• Home

HB homework

Motivating self and others Lecture Notes

What is Motivation?

Motivation

· The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

Intensity: how hard a person tries

Direction: where effort is channeled

Persistence: how long effort is maintained

View: Motivational Theories and the Gurus That Created Them

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (from the video list the five levels)

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Intrinsic (Theory Y)

A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.

Extrinsic (Theory X)

Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.

Herzberg’s Theory of Hygiene

· Hygiene needs (please list)

· Motivators (please list)

The health of the organization needs to be intact to allow for motivators.

McClelland’s Theory of Needs

Have a motivation orientation:

· Achievement

· Affiliation

· Personal Power

· Institutional Power

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Expectancy: set good expectations

Instrumentality: help your people become successful

Valence: provide reward and recognition that employees find valuable


From the Online Textbook: 5.3 Process-Based Theories

Equity Theory

· Individuals are motivated by a sense of fairness in their interactions.

· Our sense of fairness is a result of the social comparisons we make.

· We compare our inputs and outcomes with other people’s inputs and outcomes.

· We perceive fairness if we believe that the input-to-outcome ratio we are bringing into the situation is similar to the input-to-outcome ratio of a comparison person, or a referent. Perceptions of inequity create tension within us and drive us to action that will reduce perceived inequity.

Goal Setting 6.3 Motivating Employees through Goal Setting

SMART goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.”

Goal-Setting Theory

Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will be needed

· Specific goals increase performance

· Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals

· Feedback leads to higher performance

Goals Motivate by:

Directing attention

Regulating effort

Increasing persistence

Encouraging development of strategies and action plans

Effective Goals are SMART

· Specific

· Measurable

· Attainable

· Results-Orientated

· Time-Bound

6.5 Motivating Employees through Performance Incentives

Employee Recognition Programs

Programs that use multiple sources and recognizes both individual and group accomplishments

Rewarding a behaviour with recognition immediately following that behaviour is likely to encourage its repetition

Recognizing an employee’s superior performance often costs little or no money

Variable Pay programs:

A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure(s) of performance.

Variable Pay Programs

Individual-based

Piece-rate wages, Bonuses

Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.

Group-based

Gainsharing: an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.

Organization-based

Profit-sharing: organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability.

Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs): company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.

HB homework

Power and Politics Lecture Notes

13.2 The Basics of Power

Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others to get what you want.

There can be positive and negative consequences of power.

Positive: power can influence people towards great achievement

Negative: power can be used to increase conformity towards corrupt or unethical actions.

Dependency: Key to Power

When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control, you make them dependent upon you and therefore you gain power over them.

Dependency: Key to Power

Importance

· The things you control must be important

Scarcity

· A resource must be perceived as scarce

Non-substitutability

· The resource cannot be substituted with something else

13.3 The Power to Influence

Bases of Power

Coercive power

Reward power

Legitimate power

Expert (information) power

Referent power

Evaluating the Bases of Power

Coercive power tends to result in negative performance responses, decreases satisfaction, increases mistrust, and creates fear.

Reward power may improve performance if the rewards are consistent with what the individuals want as rewards.

Legitimate power does not have a negative effect, but does not generally stimulate employees to improve their attitudes or performance, and it does not generally result in increased commitment.

Expert power relies on trust that all relevant information is given out honestly and completely. Can result in increased commitment.

Referent power Can also lead to commitment

Influence

Responses to Influence:

· Resistance: occurs when the influence target does not wish to comply with the request and either passively or actively repels the influence attempt.

· Compliance: occurs when the target does not necessarily want to obey, but they do.

· Commitment: occurs when the target not only agrees to the request but also actively supports it as well.

Diagram  Description automatically generated

· Impression management: means actively shaping the way you are perceived by others.

· Three categories:

· Verbal

· Non-verbal

· Behaviour

13.4 Organizational Politics

Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives.

Political skill refers to peoples’ interpersonal style, including their ability to relate well to others, self-monitor, alter their reactions depending upon the situation they are in, and inspire confidence and trust

Diagram  Description automatically generated

Build your Social Network

Identify Your Relationship Needs

Develop Your People Skills

Focus on Your EI

Practice Mindful Listening

Manage Your Boundaries

Schedule Time to Build Relationships

Appreciate Others

Be Positive

Avoid Gossiping

From: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/good-relationships.htm

HB homework

Managing Groups and Teams Lecture Notes

9.2 Group Dynamics

What is a Group?

Stages of Group Development

Stage I: Forming: Members may know each other or not at all. There is a level of formality, some anxiety, and a degree of guardedness as group members are not sure what is going to happen next

Stage II: Storming: Group members are feeling safer and included in the group. They explore express their own thoughts and feelings. Members start to explore power and influence. Discussions may have more conflict over what and how things should be done.

Stage III: Norming: group members feel more committed to each other and the group’s goals. Feeling energized by knowing they can handle the conflict and differing opinions; group members are now ready to get to work. Participants are establishing their own ground rules and define their part of the process in reaching the goals.

Stage IV: Performing: Group members are getting the work done and feeling a sense of shared vision and unity with the group.

Stage V: Adjourning: Debriefing is a way to acknowledge work done, to learn from any mistakes, and celebrate the ending.

Putting the Five-Stage Model into Perspective

· Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time

· Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage

· Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group

List Five Steps to avoid getting stuck in the storming phase:

·

·

·

·

·

(Skip the Punctuated-Equilibrium Model)

List 8 steps to creating and maintaining group cohesion:

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Groupthink: is a group pressure phenomenon that increases the risk of the group making flawed decisions by allowing reductions in mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment. Groupthink is most common in highly cohesive groups

Social Loafing refers to the tendency of individuals to put in less effort when working in a group context.

List and Briefly Define six steps to prevent social loafing:

·

·

·

·

·

·

9.3 Understanding Team Characteristics

Team vs. Group:

Group – Two or more people with a common relationship

Team -A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another.

What is the purpose of a team?

To be a team …..

· Members share leadership

· Share accountability

· Develops its own mission or purpose

· Problem solving is ongoing, not just at team meetings

· Effectiveness is measured by team outcomes or goals, not individual outcomes or goals

Team Tasks

· Production tasks:

· Idea-generation tasks:

· Problem-solving tasks:

List the team roles from figure 9.7:

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Which of the five team roles are related to tasks?

Which of the five team roles relate are social?

What are some challenges faced by virtual teams?

(Stop this section after the virtual team’s part)

9.4 Management of Teams

In this part only refer to Establishing team norms

What are norms?

(effective meetings are taught in communications)

9.5 Barriers to Effective Teams

Common Problems Faced by Teams

· Challenges of knowing where to begin:

· Dominating team members:

· Poor performance of team members:

· Poorly managed team conflict:

HB homework

Lecture Notes for Emotions

7.4 What Are Emotions?

Emotions

· Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something: positive or negative.

Moods

· Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and are not directed at someone or something

7.4 Emotions at Work

Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour

· When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions.

· Employees can experience a conflict between what they feel, and what’s expected of them.

Emotional Intelligence

· Noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures

Five dimensions

· Self-awareness – awareness of your own emotions and moods

· Self-regulation – the ability to manage your emotions.

· Self-motivation – understanding how emotions affect your motivation

· Empathy – ability to recognize other people’s emotions and understand their perspectives.

· Social skills – interpersonal communication skills and ability to develop trust and rapport with others.

Negative Workplace Emotions

· Negative emotions can lead deviant workplace behaviours. Categories such as:

· Production (leaving early, intentionally working slowly)

· Property (stealing, sabotage)

· Political (gossiping, blaming co-workers)

· Personal aggression (sexual harassment, verbal abuse)

HB homework

Individual Attitudes and Behaviours

From 4.2 Work Attitudes

Attitudes

Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events.

Less stable than values

Types of Attitudes in the Workplace

Job Involvement

. . . measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth.

Organizational Commitment

. . . an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

Job Satisfaction

. . . refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. Positive or Negative

Factors that impact job satisfaction and organizational commitment:

· Personality

· Person-environment fit

· Job characteristics

· Psychological contract

· Organizational justice

· Work relationships

· Stress

· Work-life balance

From 4.3 Work Behaviours

One of the important objectives of the field of organizational behavior is to understand why people behave the way they do.

Employees demonstrate a wide variety of positive and negative behaviors at work. Among these behaviors, four are critically important and have been extensively studied in the OB literature, these are highlighted below:

Job performance is a person’s accomplishments of tasks listed in one’s job description. A person’s abilities, particularly mental abilities, are the main predictor of job performance in many occupations. How we are treated at work, the level of stress experienced at work, work attitudes, and, to a lesser extent, our personality are also factors relating to one’s job performance.

Citizenship behaviors are tasks helpful to the organization but are not in one’s job description. Performance of citizenship behaviors is less a function of our abilities and more of motivation. How we are treated at work, personality, work attitudes, and our age are the main predictors of citizenship.

Among negative behaviors, absenteeism and turnover are critically important. Health problems and work–life balance issues contribute to more absenteeism. Poor work attitudes are also related to absenteeism, and younger employees are more likely to be absent from work.

Turnover is higher among low performers, people who have negative work attitudes, and those who experience a great deal of stress. Personality and youth are personal predictors of turnover.

HB homework

Lecture Notes for Decision Making

11.2 Understanding Decision Making

Decision Making

refers to making choices among alternative courses of action—which may also include inaction.

Programmed decisions: occur frequently enough that we develop an automated response to them

Non-programmed decisions: unique and important decisions requiring conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.

Strategic decisions set the course for an organization

Tactical decisions are about how things will get done

Operational decisions are made by employees to make the organization fun

Rational Decision-Making Model

Diagram  Description automatically generated

Bounded rationality model: recognizes the limitations of decision making. Certain factors will be used to limit alternatives (ie. Looking at colleges in Canada only)

Intuitive Decision-Making Model

A subconscious process created out of distilled experience

Best used:

· When time is short

· When policies, rules, and guidelines do not give clear cut advice

· When there is a great deal of uncertainty

· When detailed numerical analysis needs a check and balance

Creativity: generation of new, imaginative ideas

The Creative Decision-Making Process. Step 1) Problem Recognition, Step 2) Immersion, Step 3) Incubation, Step 4) Illumination, Step 5) Verification & Application


11.3 Faulty Decision Making: Judgment Shortcuts

Why do we make bad decisions?

What is Bias

A tendency to believe, feel or show prejudice for or against someone or something.

Judgment Shortcuts / Bias

· Overconfidence Bias: individuals overestimate their ability to predict future events. Ask yourself if you are being realistic in your judgements

· Hindsight Bias: occurs when looking backward in time and mistakes seem obvious after they have already occurred. We are selective in reconstructing events and tend to judge other’s decisions with this bias.

· Anchoring Bias: relying to heavily on one piece of information. Example: seeing a job with a great salary and ignoring the working environment, and if the job is really a fit for a person.

· Framing Bias: decisions that are influenced by the way the situation or problem is presented. Example: wording: packaging: 85% lean or 15% fat content or psychological pricing $8.99 vs $9.

· Escalation of Commitment: also known as sunken cost fallacy, it’s the decision to continue on a failing course of action after information reveals it may be a poor path to follow. Example: purchasing a used car that always needs repairs. At what point do you decide to sell it? Businesses have this happen when they invest in ideas, where they don’t factor in changing customer tastes or the market changes.

· Confirmation Bias: tendency to notice, focus on, and give more weight to evidence that fits our existing beliefs. Example: This is most pronounced when gathering evidence, there is so much information that we tend to gather the evidence that supports our belief or opinion vs seeking differing points of view. Example: When hiring for a server the manager may have a preconception of what makes a good employee, (i.e. someone young and energetic). When interviewing an older applicant we may focus more on “evidence” that supports our preconception that they may not be a fit as opposed to seeing other aspects the employee could bring to the job.

Group Decision Making (11.4 Decision Making in Groups)

Individual Decision Making

Group Decision Making

Pros

Cons

Pros

Cons

Typically faster than group decision making

Fewer ideas

Diversity of ideas and can piggyback on others’ ideas

Takes longer

Best individual in a group usually outperforms the group

Identifying the best individual can be challenging

Greater commitment to ideas

Group dynamics such as groupthink can occur

Accountability is easier to determine

Possible to put off making decisions if left alone to do it

Interaction can be fun and serves as a teambuilding task

Social loafing–harder to identify responsibility for decisions

Groupthink: tendency to avoid critical evaluation of ideas that the group majority favours.

There are tools and techniques for group decision making, explore some of these in the online textbook.

Lost At Sea activity

Definitions:

· A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation.

· Marine VHF radio refers to the radio frequency range between 156 and 174 MHz, inclusive. The “VHF” signifies the very high frequency of the range.  Transmission power ranges between 1 and 25 watts, giving a maximum range of up to about 60 nautical miles(111 km) between aerials mounted on tall ships and hills, and 5 nautical miles (9 km; 6 mi) between aerials mounted on small boats at sea level

Lost at Sea

The “correct” order,
collated by the experts at
the US Coast Guard

HB homework

Lecture Notes for Leadership

Identify an example of someone you think is a
strong leader
and someone you think is a
weak leader
.


What traits, behaviours or physical characteristics did they have.

Leadership

The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals

Results prove that many people in leadership roles do not live up to the standards that are supposed to make up an effective leader.

Does Leadership come naturally?

Leadership Theories

Trait :

· Leaders are born, not made

Behaviour :

· Common practices identified

Contingency/Situational:

· Combination approach

See Leadership Theories for details

Can You Be a Better Follower?

· What qualities do effective followers have?

· They manage themselves well

· They are committed to a purpose outside themselves

· They build their competence and focus their efforts for maximum impact

· They are courageous, honest, and credible

Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership

· Transactional

· Leaders who guide or motivate others to achieve established goals

· Transformational

· Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation and who possess charisma

· Recipe for a Leader

·
Know yourself

· Be technically proficient

· Seek responsibility

· Make sound decisions

· Set an example

·
Know your staff

· Communicate!

· Cultivate responsibility

· Ensure tasks are understood

· Train as a team

HB Homework

 Pick all chapters from each of the three modules (6 in total) and discuss a takeaway or key topic that you will use in the future or that helped you in understanding how to apply the information in a work setting.  There are no right or wrong answers if you do an honest assessment and answer with depth in your assessments and suggestions 

This is related to your learning, and how the information is or will be helpful to you in your personal life or at work. 

Make sure to give a detailed example for each of your takeaways for each chapter you have chosen.

  

From Module: Organizational behaviour role of the individual:

a. Attitudes, Emotions and Their Effects in the Workplace

b. Motivating Self and Others

From Module: Teamwork, Power and Politics – Role in Groups:

a. Working in Teams

b. Power and Politics

 From Module: Leadership, Culture and Change in Organizations – Impact of the Organization: 

a. Leadership

b. Decision Making