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Effects of forest fires on global warming

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course Code and Name

Instructor’s Title and Name

Due Date


Effects of forest fires on global warming

Introduction

Forest fire is a common problem globally, and once the incident occurs, it can be nearly impossible to contain. Castillo et al. (2019) and Congressional Research Services (2021) suggest that more than 64100 wildfires have burned and destroyed over 6.8 million acres of natural habitat and land annually in the past decade. The Bolivia forest fires in 2010 burned approximately 3.7 million acres, and the Northwest Territories fire that happened in 2014 burned approximately 8.6 million. The Russian wildfires in 2015 burned approximately 2.7, and the British Columbia wildfire that took place in2017 burned approximately 3 million acres (Congressional Research Service, 2021). The British wildfire in 2018 further burned approximately 3.3 million acres. The Australian bushfire season in 2019 and 2020 was one of the most severe wildfires globally that burned and destroyed approximately 16 million acres.

Additionally, other wildfire cases such as the Siberia wildfire, Alberta wildfire, and Amazon rainforest wildfire in 2019 burned approximately 7.4, 2.1, and 2.2 million acres, respectively. Based on these statistics, the forest fire cases are in upward trends, which is alarming since the consequence is significantly massive. Besides destroying nature habits, forest fire also destroys buildings and farmland and sometimes leads to death. Congressional Reservice (2021) and Insurance Information Institute (2021) reveal that the California wildfire in 2018 destroyed more than 22751 buildings, and the Western US wildfire that took place in 2020 destroyed over 4000 buildings. This is just one of the few consequences that result from wild or forest fires. Congressional Reservice (2021) and Insurance Information Institute (2021) suggest that forest fire can cause pollution, disrupt transportation, and disrupt communication and water supply. Congressional Reservice (2021) and Insurance Information Institute (2021) suggest that forest fires contribute to global warming. This study focuses on examining the most recent trends of forest fire and global warming from 2018 to 2022 to evaluate whether an increase in a forest fires is directly proportional to global warming. This study will help identify the relation and better understand the relationship between forest fires and global warming.

Literature Review

Forest fires are defined as fires that spread without control or planning on vegetation, either in rural or urban areas. Forest fires are the leading cause of forest destruction in the world. In forest fires and trees and bushes, animals, houses, and natural shelters for some species are also lost. Sometimes, the soil is irreversibly damaged, and many harmful gases are emitted into the atmosphere. These gases produced by forest fires, added to others produced by the burning of fossil fuels, contribute to increasing the temperature of our planet. This article aims to determine the effects on global warming of these forest fires.

Global warming is one more phenomenon within the process of climate change that humanity faces today. Global warming is nothing more than the increase in the atmosphere’s temperature, and for that reason, more heat is retained than necessary, and the Earth overheats. This process is undoubtedly the most worrying consequence of climate change that we are facing. The consequences of this phenomenon have influenced the seasons of the year, making the hot months longer and more intense and the winters shorter. Our review is directed to analyze how forest fires are directly related to these changes and vice versa (Figueiras, S,2022).

Different studies show curious data about the relationship between global warming and forest fires. There are different opinions about whether there is a reciprocal effect between both events. According to (Schauenberg, 2020), in 2019, there were 400 thousand more forest fires worldwide than in 2018. What is worse: more than three times as many hectares were burned in the same period. But this explains that global warming increases the risk of fires in forested areas. In the last ten years, almost all the most devastating mega-fires have occurred in unusually hot climates (UN Environment, 2020).

Does this mean that the cause of forest fires is climate change? Strictly speaking, the answer is no. Climate change does not produce forest fires since these do not generate spontaneously because of a drought. Climate change affects the fact that a greater amount of combustible material year after year can easily start to burn, but it is not the trigger of the fires (Castillo et al., 2019). In this regard, much literature and experts say that humans cause 90% of forest fires. The causes are known as natural usually refer to isolated events such as lightning strikes in Andean areas affected by drought, which constitute only 1% of the origin of these fires (González, et al. 2020).

This research has analyzed various sources to determine the causes and effects of forest fires on global warming. It is important to consider all the opinions about it; Citizens must be aware of the risk and take extreme precautions. The idea is to look for alternatives to the use of fire when we are in wooded environments. The genetic diversity of plants in forest areas should be cared for and stimulated. If there is an overabundance of trees, this will cause more virulent fires because fires spread more easily.

Method

A meta-analysis method was used to synthesize different results found in some reviewed studies for this study. An advanced internet search was carried out, and keywords such as “global warming,” “climate change,” and “forest fires” were used. Supposed to maintain updated information and reduce topics, the search was limited to research articles from the last five years, from 2018 to 2022. There was no limitation when searching literature in other languages in an attempt not to limit our research. The search provided access to multiple articles related to our topic, but only three were analyzed. A meta-analysis method was used to synthesize different results found in some reviewed studies for this study. An advanced internet search was carried out, and keywords such as “global warming,” “climate change,” and “forest fires” were used. Supposed to maintain updated information and reduce topics, the search was limited to research articles from the last five years, from 2018 to 2022. There was no limitation when searching literature in other languages in an attempt not to limit our research. The search provided access to multiple articles related to our topic, but only three were analyzed; the rest were discarded.

Results

The following graph tries to represent the behavior of the temperature based on the warming of our planet over a period: incorporating the main idea investigated in each article and its relationship. to the subject studied by the researcher. You can see the increase in temperature. You can see the increase in temperature in the figure below.

Chart, line chart, histogram  Description automatically generated


Discussion

The increase in forest fires is directly proportional to global warming. This study reveals that since 1880 global warming has been on an upward trend, and toward 2020, the increase in global warming was even higher. These statistical data are directly proportional to the significantly high and frequent forest fire cases in different parts of the world around the same period. The research shows that there were more cases of forest fires in 2018, 2019, and 2020 than in previous. The result from the study also shows a significant increase in global warming effect in 2020. Both forest fires and global warming have resulted in damage and destruction, which endanger natural habits. Forest fire is a contributing factor to global warming, and when forest fire increases, it increases global warming, leading to more damages that affect the world in different ways. The forest fires also cause pollution, destroy natural habits and properties, and cause death which contributes to global warming by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The best approach to minimize the consequence of these two disasters is to prevent and minimize forest fires since taking this kind of measure will reduce the associated damage and the contribution to global warming, which also has more irreversible consequences for the people and the world. With this in mind, it is essential to conduct further studies in the future to identify how the government and the community can prevent, mitigate and effectively respond to forest fires to reduce their impact on the natural ecosystem and people.

Limitation and implication

The meta-analysis method in this study uses statistical analysis approaches to evaluate data collected from primary sources. Through this method, the researcher managed to generate a statistical estimation of the studied trends of forest fire and global warming over an extended period. This provides insightful information that shows the relationship between forest fire and global warming. Nonetheless, this study has some limitations based on using this method. For instance, if the primary data were of poor quality in this study, the result will show bias. This study’s primary data-drawn collection can also lead to publication bias (Esterhuizen and Thabane, 2016). These limitations can reduce the reliability of the result in this study. However, the research can address these limitations by properly using published and scholarly sources to collect primary data.

Conclusion

Forest fires and global warming have severe and irreversible consequences on natural habits and people. The two also are directly proportional in that an increase in forest fires contributes to an increase in global warming. Both forest fire and global warming have severe and irreversible consequences. Hence, the government in different countries and the community needs to find the best ways to prevent or mitigate them as much as possible.


References

Castillo, M., Saavedra, Jorge., Brull, J. (2019). Fire severity in mega wildfires.

Shauenberg, T. (January 9, 2020). Forest fires: climate change and deforestation increase the global risk.

Congressional Research Service (2021). Wildfire Statistics. https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/IF10244.pdf

Insurance Information Institute (2020). Facts + Statistics: Wildfires. Iii.org. https://www.iii.org/fact-statistic/facts-statistics-wildfires.

Doerr, S. H., & Santín, C. (2016). Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences371(1696), 20150345.

Esterhuizen, T. M., & Thabane, L. (2016). Con: Meta-analysis: some key limitations and potential solutions. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation31(6), 882-885.

UN Environment (January 10, 2020). Are big fires parts of a new normal? https://www.cne.go.cr/reduccion_riesgo/informacion.

González, M.E., Sapiains, R., Gómez-González, S., Garreaud, R., Miranda, A., Galleguillos, M., Jacques, M., Pauchard, A., Hoyos, J., Cordero, L. , Vásquez, F., Lara, A., Aldunce, P., Delgado, V., Arriagada, Ugarte, A.M., Sepúlveda, A., Farías, L., García, R., Rondanelli, R., J., Ponce, R., Vargas, F., Rojas, M., Boisier, J.P., C., Carrasco, Little, C., Osses, M., Zamorano, C., Díaz-Hormazábal, I., Ceballos, A. , Guerra, E., Moncada, M., Castillo, I. (2020). Forest fires in Chile: causes, impacts, and resilience. Climate and Resilience Science Center (CR)2, (ANID/FONDAP/15110009), 84 pp.

Homework

Make a power point, a slide for each section of the research that I attach, you must make and add the abstract (APA 7 edition), the abstract consists of:

1-background

2-goals

3-method

4-results

5-conclusion

6-recommendations

7-keywords

To deliver Wednesday, April 20, before 4 in the afternoon

homework

NURS 314SG – Physiologic and Pharmacologic Considerations for Health Promotion

Concept Care Map – Quiz 6

Theresa Samuels, a 72-year-old-retired African American woman, arrives to the community health center for her three-month follow-up appointment. T.S., has a medical history of diabetes, type 2, osteoporosis, secondary hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Due to the death of her only daughter from COVID-19, 4 months ago, T.S., has become the sole caregiver of her three teenage grandchildren. Troubled with unexpected finances, T.S., conveys to the nurse the immense pressure and stress she has been experiencing since the death of her daughter.

The patient had her bloodwork completed at LabCorp prior to her appointment. The nurse conducts a comprehensive assessment and notes the following objective and subjective data:


Objective data:

Blood pressure = 140/90

Heart rate = 92

Respiratory rate = 22

Pulse oximetry = 94% on room air

Present weight and height= 210 lb. (95.2 kg) / 5’5

Physical Assessment

· HEENT=Pupils equal, reactive, responsive to light and accommodation.

· Cards = Regular rate and rhythm; S1S2; Grade 1/6 systolic murmur; 2+ pitting edema bilateral lower extremities; +2 pedal pulses bilaterally; +2 radial pulse bilaterally; no carotid bruit auscultated.

· Resp = Respiratory rate 22 bpm; mild wheeze noted in bases bilaterally; all other lung fields clear to auscultation

· GI = Bowels normal; present in all 4 quadrants

· Skin = Skin is dry and intact; not rashes or skin lesion noted

· GU = Voids frequently; urine output is <30mL/hr; tea-color urine

· Neuro = Intact; oriented to person/place/time/situation (X4); motor and sensory function within normal limits

Labs

· Hemoglobin A1C = 7.5%

· Cortisol level = 35 mcg/dL

· Fasting blood glucose = 132mg/dL

· Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) = 45 mm/hr


Subjective data:

· Complains of muscle aches and pains with movement, and some tingling in the lower extremities

· She states that her vision is blurry at times

· Most of the time she is compliant with her medications but will sometimes avoid taking Hydrodiuril to keep from having to go to the bathroom so often

· Sleeping 3 – 4 hours a night

· Eats a candy bar if her blood glucose is less than 120 mg/dL


Medication Reconciliation

Crestor 40 mg Daily

Diltiazem 180 mg PO Daily

Lotensin 10 mg PO Daily

Metformin ER 500 PO Daily

Cholecalciferol 25 mcg PO Daily

Calcium 1000 mg PO Daily

Hydrodiuril 12.5 mg PO Daily

NPH 10 units BID

During the health assessment, the nurse offers T.S., the yearly influenza vaccine; but T.S., declines, stating, “The flu shot will cause me to get the flu and I just don’t have the time to be sick.”

CASE MAP GRADING RUBRIC

Student Name:


Pathophysiological process:

0 points

Below Standard

1-2 points

Partially Meets Standard

3-4 points

Meets Standard

5 points

Exceeds Standard

Explains the pathophysiological process of obesity and connects (interrelates) the disorder to:

· (Alteration in glucose regulation) Diabetes Mellitus

· (Alteration in perfusion) Hypertension, Hyperlipidemia, Atherosclerosis

· Stress Adaptation and Sleep Disorder

Vague and confusing. Does not explain the pathophysiological process of obesity and does not connect to other pathophysiological processes.

Multiple (more than 5) mistakes in terminology and shows lack of understanding of many concepts.

Somewhat organized

Few (3-5) mistakes in terminology and shows some understanding of many concepts

Thoughtfully organized

Identifies important concepts and shows an understanding of many concepts. Minimal (no more than 2) mistakes in terminology demonstrating good understanding of many concepts.

Well organized.

Connects main concepts and characteristics. No mistakes in terminology and shows complete understanding of many concepts.


Assessment Findings (Recognizing Cues):

0 points

Below Standard

1-2 points

Partially Meets Standard

3-4 points

Meets Standard

5 points

Exceeds Standard

Identifies the pertinent assessment findings to include but not limited to subjective and objective data, laboratory values, and diagnostics associated with each disease processes.

Vague and confusing. None of the pertinent assessment findings are included. Multiple mistakes in terminology.

Somewhat organized. Includes some pertinent assessment findings. Few mistakes in terminology.

Thoughtfully organized. Includes most pertinent assessment findings.

Easy to follow. Minimal mistakes in terminology.

Well organized.

Includes all pertinent assessment findings. No mistakes in terminology.


Interpreting Assessment Findings (Analyze Cues)

0 points

Below Standard

1-2 points

Partially Meets Standard

3-4 points

Meets Standard

5 points

Exceeds Standard

Explain the pertinent assessment findings above and describe how they relate to the client’s health condition.

Vague and confusing. Does not explain any of the pertinent assessment findings or describe how they relate to the client’s health condition. No understanding of connections demonstrated. Multiple mistakes in terminology and shows lack of understanding of many concepts.

Connections are somewhat clear and convey some meaning.

Explain some of the pertinent assessment findings and describe how some are related to the client’s health condition. Connections demonstrate minimal understanding. Few mistakes in terminology and shows some understanding of many concepts.

Thoughtfully organized. Explains most of the pertinent assessment findings and describes how most are related to the client’s health condition. Connections demonstrate a partial understanding. Occasional mistakes in terminology demonstrating good understanding of many concepts.

Well organized. Explains all the pertinent assessment finding and describes how all are related to the client’s health condition. No mistakes in terminology and shows comprehensive understanding of all concepts.


Health Promotion (Generate Solutions):

0 points

Below Standard

1-2 points

Partially Meets Standard

3-4 points

Meets Standard

5 points

Exceeds Standard

Develops patient teaching for each disease process, incorporates the concepts of health, wellness, and illness, and the social constructs that influences healthy outcomes.

Describe the medications (prototype) for each of the associated the disease processes, relates the potential and actual risk factors, and implements principles of safety.



Multiple mistakes in terminology and shows lack of understanding of many concepts.

Few mistakes in terminology and shows some understanding of many concepts.

Identifies important concepts but makes some incorrect connections. Occasional mistakes in terminology demonstrating good understanding of many concepts.

Identifies all important concepts and shows an understanding of the relationship among the disorders.

Format, Grammar/Spelling and References

0 points

2.5 points

5 points

Uses appropriate template as instructed by faculty. Writing should be free of errors in grammar and spelling. APA Style Reference Page included as a separate word document.

Inappropriate template used OR multiple errors in grammar/spelling OR Reference Page not in APA style/not included.

Correct template used; some errors in grammar/spelling; reference page included but with errors in APA format

Uses appropriate template as instructed by faculty. Writing is free of errors in grammar and spelling. APA Style Reference Page included as a separate word document.

TOTAL

/25 POINTS

Diagram  Description automatically generated

Please note: This is a sample with some direction that students may use a guide. Please follow the directions in the rubric closely before submitting your concept map.

homework

For whichever text you choose from the list below (just choose one), you will be expected to hand in a text analysis paper. A text analysis paper will focus upon an area of the work that you find interesting, significant, or feel merits discussion. A text analysis paper should be fairly formal and should genuinely attempt to shed light on one or more aspects of the work. You may discuss the significance of character, plot, setting, symbol…whatever catches your fancy. Overall, I am looking for interesting and original insights concerning the reading assignment.

An ideal text analysis will be from 1-2 pages in length, double spaced, typed. Your paper will explore a problem or point of interest created by a work of literature (this includes, but is not limited to, character motivation, thematic elements, symbol, irony, etc.). Your ideas and insights will be based on information from the pages in the text we have read so far (outside research is encouraged, but not at all necessary), calling upon specific examples to illustrate the idea or issue you are exploring. Your grade will be based on the quality and depth of your insights, and on the use of specific textual evidence as support. (Avoid the obvious! Take risks! Make it interesting! This is an issue that the class may be asked to discuss at a later date.)

Possible starting places for your text analysis include an author’s life, politics, the social context of the work, philosophical musings, how and why the work evokes a particular feeling in you, cultural relevance, or the components of the text such as the significance of setting, narrative voice, imagery, or symbolism. Or, perhaps you will read a critical approach to the text and use it as a springboard for your own ideas (the library database Contemporary Literary Criticism Select is often a nice starting place). Or, you may wish to explore the relationship between elements of the text (How does setting influence character?). As we move on into the later weeks of the course, you may even wish to direct your questions toward identifying patterns between texts, and asking what the significance of these patterns might be.

The Dos and Don’ts of Text Analysis Papers:

DO NOT: Only summarize plot

DO: Analyze the thematic and symbolic significance of events in the story.

DO NOT: Say you didn’t like a character

DO: Explain how a character was unlikable, and why that may or may not have been the author’s intent.

DO NOT: Generalize and provide vague

DO: Use specific examples from the text reasons behind your Text Analysis (including quotes, if significant).

DO NOT: Make superficial, obvious insights (eg: This Boy’s Life is about the struggles of growing up)

DO: Think deeply, and look closely into the work. Notice things that a casual reader would not.

DO NOT: Simply repeat ideas mentioned in class by the instructor or by other students.

DO: Build off ideas mentioned in class, adding your own thoughts and insights to the discussion.


**Remember
: Text analysis papers must be typed and submitted on time. They will be evaluated on the basis of focus, development, use of evidence, creativity, and level of insight. They will count as 10% of your final grade.

Texts to choose from:

Ancient World

1) Epic of Gilgamesh – Anonymous

2) Hymn to the Aten – Akhenaten

3) Euthyphro Dialogue – Plato

4) Any poem by Sappho

5) Antigone – Sophocles

6) Meditations – Marcus Aurelius

7) I Ching – Anonymous

8) The Golden Ass – Apuleius

9) City of God – St Augustine

Medieval World

10) Inferno – Dante Alighieri

11) Decameron – Giovanni Bocaccio (choose just one tale)

12) Canterbury Tales – Geoffrey Chaucer (choose just one tale)

13) Nibelungenlied – Anonymous

14) El Cid – Anonymous

15) Song of Roland – Anonymous

16) Njal’s Saga – Anonymous

17) Guide for the Perplexed – Maimonides

18) Ibn Battuta’s Journeys – Ibn Battuta

19) The Tale of Genji – Murasaki Shikibu

Renaissance and Early Modern World

20) The Prince – Machiavelli

21) Praise of Folly – Desiderius Erasmus

22) Utopia – Thomas More

23) Faerie Queene – Edmund Spenser

24) Titus Andronicus – Shakespeare

25) A Modest Proposal – Jonathan Swift

Modern

26) Any poem with professor approval

27) Metamorphosis – Franz Kafka

28) A Short Narrative of My Life – Samson Occom

29) Night – Eli Wiesel

30) Maus – Art Spiegelman

31) The Color Purple – Alice Walker

32) I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings – Maya Angelou

33) Notes of a Native Son – James Baldwin

34) One Today – Richard Blanco

35) Any short novel or poem from any period , with professor approval

HOMEWORK

WHAT TO DO.

ARTICLE 1

-RESULTS

-CLINICAL SIGNIFICANTS

– STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES.

ARTICLE 2:

REPEAT SAME THING AS ARTICLE 1

Homework

Module 10 Career Exploration Content Page

Everyone has heard “What do you want to be when you grow up?” And some people have a clear answer and others might have an idea, while still others say ‘I have no idea’. All answers are good! There is no wrong answer. Each person travels down the career paths at different speeds, different paths themselves, different obstacles. And it is all okay.

The purpose of this week’s module is to think about your own career path. Please don’t panic, I am not asking you to define exactly what you are going to do for the rest of your life with no wavering….but what I am inviting you to do is explore. Think. Dream. Research. All of life is a plan-meaning that plans change, so I am not saying that because you explored being a forensic accountant, that that is what you are locked into for the rest of your life. I am encouraging you to think about things that interest you, and how that feeds into your career life. I want you to also think about why you would be good in that job!! Some individuals are just starting out in their career exploration, some individuals have work experience and careers. Regardless, it is important to continue to research what is out there. If you are currently in your dream job-fantastic-continue to research it and how you can continue to enhance your skill set. If you are interested in a career shift-this is a great opportunity to see what else is out there.

The goal for this week is to take time to do some research. We are going to be using the tools that you will be using for your final project (in essence you are starting your final project research!!!) You are going to gather some information for yourself. Think of a couple things that interest you and do some research, and make sure you do research on things that you might not have ever shared with someone! For example….as I was working on my career path, I was really drawn to being a massage therapist, a truck driver, a nurse, and a professional paint and drywall specialist. I didn’t know what I wanted to do, in addition to my passion for education. So I did research and got a better picture of what each profession requires, and I am still passionate about most of them and would love to do them as a side gig some day!

Career Search Assignment

· The assignment for this week is for you to submit me 3 academic goals, through this link, and how it relates to your career path. (For example: Doing an internship in an accounting office will help you better understand the accounting world, or knowing you need a 90 on the praxis exam in order to continue to earn your certification, etc.)

Assignments

Within this module you will be evaluated on:

· Your course participation in the Discussion Section

· A written submission to me regarding your career exploration process

/// You can pick any Career, but I prefer anything in Technology///

Homework

PROGRAM EVALUATION

2

GRADE 22/25

1)  Test whether there is an association between a person’s gender and the prestige of their occupation.  Use the GSS2018 data set to perform an independent samples t-test on SEX and PRESTIG10 depending on the dataset.  Report the following:

Mean prestige score for men                                                          =44.70

Mean prestige score for women                                                      = 44.67

t-test equality of means significance level                                     = 0.058 .954

Is the relationship statistically significant                                         No

Sig. = 0.298

An independent samples t-test on SEX and PRESTIG10 is being statistically tested from the GSS2018 data set. In this case, it is clear that gender is not associated with occupational prestige. The p-value from the data analysis gives a value of 0.298 which is greater than the significance limits of 0.05. We can therefore reject the null hypothesis that gender is related to occupational prestige. The difference between the two means is not statistically significant. The data used provides a strong evidence to make a conclusion that the two means are equal. This shows that occupational prestige does not change with gender.

Group Statistics

Respondents sex

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

R’s occupational prestige score (2010)

MALE

1022

44.70

13.529

.423

FEMALE

1226

44.67

13.746

.393

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower Upper

R’s occupational prestige score (2010) Equal variances assumed 1.082 .298 .058 2246 .954 .033 .578 -1.100 1.167

Equal variances not assumed .058 2185.428 .954 .033 .577 -1.099 1.165

2) You will report the information listed below for the GSS 2018 data set: Perform an independent samples t-test to compare the mean socioeconomic index (SEI10) of those who have had a born-again experience with those who have not (REBORN).   

Mean SEI of those non-born again                                                 =48.766

Mean SEI of those born again                                                         =44.654

t-test equality of means significance level                                     =-4.196 .000

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                 

An independent samples t-test to compare the mean socioeconomic index (SEI10) of those who have had a born-again experience with those who have not (REBORN) is being statistically tested using the GSS 2018 data set. The data analysis gives a p-value of 0.000 which is less than the significance level of 0.05. We therefore accept the null hypothesis that religious experience of being born again is associated with socioeconomic status. This is so because the two means are statistically significant. The sample can be used to provide evidence that the two population means are not equal. I was expecting to find statistically equal means because I did not think religion can influence socioeconomic status. The results show that that the religious experience of being born again is associated with socioeconomic status. Step 1 is to determine if the assumption of equal variances is met. The results from the test will tell us which statistical test to use to examine the difference between the groups. The Levene test is significant at .001 so we assume the variable variances are not equal. Step 2: Based on the Levene test, use the statistical significance test for Equal variances not assumed which is .000.

Group Statistics

Has R ever had a ‘born again’ experience

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

R’s socioeconomic index (2010)

YES

927

44.654

22.1767

.7284

NO

1282

48.766

23.4687

.6555

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower Upper

R’s socioeconomic index (2010) Equal variances assumed 11.679 .001 -4.158 2207 .000 -4.1119 .9888 -6.0510 -2.1728

Equal variances not assumed -4.196 2057.604 .000 -4.1119 .9799 -6.0336 -2.1903

3) Perform a paired t-test to compare the respondent’s mother’s occupational prestige score (MAPRES10) to the respondent’s father’s occupational prestige score (PAPRES10) using the GSS2018 data set.

Respondent’s mother’s occupational prestige score?             =42.57

Respondent’s father’s occupational prestige score?               =44.40

Significance for the Paired Samples Test?                                = –4.008 .000

Is the relationship statistically significant                                                      Yes                 

Is prestige related to generation?  What were you expecting to find, and did you find it?

A paired t-test to compare the respondent’s mother’s occupational prestige score (MAPRES10) to the respondent’s father’s occupational prestige score (PAPRES10) using the GSS2018 data set. A paired t-test is used to determine whether the mean of a dependent variable is the same in two related groups measured at two different times. A significance level of 0.05 works well and it indicates that a risk of 5% in concluding that a difference exists when there is no actual difference. The level of significance in this test is

Sig. 0.000065. The decision in this case is rejecting the null hypothesis. The means are statistically significant. A conclusion can be made that prestige is related to generation. I did not expect to find a difference between the sample variables means with respect to occupational prestige score.

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

Mothers occupational prestige score (2010)

42.57

1226

13.073

.373

Father’s occupational prestige score (2010)

44.40

1226

12.911

.369

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Mothers occupational prestige score (2010) & Father’s occupational prestige score (2010)

1226

.236

.000

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

Mothers occupational prestige score (2010) – Father’s occupational prestige score (2010)

-1.838

16.063

.459

-2.739

-.938

-4.008

1225

.000

USE STATES10 DATA FOR THE NEXT SET OF QUESTIONS

4. Perform a paired t-test to compare the median earnings of male full-time workers (EMS168) to the median earnings of female full-time workers (EMS169) using the STATES10 data set.

Mean earnings of men?                                     =45124.824

Mean earnings of women?                                =34407.157

Significance for the Paired Samples Test?             =33.559 .000

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                 
  A paired t-test to compare the median earnings of male full-time workers (EMS168) to the median earnings of female full-time workers (EMS169) using the STATES10 data set. The p-value in this case is 0.0000 which is lower that the significant p-value of 0.05. There is a significant difference between the two means. This shows that earnings are related to gender. The median earnings of male full-time workers are way higher than the median earnings of female full-time workers. I expected to find a difference between the means of male and female full-time workers because of the gender discrimination which has persisted from the history of the United States (Callaway & Sant’Anna, 2021).

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

Median Earnings of Male Full-Time Workers: 2008

45124.824

51

5352.2714

749.4679

Median Earnings of Female Full-Time Workers: 2008

34407.157

51

4941.3078

691.9215

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Median Earnings of Male Full-Time Workers: 2008 & Median Earnings of Female Full-Time Workers: 2008

51

.905

.000

5. Using a variable called WAGEGAP that is the difference between median earnings of male full-time workers (EMS168) and the median earnings of female full-time workers (EMS169), 

Create a histogram of WAGEGAP’s distribution

Describe the shape of the distribution.

In which state do women have earnings closest to men’s?     California Arizona

In which state do women’s women have earnings most disparate from men’s? Arizona WY

What might account for the variation in wage gaps observed across states?  

A histogram of WAGEGAP’s distribution is used to show the difference between median earnings of male full-time workers (EMS168) and the median earnings of female full-time workers (EMS169), using the STATES10 data set. There are many factors which contribute to the witnessed wage gap in the United States. This include discriminatory practices, time away from employment, occupational clustering, and time demands of various jobs (Callaway, B., & Sant ’Anna, 2021). This issue makes it difficult for women to be flexible in employments making men have higher wages.

6.  From the States10 dataset preform a paired sample t-test and report the results using Overdose Deaths 1999 and 2005 (Pair 1) and Overdose Deaths 2005 and 2017 (Pair 2).

Pair 1

Mean = 5.6780                                  

Mean = 10.3120                               

Significance for the Paired Samples Test?             =0.0000

Is the relationship statistically significant              Yes                 

Pair 2

Mean =10.3120                                

Mean =22.6440                                 

Significance for the Paired Samples Test  =0.00

Is the relationship statistically significant              Yes                 

What do the t-test results suggest about deaths by overdose over the two-decade period?

A paired sample t-test for Overdose Deaths 1999 and 2005 (Pair 1) and Overdose Deaths 2005 and 2017 (Pair 2) is tested using the STATES10 data set. Considering (pair1) overdose deaths in 1999 and 2005 means are statistically significant. The number of deaths in 2005 is higher than the number of deaths in 1999. The second part significance level is 0.000 which is way less than p-value 0.05. This shows the data sets are statistically significant. The number of deaths is higher in 2017 than witnessed in 2005. Over the two-decade period the number of overdose deaths has been increasing.

Considering the reports given by CDC’s injury center concerning deaths and nonfatal overdoses is divided in four categories; Natural opioids, methadone, synthetic opioids, and heroin. The trends of deaths are higher for overdose done on opioids with the numbers in 2019 being 50,000 deaths which is six times higher than the number recorded in the year 1999 (Hedegaard & Spencer, 2019). The increase in the number of deaths is associated with increase is drug submissions.

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 1999

5.6780

50

2.87049

.40595

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005

10.3120

50

3.85855

.54568

Pair 2

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005

10.3120

50

3.85855

.54568

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2017

22.6440

50

10.73155

1.51767

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 1999 & Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005

50

.718

.000

Pair 2

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005 & Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2017

50

.390

.005

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 1999 – Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005

-4.63400

2.68842

.38020

-5.39804

-3.86996

-12.188

49

.000

Pair 2

Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2005 – Death Rate per 100,000 by Drug Overdose: 2017

-12.33200

9.88579

1.39806

-15.14151

-9.52249

-8.821

49

.000

.

homework

Mupi 2

Akombi Mupi

Professor Anthony Rahhal

ENGL 1213

26 April 2022

Should Schools Have Armed Guards?

Brooks, Melanie C., and Ekkarin Sungtong. “Leading in Conflict Zones: Principal Perceptions of Armed Military Guards in Southern Thai Schools.” Planning & Changing 45 (2014).

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Melanie-Brooks-8/publication/283338263_Leading_in_conflict_zones_Principal_perceptions_of_armed_military_guards_in_southern_Thai_schools/links/5634678c08aebc003ffdea79/Leading-in-conflict-zones-Principal-perceptions-of-armed-military-guards-in-southern-Thai-schools.pdf

.

Brooks is an analyst

To learn about the issues and problems that Thai school principals face due to the presence of armed military guards and how this helps or hinders their school administration. This information comes from more extensive ongoing research on the subject, and the findings indicate that tactical surveillance of schools significantly complicates central school administration.

The review contributes to the broader discussion of how school administration is sanctioned in various contexts and provides new insights into tactical school security in conflict-affected areas. They discover that armed guards in and around schools do not address the fundamental issues that motivate extremists to attack educational institutions.

The commissioners did not influence the Ministry of Defence’s strategy or military training. Their task was to find a workable compromise between the Ministry of Defence’s requirements, local authorities’ assumptions, and military action against an erratic, shadow insurgency. Thai school administrators have minimal control. They are powerless to influence their students’ education. They have no one to turn to for creative management to make tutoring more viable at the community scale.

Furthermore, they are facing increased competition from new private Islamic schools. After all, the pioneers are supposed to be tasked with providing creative credentials and working on learning outcomes. Given the brutality, whether and how they can do so is a question that needs to be investigated further. Thai teenagers’ education will be disrupted until bullies stop attacking education, and school leaders will continue to live and work in danger

Schildkraut, Jaclyn, and M. Hunter Martaindale. “Should firearms be allowed in K-12 public schools? An analysis of law enforcement’s perceptions of armed teacher policies.” Security Journal (2022): 1-20.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41284-022-00327-4

Schildkraut is psychologist.

Summary: School shootings have sparked widespread public concern and interest in ‘doing something about it.’ Among the most dubious responses have been strategies to allow teachers and staff to conceal guns in schools, which were promoted after the 2018 to 2019 Parkland, Florida, shooting. Surveys consistently show that the general public and teachers, students, and administrators oppose such decisions, but they fail to account for differences in police practice.

Using police officers as an example, this study discovers that public employees generally support an equipment-based approach to education.

The assistance is contingent on concerns about education. School activists are less likely to assist teachers with equipment than workers in other professions (e.g., police officers), as are those in administrative positions.


Amador III, Julio S., Deryk Matthew Baladjay, and Sheena Valenzuela. “Modernizing or equalizing? Defense budget and military modernization in the Philippines, 2010–2020.” Defence Studies (2022): 1-28.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14702436.2022.2030713

Amador is an analyst.

Act No. 10,349, also known as the Revised Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Modernization Program, revitalizes the AFP’s core modernization efforts. It replaces Act No. 7898 and refocuses the Philippine government’s needs and financial commitments to ensure military modernization for the next twenty-one years.

The concept of twenty-five years of modernization has gained traction, but it has yet to be put into practice, undoubtedly creating many challenges for the armed guard itself. Despite warnings about external security threats, the evaluation found little evidence of domestic threats being prioritized in security spending.

The study also discovered that the modernization grants authorized by Executive Order 10,349 are not being used to “modernize” the armed forces in every way possible. The review recommends that this issue be addressed before any further efforts to modernize the armed forces.

Firmansyah, Asep Fajar, et al. “Information security awareness of students on academic information system using kruger approach.” 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). IEEE, 2020.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9268795

Firmansyah is an analyst with extensive years of experience in security-related matters.

With the rapid development of innovation, it is critical to pay attention to data security. It enables the customer to concentrate on the instructions, comprehend the likelihood, recognize the obligations, and behave consistently. The unintended consequence of innovation contributes to online breaches. As a result, precautions must be taken to prevent online crime.

The Academic Information System (AIS), which involves students and lecturers in teaching, is one of the most defenseless and critical systems in higher education that requires security. As one of the universities using AIS, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah (UIN Syahid) anticipates activities to improve data security in the educational data system.

There is a need to quantify security awareness among AIS customers. We employ Kruger’s approach based on the brain science hypothesis and consists of three similar dimensions. These three dimensions are privacy, equity, and accessibility. According to the findings, most AIS clients at UIN Syahid have an average security awareness level of 75%, and this level of concentration is only required for students.

homework

Ngum 2

Mirabel Ngum

Professor Rahhal

ENGL1213

26 April 2022

Which is Better: Traditional or Online Education?

Hurlbut, Amanda R. “Online vs. traditional learning in teacher education: a comparison of student progress.” American Journal of Distance Education 32.4 (2018): 248-266.


https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08923647.2018.1509265

Hurlbut is an assistant professor and author with a Ph. D in Curriculum and Instruction.

Online learning programs, including graduate programs and today’s educators, are deeply rooted in advanced education. There is a significant lack of experience in online projects for students in comparable programs. The article aims to demonstrate student success in an eye-eye course or traditional development.

The improvement course compares student success in a web segment taught by a comparable instructor and discovers what factors contribute to success in not fully established student assessments and responses, information techniques have seen, and investment in intuitive web content. Students who took the regular course received higher grades and assignment scores than those who took the accelerated online course.

The book is essential in research because it contains different approaches that positively impacted the overall outcome, but instructor criticism was common in both schemes. Students who participated in the online section stated that they didn’t mind learning in a virtual environment or attended a Blackboard Collaborate meeting with their tutor performed better in the course.

Alsaaty, Falih M., et al. “Traditional versus online learning in institutions of higher education: Minority business students’ perceptions.” Business and Management Research 5.2 (2016): 31-41.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David-Abrahams-2/publication/303404556_Traditional_Versus_Online_Learning_in_Institutions_of_Higher_Education_Minority_Business_Students’_Perceptions/links/579a4a7d08ae024e100e4225/Traditional-Versus-Online-Learning-in-Institutions-of-Higher-Education-Minority-Business-Students-Perceptions.pdf

.

Alsaaty is a professor and an author with a Ph. D in Business Administration.

There is a need for the best education program to accommodate all students; it can be online or traditional education. Some people find online courses appealing, while others believe they are less appealing than traditional courses with face-to-face interaction.

In other argue that the most desirable and valuable strategy for presenting material to students is a blended mode (e.g., online combined with face-to-face instruction). Nonetheless, students’ perspectives on online promotion, as opposed to traditional face-to-face education, are frequently ignored. This article addresses this shortcoming by examining minority students’ attitudes toward online learning in higher education instead of traditional face-to-face learning methods.

Organizations worldwide have argued whether online courses are less grounded than face-to-face and residential courses. Furthermore, even if they found the material challenging to understand, respondents in this study were evenly divided because web-based systems are more understandable than traditional face-to-face and in-person classes.

This study also discovered that men and women rated online courses differently than regular in-person or in-country courses. Regardless, more research is needed to fully comprehend why these differences exist and whether they are related to course configuration, satisfaction, staff commitment, or other variables.


Maghool, Sayyed Amir Hossain, Seyed Hossein Iradj Moeini, and Yasaman Arefazar. “An educational application based on virtual reality technology for learning architectural details: challenges and benefits.” ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research 12.3 (2018): 246.

https://www.proquest.com/openview/16a1e7af4e31fc72d106915cd9ce4a02/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=276235

Maghool is an educationist with extensive experience in curriculum development:

Learning design is multilayered and fraught with pitfalls. Learning hypotheses such as the problem-based, flipped learning, learning styles, and experiential learning hypotheses are analysts’ responses to these difficulties.

Many of these hypotheses necessitate the use of appropriate tools to design the learning process. Furthermore, the potential outcomes of virtual reality technology, combined with the challenging characteristics of the project-based learning method, have drawn the attention of engineering professionals to this innovation.

Because of its experimental nature, V.R. innovation has the potential to benefit design student education. Although research on the use of virtual reality to design instruction is not new, it has rarely focused on emerging theories about composition learning.

Amin, Hebat Allah, et al. “Designing Pathology Curriculum Through Guided Enquiry/Mixed Modalities Case-Based Learning at Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University.” ScienceOpen Preprints (2020).



https://www.scienceopen.com/hosted-document?doi=10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPZFS5T.v1

Amin is a psychologist with several years of experience in education-related curriculum development.

Implementing case-based learning (CBL)in the integrated Modular Curriculum has proved an excellent efficiency in teaching medical students. We aim to develop and validate a customized model of CBLto integrate disciplines while meeting the requirements of our national academic reference standards. Phase I medical students'” reflection is presented.

the cross-sectional review presents our experience teaching CBL in a hybrid mixed model in pathology course. Intake questionnaires were used to collect data, and CBL in the pathology course was compared to other methods (tutorial interviews, student induction, PBL, and proficiency labs) in the included modules.

. It helped conclude that student self-efficacy was highest for all module demonstration strategies and other forms of teaching. According to most students, the modified CBL model is an excellent tool for integrated modular learning programs. Surprisingly, its outcomes outperformed lectures and other intelligent tutoring methods.

Turban, Efraim, Ephraim McLean, and James Wetherbe. Information technology for management making connections for strategic advantage. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.

Ephraim McLean is an American organizational theorist and Professor of Information Systems at the J. Mack Robinson College of Business, and James Wetherbe is a distinguished Professor at Texas Tech University’s Rawls College of Business. These professors offer an overview of traditional education from a cultural perspective.

Traditional education encourages students to know their traditions, cultures, and ways of living in a society with other people. It encourages the need to develop skills, know the ancestral language, and master taboos and what are allowed in their community and tribe at large. With traditional education, students can maintain moral values, norms, and characters since, at the time, technology comes with different challenges that expose young people to pornography and gambling. Traditional education assists students in not only learning what they require to fulfill their future careers but also in knowing and understanding the roles they will play in society as women and men. It gives them a chance to develop while knowing what is right and wrong with what they are doing. For young children of the same community, it is highly advisable they take part in traditional education as it builds them and they are equipped on how to live with others and what the community expects from them. One criticism is that traditional education is limited as it cannot expose the students to the world of technology which is going to be the new normal in the next ten years or so. However, this excellent work is a great source because it provides the cultural background for the research.

Homework

613Received: June. 7th 2014; Accepted: Sept. 1st 2014. Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.

DOI: 10.15253/2175-6783.2014000400008
www.revistarene.ufc.br

Original Article

Characterization of care for patients with wounds in Primary Care

Caracterização do atendimento de pacientes com feridas na Atenção Primária

Caracterización de la atención a pacientes con heridas en la Atención Primaria

Isabel Cristina Ramos Vieira Santos1, Marcos Antonio de Oliveira Souza1, Luciana Naiara Vieira de Andrade1,
Mariana Pereira Lopes1, Mônica Fidelis Ataide de Barros e Silva1, Rosimery Tavares Santiago1

This study aimed to describe the treatment of patients with wounds in the Primary Health Care. A descriptive research with
quantitative approach. Ninety-three Family Health Units of the city of Recife-PE, Brazil, were selected, and 112 nurses were
interviewed from July to December 2011. The record book of bandages and procedures and the dressing form were used
as an additional source of data. Frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion, prevalence and, for continuous
variables, the analysis of variance were estimated. The prevalence of patients with wounds was 1.9% of the estimated
covered population. Vascular ulcers accounted for 74.1% of the treated wounds. The dressing was predominantly performed
by Nursing technicians, and the products available for this procedure did not match the current technological development.
Descriptors: Wound Healing; Primary Health Care; Nursing Care.

Objetivou-se caracterizar o atendimento de portadores de feridas na Atenção Primária. Pesquisa de caráter descritivo e
abordagem quantitativa. Foram selecionadas 93 unidades de Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, Brasil, sendo
entrevistados 112 enfermeiros, entre julho e dezembro de 2011. Como fontes adicionais de dados, foram utilizados o livro
de registro de curativos e procedimentos, e o formulário de penso. Estimaram-se frequências, medidas de tendência central
e dispersão, prevalência e, para as variáveis contínuas, foi realizada análise de variância. A prevalência dos portadores de
feridas foi de 1,9% sobre a população coberta estimada. As úlceras vasculares corresponderam a 74,1% das feridas tratadas.
O curativo foi predominantemente realizado pelo técnico de Enfermagem, e os produtos disponíveis para tal procedimento
não corresponderam ao desenvolvimento tecnológico atual.
Descritores: Cicatrização; Atenção Primária à Saúde; Cuidados de Enfermagem.

El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la atención a portadores de heridas en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Investigación
descriptiva con enfoque cuantitativo. Se seleccionaron 93 unidades de Salud de la Familia de Recife, PE, Brasil, y 112
enfermeros fueron entrevistados, entre julio y diciembre de 2011. Como fuentes adicionales de datos, se utilizaron el libro
de registro de vendajes y apósito, y formulario de búsqueda. Se estimaron frecuencias, medidas de tendencia central y
dispersión, prevalencia y, para las variables continuas, fue realizado análisis de variancia. La prevalencia de portadores de
heridas fue de 1,9% de la población cubierta estimada. Las úlceras vasculares representaron 74,1% de las heridas tratadas.
El vendaje se realizaba predominantemente por el técnico de Enfermería, y los productos disponibles para apósito no
correspondían al desarrollo tecnológico actual.
Descriptores: Cicatrización de Heridas; Atención Primaria de Salud; Atención de Enfermería.

1Universidade de Pernambuco. Recife, PE, Brazil.

Corresponding author: Isabel Cristina Ramos Vieira Santos
Rua Teles Junior, 475, apto. 201. Rosarinho, CEP: 52050-040. Recife, PE. Brazil. E-mail: tutornad@yahoo.com.br

Santos ICRV, Souza MAO, Andrade LNV, Lopes MP, Barros e Silva MFA, Santiago RT

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.614

Introduction

Skin lesions trigger a series of biochemical
events aimed at restoring the vascular and cellular
integrity. During the healing process, the tissue
becomes vulnerable to several factors that can stop
this process. The failure of any phase in the repair
process can impede healing and lead to significant
morbidity, thus resulting in costs(1).

Among other factors, the cost of treating
wounds relates to the way they evolve. Acute wounds
correspond to traumatic or surgical wounds that
evolve in the healing process in predictable time and
manner, from the moment of injury until closing(2).
These wounds compete for most skin lesions – keeping
in mind that there are more than 110 million surgical
incisions per year worldwide. Traumatic wounds
occur at a rate of 1.6 million cases per year(3).

Moreover, there are also burns in this
classification. These wounds, when do not require
hospitalization, are treated at home, health units, or
outpatient clinics. For this reason, a large number of
these cases never enters the statistics of the health
system. It is estimated that about 3.4 million patients
belong to this category(2).

Chronic wounds are complex, caused by
intrinsic or extrinsic factors, they do not progress
according to the usual stages of healing and usually
take a long time for repair, requiring more care(2).

Pressure ulcers, for example, present an
incidence of approximately 8.5 million cases
worldwide. Other ulcers are caused by circulatory
problems. There are about 12.5 million venous ulcers
and 13.5 million diabetic ulcers requiring treatment(4).

The incidence of chronic wounds has increased
due to population ageing. With more cases of diabetes,
the treatment of neuropathic ulcers tends to rise
proportionally. Besides considering the underlying
disease responsible for most of these wounds, the
number of bedridden and elderly patients (over 65
years) has increased gradually, creating a population
at higher risk of developing pressure ulcers and other

injuries that affect public spending, besides interfering
with the quality of life(2,4). The cost of treating chronic
venous insufficiency ulcers is about US$1 billion per
year in the United States(2).

In Brazil, wounds represent a serious public
health problem given the large number of patients
with changes in skin integrity, despite the few records
of these attendances.

Many of these patients seek Primary Care
as a gateway or receive monitoring in it after high
complexity care, which gives greater responsibility to
this level of attention in the care for patients with skin
lesions.

Although Primary Care has advanced greatly, in
recent years, in ensuring citizen access to health care
actions, it still lacks systematic information on the
characterization of the population assisted, as well as
resources available for assistance.

Since the Nursing professional is directly
involved in wound care, there is need for a broad
overview of the scenario in which they act, in addition
to knowledge about the means used in the attempt of
changing the situation. Nurses have mastery of this
technique and, since they have more contact with
the patient, they must be able to monitor the lesion
evolution, guide the necessary care, and perform
bandaging.

The impact the occurrence of wounds of several
etiologies have on Primary Care and the lack of studies,
especially regarding the characteristics of the clients
and issues relating to the structure and operation of
networks of this level of care, motivated this work,
which aimed to characterize the care of patients with
wounds in Primary Care from a Brazilian capital.

Method

Descriptive study of quantitative approach
conducted in the Family Health Units of the city of
Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, from February to August
2013. In this period, the city had 1,536,934 inhabitants
and, as regards the public health, 106 units distributed

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.

Characterization of care for patients with wounds in Primary Care

615

in six territorial politico-administrative regions called
Health Districts.

The sample size calculation for prevalence
survey occurred based on the number of units (106),
with confidence limit of 5% and a confidence interval
of 95%, thus resulting in a sample of 84 units. Adding
10% for potential loss of information, the final sample
consisted of 93 units. The study sample comprised
112 nurses of 128 Family Health Teams (87.5%).
Those professionals who were on vacation, maternity
or sick leave during the research were excluded.

For data collection, a structured interview
with the nurses of the respective Family Health
Teams took place through a questionnaire containing
questions related to: patients with wounds treated
and number of bandaging in the previous year; most
common wounds; place of assistance and professional
responsible for attendance; and products available for
their realization.

The record book of bandages and procedures
and the dressing form from the Family Health Unit
were used as additional sources of data.

The descriptive statistical analyzes happened
through the Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences, version 14.0. Frequencies, measures of
central tendency (mean and median) and dispersion
(standard deviation), and prevalence were estimated;
for continuous variables, analysis of variance occurred
(to compare different means of districts as regards
the variables of patients with wounds attended and
bandaging performed per year). The significance level
was set at p<0.05.

This was one of the articles that composed
the project Structure of care provided to patients
with wounds in Primary Care in Recife, approved
by the Human Research Ethics Committees of
the Universidade de Pernambuco (Certificate of
Appreciation Presentation to Ethics: 0017.0.097000-
11). Each subject was duly informed, agreed to
participate and signed the Free and Informed of
Consent Form.

Results

Table 1 presents the results regarding the
number of patients with wounds treated and bandaging
performed in the previous year in the Family Health
Units of the six Health Districts of Recife. The mean
of attendances was 2,699.17 (median of 2,256.00),
with an average of 6,145.17 bandaging in the same
period (median of 6,494.50). It was observed a higher
frequency among patients with wounds treated in
the Third and Fourth districts. As for the number of
bandaging, the Sixth district presented the highest
frequency of procedures performed, followed by the
Second district. In the analysis of mean differences,
there was a statistically significant difference for
the variable patients with wounds treated per year
(p<0.05).

Table 1 – Characterization of care according to
patients with wounds and bandaging performed

Health
district

Patients with wounds
treated per yar

Bandaging performed
per year

n =
16.195

X±SD
n =

36.871
X±SD

1st 620 88.6±45.4 2.349 234.9±55.9

2nd 1.443 120.2±69.6 8.190 390.0±266.3

3rd 3.418 244.0±234.0 7.409 463.0±255.4

4th 1.752 146.0±138.8 3.892 324.3±205.6

5th 2.760 184.0±144.5 5.580 372.0±333.5

6th 6.202 214.2±210.5 9.451 275.0±213.3

Analysis of variance 1.20 1.06

P-value 0.05 0.38

Table 2 presents the results related to the
characterization of care according to the most common
injuries reported by nurses of the Family Health Units
of Recife. It was observed that the most commonly
treated type of injury corresponded to vascular
ulcers, accounting for 74.1% of wounds treated, while
traumas represented 24.1%. The highest rate was
reported by the Sixth district for both types of lesion.

Santos ICRV, Souza MAO, Andrade LNV, Lopes MP, Barros e Silva MFA, Santiago RT

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.616

Table 2 – Characterization of care according to most
frequent wounds

Health
district

Most frequent wounds

Vascular
ulcers (%)

Pressure
ulcers (%)

Traumatic wounds
(%)

1st 10 (12.0) – –
2nd 20 (24.1) – 3 (11.1)
3rd 12 (14.5) – 5 (18.5)
4th 8 (09.6) – 4 (14.8)
5th 9 (10.8) 2 (100.0) 5 (18.5)
6th 24 (29.0) – 10 (37.1)

Total 83 (100.0) 2 (100.0) 27 (100.0)

The characterization of assistance with regard
to the place and the professional performing the
bandaging showed that the procedure took place
predominantly within the Family Health Units (92.9%)
by nursing technicians (99%).

Table 3 shows the products available in the
Family Health Units to perform bandaging, the amount
received per month, and mean and median for Health
Districts. It was verified that the biggest quantitative
material corresponded to Neomycin sulphate (5,090
units).

Table 3 – Products available in the Family Health Units
to perform bandaging

Product n Mean Median

Physiological saline (boxes with
12 units of 500ml each)

921 92.1 88.0

Topical povidone-iodine 10%
(units of 1L)

143 28.6 20.0

Degerming povidone-iodine
(units of 1L)

115 23.0 15.0

Essential fatty acids (units of
200mL)

178 25.4 21.0

Collagenase (units of 30g) 1.691 112.7 45.0
Neomycin sulfate (units of 20g) 5.090 509.0 450.5
Silver sulfadiazine (pots of 400g) 134 44.7 25.0
Plaster (units of 10cmx4,5m) 598 54.4 63.0
Gauze (packs with 500 units) 1.743 68.6 33.5
Surgical pad (packs with 50 units
of 23x25cm)

36 12.0 16.0

Crepe bandage (packs with 12
units)

1.190 655.4 405.0

Examination gloves (boxes with
100 units)

867 74.7 52.0

Sterile gloves (pairs) 2.616 327.0 325.0

Discussion

The results revealed substantial frequencies
of patients with wounds treated in the Family Health
Units of Recife and consequently a large number of
bandaging performed , which can be contrasted when
considering the city population and the population
covered by the Family Health Strategy, estimated
at 1,536,934 inhabitants and 842,649 people(5-6),
respectively. Thus, all patients with wounds treated
in Family Health Units found in this study correspond
to a prevalence of 1.05% of the general population
of Recife and represented 1.9% of the estimated
population covered.

These data highlight the situation of patients
with wounds as a public health problem and, for that
matter, we do not have any record of other study in
Brazil that presented parameters for comparison.

There was a higher frequency of these patients
in the Sixth Health District, which corresponds to the
population of eight neighborhoods of the southern
region of the city and that present conditions of
extremely disparate human development, either
among themselves or in the own neighborhood(7).

The most treated lesions followed the
epidemiological picture of the region and country(8-9),
represented mainly by chronic wounds (vascular
ulcers), which are related to the aging process
experienced by the population and that require
especial assistance, given the secondary character of
an underlying disease as well as its repercussions.

Chronic wounds have an important
socioeconomic impact due to their frequency and
social costs, particularly for the elderly. Studies
indicate that approximately 100,000 patients have
this problem at least once in a lifetime in the UK and
four times that number in the United States(10-11).

The prevalence of lower extremity ulcers in
the population of Spain is 0.16%; however, there are
differences in the stages of life, and rates from 0.2 to
2.5% were observed in 41-60 year old people, and
from 2.1 to 10% in people aged 80 years(12).

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.

Characterization of care for patients with wounds in Primary Care

617

The chronicity and recurrence of these wounds
constitute the main epidemiological aspects. 40 to
50% of lower extremity ulcers remain open and active
for over 6 months. A similar percentage exceeds 12
months of evolution and about 10% remains unhealed
over five-year intervals. One third of initially healed
ulcers relapsed within 12 months after healing(12).

More than 7 million Americans suffer from
chronic forms of venous insufficiency, corresponding
to 70-90% of lower extremity wounds treated in the
health system(11). Although our study was limited
by the lack of discrimination of vascular lesions in
arterial and venous, the values found for vascular
ulcers, which include the venous type (74.1%), are
consistent with the literature(12-14).

A systematic review study showed that, in
health care practices, patients with venous ulcer are
often treated for dressing changes with successive
changes of topical treatment. The patient may
experience this situation that requires frequent and
exhausting care for several years without, however,
achieving ulcer healing(15).

Diabetes mellitus, other chronic disease,
presents increasing statistics, despite the efforts of the
public sector, and competes for assistance in Primary
Care(16), often due to diabetic foot ulcers.

With regard to the specific prevalence of
diabetic foot, studies in Brazil are scarce and punctual.
Study conducted in Recife, with large sample of
diabetic patients showed a prevalence of 9% of
patients with diabetic foot(9).

Results concerning the products available to
perform bandaging enable to identify that units have
the most basic items, but do not yet incorporate the
proven cost-effective products, which initially can
result in higher costs to public management and
higher suffering for the population assisted with
regard to prolonging healing and stabilization of the
situation, exposure to complications and pain.

The products reported by the nurses of Family
Health Units can be divided into five groups: cleaning
products, antiseptics and antibiotics, bioactive

products and debridement, dressing material, and
gloves.

Choosing the products to be used in wound
treatment should take into account the stage of the
healing process, the depth, the type of exudate, and the
presence of infection(4). We highlight the importance of
the creation and implementation of a clinical protocol
as an instrument to standardize and systematize the
curative procedures.

Usually, if a wound is clean, simple irrigation
with physiological saline is appropriate(4). The study
results showed an amount of 921 boxes with 12 units
of physiological saline of 500mL per month for the six
Health Districts, which corresponds to 11,052 units
for the six Health Districts, or 1,842 units per district
per month. If we consider that the higher frequency of
patients with wounds (6,202) was found in the Sixth
Health District, this amount seems insufficient to
meet the demand, especially when knowing that this
product has other purposes besides bandaging.

The use of antiseptics in wound care is
controversial and there is no considerable research
that reveals its effects on open wounds(4,17), however
there is concern about its toxicity. The results
presented in this study demonstrate that such
products are used in small quantities for Primary Care
in Recife in its two forms of presentation (topical and
degerming).

The use of topical antibiotics in chronic
wounds is not recommended due to development of
resistance and awareness. In recent years, bandages
(wound healing promoters) have been developed,
based on iodine and silver(17-18). Silver has proven
broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and inactivates
almost all known bacteria, including methicillin-
resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-
resistant Enterococcus. There are no reported cases of
resistance, proving its use to reduce the biofilm on the
surface or in the cavity of infected wounds(19).

In this study, it was observed a reduced use of
silver sulfadiazine in the six Health Districts of the
city of Recife (average of 44.7 pots per month). On the

Santos ICRV, Souza MAO, Andrade LNV, Lopes MP, Barros e Silva MFA, Santiago RT

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.618

other hand, there is a large use of neomycin sulfate
(average 509.0 units per month per Health Districts).
The indications for this product include: skin
ulcerative lesions (varicose, pressure, and traumatic
ulcers), burns and infected wounds; nevertheless,
studies have demonstrated its efficiency is restricted
for treating burns(20).

In the group of bioactive products and
debridement, the Family Health Units in Recife have
only essential fatty acids (average of 25.4 units per
Health District per month) and collagenase (average
112.7 units per Health District per month). In the
specialized literature produced in Brazil, there
is frequent mention of the essential fatty acids
indicated for the treatment of open wounds(21), which
promote chemotaxis and angiogenesis, and maintain
the humidity, accelerating the process of tissue
granulation. Nonetheless, relevant clinical studies are
still scarce(21).

Topical application of exogenous enzymes is
a selective method of debridement. Collagenase acts
dissolving the collagen holding the avascular tissue to
the underlying tissue in the wound bed. This product
is not active on dry necrotic tissues (eschar) and
the additional use of other topical products, such as
iodophor and silver, can decrease its therapeutic
efficacy(4).

The dressing material and gloves were found in
small quantities in the study period. Their frequency
can be considered small both in terms of number of
patients with wounds treated, and especially by having
their use split between other clinical procedures
of the units. Given the frequency of vascular ulcers
found in this study, characteristically open lesions of
varying depth and subject to infection, we highlight
the importance of these items to bandaging.

According to nurses, the nursing technicians
were responsible for the bandaging, and the Family
Health Unit was the place chosen predominantly for
performing these procedures. This finding leads us
to reflect on the responsibility and training of these
professionals, as regards the individualized and

efficient care, and thus thinking the need for ongoing
supervision by nurses, besides establishing guidelines
for action through protocols.

Conclusion

This study estimated a prevalence of patients
with wounds of 1.05% of the general population and
1.9% of the population covered by Primary Health
Care, indicating a high percentage in the population.

The high frequency of bandaging points to
issues related to the cost of treating injuries. There is
urgent need of programs directed to the effectiveness
of actions conducted in Primary Care, especially
related to vascular wounds due to its chronicity,
affecting much of the elderly population, mainly
exposed to other factors such as reduced financial
costs and that find in that level of health care the only
possibility of solving their problem.

The technological development provides new
products with proven cost effectiveness, since it
involves fewer dressing changes and, consequently,
less pain, less risk of contamination and infection by
the dressing techniques carried out, or exposure to
the environment. This reduces the burden related
to treatment; however, as verified in this study, this
practice has not yet been implemented in Family
Health Units.

The wound treatment products available,
besides requiring daily dressing changes, resulting in
higher time spent by Nursing, pain, increased risk of
infection and patient discomfort, require from Nursing
professionals to reflect on the practice performed,
consolidated on a scientific basis, so that justifies
the actions adopted in treating injuries, seeking to
optimize resources and provide quality assistance.

As verified, bandaging is a procedure
performed predominantly by nursing technicians.
Nurses must have oversight responsibility, including
the prescription of appropriate products, guidance,
monitoring, and development of educational
processes, culminating in evaluating the results.

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.

Characterization of care for patients with wounds in Primary Care

619

Collaborations

Santos ICRV and Souza MAO contributed to the
design, analysis, data interpretation and final approval
of the version to be published. Andrade LNV, Lopes MP,
Barros e Silva MFA and Santiago RT contributed to the
design, field data collection and drafting of the article.

References

1. Mendonça RJ, Coutinho-Netto J. Cellular aspects
of wound healing. An Bras Dermatol. 2009;
84(3):257-62.

2. Broderick N. Understanding chronic wound
healing. The Nurse Practitioner. 2009; 34(10):17-
22.

3. McDermott-Scales L, Cowman S, Gethin G.
Prevalence of wounds in a community care setting
in Ireland. J Wound Care. 2009; 18(10):405-17.

4. Lawall H. Treatment of chronic wounds.
Vasa. 2012; 41(6):396-409.

5. Ministério da Saúde (BR). Sistema de Informação
de Atenção Básica (SIAB). Cadastramento Familiar.
[Internet] 2010. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde;
2010 [citado 2014 Aug 18]. Disponível em:http://
tabnet.datasus.gov.br/cgi/tabcgi.exe?siab/cnv/
siabfPE.def

6. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
(IBGE). Censo 2010 – Primeiros Resultados
[Internet] 2010 [citado 2014 Aug 18]. Disponível
em: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/
populacao/censo2010/

7. Prefeitura Municipal do Recife. Programa das
Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento. Atlas do
Desenvolvimento Humano no Recife. [Internet].
2009 [citado 2010 Aug 15]. Disponível em: http://
www.recife.pe.gov.br/noticias/arquivos/5916.
pdf

8. Souza EM, Yoshida WB, Melo VA, Aragão JA,
Oliveira LAB. Ulcer due to chronic venous disease:
a sociodemographic study in Northeastern Brazil.
Ann Vasc Surg. 2013; 27(5):571-6.

9. Santos ICRV, Sobreira CMM, Nunes ENS, Morais
MCA. The prevalence and factors associated with

diabetic foot amputations. Cienc Saude Coletiva.
2013; 18(10):3007-14.

10. Herberger K, Rustenbach SJ, Haartje O, Blome
C, Franzke N, Schafer I, et al. Quality of life and
satisfaction of patients with leg ulcers–results of
a community-based study. Vasa. 2011; 40(2):131-
8.

11. Moffatt CJ, Doherty DC, Smithdale R, Franks
PJ. Clinical predictors of leg ulcer healing. Br J
Dermatol. 2010; 162(1):51-8.

12. Collins L, Seraj S. Diagnosis and treatment
of venous ulcers. Am Fam Physician. 2010;
81(8):989-96.

13. Wei C, Granick MS. Surgical management of
chronic wounds. Wounds. 2011; 20(3):35-7.

14. Brito CKD, Nottingham IC, Victor JF, Feitoza SMS,
Silva MG, Amaral HEG. Venous ulcer: clinical
assessment, guidelines and dressing care. Rev
Rene. 2013; 14(3):470-80.

15. Barbosa JAG, Campos LMN. Diretrizes para
o tratamento da úlcera venosa. Enferm Glob
[periódico na Internet]. 2010[cited 2014 Aug 18].
Available from: http://dms.ufpel.edu.br/ares/
handle/123456789/175

16. Simms KW, Ennen K. Lower extremity ulcer
management: best practice algorithm. J Clin Nurs.
2011; 20(2):86-93.

17. Sibbald RG, Leaper DJ, Queen D. Iodine made easy.
Wounds [Internet] 2011 [cited 2014 Aug 18].
Available from: http://www.woundsinternational.
com/pdf/content_9860.pdf

18. Plotner NA, Mostow EM. A review of bioactive
materials and chronic wounds. Cutis. 2010;
85(5):259-66.

19. O’Meara S, Al-Kurdi D, Ologun Y, Ovington
LG. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg
ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;
20;(1):CD00355.

20. Rossi LA, Menezez MAJ, Gonçalves N, Caroline L,
Farina-Junior JA, Stuchi RAG. Local treatment with
burn injuries. Rev Bras Queimaduras [periódico
na Internet]. 2010[cited 2014 Aug 18]; 9(2):54-9.
Available from: http://www.rbqueimaduras.com.
br/detalhe_artigo.asp?id=35.

Santos ICRV, Souza MAO, Andrade LNV, Lopes MP, Barros e Silva MFA, Santiago RT

Rev Rene. 2014 July-Aug; 15(4):613-20.620

21. Ferreira AM, Souza BMV, Rigotti MA, Loureiro
MRD. The use of fatty acids in wound care: an
integrative review of the Brazilian literature. Rev
Esc Enferm USP. 2012; 46(3):752-60.

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Homework

INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

For SPSS

Go to: Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA

Read the PSPP anova Lecture for step-by-step help.  

PART 1

Astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our success (or lack thereof) in life.  Test this assumption with the GSS2008 data by analyzing the relationship between respondent’s astrological sign (ZODIAK) with respondent’s socioeconomic index (SEI).  The SEI is an indicator of economic and socio-economic attainment: The higher the SEI score, the more successful the respondent.

Make a prediction:

Can a person’s astrological sign predict their socioeconomic success?  Yes       No 

If so, what zodiac sign is the most successful                                             ____________

Now perform the analysis using the GSS2008 data 

Mean SEI10 of Pisces                                                                                        ______________

Mean SEI10 of Taurus                                                                                      ______________

Mean SEI10 of your astrological sign                                                              ______________

ANOVA significance level                                                                              ______________

Is the relationship statistically significant?                                                Yes      No

On the basis of these data, would you say that astrologers are correct in their assertion of the power of the stars?  Remember to explain this relationship based on what the test measures.  Why?

PART 2

FOR SPSS:

Go to: Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA

To include the Turkey test, click on Post-Hoc from the dialog box that appears when you go to ANOVA, after you enter the variables (one variable and one factor), be sure to click “descriptives”  under statistics AND to click on the “Post-Hoc” button, and then click the box for “Turkey HSD). click “continue,” then OK

For PSPP

Read the PSPP Chapter 6 for step-by-step help (Mac Only).

For windows PSPP 1.53

Go to: Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA

To include the Turkey test, click on Post-Hoc from the dialog box that appears when you go to ANOVA, after you enter the variables (one variable and one factor), click on “Turkey,” click “continue,” then OK

Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch. Use the GSS2008 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)

Now perform the analysis with PSPP [USE THE SYNTAX BELOW TO DO THE ENTIRE ANALYSIS] and find:

WE WILL USE THIS TO DO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: One-way ANOVA

File

New

Syntax

The syntax editor will open, then type [do not type in BRACKETS]

Oneway [enter]
/Variables = var1 BY var2 [enter]
/Statistics = descriptives [enter]
/Posthoc = tukey [go to tool ribbon “File Edit Run Windows Help” and click on RUN and then ALL. Check you output and you should have a nice TABLE. Var1 and var2 are the variables being used for the tables. Just type in the variable name as written in the assignment.

Do not type Var1 and Var2 as they do not stand for anything-and you will get an error message.

Hint on the above TV hours (dependent variable) BY degree (factor)

A. Mean hours for people with less than a high school degree

B. Mean hours for people with a high school degree

C. Mean hours for people with a junior college degree

D. Mean hours for people with a bachelor’s degree

E. Mean hours for people with a graduate degree

F. ANOVA significance level

G. Is the relationship statistically significant

H. THE TUKEY TEST ALLOWS US TO SEE IF THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE AMONG THE DIFFERENT GROUPS, FOR EXAMPLE: According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of those with a high school degree? SO YOU CHECK THE BIG ROW “HIGH SCHOOL” IN THE TUKEY TEST BOX (MULTIPLE COMPARISONS), AND DO YOU SEE ANY CATEGORIES THAT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT? WHICH ONE(S)?

homework

Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template

 

Patient Information:

Initials, Age, Sex, Race


S.

CC (chief complaint) a BRIEF statement identifying why the patient is here – in the patient’s own words – for instance “headache”, NOT “bad headache for 3 days”.

HPI: This is the symptom analysis section of your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis. Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. Use LOCATES Mnemonic to complete your HPI. You need to start EVERY HPI with age, race, and gender (e.g., 34-year-old AA male). You must include the seven attributes of each principal symptom in paragraph form not a list. If the CC was “headache”, the LOCATES for the HPI might look like the following example:

Location: head

Onset: 3 days ago

Character: pounding, pressure around the eyes and temples

Associated signs and symptoms: nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia

Timing: after being on the computer all day at work

Exacerbating/ relieving factors: light bothers eyes, Aleve makes it tolerable but not completely better

Severity: 7/10 pain scale

Current Medications: include dosage, frequency, length of time used and reason for use; also include OTC or homeopathic products.

Allergies: include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately (a description of what the allergy is ie angioedema, anaphylaxis, etc. This will help determine a true reaction vs intolerance).

PMHx: include immunization status (note date of last tetanus for all adults), past major illnesses and surgeries. Depending on the CC, more info is sometimes needed

Soc Hx: include occupation and major hobbies, family status, tobacco & alcohol use (previous and current use), any other pertinent data. Always add some health promo question here – such as whether they use seat belts all the time or whether they have working smoke detectors in the house, living environment, text/cell phone use while driving, and support system.

Fam Hx: illnesses with possible genetic predisposition, contagious or chronic illnesses. Reason for death of any deceased first degree relatives should be included. Include parents, grandparents, siblings, and children. Include grandchildren if pertinent.

ROS: cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis You should list each system as follows: General: Head: EENT: etc. You should list these in bullet format and document the systems in order from head to toe.

Example of Complete ROS:

GENERAL:  Denies weight loss, fever, chills, weakness or fatigue.

HEENT:  Eyes: Denies visual loss, blurred vision, double vision or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat:  Denies hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose or sore throat.

SKIN:  Denies rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR:  Denies chest pain, chest pressure or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.

RESPIRATORY:  Denies shortness of breath, cough or sputum.

GASTROINTESTINAL:  Denies anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.

GENITOURINARY:  Burning on urination. Pregnancy. Last menstrual period, MM/DD/YYYY.

NEUROLOGICAL:  Denies headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.

MUSCULOSKELETAL:  Denies muscle, back pain, joint pain or stiffness.

HEMATOLOGIC:  Denies anemia, bleeding or bruising.

LYMPHATICS:  Denies enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.

PSYCHIATRIC:  Denies history of depression or anxiety.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC:  Denies reports of sweating, cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.

ALLERGIES:  Denies history of asthma, hives, eczema or rhinitis.


O.

Physical exam: From head-to-toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head-to-toe format i.e. General: Head: EENT: etc.

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines)


A

.

Differential Diagnoses (list a minimum of 5 differential diagnoses). Your primary or presumptive diagnosis should be at the top of the list. For each diagnosis, provide supportive documentation with evidence-based guidelines.


P.
  

This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses.

References

You are required to include at least three evidence based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced based guidelines which relates to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting.

© 2021 Walden University, LLC

Page 1 of 3

Homework

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSIGNMENT

FOR SPSS:

Go to: Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA

To include the Turkey test, click on Post-Hoc from the dialog box that appears when you go to ANOVA, after you enter the variables (one variable and one factor), click on “Turkey,” click “continue,” then OK

For PSPP

Read the PSPP Chapter 6 for step by step help (Mac Only).

For windows PSPP 1.53

Go to: Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA

To include the Turkey test, click on Post-Hoc from the dialog box that appears when you go to ANOVA, after you enter the variables (one variable and one factor), click on “Turkey,” click “continue,” then OK

Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch. Use the GSS2008 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)

FOR PSPP ON MAC ONLY: Now perform the analysis with PSPP [USE THE SYNTAX BELOW TO DO THE ENTIRE ANALYSIS] and find:

WE WILL USE THIS TO DO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: One-way ANOVA

File

New

Syntax

The syntax editor will open, then type [do not type in BRACKETS]

Oneway [enter]
/Variables = var1 BY var2 [enter]
/Statistics = descriptives [enter]
/Posthoc = tukey [go to tool ribbon “File Edit Run Windows Help” and click on RUN and then ALL. Check you output and you should have a nice TABLE. Var1 and var2 are the variables being used for the tables. Just type in the variable name as written in the assignment.

Do not type Var1 and Var2 as they do not stand for anything-and you will get an error message.

Hint on the above Tvhours (dependent variable) BY degree (factor)

NOTE CONCERNING SPSS/PSPP DISCUSSION AND ASSIGNMENT EXERCISES: For anyone wondering, I have borrowed most of the exercises from various textbooks that I have used to teach this course and similar courses over the years with some modification when and if necessary AND these questions often challenge the perceptions of students.  Part of learning to analyze and interpret data is to set aside ones own biases and perceptions when examining the results.

Read the PSPP ANOVA for step by step help.

1)  Astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our success (or lack thereof) in life.  Test this assumption with the GSS2018 data by analyzing the relationship between respondent’s astrological sign (ZODIAK) with respondent’s socioeconomic index (SEI10).  The SEI10 is an indicator of economic and socio-economic attainment: The higher the SEI score, the more successful the respondent.

Make a prediction:

Can a person’s astrological sign predict their socioeconomic success?  Yes       No 

If so, what zodiac sign is the most successful                                             ____________

Now perform the analysis using the GSS2018 data 

Mean SEI10 of Pisces                                                                                        ______________

Mean SEI10 of Taurus                                                                                      ______________

Mean SEI10 of your astrological sign                                                              ______________

ANOVA significance level                                                                              ______________

Is the relationship statistically significant?                                                Yes      No

On the basis of these data, would you say that astrologers are correct in their assertion of the power of the stars?  Remember to explain this relationship based on what the test measures.   Why?

FOR THE REMAINING EXERCISES SEE ABOVE FOR THE SYNTAX SEQUENCE (IN THE WALK THROUGH) BUT MAKE SURE YOU HAVE THE CORRECT VARIABLE NAMES AND IN THE PROPER ORDER

2)  Test whether there is an association between a person’s educational attainment and how much television they watch.  Use the GSS2018 data set to perform an ANOVA on respondents’ highest educational degree (DEGREE) and the hours per day they watch television (TVHOURS)–Compare with 2008-are the results the same? If not, how where they different?

Make a prediction:

Predict the number of hours each group watches television in a given day:

Less than                    High School                Some               College            Graduate

High School                Grad                         College                  Grad                    Degree

__________              __________               __________           __________           __________

Now perform the analysis with PSPP and find:

Mean hours for people with less than a high school degree       ___________________

Mean hours for people with a high school degree                      ___________________

Mean hours for people with a junior college degree                    ___________________

Mean hours for people with a bachelor’s degree                         ___________________

Mean hours for people with a graduate degree                           ___________________

ANOVA significance level                                                          ___________________

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                  No

According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of those with a high school degree? 

3)  Test whether there is an association between a person’s race and the prestige of their occupation.  Use the GSS2018 data set to perform an ANOVA on RACE and PRESTG10.  You are to do a tukey test at the end of this one as well so it is easier to just run the syntax like you did for exercise 2 and just change the relevant variables. 

Mean prestige score for Whites                                                      ___________________

Mean prestige score for African Americans                                   ___________________

Mean prestige score for other races                                               ___________________

ANOVA significance level                                                                  ___________________

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                  No

According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of Whites?

On the basis of these data, would you say that race is associated with occupational prestige?  Remember to explain this relationship based on what the test measures.  What could explain this relationship?

4)  Test whether there is an association between a person’s degree and the years at current job.  Use the GSS2018 data sets to perform an ANOVA on DEGREE and YEARSJOB.  You are to do a tukey test at the end of this one as well so it is easier to just run the syntax like you did for exercise 2 and just change the relevant variables.. 

Make a prediction:

Predict the mean number of years at current job for each group:

Less than                    High School                Some               College            Graduate

High School                Grad                         College                  Grad                    Degree

__________              __________               __________           __________           __________

Now perform the analysis with PSPP and find:

Mean years for people with less than a high school degree       ___________________

Mean years for people with a high school degree                      ___________________

Mean years for people with a junior college degree                    ___________________

Mean years for people with a bachelor’s degree                         ___________________

Mean years for people with a graduate degree                           ___________________

ANOVA significance level                                                          ___________________

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                  No

According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of those with a high school degree? 

5) Test whether there is an association between a person’s race and the HOURS WORKED LAST WEEK (HRS1).  Use the GSS2018 data set to perform an ANOVA on RACE and HRS1.  You are to do a tukey test at the end of this one as well so it is easier to just run the syntax like you did for exercise 2 and just change the relevant variables.. 

Mean HOURS WORKED for Whites                                                      ___________________

Mean HOURS WORKED for African Americans                                   ___________________

Mean HOURS WORKED for other races                                               ___________________

ANOVA significance level                                                                  ___________________

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                  No

According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of Whites?

On the basis of these data, would you say that race is associated with hours worked last week?  Remember to explain this relationship based on what the test measures.  What could explain this relationship?

6)  Test whether there is an association between a person’s race and the YEARS AT CURRENT JOB.  Use the GSS2018 data set to perform an ANOVA on RACE and YEARSJOB.  You are to do a tukey test at the end of this one as well so it is easier to just run the syntax like you did for exercise 2 and just change the relevant variables.. 

Mean years for Whites                                                      ___________________

Mean years for African Americans                                   ___________________

Mean years for other races                                               ___________________

ANOVA significance level                                                                  ___________________

Is the relationship statistically significant                                      Yes                  No

According to the Tukey Test, which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of Whites?

On the basis of these data, would you say that race is associated with years at a current job?  Remember to explain this relationship based on what the test measures.  What could explain this relationship?

homework

Sam Ple Notice this is in proper

MLA format. Dr. Candie McKee

English 1213

Notice the title includes the research question. Notice

1 November 2020 the capitalization of the words. It’s in proper MLA format.

Ple 1

Ple 1

Ple 1

Annotated Bibliography: Should Prostitution Be Decriminalized?

Bell, Shannon. Reading, Writing, and Rewriting the Prostitute Body. Indiana University

Press, 1994. Notice this is in proper MLA format. The Works Cited entry is listed first, followed by the summary. You must follow MLA 8th edition. Shannon Bell is a philosopher and an author with a Ph.D. in Political science. In this

book, Bell offers an overview of the processes that affect a person involved in sex

Summary

of the work from emotional, physical, and social levels. The author goes deep into the main history of prostitution from the ancient era and analyzes Plato’s works to more modern purpose

and any times and testimonials of the sex-workers. One of the biggest criticisms of this book is criticism.

not that the facts provided were incorrect but that some of the sex-workers did not

give permission to share their testimonies. Nevertheless, this extremely Statement

on validity

comprehensive work is an excellent source for me because it provides a great

of source

overview of the history of prostitution. and how it

proves

Chancer, Lynn S. Reconcilable Differences : Confronting Beauty, Pornography, and the
useful to the student.
Future of Feminism. University of California Press, 1998.

Lynn S. Chancer is a reputable author with a Ph.D. in history and sociology. In this

Summary

of the book, the author explores sex work (whether prostitution or pornography) and the main possible conflicts of such work within the feministic ideology. The author’s main idea

purpose

and any is to differentiate between sex and sexism. She does not advocate for full and criticism. comprehensive legalization of sex work or a complete ban. Instead, Doctor Chancer calls for a compromise between the ideas of sexual freedoms and the opposing viewpoints. This work is beneficial to my research in the way that the issues discussed

Statement are current. With the rise of the overall feminist movement and its branches such as on validity the “metoo” movement, it is highly essential to consider these massive groups of of source

and how it people’s opinions in my work. This book is an excellent peer-reviewed source from a proves useful to the reputable author and expert in the field with decades of experience and student. comprehensive education credentials.

De Chesnay, Mary, PhD, RN, PMHCNS-BC, FAAN. Sex Trafficking : A Clinical Guide for

Nurses. Springer Publishing Company, 2013.

Mary De Chesnay is a Registered Nurse with a Ph.D. in nursing and years of

Summary

of the experience caring for the victims of sex-trafficking, sex-workers, and prostitutes. As main one can see in the title, this book is a guide for healthcare professionals, where doctor purpose and any De Chasnay addresses many issues that one may encounter while caring for a sex criticism. worker and the possible resolutions. The author focuses on treating different diseases, especially STDs, physiological therapies, techniques of reporting the crimes associated with this occupation, and overall methods of work with various demographics involved in prostitution and sex-trafficking. This book is an excellent

Statement primary source for my writing because it views health, policy, crime issues related to on validity of source prostitution from a healthcare professional viewpoint, my chosen field of study. Dr. and how it

De Chesnay tries not to support one or the other side of the prostitution debate

proves

useful to the directly and forcefully. Instead, she paints a horrible picture of what could happen student.

(specifically the epidemic of sex-trafficking) in the absence of adequate policies to protect sex-workers. This book is an excellent peer-reviewed source from a reputable author and expert in the field with decades of experience and comprehensive education credentials.

Doll, Cyril. “Legal tricks: legalized prostitution is promoted as a women’s rights issue, but it simply legitimizes sexual abuse.” Western Standard, vol. 3, no. 21, 29 Jan. 2007, p.

19+. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A159965077/OVIC?u=okccc_main&sid=OVIC&xid=

74072b57. Accessed 1 Nov. 2020.

Summary

Cyril Doll is a professional writer with many years of experience in the field. In this of the main short article, the author presents the issue of sex work legalization in Canada and purpose

and any some testimonials from the sex-workers. The author argues that sex work’s criticism. decriminalization is detrimental to society and the prostitute’s mental and physical

Statement health. Doll states that sex-work is an instrument to degrade and control the workers on validity

of source and should never be legalized. This article is a good secondary source for my work and how it because it has testimonial and statistical evidence presented. The refutation of some of proves useful to the this evidence will help my argument to have more credibility. student.

Lehmiller, Justin J. The Psychology of Human Sexuality. Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Justin J. Lehmiller is a social psychologist with a Ph.D. and an educator that wrote

Summary many works relating to human sexual behavior. This particular work is a of the

main comprehensive guide to human sexuality, actions, and societal interactions. This book purpose

BUT it is is an excellent support source for my work because it provides a scientific insight into lean. It’s

not does social, economic, and evolutionary factors involved in the sex-work and the issues not give associated with it. This book is extensively peer-reviewed and used in many higher

the major points education institutions to teach students. she

might use.

Statement on validity of source and how it proves useful to the student.

homework

Week 9

Shadow Health Comprehensive SOAP Note Template

Patient Initials: _______ Age: _______ Gender: _______

SUBJECTIVE DATA:

Chief Complaint (CC):

History of Present Illness (HPI):

Medications:

Allergies:

Past Medical History (PMH):

Past Surgical History (PSH):

Sexual/Reproductive History:

Personal/Social History:

Health Maintenance:

Immunization History:

Significant Family History:

Review of Systems:

General:

HEENT:

Respiratory:

Cardiovascular/Peripheral Vascular:

Gastrointestinal:

Genitourinary:

Musculoskeletal:

Neurological:

Psychiatric:

Skin/hair/nails:

OBJECTIVE DATA:

Physical Exam:

Vital signs:

General:

HEENT:

Neck:

Chest/Lungs:.

Heart/Peripheral Vascular:

Abdomen:

Genital/Rectal:

Musculoskeletal:

Neurological:

Skin:

Diagnostic results:

ASSESSMENT:

PLAN:
This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512), but will be required for future courses.

© 2021 Walden University, LLC Page 2 of 3

homework



Preface

Theresa Samuels, a 72-year-old-retired African American woman, arrives at the community health center for her three-month follow-up appointment.  T.S., has a medical history of diabetes, type 2, osteoporosis, secondary hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Due to the death of her only daughter from COVID-19, 4 months ago, T.S., has become the sole caregiver of her three teenage grandchildren. Troubled with unexpected finances, T.S. conveys to the nurse the immense pressure and stress she has been experiencing since the death of her daughter. 

Concept Care Map Objectives:

1. Using the case scenario attached, create a concept care map using Mindmeister, Lucid Chart, or Padlet (all free accounts) to illustrate the relationship between obesity, stress adaptation, and sleep disorder to the previously learned concepts. 

2. Recognize Cues – identify the assessment findings that are essential to reporting to the healthcare provider for each disorder as it relates to obesity.

3. Analyze/Hypothesize Cues –  explain the assessment findings, highlighting 
why
 the client is experiencing the health conditions. 

4. Generate Solutions – identify the appropriate nursing interventions/patient teachings that incorporate her health history to promote health for this client.    

Essential Key Points

· Use your readings, lecture recordings, notes, and course point resources to design the concept map. 

· Supportive evidence and literature sources must be cited in APA format (latest edition).  

· Assignment length is no more than two (2) pages – concept map and reference page. 

· The concept map must be on one page (8.5 x14) and converted to a PDF file to upload your assignment

HOMEWORK

O R I G I N A L R E S E A R C H

Effects of Domiciliary Professional Oral Care for
Care-Dependent Elderly in Nursing Homes – Oral
Hygiene, Gingival Bleeding, Root Caries and
Nursing Staff’s Oral Health Knowledge and
Attitudes

This article was published in the following Dove Press journal:
Clinical Interventions in Aging

Caroline
Girestam Croonquist1,2

Jesper Dalum 3

Pia Skott1,2

Petteri Sjögren4

Inger Wårdh2,3

Elisabeth Morén 3

1Folktandvården Stockholm AB,
Stockholm, Sweden; 2Academic Centre
Of Geriatric Dentistry, Stockholm,
Sweden; 3Department Of Dental
Medicine, Karolinska Institutet,
Huddinge, Sweden; 4Oral Care AB,
Stockholm, Sweden

Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the effects for nursing home residents of monthly
professional cleaning and individual oral hygiene instruction provided by registered dental
hygienists (RDHs), in comparison with daily oral care as usual. The secondary aim was to
study the knowledge and attitudes among nursing staff regarding oral health care and needs.
Patients and Methods: In this randomised controlled trial (RCT), 146 residents were
recruited from nine nursing homes in Regions of Stockholm and Sörmland and were
randomly assigned (on nursing home level) to either intervention group (I; n=72) or control
group (C; n=74). Group I received monthly professional cleaning, individual oral hygiene
instructions and information given by an RDH. Group C proceeded with daily oral care as
usual (self-performed or nursing staff-assisted). Oral health-related data was registered with
the mucosal-plaque score index (MPS), the modified sulcus bleeding index (MSB), and root
caries. The nursing staff’s attitudes and knowledge were analysed at baseline and at six-
month follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test and two-way
variance analysis (ANOVA).
Results: Improvements were seen in both Group I and Group C concerning MPS, MSB and
active root caries. The nursing staff working with participants in Group I showed significant
improvements regarding the Nursing Dental Coping Beliefs Scale (DCBS) in two of four
dimensions, oral health care beliefs (p=0.0331) and external locus of control (p=0.0017)
compared with those working with Group C. The knowledge-based questionnaire showed
improvement (p=0.05) in Group I compared with Group C.
Conclusion: Monthly professional oral care, combined with individual oral health care
instructions, seems to improve oral hygiene and may reduce root caries among nursing home
residents. This may also contribute to a more positive attitude regarding oral hygiene
measures among nursing home staff, as compared with daily oral care as usual.
Keywords: aged, residential facilities, nursing staff, dental care, attitude of health personnel,
oral health

Introduction
With an ageing population, the need for care support for dependent elderly
increases for the general public.1 Domiciliary dental care enables dental services
in the patients’ residences and offers the opportunity to provide regular check-ups,

Correspondence: Elisabeth Morén
Department Of Dental Medicine,
Karolinska Institutet, Box 4064, Huddinge
141 04, Sweden
Tel +46 70 165 88 03
Email elisabeth.moren@ki.se

Clinical Interventions in Aging Dovepress
open access to scientific and medical research

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DovePress © 2020 Girestam Croonquist et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.
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accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly
attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

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preventive measures and dental treatments to individuals
who experience difficulties attending a regular dental
clinic.2 The dental care performed at home by dental
personnel is rudimentary, with rather simple equipment
and treatments like scaling of calculus, tooth extractions,
tooth restorations, adjustments of dentures and plaque
removal.3 A study conducted by Wårdh et al (2012)3

regarding nursing staff’s knowledge and attitudes towards
oral health care showed that the majority of the nursing
staff believed that the residents would tell them when they
needed help with their daily oral hygiene. Furthermore, the
majority felt that performing assisted oral care (tooth-
brushing, interproximal tooth cleaning and/or cleaning of
prothesis) was a difficult task and 80% thought the greatest
obstacle was the non-cooperation from the residents.
Keboa et al (2019) presented, from a nursing staff per-
spective on performing assisted oral care, that challenges
lie in complicated teeth constructions, high workload,
resistance towards examine another person’s oral cavity/
mouth, and not wanting to performed assisted oral care.4

Residents at nursing homes may face difficulties visiting
a dental clinic,5 and a study by Muszalik et al (2015)6 of
patients visiting a geriatric clinic showed that elderly per-
sons often have difficulties participating in activities outside
their home environment. The major issues were the lack of
energy and the presence of pain. Today, elderly in devel-
oped countries retain their teeth at a higher age,7–9 but
ageing with increased morbidity and polypharmacy often
results in frailty and dependence on the care of others, all of
which increase the risk of deterioration of oral health and
susceptibility to developing oral diseases.10,11 The rela-
tively high number of natural teeth and complicated oral
prosthetic constructions (eg, bridges, crowns and oral
implants),7,12,16 together with progressing morbidity and
care dependence, necessitates that daily oral hygiene activ-
ities need to be maintained on a sufficient level, or even
intensified.7 The presence of oral health conditions can
cause pain, infections and nutritional difficulties.7,8 The
common condition oral dryness increases the risk of dental
caries, which can relatively rapidly lead to deterioration of
oral health.13,14 Additionally, it can cause a social handicap
since oral dryness can lead to difficulties speaking, chewing
and swallowing, impairment in tasting,14,15 and have
a negative impact on quality of life.14,16,17

Oral and general health are strongly related in older
individuals16,18 and maintained oral health among the
elderly has been related to retained general health.19,20

A study conducted by Hagglund et al (2019)12 showed

that the mortality risk observed over one year was signifi-
cantly higher in older individuals with poor oral health
than in those with good oral health. Furthermore, it has
been shown that intensified oral care interventions by
dental personnel may prevent approximately one in ten
deaths from healthcare-associated pneumonia (NNT
8.6–11).21 Both natural teeth and dentures may constitute
a reservoir for respiratory pathogens,22 and denture wear-
ing at night doubles the risk of healthcare-associated pneu-
monia in the oldest adults.23 Barbe et al (2019)24

concluded that professional cleaning performed by
a dental nurse every two weeks on residents living at
nursing homes maintained and improved the residents’
oral health. Furthermore, domiciliary dental care provides
the possibility of reaching individuals with, for example,
cognitive impairment and/or functional limitations.19,25

The primary aim of this study was to describe the
effects for nursing home residents of professional cleaning
and individual oral hygiene instruction provided by regis-
tered dental hygienists (RDHs), in comparison with daily
oral care as usual. The secondary aim was to study the
knowledge and attitudes among nursing staff regarding
oral health care and needs.

The hypothesis was that domiciliary prophylactic pro-
fessional oral care will improve oral health among partici-
pants in the intervention group, in comparison with
participants in a control group that receives daily oral
care as usual.

Materials and Methods
This evaluator-blinded RCT with an open-ended design
was performed at nine Swedish nursing homes. One hun-
dred and forty-six residents were recruited to participate in
the study; 72 were randomised to the intervention group
(Group I) and 74 to the control group (Group C).

Ethical Statement
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee in
Stockholm, Sweden (Number 2015/1641-31/2) and was
registered in ClinicalTrial.gov (Number NCT02669979).

Randomisation and Recruitment of the
Nursing Homes
Four nursing homes in Region Stockholm and five nursing
homes in Region Sörmland were recruited to the study.
Randomisation was performed at nursing home level.26

The nursing homes were chosen geographically (urban and

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rural areas) and were managed by both private companies
and municipalities. Approval from the head of the nursing
home was mandatory for inclusion in the study. After col-
lecting informed consent (for residents showing signs of
reduced cognitive function according to Pfeiffer-test,27

informed consent was required from either a relative or an
advocate), the randomisation of the nursing homes to either
Group I or Group C was decided by a computer-generated
sequence and administrated by a coded letter representing
each nursing home. The letter was opened by an RDH not
otherwise involved in the clinical examinations in the study.

The inclusion criteria were living in a nursing home,
≥85 years of age, and at least ten remaining teeth including
dental implants. Exclusion criteria were having full den-
tures, edentulous, reduced cognitive function that made
cooperation impossible for examination and treatment by
RDHs, extreme dry mouth assessed by the mirror-sliding
friction test28 and ASA risk qualification of 4 or higher.29

The taking of antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants was not
an exclusion criterion but was noted in the study protocol
during data collection.

Study Process
At baseline, participants in both study groups received
professional cleaning (tooth brushing, interproximal clean-
ing and scaling of supragingival calculus) performed by
three calibrated and blinded RDHs. Home care instructions
regarding oral hygiene were given verbally and in writing
to participants in both study groups and to nursing staff,
and fluoridated toothpaste, a soft toothbrush and interprox-
imal cleaning aids were given free of charge.

Intervention
The participants in Group I received monthly professional
cleaning, individual oral hygiene instructions and informa-
tion by RDHs (not otherwise involved in the oral exam-
ination and study protocol registration). The visiting time
was approximately 30 minutes.

Control
The participants in Group C received the same baseline
procedure as Group I and proceeded with daily oral care as
usual, performed either by themselves or assisted by nur-
sing staff, throughout the study, without any additional
visits or instructions by a study RDH.

Oral Examination and Study Protocol
Oral examination was performed by using a flashlight, mir-
ror and probe at baseline and the results were registered in
a study protocol (available on request) together with med-
ical history and medication use. Indexes used were the
mucosal-plaque score index (MPS),30 modified sulcus
bleeding index (MSB)31 and root caries. Oral mouth dry-
ness was measured by the participants’ subjective experi-
ences and the mirror-sliding friction test28 on the inside of
the buccal mucosa. Registrations according to the study
protocol were performed in both groups by the three cali-
brated RDHs at baseline, after three months and after six
months (Figure 1).

Indexes
MPS is a combined mucosal score and plaque score index
used both for edentulous and dentate individuals. Before
oral measurements, dental prostheses were removed if
present. Mucosal score (MS) rates changes in the oral

Figure 1 Flow chart over clinical registrations according to the study protocol, the total number of residents and also for the intervention group (I) and the control group
(C) throughout the study. From baseline to the end of the study at six-month follow-up. Instruments: Mucosal and plaque score index (MPS), modified sulcus bleeding index
(MSB) and root caries.

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mucosa, and plaque score (PS) rates the amount of plaque
both on natural teeth and on removable dentures and fixed
prosthodontics. MS and PS are rated from 1 to 4 (4 is the
most severe). By interpretation of the index, MS and PS
are combined. The purpose of the index is to validate oral
hygiene and not to serve as a diagnosis.30

MSB was used to measure bleeding from the gingival
margin on the buccal surface of the Silness-Loe index
teeth12,16,24,32,36,44 or, when missing, the closest tooth32

was assessed according to MSB, which has four levels
(0–3) where 3 is the most severe.31

Root caries33 was assessed according to five levels on
the buccal surface on Silness-Loe index teeth.

Nursing Staff
Nursing staff from four nursing homes participated in this
part of the study, with a total of 50 participants included.
The intervention group contained 35 participants at base-
line and 20 participants at six-month follow-up. The con-
trol group contained 15 participants at baseline and 15
participants at follow-up. Twelve participants from the
intervention group and 2 participants from the control
group could be followed using a four-digit code number
from baseline to six-month follow-up and were therefore
designated as the identified group.

Study Process
All nursing staff (nursing aides, assistant nurses, registered
nurses and other staff such as administrators and man-
agers) participated in an oral health education programme
at study start, given by one RDH who was not otherwise
involved in the study.

Intervention
The nursing staff’s knowledge and attitude towards oral
health were registered prior to participating in the educa-
tional programme at baseline using two questionnaires. The
questionnaires were repeated at the six-month follow-up.

Questionnaires
The questionnaires used were the Nursing Dental Coping
Belief Scale (Nursing DCBS)34 questionnaire and
a knowledge-based questionnaire regarding oral health.35

Both questionnaires were distributed to the current nursing
staff working at the nursing homes that day, at baseline
and at six-month follow-up. The questionnaires were pseu-
donymised with a four-digit code number.

The nursing DCBS index is a tool used to measure how
groups of nursing staff differ in their priorities and how they

meet their responsibilities for oral health care.34 The DCBS
was developed by Jacobs & Stewart and is based on three
major models of cognitive behavioural psychology consisting
of Julian Rotter’s locus of control (divided into IL and EL),
Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy and Donald Meichenbaum’s
self-instructional technique.36 The DCBS consists of four
dimensions: “internal locus of control (IL)”, “external locus
of control (EL)”, “self-efficiency (SE)” and “oral health-care
beliefs (OHCB)” and has been used in various types of care-
related research.37 The IL dimension evaluates people’s self-
control and self-experienced beliefs concerning events in life,
for example, “I believe brushing can help prevent cavities”,
and people with high degrees of IL expect themselves to have
great control and responsibility over events in life. In contrast,
people with high degrees of EL expect and believe that their
lives are influenced by environmental factors outside their own
control, for example, “No matter how hard I work on taking
care of my teeth, I still get tooth decay”.36 The SE dimension
evaluates people’s beliefs concerning their own capability to
affect a specific situation,38 for example, “I believe I know
how to brush my teeth correctly”.36 The OHBC dimension
evaluates faulty and irrational beliefs about dental disease,38

for example, “Once gum disease has started it is almost
impossible to stop”.36 The responses in DCBS are listed on
a scale, with five options ranging from “strongly agree” to
“strongly disagree”, including a “do not know” option.34

The Handbook of Healthcare was the second question-
naire used in the study and is based on questions regarding
knowledge about oral health needs in care-dependent
elderly. It was retrieved from www.vardhandboken.se,
which is a website that was initiated by the Swedish
Association of Local Authorities and Regions to provide
education and support to care providers. The questionnaire
consists of nine questions about the use of dental pros-
theses and how to clean them, oral dryness, oral hygiene
performance, Revised Oral Health Assessment Guide
(ROAG), etc. Each correct answer gives 1 point and zero
points are awarded for incorrect answers.35

Statistics
The data collected at baseline were presented with mean
values and standard deviations (SD) or as frequencies. The
results were presented with changes from baseline to the
three- and six-month follow-ups in frequency tables.
Comparisons between Group I and Group C were made
using Fisher’s exact test. P values <0.05 (95% CI) were
considered statistically significant.

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Statistical methods used for the knowledge and attitude
questionnaires were two-way variance analysis (ANOVA)
and Fisher’s exact test.

The participants (both the residents and the nursing
staff) were treated as independent groups during analysis.
The study was originally planned to last for one year but
was concluded at six months due to financial reasons.

Results
Residents
The mean number of natural teeth was 20.2 (SD 3.0) and 26%
of the study participants received assisted oral care. Ninety-six
percent had contact with dental care providers in the
previous year. The mean prescribed medication was 9.7 (SD
3.8) and 29% of the participants were registered with dry
mouth according to self-experienced reports and the mirror-
sliding friction test. A total of 14 participants used their electric
toothbrush daily and strained food was medically prescribed
for 3% of the participants. Additional baseline data are pre-
sented in Table 1. Of the 146 included residents, a total of 124
residents completed the entire study. Reasons for dropouts
were events of death or hospitalization. There were more
women than men in the total study material but no statistical
difference between Groups I and C existed at baseline.

Oral Hygiene and Root Caries
MPS
For MPS, improvements from baseline to six-month fol-
low-up were seen in both Group I and Group C. Both

groups showed improved PS, but without significance.
For MS, a significant difference between Group I and
Group C (p=0.04) was seen within the period between
the three- and six-month follow-ups. In Group I, 20% of
the participants showed improved MS, in comparison with
13% in Group C (Tables 2–4).

MSB
The MSB index was combined and is presented as MSB 0
+1 and MSB 2+3. For Group I and Group C, an improve-
ment throughout the study could be seen within the groups
(Table 5).

Root Caries
The root caries index was reduced from five levels to three
and is presented as healthy (caries score of 1), initial caries
lesion (caries score of 2 and 4) and active caries lesion
(caries score of 3 and 5). Improvements were seen in both
Group I and Group C for healthy and initial caries lesions
throughout the study period, without significant difference
between the groups. The last follow-up period between three
to six months showed improvement for Group I regarding
active caries lesions, with an improvement of 17% in com-
parison with 4% in Group C (p=0.05) (Table 6–8).

Nursing Staff
The Nursing Staff’s Knowledge and Attitudes
The intervention group showed a statistically significant
improvement in comparison with the control group in the

Table 1 Baseline Data For Residents

Group I (n=72) Group C (n=74) Total (n=146)

Age, mean value (SD) 89 (4.0) 88.7 (4.2) 88.9 (4.1)

Men, n (%) 16 (22) 22 (29.7) 38 (26.0)

Natural teeth, mean value (SD) 20.5 (2.9) 19.9 (3.1) 20.2 (3.0)
Implants, n (%) 5 (6.7) 7 (9.5) 12 (8.2)

Removable partial denture, n (%) 9 (12.5) 10 (13.5) 19 (13)

Removable full denture, n (%) 1 (1.14) 0 (0) 1 (0.7)
Got help with daily oral hygiene, n (%) 16 (22.2) 22 (29.7) 38 (26.0)

Used fluoride toothpaste, n (%) 70 (97.2) 65 (87.8) 135 (92.5)

Tooth brushing/day, mean value (SD) 1.7 (0.5) 1.8 (0.6) 1.8 (0.6)
Interproximal cleaning/week, n (%) 30 (44.4) 30 (40.5) 60 (42.5)

Used electric toothbrush, n (%) 9 (12.5) 5 (6.8) 14 (9.6)

No dental exam/dental check-up > 12 months, n (%) 5 (6.9) 1 (1.4) 6 (4.1)
Number of prescribed medications, mean value (SD) 9.8 (3.8) 9.5 (3.8) 9.7 (3.8)

Dry mouth, n (%) 26 (36.1) 16 (21.6) 42 (28.8)

Strained food, n (%) 2 (2.8) 3 (4.1) 5 (3.4)
Nutritional drinks, n (%) 12 (16.7) 5 (6.8) 17 (11.6)

Abbreviations: n, number; SD, standard deviation.

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OHCB dimension (p=0.03) and EL dimension (p=0.0017).
In the identified group, there was a statistically significant
difference in the IL dimension group (p=0.03).

For the knowledge-based questionnaire, an improve-
ment (p=0.05) was found between the intervention and
the control group from baseline to six-month follow-up.

Table 2 Plaque Score (PS) from Baseline (B) Among The Intervention (I) and Control (C) Group to Three- and Six-Month Follow-Ups

PS B–3 Months B–6 Months 3–6 Months

p-value 0.24 0.34 0.80

I (n=70) C (n=61) I (n=69) C (n=55) I (n=69) C (n=55)

Deteriorated n (%) 4 (5.71) 7 (11.48) 3 (4.35) 3 (5.45) 16 (23.19) 11 (20.00)

Unchanged n (%) 33 (47.14) 21 (34.42) 40 (57.97) 25 (45.45) 44 (63.77) 35 (63.64)

Improved n (%) 33 (47.14) 33 (54.10) 26 (37.68) 27 (49.09) 9 (13.04) 9 (16.36)

Abbreviations: n, number of participants.

Table 3 Mucosal Score (MS) from Baseline (B) Among the Intervention (I) and Control (C) Group to Three- and Six-Month Follow-
Ups

MS B–3 Months B–6 Months 3–6 Months

p-value 0.10 0.12 0.04*

I (n=70) C (n=61) I (n=69) C (n=55) I (n=69) C (n=55)

Deteriorated n (%) 11 (15.71) 4 (6.56) 8 (11.59) 1 (1.82) 17 (24.64) 6 (10.91)

Unchanged n (%) 22 (31.43) 29 (47.54) 31 (44.93) 28 (50.91) 38 (55.07) 42 (76.36)
Improved n (%) 37 (52.86) 28 (45.90) 30 (43.48) 26 (47.27) 14 (20.29) 7 (12.73)

Notes: *p <0.05. All other comparisons, not significant.
Abbreviations: n, number of participants.

Table 4 Mucosal And Plaque Score (MPS) from Baseline (B) Among the Intervention (I) and Control (C) Group to Three- And Six-
Month Follow-Ups

MPS B–3 Months B–6 Months 3–6 Months

p-value 0.77 0.42 0.51

I (n=70) C (n=61) I (n=69) C (n=55) I (n=69) C (n=55)

Deteriorated n (%) 10 (14.29) 6 (9.84) 7 (10.14) 3 (5.45) 24 (34.78) 14 (25.45)

Unchanged n (%) 13 (18.57) 13 (21.31) 24 (34.78) 16 (29.09) 30 (43.48) 29 (52.73)

Improved n (%) 47 (67.14) 42 (68.85) 38 (55.07) 36 (65.45) 15 (21.74) 12 (21.82)

Abbreviations: n, number of participants.

Table 5 Modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (MSB) at Baseline (B), and After Three- And Six-Month (M) Follow-Ups and Difference (Diff)
Between Time, Intervention (I) and Control (C) Group

Baseline 3 Months Diff B–3M 6 Months Diff B–6M

I n=72 C n=74 I n=70 C n=61 I n=70 C n=61 I n=69 C n=55 I n=69 C n=55

MSB level 0–1

mean (SD)

2.07

(1.70)

1.66

(1.12)

2.15

(1.70)

1.79

(0.94)

0.08 0.13 2.41

(1.76)

2.30

(1.14)

0.34 0.64

MSB level 2–3
mean (SD)

0.98
(1.54)

1.35
(1.04)

0.84
(0.26)

1.28
(0.63)

− 0.14 − 0.07 0.59
(0.13)

0.70
(1.47)

− 0.39 − 0.65

Notes: MSB 0–1 positive values show improvement, MSB 2–3 negative values show improvement.

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Discussion
The present study was a part of a project with the aim to
evaluate regular professional cleaning and information/
instructions regarding oral health care performed in nur-
sing homes.2 It concluded that professional cleaning has
a favourable effect on gingival bleeding, and verbally
given individual oral hygiene instruction resulted in
greater reduction of dental plaque, which indicates that
both education and individual oral hygiene instruction
with “hands-on” training ought to be included in domicili-
ary oral health care programmes.2 In the present study, the
intervention has therefore been a combination of these two
parts. Furthermore, a root caries index and the knowledge
and attitudes of nursing staff towards oral health care were
added to the study design.
<

homework

Annotated Rogerian Argument Outline

Overview

Reflect on the goal of a Classical Argument: to take a position on one side of an issue and try to persuade the audience by refuting the opposing position. Now, consider that a Rogerian Argument objectively explores both sides of the same issue, identifying common ground and proposing a compromise based on that common ground.

Instructions

This is an annotated outline, meaning it explains the purpose of each paragraph. Read through this document, then use your understanding of the paragraph goals to construct your own outline. A skeleton outline is included at the end of the document for you to copy/paste and build your own outline. Be sure to include all of these paragraphs in the correct order.

Before you begin

Consider the rhetorical situation:

Your Audience: Two groups who share a common problem but disagree about how to solve it.

Your Purpose: To explain each perspective to the other side so that their common goal or value becomes clear, then to propose a compromise that brings each side together to move towards achieving the goal.

Your Role: Although you may prefer one approach over the other, your role is to be an objective mediator who reduces the conflict by proposing a compromise that benefits both sides. Word choice and tone must be free of bias.

Parts of a Rogerian Argument
• Introduction:

Provide some history and context for the issue and provide an overview of the controversy or disagreement surrounding it. Appeal to pathos to make a connection with the audience so that they, too, feel a need to reach a compromise. Then, state a thesis that is a Claim of Fact, noting the disagreement and suggesting a way forward through compromise.

• Body Paragraphs:

1. Overview of Side A. Keep the tone objective and support this paragraph by using research that accurately illustrates the views of that side. (Think of this as Side A’s “main claim.”)

2.
Validation of Side A. Identify and explain the most convincing points of Side A’s argument. Help the reader see the link between these points and Side’s A’s ultimate goal or value. (Think of this as Side A’s “sub-claims.”)

3. Overview of Side B. Keep the tone objective and support this paragraph by using research that accurately illustrates the views of that side. (Think of this as Side B’s “main claim.”)

4. Preferability of Side B. Focus on the parts of Side B’s viewpoint that are most convincing and use logos and ethos evidence to demonstrate their strength. (Think of this as Side B’s sub-claims).

5. Use one or more paragraphs to do the following:

a. concede that Side B’s perspective is not perfect (provide details), but

b. show that Side B’s approach will best meet the goals and/or values of both sides (explain how and support with evidence).

6. Restate the issue to remind the audience that both sides share a common problem. Point out that both sides have a common goal and shared values, then propose a compromise that will reduce the conflict and move both parties towards the common goal. The compromise must be something new that neither side has considered and it must be achievable. Do not propose something that has already been tried and failed. Do not ask either side to simply change their minds about their position.

· Conclusion:

Review the strongest points of both sides and identify overlap in views and shared goals. Remind them that the proposed compromise will achieve some, if not all, of the hoped-for outcomes of both sides. Provide a call to action or a warning about the consequences of inaction.

See the next page for a skeleton outline you can copy and paste to create your outline.


I. INTRODUCTION

II. SIDE A

a. OVERVIEW

b. VALIDATION

III. SIDE B

a. OVERVIEW

b. PREFERABILITY OF THIS POSITION

IV. CONCESSION AND ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FOR SIDE B

V. PROPOSED COMPROMISE

CONCLUSION

homework

Toulmin Model Argument Essay Outline Instructions

Use the “Outline and Instructions – Toulmin Model” document in this lesson.

·  This first page provides instructions and

· the second page has a skeleton outline you can copy into your document to help you structure your outline.

How to build an essay outline following a Toulmin analysis:

1. After you identify the components of your argument using a Toulmin model of analysis, you can organize your argument to fit any essay structure.

2. For your Unit 3 Toulmin model argument essay, organize your essay following the Classical Argument structure that you learned in Unit 1.

3. To get the most out of the research and writing you completed in Unit 1 and 2, remember the following:

a) Your original thesis needs to be rewritten to reflect your increased knowledge and it needs to include a qualifier.

b) Your sub claims may be the same as they were in your Classical Argument, but they need to include qualifiers and you need to increase the amount of evidence you have to support/prove them.

c) Warrants and Backing are new concepts for this essay, but their addition is crucial to a strong argument. Review the lesson materials closely and ask your instructor or a tutor to help you if needed.

d) You know much more about the opposing arguments because of the research and writing you did for the Side A section of your Rogerian argument. Leverage that work to write a strong rebuttal section in this essay. Include more than one counterclaim and use evidence from your research to weaken or disprove the counter-arguments.

**Note: Some portions of your Classical Argument and Rogerian essays may translate well for use in this essay. However, you MUST get your instructor’s permission if you want to re-use parts of those prior essays.**

The following page includes a skeleton outline you can copy/paste and fill out to complete your outline assignment.

Toulmin Model Argument Essay Outline

I. Introduction

a. Main Claim (thesis) with a qualifier:

II. Narration – a neutral overview of your topic

III. Partition – an introduction to your issue and your position on it

II. Reasons/Grounds (sub claims + evidence to prove them)

Sub claim 1 with a qualifier:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Sub claim 2 with a qualifier:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Sub claim 3 with a qualifier:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Evidence:

III. Warrants: (at least two shared values or common values that make your sub claims acceptable to your audience)

Warrant 1:

Backing for warrant 1 (evidence that proves the warrant):

Warrant 2:

Backing for warrant 2 (evidence that proves the warrant):

IV. Rebuttal and Response:

Counter claim 1:

Evidence to disprove/weaken:

Counter claim 2:

Evidence to disprove/weaken:

VI. Conclusion:

Homework

Name:________________________________

Section:_______________________

Lab 10 Video Exercise – Virtual Wastewater Treatment Facility Tour Questions.

Watch the provided YouTube video in the weekly assignments folder and then answer the following questions from the information detailed in the video. https://youtu.be/FvPakzqM3h8How do wastewater treatment plant work? Then complete the questions below over the video and submit your video exercise questions within the weekly assignments folder link within ecampus.

1. Where does your waste go after you flush it down the drain?

2. How many estimated wastewater treatment plants in the United States?

3. What is the first step of the wastewater process?

4. What does it remove during this process?

5. What happens to this debris they remove?

6. What is the Grit Chamber?

7. What are the types of Grit Chambers?

8. What is the primary treatment process?

9. What do we call the water after the primary process?

10. What is secondary treatment?

11. Define aerobic digestion:

12. What are biofilters?

13. What happens to the effluent following the aeration basin?

14. What happens in the secondary clarifiers?

15. What percentage, at the disinfection process, of all organic matter is removed from the water?

16. Is the effluent safe to drink after the disinfection process?

17. What are the three common ways to disinfect the effluent?

18. How does each disinfection process work?

19. How do we decide which disinfection process to use?

20. What is the effluent release process?

21. What are the two types of effluent release?

22. What is full cycle water reuse?

23. How long does it take for a drop of water to enter and exit the wastewater treatment process?

24. What organization outlines the necessary treatment for a wastewater treatment plant?

homework

FORMAT: papers should be double space only, typed with Times New Roman font, 12 point (not 14-18 point font), and, one-inch margin all around (not two or three inch-margins). A double-spaced page contains roughly 22 lines. ADD NO EXTRA LINES BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS. The Title page (containing your paper’s Title, your name, Prof.’s name, topic #, as well as time of class meeting) should be a separate page. Number all pages, except the title page. You should also have a Bibliography or Works Cited page in which you list, in alphabetical order, all books and articles (or internet sources) you have consulted in order to write your paper. The Bibliography page should be in addition to the five pages of text. In all you should have at least seven pages.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS PAPER

Be sure to include the title of the book you’re analyzing, in the title of your paper.

EXAMPLE: “The nature of desire in Apuleius’ The Golden Ass”

Do not double space between paragraphs.

Cite your sources, both primary and secondary, in parentheses throughout your paper. Include a Bibliography page at the end of your paper.

Integrate textual evidence into the body of your essay

Quotes: up to three lines long. (If they’re longer, they need to be single space. Absolutely avoid long block quotes.)

Make sure each paragraph has a topic sentence and that there are effective transitions between paragraphs.

Avoid comma splices or putting a period between sentences that are not complete.

Use semi-colons or rewrite sentences with conjunctions.

Example of comma splice: Desdemona can be seen as a feminist heroine, she defies patriarchal norms by eloping with a Moor.

Rewritten: Desdemona can be seen as a feminist heroine because she defies patriarchal norms by eloping with a Moor.

Number each page at the top right-hand margin.

Italicize book titles. Use quotation marks “…” for chapters or articles in books. Example, “Comedy and War.”

Be sure to use the present tense when you discuss literary works (details of plot, character, etc).

A paper needs to have an Introduction with Thesis, several pages of development and a Conclusion. See my posts on Blackboard on how to write an Introduction/Thesis, a Conclusion, etc.

NO PLOT SUMMARIES; see my posts on BB on the difference between a Plot summary and a textual analysis.

Topic

The root of the word “friendship” means “Love” in Latin based languages. In what way is friendship a form of “love” between Dante and Virgil, in Dante’s Inferno? Make sure to discuss and to include a few pieces of evidence from the text(s) of your analysis.

homework

Group Names: ________________

Module 03 Assignment- Interventions to Promote an Environment of Safety

Purpose of the Assignment

Identify strategies to reduce the risk for injury to clients in various environments.

Course Competencies

· Select appropriate nursing interventions when providing multidimensional care to clients experiencing alterations in mobility.

· Strategies for safe effective multidimensional nursing practice when providing care for clients experiencing sensory and perception disorders.

Instructions

In a one page Word Document, plan interventions with rationale which will promote an environment of safety for the described client below. Consider the client’s medical history and medications.

Mr. Joe Smith, 75-year old man, recently suffered a left cerebrovascular accident. He has right visual field deficits and residual weakness in this right arm and leg. He uses a walker for mobility. He takes Metoprolol for his blood pressure and the physician started him on Coumadin because he has recently been diagnosed with atrial fibrillation.


*Use at least two scholarly sources to support your interventions and rationale. Be sure to cite your sources in-text and on a reference page using APA format.


*Find 5 or more (scroll to the bottom of this document, mastery is MORE than 5) interventions with rationales, they EACH must be cited with literature


*Do NOT copy and paste, turn in Grammarly report. Plagiarism score <15%

You can find useful reference materials for this assignment in the School of Nursing Guide https://guides.rasmussen.edu/nursing/referenceebooks

Have questions about APA? Visit the online APA Guide

https://guides.rasmussen.edu/apa

Planned safety interventions

Rationale

Example 1

Keep clutter out of walkways and arrange furniture to provide wide walking areas.

To prevent Mr. Smith from stumbling during ambulation with his walker. He has a visual impairment and may not see furniture, throw pillows, rugs, or books in his way. Wilkinson, Treas, Barnett & Smith (2016) recommend clutter-free walkways for adults with limited mobility.

Example 2

He should wear an armband identification for Coumadin

In the event of falls, Hull, Garcia &Vazquez (2019) indicate that patients on Coumadin (blood thinner) may bleed internally, even when there are no visible injuries. The identification band will make all staff aware of his risks, and all falls should be reported to his health care provider.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

References

Hull, R. D., Garcia, D. A., & Vazquez, S. R. (2019). Patient education: Warfarin (Coumadin) (beyond the basics). Retrieved July 25, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/warfarin-coumadin-beyond-the-basics

Total Assessment Points – 30

Levels of Achievement

Criteria

Emerging

Competence

Proficiency

Mastery

Interventions and Rationale

(20 Pts)

Lacks appropriate interventions and rationales to assist the client in resolving the concerns leading to the problem.

Failure to submit Interventions and Rationale will result in zero points for this criterion.

Write 3 interventions and rationales to assist the client in resolving the concerns leading to the problem with appropriate references.

Write 5 interventions and rationales to assist the client in resolving the concerns leading to the problem with appropriate references.

Writes more than 5 interventions and rationales to assist the client in resolving the concerns s leading to the problem with appropriate references.

Points – 15

Points – 16

Points – 18

Points –20

APA Citation

(5 Pts)

APA in-text citations and references are missing.

Attempted to use APA in-text citations and references.

APA in-text citations and references are used with few errors.

APA in-text citations and references are used correctly.

Points:2

Points:3

Points:4

Points:5

Spelling and Grammar

(5 Pts)

Numerous spelling and grammar errors, which detract from the audience’s ability to comprehend material.

Some spelling and grammar errors, which detract from the audience’s ability to comprehend material.

Few spelling and grammar errors.

Minimal to no spelling and grammar errors.

Points: 2

Points: 3

Points: 4

Points:5

Homework



PCN-490 Case Study: Kay

Kay, a 27-year-old Hispanic female, came to the local CMHC upon her medical doctor’s referral because she was increasingly despondent over the last few months. Her husband reported that she is a “basket case” because she wants to talk all the time about her problems to him; but all she has to do is to take care of things and everything will be all right. She has increased her drinking and marijuana use but she asserts that it is needed now and she has no problem with it because it’s under her control.

Family: Kay has two children: a son, age 5; and a daughter, age 2. Kay takes care of the children. She does not have to work because her husband has a good job. She feels isolated because she has no support here.

Kay’s parents moved to Puerto Rico about 6 years ago to retire, and they seem to have detached themselves from her since she got married. Kay’s mother- and father-in-law live in California and she does not stay in touch with them either. Her friends are the other mothers she meets when she drops her kids off at school. They talk for a while at McDonald’s but then they all go to their homes.

Medical: Kay suffers from stomachaches, and she described herself as always very anxious; then she says she just gives up and believes she will never be happy. She will always be trapped in a situation where she cannot do things for herself. Then her stomach problems kick in and she can’t sleep. Occasionally she takes sleeping pills, eats late at night, and smokes pot, which she gets from her husband, to relax. He also uses it to relax from his hectic job. She states she and her husband have no drug problem.

Psychiatric History and Current Situation: History is unremarkable. There are no previous hospitalizations or sessions with a therapist nor has she ever taken any psychiatric medications. Kay says she is not happy because she was unsuccessful at applying for a loan, which she needed to go to nursing school. Although she passed her entry exams, she would not have time or energy to do it even if she got the money. She desperately needs some adult socializing and learning so she can feel productive again. She used to be an executive secretary in New York City where she met her husband several years ago.

She also says her husband does not accept her, which makes her unhappy; but she could not describe this any further. This is the time when her self-esteem drops, she feels depressed, and does not know what to do. She retreats, makes sure her kids are okay and then she will drink, smoke pot, and plan for the future, but the plans never are realized by her.

When she makes a mistake (and it could be minor) with the children, paying bills, or other daily responsibilities, she believes she is worthless and inept. When she talks to her girlfriends at the kids’ school and they disagree with her, she interprets it as they don’t like her; and then she begins to ruminate over problems until she hates herself. When asked what she does when she “hates herself,” she repeats that she gets depressed and starts to drink – usually a bottle of wine, and, during those times, the pot use increases to more than one joint a day. Then she feels relaxed, gets her courage up, and goes into the bedroom to “give it to her husband.” But by then, he is asleep, and she is afraid that if she wakes him, then the kids will wake up too, and nothing will be resolved. Usually by then, she feels so tired that she sleeps on the couch and starts the day again in the morning.

Now, a new idea has come up that she wants to work on – Kay wants to start massage school. It is easier to get money for the classes and it will also be easier to get work when she graduates. She just recently got accepted. She applied without anyone knowing and had the interview and starts in one week. She also has the money for it by saving her allowance that her husband gives her. Now she has to talk to someone about babysitting a couple of nights a week. She started working on a friend to pick the kids up from their school and she would be at her friend’s house at 6 pm every Wednesday and Thursday night. This is a secret and her husband doesn’t know about it. He comes home at 7 pm anyway.

She can’t talk to her husband about it because he does not understand. She wholeheartedly believes she will make it through this school and eventually make 35 dollars an hour massaging people in a health spa. Who knows! Eventually, she said she might even get 50 dollars a session!

Studying anatomy and physiology will be easy since the books are easier than nursing school and she definitely can spend time studying and not get upset to the point where she uses the alcohol and pot. When she was asked if she had a plan yet to pull the whole thing together for next week, she said, “No, it will just happen.”

She wants help because she believes her value as a person depends upon what others think of her and what she can do. She wants to feel satisfied and happy as a regular person. She said she has no more self-confidence, energy, or motivation in the daytime and that worries her too. But, with this new idea, she will be a success.

You have been assigned this case because the previous counselor resigned from her job.

Here are some chart excerpts and summary notes from the counseling sessions.

Counseling Sessions 1 – 4

Kay: “About five years ago I started having trouble sleeping and started to take a tranquilizer (5 mg Valium). I normally take one or two pills two to four times a week to help me sleep through the entire night. I became afraid I’d become addicted, so I started drinking wine before bed and that did the trick.”

Counselor: Can you think of any cause and effect connections between what is going on for you to use alcohol and pot from what I read in the closing summary of the previous worker?

Kay: “I told the last counselor that I was having problems…with work, school, and especially with my husband. It must be all there in your notes. Right?”

Counselor: Yes, but I was specifically interested in your reasons about what brought you here seeking help.

Kay: “I can’t figure it out anymore. I should be able to. I am not satisfied and when I try out something I am afraid I will fail. I can’t relax or sleep or even become satisfied with taking care of my kids. I just do things: With the two kids I am obligated; with the rest, I can’t relax and I want to be like everyone else – comfortable and secure.”

Counselor: I know what you mean. Things that you can stand up for yourself when you are feeling good about yourself just get to be too much when you’re under some kind of stress or feeling hopeless.

Kay: “That’s it! I have been under stress and uncomfortable. I am so glad to be home but then I want to try out new things and I get scared and give up; even though I don’t want to.”

(Discussion Question #1: In-Session Analysis)

What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Explain your reason for it.

In the morning she drinks at least three to four cups of coffee daily, even on the weekends. She noticed that her sleeping problems developed around the same time her parents moved. They were in their early 50’s and they were very close. The move hit her hard and she says she wanted to give in to a big depression because maybe they didn’t like her husband being an American. However, she fought it and lost herself in her kids and trying to move forward to “be something” like her parents wanted her to be. She can barely make it to pick up her kids and do after-dinner chores.

Lately however, she has noticed that she has been steadily increasing her use of wine. Before, she would only have a few glasses with dinner but now…

Kay: “More often than not, I finish off the bottle before going to bed. I just can’t seem to stop. A lot of times I will come home and tell myself that I’ll only have one glass and no more, but by the time I go to bed, the bottle is empty and I’m deciding whether I should open another or not. I never used to drink to excess or take anti-anxiety medication before. Now I can’t seem to stop drinking or taking these ‘downers’ at social events. I can’t seem to control when I take them and things are happening that I’m not too

happy about.

Kay explains to the counselor that last week she had a fight with her husband because he stopped her pot (he had none for himself) and she can’t even talk about what happens during the day to him, because he refuses to listen. He is a good provider but Kay reported: She could not get out of bed that morning because, “he tells me to shut up and handle things.” He pays the bills and she is supposed to take care of the kids and then do what she feels like doing because that’s her business! It took all her willpower to get up and get dressed. As it was, she was still 20 minutes late driving the kids to school, “which is inexcusable.” She was so nervous and sick she had to get a friend to pick the kids up in the afternoon.

Counselor: It seems like while you were upset with your husband, you were hesitant to talk and state what you needed from him.

Kay: “The next day I met with my friends and they recommended (ordered) I make an appointment with your agency again. I’m really scared and worried. I don’t have anything to live for. Well, not really. But I want to live more. I accept my life, and then I feel frustrated, angry. I try to calm down with the help of some wine and weed; I can’t seem to get out of the hole!”

Counselor: Even though you lose hope sometimes, it sounds like you are committed to work some things out and try to stay clean. Do I have that right?

Kay: “Yes. I am going to have to decide what to do. I thought I was strong enough for anything, but this scares me.”

(Discussion Question #2: In-Session Analysis)

What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Explain your reason for it.

(Discussion Questions #3: Out-Session Analysis)

1. What would your initial assessment of Kay be? (Give your diagnostic impression)

2. What would you say Kay’s main drug of choice is and do you think she will need to address it in spite of all her other problems?

3. Based on Kay’s emotional situation and the medications she is taking, what if any dangers do you need to be aware of?

4. Based on the information Kay has given you, whom would you need to contact to advise anyone about her situation and what would you need from Kay to make these contacts?

5. If Kay’s husband calls your office to find out about her, how would you respond to his inquiry? What are his rights to know if Kay has appointments with you?

6. What possible dual diagnosis issue(s) might Kay have and how would you confirm this possibility.

7. Are there any other issues that you feel may need to be addressed in this case?

Counseling Sessions 5 – 8

Counselor: Kay, from what we’ve studied about your case in our agency, we believe further treatment may be necessary to help you with your depression and drug problem.

Specifically, your expression of frustration with getting the support you need from your husband and trying to manage your own personal goals with some maladaptive substance abuse behaviors.

Kay: “The drugs are worrying me. I don’t deny that. About 10 years ago I started that for a short time because I was rejected by a boyfriend when I gave him everything. Thank God my mother was there to help me then.”

Counselor: Perhaps we can prioritize some problems; find out what is the most important ones to work on…to make you feel better?

Kay: “Okay. I want to be able to get the support I need from my husband to figure out my work desires without being afraid to talk to him.”

Counselor: It sounds like he may be a trigger that gets you feeling confused?

Kay: “Yes, but I remember I have always had a problem like this and tried to fix it by saying what I wanted.”

Counselor: Can you give an example?

Kay: “When I didn’t like something I’d yell and cursed, then I’d say I was sorry. But I felt the person didn’t believe me. It’s happened with my mom, my husband, friends……ever since I was 17.

(Discussion Question #4: In Session Analysis)

What would your next response be if you were the counselor? What technique would you use to change this and her related problems with this assumed social skill and coping skill deficit? Outline a treatment plan for Kay.

Kay: “The idea of a trigger makes sense to me. If I learned how to get my point across to my husband and not use so much when frustrated, perhaps I can be free to go to massage school.”

Counselor: Perhaps; so, if I can summarize things to find out if we understand each other:

Your unassertiveness is influencing your drug use and not getting you what you want. Additionally, you need support from your husband primarily to help you with the family, more than just being a good provider, to make the changes you need for yourself. Is that accurate?

Counselor: Well Kay, We have been working on some changes and practicing them during sessions. Do they seem to be working out Okay?

Kay: “Okay, but your attitude sometimes reminds me of my husband, always taking charge. I feel like you will criticize me if things don’t go well.”

(Discussion Question #5: In Session Analysis)

Describe what your next response would be if you were the counselor and explain what is happening in the session. State a possible solution to be able to move on with the client.

(Discussion Questions #6: Out Session Analysis)

1. What is happening in this middle phase of the counseling process?

2. What plan would you hypothesize for the final phase of the counseling process?

3. What kind of counter-transference (affect) would you have with Kay if you were the counselor? Outline a plan to manage it in your next supervisory session.

Counseling Sessions 9 – 12

Counselor: Kay, regarding the homework between sessions, have you noticed any changes….better or worse?

Kay: “I am sleeping better. I told my husband to stop smoking the pot so I won’t be tempted. He gives it to me, you know! The wine is still a problem on the weekends, but I drink less during the week.”

Counselor: Sounds like there are some changes in the positive direction.

Kay: “Yep, I may have a drinking problem, but I am not an alcoholic.”

Counselor: Remember we discussed your practicing “cognitive restructuring.” Let’s see if we can do some now, Okay?

Kay: “Okay! So, when I said that I may have a drinking problem, but I am not an alcoholic, I should check out this by asking myself…(Is my thinking likely to help me or hinder me in achieving my short- and long-term goals?) Well, I feel that if I don’t make progress, I will be depressed, but I can see how getting stuck on that thought brings up some negative self-statements and my self-esteem issues that will interfere with my goals as I try to reach some of them.”

Counselor: So, how can you handle this one now?

Kay: “Like I practiced before……I have to be aware that if I hang in there, there will be times when I get ahead of myself and I have to tell myself that progress comes slow, and there may be some backsliding in my thinking and my behavior. But that is part of the process and I can always ask for help from you or some strong supports that I am trying to develop.”

Counselor: Can you measure how you felt before with your premature conclusion about drinking and how you are measuring your feeling now?

Kay: “When I said it I was anxious about 60 percent; now, after working it through, I feel about 30 percent anxious.”

Counselor: That’s good. It seems like you are becoming more aware and even continuing to make changes in the sessions and outside of them too!

Kay: “Yep, I think it started when I told my husband that I am going to massage school. I didn’t want to keep it a secret anymore. I got no response from him. But he later asked about it, when it started, and if I could practice on him because he needs it.”

Counselor: Do you think he should be invited into the sessions?

Kay: “Not at all! He will never understand this stuff we are discussing. I can work on him myself. Are you going to tell him I am coming here?”

(Discussion Question #7: In Session Analysis)

What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Give your reason for it.

(Discussion Question #8: Out Session Analysis)

Describe and define the treatment techniques used by the counselor in the middle phase of treatment with Kay. Explain the rationale for slightly similar techniques with this client.

Counselor: Since we prioritized problems weeks ago; do you think it is time to include other issues now?

Kay: “Well, not really, but I think I will need some help with the stress of massage school when I am there. I don’t think I will take up the pot, but the weekend drinking may be tough. I agree it is poor coping. I want to find out how I can decompress better. Massage school is rough, you know. I don’t want to relapse, and I know my insurance is almost up to pay for this counseling.”

(Discussion Question #9: In Session Analysis)

What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Give your reason for it.

(Discussion Question # 10: Out Session Analysis)

If Kay relapsed during termination, explain how you would manage it. In your answer include: One model you would use, one technique to intervene, and one mutually agreed goal and objective you would work on.

(Discussion Questions #11: Out Session Analysis)

1. Describe your plan with Kay for termination and booster sessions taking into consideration the limits of her medical insurance.

2. Explain what else Kay may need from counseling if she had a better insurance to continue counseling.

3. Write your own (one page) treatment summary for this client (from what you have so far) because her case has to be closed due to lack of insurance with no extensions granted for the next 10 months.

© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

homework

Philosophy of Nursing Paper Guidelines and Grading Rubric

The philosophy of nursing paper is a two to three-page, double-spaced, 1” margin reflective “mission” statement. When thinking about nursing, in the first person, summarize your guiding principles using present tense. Submit all philosophy of nursing papers on Bb using your last name and then the name of the assignment on day assigned in Course Outline. Emailed papers are unacceptable. You may use SafeAssign before submission to check for citation problems and plagiarism.

Content

Possible

Points

Points Earned

1. Personal beliefs. Describe your values and beliefs about nursing. You may use “I believe…” statements that include your:

a. Your definition of nursing.

b. What are your beliefs on how nursing is related to the general population (Who are they?), general health (What is it?), and the environment (Where is nursing practiced?).

c. Beliefs about the profession of nursing.

d. Significance of collaboration with other health professionals.

10

10

10

10

2. Nursing as a career. Demonstrate that you have given thought to your career and explain the rationale for your decision.

a. Inspiration from the past. (Who or what?)

b. Define professional goals.

c. Identify roles and responsibilities to advance the profession of nursing.

d. How you will provide safe, effective care?

e. How your academic preparation will facilitate your positive contributions to the health care system?

10

10

10

10

10

3. Organization, grammar, and APA format.
Proofread your paper before submission to make sure that your paper:

a. Complies with length requirements 2-3 pages;

b. Consistently uses APA (7th edition-student paper) format (title page, page numbers, and if needed, in-text citations and reference list);

c. Is free of grammatical, sentence structure, spelling, punctuation and organizational (introduction, body and summary with logical flow) errors.

3

4

3

4. Deductions

See guidelines outlined in the syllabus adherence to submission deadline.

Grade

HOMEWORK

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 33 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a professional oral health care program on the oral health
status and salivary flow of elderly people living in nursing homes.

Methods: Elderly residents aged ≥ 65 years, living in a nursing home, were randomly assigned to either a one-week interval, two-
week interval, or control group, and received an oral health intervention accordingly over a period of 12 weeks. Plaque index,
tongue coating, gingival index, and salivary flow rate were compared before and after the oral health intervention within and
between the groups.

Results: The plaque, tongue coating, and gingival indices of the participants who received the oral health intervention
decreased significantly; while the salivary flow rate significantly increased. Plaque, tongue coating, and gingival indices
decreased most significantly in the one-week interval group, followed by the two-week interval group, relative to the control.
The salivary flow rate increased most significantly in the one-week interval group, followed by the two-week interval group.

Conclusion: A professional oral health care program is effective for improving the oral health and salivation of elderly
residents in nursing homes and the effect was found to be greater with interventions provided at one-week intervals. Oral
health care professionals, including dentists and dental hygienists, must regularly monitor and manage the oral health of
elderly residents.

Keywords: oral health promotion, oral health intervention, elderly, nursing home residents, oral health care, dental
hygienists, caregivers

This manuscript supports the NDHRA priority area: Client level: Oral health care (Health promotion: treatments,
behaviors, products).

Submitted for publication: 3/11/20; accepted: 6/18/20.

Effects of Professional Oral Health Care Programs for Elderly
Residents of Nursing Facilities
Kyeong Hee Lee, RDH, PhD; Keun Yoo Lee, RDH, PhD; Yoon Young Choi, DDS, PhD;
Eun Seo Jung, RDH, PhD

Research

Introduction
It can be challenging for most elderly nursing home

residents to implement oral health care independently due to
chronic disease, disabilities, or decreased cognitive function
and assistance in performing activities of daily living are often
required.1 Poor oral health can lead to oral diseases, which can
decrease quality of life (QOL) and increase mortality risk.2
Moreover, the elderly, particularly those in nursing facilities,
often have chronic illnesses requiring medications with adverse
oral side effects, such as xerostomia.3 While regular oral health
care is critical to maintain the QOL of the elderly in nursing
homes, it often receives a low intervention priority.4

The lack of onsite dental clinics at Korean nursing homes
is a barrier to dental care for elderly residents living in such

facilities.5 Residents with oral health problems must visit the
local clinic with the help of the nursing home staff, which can
pose challenges. To address this access to care issue, the Korean
government reformed the regulations to include dentists
in the definition of “part-time visiting doctors” providing
medical services in geriatric care facilities. However, general
doctors and dentists are commissioned by the individual
geriatric care facilities. Many of these facilities have chosen to
extend their contract with the general medical practitioners
who have been visiting the facility, rather than employ part-
time visiting dentists. Hence, the oral health care of elderly
residents is mostly managed by the institutional caregivers.

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 34 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

Caregivers often regard oral care provision for the residents
as a minimal part of their overall work.6 Even when the
caregiver is committed to the care of these individuals, proper
oral health care provision is hindered by the caregiver’s lack of
professional education and training in geriatric oral health care.7
A recent qualitative study of caregivers revealed that methods
and level of oral care provision for elderly residents varied across
facilities, depending on the level of commitment of the facility
head.8 Choi emphasized the need for an oral health intervention
program run by oral health professionals within the facility in
order to provide quality dental service.9

Most previous research on geriatric oral health care
in nursing homes has targeted caregivers nursing the
elderly.10-12 Some studies have utilized professional oral health
care providers, but varied in terms of the method of care,
intervention duration, and measurement index used.13,14 Lee
et al.15 developed a one-week interval professional oral health
care program based on the previous studies.13,14 Their findings
demonstrated that elderly residents’ oral health status
improved based on the intervention duration (4 weeks and
12 weeks). However, the study failed to consider the effect
of the intervention interval, as only a one-week interval was
used, which is challenging at the practical level within in the
context of almost non-existent professional oral health care.16

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects
of implementing a professional oral health care program at
different intervals, one week or two weeks, on the oral health
status and salivary flow rate (SFR) of the elderly living in
nursing care facilities.

Methods
Sample population

The target population was elderly persons aged ≥ 65 years
residing in nursing homes in the Gyeonggi and Chungcheong
Provinces in the Republic of Korea. Nursing homes were
selected through convenience sampling, and informed
consent was obtained. Each participant was assigned to
either a one-week interval group, two-week interval group,
or control group; participants were either bed-ridden patients
with complete dependence in activities of daily living (ADL)
or demonstrated partial dependence in ADL. Inclusion
criteria were individuals who had not received any dental
care within the past 6 months. Individuals who refused to
open their mouth due to severe cognitive impairment, those
with Sjögren’s syndrome, or those who were on salivation
stimulation medication were excluded from the study.

A power analysis was performed to determine the minimum
sample size required for the t-test and was calculated using

G*Power 3.1 for Windows. For a significance level of 0.05, effect
size of 0.5, and power of 0.85, at least 38 subjects per group
were required, however, considering drop-out, 135 participants
(45 per group) was set as the sample size. Shinhan University
Institutional Review Board approved the study. Additionally,
informed consent from all participants was obtained following
the explanation of the study objective and method of
participation. In cases of elderly patients with communication
difficulties, consent from guardians was received.

To test for homogeneity of the group participants, data on
general characteristics, long-term care insurance (LTCI) level,
length of stay (LOS), cognitive function, ADL performance,
and general health- and oral health-related characteristics
were collected via a questionnaire. Initial information
regarding gender, age, education level, and participant-
partner living arrangement was received prior to starting
the questionnaire. The Korean version of Mini-Mental State
Examination (MMSE-K)17 was used to measure cognitive
function. ADL performance was assessed using the modified
Barthel index, which had been revised to reflect Korean
culture and standardized by Jeong et al.18 Data were collected
on the following categories: number of chronic illnesses,
number of current medications, recent bouts of pneumonia,
daily oral care, refusal of oral care, and xerostomia. General
characteristics and cognitive function were asked directly to
residents and answers were recorded accordingly. Activities of
daily living performance and general health- and oral health-
related characteristics were assessed by the nursing staff, social
worker, or caregiver.

Intervention

The professional oral health care program was implemented
for 12 weeks; at one-week intervals in the one-week interval
group, and at two-week intervals in the two-week interval group.
In the control group, no professional oral health care program
was implemented. The intervention was designed based on the
research method used previously by Lee et al.,15 and was further
modified and supplemented through expert consultation with a
dentist, two dental hygiene professors, and two clinical dental
hygienists. Professional oral care was performed by four dental
hygienists and lasted about six minutes per participant. To avoid
any experimenter bias, the study participants were randomly
assigned to the same dental hygienist each time. Dental
hygienists were blinded to group selection.

The professional oral health care intervention was carried
out according to the following procedures. The lip area was
first cleaned with gauze soaked in a disinfectant mixture
of saline and mouth rinse (Listerine, McNeil Consumer
Healthcare; Fort Washington, PA, USA). Vaseline Petroleum

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 35 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

jelly was then applied to the lips. For participants with
dentures, each denture was removed and cleaned of debris
via a suction device. The teeth and tongue were cleaned using
a combination of rolling brushing, Watanabe brushing,
and Bass brushing methods. Interdental brushes were used
to clean the interproximal areas in the posterior region.
The participant was then asked to rinse with water. If the
participant had difficulty with rinsing, a suction device was
used to remove the water. After removing debris in the oral
cavity, the tongue was wiped using a sponge brush soaked in
chlorhexidine and squeezed to remove excess. A moisturizer
was then applied. The buccal mucosa was massaged using
either the handle of a toothbrush or a finger, the upper/lower
lips were stretched outwards for five seconds for each of three
cycles, and the buccal and lingual gingivae were massaged
using the thumb and index finger. Areas of the parotid,
submandibular, and sublingual glands were massaged ten
times each. Each participant was provided with an interdental
brush and a sponge brush, which were replaced once every
two months and at each visit, respectively. Patients wearing
dentures were provided with denture cleansers.

Outcome measures

The oral health status pre- and post-intervention was
examined to evaluate the effects of the professional oral
healthcare program. The O’Leary index,19 Winkel Tongue
Coating Index,20 Löe & Silness gingival index,21 and salivary
flow rate (SFR),22 were measured. Additionally, an oral
examination was performed by a single dentist and post-
intervention oral health status was assessed in all groups,
three days after program termination.

The O’Leary index19 is a quantitative measurement of
individual oral status. Disclosing agent was applied to all
teeth. Each tooth was first divided into four surfaces (mesial,
distal, buccal, lingual) and the coloring on each surface
was recorded as a score of 0 for “No plaque” or 1 for “With
plaque,” indicating poorer hygiene control. The occlusal and
incisal surfaces and any missing teeth were excluded from
measurement.

Tongue coating was evaluated using the Winkel Tongue
Coating Index (WTCI).20 With the patient’s mouth wide
open, the tongue was divided into six sections, two vertical
sections from tip to base and three horizontal sections. Tongue
coating for each section was rated as 0 for “No coating,” 1 for
“Light coating,” or 2 for “Heavy coating.” The sum of these
scores (range: 0-12) indicated the total amount of coating.

The Löe & Silness gingival index21 is widely used for
measuring the level of periodontal disease by examining four
sections (mesial, distal, buccal, lingual) of the gingival margin.

For each section, the level of inflammation was evaluated as 0
for “No inflammation,” 1 for “Mild inflammation with slight
changes in color and edema, but no bleeding on probing,”
2 for “Moderate inflammation with redness, edema, and
bleeding on probing,” and 3 for “Severe inflammation with
redness, hyperplasia, and spontaneous bleeding.” The total
sum of the scores was then divided by the total number of
gingival margins examined, with 0 indicating healthy gingiva.

Salivary flow rate was measured using the swab method.22
Without having brushed their teeth for two hours following
breakfast, participants were asked to swallow to void the
mouth of saliva prior to measurement. Dental cotton rolls
were placed in the mouth (1.3 × 3.2 cm, Richmond Dental
Company; Charlotte, NC, USA): one under the ventral
surface (sublingual salivary gland) and one each in the left
and right maxillary buccal regions (submandibular salivary
glands). After five minutes without any movement, the cotton
rolls were removed and their weight was measured using a
CB Series (CB-200) digital scale with a resolution of 0.01 g
(A&D Co., Ltd., Jinchoen, Korea).

Data analysis

Data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics software
(version 22.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and
the significance level was set to 0.05. A chi-square test was
conducted for categorical variables, For continuous variables,
one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Scheffe’s post-
hoc test was performed. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
was conducted to compare post-intervention-measured
values between groups. However, SFR was not identified
as a significant interaction term for ANCOVA. Therefore,
the homogeneity of pre-intervention measurement values
was first verified. Then, inter-group comparison of post-
intervention measurements was then performed using one-
way ANOVA. To identify pre-to-post changes, a paired t-test
was performed.

Results
Evaluation of the general characteristics, LTCI level, LOS,

cognitive function, and ADL performance revealed that all
variables except for cognitive function were not significantly
different among the groups (Table I). No general health-
or oral health-related characteristics differed significantly
among the groups, confirming their homogeneity (Table II).
The one-week interval group and the control group mostly
had two illnesses; all three groups typically used one to three
medications. Most had no recent history of pneumonia;
performed daily oral care, did not refuse oral care, or reported
having xerostomia.

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 36 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

The results of the paired t-tests comparing the effects of the professional oral care
program are displayed in Table III. After intervention, the O’Leary index decreased by 0.90
and by 0.47 in the one week and two-week interval groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There
was no statistically significant change in the control group. The Winkel Tongue Coating
Index decreased by 3.81 post-intervention in the one-week interval group (p < 0.001), but
there was no significant change in the two-week interval or control groups.

The Löe & Silness gingival index decreased post-intervention by 2.18 and 1.09 in the
one-week and two-week interval groups, respectively (p < 0.05), with no significant change
in the control group. The SFR increased post-intervention by 0.42 and 0.26 in the one-
week and two-week interval groups, respectively (p < 0.05), and decreased by 0.08 in the
control group (p < 0.05).

The plaque index, gingival index, and tongue coating index decreased most significantly
in the one-week interval group, followed by the two-week interval and lastly the control
groups; while SFR increased most significantly in the one-week interval group, followed by
the two-week interval group (p < 0.001).

Discussion
This study aimed to assess the effects of an oral health care intervention program on the

oral health status and salivary flow of elderly residents living in a long-term care facility.
Prior to the intervention, homogeneity across the one-week and two-week interval groups,
as well as the control group, was confirmed; only cognitive function differed between the

groups. Elderly residents in long-
term care facilities frequently
have difficulty performing oral
care independently as a result of
impaired cognition, mobility,
or hand joint micromotion and
are generally at high risk for oral
diseases.23 Patients with impaired
cognitive function tend to forget
about personal oral health care,
display resistant behavior to oral
care performed by nursing staff,
and have difficulty expressing oral
pain or discomfort, if present.24
Although participants’ cognitive
function differed significantly
across groups, the MMSE-K score
was < 19 (dementia) in all groups,
indicating general impairment.
Moreover, the ADL score was
25–49 in all groups, indicating
maximum dependence.18 Since
most of the participants required
assistance, this study concluded
that there was no problem with
the homogeneity between groups.

Pre and post evaluation
revealed that plaque levels signi-
ficantly decreased post-inter-
vention in both of the intervention
groups, consistent with previous
findings.15 According to recent
studies, oral health care is critical to
preventing aspiration pneumonia
in the elderly and oral function
maintenance, muscle strength
recovery, and mental health.16,25
The present study demonstrated
the effect of using a combination of
various brushing methods to clean
the tooth surface and an interdental
brush to wipe the interdental and
posterior surfaces.

Elderly residents of nursing care
homes can suffer hyposalivation
due to adverse effects of multiple
medications and the resultant
increase in tongue coating can

Table I. Participant demographics* (n=125)

Characteristic
1-week
(n = 38)

2-week
(n = 43)

Control
(n = 44)

p-value**

Sex
Male 10 (26.3) 8 (18.6) 4 (9.1)

0.121
Female 28 (73.7) 35 (81.4) 40 (90.9)

Age (years) 82.63 ± 9.26 83.14 ± 8.13 85.02 ± 5.76 0.335

Education

None 15 (39.5) 19 (44.2) 23 (52.3)

0.268Elementary school 14 (36.8) 14 (32.6) 7 (15.9)

≥ Middle school 9 (23.7) 10 (23.2) 14 (31.8)

Living with
partner

Alive 6 (15.8) 11 (25.6) 8 (18.2)
0.509

Widowed 32 (84.2) 32 (74.4) 36 (81.8)

LTCI
level***

Level 1 6 (15.8) 12 (27.9) 3 (6.8)

0.069Level 2 17 (44.7) 12 (27.9) 22 (50.0)

Level 3 15 (39.5) 19 (44.2) 19 (43.2)

LOS (months)*** 15.92 ± 13.37 15.49 ± 12.12 18.48 ± 9.08 0.434

MMSE-K*** 17.18 ± 6.98 a 15.07 ± 6.12 ab 13.16 ± 7.84 b 0.039

ADL*** 33.45 ± 28.67 46.56 ± 33.07 34.14 ± 27.18 0.079

*Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%)

**p-values of age, LOS, K-MMSE, and ADL performance were calculated using ANOVA, chi-square tests
were used for the remainder.

***LTCI, long-term care insurance; LOS, length of stay; MMSE-K, Korean version of Mini-Mental State
Examination; ADL, activities of daily living.

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 37 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

lead to increased risk of malodor, caries,
periodontal disease, and fungal infections (e.g.,
oral candidiasis).26 A sponge brush containing
chlor-hexidine was used to wipe the oral
mucosa and tongue followed by the application
of moisturizer. Tongue coating significantly de-
creased in the one-week interval group, which
was consistent with a previous study.15 Tongue
coating decreased slightly in the two-week
interval group, but not significantly. Reduction
effects on tongue coating can vary depending
on the intervention interval.

The gingival index score also significantly
decreased post-intervention in both inter-
vention groups. According to Matthews et
al.,27 66–74% of elderly residents in nursing
homes have comorbid gingivitis and 32–49%
require treatment for periodontal disease, a
known risk factor of cardiovascular disease.28
Efforts to prevent progression from gingivitis
to periodontitis is necessary. The reduction
of gingivitis and improvement of periodontal
condition through oral hygiene care were
confirmed in this study.

Salivary gland hypofunction disrupts the
normal homeostasis of the oral cavity, con-
tributing to a range of oral diseases including
dental caries, taste disturbances, candidiasis,
and difficulties with swallowing, chewing, and
speaking.29 Ohara et al. reported that oral health
care, facial and tongue muscle exercises, and
salivary gland massage can increase salivation
in elderly patients with xerostomia.30 This study
demonstrated that SFR significantly increased
in both experimental groups after massaging
the salivary glands and oral muscles, with a
greater effect observed in the one-week interval
group. This finding has important implications
for stimulating salivary function.

Across all measurement indices, the effects
were two-fold greater in the one-week versus
two-week interval group, which confirms that
a shorter intervention interval more markedly
improves the oral health status and SFR in
the elderly, which has implications for the
implementation of a professional oral health
care program. However, this study only lasted
12 weeks, and as such, does not reflect the

Table II. General and oral health-related characteristics

Characteristic Response
1-week
(n = 38)
n (%)

2-week
(n = 43)

n(%)

Control
(n = 44)

n(%)
p-value*

Number
of chronic
illnesses

≤ 1 12 (31.6) 17 (39.5) 11 (25.0)

0.5872 15 (39.5) 15 (34.9) 22 (50.0)

≥ 3 11 (28.9) 11 (25.6) 11 (25.0)

Number
of current
medications

≤ 3 21 (55.3) 24 (55.8) 23 (52.3)

0.8274-5 14 (36.8) 18 (41.9) 18 (40.9)

≥ 6 3 (7.9) 1 (2.3) 3 (6.8)

Recent
pneumonia

Yes 3 (7.9) 2 (4.7) 0 (0.0)
0.184

No 35 (92.1) 41 (95.3) 44 (100.0)

Capable of
daily oral care

Yes 25 (65.8) 20 (46.5) 26 (59.1)

0.122Somewhat 7 (18.4) 19 (44.2) 11 (25.0)

No 6 (15.8) 4 (9.3) 7 (15.9)

Refusal of
oral care

Yes 8 (21.1) 19 (44.2) 13 (29.5)
0.076

No 30 (78.9) 24 (55.8) 31 (70.5)

Xerostomia
Yes 32 (84.2) 29 (67.4) 36 (81.8)

0.138
No 6 (15.8) 14 (32.6) 8 (18.2)

*p-values were calculated using chi-square test.

Table III. Comparison of plaque index, tongue coating index, gingival
index, salivary flow rate

Variables
Pre-intervention

Mean ± SD
Post-intervention

Mean ± SD
p-value*

Between groups
p-value**

Plaque index

1-week 1.52 ± 1.53 0.62 ± 0.75 <0.001
<0.0012-week 1.39 ± 1.40 0.92 ± 1.04 <0.001

Control 1.50 ± 1.35 1.47 ± 1.36 0.237
Tongue coating index

1-week 5.92 ± 3.51 2.11 ± 2.86 <0.001
<0.0012-week 5.14 ± 1.95 4.74 ± 2.21 0.215

Control 4.68 ± 1.89 4.66 ± 1.90 0.323
Gingival index

1-week 2.76 ± 3.76 0.57 ± 2.04 <0.001
<0.0012-week 2.65 ± 5.09 1.55 ± 3.45 0.002

Control 5.02 ± 5.91 5.11 ± 5.81 0.781
Salivary flow rate

1-week 1.07 ± 1.30 1.50 ± 1.55 <0.001
<0.0012-week 3.35 ± 0.49 3.61 ± 0.82 0.007

Control 3.11 ± 0.40 3.02 ± 0.40 0.001
*p-values were calculated using a paired t-test.
**p-values of SFR were calculated using ANOVA and the remainder with ANCOVA.

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 38 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

results of continued care. Future studies should evaluate the
effects of implementing the program over a longer time frame.

Limitations of this study include the small sample size and
the possible inaccuracy of participant information related to
general and oral health-related characteristics as obtained from
the nursing staff responsible for the elderly resident. Future
research should aim to enhance the sample both in size and
representativeness.

Conclusion
Results from this study demonstrated that the

implementation of a professional oral health care program
enhances the oral health and salivation in the elderly.
Accordingly, oral health professionals, dentists, and dental
hygienists, should monitor and manage oral health of the
elderly in long-term care facilities. Relevant guidelines
for institutions need to be established requiring daily oral
hygiene care and regular dental care to elderly residents in
nursing homes.

Disclosure
This study was supported by a National Research

Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government
(Ministry of Science and ICT; No. 2018R1A2B6006701).
The funders had no role in the study design, data collection
and analysis, or preparation of the manuscript.

Kyeong Hee Lee, RDH, PhD is an associate professor,
Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Bioecological
Health, Shinhan University, Republic of Korea; Keun Yoo
Lee, RDH, PhD is a medical consultation team leader, Asan-si
Public Health Center, Republic of Korea; Yoon Young Choi,
DDS, PhD is a research professor, Artificial Intelligence Big
Data Medical Center, Yonsei University Wonju College of
Medicine, Republic of Korea; Eun Seo Jung, RDH, PhD is an
adjunct professor, Department of Dental Hygiene, College of
Bioecological Health, Shinhan University, Republic of Korea

Corresponding author: Eun Seo Jung, RDH, PhD;
dentalmien@hanmail.net

References
1. Sung, K. Predictive factors associated with death of

elderly in nursing homes. Asian Nurs Res. 2014 Jun; 8:
143-9.

2. Zenthöfer A, Rammelsberg P, Cabrera T, et al. Determinants
of oral health-related quality of life of the institutionalized
elderly. Psychogeriatrics. 2014 Dec; 14: 247-54.

3. Tanigawa T, Yamashita J, Sato T, et al. Efficacy and
safety of pilocarpine mouthwash in elderly patients with
xerostomia. Spec Care Dentist. 2015 Feb; 35:164-9.

4. Kwak JS, Woo SH, Lee JR. Recognition towards oral
health care and plaque removal in the elderly people. J
Korean Soc Dent Hyg. 2015 Aug; 15: 727-33.

5. Ko SM, Lim SR. Oral hygiene care for elderly in care
facility. J Korean Dent Assoc. 2015 Oct; 53: 678-87.

6. Joen HS, Han SY, Chung WG, et al. Knowledge, attitude
and behavior status on oral health care of geriatric care
workers in long-term care facilities. J Dent Hyg Sci. 2015
Oct; 15: 569-76.

7. Kim GH, Kwon YS. A study on oral health perception
and oral health-related quality of life of the elderly
patients in a geriatric hospital. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg.
2016 Jun; 16: 363-71.

8. Jung ES, Choi YY, Lee KH. A qualitative study on the
present conditions and problems of oral health care in
senile dementia patients. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg. 2019
Aug; 19: 601-14.

9. Choi JS. Oral health status of long-term care facility
residents. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg. 2017 Jun; 17: 527-37.

10. Hoben M, Hu H, Xiong T, et al. Barriers and facilitators
in providing oral health care to nursing home residents,
from the perspective of care aides-a systematic review
protocol. Syst Rev. 2016 Apr; 7: 53.

11. Kim KM, Park YN, Lee MK, et al. Oral health knowledge
level on oral care and elder oral hygiene care of the
nursing home staff in long-term care facilities. J Korean
Soc Dent Hyg. 2014 Oct; 14: 723-30.

12. Baek JH, Lee HJ, Choi HJ, et al. Content analysis of
daily tooth cleaning service records by caregivers in a
long-term care facility. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg. 2014
Dec; 14: 903-13.

13. Choi SM. The effects of professional oral health care on oral
health states of long-term care patients in geriatric hospital
[dissertation]. Gyeongsan: Yeungnam University; 2012.

14. Jeon YJ, Choi JS, Han SJ. The effect of dry mouth
improvement by oral exercise program in elderly people.
J Korean Soc Dent Hyg. 2012 Apr; 12: 293-305.

15. Lee KY, Lim SR. Effect of professional oral healthcare
program on the oral status of elderly residents in long-term
care facilities. J Dent Hyg Sci. 2016 Dec; 16: 432-41.

The Journal of Dental Hygiene 39 Vol. 94 • No. 6 • December 2020

16. So JS. A study on the amendments of long-term care-
related legislations for the introduction of part-time
facility dentists. J Korean Dent Assoc. 2015 Oct; 53:
696-704.

17. Park JH, Kwon YC. Standardization of Korean version
of mini-mental state examination (MMSE-K) for use
in the elderly. Part II. Diagnostic validity. J Korean
Neuropsychiatr Assoc. 1989 Mar; 28: 508-13.

18. Jeong HY, Park BG, Shin HS, et al. Development of
the Korean version of modified Barthel index (K-MBI):
Multi-center study for subjects with stroke. Ann Rehabil
Med. 2007; 31: 283-97.

19. O’Leary TJ, Drake RB, Naylor JE. The plaque control
record. J Periodontol. 1972 Jan; 43: 38.

20. Winkel EG, Roldán S, Van Winkelhoff A, et al. Clinical
effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine,
cetylpyridunium chloride and zinc-lactate on oral
halitosis. A dual-center, double-blind placebo-controlled
study. J Clin Periodontol. 2003 Apr; 30: 300-6.

21. Löe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy I.
Prevalence and Severity. Acta Odontol Scand. 1963 Dec;
21: 533-51.

22. Navazesh M, Christensen CM. A comparison of whole
mouth resting and stimulated salivary measurement
procedures. J Dent Res. 1982 Oct; 61: 1158-62.

23. Vanobbergen JN, De Visschere LM. Factors contributing
to the variation in oral hygiene practices and facilities in
long-term care institutions for the elderly. Community
Dent Health. 2005 Dec; 22: 260-5.

24. Zuluaga DJ, Ferreira J, Montoya JA, Willumsen T. Oral
health in institutionalised elderly people in Oslo, Norway
and its relationship with dependence and cognitive
impairment. Gerodontology. 2012 Jun; 29: e420–6.

25. Shi Z, Xie H, Wang P, et al. Oral hygiene care for critically
ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug; 8: CD008367.

26. Benn AM, Thomson WM. Saliva: an overview. N Z Dent
J. 2014 Sep;110 :92-6.

27. Matthews DC, Clovis JB, Brillant M, et al. Oral
health status of long-term care residents: A vulnerable
population. J Can Dent Assoc. 2012; 78: c3.

28. Liccardo D, Cannavo A, Spagnuolo G, et al. Periodontal
disease: a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular
disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar; 20: E1414.

29. Villa A, Wolff A, Aframian D, et al. World Workshop
on Oral Medicine VI: a systematic review of medication-
induced salivary gland dysfunction: prevalence, diagnosis,
and treatment. Clin Oral Investig. 2015 May; 19: 1563–80.

30. Ohara Y, Yoshida N, Kono Y, et al. Effectiveness of an
oral health educational program on community-dwelling
older people with xerostomia. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015
Apr; 15: 481-9.

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Homework

Chapter 6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

One-way ANOVA: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests the significance of group
differences between one or more means as it analyzes variation between and within each
group. ANOVA is appropriate when the independent variable (IV) is defined as having two or
more categories and the dependent variable (DV) is quantitative. Since ANOVA only
determines the significance of group differences and does not identify which groups are
significantly different, post hoc tests are usually conducted in conjunction with ANOVA.

The univariate case of ANOVA is a hypothesis testing procedure that simultaneously evaluates
the significance of mean differences on a dependent variable (DV) between two or more
treatment conditions or groups (Agretti & Finlay, 1997). The treatment conditions or groups are
defined by the various levels of the independent variable (IV).

For example, astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our success (or lack thereof) in
life. To test this assumption, data from the GSS 2000 data set by analyzing the relationship
between respondent’s astrological sign (ZODIAK) with the respondent’s socioeconomic index
(SEI). The SEI is an indicator of economic and socio-economic attainment: The higher the SEI
score, the more successful the respondent.

So, ANOVA allows comparison of group means. First, open the GSS 2000 data set (If you want
to follow along, the data is available from the GSS web page (search GSS and it should provide
the link to the GSS site where you can get the data. You would want the SPSS data from the
year 2000 (individual year data).

Open the data set and then you can perform the ANOVA procedure.

Go to (Graphic 6.1):

Analyze
Compare Means

One-way ANOVA

Graphic 6.1

The following dialog box as displayed below will appear.

Graphic 6.2

Enter the dependent variable, socioeconomic status (SEI10), into the dependent variable(s) box.
The independent variable (or in this case, factor) is the respondent’s zodiac sign (Zodiac). Just in
case you do not understand why, remember “astrologers assert that our birth dates influence our
success (or lack thereof) in life” so zodiac sign is the independent variable since it seen (at least
by astrologers) as influencing success, in this case as measured by socioeconomic status, which
is the dependent variable. Make sure the “descriptives” box is checked and then click “OK”.

Graphic 6.3

In the output there will be two tables (Graphic 6.4). Let’s see what information there is
contained in the two tables. In the first table, the “descriptives” are shown: the mean and
standard deviation, along with the upper and lower bound.

The mean SEI10 of Aquarius is 43.92 while the mean SEI10 of Aries is 45.10 but is there a
significant difference in the mean SEI by zodiac? The level of significance is displayed in the
second table under Sig. The ANOVA significance level is .188 and as such would not be
significant since it is not less than .05. On the basis of these data, astrologers do not appear to be
correct that there is power in the stars?

Graphic 6.5

Next, we are gong to test whether there is an association between a person’s race and the prestige
of their occupation. Again we will use ANOVA but also a post hoc test: the Tukey Test (watch
out as auto-correct wants to change it to the Turkey Test!). Using the GSS2000 data set we will
perform an ANOVA on RACE (respondent’s race) and PRESTG80 (respondent’s prestige of
their occupation). Currently the tukey test is only available using by entering the proper syntax.

To access the syntax dialog box
File
New
Syntax

Graphic 6.6

The syntax editor will open, then type [do not type anything in red, they are commands]
Oneway [enter]
/Variables = var1 BY var2 [enter—note var1 is the DV and var2 is the factor or IV]
/Statistics = descriptives [enter]
/Posthoc = tukey

Remember, do not actually type Var1 and Var2 but rather the names of the variables, in this
case Tvhours BY degree. The syntax should appear as shown in Graphic 6.7.

Graphic 6.7

Next, go to tool ribbon “File Edit Run Windows Help” and click on RUN and then ALL as
shown in Graphic 6.8.

Graphic 6.8

Check your output and you should have a nice table as shown in Graphic 6.9 and 6.10.

Graphic 6.9

Looking first at Graphic 6.9 we can list what the mean hours are and whether is a significant
difference between groups. For example:

Mean hours for people with less than a high school degree 4.11
Mean hours for people with a high school degree 3.04
Mean hours for people with a junior college degree 2.44
Mean hours for people with a bachelor’s degree 2.42
Mean hours for people with a graduate degree 1.64
ANOVA significance level .000

Graphic 6.10

Based on the ANOVA significance level, there is a significant difference between the mean
hours people watch TV and their level of education by degree. But which degrees are
significantly different from each. The post hoc Tukey test allows us to see if there is a
significant difference among the different groups. For example: According to the Tukey Test,
which categories have means that are significantly different from the means of those with a
junior college degree?

Check the row “junior college” in the Tukey test box (multiple comparisons), and we see that
none of all the categories except for less than high school are significant, which is significant at
.000. The level of significance for the other categories are high school at .071; bachelor’s degree
at 1.000; and graduate at .079. However, if you look at the row for less than high school, all the
other degrees and have significantly different mean TV viewing hours (sig. all at .000).

Looking at one other example, we will examine whether there is a significant difference in mean
occupational prestige score (PRESTG10)1 by race (Race). Just as we did with the previous
example, open up the syntax editor (Graphic 6.11).

Graphic 6.11

The syntax editor will open, then type the following[do not type anything in red, they are
commands]
Oneway [enter]
/Variables = var1 BY var2 [enter]
/Statistics = descriptives [enter]
/Posthoc = tukey

1 Some of the GSS datasets by year list occupational prestige as PRESTG80.

Remember as mentioned above, you do not type Var1 and Var2 but rather the names of the two
variables, in this case PRESTG80 BY RACE since we want to know whether there is a
difference in mean prestige scores by race. It should look like what is shown in Graphic 6.12.

Graphic 6.12

As in the previous example, go to tool ribbon “File Edit Run Windows Help” and click on RUN
and then ALL (see Graphic 6.8 if necessary). Check you output and you should have a set of
tables (Graphics 6.13 and 6.14).

Graphic 6.13

Looking first at Graphic 6.13, we can list the mean occupational prestige scores by race and the
ANOVA significance level.

Mean prestige score for Whites 43.72
Mean prestige score for African Americans 39.94
Mean prestige score for other races 42.93
ANOVA significance level .000

The ANOVA significance level indicates a significant difference in mean prestige scores but
among which groups. According to the Tukey Test, which categories have occupational prestige
score means that are significantly different from the means of Whites? Based on the Graphic
6.14, Black occupational prestige score means are significantly different (.000) but other (.738)
is not significantly different from white. Checking the row for Black, you will notice that other
is significantly different from Black (.038).

Graphic 6.14

What could explain this difference? That is good question for you!

homework

Requirements

1. Use the Outline you completed in last week’s lesson. Write your introduction paragraph, including your previously written thesis statement, and write a complete Rogerian Argument essay of 8 paragraphs. Refer back to the Annotated Rogerian Argument Outline to be sure that you’re meeting the purpose of each paragraph. 

The essay should include the following:

• MLA Format

· It should have 8 paragraphs( an introduction, 6 body paragraphs, and a conclusion)

• 4-5 pages (double spaced), not including the Works Cited page

• In-text citations in the body of the essay

• Works Cited page with your credible sources

• Minimum of 4 sources ( same sources used for the outline and any other additions as deemed necessary).

Homework

  Summary: 

As learnt in the first class, allegories, parables, and fables are the language of religion. Life of Pi is a movie that connects deeply with religions with both plain narratives and symbolic metaphors. 

-Did the story make you believe in God? Did it inspire real faith?

  

Please write a (minimum 900 words) reflection paper in APA format that demonstrates your personal understanding of 

  • 30

Homework

 For this assignment, you will create a strategic alliance case study. You will begin by choosing two companies that are currently in a strategic alliance (i.e., have entered into an agreement to share resources for a specific project which is mutually beneficial). At least one of the companies must be involved with multinational e-commerce. An example would be Starbucks and Barnes and Noble. Barnes and Noble licenses the right to sell Starbucks coffee in their Barnes and Noble cafés. Do not use these two companies, but look for other partnerships similar to this. You will be looking at these multinational companies with e-commerce and alliances in mind, so please remember the importance of the associated strategies and structures. Include the following components in your case study.

  • List the two companies, and share a brief description of their alliance.
  • In addition, note how they have designed and managed this relationship/alliance (e.g., formal, informal, joint venture).
  • Examine the countries where these companies do business. Are there any cultural barriers or language differences?
  • Does either company have multilingual websites tailored to the countries where business is conducted?
  • Describe what you think are the greatest benefits of the alliance for each company.

While a simple Google search of multinational strategic alliance examples will turn up articles with companies, remember that you must use reliable sources for your paper. You may also use reliable websites, such as the company’s web page. The CSU Online Library has several databases that are good starting points for your research.

  • Mergent Online
  • Business Insights: Global
  • Business Source Ultimate
  • ABI/INFORM Collection
  • IBISWorld

Your completed case study must be at least two pages in length. You are required to use at least two outside sources, one of which may be your textbook. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying APA citations. 

    • 20

    Homework

     

    *This assignment was written by C. Bradly of the University of Georgia and adapted for our course. 

    Remember: Discussion posts are still academic assignments.  Use correct grammar and appropriate evidence.  Cite any outside sources.  Be respectful of your classmates and of the people and practices you discuss in your posts.  Even if you disagree, remember your response should NOT be a personal attack but rather an evidence-based presentation of a different perspective on the same subject.

    What is religion?  

    Sociologists have offered several definitions for “religion.”  Your textbook describes both Durkheim’s and Marx’s perspectives.  A more contemporary sociological definition comes from Giddens (2006):

    Religion: a cultural system of commonly shared beliefs and rituals that provide a sense of ultimate meaning and purpose by creating an idea of reality that is sacred, all-encompassing, and supernatural. 

    Key elements to this definition include:

    1. Religion is a form of culture- shares all characteristics of culture such as shared beliefs, values that create an identity

    2. Religion involves beliefs that take the form of ritualized practices- all members engage in behaviors that identify them as members of the community

    3. Religion provides a sense of purpose- feeling that life is ultimately meaningful

    This week, you’ll use Durkheim, Marx, or Giddens’ definitions and theories to think about what kinds of organizations can be categorized as religions.  A PDF document in Moodle (above) profiles three groups or practices: the Church of Body Modification, Satanism, and Scientology.  Read over the descriptions and choose ONE group to write about for your post.

    First Post

    1. Identify the organization you chose to write about. Is this organization a religion according to the sociological definition? Why or why not?  (Note: you may use Durkheim’s definition from the textbook or any other sociological definition.)
    2. What type of religion is it (ecclesia, denomination, sect, new religious movement)? If you decided that it is not a religion, what type does it most closely resemble? Explain your choice. 
    3. How would a functionalist theorist understand and discuss this organization?
    4. How would a conflict theorist understand and discuss this organization?

     

      • 8

      Homework

      INSTRUCTIONS FOR RESEARCH PAPER

      The student will complete a research paper where he or she will address best practices that leaders can and should implement during all phases of a major incident and across disciplines. Students should take into consideration what they found in the first two papers that needed to be addressed. Students should also focus on covering each course objective as much as possible.

      The student will write at minimum a 7-full page research-oriented paper in current APA format. The paper must include at least 7 sources (which should include the class textbooks and readings). The paper will be submitted through SafeAssign.

      HELPFUL RESOURCES:

      AL-Fazari, S., & Kasim, N. (2019). Role of Stakeholders in Mitigating Disaster Prevalence: Theoretical Perspective. MATEC Web of Conferences. 266. 03008. 10.1051/matecconf/201926603008. Retrieved from

      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331229872_Role_of_Stakeholders_in_Mitigating_Disaster_Prevalence_Theoretical_Perspective

      Samuel, C., & Siebeneck, L. K. (2019). Roles revealed: An examination of the adopted roles of emergency managers in hazard mitigation planning and strategy implementation. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 39. Retrieved from 
      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420918313979

      Verbeek, M. (n.d.) The Evolving Roles of Emergency Managers. Retrieved from

      https://www.crhnet.ca/sites/default/files/library/Verbeek.pdf

      Download

      Homework

      HIST 300

      Chronicling America Research Assignment Instructions

      Overview

      Using the Chronicling America website and evidence gleaned from your Family Tree Assignment, you will examine the events in the state (or adjacent state) during the week in which 1 of your ancestors was born, prior to 1922.

      Instructions

      Once located, you will write a 150–175-word description of the local events and their significance for the area in which your ancestor was born. For example:

      On March 12, 1857, during the same week in which Phillip Roberts was born in Covington County, Mississippi, plans commenced in Memphis, Tennessee to celebrate the completion of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. This event proved significant because it facilitated shipments of Mississippi grown cotton to Charleston, SC, where it could be exported to Europe. Phillip Roberts’s family, given that they lived on land connected with the McGregor family plantation, would have grown cotton that might have been sold in Memphis.

      Cotton product proved critical to the Mississippi economy prior to the Civil War and helped make that state one of the wealthiest in the Union. Phillip Roberts’s parents likely migrated to Mississippi in the 1840s for the opportunities it provided. While the Robertses were small farmers, rather than owners of a large plantation, genealogical records indicate that the Robertses worked closely with the McGregors in the administration of their plantation. Because Phillip Roberts’s father, Joseph, is listed on land records with John McGregor, it is possible they served as business partners, or Joseph may even have worked as an overseer on the McGregor plantation.

      Smith, Samuel. “Railroad Jubilee at Memphis.” Memphis (TN) Daily Appeal, March 12, 1857.

      The description must be written in active voice, past-tense, and use third-person narrative. Proper citation in current Turabian format is required.

      Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.

      Homework

       

       

      Case 2: Forgetfulness (Last Name N-Z)

      Asia brings her 67-year-old father into the office stating he is very forgetful. He has lost his car keys several times. She also states he has driven to the store and called her asking for directions to get back home

      Use the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each.

      Homework

      Required Resources
      Read/review the following resources for this activity:

      · Textbook: Chapter 16

      · Lesson

      Introduction
      Remember – these journal questions require more thinking than writing. Think about exactly what you are asked to do, and then write as economically as possible. 

      Instructions

      · Critical Thinking

      · Go back to your very first journal entry – review your definition of critical thinking. After studying critical thinking for the past eight weeks, would you change your definition in any way? If yes, how and why? If no – if it was perfect – what parts of the text were best reflected in your definition?

      · Heart of the Matter

      · Recall in your first journal entry that you discussed the authors’ statement that the concepts in Chapters 12, 13 and 14 were “the heart of the matter.” After having studied those chapters, answer again, with renewed understanding, the question posed there: Why do you think the authors find these concepts important to critical thinking?

      · Ethical Decision-Making

      · The lecture claims that an argument is no good unless it has a “strong and reasoned ethical base.” Do you agree that ethics is an essential element of a good argument? If yes, why? If no, why not?

      · Looking Forward

      · Do you believe that you now know everything you need to know about critical thinking – or is learning to think critically a life-long task? Explain your answer.

      Writing Requirements (APA format)

      · Length: 1 ½ -2 pages (not including prompts, title page or references page)

      · 1-inch margins

      · Double spaced

      · 12-point Times New Roman font

      · Title page

      · References page

      Homework

       A 15-year-old male reports dull pain in both knees. Sometimes one or both knees click, and the patient describes a catching sensation under the patella. In determining the causes of the knee pain, what additional history do you need? What categories can you use to differentiate knee pain? What are your specific differential diagnoses for knee pain? What physical examination will you perform? What anatomic structures are you assessing as part of the physical examination? What special maneuvers will you perform? 

      homework

      he Grace School of Divinity is focused on the study, praxis and proclamation of Renewal Theology.

      Renewal Theology is the believing reflection on the activity of God in Holy Scripture and in the history of

      the Church from the point of view of the renewing work of the Holy Spirit. It operates within a

      Trinitarian framework with a Christological focus, and is shaped by the normative voice of Holy

      Scripture. Renewal Theology values the gifts and power of the Holy Spirit, while acknowledging the role

      of love as “the most excellent way” (1 Corinthians 13).

      Renewal theology aims to strengthen the faith of the Christian community and emphasizes the

      conviction, formalized by Augustine in the fourth century as credo ut intelligam, “I believe in order to

      understand” and by Anselm in the eleventh century as fides quaereus intellectum, “faith seeking

      understanding.” In our pursuit of Renewal Theology we know that we are treading on holy ground. God

      is never “summoned into the presence of reason; reason is summoned before the presence of

      God.” Renewal Theology is not merely free speech, but rather holy speech.

      Renewal theology is rooted in the idea that the triune God alone is the source of all genuine reviving and

      awakening, and thus it seeks to foster within all people an inner experience of treasuring the beauty and

      worth of God in an ever-growing love for God and the Lordship of Christ over all of life. To this end, the

      Bible is the primary means through which God makes his nature, beauty, and will known to humanity. As

      such, the Old and New Testament are God’s self-disclosure, through the many genres of literature, like

      the many colors of the rainbow. No one literary type or literary device is preeminent over all others

      (e.g., propositional, metaphor, etc.). Rather, God’s renewing and reviving works are mediated through

      the multi-colored spectrum that constitute the palette of literary forms. The Spirit of God carries out his

      restoring and reviving work primarily through the Scriptures, by which he confronts, convicts, imparts

      faith, produces repentance, and creates life-sustaining joy in the heart, so that people begin to value

      and intentionally display his worth in their lives. These displays of his worth are expressed through our

      natural giftedness, as well as the Spiritual gifts he grants for the purpose of building up the Church—

      which is Christ’s body—and to empower us as his witnesses, with the biblical text adjudicating these

      expressions; making it both the means and the standard of renewal.

      MISSION AND VISION

      The Grace School of Divinity exists for the glory of God by providing Biblical, theological and ministerial

      education that seeks to be faithful to the Scriptures and emphasizes the renewing work of the Holy

      Spirit in order to train laborers who will bear witness to the gospel of Jesus Christ in the Church, the

      world, and the academy. We support the mission and vision in the following ways:

      1. Biblical fidelity: We are committed to excellence in theological and ministerial education that is

      grounded in the authority of the Bible as the eternal, infallible and inspired Word of God.

      2. Trinitarian worship: We seek to offer our labor in education and research as worship of the

      Triune God and aim to declare His holiness and glory in all that we do.

      3. Spiritual renewal: We are focused on the renewing presence of the Holy Spirit from creation to

      the consummation, and embrace the Biblical, historical and contemporary expressions of His

      renewing work.

      4. Holistic formation: We understand the call to formation to be the lifelong process of being

      conformed to the image of Christ by His Spirit and seek to promote holistic habits of spirit, soul

      and body that promote human and ministerial flourishing.

      5. Ecclesial focus: We desire to serve the Body of Christ with humility and integrity, recognizing the

      central role of the Church in the eternal plan of God.

      6. Missional leadership: We participate in God’s mission by providing education, training,

      empowerment and equipping to all whom God calls, regardless of ethnicity or gender.

      7. Prophetic relevance: It is our vision to graduate Christ-centered leaders that will be prophetic

      witnesses in their generation, standing firm in their commitment to Biblical values of holiness

      and morality.

      In a reflective paper of 700-800 words:

      • Summarize and define each of the Grace School of Divinity’s seven core commitments

      • Choose one of those core commitments for special focus

      • Define that core commitment and how it applies to training for ministry

      • Present a strong biblical and theological case for the necessity for the core commitment

      • Reflect on how that core commitment will influence the way you approach your studies

      • Reflect on how that core commitment has the potential to impact your personal life and

      ministry. (My ministry is feeding the homeless and educating Pastors/leaders on preaching and

      caring for people outside the walls of the church.)

      • Research and citation from at least 7 unique sources

      • Excellent use of Turabian (9th Edition) formatting

      • At least one source from the Web that you have evaluated for its validity

      • At lease one source from e-book and one source from e-journal.

      Contents area is not needed in the front matter of your paper.

      Homework

      Capstone Project: Teenage Pregnancy

      First Task Instruction

      Instructions

      Your first task will be to identify a project you have done in one of your past liberal arts courses.

      Overall, for this capstone, you will choose a project to revise, revise it within another discipline, and write a reflective essay about your process and how the two disciplines create a discourse within the liberal arts.

      The project you choose will be the project that you are going to reimagine and revise within another liberal arts discipline. The liberal arts includes the study of history, literature, writing, philosophy, sociology, psychology, and the creative arts like drawing, painting, sculpture, and creative writing like poetry, fiction writing, and the non-fiction creative essay.

      In this tab, let me know what project you hope to revise/reimagine, or just explore some possibilities and ideas so that I can help you bring it all into focus.

      Draft Reflective Essay

      Instructions

      Write a draft of your reflective essay. This should be approximately 3-5 pages long.

      One third of the essay should describe what you did for your project and what your process was.

      One third of the essay should place what you’ve done for your project into some kind context. This means that you should analyze how your project fits into an historical context or a cultural context, and what insights you personally gained from doing the project. What patterns did you see emerge? What similarities and differences exist between the two liberal arts fields from which your project arose?

      The last one third should clearly articulate how your work participates in the discourse of the liberal arts. What did it do that was interesting? What can we learn about the liberal arts from your project and/or your process? In other words, how does the work you did for the project explore two different fields of the liberal arts, and combine those two fields to say something interesting, new, or compelling about the liberal arts in general.

      Keep in mind there is no “right” or “wrong” way to interpret this kind of analysis. Be interesting and creative, and explore the thoughts you had while doing the project, what you learned from it, and how your project is an appropriate culmination of your liberal arts major.

      Homework

      HIST 300

      Devotional Analysis Assignment Instructions

      Overview

      To help you integrate a biblical worldview with history, you are required to create a “family devotional” based on a specific passage of Scripture that aptly applies to a critical event in the life of your ancestors.

      Instructions

      You may choose any relevant passage of Scripture (a maximum of 4 verses), then write a 250-word devotional connecting the passage’s meaning to your family history event. Be careful not to claim knowledge of God’s providence that He chooses not to reveal to us through the Bible. For example, you would not choose the story of Noah, and then claim God specifically chose your ancestor, who first came to North America, just so that you could attend Liberty University. That revelation is not found in the book of Genesis. However, you might choose the story of Noah to explain how his faith enabled him to endure great struggle, resentment, even hatred, and then compare that to how your family may have relied upon their faith to overcome enslavement or migrating to a new part of the country where they were not welcome.

      The devotion part of the exercise should be sophisticated and have intellectual weight. This is something that your future descendants—many generations from now—may read. Make it excellent.

      Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.

      Homework

       

      Search and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the topic.

      Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template.  

      While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA 

      2. 

      There is often the requirement to evaluate descriptive statistics for data within the organization or for health care information. Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. Understanding differences between the groups based on the collected data often inform health care professionals about research, treatment options, or patient education.

      Using the data on the “National Cancer Institute Data” Excel spreadsheet, calculate the descriptive statistics indicated below for each of the Race/Ethnicity groups. .

      Provide the following descriptive statistics:

      1. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode
      2. Measures of Variation: Variance, Standard Deviation, and Range (a formula is not needed for Range).
      3. Once the data is calculated, provide a 150-250 word analysis of the descriptive statistics on the spreadsheet. This should include differences and health outcomes between groups.

      Homework

      Required Resources
      Read/review the following resources for this activity:

      · Textbook: Chapter 16

      · Lesson

      · Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

      Introduction
      Facione & Gittens (2016) state, “Strong critical thinking about complex and difficult social policies demands that we respect those with whom we disagree” (p. 344). The authors of your text ask us to take seriously the points of view of those with whom we disagree.

      · Should I respect the point of view of a misogynist – a person who dislikes, despises, or is strongly prejudiced against women?

      · Should I respect the point of view of a racist?

      · How about someone who believes marriage is only between one man and one woman?

      · How about someone who does not believe that humans are contributing to the conditions that cause climate change?

      · How about someone who denies that the Holocaust occurred?

      Initial Post Instructions
      For the initial post, pick one point of view from the five questions above that you find particularly repugnant – one that you think is completely unjustifiable. If you were in conversation with such a person, how could you ethically respond to the statement of such a point of view? Keep in mind that you are expressing a value opinion, which requires ideological reasoning, so you may want to review Chapter 13.

      As you form your response, keep in mind the following; these are things you need to think about but not necessarily to write about in your initial post:

      · Reflect if you are using System-1 or System-2 thinking? Are your responses tinged with cognitive bias?

      · Do you think there is a qualitative difference between believing some races are inferior and the belief that marriage should only be between one man and one woman?

      · Do you think there is a qualitative difference between not believing in human contribution to climate change and not believing in the Holocaust?

      Writing Requirements

      · Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

      · APA format for in-text citations and list of references

      Homework

      I need  Rogerian Argument write up for the following topics;

      1. Which Is Better: Traditional Or Online Education?

      2. Should Schools Have Armed Guards?

      It should comprise of 8 paragraphs including an introduction, 6 body paragraphs and a conclusion followilng the Rogerian Argument guidelines and requirements on the attached documents.

      I will need the work done in 12 hours from now.

      Homework

       

       A 15-year-old male reports dull pain in both knees. Sometimes one or both knees click, and the patient describes a catching sensation under the patella. In determining the causes of the knee pain, what additional history do you need? What categories can you use to differentiate knee pain? What are your specific differential diagnoses for knee pain? What physical examination will you perform? What anatomic structures are you assessing as part of the physical examination? What special maneuvers will you perform? 

      Post an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each.  

      Homework

       With all, you have learned about the cell cycle, DNA mutation, and genetics, define cancer and give specific information answering the question:  Will scientists ever be able to cure cancer?  Why or why not?  Use at least 100 words to answer this question.  Be thoughtful in your replies to fellow students. please write in your own words do not use quotes 100 words.
       

      Homework

      I need a Toulmin Argument Annotated Bibliography and Outline for the following topics;

      1. Which Is Better: Traditional Or Online Education?

      2. Should Schools Have Armed Guards?

      The Toulmin Argument Annotated Bibliography should have 4 sources while the outline should follow the guidelines in the 2 attached documents below.

      I need the job in 20 hours.

      Homework

       

      For this assignment, you will participate in a peer review : Classical Argument.  In a peer review, you get the opportunity to both give and receive useful feedback regarding : Classical Argument.  Specifically, you will:

      • Post your rough draft of your own  so that your classmates can read it and offer feedback;
      • Ask specific questions to your peers related to the areas in which you are struggling.
      • Give constructive feedback to at least two of your classmates. Use the lesson from Unit 1 on applying feedback.
      • In your feedback to classmates, be clear, constructive, and specific.  Avoid generalities like “nice job” or “proofread some more”.  Instead, refer to any parts  that seem to be missing, incomplete or that need help/support.
        • 8

        homework

        Evaluating Sources 1

        ENG 106: Evaluating Sources
        Spring 2022

        To become a better college writer, it is important to become a more critical reader of texts, including
        articles you may read for classes or online. Different sources serve different purposes, and some are
        more credible that others. Being able to determine what secondary sources, or articles, can do for your
        authority as a college writer will allow you to argue more effectively, especially when your project relies
        on research.

        The Assignment
        • For this assignment, you will find two longer (5+ pages) articles on a topic that interests you.

        These won’t necessarily come from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, but they at least should
        come from print publications such as newspapers and magazines (though a full text may be
        accessed online, they must have page numbers).

        o You are welcome to use the essays from our textbook, specifically Part 5, Chapters 23,
        24, 25, 26, or 27. If you do use essays from the textbook, it is recommended that you
        pick two essays from the same chapter so they focus on the same general topic.

        o The other option is to find your articles in the DMACC Library databases.

        • Read the articles closely. Think in terms of a topic on which you would like to do further study,
        and/or have an opinion about. You may use this same article in upcoming assignments if it
        works for you. This article should make a claim, if not an argument (vs. being simply
        informative).

        • Then, write an essay in which you compare the persuasive techniques, perspectives, and
        credibility of the two articles. Your essay should be 4-5 pages long, plus a Works Cited page.

        • Your thesis should address if one essay is more or less persuasive or credible OR your thesis
        should explain why the two essays are persuasive or credible in different ways.

        • Justify your evaluation by narrowing your subjects’ target audience and applying an appropriate
        set of criteria. Your criteria should justify your evaluation and address the chosen articles’
        persuasive strategies, perspectives, and /or rhetorical appeals.

        • To support your evaluation, you should critically interpret at least three direct quotes from each
        article for a total of at least 6 quotes.

        o Choose quotes that express ideas or thoughts, not just facts. It will help you in
        analyzing the strategies that the writer might be using to focus on ideas and thinking
        from sources. The purpose of this essay is to examine the purposes behind an article,
        the strategies the writer is using to fulfill that purpose, and the language or form
        they’ve chosen in the writing as a part of that strategy.

        Evaluating Sources 2

        Planning and Drafting

        In the introduction of the paper, you must provide adequate context about the article, including the full
        title, brief information about the authors including names and affiliations, the name of the publications
        in which the articles appears, and the general purpose of each publication. Summarize the articles
        briefly. You also need to connect with readers from the beginning of your draft, just as you do in other
        types of essay assignments. Your introduction will likely be several paragraphs in length (vs. just one).

        In your body paragraphs, you will support your evaluation by critically interpreting quotes from the
        articles. For each paragraph:

        1) begin with a topic sentence that identifies your evaluative criterion (for example, a specific
        persuasive strategy)

        2) provide context for the quote before you incorporate it. Tell your reader what role the quote is
        playing in the article’s overall purpose. Explain any reference that is made to people, places or
        things that aren’t named in the quote itself. Make sure we know the full name of people who
        are mentioned, and that we know what any “this” or “that” or “these” refers to in the quote.

        3) put the full statement in quotation marks and introduce it with a writing verb, such as “states”
        or “argues” or “explains,” then cite the quote in-text in MLA style (quote marks, parentheses
        with author last name and page number). Make sure the verb is in present tense (vs. past).

        4) interpret the quote by thoroughly deciphering its language. Define any terms used that might
        have vague or multiple meanings. Words like “addiction” and “communication” mean different
        things to different readers, so you must provide your definition.

        5) analyze it by saying what perspective (or point of view) you think the quote represents, and/or
        what strategy the writer is using to argue their point.

        6) compare/contrast the persuasiveness or credibility of the chosen articles based on your criteria

        Due dates, etc.

        COMPLETE ROUGH DRAFT DUE (at least 800 words, written in complete sentences and paragraphs, with

        complete MLA or APA format and documentation): by no later than 11:59 p.m., Saturday, February 26,

        2022. Upload your rough draft as an attached file in the Evaluating Sources rough draft + peer

        evaluation discussion thread in the Blackboard week 7 folder. No late drafts allowed for rough draft

        submission—please see the course syllabus for details on late work.

        PEER AND SELF FEEDBACK DUE: Saturday, March 5, 2022, 11:59 p.m. or before. This assignment

        requires you to submit feedback on the essay drafts of two classmates + a self-review of your draft (3

        reviews total) as part of the Evaluating Sources rough draft + peer evaluation discussion thread in

        Blackboard.

        Evaluating Sources 3

        FINAL DRAFT DUE: Saturday, March 12, 2022, 11:59 p.m. or before. Upload your revised, edited, and

        proofread final draft in the Blackboard Week 9 folder. You are welcome to ask Beth questions at any

        point throughout the process and schedule a conference if desired. If you do wish to conference, please

        make an appointment in advance. You should seek feedback from DMACC Online Tutoring (DOT) and

        Smarthinking.com, even if you also arrange a conference.

        You will submit your paper to the final draft link in Blackboard.

        • ENG 106: Evaluating Sources
          • The Assignment
          • Planning and Drafting
          • Due dates, etc.

        Homework.

        VOICES
        A Selection of Multicultural Readings

        Kathleen S. Verderber
        Northern Kentuclcy University

        \xr
        _ Wadsworth Publishing Company

        t@p ” An Intemational Thomsor,”publirh^ing to-puny

        B e l m o n t ‘ A l b a n y ‘ B o n n . B o s t o n . C i n c i n n a t i . D e t r o i t . L o n d o n . M a d r i d . M e l b o u m e

        M e x i c o c i t y . N e w Y o r k . P a r i s . s a n F r a n c i s c o . s i n g a p o r e . T o k y o . T o r o n t o . w a s h i n g t o n

        COPYRIGHT @ 1995 by Wadvorth Publishing Company
        A Division of Intemational Thomson Publishing lnc.
        I(DP The ITP logo is a trademrk under licerei.

        Printed in the United Sutes of Amenca
        | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lHl 00 99 98 97 96 95

        For more infomation, contact:
        Wadswonh Publishing Company
        l0 Davis Drive
        Belmont, Califomia 94002 USA

        lntemarional Thomson Publishing Europe
        Berkshire House 168-173
        High Holbom
        london, WCIV 7M England

        Thomas Nelson Amtralia
        I02 Dodds Street
        South Melboume 3205
        Victoria, Austmlia

        Nelson Camda
        lI20 Birchmount Road
        Serborough, Ontario
        Canada MIK 5G,l

        lntematioml Thomon Editores
        Campos Eli*os 385, Piso 7
        Col Polanco
        11560 M€xico D.F. Mexico

        lntemational Thomson Publishing GmbH
        Kdnigswinterer Strasse’118
        53227 Bonn, Gemany

        Intemational Thoruon Publishing fuia
        221 Hendenon Road
        #05- l0 Henderson Building
        Singapore 0315

        Intemational Thomon Publishing Japan
        Hinkawacho Kyowa Building, 3F
        2-2-I Hirakawacho
        Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo I 02 Japan

        All rights resewed. lmtructors of clases adopting Inter-Act: llsinglnterpersoul Communication Shills, Seventh Edition, by Rudolph E Vederber and
        Kathleen S Verderber as a required text my reproduce roterials for clresroom use Othemise, no part of this work covered by the copyright hereon my
        be reproduced or used in any fom or by any means–€raphic, electronic, or mechmical, including photocopflng, recording, taping, or infomadon storage
        and retrieval system*without the witten pemission of the publisher.

        rsBN 0-534-19563-6

        S E L E C T I O N T H R E E

        In American society, the games that boys have traditionally played and the games
        that girls have traditionally played have had different goals, rules, and roles. As a
        result the interaction that is necessary to be successful in each of these distinct
        speech communities is different. According toJulia T. wood, professor of
        Communicarion ar University of North carolina chapel Hill, from childhood men
        and women are conditioned to have differing communication styles, to talk differ-
        ently In this selection from her book GenderedLiyes: Communication, Gende4 and
        culture, the origins, behaviors, and motives for each style are discussed. Through
        understanding both masculine and feminine styles, we should be better equipped
        to interpret the verbal communication behaviors of both men and women.

        G en dere d lnter action: M as culine and
        Feminine Styles of Verbal Communication

        Julia T. Wood

        I anguage not only expresses cultural views of
        I-gender but also constitutes individuals’ gen-
        der identities. The communication practices we
        use define us as masculine or feminine, in large
        measure, we create our own gender through talk.
        Because language constitutes masculinity and
        femininity, we should find generalizable differ-
        ences in how women and men communicate. Re-
        search bears out this expectation by documenting
        rather systematic differences in the ways men and
        women typically use language. You probably
        don’t need a textbook to tell you this, since your
        own interactions may have given you ample evi-
        dence of differences in how women and men talk.

        What may not be clear from your own experi-
        ences, however, is exactly what those differences

        From Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and. Cul-
        ture,by lulia T. Wood (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc.,
        1994) 137-148. Reprinted by permission of Wadsworth
        Publishing Company.

        1 8

        are and what they imply. If you are like mosr peo-
        ple, you’ve sometimes felt uncomfortable or mis-
        understood or mystified in communication with
        members of the other sex, but you’ve not been
        able to put your finger on whar was causing the
        difficulty. In the pages that follow, we’ll try ro gain
        greater insight into masculine and feminine styles
        of speech and some of the confusion that results
        from differences between them. We want to un-
        derstand how each style evolves, what it involves,
        and how to interpret verbal communication in
        ways that honor the morives of those using it.

        Gendered Speech Comrnunities
        Writing in the I940s, Suzanne Langer introduced
        the idea of “discourse communities.” Like George
        Herbert Mead, she asserted that culture. or col-
        lective life, is possible only to the extent that a
        group of people share a symbol sysrem and the
        meanings encapsulated in it. This theme recurred

        in Langer’s philosophical writings over the
        course of her life (1953, 1979). Her germinal in-
        sights into discourse communiries prefigured
        later interest in the ways in which language cre-
        ates individual identity and sustains cultural life.
        Since the early 1970s, scholars have studied
        speech communities, or cultures. William Labov
        (1972, p. I2l) extended Langer’s ideas by defin-
        ing a speech community as existing when a group
        of people share a set of norms regarding commu-
        nicative practices. By this he meant that a com-
        munication culture exists when people share un-
        derstandings about goals of communication,
        strategies for enacting those goals, and ways of
        interpreting communication.

        It’s obvious we have entered a different com-
        munication culture when we travel to non-Eng-
        lish-speaking countries, because the language dif-
        fers from our own. Distinct speech communities
        are less apparent when they use the same lan-
        guage that we do, but use it in different ways and
        to achieve different goals. The communication
        culture of African-Americans who have not
        adopted the dominant pattern of North American
        speech, for instance, relies on English yet departs
        in interesting and patterned ways from the com-
        munication of middle- class white North Ameri-
        cans. The fact that diverse groups of people de-
        velop distinctive communication patterns
        reminds us again of the constant interaction of
        communication and culture. As we have already
        seen, the standpoint we occupy in society influ-
        ences what we know and how we act. We now see
        that this basic tenet of standpoint theory also im-
        plies that communication styles evolve out of dif-
        ferent standpoints.

        Studies of gen{er and communication (Camp-

        b e l l , 1 9 7 3 ; C o a t e s , 1 9 8 6 ; C o a t e s & C a m e r o n ,
        1989; Hall6r Langellier. 1988; Kramarae, I98I;
        Lakoff, 1975;-tannen, 1990a, 1990b) have con-
        vincingly shown that in many ways women and
        men operate from dissimilar assumptions about
        the goals and strategies of communication. F. L.

        Johnson (1989), in fact, asserts that men and

        Julia T. Wood t9

        women live in rwo different worlds and that this
        is evident in the disparate forms of communica-
        tion they use. Given this, it seems appropriate to
        consider masculine and feminine styles of com-
        municating as embodying two distinct speech
        communities. To understand these different com-
        munities and the validity of each, we will first
        consider how we are socialized into feminine and
        masculine speech communities. After this, we will
        explore divergencies in how women and men t1p-
        ically communicate. Please note the importance
        of the word typically and others that indicare we
        are discussing generalizable differences, not ab-
        solute ones. Some women are not socialized into
        feminine speech, or they are and Iater reject it;
        Iikewise, some men do not learn or choose not to
        adopt a masculine style of communication. What
        follows describes gendered speech communities
        into which mosf women and men are socializeo.

        The Lessons of Childplay

        We’ve seen that socialization is a gendered process
        in which boys and girls are encouraged to develop
        masculine and feminine identities. Extending that
        understanding, we now explore how socialization
        creates gendered speech communities. One way to
        gain insight into how boys and girls learn norms
        of communication is to observe young children at
        play. ln interactions with peers, boys and girls
        learn how to talk and how to interpret what each
        other says; they discover how to signal their inten-
        tions with words and how to respond approprl-
        ately to others’ communication; and they learn
        codes to demonstrate involvement and interest
        (Tannen, 1990a). In short, interacting with peers
        teaches children rules o[ communication.

        lnitial insight into the importance of children’s
        play in shaping patterns of communication came
        from a classic study by D. N. Maltz and R. Borker
        (1982). As they watched young children engaged
        in recreation, the researchers were struck by two
        observations: Young children almost always play

        20 Genclered lnteraction: Masculine qnd Feminine Styles of Verbal Communication

        in sex-segregated groups, and girls and boys tend
        to play different kinds of games. Malu and Borker
        found that boys’games (football, baseball) and
        girls’ games (school, house, jumprope) cultivate
        distinct understandings of communication and
        the rules by which it operares.

        B o y s ‘ G a m e s

        Boys’games usually involve fairly large groups-
        nine individuals for each baseball team, for in-
        stance. Most boys’ games are competitive, have
        clear goals, and are organized by rules and roles
        that specify who does what and how to play. Be-
        cause these games are structured by goals, rules,
        and roles, there is little need to discuss how to
        play, although there may be talk about strategies
        to reach goals. Maltz and Borker realized that in
        boys’ games, an individual’s status depends on
        standing out, being better, and often dominating
        other players. From these games, boys learn how
        to interact in their communities. Specifically,
        boys’ games cultivate three communication rules:

        l. Use communication to assert yourself and
        your ideas; use talk to achieve something.

        2. Use communication to attract and maintain
        an audience.

        3. Use communication to compete with others
        for the “talk stage,” so that they don’t gain
        more attention than you; learn to wrest the
        focus from others and onto yourself.

        These communication rules are consistent
        with other aspects of masculine socialization that
        we have already discussed. For instance, notice
        the emphasis on individuality and competition.
        AIso, we see that these rules accent achieve-
        ment- doing something, accomplishing a goal.
        Boys learn they must do things to be valued mem-
        bers of the team It’s also the case that intensely
        close, personal relationships are unlikely to be
        formed in large groups. Finally, we see the under-

        current of masculinity’s emphasis on being invul-
        nerable and guarded: lf others are the competi-
        tion from whom you must seize center stage, then
        you cannot let them know too much about your-
        self and your weaknesses.

        Girls’Games

        Turning now to girls’ games, we find that quite
        different patterns exist, and they lead to distinc-
        tive understandings of communication. Girls tend
        to play in pairs or in very small groups rather than
        large ones. Also, games like house and school do
        not have preset, clear-cut goals, rules, and roles.
        There is no analogy for the touchdown in playing
        house. Because girls’ games are not structured ex-
        ternally, players have to talk among themselves to
        decide what they’re doing and what roles they

        have. Playing house, for insrance, typically begins
        with a discussion about who is going to be the
        daddy and who the mommy. This is typical of the
        patterns girls use to generate rules and roles lor
        their games. The lack of stipulated goals for the
        games is also important, since it tends to cultivate
        in girls an interest in the process of interaction
        more than its products. For their games to work,
        girls have to cooperate and work out problems by
        talking: No external rules exist to settle disputes.
        From these games, Maltz and Borker noted, girls
        Iearn normative communication patterns of their
        speech communities. Specifically, girls’ games
        teach three basic rules for communication:

        l. Use collaborative, cooperative talk to create
        and maintain relationships. The process of.
        communication, not its content, is the heart
        of relationships.

        2. Avoid criticizing, outdoing, or putting others
        down; i[ criticism is necessary, make it gen-
        tle: never exclude others.

        3. Pay attention to others and to relationships;
        interpret and respond to others’ leelings
        sensitively.

        These basic understandings of communication
        echo and reinforce other aspects of feminine so-
        cialization. Girls’ games stress cooperation, col-
        laboration, and sensitivity to others’feelings. Also
        notice the focus on process encouraged in girls’
        games. Rather than interacting to achieve some
        outcome, girls learn that communication itself is
        the goal. Whereas boys Iearn they have to do
        something to be valuable, the lesson for girls is to
        be. Their worth depends on being good people,
        which is defined by being cooperative, inclusive,
        and sensitive. The lessons of child’s play are car-
        ried forward. In fact, the basic rules of communi-
        cation that adult women and men employ turn
        out to be only refined and elaborated versions of
        the very same ones evident in girls’ and boys’
        childhood games.

        lulia T. Wood, 21

        Gendered Communication
        Practices

        ln her popular book, You Just Dotr’t lJnderstand:
        Women and Men in Communication, linguist Debo-
        rah Tannen (1990b, p. 42) declares that ‘commu-

        nication between men and women can be like
        cross cultural communication, prey to a clash of
        conversational styles.” Her study of men’s and
        women’s talk led her to identify distinctions be-
        tween the speech communities typical of women
        and men. Not surprisingly, Tannen traces gen-
        dered communication patterns to differences in
        boys’ and girls’ communication with parents and
        peers. Like other scholars (Bate, 1988; Hall &
        Langellier, 1988; Kramarae, l98l; Treichler &
        Kramarae, 1983; Wood, I993a), Tannen believes
        that women and men typically engage in dis-
        tinctive styles of communication with different
        purposes, rules, and understandings of how to
        interpret talk. We will consider features of wom-
        en’s and men’s speech identified by a number of
        researchers. As we do, we will discover some of
        the complications that arise when men and
        women operate by different rules in conversations
        with each other.

        Women’s Speech

        For most women, communication is a primary
        way to establish and maintain relationships with
        others. They engage in conversation to share
        themselves and to learn about others. This is an
        important point: For women, talk is the essence
        of relationships. Consistent with this primary
        goal, women’s speech tends to display identifiable
        features that foster connections, support, close-
        ness, and understanding.

        Equality between people is generally important
        in women’s communication (Aries, 1987). To
        achieve symmetry, women often match experi-
        ences to indicate “You’re not alone in how you

        22 Gendered Interaction: Masculine and Feminine styles oJ verbal communication

        feel.” Typical ways to communicate equality
        would be saying, “l’ve done the same thing many
        times,” “l’ve felt the same way,” or “something
        Iike that happened to me too and 1 felt like you
        do.” Growing out of the quest for equality is a par-
        ticipatory mode of interaction in which commu-
        nicators respond to and build on each other’s
        ideas in the process of conversing (Hall 6l L-angel-
        lier, 1988). Rather than a rigid you-tell-your-ideas-
        then-l’ll-tell-mine sequence, women’s speech
        more characteristically follows an interactive pat-
        tern in which different voices weave together to
        create conversatrons.

        Also important in women’s speech is showing
        support for others. To demonstrate support,
        women often express understanding and sympa-
        thy with a friend’s situation or feelings. “Oh, you
        must feel terrible,” “I really hear what you are say-
        ing,” or “I think you did the right thing” are com-
        municative clues that we understand and support
        how another feels. Related to these first two fea-
        tures is women’s typical attention to the relation-
        ship level of communication (Wood, I993a,
        f 993b; Wood & Inman, 1993). You will recall
        that the relationship level of talk focuses on feel-
        ings and the relationship between communicators
        rather than on the content of messages. In con-
        versations between women, it is common to hear
        a number of questions that probe for greater un-
        derstanding of feelings and perceptions surround-
        ing the subject oftalk (Beck, 1988, p. 104; Tannen,
        1990b). “Tell me more about what happened,”
        “How did you feel when it occurred?” “Do you
        think it was deliberate?” “How does this fit into
        the overall relationship?” are probes that help a
        listener understand a speaker’s perspective. The
        content of talk is dealt with, but usually not with-
        out serious attention to the feelings involved.

        A fourth feature of women’s speech style is
        conversational “maintenance work” (Beck, I988;
        Fishman. 1978). This involves efforts to sustain
        conversation by inviting others to speak and by
        prompting them to elaborate their experiences.

        Women, for instance, ask a number of questions
        that initiate topics for others: “How was your
        day?” “Tell me about your meeting,” “Did any-
        thing interesting happen on your trip?” “What do
        you think of the candidates this year?” Commu-
        nication of this sort opens the conversational door
        to others and maintains interaction.

        lnclusivity also surfaces in a fifth quality of
        women’s talk, which is responsiveness (Beck,
        1988; Tannen, 1990a, 1990b; Wood, 7993a).
        Women usually respond in some fashion to what
        others say. A woman might say “Tell me more” or
        “That’s interesting”; perhaps she will nod and use
        eye contact to signal she is engaged; perhaps she
        will ask a question such as “Can you explain what
        you mean?” Responsiveness reflects learned ten-
        dencies to care about others and to make them
        feel valued and included (Kemper, 1984; Lakoff,
        I975). It affirms another person and encourages
        elaboration by showing interest in what was said.

        A sixth quality of women’s talk is personal, con-
        crete style (Campbell, 1973; Hall & Langellier,
        1988; Tannen, I990b). Typicalof women’s conver-
        sation are details, personal disclosures, anecdotes,
        and concrete reasoning. These features cultivate a
        personal tone in women’s communication, and
        they facilitate feelings of closeness by connecting
        communicators’ lives. The detailed. concrete em-
        phasis prevalent in women’s talk also clarilies is-
        sues and feelings so that communicators are able
        to understand and idendfy with each other. Thus,
        the personal character of much of women’s inter-
        action sustains interpersonal closeness.

        A final feature of women’s speech is tentative-
        ness. This may be expressed in a number of florms.
        Sometimes women use verbal hedges such as “I
        kind of feel you may be overreacting. ” In other
        situations they qualify statements by saying “I’m
        probably not the best judge of this, but . . .” An-
        other way to keep talk provisional is to tag a ques-
        tion onto a statement in a way that invites another
        to respond: “That was a pretty good movie, wasn’t
        it?” “We should get out this weekend, don’t you

        think?” Tentative communication leaves open the
        door for others to respond and express their opin-
        10ns.

        There has been controversy about tentative-
        ness in women’s speech. R. Lakoff (1975), who
        first noted that women use more hedges, quali-
        fiers, and tag questions than men, claimed these
        represent lack of confidence and uncertainty.
        Calling women’s speech powerless, Lakoff argued
        that it reflects women’s socialization into subordi-
        nate roles and low self-esteem. Since Lakoffs
        work, however, other scholars (Bate, 1988; Wood
        6c Lenze, I99lb) have suggested different expla-
        nations of women’s tentative style of speaking.
        Dale Spender (1984a), in particular, points out
        that lakoffs judgments of the inferiority of wom-
        en’s speech were based on using male speech as

        the standard, which does not recognize the dis-
        tinctive validity of different speech communities.
        Rather than reflecting powerlessness, the use of
        hedges, qualifiers, and tag questions may express
        women’s desires to keep conversation open and

        to include others. lt is much easier to jump into a

        conversation that has not been sealed with ab-

        solute, firm statements. A tentative style of speak-
        ing supports women’s general desire to create
        equality and include others. It is important to re-

        alize, however, that people outside of women’s

        speech community may misinterpret women’s in-

        tentions in using tentative communication.

        Men\ Speech

        Masculine speech communities define the goals
        of talk as exerting control, preserving indepen-
        dence, and enhancing status. Conversation is an

        arena for proving oneself and negotiating prestige.
        This leads to two general tendencies in men’s

        communication. First, men often use talk to es-

        tablish and defend their personal status and their
        ideas, by asserting themselves and/or by challeng-
        ing others. Second, when they wish to comfort or

        support another, they typically do so by respect-

        JuliaT. Wood 23

        ing the other’s independence and avoiding com-
        munication they regard as condescending (Tan-
        nen, I990b). These tendencies will be more clear
        as we review specific features of masculine talk.

        To establish their own status and value, men
        often speak to exhibit knowledge, skill, or ability.
        Equally typical is the tendency to avoid disclosing
        personal information that might make a man ap-
        pear weak or vulnerable (Derlega 6c Chaiken,
        1976; Lewis & McCarthy, I988; Saurer 6t Eisler,
        1990). For instance, ifsomeone expresses concern
        about a relationship with a boyfriend, a man might
        say “The way you should handle that is . . . ”
        “Don’t let him get to you,” or “You orrght to iurt
        tell him . . .” This illustrates the tendency to give
        advice that Tannen reports is common in men’s
        speech. On the relationship level of communica-
        tion, giving advice does two things. First, it fo-
        cuses on instrumental activity-what another
        should do or be-and does not acknowledge feel-
        ings. Second, it expresses superiority and main-
        tains control. It says “I know what you should do”
        or “l would know how to handle that.” The mes-
        sage may be perceived as implying the speaker is

        superior to the other person. Between men, ad-
        vice giving seems understood as a give-and-take,
        but it may be interpreted as unfeeling and conde-
        scending by women whose rules for communicat-
        ing differ.

        A second prominent feature of men’s talk is in-

        strumentality-the use of speech to accomplish
        instrumental objectives. As we have seen, men are
        socialized to do things, achieve goals (Bellinger &
        Gleason, f 982). ln conversation, this is often ex-
        pressed through problem-solving efforts that focus
        on getting information, discovering facs, and sug-
        gesting solutions. Again, between men this is usu-
        ally a comfortable orientation, since both speakers
        have typically been socialized to value instrumen-
        tality. However, conversations between women
        and men are often derailed by the lack of agree-
        ment on what this informational, instrumental
        focus means. To manv women it feels as if men

        24 Gendered Interaction: Masculine and Feminine Styles of Verbal Communication

        don’t care abour their feelings. When a man fo-
        cuses on the content level of meaning afrcr a
        woman has disclosed a problem, she may feel he
        is disregarding her emotions and concerns. He, on
        the other hand, may well be trying to support her
        in the way that he has learned to show support-
        suggesting ways to solve the problem.

        A third feature of men’s communication is con-
        versational dominance. Despite jokes about wom-
        en’s talkativeness, research indicates that in most
        contexts, men not only hold their own but domi-
        nate the conversation. This tendency, although
        not present in infancy, is evident in preschoolers
        (Austin, Salehi, & Leffler, 1987). Compared with
        girls and women, boys and men talk more fre-
        quently (Eakins & Eakins, 1976; Thorne &
        Henley, I975) and for longer periods of time
        (Aries, I987, Eakins & Eakins, I976;Kramarae,
        l98l;Thorne & Henley, 1975). Further, men en-
        gage in other verbal behaviors that sustain con-
        versational dominance. They may reroute conver-
        sations by using what another said as a jump-off
        point for their own topic, or they may interrupt.
        While both sexes engage in interruptions, most
        research suggests that men do it more frequently
        (Beck, 1988′ Mulac, Wiemann, Widenmann, &
        G i b s o n , 1 9 8 8 ; W e s t & Z i m m e r m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . N o t
        only do men seem to intenupt more than women,
        but they do so for different reasons. L. P. Stewart
        and her colleagues (1990, p. 5I) suggest that men
        use interruptions to control conversation by chal-
        lenging other speakers or wresting the talk stage
        from them, while women interrupt to indicate in-
        terest and to respond. This interpretation is
        shared by a number of scholars who note that
        women use interruptions to show support, en-
        courage elaboration, and affirm others (Aleguire,
        1978; Aries, 1987; Mulac et al., 1988).

        Fourth, men tend to express themselves in
        fairly absolute, assertive ways. Compared with
        women, their language is typically more forceful,
        direct, and authoritative (Beck, I988; Eakins 6r
        Eakins, I978; Stewart et al., 1990; Tannen, I990a,
        1990b). Tentative speech such as hedges and dis-

        claimers is used less frequently by men than by
        women. This is consistent with gender socializa-
        tion in which men learn to use talk to assert them-
        selves and to take and hold positions. However,
        when another person does not share that under-
        standing of communication, speech that is ab-
        solute and directive may seem to close off conver-
        sation and Ieave no room for others to speak.

        Fifth, compared with women, men communi-
        cate more abstractly. They frequently speak in
        general terms that are removed from concrete ex-
        periences and distanced from personal feelings
        (Schaef, l98 l ; Treichler & Kramarae, 1983). The
        abstract style typical of men’s speech reflects the
        public and impersonal contexts in which they
        often operate and the less personal emphasis in
        their speech communities. Within public environ-
        ments, norms for speaking call for theoretical,
        conceptual, and general thought and communica-
        tion. Yet, within more personal relationships, ab-
        stract talk sometimes creates barriers to knowing
        another intimately.

        Finally, men’s speech tends not to be highly re-
        sponsive, especially not on the relationship Ievel
        of communication (Beck, 1988; Wood, 1993a).
        Men, more than women, give what are called
        “minimal response cues” (Parlee, I979), which
        areverbalizations such as “yeah” or “umhmm.”
        In interaction with women, who have learned to
        demonstrate interest more vigorously, minimal
        response cues generally inhibit conversation be-
        cause they are perceived as indicating lack of in-
        volvement (Fishman, 1978; Stewart et al., 1990).
        Another way in which men’s conversation is gen-
        erally less relationally responsive than women’s is
        Iack of expressed sympathy and understanding
        and lack of self-disclosures (Saurer 6t Eisler,
        1990). Within the rules of men’s speech commu-
        nities, sympathy is a sign of condescension, and
        revealing personal problems is seen as making
        one vulnerable. Yet women’s speech rules count
        sympathy and disclosure as demonstrations of
        equality and support. This creates potential for
        misunderstanding between women and men.

        Misinterpretations Between
        Women and Men
        In this final section, we explore what happens
        when men and women talk, each operating out of
        a distinctive speech community. In describing fea-
        tures typical o[each gender’s talk, we already have
        noted differences that provide fertile ground for
        misunderstandings. We now consider several ex-
        amples of recurrent misreadings between women
        and men.

        Showirrg Support

        The scene is a private conversation between
        Martha and George. She tells him she is worried
        about her friend. George gives a minimum re-
        sponse cue, saying only “Oh.” To Martha this
        suggests he isn’t interested, since women make
        and expect more of what D. Tannen (1986) calls
        “listening noises” to signal interest. Yet, as Tan-
        n e n ( I 9 8 6 , 1 9 9 0 b ) a n d A . B e c k ( 1 9 8 8 ) n o t e ,
        George is probably thinking if she wants to tell
        him something she will, since his rules of speech
        emphasize using talk to assert oneself (Bellinger

        & Gleason, f 982). Even without much encour-
        agement, Martha continues by describing the ten-
        sion in her friend’s marriage and her own con-
        cern about how she can help. She says, “I feel so
        bad for Barbara, and I want to help her, but I
        don’t know what to do.” George then says, “It’s

        their problem, not yours. Just butt out and let
        them settle their own relationship.” At this,
        Martha explodes: “Who asked for your advice?”
        George is now completely frustrated and con-
        fused. He thought Martha wanted advice, so he
        gave it. She is hurt that George didn’t tune into
        her feelings and comfort her about her worries.
        Each is annoyed and unhappy.

        The problem here is not so much what George
        and Martha say and don’t say. Rather, it’s how they
        interpret each other’s communication-actually,
        how they misinterpret it, because each relies on
        rules that are not familiar to the other. They fail to

        JuliaT. Wood 25

        understand that each is operating by different
        rules of talk. George is respecting Martha’s inde-
        pendence by not pushing her to talk. When he
        thinks she directly requests advice, he offers it in
        an effort to help. Martha, on the other hand, wants
        comfort and a connection with George-that is
        her purpose in talking with him. She finds his ad-
        vice unwelcome and dismissive of her feelings. He
        doesn’t offer syrnpathy, because his rules for com-
        munication define this as condescending. Yet
        within Martha’s speech community, not to show
        sympathy is to be unfeeling and unresponsive.

        “Troubles Talh”

        Tannen (1990b) identifies talk about troubles, or
        personal problems, as a kind of interaction in
        which hurt feelings may result from the contrast
        between most men’s and women’s rules of com-
        munication. A woman might tell her partner that
        she is feeling down because she did not get a job

        she wanted. ln an effort to be supportive, he

        26 Gendered lnteraction: Masculine ond Feminine Styles of Verbal Communication

        might respond by saying, “You shouldn’t feel bad.
        Lots of people don’t get jobs they want.” To her
        this seems to dismiss her feelings-to belittle
        them by saying lots of people experience her situ-
        ation. Yet within masculine speech communities,
        this is a way of showing respect for another by not
        assuming that she or he needs syrnpathy.

        Now let’s turn the tables and see what happens
        when a man feels roubled. When he meets
        Nancy, Craig is unusually quiet because he feels
        down about not getting a job offer. Sensing that
        something is wrong, Nancy tries to show interest
        by asking, “Are you okay? What’s bothering
        you?” Craig feels she is imposing and trying to get
        him to show a vulnerability he prefers to keep to
        himself. Nancy probes further to show she cares.
        As a result, he feels intruded on and withdraws
        further. Then Nancy feels shut out.

        But perhaps Craig does decide to tell Nancy
        why he feels down. After hearing about his rejec-
        tion letter, Nancy says, “I know how you feel. I
        felt so low when I didn’t get that position at
        Datanet.” She is matching experiences to show
        Craig that she understands his feelings and that
        he’s not alone. Within his communication rules,
        however, this is demeaning his situation by fo-
        cusing on her, not him.

        homework

        The United States is becoming increasingly diverse with respect to race and ethnicity due to immigration patterns and birth rates among specific groups. Currently, a little more than one person in three is a member of a minority group, but in Hawaii, New Mexico, California, and Texas, minorities outnumber whites. However, by 2060 minority groups are likely to comprise more than half of the U.S. population.

         

        Directions: Choose two events that have occurred in the last two years and write a short essay about the ways that race has impacted the lives of people of color.

        Word count 350

        Homework

          

        Choose two (2) theoretical perspectives of personality from the following list. Write at least one paragraph for each perspective that defines and describes the perspective and its key concepts.

        · Trait perspective

        · Motive perspective

        · Genetics, evolution, and personality perspective

        · Biological processes and personality perspective

        Compare and contrast the two (2) perspectives selected in the previous question, describing the benefits and drawbacks of each perspective. Use the text and the additional readings in each lesson to assist you with developing your responses. Additional external resources from peer-reviewed journal articles may also be utilized.

        Homework

        CHEM 1405 North campus Measurement Lab

        Experimental Design Lab Report Sheet

        Name

        Case Study is 25 points

        Lab Report is 50 points

        Teamwork is 25 points

        A: Answering the Question

        Question: What is the percent yield in your reaction of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride?

        (Hint: Do not use all of the solutions in case you need to redo or modify the experiment)

        Procedures:

        North Lake College CHEM 1411 Experimental Design Lab p. 2 Sum 2018

        Quantitative Results:

        CHEM 1411 Experimental Design

        Show all your work with any calculations.

        North Lake College CHEM 1411 Experimental Design Lab p. 2 Spring 2017

        Conclusion:

        North Lake College CHEM 1411 Measurement Lab p. 2

        B: Case Study

        Based on the diagram below, which renewable energy source should the United States concentrate on increasing? Determine the pros and cons of each type of energy source to help you determine your opinion of the best energy source to increase. Cite all sources used.

        http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/images/charts/energy_consumption_by_source_2015-large.jpg

        C: Self-Evaluation Form for Teamwork Assignment
        Directions: A team is a group of two or more people who work together for a common goal. For each statement, choose two responses that best describe your experience working in this team. Be honest! Your self-evaluation is only a process to help you see how you are doing and how you might improve your teamwork skills the next time.
        Contribution to Team Meetings: Describe your contribution during the team assignment.
        Choose two responses that best describe your experience.
        ☐ I did not share my ideas in team meetings. (T)
        ☐ I helped the team move forward with the best plan for the assignment by constructively analyzing all the presented ideas. (S)
        ☐ I offered a strategy using the ideas of others to complete the assignment. (M)
        ☐ I shared my ideas in team meetings, and they were accepted by the team. (A)
        ☐ I shared my ideas in team meetings, but they were not accepted by the team. (E)

        Facilitates the Contributions of Team Members: Describe your contribution in engaging the team members during the team activity:
        Choose two responses that best describe your experience.
        ☐ I encouraged discussions and restated my teammates’ contributions to the team activity. (A)
        ☐ I engaged my teammates and encouraged them to contribute their ideas toward our goal; I also encouraged non-participating team members to get involved. (S)
        ☐ I finished my part and waited for my teammates to finish their parts. (T)
        ☐ I listened to my teammates without interrupting. (E)
        ☐ I worked to blend the contributions of my teammates into an organized team activity. (M)

        Individual Contributions Outside of Team Meetings: Describe your contributions to your team when you were preparing for the activity:
        Choose two responses that best describe your experience.
        ☐ I carefully read the assignment so that I was familiar with the requirements before coming to the class or team meeting. (A)
        ☐ I collaborated with my teammates to ensure our assignment was finished on time and met the team’s expectations. (S)
        ☐ I did not review the assignment before coming to the class or team meeting. (T)
        ☐ I looked over the assignment but did not work prior to coming to the class or team meeting. (E)
        ☐ I studied the assignment thoroughly and was very familiar with the expectations for teammates before coming to the class or team meeting. I knew exactly what I was to do. (M)

        Fosters Constructive Team Climate: Describe the work attitude of your team:
        Choose two responses that best describe your experience.
        ☐ Teammates helped each other build a constructive team climate. (A)
        ☐ Teammates motivated each other by expressing confidence about the importance of the task and the team’s ability to accomplish it. (S)
        ☐ Teammates treated each other respectfully by being polite in their communication. (E)
        ☐ Teammates used positive tones and body language to convey a positive attitude about the team and its work. (M)
        ☐ Teammates worked independently of each other without really working as a team. (T)

        Responds to Conflict: Sometimes team members disagree with how things should be done. These disagreements are common. How did you respond to any conflicts or disagreements with your partner/team?
        Choose two responses that best describe your experience.
        ☐ I agreed with my teammates simply to avoid conflict/disagreements. (E)
        ☐ I changed the subject to something we both could agree on whenever there were conflicts/disagreements. (A)
        ☐ I got visibly upset when people disagreed with me. (T)
        ☐ I identified and acknowledged the conflict/disagreement and listened attentively to my teammate as they explained their position. (M)
        ☐ I talked through the conflict with my teammate and we resolved the issue in a way that we were both satisfied. (S)

        Comments: Use this space to share your thoughts about working with this team.
        Click or tap here to enter text.

        Once you have completed the Teamwork Self-Evaluation Form, follow your teacher’s instructions to save it and upload it in eCampus.

        North Lake College CHEM 1411 Experimental Design Lab p. 4 Nov 2017

        Homework

         

        I need a Toulmin Argument Annotated Bibliography for the following topics;

        1. Which Is Better: Traditional Or Online Education?

        2. Should Schools Have Armed Guards?

        The Toulmin Argument Annotated Bibliography should have 4 sources and should follow the guidelines in the attached document below.

        I need the job in 4 hours.

        Homework

         Based on what you have learned about natural selection, define natural selection and answer these two questions:  What is the role of mutation in natural selection?  Is mutation a positive or negative influence on natural selection? please write it in your own words not quote from any source. 150 words I need it in 10 hours.

         

        homework

        Summary:

        Movie Reflection #1  Life of Pi (Director: Ang Lee)

        Summary: 

        As learnt in the first class, allegories, parables, and fables are the language of religion. Life of Pi is a movie that connects deeply with religions with both plain narratives and symbolic metaphors. 

        -Did the story make you believe in God? Did it inspire real faith?

        Please write a (
        minimum 900 words
        ) reflection paper in APA format that demonstrates your personal understanding of 

        -how this movie tries to teach its audience of religion and your feeling about it.

        – The theme is not restricted to Christianity. Any religious, pantheism, or atheism perspective is welcomed.

        – Your own thinking is valued for this paper. Copying from other sources is both unnecessary and will cause you to receive a 0% if such behaviour is discovered.

        – There’s no need to repeat the entire plot.

        *References should follow the APA 6th or APA 7th edition

        Homework

         

        Instructions
        Marketing Plan: Part II

        In this unit, you will continue to build upon your marketing plan for an existing company and a product or service of your choice. For Part II, make certain to include the sections listed below in your marketing plan. 

        Homework

         

        Discuss how the use of media sources could benefit you as a future business leader and specifically identify 2-3 media platforms to explore.  Then explore how these current media sources could benefit a business leader. 

        This paper should be (2-3) pages in length, not including the title/reference page(2) supporting outside sources.  This paper should be done in APA format to include a cover page, and reference page that is not included in page count. 

        Homework

         

        Choose a film, TV series, or novel that you enjoy, and apply your sociological imagination.  Use some course term, theory, or concept to analyze some aspect of the society depicted.  You should watch (or rewatch) the film, read the entire novel or watch at least 3 episodes of the TV show.  Then, you’ll write 200-400 words that connect the film or novel to a key theme or concept we’ve discussed in class.  Be sure to focus on sociological analysis, NOT plot summary; use summary and examples only to help highlight how the film reflects the sociological concepts you are describing.  Be as specific as possible with your evidence/examples to receive full credit.

        Upload your response as an attachment.

        Your response should also:

        1. Include a title that indicates both the sociological concept and the fictional piece you are analyzing.  Examples: “Gender in The Godfather.”  “Deviance in The Wolf of Wall Street.” “Applying Conflict Theory to Beauty and the Beast.
        2. Be “second draft” quality.  Do a basic review for grammar/spelling, but the tone can be informal.
        3. Include a bibliography at the bottom.  You should have a bibliography entry for the film or novel.  If you directly quote the textbook or another source, include an entry for that source, too.
          • 8

          homework

           

          Directions: Pearson Originals videos can be accessed here: 
          www.pearsonhighered.com/revel/educators/originals-videos-samples

          Watch Fighting for Racial Equality: A Conversation Between Generations. After watching the video, Create a PowerPoint, Compare and contrast the conversation between each group. Be specific about details. 

          Write your name, date, course and title of the Video on the first slide of the PowerPoint.

          Fighting for Racial Equality: A Conversation  Between  Generations

          Gwendolyn Sanders Gamble  –      Shante Wolfe-Sisson

          Gwendolyn Cook Webb      –  Tori Wolf-Sisson

          Omari Ho-Sang   –   Janice Wesley Kelsey

          1. Sociologically speaking, race is a socially constructed label. What did it mean to the younger generation versus the older generation ?  What examples can you give to explain how each group thought race is socially constructed?

          2. Consider the fact that most Black U.S. citizens are descendants of people who were brought involuntarily to the U.S., what effect did they say it has on leaders in the African American community? What about the relationship between African Americans and Whites today?
          3. Gleaning from their perspective do you think the two groups believe some groups are dominant and some subordinate? Respond to that question through examples from the video. 
          4. What is the difference between individual and institutional racism? Have you ever experienced either? How do both types of racism affect people of Color and Whites?

          5. Have you ever participated in any collective efforts to make a progressive change? If so, what were they? What social cause do you think you personally could get involved with and why would it be that cause?
          6. What knowledge did you gain from watching this video?
          7. Describe in detail how a conversation between you and a younger generation would look. 


          Homework

            

          View the TED Talk video by Brad Meltzer in the link. Then project yourself 40 years into the future or to your retirement years. Look back on the life you lived, a retrospective of your life. Discuss what legacy will you leave behind as identified in the video? Clearly state your accomplishments and achievements.

          Your writing should at minimum include education, employment, volunteerism and leisure activities using past tense. Minimum 1 page

          Homework

           

          Part 5: Resource Acquisition Plan

          For the project you selected in Unit I, create a simple project resource acquisition plan. Your plan should follow the process for acquiring project resources, as referred to in Figures 5.1 and 5.2 in the textbook, as well as in the section beginning with A Plan is Not a Plan Until (page 31 – 45) in the eBook, Project Management: A Common-Sense Guide to the PMBOK Program, Part Two – Plan and Execution. Your plan should include an introduction, and should be able to answer the following questions:

          • What policies and procedures exist in the project environment that governs resource acquisition?
          • What are my criteria for resource selection?
          • How many resources am I likely to require?
          • What skill sets will I require?
          • With whom should I plan to negotiate for resources, and how?
          • How do I document and explain the detailed requirements in terms of time required, skillsets, budget, and accounting?

          Feel free to make use of tables with the resource acquisition plan when describing itemized elements such as skillsets, numbers, criteria, and policies and procedures. Note also that the plan should end with an example of a project work package. An example work package can be found in the Unit V Lesson.Submit your resource acquisition plan in the form of a minimum two-page document. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.Note: In Unit VIII of this course, you will include a summary of your resource acquisition plan as part of a PowerPoint presentation. 

          Homework

           

          For this discussion, consider the following questions. Write a paragraph where you answer these questions. Ensure the paragraph flows from point to point and does not look like a group of question-and-answer statements.

          • What skill do you feel most confident in? 
          • What is the least confidence? 
          • What was most helpful about the class? 
          • What would you add to the class that would have been helpful?
            • 8

            Homework

             

            Find a newspaper, blog entry, or magazine article that discusses a topic related to our course.  The article must be published on or after January 1, 2022. 

            Write a short summary of the article (3-5 sentences maximum).  Then, explain how it relates to a specific course concept we have discussed in class. (A course concept maybe a vocabulary word, a theory, or even a research method or study results.)  Your response should define the term and provide a detailed analysis of how the term, theory, or concept can help readers understand the article’s social and historical context. (This part should be 2-3 paragraphs long and the main focus of your response.
             

            Your response should be 200-400 words total.

            In your response, include a citation for the article.  If the article is available online, include the URL/hyperlink to the article in your citation.

            This response is worth up to 15 points and will be evaluated based on your understanding of the article and the course contents, your grammar/spelling, and proper use of citations.

              • 15

              Homework

              HIST 300

              Bibliography Assignment Instructions

              You must submit a standard bibliography of 5 primary sources (excluding Ancestry.com), 5 secondary sources (books), and 5 secondary sources (articles) using proper current Turabian citation methods. The sources must directly relate to a subject important to your family history. Please separate your sources by category and place them under the appropriate subheadings: Primary Sources, Books, and Articles. Do not simply list all 15 together without these divisions.

              Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.

              homework

              Critical Review Assignment

              Read through this outline carefully. When your instructor grades your submission, they will be
              looking to see if you followed the provided format: you can lose points if you do not
              Mastery of statistics involves not only the ability to generate sound statistical data, but also the
              ability to critically evaluate the statistical analysis of others. The latter is the focus of the Critical
              Review assignment in this course. A review, or critique, is not a summary or a simple retelling
              of the major findings in a research article. It is much more. It assesses how well the researcher
              carries out the required steps in the research process.
              Elements of the critique:

              Summary of the article (Discuss what the article is about) This part SHOULD NOT include any
              of your personal input but rather just summarize what the author did in his/her research.
              Research Topic
              oWhat question is the researcher trying to answer?
              Research Methodology
              oHow did the researcher study the topic? Survey? Experiment? Statistical
              Analysis?
              oBriefly answer who, what, where, and when, and how.
              Major Conclusions
              oWhat does the author conclude?
              oWhat recommendations does he make?
              This section should be about 1.5 pages in general.

              The next part is the key of the critique. This next sections of your paper gives an assessment of
              how well the research was conducted based on what you learned. Remember you can use your
              own personal experience and outside articles to help you support your point of view in this
              section of the assignment.
              In-depth critique of the article (Discuss how well the research is conducted in your own
              words)
              Write a brief paragraph for each of the following listed elements in your own words:
              Purpose
              oIs the research problem clearly stated? Is it easy to determine what the researcher
              intends to research?
              Literature Review
              oIs the review logically organized?
              oDoes it offer a balanced critical analysis of the literature?
              oIs the majority of the literature of recent origin?
              oIs it empirical in nature?

              Objectives/hypotheses
              oHas a research question or hypothesis been identified?
              oIs it clearly stated?
              oIs it consistent with discussion in the literature review?
              Ethical Standards Applied
              oWere the participants fully informed about the nature of the research?
              oWas confidentiality guaranteed?
              oWere participants protected from harm?
              Operational Definitions
              oAre all terms, theories, and concepts used in the study clearly defined?
              Methodology
              oIs the research design clearly identified?
              oHas the data gathering instrument been described?
              oIs the instrument appropriate? How was it developed?
              oWere reliability and validity testing undertaken and the results discussed?
              oWas a pilot study undertaken?
              Data Analysis/Results
              oWhat type of data and statistical analysis was undertaken? Was it appropriate?
              oHow many of the sample participated? Significance of the findings?
              Discussion
              oAre the findings linked back to the literature review?
              oIf a hypothesis was identified was it supported?
              oWere the strengths and limitations of the study including generalizability
              discussed?
              oWas a recommendation for further research made?
              References
              oWere all the books, journals and other media alluded to in the study accurately
              referenced?
              Conclusion
              oConsidering all of the evaluation categories, is the article well or poorly
              researched?
              The following online article may be helpful to you. Step-by-step guide to critiquing research.
              Part 1:
              Quantitative research
              https://www.unm.edu/~unmvclib/cascade/handouts/critiquingresearchpart1.pdf
              Layout of your paper and other writing requirements
              Your final report should be organized in the following format:
              Title page
              oInclude name and author of article you critique
              Brief summary of article
              In-depth critique of article
              Bibliography
              Additional writing requirements:
              Submit your paper as a Word document. No PDF files.
              Double-space
              Use 12 point Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins
              Use section headings to identify the different components of your discussion
              Number all pages after the title page
              Use APA format for citations and bibliography
              Do not use quotes from the article, paraphrase
              Keep the tone formal. Write like a researcher. Avoid the use of first person pronouns
              such as I, we, me, us, etc.
              Check for spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors
              Keep your paper to 5pages, not including the title page

              homework

              Research summary: Use the guidelines from the syllabus to choose five research studies that are peer-reviewed and published in recent five years. Unrelated work to this course content will not be accepted.

              3. Research summary. Read and summarize a total of five (5) research articles related to
              specific topics. The selected research studies should be published within five years. The
              length of summary for each article is ≥1 page in APA format. Write ONE summary on each
              research study that is relevant to the course content. The following topics were rated as most
              critical surveyed by the International Literacy Association 2020. (the 15-point rubric).
              a. Building early literacy skills through a balanced approach that combines both
              foundational and language comprehension instruction
              b. Determining effective instructional strategies for struggling readers
              c. Increasing equity and opportunity for all learners
              d. Increasing professional learning and development opportunities for practicing educators
              e. Providing access to high-quality, diverse books and content

              homework

              48

              WORRY, INTOLERANCE OF UNCERTAINTY, AND
              STATISTICS ANXIETY5

              AMANDA S. WILLIAMS

              Texas Tech University
              a.williams@ttu.edu

              ABSTRACT

              Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship
              between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was
              significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics
              anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were significantly lower by the end of the semester.

              Keywords: Statistics education research; Academic anxiety; Graduate students

              1. INTRODUCTION

              It is quite common for graduate students to avoid taking statistics classes for as long as possible,

              frequently waiting until their last semester to enroll in a statistics course. This is not new: Roberts and
              Bilderback (1980) noted as much when discussing student attitudes toward statistics. The authors
              pointed out that the fear students feel when finally forced to enroll is often detrimental to a successful
              experience in statistics classes. Other authors also acknowledge the problem of graduate students’
              procrastination when it comes to enrolling in statistics classes (e.g., Onwuegbuzie, 1997), attributing
              their avoidance to high levels of statistics anxiety. Statistics anxiety has been related to several
              variables, such as academic outcomes, attitudes, self-concepts, and personal characteristics such as the
              tendency to procrastinate. Statistics anxiety has also been shown to be detrimental to students in
              several ways, but cognitive processes related to this form of anxiety have apparently not been
              explored. Specifically, intolerance of uncertainty, and worry have each been related to generalized
              anxiety, and worry has been related to other forms of anxiety, but neither construct has yet been
              related to statistics anxiety.

              2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

              2.1. STATISTICS ANXIETY

              Statistics anxiety has been defined as “a feeling of anxiety when taking a statistics course or doing

              statistical analysis; that is gathering, processing, and interpreting data” (Cruise, Cash, & Bolton, 1985,
              p. 92). Statistics anxiety is believed to be a multi-dimensional construct, comprised of six types of
              anxiety: worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and class anxiety, computation self-concept,
              fear of asking for help, and fear of statistics teachers (Cruise et al.). Worth of statistics refers to
              students’ perception of the usefulness of statistics in everyday life. Cruise et al. state that students
              scoring high on this factor see no purpose in taking statistics courses and a higher score may indicate
              a negative attitude toward the subject. Interpretation anxiety refers to the anxiety felt when students
              are required to interpret statistical results or decide which type of analysis to use. Those who score
              high on this factor find statistical interpretation difficult and anxiety provoking. Test and class anxiety
              pertains to the general anxiety experienced by taking a statistics class. Students who score high on this
              factor feel anxiety when enrolling in a statistics course, attending statistics classes, or taking exams.
              Computation self-concept refers to anxiety experienced when computing statistical problems. Students
              who score high on this dimension doubt their ability, regardless of true ability, to solve statistical
              problems which may reflect their attitude toward the subject. Fear of asking for help reflects the

              Statistics Education Research Journal, 12(1), 48-59, http://iase-web.org/Publications.php?p=SERJ
              � International Association for Statistical Education (IASE/ISI), May, 2013

              49

              anxiety students feel when asking for help. Students who score high on this factor experience higher
              levels of anxiety when approaching their instructor, or a classmate, for help understanding statistical
              problems or statistical descriptions in journal articles. The last factor, fear of statistics teachers, refers
              to the students’ perceptions of the statistics instructor. Those who score high on this dimension are
              more likely to perceive the instructor as being unable or unwilling to relate to the students as a human
              being, and to regard the instructor as someone to fear.

              Zeidner (1991) furthers the definition by adding that statistics anxiety is accompanied by worry,
              tension, and physiological symptoms of stress when students are faced with taking a statistics class.
              Similarly, Onwuegbuzie, Da Ros, and Ryan (1997), through a qualitative study, found that students
              affected by statistics anxiety experience symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to depression, panic,
              stress, headaches, sweating, emotionality, and other psychological and physical manifestations of
              anxiety.

              Adverse effects of statistics anxiety have also been reported. For example, students’ performance
              is often affected in both statistics and research classes (Chiesi & Primi, 2010; DeVaney, 2010;
              Keeley, Zayac, & Correia, 2008; Lalonde & Gardner, 1993; Murtonen & Lehtinen, 2003;
              Onwuegbuzie, 1997; Onwuegbuzie, 2000; Onwuegbuzie & Seaman, 1995; Perepiczka, Chandler, &
              Becerra, 2011; Zanakis & Valenza, 1997). In a sample of undergraduate psychology students, Lalonde
              and Gardner (1993) found that statistics anxiety had affected students’ attitude and motivation toward
              the subject, thereby affecting their learning. Similarly, Zanakis and Valenza (1997) explored the
              relationship between student grades and statistics anxiety in 166 students enrolled in business
              statistics courses. The authors found that students’ anxiety, though still high at course end, was
              reduced simply as a result of exposure and that this contributed to a reduction in interpretation
              anxiety. Further, the increase in perceived worth of statistics had the greatest influence on student
              achievement, with the increase contributing to higher grades. More recently, Chiesi and Primi used
              structural equation modeling to explore in a sample of 487 students both cognitive and non-cognitive
              factors related to statistics performance. They found that achievement was indirectly affected by
              statistics anxiety through poor attitude toward statistics, with the overall model explaining 67% of the
              variance in achievement. Specifically, pre-course attitude was significantly related to anxiety (r = –
              0.37, p < 0.05), which was related to negative post-course attitude (r = -0.38, p < 0.05), which was in
              turn related to achievement (r = 0.21, p < 0.05). This suggests that students’ preconceived ideas about
              statistics classes affect their anxiety, and that anxiety in turn affects their attitudes toward statistics
              even at course end. Comparatively, Kesici, Baloglu, and Deniz (2011), in a sample of 320 college
              students, used canonical correlation analysis to explore the relationship between the six dimensions of
              statistics anxiety (Cruise et al., 1985) and a set of nine types of self-regulation. These authors found
              that the three significant canonical variants combined accounted for 54% of the variability in self-
              regulated learning strategies and 65% of the variability in statistics anxiety. These authors contend
              that students who use higher-level learning strategies (e.g., elaboration and organization) also have
              lower levels of statistics anxiety.

              Onwuegbuzie and Seaman (1995) found that students who were given statistics tests under timed
              conditions showed significantly lower levels of performance than students who were tested under
              untimed conditions. In a later study, Onwuegbuzie (1997) explored anxiety in 81 graduate students in
              a research class and showed that anxiety over writing research proposals was comprised of library
              anxiety, statistics anxiety, composition anxiety, and research anxiety. Two forms of statistics anxiety
              (interpretation anxiety and fear of asking for help) and two types of library anxiety (affective barriers
              and knowledge of the library) significantly lowered scores on students’ research proposal
              assignments. Additionally, these factors explained 35.9% of the variance in proposal writing
              propensity.

              Students’ self-perceptions are also affected by statistics anxiety. In a sample of 146 graduate
              students, Onwuegbuzie (2000a) found that perceived creativity, intellectual ability, and academic
              competence were all significantly related to six dimensions of statistics anxiety, indicating that
              students who had higher levels of statistics anxiety also perceived themselves as less creative, as well
              as having less intellectual ability and competence for learning. In a different look at self-perception,
              Perepiczka et al. (2011) examined the effects of statistics anxiety, attitude toward statistics, and social
              support on students’ self-efficacy for learning statistics. In their sample of 166 graduate students,
              52.8% of the variance in self-efficacy to learn statistics was accounted for by the combination of

              50

              statistics anxiety, attitude toward statistics, and social support. Individually, statistics anxiety and
              attitude toward statistics were significant predictors, accounting for 3% and 7% of the variance in
              self-efficacy to learn statistics, whereas social support was not significant. From these data, it appears
              that students’ anxiety and attitudes affect their perception of whether they are capable of learning
              statistics.

              Statistics anxiety has been found to contribute even to students’ academic procrastination. In a
              sample of 135 graduate students, Onwuegbuzie (2004) measured students’ levels of procrastination
              and the extent to which their procrastination was due to fear of failure or to task aversion. The author
              also measured students’ levels of statistics anxiety in the six areas delineated by Cruise et al. (1985),
              and found that 40%-60% of the students reported procrastination on reading assignments and studying
              for exams, and that both the task aversion and fear of failure components were significantly related to
              the six types of statistics anxiety. Additionally, the author reports that as many as 41.5% of the
              students surveyed felt that procrastination was a concern.

              Less attention in the research has been focused on alleviating statistics anxiety in students. Dillon
              (1982) described how students’ anxiety may be reduced by encouraging them to discuss their
              concerns, and then suggesting ways that they can cope with their anxiety. Schacht and Stewart (1990)
              explored the use of humorous cartoons in statistics classes to reduce anxiety. By introducing cartoons
              and applying statistical applications to the content (e.g., calculating probability of runaway pets using
              fictitious data based on a cartoon depicting a man looking for his runaway cat), the authors found that
              this type of humor not only lowered the students’ anxiety levels, but also improved their learning. In
              1991, the same authors reported on their use of attention-getting teaching techniques (termed
              “gimmicks”) in statistics classes, asserting that such techniques should be utilized more often in
              statistics classes. By gathering opinion-related data from the students themselves, and then having
              them perform simple calculations such as obtaining the mean, they found that students’ anxiety was
              reduced and their motivation to become involved in the class was increased. Wilson (1996) found that
              although humor was somewhat effective in reducing students’ anxiety in statistics class, instructor
              personality and reassurances were even more effective. In subsequent studies, Wilson (1999, 2000)
              found that the instructor’s interpersonal style was more effective than specific strategies used to
              address students’ anxiety. After gathering answers to the open-ended question “What, if anything, did
              your instructor do to reduce anxiety in the statistics class?” for three years, the author concluded that
              instructor behaviors such as conveying a positive attitude, encouragement, reassurances of the
              students’ ability, acknowledgement of students’ anxiety, and use of humor reduced their anxiety at
              higher rates than did allowing students to work together or “making it easy to get an A.” Additionally,
              Pan and Tang (2005) used a focus group format to find that when the instructor was sensitive to
              students’ concerns, students’ anxiety was reduced and learning was enhanced.

              2.2. ANXIETY AND WORRY

              Statistics anxiety is a problem not only because of the adverse affects on student outcomes,

              attitudes, self-concepts, and tendency to procrastinate, but also because it can affect students’
              decisions to enroll in statistics courses early in their programs of study (Onwuegbuzie, 1997; Roberts
              & Bilderback, 1980). This delay may contribute to further avoidance, thereby increasing student
              anxiety. As Rachman (2004) states, avoidance is successful in the short term for relieving anxiety, but
              in the long run it contributes to further avoidance and helps strengthen the original anxiety.

              Anxiety is described as “a tense, unsettling anticipation of a threatening but vague event; a feeling
              of uneasy suspense” (Rachman, 2004, p. 3). A person feeling anxiety has a difficult time identifying a
              specific cause, yet the anxiety is persistent and encompassing. There are two main types of anxiety:
              trait anxiety and state anxiety. Trait anxiety refers to a relatively enduring characteristic of a person,
              whereas state anxiety is a response to a specific threatening situation that is only present when the
              threat is present. Barlow (2002) points out that anxiety also involves a perception of lack of control
              over future events and that it may become associated with any number of different situations. A
              common response to anxiety is the attempt to escape the threat and to avoid situations where the threat
              may be encountered (Rachman, 2004). An example of this response might be students who avoid
              statistics courses in order to reduce the discomfort of anxiety.

              51

              Anxiety is characterized by worry, which was originally described by Borkovec, Robinson,
              Pruzinsky, and Dupree (1983):

              Worry is a chain of thoughts and images, negatively affect-laden and relatively uncontrollable; it
              represents an attempt to engage in mental problem-solving on an issue whose outcome is
              uncertain but contains the possibility of one or more negative outcomes; consequently, worry
              relates closely to the fear process. (p. 10)

              A later description of worry is provided by MacLeod, Williams, and Bekerian (1991), who proposed
              that worry is “a cognitive phenomenon, … concerned with future events where there is uncertainty
              about the outcome, the future being thought about is a negative one, and this is accompanied by
              feelings of anxiety” (p. 478). Barlow (2002) adds to this description the idea that worry is “an anxious
              apprehension for future, negative events.” He goes on to say that worry represents an attempt to cope
              with anxiety, so in effect as anxiety increases, worry increases as well.

              In clinical studies, worry is the main feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and is present
              in many other anxiety disorders as well (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Barlow, 2002).
              Research studies have shown that individuals with GAD report significantly higher levels of worry
              than in non-pathological samples (Fresco, Mennin, Heimberg, & Turk, 2003; Molina & Borkovec,
              1994), while others (Ruscio, 2002; Ruscio & Borkovec, 2004) find that high levels of worry are not
              necessarily associated with GAD. For example, Ruscio found that only 20% of high-worriers were
              also diagnosable as experiencing GAD. This finding helped illustrate that the tendency to worry out of
              proportion can also be found outside clinical samples.

              There have been fewer studies utilizing non-clinical samples investigating worry, with or without
              anxiety. In one of the first studies investigating worry in non-clinical participants, Tallis, Davey, and
              Capuzzo (1994) asked 128 college students and working adults about their experiences with worry.
              Thirty-eight percent reported worrying at least once a day and that the typical time spent worrying
              was 10 minutes or less, typically about upcoming events or interpersonal interactions. Smaller
              percentages were reported for worrying more than once a day and for longer than 10 minutes.

              Similarly, Szabo and Lovibond (2002) assessed a sample of 57 psychology students concerning
              the content of naturally-occurring worry episodes. Fifteen were classified as analogue GAD
              participants (scoring high enough on GAD measures to be diagnosable, yet not clinically diagnosed),
              21 were classified as moderate worriers, and 21 as low worriers. The authors found that 20% of the
              worry content reported by participants focused on negative potential outcomes while 50% of the
              content was focused on problem-solving thoughts. Additionally, those who scored higher on worry-
              proneness did not differ significantly from moderate or low worriers on this outcome. The only
              difference suggested by the data indicates that high worriers judge their own problem-solving
              thoughts to be significantly more ineffective than those who worry moderately or less, pointing to a
              negative relationship between worry-proneness and problem-solving effectiveness.

              In a comparable study, Ladouceur, Blais, Freeston, and Dugas (1998) investigated problem
              orientation and problem-solving skills in relation to anxiety in a sample of college students and GAD
              patients. Fifteen of the students were classified as moderate worriers and 14 as analogue GAD
              worriers, with the remaining sample made up of 14 participants clinically diagnosed with GAD.
              Across all groups, problem orientation was related to anxiety levels, but problem-solving skill was not
              related. The authors also found that those worriers with higher levels of anxiety also expressed a
              stronger belief that worry is beneficial while reporting a lower tolerance for uncertainty.

              2.3. ANXIETY, WORRY, AND INTOLERANCE OF UNCERTAINTY

              Another characteristic of anxiety appears to be intolerance of uncertainty, which is believed to

              lead directly to the tendency to worry (Koerner & Dugas, 2006). These authors describe a model of
              GAD that incorporates not only worry as a function of anxiety, but also describes the intolerance of
              uncertainty as the instigator of worry, which in turn is due to negative problem orientation, the belief
              that worry is valuable, and cognitive avoidance. Intolerance of uncertainty is defined as a
              dispositional characteristic that affects how a person perceives and responds to uncertain situations on
              a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral level. Those who show an intolerance of uncertainty
              experience uncertainty as stressful, believe that situations where uncertainty exists are best avoided,
              and experience an undermining of their ability to function (Buhr & Dugas, 2002).

              52

              Researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between worry and intolerance of
              uncertainty (Dugas, Freeston, & Ladouceur, 1997; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas, & Ladouceur,
              1994; Ladouceur, Gosselin, & Dugas, 2000; Tallis & Eysenck, 1994). For example, Dugas, Gosselin,
              and Ladouceur (2001) examined the specificity of the relationship between the two by adding other
              variables known to be related to worry. In the sample of 347 undergraduate students, the authors
              found that intolerance of uncertainty was highly related to worry (r = 0.70), moderately related to
              obsessions/compulsions (r = 0.48), and weakly related to panic sensation (r = 0.33). Further, through
              regression analysis, the authors found that intolerance of uncertainty explained 42% of the variance in
              worry after accounting for other variables. In a second regression, worry explained 34% of the
              variance in intolerance of uncertainty beyond that of the other variables. Similarly, Buhr and Dugas
              (2006) surveyed 197 college students concerning intolerance of uncertainty, worry, intolerance of
              ambiguity, perfectionism, and perceived control. Though worry was related to all of the variables
              except other-oriented perfectionism (a subscale of perfectionism) and perceived mastery (a subscale
              of sense of control), the strongest relationship among the variables occurred between worry and
              intolerance of uncertainty (r = 0.63).

              As the literature suggests, anxiety, worry, and intolerance of uncertainty appear to be inseparable
              components. Researchers have explored the relationship between worry and anxiety largely in terms
              of GAD, but many have expanded our understanding by investigating other types of anxiety such as
              the myriad of evaluative anxieties (e.g., test anxiety, math anxiety, social anxiety, sports anxiety,
              computer anxiety) in which worry is recognized as a major cognitive component (see Zeidner &
              Matthews, 2011). The development of the intolerance for uncertainty construct (Koerner & Dugas,
              2006) helps explain worry, and research concerning the relationship between intolerance of
              uncertainty, worry, and anxiety has been growing. However, one type of anxiety has thus far not been
              studied in relation to worry and intolerance of uncertainty, that of statistics anxiety. Considering the
              ample research relating generalized anxiety and other forms of anxiety to the worry construct, and the
              evidence of intolerance of uncertainty also relating to worry and anxiety, it is logical to expect worry
              and intolerance of uncertainty to have some relationship with statistics anxiety. Therefore, the current
              study seeks to investigate the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics
              anxiety.

              3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

              The focus of the current study is on the relationships among intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and

              statistics anxiety. If intolerance of uncertainty leads to worry, and worry is the main characteristic of
              anxiety (Koerner & Dugas, 2006), then it is reasonable to expect this relationship to exist in terms of
              statistics anxiety. In short, intolerance of uncertainty should be related to worry, and worry should be
              related to statistics anxiety. Specifically, the research hypotheses are:

              1. Intolerance of uncertainty is significantly correlated with worry in statistics students at pretest.
              2. Worry is significantly correlated with six types of statistics anxiety at pretest.
              3. Student levels of intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety will be significantly

              reduced from pretest to posttest.

              4. METHOD

              4.1. PARTICIPANTS

              The participants for the study were recruited from the college of education in a large public

              southwestern university. Students in three sections of a graduate level introductory statistics course
              over the fall and spring semesters of 2010 were asked to volunteer, and all students agreed to
              participate. Of the ninety-seven (n = 97) participants, most were female (66.0%), and white (64.9%),
              and just over half were master’s students (53.6%). The great majority of the students (90.7%) were
              more than halfway through their degree programs, with 61.9% having less than 33 hours remaining.
              Though students were not specifically asked to indicate their majors, enrollment records indicate that
              the fields of educational psychology, sports psychology, higher education, counseling, hospitality

              53

              administration, nutritional science, mass communications, and family/consumer science were
              represented. Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the participants.

              Table 1. Sample demographics (n = 97)

              n % mean SD
              Male 33 34.0
              Female 64 66.0
              Age 31.47 8.78
              White 63 64.9
              Asian 16 16.5
              Hispanic 9 9.3
              African-American 2 2.1
              Other ethnicity 7 7.2
              Master’s level 52 53.6
              Doctorate level 45 46.4

              4.2. INSTRUMENTS

              Intolerance of uncertainty was assessed with the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12;

              Carleton, Norton, & Asmundson, 2007), consisting of 12 items designed to measure one’s tolerance
              for uncertainty. The twelve statements are measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly
              disagree to strongly agree. Items are summed for a total intolerance score, and higher scores indicate
              higher levels of intolerance. Sample items include “It frustrates me not having all the information I
              need” and “When it’s time to act, uncertainty paralyzes me.” Factor analysis was used to support
              validity of the 12-item scale, shortened from the original 27-item French version (Freeston et al.,
              1994), and showed an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.91 (Carleton et al., 2007). In the
              current study, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for the IUS-12 scale was 0.85 at pretest and
              0.86 at posttest.

              The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer, Miller, Metzger, & Borkovec, 1990) was
              employed as a measure of students’ tendency to worry. Tendency to worry is assessed via 16
              statements, with 5 being reverse-scored. All items are measured on a 5-point Likert scale and then
              summed for a total worry score. Higher scores indicate a higher tendency toward worry. Sample items
              include “I know I should not worry about things, but I just cannot help it” and “Once I start worrying,
              I cannot stop.” An example of a reverse-scored item is “I find it easy to dismiss worrisome thoughts.”
              The authors conducted factor analysis to support construct validity, and found that the items loaded on
              one general factor with loadings ranging from 0.38 to 0.73. Reliability was established through
              internal consistency with a coefficient of 0.93 for the 16 items. For the current study, Cronbach’s
              alpha reliability coefficient for the PSWQ was 0.91 at pretest and 0.88 at posttest.

              Statistics anxiety was measured using the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS; Cruise et al.,
              1985), which consists of 51 items measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The instrument consists of six
              factors designed to assess anxiety in the areas of worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and
              class anxiety, computation self-concept, fear of asking for help, and fear of statistics teachers. Worth
              of statistics refers to students’ perceptions of the usefulness of statistics either in their personal,
              academic, or future professional lives. Sample items include “I feel statistics is a waste” and “I’m
              never going to use statistics, so why should I have to take it?” and are scored along the continuum of 1
              (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Interpretation anxiety, referring to how much anxiety
              students feel when faced with having to interpret statistical data or make a decision about an analysis
              outcome, is scored from 1 (no anxiety) to 5 (high anxiety). Sample items reflecting this type of
              anxiety include “Making an objective decision based on empirical data” and “Figuring out whether to
              reject or retain the null hypothesis.” Test and class anxiety are measured on the same scale, with items
              such as “Doing the homework for a statistics course” and “Finding that another student in class got a
              different answer than you did to a statistical problem.” Computation self-concept is intended to
              represent students’ anxiety concerning working on math problems as well as their self-perceptions of
              mathematical ability (rather than actual mathematical ability). Sample items from this subscale,

              54

              measured on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree, include “I haven’t had
              math for a long time. I know I’ll have problems getting through statistics” and “I could enjoy statistics
              if it weren’t so mathematical.” The final two subscales, fear of asking for help and fear of statistics
              teachers, are also measured on a 5-point Likert scale with 1 indicating no anxiety and 5 indicating
              high anxiety. These subscales are designed to assess students’ anxiety over asking for help in
              understanding statistics material, and students’ perceptions of statistics teachers. Sample items include
              “Asking one of your professors for help in understanding a printout” and “Most statistics teachers are
              not human.” Higher scores on each of the subscales indicate higher anxiety levels for that area. Cruise
              et al. (1985) reported that factor analysis was used to establish construct validity for the instrument,
              resulting in loadings for the 51 retained items of 0.50 or greater for the six factors. The authors also
              reported test-retest reliability for the six factors ranging from 0.67 to 0.80, and internal consistency
              reliabilities ranging from 0.68 to 0.94. For the current study, Cronbach’s reliability coefficients for the
              six subscales were, at pretest and posttest respectively, 0.93 and 0.91 (worth of statistics), 0.88 and
              0.88 (interpretation anxiety), 0.93 and 0.92 (test and class anxiety), 0.88 and 0.86 (computation self-
              concept), 0.89 and 0.86 (fear of asking for help), and 0.77 and 0.82 (fear of statistics teachers).

              4.3. PROCEDURE

              At the beginning of the fall and spring semesters, graduate students in three sections (one in the

              fall and two in the spring) of introductory statistics classes were invited to participate in the study.
              The students were told that the researcher was interested in how they felt about statistics and how they
              perceived themselves in terms of worry and uncertainty, and were assured of confidentiality and
              anonymity. Before any statistics instruction began, students who agreed to participate were given an
              envelope containing a pretest and a posttest. In addition to demographics questions, the pretest and
              posttest instruments consisted of the IUS-12, PSWQ, and STARS instruments. Students were then
              instructed to complete the pretest questionnaires only. Upon completion, the students were asked to
              return the pretest instruments to their envelopes, seal the envelopes, and write the last four digits of
              their phone numbers on the outside for temporary identification purposes. Near the last day of the
              semester, the sealed envelopes were returned to the students and they were asked to complete the
              posttest instruments and destroy the outer envelopes in order to preserve anonymity.

              5. RESULTS

              Descriptive statistics were calculated for the research variables. Means and standard deviations for

              intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and the six dimensions of statistics anxiety are given in Table 2.

              Table 2. Means and standard deviations for IUS-12, PSWQ, and STARS

              Pretest Posttest
              Variable mean SD mean SD
              Intolerance of Uncertainty 34.55 7.89 33.44 7.35
              Worry 54.56 11.97 52.05 12.55
              Worth of statistics 33.32 10.42 30.94 8.55
              Interpretation anxiety 27.97 8.61 22.71 7.40
              Test and class anxiety 25.87 8.65 20.87 8.45
              Computational self-concept 16.60 6.30 14.06 4.90
              Fear of asking for help 8.88 4.31 7.39 3.61
              Fear of statistics teacher 11.22 3.81 8.95 3.12

              In order to test hypotheses one and two, Pearson’s r correlation coefficients were calculated among
              intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and the six types of statistics anxiety. As a control for the family-
              wise error rate, the Bonferroni adjustment was applied using a 0.05 alpha level (0.05/28 = 0.002).
              Therefore, only those correlations that were significant at the adjusted level of 0.002 or lower were
              deemed significant at the desired 0.05 level when overall error was controlled. The results are
              presented in Table 3. As expected, intolerance of uncertainty and worry were significantly and

              55

              positively correlated, with a large effect size (i.e., d > 0.50; Cohen, 1988). Intolerance of uncertainty
              was significantly positively related to four of the six dimensions of statistics anxiety with the

              homework

              This is an individual assignment:

              Write a 2-page response (APA 6, double-spaced) summarizing what you have learned from ONE of the identified leaders about their leadership and why these points are important to you personally. Use any one of the following neoclassical leaders:

              · Robert Greenleaf,

              · Margaret Wheatley,

              · Williams Deming,

              · Peter Drucker,

              · Henry Mintzberg,

              · Frederick Herzberg,

              · Chester Bernard,

              · Mary Parker Follet,

              · Abraham Maslow.

              Please cite your references if you are using quotes (remember that I want to see your understanding of the quote, not just the quote – use quotes minimally).  Suggestion:  one quotation (citation) per page.

              Here are some things that might help you. You 
              DO NOT
               have to answer all the questions, they are just there to stimulate your thinking.

              **NO WIKIPEDIA**

              20% – Introduction to the leader including their background. Explain their theory in your words.

              60% – What was the leader known for?  What was their inspiration/motivation? What did they do that was different?  How did their research/theory effect leadership today? Can you give examples of their theory in use today?

              10% – Conclusion – Does this theory make sense in today’s world? How will you use this leadership style to your benefit?

              10%  – Grammar & APA & References –  Read over your paper. Does it make sense? Where did you get your work from? Many students did not include references in their first assignment.

              homework

              Part 1: one page only

              Required Resources
              Read/review the following resources for this activity:

              · Textbook: Chapter 4, 5, 6

              · Lesson

              · Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

              Initial Post Instructions
              For the initial post, select and address one of the following:

              · Option 1: Examine Marx’s writings on communism and socialism and compare them to how they manifested in reality? What worked and what didn’t? What misconceptions do we have about his original intent based on what we see in past or current governments?

              · Option 2: Compare and contrast communism and fascism. Select one example for each to examine the origins of the governments, their accomplishments, and their failures. What accounts for the fact that the masses mobilized to support these movements? Elaborate.

              · Option 3: Examine Depression-Era social programs (select one or more to examine in detail). Were the fears of a communist take-over based on the implementation of these programs grounded in reality? Why or why not? How do they compare to social programs in place today?

              Follow-Up Post Instructions
              Respond to at least one peer. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

              Writing Requirements

              · Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)

              · Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

              · APA format for in-text citations and list of references

              Part 2

              Required Resources
              Read/review the following resources for this activity:

              · Textbook: Chapter 4, 5, 6

              · Lesson

              · Link (video): 
              Benito Mussolini (Links to an external site.)
               (53:48) https://search-alexanderstreet-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/view/work/bibliographic_entity%7Cvideo_work%7C4065279/clip/150946

              · Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the textbook)

              Instructions
              Watch the entire video on Benito Mussolini (noted in the Required Resources). Identify and describe 3 aspects of the video you found most interesting that align with each of the following:

              1. Foreign policy.

              2. Violent and/or non-violent movements for social, economic, and political change

              3. Governmental authority/loss of personal liberties

              Conduct additional research to provide an analysis of those 3 aspects. What information did you find that the video left out? How did the video enhance your understanding of those aspects?

              Writing Requirements (APA format)

              · Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)

              · 1-inch margins

              · Double spaced

              · 12-point Times New Roman font

              · Title page

              · References page

              Grading
              This activity will be graded using the W2 Essay Grading Rubric.

              Course Outcomes (CO): 1, 3, 4, 5

              Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

              Reference

              Stevenson, M. (Director), & Cameron, P. (Producer). (2018). Benito Mussolini [Video]. Public Broadcasting Service. Academic Video Online.

              Rubric

              Week 2 Essay Grading Rubric

              Week 2 Essay Grading Rubric

              Criteria

              Ratings

              Pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength

              5 pts

              Meets length requirement

              0 pts

              Does not meet length requirement

              5 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent

              10 pts

              Paper addresses all aspects of the assignment.

              8.5 pts

              Paper addresses most aspects of the assignment.

              7.5 pts

              Paper addresses some aspects of the assignment.

              6 pts

              Paper addresses few aspects of the assignment.

              0 pts

              No effort

              10 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis

              20 pts

              Throughout the whole work, content expresses original thoughts or interprets the subject matter in a different perspective.

              17 pts

              Throughout most of the work, content expresses original thoughts or interprets the subject matter in a different perspective.

              15 pts

              Throughout some of the work, content expresses original thoughts or interprets the subject matter in a different perspective.

              12 pts

              Throughout little of the work, content expresses original thoughts or interprets the subject matter in a different perspective.

              0 pts

              No effort

              20 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSupport

              20 pts

              Throughout the whole work, claims are supported with detailed and persuasive examples; accurate facts and circumstances are used for support.

              17 pts

              Throughout most of the work, claims are supported with detailed and persuasive examples; accurate facts and circumstances are used for support.

              15 pts

              Throughout some of the work, claims are supported with detailed and persuasive examples; accurate facts and circumstances are used for support.

              12 pts

              Throughout little of the work, claims are supported with detailed and persuasive examples; accurate facts and circumstances are used for support.

              0 pts

              No effort

              20 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting: Mechanics & Usage

              10 pts

              The writing is free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that would detract from a clear reading of the paper.

              8.5 pts

              The writing contains a few errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation, but the errors do not detract from a clear reading of the text.

              7.5 pts

              The writing contains some errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that need to be addressed for a clearer reading of the paper.

              6 pts

              The writing contains several errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that impede a clear reading of the paper.

              0 pts

              No effort

              10 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeClarity & Flow

              10 pts

              The writing contains strong word choice that clarifies ideas and masterful sentence variety aids with the flow of ideas.

              8.5 pts

              The writing contains varied word choice and sentence structures that clarify ideas and aid with the flow of ideas.

              7.5 pts

              The writing contains word choice and sentence structures that can be revised for better clarification of ideas and flow of ideas.

              6 pts

              The writing contains wording and sentence structures that are awkward and/or unclear, impeding the clarity and flow of ideas.

              0 pts

              No effort

              10 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSource Integration

              10 pts

              Paper includes reference to 2 scholarly sources and properly integrates the sources.

              7 pts

              Paper includes reference to 2 scholarly sources but does not properly integrate the sources.

              0 pts

              Paper does not make reference to a scholarly sources.

              10 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA: Citation and Reference Formatting

              10 pts

              All sources are properly cited in the text and references page demonstrating a mastery of resource and APA citation reference format.

              8.5 pts

              Most sources are cited in the text and references page. Some minor errors may exist in citation, but it does not interfere with understanding the source of the information.

              7.5 pts

              Most sources are integrated, structured, and cited in the text and references page. Some errors may exist in citation that need to be addressed to clarify the source of information.

              6 pts

              Sources are not properly cited in the text/references page. Formatting contains several errors that suggest a lack of understanding of APA format.

              0 pts

              Sources are not cited.

              10 pts

              This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA Paper Format

              5 pts

              Paper is properly formatted in APA style throughout (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references).

              4 pts

              Paper is mostly properly formatted in APA style (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references).

              3 pts

              Paper is somewhat properly formatted in APA style (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references).

              2 pts

              Paper is improperly formatted in APA style throughout.

              0 pts

              No effort

              5 pts

              Total Points: 100

              Previous
              Next

              homework

              Please read before starting

              Sample

              Title Page Format:
              1. The title of your thematic unit
              2. 30-50 words description of your project
              3. Grade level
              4. Names of Team members.
              5. Course title and number
              6. Date of submission
              Sample:
              Title: Fishing for the Knowledge
              Description: Through the “Memoirs of a Goldfish” students explore a beautiful life
              cycle and habitats of fish, understanding the components of a story and learn to
              write an informative essay.
              Grade Level: Fourth Grade
              Authors and Presenters: Jane Doe, John Doe, Jane J. Doe
              ED 528 Language and Communicative Art
              March 24, 2022

              This is what required from the unit

              Steps in Developing a Thematic Unit
              Read the textbook on thematic units for definition on p. 31 and p. 36; for planning
              a thematic unit on p. 374-375; and for examples and more information on p. 250-
              254, p. 353-357, p. 371, p. 373-379. Tompkins, G. E. (2016). Language Arts:
              Patterns of Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Merrill Prentice Hall.
              Thematic Units integrate language arts with social studies, science, and other
              curricular areas (Lindquist & Selwyn, 2000). Students use all of the Language Arts
              as they investigate, solve problems, and learn during a unit (Rief, 1999). They also
              use language arts to demonstrate their new learning at the end of the unit. These
              Language Arts activities are integrated with content area study during thematic
              units.
              Brainstorming:
              Design Questions: Making it meaningful to your students not to you.
              1. What is meaningful for your students to learn and explore from this area?
              2. What will you do to help the students?
              3. What resources will you use?
              4. What will students do?
              Within this unit, to prepare for some assignments
              5. What will students learn from this experience?
              6. How will you help them assess what they’ve learned?
              Steps:
              1. A title reflecting the theme or topic of the unit and names of the presenters
              2. Blue print page: Brainstorm on your major plan for this unit? It could be
              handwriting.
              3. Identify Standards: Identify standards they will address and plan minilessons
              to teach strategies, concepts, and procedures.
              4. Choose a core book for the theme.
              5. Text Set: Collect a text set of books and other types of reading materials to
              use in the unit: stories, poems, informational books, trade books, magazines,
              newspaper articles, and reference books. Display these books and sources
              for the presentation.

              6. Listening Center: Set up a listening center and collect recordings of various
              books in the text set.
              7. Textbooks: Coordinate content-area textbook reading with other activities in
              the unit.
              8. Technology resources: locate internet and other technology resources
              (videotapes, CD-ROMs, DVDs, charts, time lines, maps, models, posters,
              and other displays) and plan ways to integrate them into the unit.
              9. Identify Academic Vocabulary: Teachers preview books in the text set and
              identify potential words for the word wall and activities to teach these words.
              10.Learning Logs: Plan how students will use learning logs as a tool for
              learning: take notes, write questions, make observations, clarify their
              thinking, and write reactions to what they are learning during the thematic
              units.
              11.Talk and Visually Representing Activities: Plan ways to involve students in
              talk activities, such as instructional conversations and oral presentations, and
              in visually representing activities. The following are possible activities:
              a. Give oral report
              b. Interview someone with special expertise related to the unit
              c. Participate in a debate related to the unit
              d. Create charts and diagrams to display information
              e. Participate in a readers theatre presentation of a story or poem
              12.Projects: Brainstorm possible projects students can create to apply their
              learning, but usually allow students some choice in which projects they
              develop: a. create a poster to illustrate a big idea. b. write a story related to
              the unit. c. write a poem, song, or rap related to the unit. d. write a “All
              About…” book or a report about one of the big ideas.
              13.Assessment: Plan ways to monitor and assess students’ learning with
              assignment checklists, rubrics, and other assessment tools.
              14.Reference page: List your cited source in this unit.
              15.Rich artifacts

              Thematic Unit group projects. Participate as part of a group in a thematic unit. In the unit, you integrate language arts activities with content area study such as social studies, science, and other curricular areas. You also need to include in the unit a two-week simulated mini-lesson. The composition of the lesson should incorporate all six facets of an effective language arts program integrated into a structured lesson. (No worksheets).


              Homework

              It is about business ideas.  Take a look at some business ideas on this site and consider what type of company you would like to begin.  Suggest an idea for the team and provide some rationale for why this company might be a great idea such as an estimate of a TAM, or a listing of the market competitors and why they aren’t providing sufficiently for consumers, or identify and unaddressed market need by describing something that consumers say they would like to have but cannot find with some supporting evidence.  

              Describe the following for your idea: 

              1. Problem you will solve with your company 

              2. business definition

              3. Target customer and market size

              4. Service or product portfolio

                

              Work will be a minimum of 300-400 words or 3 paragraphs and should include insights and concepts from the week’s reading. While you may be asked to provide an opinion, your position must be supported by evidence. Each initial post will have at least 2 references (textbook and another independent source). Also, cite your sources (APA 7.0 ed).

              PROFESSOR’S GUIDANCE FOR THIS WORK:

              Keep in mind that you are about to embark on a journey of composing a business plan that provides business services to its clients. Be aware that your company must be expandable to large volumes to be of interest to future investors.  Try to avoid a company that could be a “lifestyle” company with small or little growth potential.  

                • 10

                homework

                Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others. Understanding how to recognize the emotions of others in different situations is a big communication tool for the manager. It is not unusual for people to fail to express what they are feeling verbally and thus leave the listener with an impression that may be false.  Understanding how to read body language or facial expressions affords the manager additional knowledge as to the speakers’ true stance. It helps to communicate with meaning to the words we choose. Managers that have a good understanding of EI find it especially useful in approaching conflict decision-making and coaching employees.

                In your initial post focus on:

                · What is EI and how can managers benefit from understanding EI?

                · What role does “Active Listening” play in communication?

                · How does the way you handle communication impact decision-making and efficiency in the workplace?

                *Instructions*

                *3 pages

                *Use scholarly work

                *3 References

                *No Dot Com

                *Prepare this assignment in the APA Style Guide.

                homework


                ED 599 01 SPRING 2022: COMPREHENSIVE EXIT EXAM INFORMATION and STUDY GUIDE 3-9-2022

                Note:

                1. The Comprehensive Examination is schedule for Saturday, April 16, 2022, at the O. P. Lowe

                Education Building on MVSU Campus. Expect details to follow in a later date.

                2. Below information is the STUDY GUIDE for the examination. The order of the actual examination

                may vary from the order of the study guide.

                3. Candidates are expected to demonstrate competence in the courses of the program.

                4. RESPOND TO TEST ITEMS #1 to 3 and RESPOND TO ONE TOPIC UNDER TEST ITEM #4

                a) Your responses must be legible, appropriately paragraphed, and sequenced, at

                least 2 pages long, and with adequate supporting references.

                b) You must address all issues raised in the test item.

                c) Please pay attention to organization, coherence, and grammatical correctness.

                d) Please proofread all work before submitting.

                e) Each page of responses must have your ID#, Test Item Topic and page number at

                the top right.

                5. Should you have any question(s), contact one of the graduate faculty in a timely manner. Do not wait until April 16, 2022, to seek help.


                STUDY GUIDE


                RESEARCH IN EDUCATION:

                1. Describe the importance of developing a good research topic. Identify a researchable topic, formulate, and state the hypothesis that might result to an actionable educational practice.

                2. Compare the characteristics of six steps in the process of quantitative and qualitative research. Of the types of research which is best suited for the classroom teacher?


                Assessment:

                1. What is the purpose of RTI? Graphically illustrate the essential components of RTI. Discuss the role and responsibilities of a special educator in implementing RTI for eligibility of Special Education placement in the public school.

                2. Discuss the importance of using a variety of assessments to enhance classroom teaching and learning.  Give two examples of how assessment results may be used to improve teaching and learning.


                Reading:

                1. What does the National Reading Panel say about literacy in the classroom? Discuss the Simple View of Reading, Ehri’s Phases of Word Reading Development, the Four-Part Processor, and The Scarborough Rope as it pertains to the significance of teaching children to read. Please provide documented research Cite the research. 

                2. Use the following theories as a guide: Schema theory, cognitive structures by Piaget, social context of learning by Vygotsky, and their implications for learning a language to discuss how children become readers and writers. The examination should focus on language development, literacy acquisition, and stages of literacy development.    

                 

                3. In considering multicultural education in today’s classroom, describe why culturally and linguistically different students fail in reading? Define culture and explain the linguistic differences. Examine one or two approaches to promote reading success for these students.  


                Social Studies:

                There are numerous current trends that have shaped our Social Studies curriculum. Using documented research discuss how these trends have affected teaching the social studies curriculum in today’s society. Provide documented research and cite your information.


                TECHNOLOGY:


                Technology Question 1 Study Guide/ Preparation Resources (Spring 2022)


                COMMENT:
                It is not necessary to review or refer to all of the resources below. Students have the option to select those resources that are informative based on individual preference and prior knowledge.

                Article 1: Digital Use Divide (Website Article Link: Click
                Here
                )

                Article 2: What Four Divides Teach About Digital Equity, An Analysis (Website Link: Click
                Here
                )

                Article 3: Learning Unleased On ISTE Radio:

                Using Ed-Tech with purpose: The Pandemic Made it More Possible, Here’s How to Make it Happen with Every Student (9:02 Minutes) Link Click
                Here

                Article 4: The K-12 Educational Technology Handbook 3.2 Digital Equity (Vikram Ravi) Link: Click
                Here

                Article 5: Learning in the Digital Age (Tutaleni Asino) Book Link Click
                Here

                Chapter 9: The Digital Divide (Wilmon Brown) Chapter 9 Link Click
                Here

                Article 6: The Digital Use Divide (ISTE Connect) Website Article Link Click
                Here

                Article 7: (Report 3 Looking Back, Looking Forward: What will it Take to Permanently Close the Digital Divide

                (Link Click
                Here
                )

                Article 8: (Report 2) Connect All students: How States and School Districts can close the Digital Divide (Link Click
                Here
                )

                Article 9: (Report 1 Closing the K-12 Digital Divide in the Age of Distance Learning (Link Click
                Here
                )

                Article 10: Connect All Students: Understanding the Digital Divide (All 3 Reports/Common Sense) Link Click
                Here

                Article 11: SAMR Model Video Link Click
                Here

                Article 12: What does the SAMR Model Look like in School Video Link Click
                Here

                Direct Link Video 12:
                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SC5ARwUkVQg

                Article 13: The SAMR Model Explained by Students Video Link Click
                HERE

                Direct Link to Video 13:
                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBce25r8vto

                Article 14: Pic-Rat Matrix Website Link Click
                HERE

                Article 15: Pic-Rat Technology Integration Model Website Link Click
                Here

                Article 16: The Pic-Rat Model Webinar Click
                Here

                Direct Link to Article 16:
                Understanding educational technology – the RAT and PICRAT models – YouTube

                Technology Question 2 Study Guide Resources/Preparation Resources (Spring 2022)

                Article 1: ISTE Website Link Click
                Here

                Article 2: ISTE Standards for Students Link Click
                Here

                Article 3: Introducing the ISTE Standards for Students Video Link Click
                Here

                Direct Link to Article 3: Video
                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDCAnJ8NnFA

                Article 4: Seven Ways: ISTE Standards for Students Video Link Click
                Here

                Direct Link to Article 4:
                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooTbKEnSpIY

                Technology Question 3 Study Guide Resources/Preparation Resources (Spring 2022)

                Article 1: The concept of
                Digital Resilience
                : Child’s ability to adjust positively when faced with online adversity. Article Video Link Click
                Here
                (Refer to Text Box 2.2 Facing Risks to Build Resilience)

                Article 2: Book Review “Digital for Good: Raising Kids to Thrive in an Online World” by Richard Culatta Link Click
                Here

                Article 3: Make Digital Learning about the Do’s and not the Don’ts Video Link Click
                Here


                Direct Link to Article 3: (Video)



                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZeNr1q5QTU

                Article 4: Commit to Digital Citizenship (5 Competencies of Digital Citizenship) Video Link Click
                Here


                Direct Link to Article 4 Video:



                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15zvAiGeW_E

                Article 5: The New Digital Citizenship Video Link Click
                Here


                Direct Link to Article 5 Video:



                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOYu35BbMNU

                Article 6: Digital Citizenship Lesson Plans (Common Sense) Link Click
                Here

                Article 7: Don’t Feed the Phish Lesson Plan (Common Sense) Example Link Click
                Here


                EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES:

                1. When developing an interdisciplinary thematic unit on the solar system, what are at least THREE integrated activities that you would include within instruction to ensure that students are learning about the solar system/science and at least one other content area? In other words, each of the THREE activities you describe below must be based on the solar system while also incorporating at least one other content area. These activities must be strong instructional activities that develop content knowledge of the solar system and at least one other content area while also being challenging and engaging/interactive for students.

                2. Imagine you are teaching a class consisting of 12 boys and 13 girls. Of the 25 students in your classroom, 5 have ADHD-inattentive Subtype (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder-Inattentive Subtype), 4 have IEPs (Individualized Education Plans) where they receive modifications for assignments due to one student having a hearing issue, one student having a severe vision issue, one student who is unable to walk on his own, and one student who cannot read, and you typically have about 5-7 students who need some type of differentiation for instruction. Describe at least THREE instructional strategies you could use to teach such a diverse class of students. Make sure you focus these THREE instructional strategies on the specific needs of this class (ADHD-Inattentive Subtype, students with the specific disabilities listed above/IEPs, need for differentiation). In other words, what THREE instructional strategies could you use to hold students’ attention that have ADHD, meet the needs of students who have the special instructional needs listed above with IEPs, and meet the needs of students who require a different way to learn what you are teaching?

                3. If you were teaching an interdisciplinary thematic unit on animal habitats, what are at least THREE ways you could incorporate technology within your instruction? In other words, what types of technology would you utilize with students during instruction or that students would use on their own to engage in learning about animal habitats? This technology can not include vague, basic technologies such as: a smart board, power point presentations that you create as a basis of instruction, or a computer/Chromebook. You must be specific about a particular app students could use, a particular program you or students could use when teaching and/or learning about animal habitats, or an instructional/learning strategy that is driven by technology. Provide evidence that you know how to engage 21st Century learners through citing at least THREE technologies that engage learners in understanding animal habitats.


                Mathematics:

                1. Suppose that after a vote in the US Senate on a proposed health care bill, the following table shows the breakdown of the votes by party.

                Table  Description automatically generated

                If a lobbyist stops a random senator after the vote, what is the probability that this senator will either be a Republican or have voted against the bill?

                2. A booth at the state fair has rubber ducks floating in water. For each ticket, you get two chances to pick a duck from those floating by. In order to win a small stuffed animal, you must pick a duck that has a star drawn on the bottom. If you manage to choose two ducks that both have stars drawn on them, you win the extra-large stuffed animal. After your first pick, the rubber duck is placed back in the water for your second pick. If there are 50 floating ducks and 3 that have stars drawn on them, what is the probability of choosing 2 ducks that both have stars on them?

                homework

                Department of Sociology
                SOC 505: Sociology of Sport

                Winter 2022

                Paper (30%)

                Due date: April 20, 11:59PM EST. Late submissions will be penalized 2% for each day
                (including Saturdays and Sundays) that they are overdue. Assignments that are submitted more
                than seven days after the deadline (i.e., after April 27, 11:59PM EST) will not be accepted, and
                will receive a 0%.

                Length requirements: 1500-2000 words. For every 100 words under or over the word count,
                papers will be penalized 1%, e.g., a 1100-word paper will incur a 1% penalty, while a 1975-
                word paper will be levied a 2% penalty.

                Submission requirements: Students should upload their assignment to D2L Brightspace as a
                Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) or PDF (.pdf) document.

                Responses submitted by email to the instructor will not be accepted and will be
                considered late if they have not been uploaded to the submission box on D2L
                Brightspace.

                Formatting requirements: Double-spaced, 12-point font, Times New Roman/Arial/Cambria.
                Citations should be formatted in APA citation style (either 6th or 7th edition), with a
                bibliography or works cited section at the end of their submission. Students unfamiliar with
                APA citations are encouraged to review the Purdue Online Writing Lab’s manual or avail
                themselves of an online citation generating service.

                Submissions should include a cover page that includes student name, number, and course
                information, along with an appropriate title (e.g.,“Netflix and Chill, Eh?: Video Streaming
                Platforms and the Future of Canadian Content Regulations”).

                Students may use first-person pronouns (e.g., “I,” “my,” etc.) in the course of writing their
                assignment.

                Turnitin: Students’ submissions will be checked for originality after they have uploaded their
                assignment, using Turnitin (see the syllabus). By submitting their assignment to the dropbox on
                D2L Brightspace, students will have automatically uploaded their assignments to Turnitin; they
                do not have to access the Turnitin site directly, as the anti-plagiarism functionality is built into
                the dropbox on D2L Brightspace. For their assignment to be accepted for grading, students
                must produce a similarity index score lower than 20%. Papers submitted with a score of 20%
                or higher will not be graded until they are resubmitted with a satisfactory score.

                Academic requirements: Students must cite or refer to at least five (5) academic sources, of
                which no more than two (2) can be from the course assigned readings. (Course assigned
                readings do not have to be used; all five academic sources can be from outside of the course.)
                An academic source can include an article from a peer-reviewed journal, a chapter from a text
                published by a university or scholarly press, etc. If students are unsure as to whether a source
                can be considered sufficiently academic, they should ask the instructor to confirm its

                acceptability. Non-academic sources like newspaper articles or blog entries can also be
                used but will not count towards the minimum number of academic sources that must be
                included in the paper.

                Instructions:

                Students may choose to write on one of the following topics:

                1. Choose one sport, and apply a functionalist perspective to explain how they help to build
                and maintain a sense of community, civic-mindedness, and solidarity in modern society.

                2. Choose one sport, and apply a Weberian perspective to describe how they have been
                transformed, either positively or negatively, by being rationalized.

                3. Choose one sport, and apply a Marxist or neo-Marxist perspective to describe how it
                serves as an ideology to mask inequalities and promote values that support the social
                order.

                4. Choose one sport, and apply a cultural studies perspective to summarize how both
                dominant and subordinate groups (e.g., athletes, owners, fans) have struggled with one
                another to advance their material interests.

                5. Choose one sport, team, or athlete and apply a cultural studies perspective to look at how
                they have been confronted with struggles around, and issues related to, race and/or
                ethnicity.

                6. Choose one sport, team, or athlete and apply a cultural studies perspective to look at how
                they have been confronted with struggles around, and issues related to, gender and/or
                sexuality.

                7. Choose one sport, team, or athlete and apply a cultural studies perspective to look at how
                they confirm or refute, or have been affected by, the development of globalization.

                8. Students may pursue their own research agenda and pose their own questions (or modify
                an existing one), with the prior approval of the instructor.

                Papers will be evaluated according to the following criteria (in order of importance):

                • persuasiveness and rigour in arguing for a particular position or perspective in
                relation to the chosen theme from the course, as illustrated through references to
                contemporary examples, issues, and debates related to that theme;

                • relevance, use, and explication of academic sources, that is, how judiciously they
                choose and faithfully they reconstruct the scholarly literature on the chosen theme from
                the course, demonstrating that they have undertaken a studied engagement of the
                course material and/or external scholarship through quotes, paraphrases, etc.;

                • quality of writing, as reflected both in the attention to proofreading, editing, citations,
                etc., to limit typographical, grammatical, and other errors, and in the observance of the

                assignment’s formal and technical requirements, e.g., citation style, spacing and
                margins, etc.

                • Department of Sociology
                • SOC 505: Sociology of Sport
                • Winter 2022
                • Paper (30%)

                Homework

                 

                 

                The Assignment

                Use the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each. 

                Homework

                Movie Noah DirectorDarren Aronofsky)

                After watching the movie Noah, please write minimum 4 pages reflection

                1. Identifies at least 3 differences between the movie plots and Noah’s story in the Bible; 

                2. Illustrates your own understanding of the movie from the perspective of Christianity.

                Please do NOT summarize the entire plot of the movie, reference needed

                homework

                Outline for Research Proposal

                Use this outline when developing the research proposal. Research proposals are requests! Your written research proposal is a written request to do research on the problem you selected. Note that this is not an argumentative topic or classical argument. It is not a position paper.

                Note that sections II, III, and IV may be longer than a single paragraph.

                I. Introduction

                a. What is the significance of the issue? Provide insight to the relevance of the issue

                b. End by stating the main point(s) of the proposal in a thesis statement.

                II. Issue Summary

                a. Explain and describe what you already know about the issue.

                i. How does the issue impact society?

                ii. What factor(s) contribute to the issue’s ongoing presence?

                III. Research Approach Summary

                a. Explain what more you need to learn about the issue.

                i. What do you plan to research regarding the issue?

                ii. Will you have to clarify terms and concepts?

                iii. What research is needed for the opposing viewpoint?

                iv. What kinds of sources will you use for your research?

                v. What strengths will they lend to the paper?

                vi. How will they help clarify points you want to make?

                vii. How will you gather your sources?

                IV. Intended Audience

                a. Describe the intended audience for your research.

                i. Who needs to know about this issue?

                ii. Is the audience general, specialized, or both?

                iii. Discuss what people or group of people might benefit from reading your paper; how will your audience benefit from your research?

                V. Conclusion

                a. What is at stake if the problem is not researched and solved?

                b. Why is it worthy of a solution?

                homework

                The Service Culture Handbook

                The Service Culture Handbook
                A STEP – BY – STEP GUIDE TO GETTING

                YOUR EMPLOYEES OBSESSED
                WITH CUSTOMER SERVICE

                Jeff Toister

                Copyright © 2017 Jeff Toister
                All rights reserved.

                ISBN-13: 9780692842003
                ISBN-10: 0692842004

                Table of Contents

                Acknowledgements
                Introduction

                Part 1: Culture Is the Key to Outstanding Customer Service
                Chapter 1 How Corporate Culture Guides Your Employees’ Actions
                Chapter 2 Why Culture Initiatives Often Fail

                Part 2: Building a Customer-Focused Culture
                Chapter 3 Defining Your Culture
                Chapter 4 Engaging Employees with Your Culture

                Part 3: Changing Your Company’s Service DNA
                Chapter 5 Aligning Your Business Around a Customer-Focused Culture
                Chapter 6 Setting Goals That Drive Your Culture
                Chapter 7 Hiring Employees Who Will Embrace Your Culture
                Chapter 8 Training Employees to Embody Your Culture
                Chapter 9 Empowering Employees to Support Your Culture
                Chapter 10 How Leadership Can Make or Break Your Culture
                Chapter 11 A Customer-Focused Example
                Chapter 12 Making the Commitment to a Customer-Focused Culture

                Acknowledgements

                MY FIRST BOOK, SERVICE FAILURE, was published in October 2012. People
                almost immediately started asking me when I would write another.

                I resented that question at first. It’s hard enough to write one book and I
                couldn’t believe people were already talking about book number two. Now, I
                appreciate all the people who asked the question. It showed they saw
                something that I didn’t—I had another book to write.

                Michelle Burke and Adriana Perez are fantastic friends who helped
                make this book possible in a roundabout way. They connected me with
                representatives of the online training video company lynda.com (now
                LinkedIn Learning) at a trade show in 2013. One thing led to another, and I
                was suddenly making customer service training videos.

                My very first video was filmed in August 2013 and formed the seeds for
                this book. It’s called Leading a Customer-Centric Culture, and it outlined
                what elite companies do to get employees obsessed with service. (Check it
                out at www.lynda.com/JeffToister. You’ll need a lynda.com account to view
                the course, but you can get a 10-day trial at www.lynda.com/trial/JeffToister.)

                Finally, I owe my wife, Sally, an endless amount of gratitude. Her
                encouragement continuously inspires me to write.

                Introduction

                TONY D’AIUTO WANTED TO CREATE an unforgettable experience.
                He’s an Airport Operations Center manager at the Tampa International

                Airport. Small children often lose a favorite stuffed animal while traveling
                through an airport, so D’Aiuto’s goal was to reunite a child with a lost toy in
                a fun and unique way.

                His plan was to take photos of the toy in various places around the
                airport to make it look like the stuffed animal had gone on a big adventure.
                He would then return the toy to the child along with photographs of its
                journey. D’Aiuto asked a colleague who oversaw the airport’s lost and found
                department to alert him the next time a child lost a stuffed animal.

                Once the plan was in place, he waited. And waited. It took two months
                for it to happen. D’Aiuto was ready when he finally got the call.

                A six-year-old boy had lost his stuffed tiger, Hobbes. The boy and his
                Tampa-based family had already boarded their outbound flight when Hobbes
                was found, so it was too late to return it to them that day. D’Aiuto jumped
                into action.

                “Being a hobbyist photographer, I thought I could have some fun and
                creativity with the ways I took photos of Hobbes’s adventure during my
                lunch break,” said D’Aiuto. He enlisted help from various people around the
                airport to photograph Hobbes with airport firefighters, riding on a luggage
                cart, by the airport control tower, and elsewhere.

                D’Aiuto took his photos to Walgreens, where he used a coupon he had
                saved to make a hardbound photo book documenting Hobbes’s adventure. He
                then brought Hobbes and the photo book to the airport’s lost and found
                department, so the family could retrieve them when they returned from their
                trip.

                The family had been told that the boy’s stuffed animal was waiting for
                them at the airport’s lost and found. They headed there immediately after
                their flight landed, eager to reunite Hobbes with their son. It was a touching

                reunion, and the boy really enjoyed seeing the pictures of Hobbes on his great
                adventure. D’Aiuto’s initiative had taken the traumatic experience of losing a
                favorite toy and turned it into something positive and fun. The boy’s mother
                was moved to tears at the kindness displayed by D’Aiuto and the rest of the
                Tampa Airport staff.

                The heartwarming story attracted national media attention. It was
                picked up by news outlets such as NPR, CNN, and USA Today.

                You just don’t hear customer service stories like this very often.
                There are plenty of stories about service failures. Every week, there

                seems to be yet another company featured in a news story about shockingly
                poor service. Customer service leaders privately tell me they struggle simply
                to get their employees to consistently deliver basics such as courtesy,
                promptness, and helpfulness.

                Why are the stories about outstanding customer service so rare?
                It’s not due to a lack of ideas. Bookstores are well stocked with books

                explaining how to provide outstanding customer service. Some describe how
                companies can create successful service strategies, while others provide tips
                and tactics for customer-facing employees.

                There are many other places where you can find customer service ideas.
                There are conferences, motivational speakers, and seminars galore.
                Consultants like me write blog posts, record podcasts, and create videos.
                Nearly every customer service professional has attended a customer service
                training class at some point during their career.

                The stuffed animal photo adventure certainly isn’t a new concept.
                D’Aiuto got the idea after reading a similar story about a child who lost a
                stuffed lion at a museum in London, England. It’s also been done by a
                museum in Canada, and a Ritz-Carlton in Florida did the same thing with a
                stuffed giraffe in 2012. The original concept may have come from a story
                about a lawn gnome that was stolen from a garden in the mid-1980s and
                returned to its owner with a photo album depicting its various adventures. Or
                it may have originated from a popular children’s book called Flat Stanley,
                which was published in 1964.

                I asked D’Aiuto why he went to so much trouble on his own time just to
                create a memorable experience for one child. “Tampa International Airport
                has a long history of being very people-focused, as opposed to plane-
                focused,” he told me. He explained that everyone in the airport, from the
                CEO on down, is committed to providing exceptional service. “Our CEO, Joe

                Lopano, sets the tone for being efficient and hard-working, but he also fosters
                a sense of creativity and fun at the airport which makes employees feel
                comfortable enough to take a chance like I did with this little boy’s lost
                tiger.”

                That’s the real secret that explains why these types of stories are so rare:
                Tampa International Airport has done something that few organizations
                achieve. The airport has created an environment where employees are
                constantly thinking about outstanding service. They proactively look for
                ways to make a difference in their customers’ lives, even if it means going far
                beyond their regular responsibilities. Employees prioritize passengers over
                planes, recognizing that airport operations are really just a means to help
                travelers get to wherever they’re trying to go. Perhaps that’s why the airport
                is consistently rated one of the best in the U.S. in Condé Nast’s annual
                reader’s poll.

                In short, employees there are obsessed with service.
                The Service Culture Handbook shows you how to create a customer-

                focused culture where employees in your organization are obsessed with
                service. It’s a step-by-step guide to help customer service teams, business
                units, and even entire companies get excited about serving customers at the
                highest level.

                You’ll get an inside look at companies—like REI, JetBlue Airlines, and
                Publix—that consistently rank near the top of their industries for customer
                service. You’ll also find profiles of some lesser-known companies that
                represent the next wave of legendary customer service organizations. This
                book will show you what these elite organizations do that most organizations
                don’t.

                The Service Culture Handbook is organized into three parts. The first
                part examines why creating a customer-focused culture is the key to
                outstanding customer service. It also offers some cautionary tales about
                companies whose culture initiatives failed.

                The second part provides detailed instructions for building a customer-
                focused culture. When you use these chapters to clearly define your
                organization’s unique culture, you’ll transform the way your employees view
                service. The ultimate goal is to get your employees obsessed with
                consistently delivering service that’s so amazing it becomes part of your
                company’s brand image.

                Finally, the third part of the book helps you embed customer focus in

                your company’s DNA, so you can sustain the customer-focused culture
                you’ve created. Companies that get really good at service will tell you they
                have to work at it every day. It’s easy to grow weary or lose focus when
                you’ve worked long and hard at achieving a goal. These chapters assist you
                in keeping your employees engaged and making outstanding service the way
                that your company, department, or team simply does business.

                Many chapters contain sample worksheets to help you implement these
                concepts. You can download blank copies of the worksheets from this book
                at www.serviceculturebook.com/tools. You’ll also find additional tools and
                resources on the website, such as access to my Customer Service Tip of the
                Week email. You and your employees can sign up for these tips for free.

                I recommend that you read each chapter in order, to get a clear picture
                of what it takes to create a customer-focused culture. You may be tempted to
                pick and choose lessons from this book. Please don’t. This is a complete
                recipe for building a customer service culture. Just as you wouldn’t try to
                bake a cake without flour or eggs, you shouldn’t try to transform your
                organization’s customer service while leaving out an essential ingredient.
                Also, it’s a good idea to know exactly what you’re getting into before you
                launch a major initiative.

                I won’t lie to you. Getting your employees obsessed with customer
                service is not easy. It is, however, one of the elements that separates the elite
                organizations from the rest. These companies put in the hard work that most
                aren’t willing to dedicate themselves to.

                Don’t be afraid to use me as a resource as you explore these concepts.
                I’m easy to get in touch with:

                Call or text: 619-955-7946
                Email: jeff@toistersolutions.com
                Twitter: @toister
                You’ll also find additional analysis, tips, and trends to help you develop

                a customer-focused organization on my Inside Customer Service blog at
                www.insidecustomerservice.com.

                For now, I encourage you to turn to Chapter 1, where you’ll read about
                another company whose employees are obsessed with customer service. In
                fact, these employees are so customer-focused that they did something that
                practically no one else would be willing to do.

                Part 1: Culture Is the Key to Outstanding Customer
                Service

                CHAPTER 1

                How Corporate Culture Guides Your Employees’ Actions

                THE INTERNAL NETWORK AT RACKSPACE went down and took the phone
                system with it. Customers suddenly weren’t able to call. Employees couldn’t
                even access the company directory to contact each other.

                This was a potential disaster.
                Rackspace provides computer hosting services for more than 300,000

                customers. These companies run their websites, email, and internal computer
                systems on its network. It’s all mission-critical stuff. When there’s a problem,
                Rackspace customers need help fast.

                A lone technical support agent sprang into action. He tweeted his
                personal phone number, letting customers know they could reach him directly
                if they needed help. Soon other tech support reps followed suit and tweeted
                their numbers, too. For the next four hours, they used Twitter and their cell
                phones to serve customers until Rackspace restored its phone service. The
                support team typically handles a thousand calls during a four-hour time
                frame, so their extraordinary service prevented a lot of unhappy customers.

                The stakes were high, but nobody from management told these
                employees to tweet their personal phone numbers. It wasn’t part of a
                carefully scripted procedure. No one even asked permission. They just did it.

                HOW CULTURE CREATES HERO MOMENTS
                Imagine the same scenario at nearly any other company. Employees would
                feel helpless. A few might lobby their supervisor to go home early. Most
                would just sit around and wait for the phone system to come back up.

                The corporate communications department might post a message on the
                company’s website to let customers know the phones were down. Somebody
                might tweet an update on the status of the phone system. That would likely be

                the extent of the company’s efforts to alert customers to the problem.
                Tweeting personal contact information would be unthinkable. Many

                customer service employees are fearful of giving out their last names, let
                alone their phone numbers. Employees at the average company would never
                take the kind of initiative that happened at Rackspace.

                Rackspace isn’t the average company, though. Stories of employees
                delivering over-the-top service are common. One rep ordered a pizza for a
                customer during a marathon trouble shooting session after she heard him
                mention that he was getting hungry. An account manager showed her
                appreciation for a visiting client by preparing a home-cooked meal.

                The big question is why employees at Rackspace serve their customers
                in a way that’s so different from the norm. It’s too simplistic to say that
                Rackspace has made a company-wide commitment to provide outstanding
                service. Lots of companies make similar claims, but that doesn’t mean they
                actually do it.

                Their exceptional service isn’t just a product of great training, either.
                Training works when you want to show someone how to use a specific skill
                or follow a particular procedure. Tweeting personal phone numbers, ordering
                pizza for a customer, and preparing a home-cooked meal for a client were all
                improvised moves. These actions were neither trained nor scripted.

                The real secret to Rackspace’s extraordinary service is their customer-
                focused culture. Employees are absolutely obsessed with taking care of their
                customers. They have created a unique identity, calling themselves Rackers,
                symbolizing the pride employees have in their company. They’ve developed
                a special brand of customer service called Fanatical Support® that promises
                customers they’ll spring into action and do whatever it takes to help resolve
                any issue.

                It’s this obsession that leads to customer service hero moments like
                tweeting a personal phone number so customers can reach you.

                A hero moment occurs any time an employee, a team, or an entire
                company rises to the occasion to provide customers with outstanding service.
                Hero moments aren’t limited to over-the-top actions. They include everyday
                service encounters as well. In his book, Be Your Customer’s Hero, customer
                experience strategist Adam Toporek defines it this way1:

                “It means being there when the customer needs you and making
                your personal interaction with the customer as memorably positive

                as possible.”

                Let’s face it: the vast majority of customer-service interactions are
                unremarkable. They’re neither amazingly good nor frustratingly bad. Think
                about the last time you went to the bank, bought a cup of coffee, or ordered
                something online. There’s a good chance that nothing particularly
                extraordinary happened. It was business as usual.

                A few experiences do stand out. We certainly remember the service
                failures. But we also remember the hero moments. Maybe you remember a
                kind bank teller who helped you avoid a fee. Perhaps there’s a barista at your
                local coffee shop who makes you feel special every time he’s there because
                he knows your name and your favorite drink. Or there may have been a time
                when you were shipped the wrong item, but the friendly customer service rep
                made the resolution so easy that you vowed to become a customer for life.

                Every customer interaction is an opportunity for a hero moment or a
                service failure. Some businesses, like hotels, might have multiple interactions
                per day with the same customers. According to the Cornell Center for
                Hospitality Research, an average 250-room hotel has 5,000 daily guest
                interactions with valets, door people, bell staff, reception, restaurants,
                housekeeping, engineering, and other functions.2

                The largest businesses might serve millions of customers on a daily
                basis. For example, Domino’s Pizza delivers more than one million pizzas
                per day, seven days a week. Imagine all the customer service interactions
                required to make that happen! About 500,000 of those orders are taken by an
                employee (the rest are taken electronically, via their website, smart phone
                app, etc.). Employees must also deliver those one million pizzas. That means
                Domino’s averages about 1.5 million hero or failure opportunities every day.3

                Individual employees at some companies might personally serve dozens
                of customers per day. For example:

                A typical airline flight might have 150 passengers served by four
                flight attendants.
                A retail cashier might serve 20 customers (or more) per hour.
                A contact center agent might serve 10 (or more) customers per
                hour.

                It’s impossible for a boss, a policy, or a system to control all these
                interactions. Employees must exercise independent discretion at times. This
                is a scary reality for customer-service leaders, who worry their employees
                will do something wrong.

                I’ve spoken to thousands of customer service employees over the years.
                Most want to do a good job and make their customers happy. The vast
                majority of these employees know how to deliver a hero moment, but they
                aren’t actively looking for them. Sometimes the moment arises, but the
                employee doesn’t feel empowered to spring into action. These are situations
                where the right corporate culture can encourage employees to make good
                decisions.

                Culture creates hero moments on an individual level, where an
                employee strives to deliver the best customer service possible. That employee
                feels empowered to do what it takes to makes customers happy and takes
                pride in the company he or she works for. You see it in the way the employee
                greets customers, solves problems, and goes the extra mile when the situation
                demands it.

                Culture also creates hero moments on a team level, where a department
                works together to serve its customers at a consistently high level. Team
                members share a passion for service that’s absolutely contagious. You see it
                in their pervasive can-do attitudes and in the way they support each other in a
                collective effort to make their customers happy. These employees take pride
                in their team, yet always push each other to do even better.

                Culture can create hero moments on an organizational level, as well,
                where an entire company is dedicated to providing outstanding service.
                Strategy, goals, policy, and other corporate decisions are made with the
                customer in mind. You see the impact of this customer focus in the legions of
                loyal customers who go out of their way to do business with these select
                companies.

                It’s no wonder that culture is such a hot topic in customer service. So,
                what exactly is it?

                THE DEFINITION OF CORPORATE CULTURE
                Corporate culture can be a nebulous subject. There’s a lot that goes into it,
                like mission, vision, and value statements. But while those are some of its
                elements, a company’s culture is broader than that.

                I turned to Catherine Mattice to get a clear definition. She’s a consultant
                and trainer who specializes in helping organizations create a positive
                workplace culture. She’s also the author of Back Off! Your Kick-Ass Guide to
                Ending Bullying at Work, and her research on the topic has made her an in-
                demand speaker at human resources conferences. Mattice has even served as
                an expert witness in court cases where corporate culture was a factor.

                We met for coffee on a warm, sunny day. The coffee shop had a patio
                with just enough shade to make it comfortable. I thought it might be a short
                conversation, but we ended up talking for several hours.

                We discovered that the challenge in defining culture is that there are so
                many valid perspectives. When Mattice helps companies end workplace
                bullying, she does so by focusing on their culture. I, too, focus on culture
                when I work with companies to help improve customer service. And when
                another colleague helps companies with their branding, she begins her efforts
                by focusing on their corporate culture, as well. It seems that so many things
                companies do can be boiled down to their culture.

                Mattice and I agreed that while corporate culture can refer to an entire
                organization, it can also refer to a business unit, location, or individual team.
                It’s not unusual for groups in different parts of a company to share some
                common characteristics, yet also have their own unique identity. You can’t
                easily change the entire corporate culture if you’re a store manager for a retail
                chain, but you can influence the culture within your particular store.

                Mattice shared this definition, which puts it all together:

                “Corporate culture is the way an organization’s members think,
                act, and understand the world around them.”

                Let’s use Rackspace as an example. Rackers certainly think, act, and
                understand the world around them differently than employees at most
                companies. When faced with an unexpected challenge, such as the phones
                going down, Rackers think, “My customers need me. I have to find a way to
                help them.” They act to do something about it. Rackers do this because they
                understand how critical their services are to their clients’ businesses.

                Contrast this to the customer service most of us receive every day.
                Many employees think about their job solely in terms of their assigned
                responsibilities. They act in accordance with company policies and

                procedures, but rarely take initiative. They understand their role, but may not
                understand the company’s goals. Or, employees might understand the
                company’s goals, but not care about helping to achieve them.

                All organizations have a culture. It doesn’t have to be something
                intentionally created. In most organizations, culture organically develops over
                time through corporate strategy, the decisions of its leaders, the way
                employees interact with each other, and many other factors.

                It’s natural for a group of people to develop a certain amount of
                collective thinking. When you hear people say, “That’s how we do things
                around here,” they’re referring to their company’s culture. A few elite
                companies, like Rackspace, intentionally strive to cultivate a positive,
                customer-focused culture.

                That intentionality is what’s missing in many organizations. According
                to Mattice, most companies have policies that tell employees what they
                should not do. Companies with positive cultures help employees understand
                what they should do. Mattice explains that without clear guidance, “People
                don’t know how else to act.”

                But you can’t tell employees specifically what to do in every situation;
                there are too many variables. Instead, an intentionally-guided culture acts as a
                compass that consistently points employees in the right direction. That
                culture is reinforced when employees encounter a hero moment and make the
                right decision.

                INSIDE RACKSPACE’S CUSTOMER-FOCUSED CULTURE
                Rob La Gesse is the Vice President of Social Strategy at Rackspace. Most
                corporate executives in publicly traded companies are hard to contact. Not La
                Gesse. I got his phone number when he sent it to me via Twitter.

                I asked La Gesse why he shares this information so freely. His
                explanation was simple: “I’m in the people business. I want people to find
                me.”

                He’s not kidding. La Gesse published his cell and home phone numbers
                on his blog in 2009. It was 2013 when the Rackspace technical support rep
                tweeted his own cell number in order to be accessible to customers in need.
                Sharing a personal phone number via social media wasn’t a scripted move,
                but it was embedded in the company’s organizational thinking and
                exemplified by its leaders.

                Accessibility is just one illustration of how Rackspace creates a
                customer-focused culture. Another is how it hires employees. According to
                La Gesse, the company hires many people who don’t have technical
                backgrounds. They come from hospitality, medical, and similar professions
                that attract people with natural empathy.

                La Gesse shares an example of the type of people they like to hire at
                Rackspace. He was attending an offsite meeting at a hotel. The meeting
                ended for the day, and the attendees headed off to the hotel’s bar. There were
                only three bartenders, who were working like crazy to keep up.

                La Gesse ordered a frozen margarita but received a margarita on the
                rocks. He was deep in conversation with a colleague and saw the long line at
                the bar, so he decided not to bother with getting his order corrected.

                A few minutes later, the bartender approached La Gesse with a frozen
                margarita. He apologized for the error and told La Gesse that both drinks
                were on the house.

                La Gesse was impressed. Mistakes can and will happen, especially
                during busy times. But it takes a special kind of person to recognize their
                mistake and go out of their way to fix it when the customer hadn’t
                complained.

                He waited for the bar to calm down a bit and then approached the
                bartender. La Gesse handed him his business card and said, “You need to be
                a Racker.” The bartender was eventually hired by Rackspace. Although he
                had no experience working with computer networks, he turned out to be a
                perfect fit. He now has a successful career in technical sales.

                “I can teach anybody [the computer operating system] Linux,” said La
                Gesse. “I can’t teach them to actually care.”

                Rackspace specifically looks for people like this, who fit the company’s
                customer-focused culture. Here’s a passage from its Fanatical Support
                Promise:

                We cannot promise that hardware won’t break, that software
                won’t fail, or that we will always be perfect. What we can promise
                is that if something goes wrong, we will rise to the occasion, take
                action, and help resolve the issue.

                This isn’t just something that’s tucked into an employee handbook and then

                forgotten. This promise is a way of doing business at Rackspace. It’s how
                Rackers think, from executive leadership all the way to the employees on the
                front lines of customer service.4

                Fanatical Support is the first of the company’s six core values:

                1. Fanatical Support® in all we do.
                2. Results first. Substance over flash.
                3. Treat Rackers like friends & family.
                4. Passion for our work.
                5. Full disclosure & transparency.
                6. Committed to greatness.

                What truly makes these values special is that they’re ingrained in hiring,
                training, and all aspects of guiding the employees’ work. The company even
                has a “Culture” page on its website to explain it all:5

                “Our Core Values came from us, the employees. They are our
                collective thoughts and beliefs encompassed by six values. Our
                leadership had no input or vote in them. We wouldn’t even let
                them spell check our values. Luckily for us, our bosses are smart
                enough to know that telling employees what to think and believe is
                a complete waste of time, and just a bad idea all the way around.”

                These values truly represent how Rackspace does business. You see this in an
                employee tweeting his cell phone number to be accessible to customers in
                need. You see it in a bartender who gets hired after going out of his way to
                fix a drink order. In fact, you see examples of Fanatical Support® reinforced
                every single day at Rackspace.

                “You have to constantly work at it,” said La Gesse. “You have to
                constantly talk about.”

                THE DARK SIDE OF CORPORATE CULTURE
                What leaders constantly work at and talk about has a profound impact on a
                company’s culture. It shapes how employees think about, act upon, and

                understand service. Focus on the wrong things, and a company can
                unintentionally develop an anti-customer culture.

                Comcast provides a clear warning. It’s generally considered to have
                some of the worst customer service in the country. It was rated the worst
                internet service provider in the United States by the 2015 American Customer
                Satisfaction Index, and third and fourth worst respectively in subscription
                television and phone service.6 Comcast also ranked dead last in the 2015
                Temkin Customer Service Ratings.7

                Comcast has been known to attract national media attention with its epic
                service failures. One particular example happened in July 2014. A Comcast
                subscriber named Ryan Block called to cancel his service. The customer
                service agent inexplicably stonewalled his request. Block was ten minutes
                into the call when he decided to record it.8

                The recording lasts for approximately eight minutes. On it, you can hear
                the Comcast employee repeatedly badgering Block about his decision to
                cancel. Block politely asked the agent to cancel his service multiple times,
                but the employee continuously tried to talk him into retaining his account.

                Block posted the recording online and it quickly went viral. Major news
                outlets reported on it. Tom Karinshak, Comcast’s Senior Vice President of
                Customer Experience, issued a statement apologizing for the incident:

                “We are very embarrassed by the way our employee spoke with
                Mr. Block and are contacting him to personally apologize. The
                way in which our representative communicated with him is
                unacceptable and not consistent with how we train our customer
                service representatives.”9

                It’s convenient for companies like Comcast to blame a rogue employee for an
                embarrassing service failure like this. However, a closer look reveals that the
                employee’s actions were completely reflective of Comcast’s corporate
                culture.

                Canceling an account with Comcast in July 2014 was a difficult task.
                The instructions weren’t easy to find on its website

                Homework

                 

                I need an Annotated Bibliography for the following topic;

                ” Should Schools have Armed Guards?”

                It should have 5 sources with the details on the attached document, I will need the work done withing 10 hours.

                Homework

                NAME

                Current Event #1

                Trade with Cuba

                There has recently been a lot of talk on the news this month about trade routes once again being opened with Cuba. This would be huge to our economy, and it would have a pretty good impact on our supply and demand of certain goods and services Cuba could provide. They do think that sometime during 2015, Cuba and the United States could once again become friendly neighbors. One item that I know of in particular that a lot of Americans would like to have access to is a Cuban cigar. Many smokers really enjoy these cigars because of the way Cuba makes them. Currently they are illegal in the US because of trade restrictions with Cuba. If trade was reopened, this would have a huge impact on the tobacco industry. This would also affect the black market’s income in the US. People would no longer rely on the black market to get their fancy Cuban cigars if they were legal. This is just one example of a product Cuba would offer that would greatly affect our economy, but there are many more. Trade with Cuba again would drastically effect the prices and supply and demand of many items.

                This relates directly to economics by the way it would affect the supply and demand of all the goods and services Cuba could provide. Another way relationships with Cuba would affect our economy is with travel. If the United States loosens its travel restrictions with Cuba a lot more people might decide Cuba would be a good place to take a vacation. This would put a lot of money into circulation in the United States and Cuba. Tourists and people on vacation bring a lot of money into the economy of the places they are visiting. In this particular case, there would assumedly be a lot of money being brought into the economy of Florida, because some of these people may travel through Florida on their way to Cuba for vacation. Or if people simply fly over Florida to get to Cuba, there would be more money getting brought into the US economy that way, through the airlines.

                Overall, I think this is a great idea to reopen trade routes and travel with Cuba. I think it would do nothing but benefit our economy. I realize there is some tensions left over from the Cold War but I think that we should try to get past them in order to benefit both of our economies. It would be a mutual benefit for the United States and Cuba, in my opinion, to start being friendly neighbors to each other again.

                Works Cited

                http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-eases-trade-travel-rules-for-cuba-1421332704

                Homework

                1

                IT 140 A Mini History of Text-Based Games

                Text-based games were the predecessor to the reality-based video games we play today. They were
                “interactive fiction” where words came to life as players read text and made decisions about what to do.
                These text-based games simulated environments where players used text commands to control their
                characters and influence the gaming environment.

                Imagine a current action-adventure video game where, instead of using a controller or touchscreen to
                give your character directions, you enter text on a command line. There are no graphics on the screen,
                forcing you to use your imagination. Commands you enter might be “open door”, “go west”, or “fight
                troll”. These commands change the way the story plays out.

                While it may be hard to imagine a video game without any videos, these text games were very popular
                in the 70s and 80s. Many programmers and computer technicians played role-playing board games, like
                Dungeons and Dragons, with their friends. A text-based game allowed them to take their adventures to
                the digital realm. They could play their games on the mainframes at work, submitting commands with a
                teleprinter and receiving the output on paper.

                T100S Teleprinter by Jens Ohlig under CC BY-SA 2.0

                2

                Eventually, monochrome monitors allowed players to see their input and output in real time, right
                before their eyes. Players were able to enjoy playing Lunar Lander and Star Trek using displays like the
                following:

                GT40 Lunar Lander by Brouhaha under CC BY-SA 3.0

                Star Trek Text Game by James Gibbon under CC BY-SA 3.0

                You can still find playable versions of these games online, such as Lunar Lander, Star Trek, and Zork.
                They will help you see how far game development has come. (Note: Links may change over time. Search
                for the game name and “simulator”.)

                In this class, you will have the opportunity to create your own version of a text-based game. You will be
                able to see your code come to life as it becomes interactive. Through the use of conditionals and loops,
                you will be able to guide adventurers through your world in the same way these early text-based games
                did several decades ago.

                3

                References

                McIntosh, J. (2018, July 20). A brief history of text-based games and open source. Opensource.com.

                https://opensource.com/article/18/7/interactive-fiction-tools

                Rileym65 (GitHub username). (n.d.). Lunar mission simulator. Lunar Mission Simulator.

                https://www.lunarmissionsimulator.com/index.html

                Star Trek text game (Video game). (n.d.). TV Tropes.

                https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/VideoGame/StarTrekTextGame

                • IT 140 A Mini History of Text-Based Games

                Homework

                9/22/16, 08:21

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                Managing Marijuana: the Role of Data-Driven
                Regulation
                Colorado’s robust system for tracking the drug and its effects provides a glimpse of a
                better system of controls.

                BY: Stephen Goldsmith | August 17, 2016

                When Colorado voters approved a ballot measure to legalize the sale of recreational marijuana in 2014,
                state officials knew they would have to quickly develop a robust system to safely and securely control the
                flow of the drug across the state, and they managed to do just that with the help of advanced tracking and
                data analytics. What Colorado is doing provides an impressive example of an emerging, more effective
                regulation model.

                To deal with the consequences of marijuana’s legalization, Gov. John Hickenlooper appointed Andrew
                Freedman as director of marijuana coordination, and the legislature created the Marijuana Enforcement
                Division (MED) in the state’s Department of Revenue. MED drew on the state’s experience with its
                preexisting medical marijuana regulations, examining what had worked previously to regulate and inventory
                controlled substances.

                The widespread legal availability of marijuana and marijuana-infused products, however, presented a host of
                new concerns for Colorado, with those surrounding public health and safety first and foremost. The state
                established a comprehensive set of goals surrounding health and safety concerns, analyzed the gaps in its
                existing data, and devised a plan to better track and regulate marijuana.

                To begin with, the state needed a way to track plants from seed to sale. MED contracted with Franwell, a
                Florida-based company, to create a Colorado-specific version of its Marijuana Enforcement Tracking
                Reporting Compliance (Metrc) system. The state requires growers to track each plant with a unique radio
                frequency identification tag. The RFID tags allow the plants to be inventoried more quickly without direct
                contact, and they create data at each step of the supply chain as plants move from growers to shippers to
                final packaging.

                The RFID tags, like the sensors that are becoming ubiquitous in the emerging economy of connected
                devices, build regulatory intelligence directly into the regulated object, streamlining enforcement across the
                board. The tracking system, for example, can automatically flag facilities that are producing substantially
                less marijuana than expected based on the outputs of comparable growers, which allows state employees to
                more easily identify potential illegal diversion. And because the state is able to track the origins of any
                product, it can easily issue public recalls for specific batches or growers if regulators discover traces of
                potentially harmful pesticides.

                This system of constant, real-time tracking allowed Colorado to shift away from an older regulatory model in
                which governments must depend on slow bureaucratic procedures for permitting and licensing. Rather than
                simply hoping that procedural factors would prevent noncompliance, the state can respond to problems as
                they arise, which increases accountability and allows for better-informed enforcement.

                The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, for example, analyzed hospital-visit data and
                found that marijuana-related visits had tripled after commercialization and that poison control calls had

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                Page 2 of 2http://www.gover ning.com/templates/gov_print_article?id=390022232

                doubled. Around the same time, MED noticed that marijuana-infused edibles were comprising significantly
                more of the market than expected — fully 50 percent, according to Freeman. As MED discovered, the two
                were correlated: Many of the hospital visits and poison-control calls stemmed from a lack of dosing
                information or packaging safeguards.

                MED quickly intervened, adopting new requirements that included childproofing edibles and clearly marking
                doses on the edibles’ packaging. These changes have helped lower the instances of unintentional exposure
                to edible marijuana products. Colorado has hired a full-time analyst dedicated to deriving similar insights
                from these new flows of marijuana data.

                Whatever one might think of the advisability of legalizing marijuana, there’s much to be learned from
                Colorado’s experience in data-driven regulation. While many of the practices Colorado is pioneering can be
                adopted by other states that may be considering legalizing marijuana, they also could help to broadly
                improve regulatory systems across all levels of government. Colorado is demonstrating how data-driven
                regulatory models can enable governments to quickly understand the realities of a market and hold
                businesses accountable — ultimately resulting in stronger, more effective consumer protections.

                This article was printed from: http://www.governing.com/blogs/bfc/gov-colorado-data-driven-
                marijuana-regulation.html

                Homework



                PCN-490 Case Study: Kay

                Kay, a 27-year-old Hispanic female, came to the local CMHC upon her medical doctor’s referral because she was increasingly despondent over the last few months. Her husband reported that she is a “basket case” because she wants to talk all the time about her problems to him; but all she has to do is to take care of things and everything will be all right. She has increased her drinking and marijuana use but she asserts that it is needed now and she has no problem with it because it’s under her control.

                Family: Kay has two children: a son, age 5; and a daughter, age 2. Kay takes care of the children. She does not have to work because her husband has a good job. She feels isolated because she has no support here.

                Kay’s parents moved to Puerto Rico about 6 years ago to retire, and they seem to have detached themselves from her since she got married. Kay’s mother- and father-in-law live in California and she does not stay in touch with them either. Her friends are the other mothers she meets when she drops her kids off at school. They talk for a while at McDonald’s but then they all go to their homes.

                Medical: Kay suffers from stomachaches, and she described herself as always very anxious; then she says she just gives up and believes she will never be happy. She will always be trapped in a situation where she cannot do things for herself. Then her stomach problems kick in and she can’t sleep. Occasionally she takes sleeping pills, eats late at night, and smokes pot, which she gets from her husband, to relax. He also uses it to relax from his hectic job. She states she and her husband have no drug problem.

                Psychiatric History and Current Situation: History is unremarkable. There are no previous hospitalizations or sessions with a therapist nor has she ever taken any psychiatric medications. Kay says she is not happy because she was unsuccessful at applying for a loan, which she needed to go to nursing school. Although she passed her entry exams, she would not have time or energy to do it even if she got the money. She desperately needs some adult socializing and learning so she can feel productive again. She used to be an executive secretary in New York City where she met her husband several years ago.

                She also says her husband does not accept her, which makes her unhappy; but she could not describe this any further. This is the time when her self-esteem drops, she feels depressed, and does not know what to do. She retreats, makes sure her kids are okay and then she will drink, smoke pot, and plan for the future, but the plans never are realized by her.

                When she makes a mistake (and it could be minor) with the children, paying bills, or other daily responsibilities, she believes she is worthless and inept. When she talks to her girlfriends at the kids’ school and they disagree with her, she interprets it as they don’t like her; and then she begins to ruminate over problems until she hates herself. When asked what she does when she “hates herself,” she repeats that she gets depressed and starts to drink – usually a bottle of wine, and, during those times, the pot use increases to more than one joint a day. Then she feels relaxed, gets her courage up, and goes into the bedroom to “give it to her husband.” But by then, he is asleep, and she is afraid that if she wakes him, then the kids will wake up too, and nothing will be resolved. Usually by then, she feels so tired that she sleeps on the couch and starts the day again in the morning.

                Now, a new idea has come up that she wants to work on – Kay wants to start massage school. It is easier to get money for the classes and it will also be easier to get work when she graduates. She just recently got accepted. She applied without anyone knowing and had the interview and starts in one week. She also has the money for it by saving her allowance that her husband gives her. Now she has to talk to someone about babysitting a couple of nights a week. She started working on a friend to pick the kids up from their school and she would be at her friend’s house at 6 pm every Wednesday and Thursday night. This is a secret and her husband doesn’t know about it. He comes home at 7 pm anyway.

                She can’t talk to her husband about it because he does not understand. She wholeheartedly believes she will make it through this school and eventually make 35 dollars an hour massaging people in a health spa. Who knows! Eventually, she said she might even get 50 dollars a session!

                Studying anatomy and physiology will be easy since the books are easier than nursing school and she definitely can spend time studying and not get upset to the point where she uses the alcohol and pot. When she was asked if she had a plan yet to pull the whole thing together for next week, she said, “No, it will just happen.”

                She wants help because she believes her value as a person depends upon what others think of her and what she can do. She wants to feel satisfied and happy as a regular person. She said she has no more self-confidence, energy, or motivation in the daytime and that worries her too. But, with this new idea, she will be a success.

                You have been assigned this case because the previous counselor resigned from her job.

                Here are some chart excerpts and summary notes from the counseling sessions.

                Counseling Sessions 1 – 4

                Kay: “About five years ago I started having trouble sleeping and started to take a tranquilizer (5 mg Valium). I normally take one or two pills two to four times a week to help me sleep through the entire night. I became afraid I’d become addicted, so I started drinking wine before bed and that did the trick.”

                Counselor: Can you think of any cause and effect connections between what is going on for you to use alcohol and pot from what I read in the closing summary of the previous worker?

                Kay: “I told the last counselor that I was having problems…with work, school, and especially with my husband. It must be all there in your notes. Right?”

                Counselor: Yes, but I was specifically interested in your reasons about what brought you here seeking help.

                Kay: “I can’t figure it out anymore. I should be able to. I am not satisfied and when I try out something I am afraid I will fail. I can’t relax or sleep or even become satisfied with taking care of my kids. I just do things: With the two kids I am obligated; with the rest, I can’t relax and I want to be like everyone else – comfortable and secure.”

                Counselor: I know what you mean. Things that you can stand up for yourself when you are feeling good about yourself just get to be too much when you’re under some kind of stress or feeling hopeless.

                Kay: “That’s it! I have been under stress and uncomfortable. I am so glad to be home but then I want to try out new things and I get scared and give up; even though I don’t want to.”

                (Discussion Question #1: In-Session Analysis)

                What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Explain your reason for it.

                In the morning she drinks at least three to four cups of coffee daily, even on the weekends. She noticed that her sleeping problems developed around the same time her parents moved. They were in their early 50’s and they were very close. The move hit her hard and she says she wanted to give in to a big depression because maybe they didn’t like her husband being an American. However, she fought it and lost herself in her kids and trying to move forward to “be something” like her parents wanted her to be. She can barely make it to pick up her kids and do after-dinner chores.

                Lately however, she has noticed that she has been steadily increasing her use of wine. Before, she would only have a few glasses with dinner but now…

                Kay: “More often than not, I finish off the bottle before going to bed. I just can’t seem to stop. A lot of times I will come home and tell myself that I’ll only have one glass and no more, but by the time I go to bed, the bottle is empty and I’m deciding whether I should open another or not. I never used to drink to excess or take anti-anxiety medication before. Now I can’t seem to stop drinking or taking these ‘downers’ at social events. I can’t seem to control when I take them and things are happening that I’m not too

                happy about.

                Kay explains to the counselor that last week she had a fight with her husband because he stopped her pot (he had none for himself) and she can’t even talk about what happens during the day to him, because he refuses to listen. He is a good provider but Kay reported: She could not get out of bed that morning because, “he tells me to shut up and handle things.” He pays the bills and she is supposed to take care of the kids and then do what she feels like doing because that’s her business! It took all her willpower to get up and get dressed. As it was, she was still 20 minutes late driving the kids to school, “which is inexcusable.” She was so nervous and sick she had to get a friend to pick the kids up in the afternoon.

                Counselor: It seems like while you were upset with your husband, you were hesitant to talk and state what you needed from him.

                Kay: “The next day I met with my friends and they recommended (ordered) I make an appointment with your agency again. I’m really scared and worried. I don’t have anything to live for. Well, not really. But I want to live more. I accept my life, and then I feel frustrated, angry. I try to calm down with the help of some wine and weed; I can’t seem to get out of the hole!”

                Counselor: Even though you lose hope sometimes, it sounds like you are committed to work some things out and try to stay clean. Do I have that right?

                Kay: “Yes. I am going to have to decide what to do. I thought I was strong enough for anything, but this scares me.”

                (Discussion Question #2: In-Session Analysis)

                What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Explain your reason for it.

                (Discussion Questions #3: Out-Session Analysis)

                1. What would your initial assessment of Kay be? (Give your diagnostic impression)

                2. What would you say Kay’s main drug of choice is and do you think she will need to address it in spite of all her other problems?

                3. Based on Kay’s emotional situation and the medications she is taking, what if any dangers do you need to be aware of?

                4. Based on the information Kay has given you, whom would you need to contact to advise anyone about her situation and what would you need from Kay to make these contacts?

                5. If Kay’s husband calls your office to find out about her, how would you respond to his inquiry? What are his rights to know if Kay has appointments with you?

                6. What possible dual diagnosis issue(s) might Kay have and how would you confirm this possibility.

                7. Are there any other issues that you feel may need to be addressed in this case?

                Counseling Sessions 5 – 8

                Counselor: Kay, from what we’ve studied about your case in our agency, we believe further treatment may be necessary to help you with your depression and drug problem.

                Specifically, your expression of frustration with getting the support you need from your husband and trying to manage your own personal goals with some maladaptive substance abuse behaviors.

                Kay: “The drugs are worrying me. I don’t deny that. About 10 years ago I started that for a short time because I was rejected by a boyfriend when I gave him everything. Thank God my mother was there to help me then.”

                Counselor: Perhaps we can prioritize some problems; find out what is the most important ones to work on…to make you feel better?

                Kay: “Okay. I want to be able to get the support I need from my husband to figure out my work desires without being afraid to talk to him.”

                Counselor: It sounds like he may be a trigger that gets you feeling confused?

                Kay: “Yes, but I remember I have always had a problem like this and tried to fix it by saying what I wanted.”

                Counselor: Can you give an example?

                Kay: “When I didn’t like something I’d yell and cursed, then I’d say I was sorry. But I felt the person didn’t believe me. It’s happened with my mom, my husband, friends……ever since I was 17.

                (Discussion Question #4: In Session Analysis)

                What would your next response be if you were the counselor? What technique would you use to change this and her related problems with this assumed social skill and coping skill deficit? Outline a treatment plan for Kay.

                Kay: “The idea of a trigger makes sense to me. If I learned how to get my point across to my husband and not use so much when frustrated, perhaps I can be free to go to massage school.”

                Counselor: Perhaps; so, if I can summarize things to find out if we understand each other:

                Your unassertiveness is influencing your drug use and not getting you what you want. Additionally, you need support from your husband primarily to help you with the family, more than just being a good provider, to make the changes you need for yourself. Is that accurate?

                Counselor: Well Kay, We have been working on some changes and practicing them during sessions. Do they seem to be working out Okay?

                Kay: “Okay, but your attitude sometimes reminds me of my husband, always taking charge. I feel like you will criticize me if things don’t go well.”

                (Discussion Question #5: In Session Analysis)

                Describe what your next response would be if you were the counselor and explain what is happening in the session. State a possible solution to be able to move on with the client.

                (Discussion Questions #6: Out Session Analysis)

                1. What is happening in this middle phase of the counseling process?

                2. What plan would you hypothesize for the final phase of the counseling process?

                3. What kind of counter-transference (affect) would you have with Kay if you were the counselor? Outline a plan to manage it in your next supervisory session.

                Counseling Sessions 9 – 12

                Counselor: Kay, regarding the homework between sessions, have you noticed any changes….better or worse?

                Kay: “I am sleeping better. I told my husband to stop smoking the pot so I won’t be tempted. He gives it to me, you know! The wine is still a problem on the weekends, but I drink less during the week.”

                Counselor: Sounds like there are some changes in the positive direction.

                Kay: “Yep, I may have a drinking problem, but I am not an alcoholic.”

                Counselor: Remember we discussed your practicing “cognitive restructuring.” Let’s see if we can do some now, Okay?

                Kay: “Okay! So, when I said that I may have a drinking problem, but I am not an alcoholic, I should check out this by asking myself…(Is my thinking likely to help me or hinder me in achieving my short- and long-term goals?) Well, I feel that if I don’t make progress, I will be depressed, but I can see how getting stuck on that thought brings up some negative self-statements and my self-esteem issues that will interfere with my goals as I try to reach some of them.”

                Counselor: So, how can you handle this one now?

                Kay: “Like I practiced before……I have to be aware that if I hang in there, there will be times when I get ahead of myself and I have to tell myself that progress comes slow, and there may be some backsliding in my thinking and my behavior. But that is part of the process and I can always ask for help from you or some strong supports that I am trying to develop.”

                Counselor: Can you measure how you felt before with your premature conclusion about drinking and how you are measuring your feeling now?

                Kay: “When I said it I was anxious about 60 percent; now, after working it through, I feel about 30 percent anxious.”

                Counselor: That’s good. It seems like you are becoming more aware and even continuing to make changes in the sessions and outside of them too!

                Kay: “Yep, I think it started when I told my husband that I am going to massage school. I didn’t want to keep it a secret anymore. I got no response from him. But he later asked about it, when it started, and if I could practice on him because he needs it.”

                Counselor: Do you think he should be invited into the sessions?

                Kay: “Not at all! He will never understand this stuff we are discussing. I can work on him myself. Are you going to tell him I am coming here?”

                (Discussion Question #7: In Session Analysis)

                What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Give your reason for it.

                (Discussion Question #8: Out Session Analysis)

                Describe and define the treatment techniques used by the counselor in the middle phase of treatment with Kay. Explain the rationale for slightly similar techniques with this client.

                Counselor: Since we prioritized problems weeks ago; do you think it is time to include other issues now?

                Kay: “Well, not really, but I think I will need some help with the stress of massage school when I am there. I don’t think I will take up the pot, but the weekend drinking may be tough. I agree it is poor coping. I want to find out how I can decompress better. Massage school is rough, you know. I don’t want to relapse, and I know my insurance is almost up to pay for this counseling.”

                (Discussion Question #9: In Session Analysis)

                What would your next statement be if you were the counselor? Give your reason for it.

                (Discussion Question # 10: Out Session Analysis)

                If Kay relapsed during termination, explain how you would manage it. In your answer include: One model you would use, one technique to intervene, and one mutually agreed goal and objective you would work on.

                (Discussion Questions #11: Out Session Analysis)

                1. Describe your plan with Kay for termination and booster sessions taking into consideration the limits of her medical insurance.

                2. Explain what else Kay may need from counseling if she had a better insurance to continue counseling.

                3. Write your own (one page) treatment summary for this client (from what you have so far) because her case has to be closed due to lack of insurance with no extensions granted for the next 10 months.

                © 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

                © 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

                Homework

                Instructions

                Current Event

                Find a current event that discusses something over economics.

                It must be within the last 30 days.

                Current events will be worth 20 points each. The requirements for the total points are:

                · Type a summary of the article

                · How does the article relate to economics for this week only.

                · Give your personal view and opinion on the article or event.

                · Work Cite your information.

                Homework

                This homework is on Efficiency   

                 Government in the marketplace  and  Global Market in Action

                I will need this done within  a  one hour time frame on 3-3-22. The timeframe is 1:40-2:30

                Homework

                PART 1
                Based on the PSPP Chi Square Distribution lecture answer the following question

                Using the GSS2008 data, examine the relationship between attitudes toward the level of national assistance for childcare (NATCHILD) and the sex of the respondent (SEX). Fill in the following information:

                Now perform the analysis with PSPP and find (You need to go to Analyze, Descriptives, Crosstabs–click.  Enter in the appropriate variables–click on statistics on the dialogue box where you enter the variables (for row, column) and make sure the chisq box is checked.)

                Percentage of men (out of only men) stating the current level is too little ________________________

                Percentage of women (out of only women) stating the current level is too little ________________________

                Chi Square significance level ________________________ (Pearson Chi Square Sig)

                Is the relationship statistically significant YES NO

                How would interpret this result? What might explain why there is or is not a significant difference in the means between the two groups (male and female). The null hypothesis for the Chi Square test is that there is no difference between the mean percentages of the various groups or categories. So, if the result is significant, we can reject (rather than confirm) the null hypothesis and indicate that there is a significant difference.

                How would the information from this exercise  be used by a lobbying group lobbying for more childcare assistance to develop an information strategy?

                PART 2

                Using the GSS2012 data, examine the relationship between sex (SEX) and the belief that a woman will not get a job or promotion over a man (DISCAFFW).

                Fill in the following information: 
                Make a prediction


                What percent of Americans believe women are less likely to get a job or promoted over a man:

                                                                                                                                        ___________


                Do you think males and females vary on their perspectives on this issue?                          YES    NO

                Now perform the analysis with PSPP and find (Remember how to read a table!):

                Percentage of men (out of only men) saying “Somewhat Likely”                              __________________

                Percentage of women (out of only women) saying “Somewhat Likely”                          __________________

                Chi Square significance level         __________________

                Is the relationship statistically significant                                        YES     NO


                How would interpret this result?  In other words, what might explain why there is or is not a difference between the groups.  Do not just restate the statistics without any interpretation. 


                What do the results suggest about perceptions of Affirmative Action?

                Homework

                1

                CHAPTER 3: CHI SQUARE DISTRIBUTIONS

                The next statistical procedure is the chi square distribution, which is used to determine the level
                of statistical significance for relationships between variables at the nominal and ordinal level of
                measurement. Specifically, The Pearson Chi-Square tests whether a particular pattern of
                group frequencies is likely due to chance alone. Since the Pearson Chi-Square evaluates two
                variables, a significant Chi-Square value tells two things: 1) the pattern of frequencies is
                significantly different from a random pattern AND 2) that the values are significantly associated
                with each other. We will also look at measures of association appropriate for nominal and
                ordinal data: lambda and gamma.

                ANALYZE

                DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS>CROSSTABS (click)

                Graphic 3.1

                A dialogue box will open with the list of variables and two areas to add the variables (row and
                column).

                Graphic 3.2

                2

                We are going to look at Click on the first variable so that it is highlighted, then type ABANY.
                This should bring you down to “Abortion if women wants for any reason.”—highlight it and
                move it to row by clicking on the arrow.

                Graphic 3.3

                Then go back to the top, repeat but type SEX, it will go to Respondent’s Sex, highlight it and
                move it to column

                Graphic 3.4

                Click on Statistics, and a new dialogue box will open. In the lower-right hand corner next to the
                help button is something that looks like a dog-eared page. You can place your cursor it, right
                click and drag on it and the dialogue box will expand revealing more choices. We are doing a
                Chi-Square so make sure that the “Chisq” box is checked and we are going to include a measure
                of association as well.

                But wait! How do I know which measure of association to choose? The following discussion
                was adapted from an exercise prepared by Ed Nelson at the Social Science Research and
                Instructional Lab: There are many measures of association to choose from. We’re going to limit
                our discussion to those measures that PSPP will compute. When choosing a measure of
                association we’ll start by considering the level of measurement of the two variables (see chapter
                2 for review of level of measurement).

                3

                • If one or both of the variables is nominal, then choose one of these measures.
                o Contingency Coefficient [automatically calculated by PSPP]
                o Phi and Cramer’s V
                o Lambda

                • If both of the variables are ordinal, then choose from this list.
                o Gamma
                o Somer’s d
                o Kendall’s tau-b
                o Kendall’s tau-c

                • Dichotomies should be treated as ordinal. Most variables can be recoded into dichotomies
                (also know as dummy variables, where it is either coded a “1” or a “0”). For example,
                marital status can be recoded into married (1) or not married (0). Race can be recoded as
                white (1) or non-white (0). All dichotomies should be considered ordinal.

                For this exercise, since both variables are ordinal: both the SEX variable and categories available
                for ABANY (Yes, NO) are dichotomies and as such is treated as ordinal.

                Therefore, you can choose any of the four options listed. We are just choosing Gamma so make
                sure to click on Gamma as well. Since the GSS 2008 treats these as nominal variables, choose
                Lambda, and then click Continue then click OK.

                Graphic 3.5

                The following output (Graphic 3.6) will appear…

                4

                Graphic 3.6

                Looking at the various parts will help better understand what is portrayed in the output. First is a
                listing of the syntax as shown in Graphic 3.7:

                Graphic 3.7

                Next is a summary of the valid and missing cases or observations. You normally would not
                report the missing cases, so you go with the Valid Cases rather than the Total when reporting the
                N (Number of Observations). For this question, the N equals 1298.

                Graphic 3.8

                5

                Graphic 3.9 displays a wealth of information but it means little of you do not understand it. To
                know what it value stands for, first look at the top of table for a guide. The following appears at
                the top: ABORTION IF WOMAN WANTS FOR ANY REASON*RESPONDENTS SEX
                [count, row %, column %, total %. This last part is important because it indicates what each
                value within a given square stands for.

                Graphic 3.9

                As an example, look at the row YES.

                • Starting with the column for MALE, the first value, which is the count is 262. This is the
                number of respondents that said YES and are MALE.

                • The next value in the MALE column is the row percent. The value 47.64% is percent of
                those that responded YES that are male, out of ALL those, in other words, EVERYONE
                that responded YES. This value could be used to make comparisons across responses,
                for example, what was the make-up of those that responded NO or YES.

                • The third value in the MALE column is the column percent. The value, 44.56% is the
                percent MALE that responded YES, out of ONLY MALE respondents. This is the value
                one would use if they wanted to make comparisons across groups, in this case MALE
                and FEMALE. IMPORTANT: Remember which variables you enter for each row and
                column so that you know which is the categorical response (in this case: NO, YES) and
                the GROUP (in this case: MALE, FEMALE).

                • The last value: 20.18% is the percent MALE that responded YES out of the all
                (TOTAL) respondents.

                Regardless of whether or not there is a significant difference as indicated by the Pearson Chi-
                Square (Graphic 10), the information in Graphic 3.9 can be used to provide valuable information.
                Moving on to Graphic 10, the focus will be only on the top statistic: Chi Square. The following
                measures of association (Lambda and Gamma) were also included.

                6

                Graphic 3.10

                The results of various tests are provided in the first of the three tables. If you did not click on
                Gamma and Lambda, this would be the only table you would see. The Pearson Chi-Square
                tests whether a particular pattern of group frequencies is likely due to chance alone. Recall from
                the beginning of the chapter that a significant Pearson Chi-Square value tells us two things: 1)
                the pattern of frequencies is significantly different from a random pattern AND 2) that the values
                are significantly associated with each other. This association can also be tested with gamma,
                lambda, and others as listed above.

                Please not that most academic journals consider a significance level of .05 or lower to be
                significant (95% of confidence intervals). Although, some journals also researchers to indicate
                when test statistics indicate a significance level of .1 or lower. This can vary by journal and
                discipline.

                Back to our example: The Pearson Chi-Square value or score is 2.10. When statisticians
                calculated these scores by hand it was necessary to look up critical values to see if this value was
                significant. Statistical software, like PSPP, SPSS, SAS, and STATA and many others, calculates
                the significance level for you so this is unnecessary. The significance level is listed under
                Asymp. (Asymptotic) Sig. (2 tailed) and is .147. This indicates that it is not significant.
                Similarly, neither Gamma or Lambda are significant (based on the Chi-Square) suggesting that
                the pattern of frequencies are not significantly different that what could be produced by chance
                nor, as indicated by all three test statistics, that these two variables are not significantly
                associated with each other.

                Homework

                IT 140 Design Document Template

                Instructions

                Fill out the sections below. Be sure to remove the bracketed text before submitting your Design Document.

                [Insert Your Name Here]

                Storyboard (Description and Map)

                [Include a paragraph description of your theme, storyline, rooms, items, and villain here. Be sure to also complete the map below with your rooms and items. You may add more rooms and directions if you like. Use the Insert menu and select Shapes to add textboxes and arrows.]

                East

                North

                West

                East

                South

                West

                East

                South

                North

                West

                East

                North

                South

                West

                Pseudocode or Flowchart for Code to “Move Between Rooms”

                [Write pseudocode or create/insert your flowchart here.]

                Pseudocode or Flowchart for Code to “Get an Item”

                [Write pseudocode or create/insert your flowchart here.]

                1

                homework

                PDCA paper Research inquiry: Quality/Safety Research Proposal Address a current problem that your organization is facing utilizing a PDCA methodology and write a research paper to improve safety and quality in your organization. (Outcome 1,2,3,4,5) (8 hours) APA Format, 5 pages in content, excluding Title and References pages; one Reference is your textbook. The references must be published within the last 5 years.

                Power point:

                10 Slides including speaker notes (excluding title and reference slides).

                homework

                TOPIC: EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

                Areama Cantros had been dreading this day for some time. As senior manager of Izzy’s Bed Emporium, she had been aware of the impending downsizing after Mattress Mart bought the small-town family-owned company a year ago.  Areama Cantros knew that the time would come when she would have to not only let people go but would have to make sure she could keep a skeleton staff. Areama did not agree with the corporate decision to downsize the firm to sales alone and take away most manufacturing, leaving only Izzy’s LiftOmatic to be constructed in the family plant. This was done primarily to reduce the amount of high-paying jobs from the smaller company. Areama also disagreed with the way corporate was to deliver the news; they wanted to use a consultant, a stranger to the staff and to her. “They are taking away our wisest” she noted, “and they are taking away those folks’ dignity for good measure.”

                Not that Areama could argue with the reasons behind the downsizing. She was after all working in an industry that was rapidly shrinking, leaving only a few major manufacturers making many of the brands offered. Imported bedding has also eaten into the market. Corporate has tried to stay ahead of the events and has bought up several smaller manufacturers, like Izzy’s, retaining the bestselling products and releasing all the rest.

                Areama knows that tension is high at the company after the layoffs came down from corporate. The uncertainty is stressing people. This time around the loss of jobs is much greater and more permanent. As a survivor of a poorly handled layoff, Areama knows that it will be an immediate concern to restore morale. The last thing she needs is for the remaining staff to giving their two weeks’ notice. In fact, they are going to have to be more committed than ever because more is going to be asked of them than when they were hired. Further, some people will have to consolidate job tasks and learn new ones. There may need to be some restructuring and merging of assignments and duties.

                The afternoon briefing is going to be complicated. That is where Areama hopes to begin charting the new course toward the “new normal,” so that everyone understands what they are in for. The rumor mill has been turning fast and the scenarios floating around are worse than what the eventual status quo will bring. So, it is important to start now to create some information that is true to go along with the misinformation.

                Areama, doesn’t want to make decisions about the future too fast as nothing undermines a staff’s confidence more than a collection of faulty ideas that get revised a few months into their existence.

                There are a lot of things to consider when contemplating the new operations at Izzy’s. The company had historically been grouped by functions: administration, marketing, sales, accounting, production, design, quality assurance, packaging/shipping. It seems to Areama that some of these will have to be combined. But how to decide who to group? Some groupings seem logical, but it may be that the staff working in these areas might find different groupings more appealing. Some staffers will be taking on more, whereas others will be taking on a lot more. Izzy’s will need both groups to perform at their best.

                Further, there is the matter of who is willing to shoulder a lot more responsibility rather than a little more. Areama knows from experience that this can be a dicey issue. Some staffers excel at a narrow set of tasks but struggle once those duties are expanded. Others seem to thrive on taking the burden and they do it well at least in the short term. But how to tell one group from another? I have my hunches, thought Areama, but it may be best to start with the assessments and inventories corporate had everyone complete when they took over. It may be this personnel file information will not help but it is sure to give some insights.

                The more Areama thinks about it the more dividing the work inequitably may be a recipe for disaster. She has a long memory of complaints about the relative workloads across areas for years. In this regard corporate might help for a change. It turns out that they budget more for compensation-related expenditures in the wake of downsizing. They too have learned from their experience in downsizing.

                Survivors sometimes need a bit of a bump to stay committed. They have also learned that “downsizes” occasionally need to be hired back, this time at the going rate for the job market Corporate can justify such expenses because the downsizing still results in cost savings, even with the extra for the survivors figured in. Areama is pretty sure that she can leverage the extra funds in a creative way to get the new pay structure to match up with the new job structure.

                It might be helpful to involve the staff in the decision-making process as to the future of the company. That would give them buy-in and ensure all the bases were covered as the new structure gets put in place. On the other hand, keeping manufacturers on the same page with salespeople is often difficult.  What if she asks for suggestions and they go off in completely different directions?

                Although the new day-to-day work of the company is foremost on Areama’s mind she also cannot help but think about the future. Will the staffers feel the same way not just about their jobs but about their vocations? How much of their identity is wrapped up in being part of a family-owned “Made in America” company” As corporate standardizing touches their job tasks, benefits, and imposes corporate work policies will they feel the same about their future?  After the pain of losing so many colleagues, Areama thinks it likely that the meaning would fall flat, and she would be disingenuous. Or maybe there is something else Areama can do to bring a bigger purpose to the work done by Izzy’s survivors. Maybe something for the town or the nearby university.

                In this week’s discussion on decision making address the following points and make at least three recommendations you would make for Areama in her decision-making plan to revise the company and the way to present it to the staff.

                · Identify decisions Areama must make that impact effectiveness and efficiency

                · Prioritize the decisions, identifying which decisions should be made first.

                · Analyze and explain how this case study illustrates the relationship between structure and culture in decision making. Give specific examples.

                · Provide at least three strategies that would help Areama in her decision-making.

                · Be sure to use both materials from this week and weeks past to answer the questions.

                ·  Always support the answers with facts from the case study as well as the course material.

                *Instructions*

                *4 pages

                *Use scholarly work

                *3 References

                *No Dot Com

                *Prepare this assignment in the APA Style Guide.

                Homework

                Chapter 5: Bivariate Correlation

                Correlation and Causation
                Before addressing bivariate correlation and Analysis of Variance, it is important to address the
                assumptions of provide an overview of correlation and The essence of causality may be captured
                by the notion of manipulation. If one could intervene without changing the surrounding
                circumstances and make a change in the first thing, a change in the second thing would follow
                from the original manipulation.

                What are the criteria for causality?
                There are several criteria necessary for causation. These include association, temporal order, and
                spuriousness.

                Association: The first criterion for causality is than an association must exist between
                presumed cause and its effect. If two variables do not co-vary, meaning as one changes,
                the other changes is a corresponding manner, then neither can be considered a candidate
                to exert causal influence on the other.

                Temporal Order: For variable A to be considered a causal candidate for the occurrence
                of B, it must occur before B in time. Temporal order in the social and behavioral
                sciences is often obvious, but because of the feedback nature of many of the things we
                study, the order is not always easy to determine. Two things that are occurring at the
                same time for example could be neither a cause nor effect for the other.

                Spuriousness: The third criterion is that the relationship must not statistically disappear
                when the influence of other variables is considered.

                There should also be necessary and sufficient cause. A necessary cause or condition is one that
                must be present for an effect to follow. A sufficient cause is a cause or condition that by itself is
                able to produce an event.

                Bivariate Correlation
                The next procedure is bivariate correlation. Bivariate correlation is used to evaluate whether
                two ratio or scale (in other words, continuous) variables are correlated, in other words, associated
                with each other. This procedure should not be used with nominal or ordinal variables. If
                necessary, review the discussion regarding levels of measurement in Chapter 2.

                First, it is important to remember that correlation is not synonymous with causation. For
                example, the number of firemen is positively correlated with fire damage but does it mean that
                the firemen cause the fire damage? No! The fire itself, and more specifically the size of the fire,
                is the cause of the damage not the number of firemen. Think of it terms of the assumption of

                necessary or sufficient cause. Note: We can never completely satisfy the necessary and sufficient
                criterion of causality and we never will (Walsh and Ollenburger 2001).

                Bivariate correlation is often the first step before doing multivariate regression (Chapter 6). It
                allows us to evaluate whether there is an association between two variables absent any other
                influence. This means without controls. Multivariate regression allows one to evaluate whether
                that association is still present while controlling for other variables (plausible alternative causes).

                To illustrate how to do a bivariate correlation, consider the following: Is the percent of students
                that have used marijuana negatively associated with high school graduation rates? Using the
                STATES10 data set, we can examine this research question using Percent of High School
                Students That Use Marijuana: 2007 (HTC255) and Percent of Population Graduated from High
                School: 2008 (EDS131)

                First, OPEN the STATES10 data set in PSPP

                Graphic 5.1

                Then, as illustrated in Graphic 5.2 go to

                Analyze
                Bivariate Correlation (left click)

                Graphic 5.2

                After left-clicking the following dialogue box appears:

                Graphic 5.3

                Left-click on the first variable so it is highlighted as shown in Graphic 5.3 and then begin typing
                HTC255 (percent of high school students that use marijuana) and the proper variable should
                become highlighted as shown in Graphic 5.4.

                Graphic 5.4

                Then click the arrow in the middle to move this variable HTC255 to the RIGHT so that it
                appears as shown in Graphic 5.5

                Graphic 5.5

                Following the same procedure but highlight the top variable and then begin typing EDS131 so
                that Percent of Population Graduated from High School is highlighted as shown in Graphic 5.6.

                Graphic 5.6

                Move EDS131 over to the right as you did with HTC255

                Graphic 5.7

                Then click OK, and you will get an output that looks like what is displayed in Graphic 5.8.

                Graphic 5.8

                How should you read this output table? First, you have a 2 X 2 table. You need to make sure
                you are reading the table properly. Make sure you are reading at the intersection of the two
                variables. On the top row, you have the correlation for HTC255 and HTC255 (row 1, column 1)
                and HTC255 and EDS131 (row 1, column 2) and in the second row, the correlation for EDS131
                and HTC255 (row 2, column 1) and EDS131 and EDS131 (row 2, column 2). So the correlation
                for the two variables is available in the cells at row 1, column 2 and row 2, column 1.

                So what do the results for the bivariate correlation tell us?
                The first line is the Pearson correlation: -.12
                The second line is the significance level (Sig. (2-tailed)): .468
                The third line is N, which is the number of cases: 51

                The Pearson correlation is -.12, which is negative as expected and it indicates that there is a
                negative weak correlation between the two variables. Before addressing the significance, the
                strength of the association depends on the size of the Pearson correlation, which will be some
                value between -1 and 1. The closer to 1 or -1 the Pearson correlation is, the stronger the
                relationship. Conversely, the closer to 0 the Pearson correlation is, the weaker the relationship
                As noted earlier there appears to be a negative weak correlation. In the social sciences, a
                correlation of .40 (or -.40) is considered “strong.”

                Graphic 5.9

                Back to our example, -.12 is a weak relationship (at best). However, with a level of significance
                of .468, which is above the .05 threshold suggests that these two variables are not significantly
                correlated and as such the weak association could be due to chance. A scatterplot will visually
                illustrate the association or lack there of as shown in Graphic 5.9.

                Next, looking at an example so that you can see what a significant bivariate correlation looks
                like. Using Percent of Population Graduated from High School: 2008 (EDS131) from the first
                example and for the second variable: Per Capita Income: (ECS100). Unlike the previous
                example, we will begin with the scatterplot (Graphic 5.10).

                Graphic 5.10

                Note the upward sloping cluster of most of the observations but to know whether there is a
                significant correlation between per capita income and graduation rates. Beginning with the
                procedure discussed above, move EDS131 over to the RIGHT as shown in Graphic 5.11. (if you
                have been following along, just move HTC255 back to the LEFT if it is still there).

                Graphic 5.11

                Next move ECS100 over to the right as shown below (Graphic 5.12),

                Graphic 5.12

                Then click OK and the following output will appear (Graphic 5.13).

                Graphic 5.13

                So what does the output tell us about the bivariate correlation? Does it confirm what appears in
                the above scatterplot (Graphic 5.10)? Based on the output:
                The first line is the Pearson correlation: .30
                The second line is the significance level (Sig. (2-tailed)): .036
                The third line is N, which is the number of cases: 51

                The Pearson correlation is .30, which indicates a moderate correlation. The level of significance
                is .036, which is less than .05 and so this would indicate that there is a moderate correlation and
                that it is statistically significant. This suggests that state graduation rates are higher in states with
                higher per capita income. More sophisticated analysis, such as multivariate regression would be
                necessary to determine if this correlation is causation. Multivariate regression will be covered in
                Chapter 6.

                Homework

                 

                1. Color Centers

                Color center are responsible for beautiful colors of some ancient artwork. Such color centers are observed in many other materials as well, table salt for example. The figure below shows an absorption coefficient, α, of table salt, also known as NaCl. The absorption feature related to the color centers is strongly peaked in the visible and gives rise to the slightly yellow color of table salt. If you would take a salt crystal and irradiate it with energetic ions or X-rays, you would find that the crystal turns dark yellow. Color centers are formed by the creation of socalled Frenkel defects, an ion displaced from its usual site in the crystal. The vacancies that remain after the ions are displaced (by e.g. an energetic particle) can trap charges. Some configurations in which charge can be trapped are shown and named in Figure 2.

                2. Metallic nanoparticles

                Some of the beautiful colors of 17 th century church windows and ancient glass objects derive their color from the presence of nanometer size noble metal particles. We would like to study the optical properties of a piece of SiO 2 glass with a refractive index of n SiO2 = 1.5 that has a low concentration of Ag nanoparticles (radius R) embedded in it. We illuminate the glass on one side with a white light source and notice a beautiful yellow color in transmission.

                homework

                T R I N I T Y W E S T E R N U N I V E R S I T Y

                LDRS 432
                Building Leaders II: Vocation and Career Planning

                Possible Paths
                (adapted from the Odyssey Plan in Designing your Life)

                1. Name 3 possible career paths that you can take in life. The 3rd path must be something that you

                would do if time, money, talent was not an issue.

                2. List 3-5 things that you would like about each career.

                3. List 3-5 things that you would dislike about each career

                4. What education or training or experience is required for this career path? Use the following

                websites:

                a. www.workbc.ca

                b. www.onetonline.org

                5. What skills are required?

                6. List three things you would need to do to reach each path. (Action steps)

                7. Who are 2-3 people in your network who can help you reach this path and HOW can they help

                you?

                Path 1

                School counselor

                Path 2

                Business Owner
                (coffee shop)

                Path 3 (must be
                “outrageous”)

                Writer/Speaker

                What might you
                like about the
                path?

                -Help students
                -Every day is different
                -Great schedule
                (weekends/summers
                off)
                -Rewarding job
                -Work in education
                which influences young
                peple

                -serving customers
                -making coffee and
                preparing food is
                something that I like
                -using my business to
                serve my community
                -potential to make
                money

                -Flexibility
                -Potential to make money
                -Share my thoughts and ideas
                with the world
                -be inspirational

                What might you
                dislike about the
                path?

                -the pay is not great
                -it can be hard helping
                troubled kids
                -stressful working with
                teachers and parents

                -When you own a
                business, you always
                are working
                -risk of losing money
                -finding good
                employees

                -run out of ideas to write
                about
                -pressure to write/speak
                -time away from family
                -potential to not make any
                money

                Education/Training/
                Experience

                -Masters degree in
                School Counseling
                -experience working in
                education system

                -experience working in
                food service

                -Might need a degree in
                Creative Writing, but mostly
                just need a lot of experience
                and practice writing ideas

                T R I N I T Y W E S T E R N U N I V E R S I T Y

                -knowledge of
                bookkeeping (or hire
                someone to do it)
                -need money for initial
                investment

                Required Skills -Active Listening
                -Written and Oral
                communication
                -Knowledge of
                psychology and
                education

                -Multitasking
                -Service Orientation
                -basic knowledge of
                business…purchasing,
                payroll, government
                requirements

                -Written and Oral
                communication
                -time management
                -ability to sell my skills
                (promoting)

                Action steps -Volunteer in a high
                school
                -Find a university that
                has a Masters’ in
                School Counseling
                -Complete MA degree
                and internship
                -Look for job openings

                -Find investor or save
                money or take out loan
                -Acquire supplies
                -Hire employees
                -Promote and Market

                -Get an agent
                -try to write a book
                -Promote my writing or ability
                to speak on social media
                -offer to speak at churches or
                other local settings

                Network
                (People who can
                help and HOW they
                can help you)

                -Aaron – is a school
                counselor and can tell
                me about the job
                -Lisa – is a teacher and
                can tell me about the
                school system and let
                me know if she knows
                of any opportunities
                -Kim – is a therapist
                who used to be