• Home

HR 80

seventh edition

To Laurel, Lisa, Madison, Scott, and Kallie

Theory and practice • seventh edition

Peter g.Northouse
Western Michigan University

Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley

Associate Editor: Abbie Rickard

Editorial Assistant: Nicole Mangona

Production Editor: Libby Larson

Copy Editor: Melinda Masson

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Sally Jaskold

Indexer: Sheila Bodell

Cover Designer: Gail Buschman

Marketing Manager: Liz Thornton

Digital Content Editor: Katie Bierach

Copyright  2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced
or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Northouse, Peter Guy.

Leadershop : theory and practice/Peter Northouse,
Western Michigan University.—Seventh Edition.

pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4833-1753-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)

1. Leadership. 2. Leadership—Case studies. I. Title.

HM1261.N67 2015
303.3′4—dc23 2014044695

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


SAGE Publications, Inc.

2455 Teller Road

Thousand oaks, California 91320

E-mail: order@sagepub.com

SAGE Publications Ltd.

1 oliver’s Yard

55 City Road

London EC1Y 1SP

United Kingdom

SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.

B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area

Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044


SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.

3 Church Street

#10-04 Samsung Hub

Singapore 049483

Brief Contents

Preface xvii

1. Introduction 1
2. Trait Approach 19
3. Skills Approach 43
4. Behavioral Approach 71
5. Situational Approach 93
6. Path–Goal Theory 115
7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137
8. Transformational Leadership 161
9. Authentic Leadership 195
10. Servant Leadership 225
11. Adaptive Leadership 257
12. Psychodynamic Approach 295
13. Leadership Ethics 329
14. Team Leadership 363
15. Gender and Leadership 397
16. Culture and Leadership 427

Author Index 467
Subject index 477
About the Author 491
About the Contributors 493

Detailed Contents

Preface xvii

1. Introduction 1
Leadership Defined 2

Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership 5
Def inition and Components 6

Leadership Described 7
Trait Versus Process Leadership 7
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership 8
Leadership and Power 10
Leadership and Coercion 12
Leadership and Management 13

Plan of the Book 15
Summary 16
References 17

2. Trait Approach 19
Description 19

Intelligence 23
Self-Conf idence 24
Determination 24
Integrity 25
Sociability 26
Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership 26
Emotional Intelligence 27

How Does the Trait Approach Work? 29
Strengths 30
Criticisms 30

Application 32
Case Studies 32

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research 33
Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround 34
Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank 36

Leadership Instrument 37
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) 38

Summary 40
References 41

3. Skills Approach 43
Description 43

Three-Skill Approach 44
Technical Skill 44
Human Skill 44
Conceptual Skill 45
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach 46

Skills Model 47
Competencies 48
Individual Attributes 52
Leadership Outcomes 53
Career Experiences 54
Environmental Influences 55
Summary of the Skills Model 56

How Does the Skills Approach Work? 56
Strengths 57
Criticisms 58
Application 59
Case Studies 60

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team 60
Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams 62
Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe 64

Leadership Instrument 66
Skills Inventory 67

Summary 69
References 70

4. Behavioral Approach 71
Description 71

The Ohio State Studies 72
The University of Michigan Studies 73
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid 74

Authority–Compliance (9,1) 75

Country-Club Management (1,9) 75
Impoverished Management (1,1) 75
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) 76
Team Management (9,9) 77

Paternalism/Maternalism 77
Opportunism 77

How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? 78
Strengths 80
Criticisms 81
Application 81
Case Studies 82

Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First 83
Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up 84
Case 4.3 We Are Family 85

Leadership Instrument 87
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire 88

Summary 90
References 91

5. Situational Approach 93
Description 93

Leadership Styles 94
Development Levels 96

How Does the Situational Approach Work? 97
Strengths 98
Criticisms 99
Application 102
Case Studies 103

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels 103
Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening? 105
Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across 107

Leadership Instrument 108
Situational Leadership Questionnaire: Sample Items 109

Summary 112
References 113

6. Path–Goal Theory 115
Description 115

Leader Behaviors 117
Directive Leadership 117
Supportive Leadership 117
Participative Leadership 118
Achievement-Oriented Leadership 118

Follower Characteristics 118
Task Characteristics 119

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? 120
Strengths 122
Criticisms 123
Application 124
Case Studies 125

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors 126
Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others 128
Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra 129

Leadership Instrument 132
Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire 133

Summary 135
References 136

7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137
Description 137

Early Studies 137
Later Studies 140
Leadership Making 142

How Does LMX Theory Work? 144
Strengths 145
Criticisms 146
Application 148
Case Studies 149

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments 150
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair 151
Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities 152

Leadership Instrument 154
LMX 7 Questionnaire 155

Summary 157
References 158

8. Transformational Leadership 161
Description 161

Transformational Leadership Def ined 162
Transformational Leadership and Charisma 164
A Model of Transformational Leadership 166

Transformational Leadership Factors 167
Transactional Leadership Factors 171
Nonleadership Factor 172

Other Transformational Perspectives 172
Bennis and Nanus 172
Kouzes and Posner 174

How Does the Transformational Approach Work? 175
Strengths 176
Criticisms 178
Application 180
Case Studies 181

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed 181
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership 183
Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center 185

Leadership Instrument 187
Summary 190
References 191

9. Authentic Leadership 195
Description 195

Authentic Leadership Def ined 196
Approaches to Authentic Leadership 197

Practical Approach 197
Theoretical Approach 200

How Does Authentic Leadership Work? 205
Strengths 206
Criticisms 207
Applications 208
Case Studies 209

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? 210
Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire 212
Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady 214

Leadership Instrument 217
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire 218

Summary 220
References 221

10. Servant Leadership 225
Description 225

Servant Leadership Def ined 226
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership 226
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader 227
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership 229

Model of Servant Leadership 231
Antecedent Conditions 231
Servant Leader Behaviors 233
Outcomes 236
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership 238

How Does Servant Leadership Work? 238
Strengths 239

Criticisms 240
Application 241
Case Studies 242

Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble 243
Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor 244
Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight 247

Leadership Instrument 249
Servant Leadership Questionnaire 250

Summary 253
References 254

11. Adaptive Leadership 257
Description 257

Adaptive Leadership Def ined 258
A Model of Adaptive Leadership 260

Situational Challenges 261
Leader Behaviors 263
Adaptive Work 273

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? 274
Strengths 275
Criticisms 276
Application 277
Case Studies 279

Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and
Mental Illness 279

Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus 281
Case 11.3 Redskins No More 283

Leadership Instrument 286
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire 287

Summary 292
References 293

12. Psychodynamic Approach 295
Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Alicia Cheak
Description 295
The Clinical Paradigm 296
History of the Psychodynamic Approach 297
Key Concepts and Dynamics Within the

Psychodynamic Approach 301
1. Focus on the Inner Theatre 301
2. Focus on the Leader-Follower

Relationships 302
3. Focus on the Shadow Side of Leadership 305

How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work? 305
Strengths 306

Criticisms 307
Application 308

Group Coaching 309
Case Studies 313

Case 12.1 Dealing With Passive-Aggressives 313
Case 12.2 The Fear of Success 314
Case 12.3 Helping a Bipolar Leader 315

Leadership Instrument 317
The Leadership Archetype

Questionnaire (Abridged Version) 318
Summary 324
References 324

13. Leadership Ethics 329
Description 329

Ethics Def ined 330
Level 1. Preconventional Morality 331
Level 2. Conventional Morality 332
Level 3. Postconventional Morality 332

Ethical Theories 333
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership 336
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 337
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 338
The Dark Side of Leadership 339
Principles of Ethical Leadership 341

Ethical Leaders Respect Others 341
Ethical Leaders Serve Others 342
Ethical Leaders Are Just 344
Ethical Leaders Are Honest 345
Ethical Leaders Build Community 346

Strengths 347
Criticisms 348
Application 349
Case Studies 349

Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant 350
Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe? 351
Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal 352

Leadership Instrument 355
Perceived Leader Integrity Scale (PLIS) 356

Summary 359
References 360

14. Team Leadership 363
Susan E. Kogler Hill
Description 363

Team Leadership Model 366
Team Effectiveness 367
Leadership Decisions 372
Leadership Actions 377

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? 381
Strengths 382
Criticisms 383
Application 384
Case Studies 385

Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work? 385
Case 14.2 They Dominated the Conversation 386
Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper 387

Leadership Instrument 389
Team Excellence and Collaborative

Team Leader Questionnaire 391
Summary 393
References 393

15. Gender and Leadership 397
Crystal L. Hoyt and Stefanie Simon
Description 397

The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth 398
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth 398
Understanding the Labyrinth 399

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles
and Effectiveness 401

Navigating the Labyrinth 406
Strengths 409
Criticisms 410
Application 411
Case Studies 411

Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling” 412
Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility 413
Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status 414

Leadership Instrument 415
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test 416

Summary 419
References 420

16. Culture and Leadership 427
Description 427

Culture Def ined 428
Related Concepts 428

Ethnocentrism 428
Prejudice 429

Dimensions of Culture 430
Uncertainty Avoidance 431
Power Distance 432
Institutional Collectivism 432
In-Group Collectivism 432
Gender Egalitarianism 433
Assertiveness 433
Future Orientation 433
Performance Orientation 434
Humane Orientation 434

Clusters of World Cultures 434
Characteristics of Clusters 436

Anglo 437
Confucian Asia 437
Eastern Europe 437
Germanic Europe 437
Latin America 438
Latin Europe 438
Middle East 438
Nordic Europe 439
Southern Asia 439
Sub-Saharan Africa 439

Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters 439
Eastern Europe Leadership Profile 441
Latin America Leadership Profile 441
Latin Europe Leadership Profile 441
Confucian Asia Leadership Profile 443
Nordic Europe Leadership Profile 443
Anglo Leadership Profile 444
Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile 445
Southern Asia Leadership Profile 445
Germanic Europe Leadership Profile 446
Middle East Leadership Profile 446

Universally Desirable and Undesirable
Leadership Attributes 448

Strengths 449
Criticisms 450
Application 451
Case Studies 452

Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace 452
Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing 454
Case 16.3 Whose Hispanic Center Is It? 456

Leadership Instrument 458
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire 459

Summary 464
References 465

Author Index 467
Subject index 477

About the Author 491

About the Contributors 493



This seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the
objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches
to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous
editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership
theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be
applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how
leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.


New to this volume is a chapter on adaptive leadership, which examines the
nature of adaptive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The
chapter presents a definition, a model, and the latest research and applica-
tions of this emerging approach to leadership. In addition, the strengths and
weaknesses of the adaptive leadership approach are examined, and a ques-
tionnaire to help readers assess their own levels of adaptive leadership is
provided. Three case studies illustrating adaptive leadership are presented at
the end of the chapter.

This volume also presents an entirely new chapter on psychodynamic leader-
ship written by a leading expert in the field, Manfred F. R. Kets De Vries,
and Alicia Cheak. Like the other chapters, this chapter provides a theoreti-
cal explanation of psychodynamic leadership, applications, cases studies, and
an assessment instrument.

This edition also includes an expanded discussion of the dark side of leader-
ship and psuedotransformational leadership and the negative uses and
abuses of leadership. New research has been added throughout the book as

xvIII Leadership Theory and pracTice

well as many new case studies and examples that help students apply leader-
ship concepts to contemporary settings.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has
been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and every-
day applications for many leadership topics including leader–member
exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership,
the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of leadership.
The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As
with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is
to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership
and ways to practice it more effectively.


Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership
research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear,
concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently
commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the
writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

• Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first
theory and then practice.

• Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of
the approach under consideration, and assists the reader in determin-
ing the relative merits of each approach.

• Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the prac-
tical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s
organizational settings.

• Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common
leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow
each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.

• A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader
apply the approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.

• Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the
ideas more meaningful.

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text
substantive, understandable, and practical.

preface xix


This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and
a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for
undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies,
business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied
health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychol-
ogy, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military
science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a
supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an over-
view text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in
student activities, continuing education, in-service training, and other
leadership-development programs.

Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for Instructors, a password-protected instructor resource site,
supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create
a rich learning environment for students. The test banks, which have been
expanded for this edition, include multiple-choice and true/false questions
to test comprehension, as well as essay questions that ask students to apply
the material. An electronic test bank, compatible with PCs and Macs
through Diploma software, is also available. Chapter-specific resources
include PowerPoint slides, study and discussion questions, suggested exer-
cises, full-text journal articles, and video and audio links. General resources
include course-long projects, sample syllabi, film resources, and case notes.
Printable PDF versions of the questionnaires from the text are included for
instructors to print and distribute for classroom use. A course cartridge
includes assets found on the Instructor Teaching Site and the Student Study
Site, as well as a bonus quiz for each chapter in the book—all in an easy-to-
upload package. Go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the com-
panion site.

Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students
accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.
Mobile-friendly eFlashcards and practice quizzes strengthen understanding
of key terms and concepts and allow for independent assessment by students
of their mastery of course material. A customized online action plan includes

xx Leadership Theory and pracTice

tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which
allows students to individualize their learning experience. Learning objec-
tives, multimedia links, discussion questions, and SAGE journal articles help
students study and reinforce the most important material. Students can go
to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the site.

Media Icons

Icons appearing at the bottom of the page will direct you to online media
such as videos, audio links, journal articles, and reference articles that cor-
respond with key chapter concepts. Visit the Student Study Site at edge.
sagepub.com/northouse7e to access this media.


northouse on Leadership

reference article



saGe Journal article



Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the
seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to
acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE
Publications (Nicole, Abbie, MaryAnn, Liz, Katie, and Lauren) who have
contributed significantly to the quality of this edition and ensured its suc-
cess. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like
to thank copy editor Melinda Masson, and senior project editor Libby Lar-
son. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contribu-
tions to the seventh edition.

For comprehensive reviews of the seventh edition, I would like to thank the
following reviewers:

Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville

Mel Albin, Excelsior College

Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University

Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University

Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University

Dianne Burns, University of Manchester

Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University

Steven Bryant, Drury University

Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University

David Conrad, Augsburg College

Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

xxII Leadership Theory and pracTice

Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing

S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University

Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama

Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University

Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine

Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University

Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University

Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville

Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College

David Lees, University of Derby

David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Carol McMillan, New School University

Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University

Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe

Keeok Park, University of La Verne

Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth

Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque

Casey Rae, George Fox University

Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology

Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge

Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)

Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University

Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica

Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University

Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville

Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College

John Tummons, University of Missouri

acknowledgments xxiii

Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University

Tamara Von George, Granite State College

Natalie Walker, Seminole State College

William Welch, Bowie State University

David E. Williams, Texas Tech University

Tony Wohlers, Cameron University

Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business

Alec Zama, Grand View University

Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills

I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile
tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker
(Western Kentucky University), Renee Kosiarek (North Central College)
and Lisa Burgoon (University of Illinois), and for his feedback in the con-
struction and scoring of the adaptive leadership questionnaire, Paul Yelsma
(Western Michigan University).

A special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful
critiques and ongoing support. In addition, I am grateful to Marie Lee, for
her exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For their
reviews of and comments on the adaptive leadership chapter, I am indebted
to Sarah Chace (Marian University), Carl Larson (University of Denver),
and Chip Bailey (Duke University).

Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students
whom I have taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped
clarify my thinking about leadership and encouraged me to make plain the
practical implications of leadership theories.

SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to
support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing
innovative and high-quality research and teaching content.
Today, we publish more than 750 journals, including those
of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new
books per year, and a growing range of library products
including archives, data, case studies, reports, conference
highlights, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our
founder, and after Sara’s lifetime will become owned by a
charitable trust that secures our continued independence.

Los Angeles | London | Washington DC | New Delhi | Singapore | Boston


Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. In the 15 years since the first edition of this book was published, the public
has become increasingly captivated by the idea of leadership. People con-
tinue to ask themselves and others what makes good leaders. As individuals,
they seek more information on how to become effective leaders. As a result,
bookstore shelves are filled with popular books about leaders and advice on
how to be a leader. Many people believe that leadership is a way to improve
their personal, social, and professional lives. Corporations seek those with
leadership ability because they believe they bring special assets to their
organizations and, ultimately, improve the bottom line. Academic institu-
tions throughout the country have responded by providing programs in
leadership studies.

In addition, leadership has gained the attention of researchers worldwide. A
review of the scholarly studies on leadership shows that there is a wide variety
of different theoretical approaches to explain the complexities of the leader-
ship process (e.g., Bass, 1990; Bryman, 1992; Bryman, Collinson, Grint, Jack-
son, & Uhl-Bien, 2011; Day & Antonakis, 2012; Gardner, 1990; Hickman,
2009; Mumford, 2006; Rost, 1991). Some researchers conceptualize leader-
ship as a trait or as a behavior, whereas others view leadership from an infor-
mation-processing perspective or relational standpoint. Leadership has been
studied using both qualitative and quantitative methods in many contexts,
including small groups, therapeutic groups, and large organizations. Collec-
tively, the research findings on leadership from all of these areas provide a
picture of a process that is far more sophisticated and complex than the often-
simplistic view presented in some of the popular books on leadership.

This book treats leadership as a complex process having multiple dimensions.
Based on the research literature, this text provides an in-depth description

Leadership Defined Role of Leadership

2 LeaDeRship TheoRy anD pRacTice

and application of many different approaches to leadership. Our emphasis is
on how theory can inform the practice of leadership. In this book, we describe
each theory and then explain how the theory can be used in real situations.

LeadershIp defIned _____________________________

There are many ways to finish the sentence “Leadership is . . .” In fact, as
Stogdill (1974, p. 7) pointed out in a review of leadership research, there are
almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who
have tried to define it. It is much like the words democracy, love, and peace.
Although each of us intuitively knows what we mean by such words, the
words can have different meanings for different people. As Box 1.1 shows,
scholars and practitioners have attempted to define leadership for more
than a century without universal consensus.

Box 1.1 The Evolution of Leadership

While many have a gut-level grasp of what leadership is, putting a
definition to the term has proved to be a challenging endeavor for
scholars and practitioners alike. More than a century has lapsed since
leadership became a topic of academic introspection, and definitions
have evolved continuously during that period. These definitions have
been influenced by many factors from world affairs and politics to the
perspectives of the discipline in which the topic is being studied. in a
seminal work, Rost (1991) analyzed materials written from 1900 to
1990, finding more than 200 different definitions for leadership. his
analysis provides a succinct history of how leadership has been
defined through the last century:


Definitions of leadership appearing in the first three decades of the
20th century emphasized control and centralization of power with a
common theme of domination. For example, at a conference on lead-
ership in 1927, leadership was defined as “the ability to impress the
will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty,
and cooperation” (Moore, 1927, p. 124).

Defining Leadership

chapter 1 introduction 3


Traits became the focus of defining leadership, with an emerging view
of leadership as influence rather than domination. Leadership was
also identified as the interaction of an individual’s specific personality
traits with those of a group; it was noted that while the attitudes and
activities of the many may be changed by the one, the many may also
influence a leader.


The group approach came into the forefront with leadership being
defined as the behavior of an individual while involved in directing
group activities (hemphill, 1949). at the same time, leadership by
persuasion was distinguished from “drivership” or leadership by coer-
cion (copeland, 1942).


Three themes dominated leadership definitions during this decade:

• continuance of group theory, which framed leadership as what
leaders do in groups;

• leadership as a relationship that develops shared goals, which
defined leadership based on behavior of the leader; and

• effectiveness, in which leadership was defined by the ability to
influence overall group effectiveness.


although a tumultuous time for world affairs, the 1960s saw harmony
amongst leadership scholars. The prevailing definition of leadership
as behavior that influences people toward shared goals was under-
scored by seeman (1960) who described leadership as “acts by persons
which influence other persons in a shared direction” (p. 53).


The group focus gave way to the organizational behavior approach,
where leadership became viewed as “initiating and maintaining groups
or organizations to accomplish group or organizational goals” (Rost,
1991, p. 59). Burns’s