
around four interrelated research domains.

quo paradigmatic conventions (e.g., Wallendorf and Brucks 1993). As
Sherry and Schouten discuss (2002, 221), researchers working in this re-
search tradition have a pronounced preoccupation with methodological
issues of validity, voice, reflectivity, and representation. Owing to its epis-
temological grounding, CCT is infused by a spirit of critical self-reflection
and paradigmatic reinvention and a corresponding antipathy toward the
idea of settling into a comfortable, but intellectually stultifying orthodoxy.

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CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY 871

ILLUMINATING (WHAT CONSUMER
CULTURE THEORY IS)

Illuminating the Consumption Cycle

The disciplinary pioneers of CCT encouraged investi-
gation of the contextual, symbolic, and experiential aspects
of consumption as they unfold across a consumption cycle
that includes acquisition, consumption and possession, and
disposition processes and analysis of these phenomena from
macro-, meso-, and micro-theoretical perspectives (Belk
1987b, 1988; Belk, Wallendorf, and Sherry 1989; Hirsch-
man and Holbrook 1982; Holbrook 1987; McCracken 1986;
Mick 1986). This research agenda has been significantly
advanced over the last 20 yr.

Consumer culture theory has illuminated the symbolic,
embodied, and experiential aspects of acquisition behaviors
(Fischer and Arnold 1990; Joy and Sherry 2003; Otnes,
Lowrey, and Shrum 1997; Sherry 1990; Thompson, Locan-
der, and Pollio 1990) and the sociocultural complexities of
exchange behaviors and relationships (Belk et al. 1988; Belk
and Coon 1993; Deighton and Grayson 1995; Peñaloza and
Gilly 1999). Gift giving provides an exemplary case of a
whole class of consumption phenomena whose study
emerged from this shift in research aims (Belk 1976; Joy
2001; Mick and DeMoss 1990; Ruth, Otnes, and Brunel
1999; Sherry 1983; Wooten 2000).

Consumption and possession practices—particularly their
hedonic, aesthetic, and ritualistic dimensions—have perhaps
been the most widely studied constellation of phenomena
identified with the CCT tradition (e.g., Belk, Ger, and As-
kegaard 2003; Belk et al. 1989; Fournier 1998; Grayson and
Shulman 2000; Hirschman and Holbrook 1982; Joy and
Sherry 2003; Mick and DeMoss 1990; Mick and Fournier
1998; Richins 1994; Rook 1985, 1987; Thompson 1996;
Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). While disposition practices
have received comparatively less attention, CCT studies
have shown that they play a significant role in consumers’
negotiation of role and identity transitions (Bonsu and Belk
2003; McAlexander, Schouten, and Roberts 1993; Mc-
Cracken 1986; Ozanne 1992; Patterson, Hill, and Malloy
1995; Price, Arnould, and Curasi 2000; Schouten 1991;
Young 1991).

More broadly still, CCT research has emphasized the pro-
ductive aspect of consumption. Consumer culture theory
explores how consumers actively rework and transform
symbolic meanings encoded in advertisements, brands, retail
settings, or material goods to manifest their particular per-
sonal and social circumstances and further their identity and
lifestyle goals (Grayson and Martinec 2004; Holt 2002; Ko-
zinets 2001, 2002; Mick and Buhl 1992; Peñaloza 2000,
2001; Ritson and Elliott 1999; Scott 1994a). From this per-
spective, the marketplace provides consumers with an ex-
pansive and heterogeneous palette of resources from which
to construct individual and collective identities (e.g.,
Thompson and Hirschman 1995; Murray 2002; Schau and
Gilly 2003).

Illuminating Four Research Programs in
Consumer Culture Theory

The theoretical questions and research agendas pursued
by CCT cut across the process-oriented categories of ac-
quisition, consumption, and disposition much in way that
the theoretical scope of marketing research transcends the
4Ps framework. In broad terms, CCT has advanced con-
sumer behavior knowledge by illuminating sociocultural
processes and structures related to (1) consumer identity
projects, (2) marketplace cultures, (3) the sociohistoric pat-
terning of consumption, and (4) mass-mediated marketplace
ideologies and consumers’ interpretive strategies. To avoid
the error of reification, we stress that these research pro-
grams form a holistic research tradition. Specific CCT stud-
ies address various aspects of each, and hence they are not
neatly typologized. Still, for purposes of analytic exposition,
it is possible to distinguish among the kinds of issues that
fall under each and to identify studies that bring these re-
spective theoretical issues to the theoretical foreground.

Consumer Identity Projects.Consumer culture theory
concerns the coconstitutive, coproductive ways in which
consumers, working with marketer-generated materials,
forge a coherent if diversified and often fragmented sense
of self (Belk 1988; McCracken 1986). The corollary premise
is that the marketplace has become a preeminent source of
mythic and symbolic resources through which people, in-
cluding those who lack resources to participate in the market
as full-fledged consumers, construct narratives of identity
(Belk 1988; Hill 1991; Hill and Stamey 1990; Holt 2002;
Levy 1981). In this work, consumers are conceived of as
identity seekers and makers. Consumer identity projects are
typically considered to be goal driven (Mick and Buhl 1992;
Schau and Gilly 2003), although the aims pursued may often
be tacit in nature (and vaguely understood; see Arnould and
Price 1993; Thompson and Tambyah 1999) and marked by
points of conflict, internal contradictions, ambivalence, and
even pathology (Hirschman 1992; Mick and Fournier 1998;
Murray 2002; O’Guinn and Faber 1989; Otnes et al. 1997;
Thompson 1996). These complications frequently engender
the use of myriad coping strategies, compensatory mecha-
nisms, and juxtapositions of seemingly antithetical meanings
and ideals. In their work on digital self-presentation, for
instance, Schau and Gilly (2003) show how consumers use
brands and hyperlinks to create multiple nonlinear cyber
self-representations without necessarily sacrificing the idea
of an integrated self.

Consumer culture theorists have turned attention to the
relationship between consumers’ identity projects and the
structuring influence of the marketplace, arguing that the mar-
ket produces certain kinds of consumer positions that con-
sumers can choose to inhabit. While individuals can and do
pursue personally edifying goals through these consumer po-
sitions, they are enacting and personalizing cultural scripts
that align their identities with the structural imperatives of a
consumer-driven global economy. In this spirit, Kozinets
(2001) explores how fan identity is constituted in relationship

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TABLE 1

EXAMPLES OF CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY RESEARCH CONTEXTS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING THEORETICAL INTERESTS

Context Author(s) Points of theoretical contribution

Working class adoption
of business
education

Allen 2002 A sociological theory of tacit consumer choice

Possessions in a less-
developed country
(Niger)

Arnould 1989 A cultural theorization of preference formation and the diffusion of innovations

White-water river
rafting

Arnould and Price
1993

Defining extended leisure service encounters and its implications for customer
satisfaction

Consumers’ intergener-
ational transfer of
possessions

Curasi, Price, and
Arnould 2004;
Price, Arnould, and
Curasi 2000

Individual and familial identity formation processes; the dynamics of inalienable wealth

Gift giving and gift
reception

Belk and Coon 1993;
Fischer and
Arnold 1990;
Joy 2001;
Otnes, Lowrey,
and Kim 1993;
Ruth, Otnes, and
Brunel 1999;
Sherry 1983;
Wooten 2000

Formation and structuration of a moral economy; age and gender role definition and
enactment in consumer society

Reenactments of
Mountain Men
rendezvous

Belk and Costa 1998 Consumer fantasy, the ritual impulse, and the reformulation of social roles via the en-
actment of consumer fantasies

Swap meets and flea
markets

Belk, Sherry, and
Wallendorf 1988;
Sherry 1990

Consumer relationships to market structures; sociocultural dynamics of exchange
relationships

Death rituals in Ghana Bonsu and Belk 2003 Postmortem consumer identity work
Sky-diving Celsi, Rose, and

Leigh 1993
A dynamic model of consumer motivations and cultural account of consumer risk tak-

ing behaviors
Romanian women’s

use of cosmetics
Coulter, Price, and

Feick 2003
Rethinking the origin and development of brand knowledge and involvement

Consumers who lost
money in the Chon-
dra-Za mail order
scam

Deighton and Gray-
son 1995

An empirically based theorization of consumer self-seduction

Five women and their
favorite brands

Fournier 1998 A social relationship model of consumer-brand relationships

Thanksgiving dinners;
ordinary family
dinners

Heisley and Levy
1991; Wallendorf
and Arnould 1991

Cultural rituals; construction, maintenance, and negotiation of family relationships
through consumption

Homeless women Hill 1991; Hill and
Stamey 1990

Materialism and self-identity in cases of involuntary disposition

Drug addiction
experiences

Hirschman 1992 Toward a theory of the lived experience of compulsive consumption behavior

Baseball spectatorship Holt 1995 A model of consumption practices
Consumer lifestyle

choices in a small
town/rural setting

Holt 1997 The role of consumption practices in sustaining symbolic boundaries between social
groups, as formed by complex intersections of sociological collectivities

Aesthetic experiences
of museum patrons

Joy and Sherry 2003 A post-Cartesian theory of embodied consumer experiences

Urban gay men Kates 2002 Oppositional consumption practices and the contesting of gender distinctions
Star Trek fans Kozinets 2001 Theorizing how consumers find Utopian meanings in the commercialized sphere of

popular culture and explicating the ideological constitution of fandom
Burning Man Festival

participation
Kozinets 2002 Investigating the dialectic between consumer resistance and capitalist ideologies

Indian, Haitian, and
Mexican immigrants

Mehta and Belk
1991;
Oswald 1999;
Peñaloza 1994

Contributing to a postassimilationist, poststructural theory of ethnicity

Danish brothers’ inter-
pretations of
advertisements

Mick and Buhl 1992 A theorization of how consumers interpret multiple meanings of advertisements de-
pending on their life themes and projects

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CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY 873

TABLE 1 (Continued)

Context Author(s) Points of theoretical contribution

Consumers reports of
self-gifting occasions

Mick and DeMoss
1990

A theorization of nonrational consumer purchase decision and the role of their con-
sumption in self-identity maintenance

Consumers of Volvos
and Apple
computers

Muñiz and O’Guinn
2000

A cultural theory of community in postmodern society and the role of brands in com-
munity formation

Heritage Village theme
park

O’Guinn and Belk
1989

The impact of consumer culture and consumerist ideologies on religious norms and
experiences of the sacred

Western stock shows
and rodeos

Peñaloza 2001 Consumers’ active process in the coproduction of marketplace meanings and the role
of commodified cultural myths in mediating marketplace relationships

British high school stu-
dents talking about
advertisements

Ritson and Elliott
1999

A theory of the social usages of advertising

Personal Web sites Schau and Gilly 2003 A theorization of consumer’s commercialized, nonlinear self-presentation in
cyberspace

Harley Davidson riders Schouten and Mc-
Alexander 1995

The structure and dynamics of consumer subcultures and reworking of identity

Natural food and
health alternatives

Sirsi, Reingen, and
Ward 1996;
Thompson and
Troester 2002

A microcultural theorization of consumer belief and value systems and their diffusion
through social networks

Working mothers
(jugglers)

Thompson 1996 The gendering of consumer lifestyles and its impact on preferences

Men’s and women’s
experiences of
fashion
and body image

Murray 2002;
Thompson and
Haytko 1997

Consumers active use marketplace ideologies via resistance interpretations that play
off ideological contradictions and paradoxes, and the ideological mapping of their
identity projects via brand meanings and fashion styles

Expatriates living in
Singapore

Thompson and Tam-
byah 1999

An analysis of cosmopolitanism as a consumer ideology and its role in the shaping of
consumer goals

to utopian ideals and the cooptation of those ideas by cor-
porate media; Belk et al. (2003) explore how desiring con-
sumer subjects are constituted by the marketplace ideals pro-
mulgated in the discourses of global corporate capitalism (also
see Murray 2002; Thompson and Tambyah 1999). Holt (2002)
details how the postmodern economy thrives by producing
“unruly bricoleurs” who express personal sovereignty and
claims to personal authenticity through nonconformist acts of
consumption and thereby place the marketplace and its sym-
bols at the center of their identities. In a related vein, Grayson
and Martinec (2004) suggest that experiences of authenticity
(in tourist settings) are systematically linked to particular
forms of signification (indexical and iconic authenticity) and
consumers’ corresponding imaginative and fantasy-oriented
elaborations upon these different semiotic modalities.

Marketplace Cultures. The study of marketplace cul-
tures addresses some of the most distinctive features of the
marketplace-culture intersection. In contrast to traditional
anthropological views of people as culture bearers, consum-
ers are seen as culture producers. The key research question
driving this program of research is this: how does the emer-
gence of consumption as a dominant human practice re-
configure cultural blueprints for action and interpretation,
and vice versa? One family of CCT research devoted to
marketplace cultures has sought to unravel the processes by
which consumer culture is instantiated in particular cultural
milieu and the implications of this process for people ex-
periencing it. Such research has examined North American

(McCracken 1986; Witkowski 1989), African (Arnould
1989; Bonsu and Belk 2003), Asian (Applbaum and Jordt
1996; Joy 2001; Tse, Belk, and Zhou 1989), and eastern
European contexts (Coulter et al. 2003).

This stream of CCT research also addresses the ways in
which consumers forge feelings of social solidarity and create
distinctive, fragmentary, self-selected, and sometimes tran-
sient cultural worlds through the pursuit of common con-
sumption interests (Belk and Costa 1998; Kozinets 2002;
Schouten and McAlexander

Marketing homework help

A better way to drive growth and profitability 
by Scott Magids, Alan Zorfas, and Daniel Leemon

The New Science of
Customer Emotions

SPOTLIGHT ARTWORK Hong Hao, My Things No. 5 2002, scanned objects, digital c-print
120 x 210 cm

SPOTLIGHT ON DIGITAL CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

66  Harvard Business Review November 2015

HBR.ORG

November 2015 Harvard Business Review 67

When companies connect with customers’
emotions, the payoff can be huge. Consider
these examples: After a major bank introduced a
credit card for Millennials that was designed to

strategy that involves every function in the value
chain, from product development and marketing to
sales and service.

In what follows we’ll describe our research and
our work with companies—to our knowledge, the
first to show direct, robust links among specific emo-
tional motivators, a firm’s actions to leverage them,
consumer behavior, and business outcomes.

Defining Emotional Motivators
Our research stemmed from our frustration that
companies we worked with knew customers’ emo-
tions were important but couldn’t figure out a consis-
tent way to define them, connect with them, and link
them to results. We soon discovered that there was
no standard lexicon of emotions, and so eight years
ago we set out to create one, working with experts
and surveying anthropological and social science re-
search. We ultimately assembled a list of more than
300 emotional motivators. We consider customers
to be emotionally connected with a brand when it
aligns with their motivations and helps them fulfill
deep, often unconscious, desires. Important emo-
tional motivators include desires to “stand out from
the crowd,” “have confidence in the future,” and

“enjoy a sense of well-being,” to name just a few. (See
the exhibit “High-Impact Motivators.”)

Identifying and measuring emotional motiva-
tors is complicated, because customers themselves
may not even be aware of them. These sentiments
are typically different from what customers say
are the reasons they make brand choices and from
the terms they use to describe their emotional re-
sponses to particular brands. What’s more, as we’ll
discuss, emotional connections with products are
neither uniform nor constant; they vary by industry,
brand, touchpoint, and the customer’s position in
the decision journey.

inspire emotional connection, use among the seg-
ment increased by 70% and new account growth
rose by 40%. Within a year of launching products
and messaging to maximize emotional connection,
a leading household cleaner turned market share
losses into double-digit growth. And when a nation-
wide apparel retailer reoriented its merchandising
and customer experience to its most emotionally
connected customer segments, same-store sales
growth accelerated more than threefold.

Given the enormous opportunity to create new
value, companies should pursue emotional con-
nections as a science—and a strategy. But for most,
building these connections is more guesswork than
science. At the end of the day they have little idea
what really works and whether their efforts have
produced the desired results.

Our research across hundreds of brands in doz-
ens of categories shows that it’s possible to rigor-
ously measure and strategically target the feelings
that drive customers’ behavior. We call them “emo-
tional motivators.” They provide a better gauge of
customers’ future value to a firm than any other
metric, including brand awareness and customer
satisfaction, and can be an important new source of
growth and profitability.

At the most basic level, any company can begin
a structured process of learning about its custom-
ers’ emotional motivators and conducting experi-
ments to leverage them, later scaling up from there.
At the other end of the spectrum, firms can invest
in deep research and big data analytics or engage
consultancies with specific expertise. Companies
in financial services, retail, health care, and tech-
nology are now using a detailed understanding of
emotional connection to attract and retain the most
valuable customers. The most sophisticated firms
are making emotional connection part of a broad

SPOTLIGHT ON DIGITAL CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

68  Harvard Business Review November 2015

Why Emotional Connections Matter
Although brands may be liked or trusted, most fail to
align themselves with the emotions that drive their
customers’ most profitable behaviors. Some brands
by nature have an easier time making such connec-
tions, but a company doesn’t have to be born with
the emotional DNA of Disney or Apple to succeed.
Even a cleaning product or a canned food can forge
powerful connections.

The process, in brief, looks like this: Applying big
data analytics to detailed customer-data sets, we first
identify the emotional motivators for a category’s
most valuable customers. High-value automobile
customers, for example, might want to “feel a sense
of belonging” and “feel a sense of freedom.” Next
we use statistical modeling to look at a large number
of customers and brands, comparing survey results
about people’s emotional motivators with their pur-
chase behavior and identifying spikes in buying that
are associated with specific motivators. This reveals
which motivators generate the most-profitable cus-
tomer behaviors in the category. We then quantify
the current and potential value of motivators for a
given brand and help identify strategies to leverage
them. (See the sidebar “Getting Started.”)

The model also allows us to compare the value
of making strong emotional connections with that
of scoring well on standard customer metrics such
as satisfaction and brand differentiation, thus high-
lighting the potential gains from looking beyond tra-
ditional measures. We find that customers become
more valuable at each step of a predictable “emo-
tional connection pathway” as they transition from
(1) being unconnected to (2) being highly satisfied
to (3) perceiving brand differentiation to (4) being
fully connected.

Although customers exhibit increasing connec-
tion at each step, their value increases dramatically

Idea in Brief
THE PROBLEM
Companies know that emotions
drive customer behavior, but
most have little idea how to
connect in ways that motivate
the desired behaviors. The
process is more guesswork
than science.

THE SOLUTION
The authors have created
a lexicon of “emotional
motivators” and, using big
data analytics, linked them to
specific profitable behaviors.

THE OPPORTUNITY
By identifying the most
powerful emotional motivators
for a given customer segment,
companies can design
marketing and other strategies
to leverage those motivators,
giving them a new source
of competitive advantage
and growth.

Hundreds of “emotional motivators” drive consumer behavior. Below are 10 that
significantly affect customer value across all categories studied.

I am inspired
by a desire to:

Brands can leverage this motivator
by helping customers:

Stand out from
the crowd

Project a unique social identity;
be seen as special

Have confidence
in the future

Perceive the future as better than the past; have
a positive mental picture of what’s to come

Enjoy a sense of
well-being

Feel that life measures up to expectations and that
balance has been achieved; seek a stress-free state
without conflicts or threats

Feel a sense of
freedom

Act independently, without obligations or
restrictions

Feel a sense
of thrill

Experience visceral, overwhelming pleasure and
excitement; participate in exciting, fun events

Feel a sense
of belonging

Have an affiliation with people they relate to or
aspire to be like; feel part of a group

Protect the
environment

Sustain the belief that the environment is sacred;
take action to improve their surroundings

Be the person
I want to be

Fulfill a desire for ongoing self-improvement; live up
to their ideal self-image

Feel secure
Believe that what they have today will be there
tomorrow; pursue goals and dreams without worry

Succeed in life
Feel that they lead meaningful lives; find worth that
goes beyond financial or socioeconomic measures

High-Impact Motivators

HBR.ORG

November 2015 Harvard Business Review 69

THE NEW SCIENCE OF CUSTOMER EMOTIONS

when they reach the fourth step: Fully connected
customers are 52% more valuable, on average, than
those who are just highly satisfied. In fact, their rela-
tive value is striking across a variety of metrics, such
as purchases and frequency of use. (See the exhibit

“The Value of Emotional Connection.”)
The pathway is an important guide to where

companies should invest—and it reveals that they
often invest in the wrong places. To increase rev-
enue and market share, many companies focus on
turning dissatisfied customers into satisfied ones.
However, our analysis shows that moving custom-
ers from highly satisfied to fully connected can have
three times the return of moving them from uncon-
nected to highly satisfied. And the highest returns
we’ve seen have come from focusing on customers
who are already fully connected to the category—
from maximizing their value and attracting more of
them to your brand.

Four insights from our research are especially
relevant to firms looking to build on emotional
connection.

As customers’ relationships
with a brand deepens, they
move along the pathway
toward full emotional
connection. Although they
become more valuable
at each step, there’s a
dramatic increase at the
final one: Across a sample
of nine categories, fully
connected customers are
52% more valuable, on
average, than those who
are just highly satisfied.

The Value of
Emotional
Connection

-18%

Baseline

+13%

+52%

+103%

Household
cleaner

purchases
+82%

Tablet
app

purchases
+68%

Credit
card

swipes

+52%

Online
retailer

purchases
+41%

Hotel
room
stays

+37%

Discount
store
visits

+35%

Consumer-
banking
products

+27%

Fast-
food
visits

+23%

Casino-
gaming

spending

Not
emotionally
connected

Highly
satisfied
but not

fully
connected

Perceive
brand

differentiation
and satisfied,
but not fully
connected

Fully
connected

and
satisfied,
and able

to perceive
brand

differentiation

IN RELATION TO
HIGHLY SATISFIED
CUSTOMERS

The increased value of fully connected
customers relative to highly satisfied ones
varies by category. Here are the values for
the nine categories sampled.

As customers’ relationship with a brand
deepens, they move along the pathway toward
full emotional connection. Although they
become more valuable at each step, there’s
a dramatic increase at the final one: Across
a sample of nine categories, fully connected
customers are 52% more valuable, on average,
than those who are just highly satisfied.

CUSTOMER VALUE

-18%

Baseline

+13%

+52%

Not
emotionally
connected

Highly
satisfied
but not

fully
connected

Perceive
brand

differentiation
and satisfied,
but not fully
connected

Fully
connected

and
satisfied,
and able

to perceive
brand

differentiation

IN RELATION TO
HIGHLY SATISFIED
CUSTOMERS

The increased value of fully connected
customers relative to highly satisfied ones

the nine categories sampled.

The Value of
Emotional Connection

Emotional motivators vary by category and
brand. Of the 300-plus motivators we’ve identified,
25 significantly affect customer value across all the
categories we’ve analyzed. Anywhere from five to
15 additional motivators are important in any given
category. For example, the sense that a home fur-
nishings store “helps me be creative” inspires con-
sumers to shop there more often. The wish to “feel
revived and refreshed” drives loyalty to fast-food
restaurants. Emotional motivators also vary within
categories, depending on the desires of brands’ most
valuable customers. Because brands differ in how
well they align with their customers’ motivators,
each may have a different starting point in any ef-
fort to strengthen emotional connections—and that
point won’t necessarily relate to conventional mea-
sures of brand perception. (See the exhibit “Mind the
(Emotional Connection) Gap.”)

Emotional motivators vary across customer
segments. Recall the credit card designed with
Millennials in mind. Our model uncovered desires
to “protect the environment” and “be the person

70  Harvard Business Review November 2015

SPOTLIGHT ON DIGITAL CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

worked with the retailer on a four-part strategy to
identify, understand, and quantify the value of the
most emotionally connected customers. This ex-
posed a number of large, unexploited opportunities
and allowed the retailer to better direct investments
across the firm.

1. Target connected customers. We set out to
answer two basic questions: How valuable were the
retailer’s fully connected customers, and could the
company attract more of them? We used statistical
techniques to measure the strength of customers’
emotional connections with the retailer and with its
competitors. The process began with surveys to dis-
cern how consumers related to key motivators in the
category and with analysis to see which motivators
best predicted purchase behavior. We then modeled
the financial impact of building emotional connec-
tions with customers at each step on the pathway
from unconnected to fully connected.

Our analysis showed that although fully con-
nected customers constituted just 22% of customers
in the category, they accounted for 37% of revenue
and they spent, on average, twice as much annu-
ally ($400) as highly satisfied customers. Enhancing
emotional connection could be a viable growth
strategy if the retailer could attract fully connected
customers from competitors, transform satisfied
customers into fully connected ones, or both.

Further segmentation revealed a group of espe-
cially valuable customers. We labeled them Fashion
Flourishers, because apparel connects to their deep
desire for excitement, social acceptance, and self-
expression. As a group, Flourishers are the most
emotionally connected segment by far; half are al-
ready fully connected to the category. Comparing
the ratios of various emotion-based segments’
spending to those segments’ size highlights ex-
traordinary differences in value: Flourishers have
a ratio of 1.9—nearly twice the market average and
more than nine times that of the least-connected
group (whom we called Can’t Please Them, and
whose ratio is just 0.2). Given the relatively fixed

I want to be” as key motivators in the banking cat-
egory for that age group. (Traditional industry mo-
tivators such as desires to “feel secure” and to “suc-
ceed in life” are more typical of older groups.) The
bank crafted messaging and features to connect
to those sentiments, leading to its fastest-growing
new credit card.

Emotional motivators for a given brand or
industry vary with a person’s position in the
customer journey. In banking, the desire to “feel
secure” is a critical motivator when attracting and
retaining customers early on. When cross-selling
products later, the wish to “succeed in life” becomes
more important. To maximize results, companies
must align their emotional-connection strategies
with their specific customer-engagement objectives—
acquisition, retention, cross-selling, and so on.

Emotional-connection-driven growth op-
portunities exist across the customer experi-
ence, not just in traditional brand positioning
and advertising. For example, social media can
have a big impact on emotional connection. One
condiments brand found that 60% of its social-
network-affiliated customers (especially followers
on Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest)—versus 21% of
all customers—were emotionally connected. It accel-
erated growth in a matter of months by increasing its
focus on its social media network, developing its on-
line customer community, and pointing customers
to the website for recipes and promotions.

Putting Emotional
Connections to Work
Let’s look at how an emotional-connection strategy
paid off for a national fashion retailer. The company
was struggling with common industry challenges.
Although it had a well-known brand and a strong
market presence, same-store sales were stagnating,
and promotional pricing was shrinking margins. So
it focused on cost management, logistical efficiency,
and streamlining the merchandise and store mix—
with limited success. Over the past two years we

A company doesn’t have to have the emotional DNA of
Disney or Apple to succeed. Even a cleaning product
or a canned food can forge powerful connections.

HBR.ORG

November 2015 Harvard Business Review 71

THE NEW SCIENCE OF CUSTOMER EMOTIONS

loyalty, and advocacy. We identified the most im-
portant category motivators—the ones that bore the
strongest relationship to purchases—and assessed
the retailer’s competitive position in each. The fi-
nancial analysis and modeling showed that further
investments to strengthen the customer experience
around the desires to “feel a sense of belonging,”

“feel a sense of thrill,” and “feel a sense of freedom”—
the motivators driving category purchase behavior
and for which the retailer already had the strongest
position—were likely to yield the highest ROI. Those
motivators therefore became the focus of specific
customer-experience investments.

3. Optimize investments across functions.
To maximize opportunities from emotional connec-
tion, companies must look beyond the marketing
department. The retailer examined every function
and customer touchpoint to find ways to enhance
high-ROI emotional motivators. This brought four
major investment areas into focus: stores, online
and omnichannel experiences, merchandising, and
message targeting.

Stores. To estimate which of the retailer’s more
than 700 stores had the most Flourisher customers,
we scored each one according to the presence of this
segment in the store’s trading area. We found that
high-scoring stores generated up to 25% more reve-
nue than others. Their same-store sales were growing
twice as quickly, and their operating profit was 30%
greater. Their profit margins were enhanced by 10%

higher inventory turns and—consistent with expec-
tations—by lower coupon usage. (Flourishers don’t
just say they’re willing to pay more—they actually
do pay more.)

These analytics changed the retailer’s store lo-
cation strategy. We mapped the concentrations
of Flourishers in all U.S. markets and submarkets,
along with the segment’s propensities to shop at
more than 150 other retailers. The company’s real
estate team now uses a predictive model to identify

cost structure of retailing, acquiring and retaining
Flourishers represented an opportunity to boost
revenue and margins.

A detailed profile of Flourishers underscored
their attractiveness and exposed ways for the retailer
to target them. Customers in this segment:

• have a high lifetime value, spending an average of
$468 a year in the category, versus $235 for other
customers.

• shop more often and advocate more: Fully 46%
of Flourishers shop key fashion categories at least
monthly, versus 21% of all shoppers. Flourishers
are 1.4 times as likely as other customers to recom-
mend retailers to their friends and family members.

• are less price-sensitive: They are 2.3 times as likely
as other customers to say they are “willing to pay
more for the best fashion products,” 1.7 times less
likely to make fashion purchase decisions solely on
the basis of price, and 1.3 times less likely to shop
for the lowest prices.

• are predominantly female and younger, more eth-
nically diverse, and more likely to live in urban cen-
ters than other customers.

• are more digitally engaged than other segments:
They are 2.3 times as likely to research a fashion
retailer online, 2.9 times as likely to shop for fash-
ion products through their mobile devices, and 3.7
times as likely to follow a retailer on social media.

Drawing on these and other insights, the retailer
created a blueprint for pursuing the most valuable
customer opportunities. By applying the category
segmentation scheme to the more than 25 million
people in its customer database, it determined the
financial value and behaviors of its own Flourishers,
confirming that they spent substantially more
than other customers and had the highest lifetime
value and the lowest attrition and price sensitivity
of any segment. It estimated that moving satisfied
Flourishers up the pathway to full emotional con-
nection could increase annual sales by 3% to 5%,
and that luring Flourishers away from competitors
could increase revenue by 5% to 8%. Because mem-
bers of this group spend more per capita than other
customers and turn over less often, the analysis also
predicted improvements in operating margins and
returns on capital.

2. Quantify key motivators. Next, by analyz-
ing tens of thousands of Flourishers across the cat-
egory, we quantified the impact of more than 40
motivators on the group’s purchasing, spending,

To maximize opportunities from
emotional connection, companies
must examine every function and
customer touchpoint.

72  Harvard Business Review November 2015

SPOTLIGHT ON DIGITAL CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

sites near Flourishers and also near other retailers
they frequent.

The change is paying off. New stores in trading
areas with high concentrations of Flourishers have
first-year sales that are 20% higher than historical av-
erages, leading to faster break-even times and higher
returns on capital. Further analysis has revealed
opportunities to open hundreds of stores catering
to underserved Flourisher populations. To free up
capital for new stores, the retailer is closing ones in
low-Flourisher areas.

Emotional-connection analytics have also al-
lowed the retailer to understand which aspects of
the in-store shopping experience are most impor-
tant to Flourishers. Because those qualities often
aren’t recognized by customers themselves, they
had not informed store design. Flourishers say it’s
important that sales associates are easy to find, that
clearance items are easy to locate, and that stores
have free Wi-Fi. However, analysis showed that
those aren’t actually the features that drive their
visits and purchases.

On the basis of its modeling, the retailer pre-
dicted that the option to purchase online and pick
up in-store—something that few customers say is
important and that was available only on a limited
basis—would be a key driver of emotional connec-
tion (it speaks to Flourishers’ desire to “feel a sense
of freedom”). It tested targeted communication and
in-store promotion of the option and saw a mate-
rial lift in sales; it has now committed capital to a
nationwide rollout of the capability. Similarly, the
retailer predicted that seeing imagery in-store of

“people like you” would drive emotional connection
and purchasing among Flourishers (although they
say that this factor is unimportant). As a test, it ex-
panded its presence on photo-sharing social media
sites and encouraged customers to submit selfies
showing their favorite outfits and styles. Selfie slide
shows are (with subjects’ permission) displayed
on large screens in test stores, thus addressing
Flourishers’ desire to “feel a sense of belonging.”
Research indicates that the segment has responded
to this motivator and increased purchase intent.

The retailer is now designing and testing store
experiences to leverage nearly a dozen other drivers
of emotional connection.

Online and omnichannel experiences. Like indi-
vidual store environments, online and omnichan-
nel experiences can be optimized for emotional

76

72

60

38

BMW

Toyota
AUTOMOBILES

63

48

49

28

Virgin
America

United
Airlines

AIRLINES

70

62

43

27

Charles
Schwab

American
Express

FINANCIAL
SERVICES

66

55

34

28

Apple

Microsoft

PERSONAL
TECH

67

69

32

26

Dunkin’
Donuts

Starbucks

COFFEE
CHAINS

68

73

31

30

Adidas

Nike

ATHLETIC
WEAR

57

42

27

18

Google

Facebook

INTERNET
MEDIA

64

66

26

24

Pepsi

Coca-Cola
BEVERAGES

DISCOUNT
RETAIL

37

47
23

22

Target

Walmart

The “emotional connection score” (ECS) of a brand measures the share of
customers who are fully connected. A gap between a brand’s ECS and the
share of customers who consider it a “good brand” signals an opportunity to
transform satisfied customers into fully connected—and more valuable—ones.
Gaps between a brand’s ECS and competitors’ indicate opportunities to seize
(or maintain) advantage by attending to emotional connections.

Mind the (Emotional Connection) Gap

■ Emotional connection score ■ Considered a “good brand”

HBR.ORG

November 2015 Harvard Business Review 73

THE NEW SCIENCE OF CUSTOMER EMOTIONS

connection. To this end the retailer quantified the
impact of more than 100 omnichannel touchpoints
on customers’ emotional connection and spend‑
ing. These included mobile app browsing and pur‑
chasing, visits to the retailer’s social media pages,
e‑commerce site navigation, and in‑store returns of
merchandise bought online. Each touchpoint was
scored according to its potential impact on emotional
connection and spending. Statistical models then
revealed the most powerful combinations of touch‑
points at each stage of the customer journey, allow‑
ing the retailer to hone its omnichannel strategy and
prioritize investments.

For example, Flourishers say that using a com‑
puter to shop online via an easy‑to‑use site is impor‑
tant to purchase decisions. In reality, the ease and al‑
lure of the mobile site and the availability of services
such as ApplePay have a far greater impact on emo‑
tional connection and spending levels. The retailer
is using such insights to design investments across
e‑commerce, mobile, and social media that will
build emotional connections with Flourishers. For
instance, it developed multiple concepts for the nav‑
igational redesign and aesthetic reskin of its mobile
app, tested how effectively each version enhanced
feelings of “freedom,” “belonging,” and “thrill” and
drove purchases, and rolled out the best one.

Merchandising. Merchandise selection, from the
broad category level to specific labels, can be opti‑
mized to drive emotional connection. The retailer
now tracks the purchasing habits of Flourishers na‑
tionwide through point‑of‑sale data collected from
hundreds of retailers by independent research com‑
panies. By applying the Flourisher segmentation to
these POS databases, it has modeled the segment’s
purchase behavior across more than 20 product cat‑
egories and 100 labels and learned which of the ap‑
proximately 10 competitive retailers these consum‑
ers buy from. The resulting insights have exposed
gaps in merchandise important to Flourishers, and
the retailer is working with its manufacturers to
rebalance its mix.

Message targeting. Hav ing identified its
Flourisher customers, the retailer can now send
them personalized messages designed to resonate
with the emotional motivators that drive behavior
at each stage of the customer journey. For example,
when Flourishers are initially considering the retailer,

“having fun” while shopping is paramount. At the
point of purchase, “helps me feel creative” emerges

Identifying and leveraging customers’ emotional motivators
can be broken into three phases.

FIRST, inventory your
existing market research
and customer insight

data. You will probably
find qualitative descriptions of your
customers’ motivating emotions,
such as what aspects of life they
value most (family, community,
freedom, security) and what they
aspire to day-to-day and in the
future. From there, pursue research
to add detail to your understanding
of those emotions. Define a set of
emotional motivators to probe—the
list in the exhibit “High-Impact
Motivators” will provide ideas, as
will your qualitative research. Online
surveys can help you quantify the
relevance of individual motivators.
Are your customers more driven
by life in the moment or by future
goals? Do they place greater
value on social acceptance or on
individuality? Don’t assume you
know what motivates customers just
because you know who they are.
Young parents may be motivated
by a desire to provide security for
their families—or by an urge to
escape and have some fun (you
will probably find both types in
your customer base). And don’t
undermine your understanding of
customers’ emotions by focusing on
how people feel about your brand
or how they say it makes them
feel. You need to understand their
underlying motivations separate
from your brand.

SECOND, analyze your
best customers—those
who buy and advocate

the most, are the least
price-sensitive, and are the most
loyal. To do this, identify those
who are highly satisfied with your
brand—whatever the degree of their
emotional connection—and divide

them into quartiles according to
annual purchases, advocacy, and so
on. Examine the top quartile to see
how the characteristics and behavior
of your best customers differ
from those of people in the other
quartiles. Look at demographics,
whether people buy in person or
online, how much they buy from your
competitors, and where they get
their information about your brand
(traditional media, social networks,
and so on). Compare the emotional
motivators of your best customers
with the ones you’ve researched for
your overall customer base and see
which are specific or more important
to the high-value group. Find the two
or three of these key motivators that
have a strong association with your
brand. They will serve as an initial
guide to the emotions you need to
connect with in order to grow the
most valuable customer segment of
your business and to the marketing
strategies and customer experience
tactics that will provide the greatest
connection opportunities.

THIRD, make the organi-
zation’s commitment to
emotional connection

a key lever for growth.
Use the language of emotional
connection when you talk about
your customers—not just in the
marketing department but across the
firm. In our experience, successful
strategies based on emotional
connection require buy-in from the
top and must be embraced across
functions. For example, if people in
product development are working
on a version that’s easier to use, they
shouldn’t just ask whether customers
will be satisfied with it; they should
learn which emotional motivators
it resonates with and how it will
strengthen emotional connections.

Getting Started

1

3

2

74  Harvard Business Review November 2015

Marketing homework help

CHAPTER 10
Motivation, personality and emotion

Learning objectives
LO 10.1 Understand the nature of motivation.

LO 10.2 Understand some theories of motivation.

LO 10.3 Be aware of how marketers can appeal to consumers’ motives.

LO 10.4 Understand the underlying aspects of theories of personality.

LO 10.5 Understand the relationship of personality to marketing.

LO 10.6 Be aware of how emotions can be used in marketing strategies.

One strong source of consumer motivation is the need for esteem. The desire for status, superiority and

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success relates to consumers working their way up Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Personalised
numberplates allow consumers to fulfil the need for esteem by reflecting their individualism and personality.

COURTESY PERSONALISED PLATES, QUEENSLAND

Stuck in traffic and amused by the numberplate IMKOOL in front of you? Personalised numberplates are on
the rise, and one Australian company has launched a campaign to encourage even more consumers to
express their distinct personalities on their cars. The motivations behind purchasing personalised
numberplates will feature in myPlates’ campaign across billboards, print ads and bus wraps. The integrated
campaign will also involve Twitter, Facebook and an iPhone app in a bid to encourage conversation about
personalised plates. It invites drivers to share their stories of their own personalised plates and what
motivated them to buy them.

So why do consumers desire customised plates? Numberplates that express human characteristics
such as charm, honesty daring and success allows consumers to select a ‘brand’ that reflects their
personality to others. Within this context, the myPlates campaign leverages brand personality as a self-
expressive function. Cars, in particular, are products that consumers use in a public and social context, and
people often regard their vehicle as a reflection of themselves and of their identity. Brand personality is
often used in the marketing of luxury cars. It demands an understanding of the ‘personality’ of both the
product and the target market. The customisation of a vehicle through personalised numberplates can be
considered an alignment between the brand and the owner’s self-image—a strong motivator of
consumption choices.

Personalised (or ‘vanity’) numberplates are not just popular in Australia—they are also a common sight
in the US, UK, Belgium, Denmark and Hong Kong, and Singapore is currently considering their
introduction. Emerging economies such as China and India are also expected to become huge markets for
such potent tokens of individualism in the near future.

This chapter focuses on motivation and two closely related concepts: personality and
emotion. Motivation is the energising force that activates or triggers behaviour and provides
purpose, direction and drive to that behaviour. Personality reflects the common responses
(behaviours) that individuals make to a variety of recurring situations. Emotions are strong,
relatively uncontrollable feelings that affect behaviour. The three concepts are closely
interrelated and are often difficult to disentangle in any given consumer’s behaviour. For
example, consumers who are self-confident (a personality characteristic) are more likely to
have a need for assertion (a characteristic of motivation) and to seek situations that allow
them to feel powerful (an emotional response).1

motivation the energising force that activates or triggers behaviour and provides purpose, direction and drive to
that behaviour

personality the unique psychological make-up of the individual; relates to an individual’s characteristic response
tendencies across similar situations, although the role played by the situation itself must also be recognised

emotions the feelings connected with, or affective responses to, objects, people, messages and events—that is,
the stimuli that individuals encounter

LO 10.1

The nature of motivation
It is important for marketers to identify the motives influencing their target markets.
Research into these motives can provide marketers with useful insights into how they can
create strategies for different goods and services targeted at different market segments. This

Quester, Pascale, et al. Consumer Behaviour : Implications for Marketing Strategy, McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Limited, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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section describes the nature of the motivational process.
Motivation is the reason for behaviour; it concerns why an individual does something. A

motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a
behavioural response, provides specific direction to that response and drives the response
until the inner force is satisfied. Thus, a motive has three main elements: the triggering of a
behaviour, the general direction of that behaviour and its persistence until satisfaction is
achieved. A motive is often stimulated by processes similar to problem recognition (as
discussed in Chapter 3)—the perception of a discrepancy between a desired state and an
actual state that is both sufficient to arouse behaviour and relatively important to the
individual. In addition, a motive cannot be seen, so the existence of motives can only be
inferred from behaviour.
motive a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioural
response, provides specific direction to that response and drives the response until the inner force is satisfied

For example, consider consumer motives in the purchase of clothing. At one level, many
clothing purchases are partially motivated by a physiological need (for shelter/protection) or
a safety need (avoidance of arrest/harassment). In addition, consumers may be motivated to
purchase clothing that expresses or symbolises status because they have a strong need to
express that aspect of their identity (or desired identity) to others. Also, consumers with a
strong need for affiliation may purchase a certain wardrobe or brand in order to feel more
comfortable in their relationships with people whose affection they seek. This may especially
be the case among teenagers trying to fit in with their peer group.2

Although these motivations may be strong, they still depend on the situation. For
example, a teenager with a high need for affiliation may not be guided by that motive in the
purchase of underwear if the purchase or use is unlikely to be observed by others in their peer
group—though underwear is quite visibly worn among some teen groups! Or the expression
of this need for affiliation may vary according to what represents fashion consciousness in
different cultures. Therefore, motives directing behaviour in one situation may not exist in
another situation or may be quite different from the motives shaping behaviour in that
situation.

Other motivations may also direct behaviour. For example, what drives individuals to use
the social networking site Facebook? Facebook is transforming the role of the individual in
terms of capacity of information giving and withholding through patterns of social interaction
for a given community. Facebook users are motivated to use and share links based on a set of
different primary motives. A study found the motive statements of information sharing,
convenience and entertainment, to pass time, interpersonal utility, control, and promoting
work as relevant underlying motives.3 Understanding what motivates users to share
information on Facebook is critical for marketers seeking to expand their digital reach to a
broader market base, particularly for mass communication industries such as news media,
which are experiencing a significant downturn in traditional readership.

LO 10.2

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Theories of motivation
There are many theories of motivation, and many of them offer potential insights for the
marketing manager.4 This section describes two particularly useful, needs-based approaches
to understanding consumer motivation: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and McGuire’s
psychological motives.

The first approach, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (motives), is a macro-theory designed
to account for most human behaviour in general terms. The second approach, McGuire’s
psychological motives, uses a fairly detailed set of motives to account for a limited range of
consumer behaviours.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs a theory designed to account for most human behaviour in general terms,
stipulating a natural progression from physiological needs to higher, self-actualisation needs

McGuire’s psychological motives a fairly detailed motive classification system designed to account for a
limited range of consumer behaviours

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on the following four premises.
• All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social
interaction.
• Some motives are more basic or critical than others.
• The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are
activated.
• As each motive in the hierarchy is satisfied, the next more advanced motive comes into
play.5
Maslow proposed a hierarchy of motives that is common to all individuals. This

hierarchy comprises the following levels.
1 Physiological—These needs include food, water, sleep and, to some extent, sex. Unless
these needs are minimally satisfied, others will not be activated.
2 Safety—These needs include physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings
and so on. They are aroused after physiological motives have been minimally satisfied.
3 Belongingness—These needs include the desire for love, friendship, affiliation and group
acceptance. They are activated after physiological and safety needs have been minimally
satisfied.
4 Esteem—These needs include the desire for status, superiority, self-respect and prestige.
They relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. They are
aroused after physiological, safety and belongingness needs have been minimally satisfied.
5 Self-actualisation—These needs involve the desire for self-fulfilment, or becoming all
that one is capable of becoming. This level of needs is only activated when all others have
been satisfied.

Quester, Pascale, et al. Consumer Behaviour : Implications for Marketing Strategy, McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Limited, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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Maslow’s theory is a good guide to general behaviour; however, it is not an ironclad rule. It is
also necessary to recognise that certain needs may carry more importance than others, and
that satisfying needs does not necessarily need to occur in a strictly linear order.6 Many
examples exist of individuals who have sacrificed their lives for friends or for ideas, or who
have given up food and shelter to seek self-actualisation. However, this type of behaviour is
often viewed as exceptional, which may support the general validity of Maslow’s overall
approach.

There are also cultural differences that this generalised, sequential hierarchy does not
account for. For example, some cultures (such as Indigenous Australians, Mãori and many
Asian cultures) value social motives more highly than those of personal achievement and
satisfaction. Also, adherents of religions with strict dietary rules (such as Hinduism, Islam
and Judaism) may choose to satisfy self-actualisation motives before certain physiological
ones. These observations should not be surprising, given that needs will be both influenced
by, and expressed according to, culturally dictated traditions, norms and preferences (an issue
discussed further in Chapter 16).7 Further, some individuals knowingly consume products
that are demonstrably dangerous for their health, such as cigarettes or alcohol, as they focus
on satisfying their social or ego needs over their physiological or safety ones. This is not to
mention ‘aberrant’ consumer behaviours such as compulsive buying, which appear to operate
outside any hierarchical understanding of need satisfaction.8

Maslow’s theory has been extensively employed within the fields of marketing and
management in an effort to conceptualise and define customer needs (see the Social and
mobile CB boxed example). It can also be used to assist in market segmentation based on
consumer needs. Lastly, it can be used to better understand the motivation of managers,
employees and generational cohorts in the workplace.9 In a recent study recognising the
growth of virtual world channels, the application of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has shown
great utility in explaining how particular needs might be facilitated within computer-
mediated environments.10

Social & mobile CB

Maslow and slogans: a successful partnership?
What motivates consumers to engage in consumption decisions? Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that
individuals are fundamentally motivated by a set of needs that have different levels of importance. As
consumers fulfil their physiological and safety needs, followed by belongingness and esteem, they strive
towards self-actualisation, which is the highest-order need and is driven by the desire for an individual to
become all they are capable of becoming. So what motivators can trigger aspirations towards self-
actualisation?

The United Kingdom’s Army Cadet Force (ACF) successfully launched a recruitment drive appealing to
the population’s higher-order needs. With the slogan ‘Make a difference’, the campaign attracted several

Quester, Pascale, et al. Consumer Behaviour : Implications for Marketing Strategy, McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Limited, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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thousand new cadet recruits and adult instructors. But can a slogan motivate?
As part of the appeal to attract consumers to engage in consumption decisions, advertising slogans

epitomise the essence of a brand and the backbone of campaigns. Typically a short phrase, slogans define
the image, brand positioning and identity that the organisation represents. A value proposition as a slogan
can communicate an emotional mood to appeal to the needs and motivations of the particular target market.
This is exactly how the ACF campaign motivated potential recruits through its multimedia communication
strategy, which aimed to trigger problem recognition and motivate potential recruits to begin a life-changing
journey.

Recruitment slogans in particular have employed a variety of appeals specifically tailored to meet
perceived needs. The United States Army’s recruitment slogans have always reflected the times, with recently
campaigns including social media to attract potential recruits. From ‘Today’s Army wants to join you’ to ‘Be all
you can be’ to ‘An Army of one’, these slogans appeal to social needs and the needs of self-esteem and self-
actualisation. A study examining the success of the armed forces in attracting recruits found that motivation
appealing in particular to self-actualisation, esteem and autonomy were the most effective at prompting
people to make a lifestyle choice by enlisting for military service. Integrating a sense of anticipation of a
reward from military life proved effective in attracting individuals who desired such an outcome. Similarly, the
Australian Army’s ‘Army. Challenge yourself’ campaign illustrated the association between effort and
performance and striving towards self-fulfilment.

Recognising Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a basis for understanding consumers and their areas of
perceived or actual deficit contributes towards creating meaning in brands and slogans. In an information-rich
environment where consumers’ needs can be readily satisfied, slogans can create an edge by communicating
what consumers want to hear, and what their psyche actually needs.

QUESTIONS
1 Explain in terms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs how both lower and higher needs can be met through a
lifestyle decision such as joining the military.

2 Does Maslow’s hierarchy operate in order, or can several needs be competing at a particular point in
time?

3 How can a marketer’s understanding of slogans define ‘the image, brand positioning and identity that the
organisation represents’?. Explain, giving examples.

4 With reference to Maslow’s framework, do people’s needs change as they grow older?

It is also important to remember that any given consumption behaviour can satisfy more
than one need. Likewise, the same consumption behaviour can satisfy different needs at
different times. For example, the consumption of Evian water—with its marketing emphasis
on natural spring water as a source of health, youth, beauty and vitality—could satisfy both
physiological and esteem needs, physiological needs only, or simply esteem needs, social
needs or even safety needs. Table 10.1 provides illustrations of marketing appeals associated
with each of Maslow’s levels or motivation.

Table 10.1 Direct appeals to Maslow’s motives in advertising and promotional campaigns

Physiological

Products Health foods, medicines, low-cholesterol foods, exercise equipment

Examples Centrum: ‘Complete from A to zinc’

Sanitarium: ‘Start your day right’

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Vitasoy: ‘Can work wonders for your health and wellbeing’

Safety

Products Smoke detectors, preventative medicines, insurance, social security, retirement investments, burglar alarms, safes

Examples APIA: ‘Understanding, not just insurance’

Zurich: ‘There’s only one thing worse than having to pay insurance’

Robitussin: ‘There’s a Robitussin with your name on it’

Belongingness

Products Personal grooming products, entertainment, clothing and many others

Examples Apple: ‘Think different’

Elizabeth Arden: ‘For all the laughter that lies ahead of me’

Rexona: ‘It won’t let you down’

Esteem

Products Clothing, furniture, alcohol, hobbies, cars and many others

Examples Seiko: ‘It’s your watch that tells most about who you are’

David Jones: ‘Was. Is. Always. David Jones’

BMW ‘We only make one thing – the ultimate driving machine’

Self-actualisation

Products Education, hobbies, sports, some holidays, charities, gourmet foods, museums

Examples Australian Red Cross: ‘The power of humanity’

UNICEF: ‘Make a difference that lasts a lifetime’

Australian Defence Force: ‘Army. Challenge yourself’

McGuire’s psychological motives
McGuire has developed a motive classification system that is more specific than Maslow’s.
He has identified 16 motives and classified these into four categories—cognitive
preservation motives, cognitive growth motives, affective preservation motives and
affective growth motives—depending on whether the motive is cognitive or affective and
whether it focuses on preservation of the status quo or on growth. McGuire’s 16 motives are
briefly described in Table 10.2. This system can help marketers to isolate motives likely to be
involved in various specific consumption situations.
cognitive preservation motives motives that focus on achieving a sense of meaning while maintaining
equilibrium

cognitive growth motives motives that focus on achieving a sense of meaning through personal development

affective preservation motives motives that focus on achieving personal goals while maintaining equilibrium
affective growth motives motives that focus on achieving personal goals through personal development

Table 10.2 McGuire’s psychological motives

Cognitive preservation motives

Consistency The need for internal equilibrium or balance

Causation The need to determine who or what causes the things that happen to us

Categorisation The need to establish categories or mental partitions that provide frames of reference

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Cues The need for observable cues or symbols that enable us to infer what we feel and know

Cognitive growth motives

Independence The need for a feeling of self-governance or self-control

Novelty The need for variety and difference

Teleological The need to achieve desired outcomes or end states

Utilitarian The need to learn new information to solve problems

Affective preservation motives

Tension reduction The need to reduce stress

Self-expression The need to express self-identity to others

Ego-defence The need to defend or protect our identities or egos

Reinforcement The need to act in such a way that others will reward us

Affective growth motives

Assertion The need to increase self-esteem

Affiliation The need to develop mutually satisfying relationships with others

Identification The need to adopt new roles

Modelling The need to base behaviours on those of others

Source: Adapted from McGuire WJ (1974), ‘Psychological motives and communication gratification’, in JG
Blumler & C Katz (eds), The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research,
Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp. 167–196.

Cognitive motives focus on the individual’s need for being adaptively oriented towards
their environment and achieving a sense of meaning. Affective motives deal with the need to
reach satisfying feeling states and to attain personal goals. Preservation-oriented motives
emphasise the individual as striving to maintain equilibrium, whereas growth motives
emphasise development.

These four categories can then be further divided depending on whether (a) the behaviour
is actively initiated or is in response to the environment (that is, active versus passive
response) and (b) the behaviour helps the individual to achieve a new internal state or a new
external state (that is, outcomes are internal to the individual or focused on the relationship
with the environment).11

Cognitive preservation motives

The need for consistency (active, internal)
A basic human desire is to have all facets or parts of oneself consistent with each other. These
facets include attitudes, behaviours, opinions, self-images and views of others (this topic will
be discussed further in Chapter 11). Marketers use this in several ways. First, it makes clear
the need for a consistent marketing mix. A product positioned as a luxury product with an
elegant design, expensive packaging, limited distribution and advertisements that stress
exclusiveness should not be priced at or below the price of an average product. This
inconsistency would be likely to cause consumers to reject the product.

Quester, Pascale, et al. Consumer Behaviour : Implications for Marketing Strategy, McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Limited, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/auckland/detail.action?docID=5471315.
Created from auckland on 2021-12-16 00:54:34.

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The need for consistency also relates to purchase-decision processes. Following an
important purchase, a consumer may have feelings of dissonance (see Chapter 7) and may be
motivated to seek additional information to reduce these feelings. This concern for ‘Did I
make the right purchase?’ must be reduced in order to establish a comfortable balance
between feelings, attitudes and behaviour.12 The need for consistency with respect to
purchase behaviour was discussed in Chapter 7 in the section ‘Post-purchase dissonance’.

The need to attribute causation (active, external)
This set of motives deals with the need to determine who or what causes the things that
happen to us. When individuals attribute the cause of a favourable or unfavourable outcome
to themselves, this is described as an internal attribution. However, if they attribute the
cause to some outside force, this is referred to as an external attribution.
internal attribution the process whereby individuals attribute the cause of a favourable or unfavourable outcome
to themselves

external attribution the process whereby individuals attribute the cause of a favourable or unfavourable
outcome to some outside force

Exhibit 10.1 This advertisement provides clues through distinctive use of colour and visual images about the
image associated with the product.

COURTESY KRAFT FOODS EUROPE SERVICES GMBH – IRISH BRANCH

The need to attribute cause has led to an area of research known as attribution theory. 13
This approach to understanding why consumers assign particular meanings to a person’s
behaviour—and whether it is due to inferred dispositional characteristics or situational
factors or both—has been used primarily for analysing consumer reactions to promotional

Quester, Pascale, et al. Consumer Behaviour : Implications for Marketing Strategy, McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Limited, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/auckland/detail.action?docID=5471315.
Created from auckland on 2021-12-16 00:54:34.

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messages (in terms of credibility). For example, when consumers attribute a purchase motive
to advice given by a salesperson or advertising message, they tend to discount the weight of
the advice. In contrast, similar advice given by a friend would be likely to be attributed to a
desire to be helpful and might therefore be accepted.
attribution theory an approach to understanding why consumers assign particular meanings to a person’s
behaviour, and whether it is due to inferred dispositional characteristics or situational factors or both

The fact that consumers do not passively receive messages but rather attribute sales
motives and tactics to advertising and the advice of sales staff means that many of these
messages are not believed, or are ‘discounted’.14 Marketers use a variety of methods to
overcome this, including using credible spokespeople in their advertising. This is discussed
in Chapter 11 in the section ‘Source characteristics’.

The need to categorise (passive, internal)
We all have a need to be able to categorise and organise information and experiences in some
meaningful yet manageable way, so we establish categories or mental partitions that allow us
to process large quantities of information. Prices are often categorised in such a way that
different prices mean different categories of goods. For example, the concepts ‘cars under
$10 000’ and ‘cars over $20 000’ may be seen to have two different meanings, because
consumers have categorised this information to reflect different price levels. Many firms
price items at $9.95, $19.95, $49.95 and so on to avoid having their products categorised in
the over-$10, over-$20 or over-$50 group, respectively. Perceptions of price were also
discussed in Chapter 8.

The need for cues (passive, external)
These motives reflect our need for observable cues or symbols, which enable us to infer what
is felt and known. By viewing our own behaviour and that of others, and drawing inferences
as to what we feel and think, we can subtly establish impressions, feelings and attitudes. In
many instances, the clothes and accessories that people wear and the cars they drive act as
cues to the subtle meaning of a desired image and consumer lifestyle.15 This is so critical that
airlines and banks use

Marketing homework help

Mimic Simulation
Second Individual assignment

Performance

$44,400

$106,439

$178,854

$236,711

$-

$50,000

$100,000

$150,000

$200,000

$250,000

Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4

Total Revenue WELL
DONE

$1,126

$2,104

$2,772

$3,737

$-

$500

$1,000

$1,500

$2,000

$2,500

$3,000

$3,500

$4,000

Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4

Marketing budget

Performance

WELL
DONE

Simulation grades
Revenue after Round 5 (Single Round)

>250,000
10 points

> 200,000
5 points

>150,000
2 points

<150,000
no points

For example:

• Be confident and proactive: report your
marketing performance in positive way!

• Show your professionalism: use marketing
terminology and language

• Have a good start: kick off with a compelling
executive summary

• High level of creativity and originality:
creating your own figures, graphs, tables
which come from analytics dashboard

Bonus tips

• Make optimisations (e.g., adjust bids) on existing ad group/product group

• Set negative keywords for each ad group

• Pause existing ad groups/product groups and create new ones (e.g., try

different camera subdivisions)

Optimize shopping ad

Watch this brief video
https://stukenthelp.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/360061054573-How-do-I-

improve-my-Shopping-Campaign-

Marketing homework help

This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit
http://www.djreprints.com.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood-1490370059

|

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

1 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

A competitor on ‘Ultimate Beastmaster,’ an obstacle-course reality show created by David Broome, creator of

‘The Biggest Loser,’ for Netflix. PHOTO: NETFLIX

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

2 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

THE WALL STREET JOURNAL.

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

3 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

Netflix made a deal to pay Chris Rock, above performing in New York in 2016, $40 million for two comedy

specials. PHOTO: JOHNNY NUNEZ/WIREIMAGE/GETTY IMAGES

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

4 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

5 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

6 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

THE WALL STREET JOURNAL.

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

7 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

Copyright &copy;2017 Dow Jones &amp; Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit
http://www.djreprints.com.

Staff at Netflix prepared for the second-season launch of its superhero series ‘Daredevil’ in March. PHOTO:

GLENN CHAPMAN/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES

Netflix: The Monster That’s Eating Hollywood – WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/netflix-the-monster-thats-eating-hollywood…

8 of 8 3/25/2017 9:02 AM

Marketing homework help

Complete the table belowFor
Kroger

, determine the strength of each of Porter’s Five Forces and of the complementors. 

 

Justify your determination with examples. 

Industry force 

Strength


Provide a justifying your determination with examples


High 

Medium 

Low 


Example

x

This is why I believe it is medium.

Threat of new entrants 

Power of buyers 

Power of suppliers 

Power of substitutes 

Rivalry among competitors 

Complementors 

References:

Marketing homework help

6

Marketing Management

Student’s name

Institution affiliation

Course

Instructor’s name

Date

Marketing Management

Q1. Provide a description of the product/service and a brief history of the firm.

1946 was the year when Truett Cathy founded the Dwarf Grill, before rebranding it as the Dwarf House and later to Chick-Fil-A in Atlanta. In this same year, Cathy created the company’s recipe (chicken sandwich). In 1984, the headquarters of this firm were established in Atlanta, just before opening a stand-alone eatery in 1986 (Chick-Fil-A, 2021). The company started its first campaign in 1995 and in 1996, it started sponsoring a bowl game. The firm’s sales surpassed two billion dollars in 2006, while it became a billion-dollar brand. Chick-Fil-A’s main products include chicken and poultry products, including scrambled burritos and waffle fries.

Q2. Explain your current or possible global marketing efforts.

The firm’s efforts to expand globally are built upon the expansion of its menu, which only revolves around chicken products. Given the limited nature of its goods, which has hindered it from expanding into other regions, the company has opted to broaden its menu to include items such as waffle fries. Therefore, Chick-Fil-A has been tirelessly working to retain and attract more clients from around the globe.

Q3. Explain the organization’s mission. Provide its mission statement or create one if necessary.

Chick-Fil-A’s mission statement illustrates the need for the firm to be the best quick-service restaurant in America that wins and keeps its customers. This means that the firm is convinced that it can win and retain customers by offering better products and services. Better products and services means that Chick-Fil-A offers foods that are of high quality, while its services ought to be quick and affordable at the same time. For Chick-fil-A, the purpose of a mission statement is to help the firm meet its objectives.

Q4. Explain your competitive strategy.

Chick-Fil-A’s operations complement its business philosophy of providing high-quality goods with superb service at reasonable prices. This company’s consumer-centric strategy will help it carve out a position in the industry. Marshall and Johnston (2019) illustrate that a company promoting and practicing a high level of customer focus is referred to as a customer-centric organization. It has gained a significant competitive edge not just through outstanding product development, but also through exceptional customer service. The organization delights its clients by establishing trust, which entails developing connections with them and learning about who they are, as well as their aspirations and desires. Despite being a fast-food restaurant, they seek to create a pleasurable time for every client while also having a beneficial impact on the community.

Q5. Conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis for the organization

Strengths

One of the key strengths that makes Chick-Fil-A the best is the services it provides to its customers. This customer service is made possible by the training that employees undergo, wherein the training is centered on understanding and happiness. Another strength is the firm’s menu selection, which includes chicken sandwiches instead of burgers. The firm also offers quality food products, which are as a result of Cathy, who took time in developing the original chicken sandwich recipe. Brand building can also be described as a strength given that it involves the local community. Powerful marketing efforts such as ‘Eat Mor Chikin’ aided in the brand’s growth (McGinty, 2019).

Weaknesses

Poor geographic coverage can be described as a weakness because Chick-Fil-A’s presence is limited only to the US, meaning that its popularity is limited. Popularity among middle-income people in the US is a concern primarily because of the firm’s highly priced products.

Opportunities

Chick-Fil-A has an opportunity to expand to new markets such as the European ones which Marshall and Johnston (2019) name as the most successful. Here, its products can be well received, thus increasing its customer base. Health is a concern for customers, and this firm has the opportunity to reinvent itself by creating healthy food options. Although the company’s brand is recognizable, its involvement in many religious and political activities may turn off some consumers, and this implies that by rebranding itself, it might attract new ones. While the firm does provide the conventional chicken sandwich, it has to create new offerings to widen its popularity and expand its customer base.

Threats

The culture of Chick-Fil-A is often regarded as among the most orthodox in the world, earning it much criticism. While the firm’s branding is not political, it continuously provides financial support to ideological initiatives and activities, earning them a great deal of indignation from those opposing such efforts. The company’s revenue situation is impacted by intense rivalry from established companies such as McDonald’s and independent eateries. Changing health and economic policies might have a detrimental effect on the firm.

References


Chick-Fil-A. (2021). History: Company History. Chick-Fil-A. Inc. https://www.chick-fil-a.com/about/history

Johnston, M. W., & Marshall, G. W. (2019). Marketing Management. McGraw-Hill. 3rd Edition. https://www.acetermpaper.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/eBook-PDF-Marketing-Management-3rd-Edition-by-Greg-Marshall.pdf

McGinty. J. (2019). “Covert Cows. The Chicken Wire. https://thechickenwire.chick-fil-a.com/inside-chick-fil-a/covert-cows

Marketing homework help

GRP

Question: If diversity is so very important within the workplace, why does it seem that they only focus on one group of people?

How: it is very clear to understand why diversity was needed to be introduced into the workplace, however, in such places like the plants, they seem to only hire one group of people, for higher positions

Research question: diversity is needed to balance out of workplace, but what happens when diversity is not being implemented correctly?

(You can change the research question around to make it more appropriate, this is just a layout)

Literature Reference:

My literature review:

Introduction:

DEI abbreviations stand for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion; therefore, the term DEI is mainly used as an initiative that aims to maintain and improve diversity, inclusion, and equity in a workplace. In an organization, DEI initiatives refer to a conceptual tool used to promote the workplace’s full participation and fair treatment of all stakeholders. Diversity in the context of DEI refers to an individual’s involvement with several backgrounds and different identities. Diversity initiative comprises ways people’s identities in a workplace, such as age, sexuality, religion, race, and ethnicity, can be different. Equity initiative refers to equitable treatment and conditions within a workplace which enable people to participate and engage equally.

Language and Cultural Diversity as Elements of Diversity

All elements of diversity in a workforce have different impacts on an organization’s progress. Therefore, it is upon organizational management to ensure they attained positive results from the involved diversity. Language as an element of diversity in business activities refers to a tool of expression that expresses the entire stakeholder’s culture by communicating people’s beliefs, values, customs and fostering feelings of group solidarity and identity. Notably, language as an element of diversity is an inseparable culture section. Language diversity in a workplace encrypts society’s values and norms besides playing a critical role in celebrating and preserving cultural diversity (Jonasson, Lauring & Guttormsen, 2018 np). Language is a window into its respective culture, reasoning, and social living. Therefore, many organization experiences universal cognizance of the fact that language diversity contributes to organizational success through ensuring intercultural dialogue and cultural diversity.

Cultural Diversity

In a workplace, cultural diversity is considered and defined as underlying values that direct people’s behavior within an organization. Remarkably, cultural diversity occurs in a workplace due to employees’ traditions, practices, beliefs, and values based on gender, race, age, religion, and ethnicity. Currently, economic globalization in the workforce has emerged as one of the considerable cultural diversity’s driving forces; the above effort has exposed employers to the fact that diversity provides intangible and material benefits in an organization. Therefore, for employers to reap cultural diversity benefits in a workplace must use language tools to communicate their effort and commitment in addressing some of the possible challenges experienced in a diverse workforce. In the modern business environment, some issues associated with cultural diversity has emerged as threats in the various workplace. For instance, many organizations that have emerged due to the positivity of cultural diversity have experienced challenges on how to facilitate people belonging to different groups to work cohesively. Relating to cultural diversity, the following are some of the key issues that should be addressed in a workplace; the first vital issue is a conflict that occurs as a result of prejudice, racism, discrimination, and lack of respect is practiced in the workplace (Chau et al. 2021 pp 31). Secondly, harassment and disregarding needs, which occur following the company’s ignorance on the needs of disabled employees when not well addressed, obstructs the realization of organizational goals, are other essential issues to consider.

Benefits of Cultural Diversity

Application of cultural diversity in a workplace is associated with benefits that an organization enjoys from the applied cultural diversity; the following are some of the benefits of cultural diversity.

1. Perspectives Inspiration of Creativity and Drive Innovation

The way people perceive their culture can influence the real world. A viewpoint’s variety besides wide-ranging personal and professional experience can result in a perspective that can inspire employees to consider the workplace and world differently. Therefore, diversity of thoughts breeds creativity and drives innovation to ensure customers’ needs are met. Additionally, creating a platform that enhances the exchange of business ideas reaps more benefits of cultural diversity in a workplace (Clark, 2020 pp 2). Notably, in an organization, the appropriate way of ensuring the development of innovative ideas is via an inclusive and diverse workforce.

2.  Knowledge and Insight of Local Market Makes a Company Competitive and Profitable

Applying a multi-cultural workforce in a business company provides a significant edge and expansion into a new market. Understanding the competitive landscape, laws, customs, and regulations allows an organization to thrive, local links and cultural understanding boost international workforce development. Therefore, emerging more competitive in the field ultimately means being profitable. According to research from McKinsey research findings, diversity is explained as good for the bottom line of a business, and ethnically varied companies are 35% likely to receive financial returns compared to the nationwide median industry (Clark, 2020 pp 3)

3.  Cultural Sensitivity Makes Local Knowledge and Insight of Higher Quality to Meet Needs of Targeted Market

Understanding cultural diversity and local market skills subject a company to a more effective marketing strategy. Therefore, knowledge of a certain market and insight becomes invaluable in terms of imagery and design, resulting in a sensitivity of high-quality skills that enable a company to enter successfully in the targeted market.

4. Cultural Diversity enables Company to Attract and Retain the Best Talent

Today, two-thirds of job hunters miss opportunities because of not conversing with cultural diversity, which is essential for evaluating job offers and companies. In the modern competitive international job market, demonstrating an organization is invested through nurturing an inclusive and multi-cultural environment enables the institution to emerge successfully. Significantly, making diversity a critical part of the enlisting process broadens perspective workers’ talent (Marcelin et al. 2019 pp 65). Workers in a diverse workplace remain loyal and feel valued for their effort, which fosters joint respect among workers.

5. Cultural Diversity offers a Wide Range of Goods and Services

Drawing aptitude pool from cultural diversity enables an organization to benefit from hiring experienced professionals, hence maintaining the growth of an institution. A broader and diverse skill offers goods and services which enable a business to emerge competitive in the market because of having competitive merits of adaptability (Clark, 2020 pp 4). Notably, a firm with cognitive and cultural diversity is faster to spot a market niche and have insight and experience, making a company flexible to meet varying consumer behavior.

6.  Opportunity for Personal and Professional Growth

Culturally and inclusively, the diverse company attracts internationally minded and brilliant professionals who appreciate available opportunities useful in personal and professional business growth. Working across cultures enables an organization to enrich experience from around the globe (Hardy & Nortje, 2020 pp 1). Bonding differences and similarities help an organization become global and more diverse besides exposing workers to new approaches and skills to develop an international network that makes their career broad and capable of achieving professional and personal growth.

DEI Initiatives that may Reduce Language and Cultural Barriers in the workplace

Following today’s state of competition in the market, business leaders have noted the importance of creating DEI programs to drive business activities towards achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. When an organization wants workers to have a sense of belonging, embracing DEI initiatives can positively impact their work engagement and satisfaction. Significantly, following the above work engagement and satisfaction, the company expects increased productivity and employee retention (Carey, 2020 np). Diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives play a critical role in reducing language and cultural barriers in a workplace; the following are various approaches the above initiatives use in reducing impacts of cultural and language barriers.

1. Language Barrier in a Workplace

The inclusive initiative reduces language barriers by combating all noted barriers with language training. For instance, in a situation whereby a workplace has a large number of France, the above initiative recommends for the workers to have introductory French language training; the above provides workers with a good understanding of where the French workers come from hence reducing the impacts of a language barrier in the workplace. Secondly, inclusive initiative reduces challenges of a language barrier in a workplace by encouraging employees to explore other cultures to become conversant with many languages in the market. Language being an intrinsic section of culture, encouraging workers to explore other cultures helps reduce the language barrier. Thirdly, equity initiative through discussing cultural differences in a workplace reduces language barrier problems. In a workplace, the above initiative significantly educates workers on cultural differences to reduce the language barrier (Bethune 2020 np).

2. Cultural Barriers in the Workplace

The challenge of cultural barriers in a workplace is highly reduced by applying equity initiative since each culture has its unique norms and members of the same community have mutual understandings; the cultural barrier occurs when employees of diverse cultures interact in the workplace. Therefore, equity initiative through enhancing workers’ interaction solves the cultural obstacles in the workplace by establishing common standards for all workers in an organization. Secondly, equity reduces cultural barriers’ challenges by creating an organizational culture common to all workers in a workplace; therefore, for all employees belonging to the same organizational culture, some barriers associated with cultural diversity may not be experienced in an organization (Yilmaz et al. 2017 pp 154).

 

References

 

Bethune, A., McCambly, H., Rodgers, A. J., & Villanosa, K. (2020). Insights on (In) Equity Initiatives in the Context of Discourse, Organizations, and Identity.

Carey, H. (2020). Anti-Oppression Mindsets for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Initiatives.

Chau, P., Fitzgerald, B., Sarker, S., Carte, T., Kohli, R, Fitzpatrick, L., & Nelson, M. (2021). Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Initiatives across all Community. Communications of the Association for Information Systems49(1), 31

Clark, H. H. (2020). Common ground Aspect of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Initiatives. The International Encyclopedia of Linguistic Anthropology, 1-5.

Hardy, N., & Nortje, N. (2020). Facilitated Conversation: A Useful Tool in Business Activities. Canadian Journal of Bioethics/Revue canadienne de bioéthique3(1).

Jonasson, C., Lauring, J., &Guttormsen, D. S. (2018). Inclusive Management in DEI Initiatives: How does it affect language barriers and cultural differences in a workplace? Personnel Review.

Marcelin, J. R., Siraj, D. S., Victor, R., Kotadia, S., & Maldonado, Y. A. (2019). The impact of Unconscious Bias in the Workforce. The Journal of infectious diseases220(Supplement_2), S62-S73.

Yilmaz, M., Toksoy, S., Direk, Z. D., Bezirgan, S., &Boylu, M. (2017). Cultural sensitivity among organizational workforce: A descriptive study. Journal of Nursing Scholarship49(2), 153-161.

(Language and Cultural Diversity as Elements of Diversity

You don’t need the sub-heading of cultural diversity – just start another paragraph.

It looks like two articles were used, it would be stronger with at least three.

Right now the body is at 372 words … expand that closer to 500

 

Benefits of Cultural Diversity

Please do not number the sections.  Consider the topic breakdown that you’d like to address and then write a strong paragraph or two on each. For example, instead of the first numbered item, use that concept in your opening sentence for the paragraph. 

The ideas and concepts are there – awesome – now bring them together into a cohesive presentation.

 

DEI Initiatives that may Reduce Language and Cultural Barriers in the workplace

Again – don’t number – just start a paragraph with a topic sentence.

Right now the body is at 381 words … expand that closer to 500)

Analysis Reference Example:

Synthesis

Employees are becoming digital nomads, traversing worldwide, interacting with different cultures, and learning new languages. Covid Pandemic increased the uptake of remote working. Remote working has dramatically influenced the uptake of diversity in workplaces. Employees worldwide now have an equal opportunity to work for any multinational company/organization. The different pool of skills, abilities, strengths, and experiences has led to increased innovations and profits in companies. Managing diversity at the work levels is key to the success or failure of multi-cultural organizations. Preventing tension and misunderstandings among culturally diverse employees prioritizes their performance. ​​Therefore, this research focuses on managing diversity in the workplace.

Recommendation

Diversity in the workplace is where an organization hires talent from different cultural backgrounds. Talent is used to refer to an employee. Diversity also applies to elements that make up an individual, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, sexuality, language, and education (Hung, 2021). 

Diversity in the workplace is not only about hiring multicultural workers or meeting the equity brackets on gender balance; it also applies in its inclusion. The first step for an organization to achieve diversity is attracting employees from diverse backgrounds. The next important step is to create conditions that ensure that the particular talent succeeds and integrates easily with the corporate culture. Additionally, the employee should feel included in the organization.

Language is how people express themselves and pass a message. In most organizations, English is used as means of communication. The translation may be lost for those who are not native speakers and use it as a second or third language. For instance, the KFC in China had a poor translation of the KFC tagline from “Finger licking good” to “so tasty, you will eat your fingers off”. For effective communication having bilingual or multilingual employees offers numerous benefits and creates trust within the organization and its external partners. For example, in an organization carrying out business with a French client, switching from English to French while conversing ensures that the majority understands the message (Kim et al., 2018).

Culture refers to ideas, customs, and social behaviors that a particular group of people has agreed or perceived as a way of life. Cultural diversity occurs in two ways; first, international organizations with offices in different geographic locations with distinct cultures. Secondly, when organizations employ talent from other ethnic groups or races. Having one goal, mission, and vision and ensuring it is well communicated drives everyone in one direction. A common goal helps you identify the workforce’s differences and use them as strengths (Hung, 2021).

Having a culturally diverse workforce inspires creativity and drives innovation. During brainstorming sessions, employees share ideas from their unique and rich experiences and backgrounds, giving rise to innovative concepts on improving a particular product or service. Additionally, due to increased employee inclusion, employees can pioneer new ideas and new products that increase the revenue turnover of the business. Organizations can also tap into new markets that they previously did not have access to.

Moreover, recruitment of new employees is simplified since engaging in diversity opens doors to a wide pool of potential talent to choose from. This includes the minority workforce, including females who bring a unique perspective to the business. The rise in skills in minority groups enables them to offer their skills at a global level. Organizations embracing diversity are recognized and get a good reputation. This increases their chances of attracting talent and retaining them over long periods. For example, Accenture PLC is recognized among the top companies embracing diversity due to the inclusion of minority groups, especially females. 

However, embracing diversity is easy, but organizations have to put more effort into effective diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives to reap benefits from it. Employees from diverse backgrounds, especially the minority group, need to feel accepted, included, and different at the same time to ensure quality and high performance. For example, when Google started initiatives to employ females, an internal memo that leaked to the public from a male executive diminishing a female new recruit called on Google to take action. Google fired the executive and released a public apology on the issue (Tran, 2021).

Additionally, due to the different cultural practices, some employees, especially those in junior roles, may be less likely to voice their ideas or take part in discussions that involve seniors. This is challenging especially for employees from polite cultures. For example in Japan, while an employee from European countries is more likely to speak up and negotiate. Organization should put in place initiatives that support such employees to adapt to the new culture ((Li (李永), 2020).

Recommendations for Implementation

One recommendation to counteract the diversity issues is that organizations should embrace diversity training. Diversity training can also be called sensitivity training. This train focuses on educating employees on cultural differences that exist in the organization and how to better appreciate one another. Using the shared mission and vision across the organization the employees are shown and directed on how to behave and communicate in corporate culture. Some topics that are covered in diversity training include communication skills, etiquette, mentorship, and teamwork (Rawski & Conroy, 2020).

To effectively reap the benefits of diversity training the organization can implement open policy offices where the junior employees can approach any senior or management employees without having to follow a hierarchical structure. The junior can report on any issues they deem fit such as how they are being treated, sexual harassment especially for the females, and bullying cases from other senior employees. Additionally, new members should be assigned mentors once they join the organization to enable them to navigate the corporate environment easily and make the most out of it. New members now understand what the organization stands for.

Minimizing Roadblocks

Roadblocks to anticipate during the implementation of a diverse workforce are stereotyping, ingrained and unconscious cultural biases, and prejudice. Fostering integration between teams and ensuring teams work together improves teams’ productivity and facilitates knowledge transfer. Negative Stereotyping or existing prejudice between ethnicities can be pernicious to employees’ productivity. Office outdoor activities are another way of integrating employees to learn about each other in an informal setting, gaining trust, and improving teamwork. Moreover, organizations can plan Feeder recruitment graduate programs to ensure that employees decide to come on board as fulltime employees with an understanding of how the company works (Brewster & Nowak, 2020).

In conclusion, diversity is like inviting one to a party; while this is gracious enough, ensuring that the invitee dances at the party and has a good time is the real deal. A diverse and inclusive workforce yields numerous benefits for an organization. Access to a skilled workforce, increase in productivity, and high revenue turnover. Initially, diversity may bring challenges, but with a skilled and committed leadership, diversity and inclusion are possible.

 

 

References

Brewster, Z. W., & Nowak, G. R. (2020). Racialized Workplaces, Contemporary Racial Attitudes, and Stereotype Endorsement: A Recipe for Consumer Racial Profiling. Sociological Perspectives, 64(3), 343–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731121420946775 (Links to an external site.)

Hung, C. (2021, August 12). Managing Diversity In The Workplace: Age, Language And Culture. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesbusinesscouncil/2021/08/12/managing-diversity-in-the-workplace-age-language-and-culture/?sh=6b255f36e954 (Links to an external site.)

Kim, R., Roberson, L., Russo, M., & Briganti, P. (2018). Language Diversity, Nonnative Accents, and Their Consequences at the Workplace: Recommendations for Individuals, Teams, and Organizations. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 55(1), 73–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886318800997 (Links to an external site.)

Li (李永), Y. (2020). Institutional Discrimination and Workplace Racism. Journal of Chinese Overseas, 16(2), 267–301. https://doi.org/10.1163/17932548-12341426 (Links to an external site.)

Rawski, S. L., & Conroy, S. A. (2020). Beyond demographic identities and motivation to learn: The effect of organizational identification on diversity training outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 41(5), 461–478. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2439 (Links to an external site.)

Tran, B. (2021). (LGBT) Diversity and Equality in the Workplace: Playing with Fire. Academia Letters. https://doi.org/10.20935/al1411

Synthesis Reference

Synthesis

Employees are becoming digital nomads, traversing worldwide, interacting with different cultures, and learning new languages. Covid Pandemic increased the uptake of remote working. Remote working has dramatically influenced the uptake of diversity in workplaces. Employees worldwide now have an equal opportunity to work for any multinational company/organization. The different pool of skills, abilities, strengths, and experiences has led to increased innovations and profits in companies. Managing diversity at the work levels is key to the success or failure of multi-cultural organizations. Preventing tension and misunderstandings among culturally diverse employees prioritizes their performance. ​​Therefore, this research focuses on managing diversity in the workplace.

Recommendation

Diversity in the workplace is where an organization hires talent from different cultural backgrounds. Talent is used to refer to an employee. Diversity also applies to elements that make up an individual, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, sexuality, language, and education (Hung, 2021). 

Diversity in the workplace is not only about hiring multicultural workers or meeting the equity brackets on gender balance; it also applies in its inclusion. The first step for an organization to achieve diversity is attracting employees from diverse backgrounds. The next important step is to create conditions that ensure that the particular talent succeeds and integrates easily with the corporate culture. Additionally, the employee should feel included in the organization.

Language is how people express themselves and pass a message. In most organizations, English is used as means of communication. The translation may be lost for those who are not native speakers and use it as a second or third language. For instance, the KFC in China had a poor translation of the KFC tagline from “Finger licking good” to “so tasty, you will eat your fingers off”. For effective communication having bilingual or multilingual employees offers numerous benefits and creates trust within the organization and its external partners. For example, in an organization carrying out business with a French client, switching from English to French while conversing ensures that the majority understands the message (Kim et al., 2018).

Culture refers to ideas, customs, and social behaviors that a particular group of people has agreed or perceived as a way of life. Cultural diversity occurs in two ways; first, international organizations with offices in different geographic locations with distinct cultures. Secondly, when organizations employ talent from other ethnic groups or races. Having one goal, mission, and vision and ensuring it is well communicated drives everyone in one direction. A common goal helps you identify the workforce’s differences and use them as strengths (Hung, 2021).

Having a culturally diverse workforce inspires creativity and drives innovation. During brainstorming sessions, employees share ideas from their unique and rich experiences and backgrounds, giving rise to innovative concepts on improving a particular product or service. Additionally, due to increased employee inclusion, employees can pioneer new ideas and new products that increase the revenue turnover of the business. Organizations can also tap into new markets that they previously did not have access to.

Moreover, recruitment of new employees is simplified since engaging in diversity opens doors to a wide pool of potential talent to choose from. This includes the minority workforce, including females who bring a unique perspective to the business. The rise in skills in minority groups enables them to offer their skills at a global level. Organizations embracing diversity are recognized and get a good reputation. This increases their chances of attracting talent and retaining them over long periods. For example, Accenture PLC is recognized among the top companies embracing diversity due to the inclusion of minority groups, especially females. 

However, embracing diversity is easy, but organizations have to put more effort into effective diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives to reap benefits from it. Employees from diverse backgrounds, especially the minority group, need to feel accepted, included, and different at the same time to ensure quality and high performance. For example, when Google started initiatives to employ females, an internal memo that leaked to the public from a male executive diminishing a female new recruit called on Google to take action. Google fired the executive and released a public apology on the issue (Tran, 2021).

Additionally, due to the different cultural practices, some employees, especially those in junior roles, may be less likely to voice their ideas or take part in discussions that involve seniors. This is challenging especially for employees from polite cultures. For example in Japan, while an employee from European countries is more likely to speak up and negotiate. Organization should put in place initiatives that support such employees to adapt to the new culture ((Li (李永), 2020).

Recommendations for Implementation

One recommendation to counteract the diversity issues is that organizations should embrace diversity training. Diversity training can also be called sensitivity training. This train focuses on educating employees on cultural differences that exist in the organization and how to better appreciate one another. Using the shared mission and vision across the organization the employees are shown and directed on how to behave and communicate in corporate culture. Some topics that are covered in diversity training include communication skills, etiquette, mentorship, and teamwork (Rawski & Conroy, 2020).

To effectively reap the benefits of diversity training the organization can implement open policy offices where the junior employees can approach any senior or management employees without having to follow a hierarchical structure. The junior can report on any issues they deem fit such as how they are being treated, sexual harassment especially for the females, and bullying cases from other senior employees. Additionally, new members should be assigned mentors once they join the organization to enable them to navigate the corporate environment easily and make the most out of it. New members now understand what the organization stands for.

Minimizing Roadblocks

Roadblocks to anticipate during the implementation of a diverse workforce are stereotyping, ingrained and unconscious cultural biases, and prejudice. Fostering integration between teams and ensuring teams work together improves teams’ productivity and facilitates knowledge transfer. Negative Stereotyping or existing prejudice between ethnicities can be pernicious to employees’ productivity. Office outdoor activities are another way of integrating employees to learn about each other in an informal setting, gaining trust, and improving teamwork. Moreover, organizations can plan Feeder recruitment graduate programs to ensure that employees decide to come on board as fulltime employees with an understanding of how the company works (Brewster & Nowak, 2020).

In conclusion, diversity is like inviting one to a party; while this is gracious enough, ensuring that the invitee dances at the party and has a good time is the real deal. A diverse and inclusive workforce yields numerous benefits for an organization. Access to a skilled workforce, increase in productivity, and high revenue turnover. Initially, diversity may bring challenges, but with a skilled and committed leadership, diversity and inclusion are possible.

 

 

References

Brewster, Z. W., & Nowak, G. R. (2020). Racialized Workplaces, Contemporary Racial Attitudes, and Stereotype Endorsement: A Recipe for Consumer Racial Profiling. Sociological Perspectives, 64(3), 343–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731121420946775 (Links to an external site.)

Hung, C. (2021, August 12). Managing Diversity In The Workplace: Age, Language And Culture. Forbes. 

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