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Perspectives on
Personality

Eighth Edition

Charles S. Carver
University of Miami

Michael F. Scheier
Carnegie Mellon University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Carver, Charles S., author. | Scheier, Michael, author.
Title: Perspectives on personality / Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier,
University of Miami, Carnegie Mellon University.
Description: Eighth Edition. | New York : Pearson, 2016. | Revised edition of
the authors’ Perspectives on personality, 2012. | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016001740| ISBN 9780134415376 | ISBN 013441537X
Subjects: LCSH: Personality.
Classification: LCC BF698 .C22 2016 | DDC 155.2–dc23 LC record available at
http://lccn.loc.gov/2016001740

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 EB

ISBN-10: 0-13-441537-X
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-441537-6

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To Youngmee Kim

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To Meredith and Jeremy, who bring great joy to my life

MFS

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v

9: Psychosocial Theories 125

10: The Learning Perspective 144

11: Self-Actualization and Self-
Determination 164

12: The Cognitive Perspective 183

13: The Self-Regulation Perspective 201

14: Overlap and Integration
among Perspectives 219

1: What Is Personality Psychology? 1

2: Methods in the Study of Personality 9

3: Issues in Personality Assessment 20

4: The Trait Perspective 30

5: The Motive Perspective 50

6: Genetics, Evolution, and Personality 67

7: Biological Processes and Personality 86

8: The Psychoanalytic Perspective 105

Brief Contents

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3.1.4: Subjective versus Objective Measures 22

3.2: Reliability of Measurement 22
3.2.1: Internal Consistency 22
3.2.2: Inter-Rater Reliability 23

Box 3.2 A New Approach to Assessment:
Item Response Theory 23

3.2.3: Stability across Time 24

3.3: Validity of Measurement 24
3.3.1: Construct Validity 25
3.3.2: Criterion Validity 25
3.3.3: Convergent Validity 26
3.3.4: Discriminant Validity 26
3.3.5: Face Validity 26
3.3.6: Culture and Validity 26
3.3.7: Response Sets and Loss of Validity 27

3.4: Two Rationales behind the Development of
Assessment Devices 28

3.4.1: Rational or Theoretical Approach 28
3.4.2: Empirical Approaches 28

3.5: Never-Ending Search for Better Assessment 29
Summary: Issues in Personality Assessment 29

4: The Trait Perspective 30
4.1: Types and Traits 30

4.1.1: Nomothetic and Idiographic Views
of Traits 31

4.2: What Traits Matter? 31
4.2.1: Factor Analysis 31
Box 4.1 A Closer Look at Factor Analysis 32

4.2.2: Let Reality Reveal Itself 33
4.2.3: Start from a Theory 33
4.2.4: The Interpersonal Circle as Another

Theoretical Starting Point 35

4.3: The Five-Factor Model 35
4.3.1: What Are the Five Factors? 36

4.4: Reflections of the Five Factors in Behavior 37
4.4.1: Extraversion and Agreeableness 37
4.4.2: Conscientiousness, Openness, and

Neuroticism 38

4.5: Relations to Earlier Trait Models 39

4.6: Other Variations 39
4.6.1: Expanding and Condensing the

Five-Factor Model 40
4.6.2: Are Superordinate Traits the Best Level

to Use? 40

4.7: Traits, Situations, and Interactionism 40
4.7.1: Is Behavior Actually Traitlike? 41

Box 4.2 How Stable Is Personality over
Long Periods? 41

Preface xiii

About the Authors xv

1: What Is Personality Psychology? 1
1.1: Defining Personality 1

1.1.1: Why Use the Word Personality as a Concept? 1
1.1.2: A Working Definition 2
1.1.3: Two Fundamental Themes in Personality

Psychology 2

1.2: Theory in Personality Psychology 3
1.2.1: What Do Theories Do? 3
1.2.2: The Role of Research in Evaluating Theories 3
1.2.3: What Else Makes a Theory Good? 4

1.3: Perspectives on Personality 5
1.3.1: Perspectives to Be Examined Here 5
1.3.2: Perspectives Reconsidered 6

1.4: Organization within Chapters 6
1.4.1: Assessment 6
1.4.2: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 7

Summary: What Is Personality Psychology? 7

2: Methods in the Study of Personality 9
2.1: Gathering Information 9

2.1.1: Observe Yourself and Observe Others 9
2.1.2: Depth Through Case Studies 9
2.1.3: Depth from Experience Sampling 10
2.1.4: Seeking Generality by Studying

Many People 10

2.2: Establishing Relationships among Variables 11
2.2.1: Correlation between Variables 12
2.2.2: Two Kinds of Significance 14
2.2.3: Causality and a Limitation on Inference 14
2.2.4: Experimental Research 15
2.2.5: Recognizing Types of Studies 16

Box 2.1 Correlations in the News 17
2.2.6: What Kind of Research Is Best? 17
2.2.7: Experimental Personality Research and

Multifactor Studies 17
2.2.8: Reading Figures from Multifactor

Research 18
Summary: Methods in the Study of Personality 19

3: Issues in Personality Assessment 20
3.1: Sources of Information 20

3.1.1: Observer Ratings 20

Box 3.1 What Does Your Stuff Say about You? 21
3.1.2: Self-Reports 21
3.1.3: Implicit Assessment 21

Contents

vii

viii Contents

4.7.2: Situationism 41
4.7.3: Interactionism 41
4.7.4: Other Aspects of Interactionism 43
4.7.5: Was the Problem Ever Really as Bad as

It Seemed? 43

4.8: Interactionism as Context-Dependent
Expression of Personality 43

4.8.1: Fitting the Pieces Together 44

Box 4.3 Theoretical Issue: What Really Is
a Trait? 45

4.9: Assessment from the Trait Perspective 46
4.9.1: Comparing Individuals Using

Personality Profiles 46

4.10: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Trait Perspective 47

4.10.1: The Five-Factor Model and Personality
Disorders 47

4.10.2: Interactionism in Behavior Problems 47
4.10.3: Behavior Change 48

4.11: Problems and Prospects for the Trait Perspective 48
Summary: The Trait Perspective 49

5: The Motive Perspective 50
5.1: Basic Theoretical Elements 51

5.1.1: Needs 51
5.1.2: Motives 51
5.1.3: Press 52

5.2: Needs, Motives, and Personality 52
5.2.1: Motive States and Motive Dispositions 52
5.2.2: Measuring Motives Using the Thematic

Apperception Test 53

5.3: Studies of Specific Dispositional Motives 53
5.3.1: Need for Achievement 53
5.3.2: Need for Power 55
5.3.3: Need for Affiliation 57
5.3.4: Need for Intimacy 57
5.3.5: Patterned Needs 58

5.4: Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives 59
5.4.1: Incentive Value 59
5.4.2: Implicit Motives Are Different from

Self-Attributed Motives 59

5.5: Approach and Avoidance Motives 60
5.5.1: Approach and Avoidance in

Other Motives 61

5.6: Motives and the Five-Factor Trait Model 61
5.6.1: Traits and Motives as Distinct and

Complementary 61

5.7: Personology and the Study of Narratives 62

5.8: Assessment from the Motive Perspective 62

Box 5.1 The Process Underlying the TAT or
the PSE 63

5.8.1: Other Implicit Assessments 63

5.9: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Motive Perspective 64

5.9.1: The Need for Power and Alcohol Abuse 64
5.9.2: Focusing On and Changing Motivation 64

5.10: Problems and Prospects for the Motive Perspective 65
Summary: The Motive Perspective 65

6: Genetics, Evolution, and Personality 67
6.1: Determining Genetic Influence on Personality 67

Box 6.1 Early Biological Views: Physique
and Personality 68

6.1.1: Twin Study Method 68
6.1.2: Adoption Research 69

6.2: What Personality Qualities Are Genetically
Influenced? 69

6.2.1: Temperaments 69
6.2.2: More Recent Views of Temperaments 70
6.2.3: Inheritance of Traits 70
6.2.4: Temperaments and the Five-Factor Model 70
6.2.5: How Distinct Are the Genetics of Other

Qualities? 71
6.2.6: Environmental Influences 71

6.3: Complications in Behavioral Genetics 72
6.3.1: Heritability Varies with the Environment 72
6.3.2: Correlations between Genetic and

Environmental Influences 72

6.4: Molecular Genetics and Genomics 73
6.4.1: Gene-by-Environment Interactions 74
6.4.2: Environmental Effects on Gene

Expression 74

6.5: Evolution and Human Behavior 75
6.5.1: Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology 75

Box 6.2 Theoretical Issue: Universal Adaptations
and Why There Are Individual Differences 75

6.5.2: Genetic Similarity and Attraction 76
6.5.3: Avoidance of Incest 77
6.5.4: Mate Selection and Competition for Mates 77
6.5.5: Mate Retention and Other Issues 79
6.5.6: Aggression and the Young Male Syndrome 80

6.6: Assessment from the Genetic and Evolutionary
Perspective 81

6.7: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective 81

6.7.1: Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder 81

Box 6.3 Living in a Postgenomic World 81
6.7.2: Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior 82
6.7.3: Evolution and Problems in Behavior 83
6.7.4: How Much Behavior Change Is Possible? 83

6.8: Problems and Prospects for the Genetic and
Evolutionary Perspective 83
Summary: Genetics, Evolution, and Personality 84

7: Biological Processes and Personality 86
7.1: Eysenck’s Early Views on Brain Functions 87

7.2: Incentive Approach System 87

Contents ix

8.3.1: Id 107
8.3.2: Ego 107
8.3.3: Superego 108
8.3.4: Balancing the Forces 108

8.4: The Drives of Personality 109

Box 8.2 Distortion in Psychoanalytic Ideas
by Translation and Cultural Distance 109

8.4.1: Life and Death Instincts 110
8.4.2: Catharsis 110

8.5: Anxiety and Mechanisms of Defense 111
8.5.1: Repression 111

Box 8.3 Unintended Effects of Thought
Suppression 112

8.5.2: Denial 112
8.5.3: Projection 112
8.5.4: Rationalization and Intellectualization 113
8.5.5: Displacement and Sublimation 113
8.5.6: Research on Defenses 114

8.6: Psychosexual Development 114
8.6.1: The Oral Stage 114
8.6.2: The Anal Stage 115
8.6.3: The Phallic Stage 116

Box 8.4 The Theorist and the Theory:
Freud’s Own Oedipal Crisis 117

8.6.4: The Latency Period 117
8.6.5: The Genital Stage 117

8.7: Exposing the Unconscious 117
8.7.1: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life 118
8.7.2: Dreams 119

8.8: Assessment from the Psychoanalytic
Perspective 119

8.9: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Psychoanalytic Perspective 120

8.9.1: Origins of Problems 120
8.9.2: Behavior Change 120

Box 8.5 Repression, Disclosure, and
Physical Health 121

8.9.3: Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work? 121

8.10: Problems and Prospects for the
Psychoanalytic Perspective 122
Summary: The Psychoanalytic Perspective 123

9: Psychosocial Theories 125
9.1: Object Relations Theories 125

Box 9.1 Ego Psychology 126
9.1.1: Self Psychology 127

9.2: Attachment Theory and Personality 127
9.2.1: Attachment Patterns in Adults 129
9.2.2: How Many Patterns? 129

Box 9.2 How Do You Measure
Adult Attachment? 130

9.2.3: Stability and Specificity 130
9.2.4: Other Reflections of Adult Attachment 131

7.2.1: Behavioral Approach 87
7.2.2: More Issues in Approach 88
7.2.3: Neurotransmitters and the Approach

System 88

7.3: Behavioral Avoidance, or Withdrawal, System 89
7.3.1: Neurotransmitters and the Avoidance

System 90

7.4: Relating Approach and Avoidance Systems to
Traits and Temperaments 90

7.4.1: The Role of Sociability 90
7.4.2: The Role of Impulsivity 91

7.5: Sensation Seeking, Constraint, and
Effortful Control 91

7.5.1: Sensation Seeking 91
7.5.2: Relating Sensation Seeking to Traits and

Temperaments 92
7.5.3: Another Determinant of Impulse

and Restraint 92
7.5.4: Neurotransmitters and Impulse versus

Constraint 93

Box 7.1 Research Question: How Do You
Measure Neurotransmitter Function? 93

7.6: Hormones and Personality 94
7.6.1: Hormones, the Body, and the Brain 94
7.6.2: Early Hormonal Exposure and

Behavior 95
7.6.3: Testosterone and Adult Personality 96

Box 7.2 Steroids: An Unintended Path to
Aggression 97

7.6.4: Cycle of Testosterone and Action 98
7.6.5: Testosterone, Dominance, and

Evolutionary Psychology 98
7.6.6: Responding to Stress 99

7.7: Assessment from the Biological Process
Perspective 100

7.7.1: Electroencephalograms 100
7.7.2: Neuroimaging 100

7.8: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Biological Process Perspective 101

7.8.1: Biological Bases of Anxiety
and Depression 101

7.8.2: Biological Bases of Antisocial
Personality 101

7.8.3: Biological Therapies 102

7.9: Problems and Prospects for the Biological
Process Perspective 103
Summary: Biological Processes and Personality 103

8: The Psychoanalytic Perspective 105
Box 8.1 Was Freud Really the Sole Creator
of Psychoanalysis? 106

8.1: Basic Themes 106

8.2: The Topographical Model of the Mind 106

8.3: The Structural Model of Personality 107

9.2.5: Attachment Patterns and the
Five-Factor Model 132

Box 9.3 How Impactful Is Early
Childhood Adversity? 133

9.3: Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development 133
9.3.1: Ego Identity, Competence, and the

Experience of Crisis 133
9.3.2: Infancy 134
9.3.3: Early Childhood 135
9.3.4: Preschool 135
9.3.5: School Age 136
9.3.6: Adolescence 136

Box 9.4 The Theorist and the Theory:
Erikson’s Lifelong Search for Identity 137

9.3.7: Young Adulthood 137
9.3.8: Adulthood 138
9.3.9: Old Age 139
9.3.10: The Epigenetic Principle 139
9.3.11: Identity as Life Story 139
9.3.12: Linking Erikson’s Theory to

Other Psychosocial Theories 140

9.4: Assessment from the Psychosocial Perspective 140
9.4.1: Object Relations, Attachment, and the

Focus of Assessment 140
9.4.2: Play in Assessment 140

9.5: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Psychosocial Perspective 141

9.5.1: Narcissism as a Disorder of Personality 141
9.5.2: Attachment and Depression 141
9.5.3: Behavior Change 141

9.6: Problems and Prospects for the Psychosocial
Perspective 142
Summary: Psychosocial Theories 142

10: The Learning Perspective 144
10.1: Classical Conditioning 144

10.1.1: Basic Elements 145
10.1.2: Discrimination, Generalization, and

Extinction in Classical Conditioning 146

Box 10.1 What’s Going On in Classical
Conditioning? 146

10.1.3: Emotional Conditioning 147

Box 10.2 Classical Conditioning and Attitudes 148

10.2: Instrumental Conditioning 148
10.2.1: The Law of Effect 148
10.2.2: Reinforcement and Punishment 149
10.2.3: Discrimination, Generalization, and

Extinction in Instrumental Conditioning 149
10.2.4: Schedules of Reinforcement 150
10.2.5: Reinforcement of Qualities of Behavior 151

10.3: Social and Cognitive Variations 151
10.3.1: Social Reinforcement 151
10.3.2: Vicarious Emotional Arousal 152
10.3.3: Vicarious Reinforcement 152

Box 10.3 Modeling and Delay of Gratification 153
10.3.4: What Really Is Reinforcement? 153
10.3.5: Efficacy Expectancies 153
10.3.6: Role of Awareness 154

10.4: Observational Learning 154
10.4.1: Attention and Retention 154
10.4.2: Production 155
10.4.3: Acquisition versus Performance 155

10.5: Modeling of Aggression and the Issue
of Media Violence 156

10.6: Assessment from the Learning Perspective 157
10.6.1: Conditioning-Based Approaches 157
10.6.2: Social–Cognitive Approaches 157

10.7: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Learning Perspective 158

10.7.1: Classical Conditioning of Emotional
Responses 158

10.7.2: Conditioning and Context 158
10.7.3: Instrumental Conditioning and

Maladaptive Behaviors 159
10.7.4: Social–Cognitive Approaches 159
10.7.5: Modeling-Based Therapy for Skill Deficits 160
10.7.6: Modeling and Responses to Fear 160
10.7.7: Therapeutic Changes in Efficacy

Expectancy 161

10.8: Problems and Prospects for the Learning
Perspective 161
Summary: The Learning Perspective 162

11: Self-Actualization and
Self-Determination 164

11.1: Self-Actualization 165
11.1.1: The Need for Positive Regard 165
11.1.2: Contingent Self-Worth 166

11.2: Self-Determination 166
11.2.1: Introjection and Identification 167
11.2.2: Need for Relatedness 168
11.2.3: Self-Concordance 168
11.2.4: Free Will 168

11.3: The Self and Processes of Defense 169

Box 11.1 How Can You Manage Two Kinds
of Congruence Simultaneously? 169

11.3.1: Incongruity, Disorganization, and Defense 170
11.3.2: Self-Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement 170
11.3.3: Self-Handicapping 170
11.3.4: Stereotype Threat 171

11.4: Self-Actualization and Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Motives 171

Box 11.2 The Theorist and the Theory: Abraham
Maslow’s Focus on the Positive 172

11.4.1: Characteristics of Frequent Self-Actualizers 173
11.4.2: Peak Experiences 174

11.5: Existential Psychology 174

x Contents

11.5.1: The Existential Dilemma 175
11.5.2: Emptiness 175
11.5.3: Terror Management 175

11.6: Assessment from the Self-Actualization
and Self-Determination Perspective 177

11.6.1: Interviews in Assessment 177

Box 11.3 Self-Actualization and Your Life 177
11.6.2: Measuring the Self-Concept by Q-Sort 178
11.6.3: Measuring Self-Actualization 178
11.6.4: Measuring Self-Determination

and Control 178

11.7: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior
Change, from the Self-Actualization and
Self-Determination Perspective 179

11.7.1: Client-Centered Therapy 179
11.7.2: Beyond Therapy to Personal Growth 180

11.8: Problems and Prospects for the Self-Actualization
and Self-Determination Perspective 180
Summary: Self-Actualization and Self-Determination 181

12: The Cognitive Perspective 183
Box 12.1 Personal Construct Theory:
Foreshadowing the Cognitive Perspective 184

12.1: Representing Your Experience of the World 184
12.1.1: Schemas and Their Development 184
12.1.2: Effects of Schemas 185
12.1.3: Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory,

Scripts, and Procedural Knowledge 185
12.1.4: Socially Relevant Schemas 186
12.1.5: Self-Schemas 186
12.1.6: Entity versus Incremental Mindsets 187
12.1.7: Attribution 187

12.2: Activation of Memories 188
12.2.1: Priming and the Use of Information 189
12.2.2: Nonconscious Influences on Behavior 190

12.3: Connectionist Views of Mental Organization 190

Box 12.2 What’s in a Name? 191
12.3.1: Dual-Process Models 192

Box 12.3 Delay of Gratification: The Role
of Cognitive Strategies 193

12.3.2: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge 194

12.4: Broader Views on Cognition and Personality 194

Box 12.4 The Theorist and the Theory:
Mischel and His Mentors 195

12.4.1: Cognitive Person Variables 195
12.4.2: Personality as a Cognitive–Affective

Processing System 196

12.5: Assessment from the Cognitive Perspective 197
12.5.1: Think-Aloud, Experience Sampling,

and Self-Monitoring 197
12.5.2: Contextualized Assessment 197

12.6: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Cognitive Perspective 198

12.6.1: Information-Processing Deficits 198

12.6.2: Depressive Self-Schemas 198
12.6.3: Cognitive Therapy 199

12.7: Problems and Prospects for the Cognitive
Perspective 199
Summary: The Cognitive Perspective 200

13: The Self-Regulation Perspective 201
13.1: From Cognition to Behavior 201

13.1.1: Intentions 202
13.1.2: Goals 202
13.1.3: Goal Setting 203
13.1.4: Implementation Intentions and the

Importance of Strategies 203
13.1.5: Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets 204

13.2: Self-Regulation and Feedback Control 204
13.2.1: Feedback Control 204

Box 13.1 Theoretical Issue: Feedback
versus Reinforcement 205

13.2.2: Self-Directed Attention and the Action
of the Comparator 206

13.2.3: Mental Contrasting and Goal Matching 206
13.2.4: Hierarchical Organization 206
13.2.5: Issues Concerning Hierarchical

Organization 208
13.2.6: Evidence of Hierarchical Organization 208
13.2.7: Construal Levels 209
13.2.8: Emotions 209
13.2.9: Expectancies Influence Effort versus

Disengagement 209

Box 13.2 Confidence about Life: Effects of
Generalized Optimism 210

13.2.10: Partial Disengagement 211

13.3: Further Themes in Self-Regulation 211
13.3.1: Approach and Avoidance 211
13.3.2: Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based

Action 211
13.3.3: Self-Regulation as Self-Control 213

13.4: Assessment from the Self-Regulation Perspective 213
13.4.1: Assessment of Self-Regulatory Qualities 213

Box 13.3 Reduction of Self-Regulation:
Deindividuation and Alcohol 214

13.4.2: Assessment of Goals 214

13.5: Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change,
from the Self-Regulation Perspective 214

13.5.1: Problems as Conflicts among Goals and
Lack of Strategy Specifications 214

13.5.2: Problems from an Inability to
Disengage 215

13.5.3: Self-Regulation and the Process of
Therapy 215

13.5.4: Therapy Is Training in Problem
Solving 216

13.6: Problems and Prospects for the Self-Regulation
Perspective 216
Summary: The Self-Regulation Perspective 217

Contents xi

14.2.1: Impulse and Restraint 225
14.2.2: Individual versus Group Needs 226

14.3: Combining Perspectives 226
14.3.1: Eclecticism 227
14.3.2: Biology and Learning as Complementary

Influences on Personality 227

14.4: Which Theory Is Best? 228
Summary: Overlap and Integration among
Perspectives 228

Glossary 230

References 237

Credits 282

Name Index 284

Subject Index 297

14: Overlap and Integration
among Perspectives 219

14.1: Similarities among Perspectives 220
14.1.1: Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary

Psychology 220
14.1.2: Psychoanalysis and Self-Regulation 221
14.1.3: Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Processes 221
14.1.4: Social Learning, Cognitive, and

Self-Regulation Views 223
14.1.5: Maslow’s Hierarchy and Hierarchies

of Self-Regulation 224
14.1.6: Self-Actualization and Self-Regulation 224
14.1.7: Traits and Their Equivalents in

Other Models 225

14.2: Recurrent Themes, Viewed from Different
Angles 225

xii Contents

secondary goal is to consider the usefulness of blending
theoretical viewpoints, treating theories as complemen-
tary, rather than competing.

In revising, we’ve tried very hard to make the content
accessible. We use an informal, conversational style, and
we’ve used examples of how the ideas can apply to one’s
own life. We hope these qualities make the book engaging
and enjoyable, as well as informative.

New to This Edition
• Incorporates important developments in the field of

personality psychology over the past 5 years or so.
• Cutting edge material has been added on topics in

molecular genetics and genomics (Chapter 6) without
loss of continuity with earlier versions.

• New material has been added on the biological under-
pinnings of impulsiveness (Chapter 7) expanding on
the previous edition’s coverage.

• Expanded coverage of “mindsets” as a facet of the cog-
nitive perspective (Chapter 12).

• More detailed coverage of the role of mental contrasting
in the self-regulation perspective (Chapter 13).

• Over 200 new citations have been included.

Available Instructor Resources
The following resources are available for instructors. These
can be downloaded at http://www.pearsonhighered.
com/irc. Login required.

• Instructor’s Manual: Prepared by Steve Graham, the
instructor’s manual is a wonderful tool for classroom
preparation and management. It includes a summary,
essay questions and exercises for each chapter.

• PowerPoint: The PowerPoint Presentation is an exciting
interactive tool for use in the classroom. Each chapter
pairs key concepts with images from the textbook to
reinforce student learning.

• Test Bank: Also prepared by Steve Graham, the Test
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P
erspectives on Personality, Eighth Edition, examines
one of the most engaging topics in all of life: human
personality. As the title of the book implies, there

are many viewpoints on personality, many ways to think
about human nature. This book describes a range of per-
spectives that are taken by personality psychologists today.

The content of this book reflects two strongly held be-
liefs. The first is that ideas are the most important part of
a first course on personality. For this reason, concepts are
stressed throughout the book rather than theorists. Our
first priority has been to present as clearly as we can the
ideas that form each theoretical viewpoint.

The second belief is that research is important in per-
sonality psychology. Ideas and intuitions are valuable, but
someone needs to check to see whether they actually work.
For this reason, each theory is accompanied by discus-
sion of research that bears on the theory. This emphasis on
the role of research stresses the fact that personality psy-
chology is a living, dynamic process of ongoing scientific
exploration.

As before, we focus on the idea that each viewpoint
discussed in the book represents a perspective on personal-
ity. By that, we mean a particular orienting viewpoint, an
angle from which the theorists proceeded. Each perspec-
tive reflects assumptions about human nature. As in previ-
ous editions, each perspective chapter includes discussion
of assessment from that perspective and some discussion
of how behavior problems can arise and be treated from
that perspective. Each chapter concludes with a discussion
of current problems and strengths within that theoretical
viewpoint and our own guess about its future.

The perspectives are presented in an order that makes
sense to us, but the chapters can easily be read in other
orders. Each theoretical section of the book is intended to
stand more or less on its own. When one chapter is linked
to a previous chapter, it is generally easy to see the point
without having read the prior chapter. There are a few ex-
ceptions to this, however. We refer back to the trait per-
spective relatively often, so it’s probably best to read that
chapter (Chapter 4) early on. It also makes historical sense
to read the psychoanalytic perspective before the psycho-
social perspective, because the latter grew partly from the
former.

As in the previous editions, the final chapter takes up
the question of how the different viewpoints relate to each
other. The main goal of this chapter is to tie together ideas
from theories discussed separately in earlier chapters. A

Preface

xiii

Lesson 3 Forum Psychology

Lesson 03 Forum

40


Post questions and comments for Lesson 3.



Required Reading


Perspectives On Personality, Ch. 6-7.

To respond to this discussion forum, you have two choices. 250 words

1. Respond to the following question:

Many individuals are uncomfortable believing that biological and sociobiological processes play a significant role in human behavior. Why might this be? Do you believe these processes are important? Why or why not? In exploring these issues, try to think about the assumptions commonly held by members of our society (e.g., free will) and how these assumptions might be threatened by according a primary role to biological processes and sociobiological factors.

2. Start a discussion topic of your choice.


Personality as a Biological Process

· Describes the biological approach to personality.

· Explains how twin studies and adoption studies are used to establish the heritability of personality.

· Distinguishes biological approaches to personality from sociobiological approaches to personality.

· Articulates several theoretical explanations regarding the manner in which neurological processes affect personality.

· Gives you the opportunity to identify how specific hormones influence social behavior.