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Perspective on Domestic Terrorism (Religious Radicalization)

Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

. The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities according to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resilved Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this
Did you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: Ensure you address this assertions with a citation Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement

Purpose Statement

The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
Why are you researching the topic Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Research Question

To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions Comment by Chris Martinez: This is better aligned…well done…leave me a comment that you have addressed it.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Issue resolved.

1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?

1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?

1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?

Literature Review Comment by Chris Martinez: The meet and potatoes of your document is your literature review and where you will cut your teeth as a researcher. 
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper, in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge. Part of your review covers the theory you will use to address your problem.
I have provided a few documents which may assist you.
Comment by Chris Martinez: This area needs to be more expansive Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities, both external and homegrown, since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been addressed. Comment by Chris Martinez: explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Religious Terrorism
Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Ressolved.

Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as an encroachment on their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.

Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory Comment by Chris Martinez: You may want to have a sub section just for the theory you will expore
Comment by Chris Martinez: Have you address this? Without your comments, I don’t know if you have resolved the issue Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been resolved.

Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to an extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Islam and Religious Radicalization

It is not new for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change

Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorism resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done to protect or expand religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. Many varied issues of Islamic violence can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows into homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘push” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: continue to build on what you have created here

Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to domestic terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016).

A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Several theories have explained why many individuals opt to join radicalization institutions irrespective of their backgrounds and religion. In many instances, radicalizations that are linked to terrorism are religious-oriented. Religious beliefs instigate the principles that are involved in radicalization. However, among the many studies that have been done to investigate the link between religious radicalization and terrorism, a few of them have jointly placed their diverse hypothesis to scrutinize them using empirical data of findings. Lack of knowledge of the different beliefs has created a gap in the literature that serves as an obstacle to studying the subject. Again, the lack of empirical evidence to validate the diverse idea has resulted in a lack of common stance on the issue (Alimi, 2016). Therefore, the current study will use the radicalization theory and the strain theory to synthesize knowledge that can be used to explain the link between religious radicalization and terrorism. Using empirical data from intensive research, the current study will add knowledge to the available literature, bridging the existing gaps on the topic.

The Theory or Model to Be Used in The Study Comment by Chris Martinez: Stain Theory…just use this as the subsection title Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

A critique of the recent literature on the use of strain-based theory to explain terrorism drawing from the strain theory has yielded a lot of knowledge relating to the understanding of radicalization. The current study draws from the general strain theory and other research to explain how strain theory tenets relate to radicalization and terrorism. According to Merton’s strain theory, terrorism is likely to occur when people experience collective strains that take the following parameters (Alimi, 2016). The joint strain must be high in magnitude and affects the civilians. Secondly, collective pressure should be unjust, and finally, it must be perpetrated by suggestively more significant others, including ‘complicit’ civilians, with whom associates of the strained collectivity have weak ties. Strain theory explains that collective strains increase the likelihood of terrorism for several different reasons or factors. However, it is imperative to understand that the elements in play here do not lead to terrorism in all cases because their effects are conditioned by different factors (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. The theoretical framework implemented will adopt the empirical strategy that will compare responses from the Christian and the Muslim respondents. The respondents will have different degrees of religious radicalization exposure to effectively test the hypothesis (Dalgaard-Nielsen, 2010). Other studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances. Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks (Tusini, 2019). Considering the findings of different studies, it is apparent that radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is evident from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework. Comment by Chris Martinez: Ok…this is appropriate Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: Year needed Comment by Chris Martinez: Redundant….change Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: By who…cite Comment by Chris Martinez: Provide a background on strain theory and how it applies to your study Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Statement of Hypotheses

The current study was guided by two hypotheses based on the nature of the study subject or the problem under investigation. Considering the model adopted incorporating strain theory, it was apparent from the definition and explanation of the strain theory related to religious radicalization and terrorism (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. Different studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances (Rogers et al., 2007). Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks. The study hypothesis statement will therefore revolve around the two identified hypotheses. Radicalization theory which assumes a process through which people turn to violence because of radical or extreme beliefs has also been used to explain radicalization. In the current study, the process of religious radicalization in America will be analyzed using the tenets of Merton’s strain theory as an interpretative factor (Borum, 2011). Although many other approaches can be used to test the hypotheses identified in the current study, applying Merton’s theory to this area means selecting to deal with it mainly from a sociological perspective, considering its political, economic, structural, and social features and entrenching the individual tracks within this structure.

Although the strain theory is not directly related to religious radicalization and terrorism involvement, its historical background provides an excellent foundation to study why people opt to be radicalized. Strains theory conceived a means-and-goals pattern which is the central theme of the idea. Strain theory was first used to test some of the factors that encouraged Americans to pursue aims that, in many ways, were related to the American dream (Borum, 2011). This was a dream in which the tenets of the theory were used to measure the success of individual Americans based on material possession and wealth accumulated. To test the current hypotheses using the strain theory tenets, the researcher will hold the idea that people define legitimate goals hypothetically feasible for all regardless of their demographics. As noted in theory, it is easy to test the hypotheses identified herein using the idea because it provides guidelines on variables on which the process can be done. The procedures involve identifying the different combinations of (legitimate and illegitimate) goals and means conformity (pursuing legitimate purposes through socially approved means); novelty (using socially unapproved or eccentric means to obtain customarily agreed goals); ritualism (refusing culturally accepted plans but using legitimate means for achieving more modest goals respect to those socially proposed) (Rogers et al., 2007). Others include retreatism (rejecting both cultural purposes and means, finding a way to seepage from society); rebellion (rejecting or accepting the artistic goals and standards to replace them with a revolutionary change; 1949).

Analysis of the factors that promote religious radicalization indicates that relative deficiency and unmet prospects are among the imperative push factors involved in radicalization and subsequent terrorism. Studies have already noted or revealed that the social adjacent environment and peer group relationships play a significant role in the religious radicalization pathways (Alimi, 2016). However, while individual and interpersonal ones are undoubtedly essential but variable factors, operational ones seem to have a continuous role in every America affected by the phenomenon of radicalization. When focusing on the pull and push elements, it is essential to investigate religious radicalization concerning Islamic State (IS) and its effective propaganda to radicalize and recruit Muslim youths to join radicalized and terrorist groups. Radicalization, in this perspective, is done by the IS speak to disappoint Muslims with migratory backgrounds in western countries, America included (Borum, 2012). Tents of the radicalization theory, which has borrowed insights from the strain theory, will conclude that most Muslims in Western countries choose to be radicalized because they are second-third generation young born and living in European countries. Their label gives them little chance in life, does not offer them any brilliant opportunity, and disregards them (economically, culturally, socially, and urbanistically).

Again, analysis or testing of the hypothesis leads to socio-economic considerations. The relative socio-economic deficiency translates to a lack of identification. This is very common among the IS, which is perceived by the youths who lean towards the ideologies of the terrorist group. Many believe that the group has something to fill the void: the possibility of acquiring a complete identity by participating in a radical Pan-Islamic political-religious project that restores their humiliated souls (Borum, 2012). Some studies have already tested the study hypothesis because they have revealed that when a political system turns out to be unnavigable on some sweltering public issue, radicalization can be a rational, individual, or collective response. Again, studies have revealed that there is no linear correlation between radicalization and terrorism or domestics. Furthermore, no suicide bomber or terrorist attack would likely have occurred without Islamic State calling. The young Western Muslims’ dissatisfaction would find different channels of expression (Alimi, 2016). Radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is apparent from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework.

Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
 
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

This paper is qualitative and programs evaluation research that will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. This research aims to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The variable is terrorism attack, and it will be compared with other variables such as country/state, religion, weapons, targets, and type of the attacks. After identifying the variables, the next stage is the operationalization of variables. In this part, the variables will get measured using various means. The variables will be placed on different scales, with one thing in common, ten survey questions about factors that facilitate terrorism attacks and five survey questions on measures that can be put in place/ government interventions of policies to curb terrorism attacks. Furthermore, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions of Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorist activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: This is background but doesn’t tell the reader how to duplicate your study Comment by Chris Martinez: What are they? Comment by Chris Martinez: You will need IRB approval to do this…see the module on IRB application and dealing with human subjects Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

Government

Instructions

For this assignment, you will write the Findings/Results/Discussion section of your research. Set forth below is the explanation for this section from the End of Program Manual (EOP):

FINDINGS/RESULTS/DISCUSSION

Findings/Results/Discussion: This section describes the results of the study. Keep in mind that the “results” are the direct observations of the research, while the “discussion” is the interpretation of the results and research. This should include, as appropriate:

results, including tables, graphs, statistics;

significance and interpretation of the results;

discussion of results as they relate to thesis statement/research question;

discussion of results as it relates to the theoretical framework/approach; and

directions for future research.

Technical Requirements

At least 3 pages with 3 references

Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.

Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

Government

PERSPECTIVE ON DOMESTIC TERRORISM (RELIGIOUS RADICALIZATION)

Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Type your statement of the problem here…..

Purpose Statement

Type your purpose statement here…..

Research Question

1) What are the common threads in the cases of domestic radicalization to terrorism?

2) 2. Does strain theory have a great influence on domestic terrorist radicalization?

Literature Review

Type your literature review here…..

Theoretical Framework

Type your theoretical framework here…..

Research Design

Type your research design here…..

Reference List

Type your references in alphabetical order here in accordance with APA…. (8 Peer review)

Government

Instructions

Perspective on Domestic Terrorism (Religious Radicalization)

The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of a question or problem and a proposed method of answering the question or solving the problem. Capstone thesis faculty must approve the proposal before students move on to the next stage of the process. The proposal should explain the question or problem to be investigated and convince the thesis professor that the question or problem merits investigation. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature on the subject and it should contain a list of academically appropriate resources consulted during the preliminary stages of research.

In general, the thesis proposal should include background information related to the research topic, purpose of the research, methodology, and analytic procedures to be used. Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps students avoid oversights and possible mistakes. For further guidance on what the thesis should contain, see the Homeland Security Program Exit Overview and the End of Program Assessment Manual).

Specific Instructions

For the thesis proposal, include each element in an abbreviated format.

PLEASE USE THE ATTACHED TEMPLATE TO ENSURE YOUR PROPOSAL CONFORMS TO THE STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS.

Theses are expected to contain the following elements:

(Adapted from the End of Program Assessment Manual)

Introduction – Approximately one (1) page in length. Your introduction will provide background and contextual material justifying your topic. Your introduction will also include a statement of the problem followed by a purpose statement. The introduction concludes with one or several specific research questions that sets the general context for the study.

Literature Review – Approximately two (2) pages in length with at least six (6) peer-reviewed journal articles that address the conceptual elements of the thesis and demonstrate that there is a “research gap.” Your review of the literature centers on your specific research question(s). The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same of similar research questions. It introduces the study and places it in a larger context that includes a discussion of why it is important to study this topic. It provides current state of our accumulated knowledge as it relates to your specific research question. In your literature review you should summarize and synthesize the material. Identify the findings as well as the methodology used to obtain those findings.

Theoretical Framework – Approximately one (1) page in length which includes a scholarly source that illustrates the framework you may use in your own study. In this section you will identify the gap in the literature and explain how your thesis addresses that gap. You will also present, explain, and justify your preliminary thoughts on a theory or model that you will use in your study. If you are developing a model you should present a preliminary diagram. Finally, you should state a hypothesis that is testable.

Research Design. Approximately two (2) pages in length. This section represents your preliminary thoughts on how you will answer your research question(s). What design do you intend to use (i.e. case study method, mixed methods approach, interviews, surveys, policy evaluation). What data will you need to collect to answer your question? Where does this data exist? How will you collect it? How will you analyze it? What are the limitations of your method?

Reference List – References should be presented alphabetically in APA format.

Technical Requirements

Your paper must be at a minimum of 7 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).

Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.

Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

All submissions will be graded using the assignment rubric.

Government

 

Political Efficacy: Political efficacy means that you feel that you are a part of government/political culture and that it answers to you.  There is a growing trend of low efficacy for younger generations; they feel removed from it all.  As such, as part of this class, I want you to get involved and show me that your voice matters.  Visit https://www.govtrack.us/ (Links to an external site.)

This website is useful for finding out about national-level Congress.  You can search for your representatives and senator, find out about upcoming laws and bills, and even look at all representatives and senators and their histories and report cards.  It is a great place to get engaged.  For this activity, I want you to find a bill that has been proposed that your representative and senators have not voted on or sponsored, read that bill and make a judgement on it, then contact the three of them (2 senators, 1 rep) via email to tell them that you would like them to either support or not support it. 

Submit: a paragraph explaining what the bill is and why you chose it AND a paragraph about which reps you contacted and anything you learned about them in the process.

(If you are struggling and would like a step-by-step instruction guidehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t84OaQ3CN74)

    • 15

    Government

    6

    A Master Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    of

    American Public University

    by

    Ronald Punzalan

    In Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    of

    Master of Arts

    June/2022

    American Public University

    Charles Town, WV

    Introduction

    Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. The contemporary era has witnessed escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016).

    A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed by 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

    Statement of the Problem

    Domestic terrorism caused by religious radicalization is rising, but there is no proper intervention to handle terrorism. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. The primary intent of domestic terrorism is to intimidate, force, and impact the national policy to work in their favor. The critical infrastructure and national security need to conduct extensive research to assist the government in averting and alleviating terrorist activities. They can achieve this by improving disaster preparedness, recovery, and response towards domestic terrorism activities. Protecting the country from terrorist attacks is the number one priority of Homeland Security. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization.

    Purpose Statement

    Domestic terrorism is partly contributed by religious radicalization. However, the existing research studies do not provide much information on why people choose to be radicalized. The purpose of this case study is to unearth the issues that compel people to radicalization and how policymakers can address them.

    Research Question

    1) What are the common threads/themes in the cases of domestic radicalization to terrorism?

    2) Does strain theory have a significant influence on domestic terrorist radicalization?

    Literature Review

    Terrorism is a global problem affecting both developed and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities both external and homegrown since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review aims to unearth the common themes on terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study.

    Most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as encroachment of their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism.

    Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. (Shapiro & Maras, 2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined ISIS terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups.

    Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. One of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians (Wright, 2016). Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Also, Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorist (Wright, 2016). The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

    The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorisms resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done with reasons, protecting or expanding religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. There are many varied issues for Islamic violence that can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows to homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

    The current studies have explored numerous issues explaining the emergence, spread, and occurrence of domestic violence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘pushes” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Also, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups. Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization.

    Theoretical Framework

    The study will use the strain theory. The Cambridge dictionary defines strain as a force that compels someone to do something (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d). Strain theory proponents purport that people commit crimes because they experience strain (a point) that upsets them, causing a rebellion. Agnew (1999) researched and expanded on the earlier version of the strain. He found that strain could explain the differences in severe crimes between various communities. He added to forms of strain that could culminate into rebellion or crimes. One category of strain prevents people from achieving their valued goals, while the second category takes away things people value (Agnew, 1999). Some strain causes are poor health conditions since they block individuals’ pathways towards some goals (Stogner & Gibson, 2010). Strain may result from the want of money, respect, power, and autonomy (Merton, n.d).

    Existing studies have tackled the issue of domestic terrorism radicalization in many ways. Some believe that domestic terrorism results from interactions with the terrorists through various media. Terrorism also results from psychosocial trauma, and complicated social relations compel the victims to join and undertake terrorism activities. Religious radicalization is one way through which people are made to become terrorists. They believe that killing other people will be forgiven and rewarded afterlife. Islamic extremism, the most common form of religious terrorism, is influenced by Quran extreme interpretations (Venkatraman, 2007). The strain theory will help understand how various strains impact domestic terrorism in the United States. Some issues to consider are the foreign policies, government interference into internal matters in other countries, and social pressures towards specific groups, which prompt rebellion.

    Research Design

    The research will focus on the common themes in cases of domestic radicalization to terrorism. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the paper evaluates American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorism activities domestically.

    Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

    Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bolster understanding of existing policies’ necessity, efficiency, and validity. Some governmental policies adopted to eliminate terrorism are not always practical.

    Other research methods that could be applied in the study are qualitative and quantitative approaches. However, both have not been used in the study for various reasons. First, many qualitative and quantitative studies exist on terrorism and causal factors. Also, it will be challenging to track radicalized individuals to participate in the study due to the complexity and nature of the study topic. Thus, policy evaluation is the best alternative since it is easier to access government records outlining its policies.

    The three major types of evaluation are process, impact, and process. The study will adopt an outcome-based evaluation approach. Outcome analysis is based on the long-term goals of the project (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). The United States government had a long-term goal of ending terrorism by dealing with terrorists and terror groups through military invasion (Drevon & Khalifa, 2016). The reason for choosing outcome-based assessment is to determine whether the government’s long-term goals of ending terrorism have been met through its policies. The failure of these policies will show existing strains that lead to sustained terrorism that evolve to become homegrown. The reason for not using impact-based evaluation is its focus on short-term goals. Thus, while short-term objectives can point are effective, they are not always the same as the long-term goals, which are most vital. Lastly, process-based policy evaluation is not used because the focus is not on implementation procedures but outcomes (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). These outcomes will be vital in relating strain theory and domestic terrorism.

    Reference List

    Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 123–155. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001

    Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state

    Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states

    Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html

    My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://mypeer.org.au/monitoring-evaluation/types-of-evaluation/

    Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986

    Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

    Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694

    Stogner, J., & Gibson, C. L. (2010). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Incorporating health issues as a source of strain in Agnew’s general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(6), 1150–1159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.09.003

    Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain

    Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612

    Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

    Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31

    Government

     

    Redistricting in Texas has been an issue of significant controversy since 2000 ( and even before but not as dramatic and consequential).  First read some of the issues involved in 2000 and then read the issues involved in 2010 redistricting controversies including court cases responding to all questions concerning both separate but in many ways very connected  cases, incidents and processes.

    Redistricting is a highly partisan activity mandated indirectly by the required reapportionment of the constitution every decade. The House of Representatives state member allocations is dependent on an accurate population count and subsequent redistricting. “The primary reason for taking the census is to comply with the U.S. Constitutional mandate for data needed to reapportion the 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. With the census data tapes in hand, states swiftly began to draw a seemingly infinite number of state legislative and congressional district plans to use in the  elections.

    In 2001-2004 following the 2000 mandated census  redistricting in Texas adopted and then  re adopted redistricting plans in an unusual manner.  Eventually, state legislators adopted plans that were carefully crafted to satisfy a wide range of criteria including compliance with one-person one-vote, the federal Voting Rights Act and traditional redistricting principles such as compact and contiguous districts. In addition, legislators meticulously designed plans to further political goals without violating federal and state statutes. A couple of states, New Jersey and Virginia, had to draw plans for 2001 elections and almost all states had plans in place for the 2002 elections with the exception of Maine and Montana where redistricting is done prior to the 2004 election.” (NCLR) However, Texas re drew its districts at least twice. The first redistricting effort was under the direction of the courts and the other instance and latest with a new republican majority in the legislature.

    This action of redistricting has been litigated in the Supreme Court (as often Texas legislation and policies are—with many found unconstitutional). The Supreme Court has ruled that much if not most of what Texas  enacted  during  the 2000 decade was in fact constitutional but with one exception also a violation of minority voting rights.

    The process with a little less drama repeated itself in 2010 but with different relevant Supreme Court rulings and a new interpretation of the voting rights act. 2010 again was the beginning of a decade in which  Texas attempt to redistrict was again found incongruous with minority voting rights.

    Discuss, after conducting your own research on the issues involved, that decision and the process in the U.S. Supreme Court. REMEMBER that the decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court change . Should the last ( following the 2010 census)  redistricting of Texas congressional seats by the Texas legislature have been found in violation of the constitution and civil rights laws?

    The most recent  2010-2012 process did in fact result in the plan being rejected over and over and over again. Outline the current (2010-2012 rejection of Texas redistricting efforts) and determine the fatal flaws and underlying values which undermine that process.  What could be done to  prevent this from occurring again in 2020?

    The process is again heating with disputes still over data and boundaries and maps regarding current congressional ( and state legislative) districts. The basic argument again focuses on denial of minorities ( particularly in these cases Latino) voting rights.

    see below:

    https://www.texastribune.org/2017/08/18/brief-aug-18/

    https://www.texastribune.org/2017/08/18/paxton-redistricting-filing/

    You must show depth in your arguments and demonstrate your research so very long and many paragraphs with numerous academic citations  are expected.

    You do not have to discuss the concept/practice of  redistricting or reapportionment but focus on the Texas process and the aftermaths of recent census on that process both in terms of legislative/political actions and court decisons.

    Government

    Question – Identify and explain at least two research methods that you considered for your research. Which method did you select? How and why did you make this decision? Please include your research question at the beginning of your post!

    · At least 500 words with references and annotations

    Research Design (Current and Working Reseaerch)

    The current qualitative research will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorist activities domestically.

    Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

    Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bolster understanding of existing policies’ necessity, efficiency, and validity. Some governmental policies adopted to eliminate terrorism are not always practical.

    Other research methods that could be applied in the study are qualitative and quantitative approaches. However, both have not been used in the study for various reasons. First, many qualitative and quantitative studies exist on terrorism and causal factors. Also, it will be challenging to track radicalized individuals to participate in the study due to the complexity and nature of the study topic. Thus, policy evaluation is the best alternative since it is easier to access government records outlining its policies.

    The three major types of evaluation are process, impact, and process. The study will adopt an outcome-based evaluation approach. Outcome analysis is based on the long-term goals of the project (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). The United States government had a long-term goal of ending terrorism by dealing with terrorists and terror groups through military invasion (Drevon & Khalifa, 2016). The reason for choosing outcome-based assessment is to determine whether the government’s long-term goals of ending terrorism have been met through its policies. The failure of these policies will show existing strains that lead to sustained terrorism that evolve to become homegrown. The reason for not using impact-based evaluation is its focus on short-term goals. Thus, while short-term objectives can point are effective, they are not always the same as the long-term goals, which are most vital. Lastly, process-based policy evaluation is not used because the focus is not on implementation procedures but outcomes (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). These outcomes will be vital in relating strain theory and domestic terrorism.

    Government

     

    Is Texas so conservative- (at least for the time being)- as many pundits and observers claim?  Or is that just  an opinion not supported by analysis and facts? Not only does Texas vote Republican in many elections but has done so for many years.  It is also  a birthplace of the so called Tea Party movement and of Ron Paul’s campaigns for president. Texas also appears to espouse conservative approaches to government and to issues.  You will need to define in a concrete and operational way what conservative means as conservative is more thsan voting behavior or party affiliation. 

     Texas is the 2nd largest state in population compared to California and .like California made up of  many differing migrant and immigrant groups. Texas like California was also part of Northern Mexico.  but Texas is  very, very different from California in voting behavior and positions on social issues. Why? Texas and California are good  comparisons  or are they?  Provide  explanations  of the differences and similarities in this ideological context 

    Texas was once “Democratic” but even that was not really the case in terms of either past or current Democratic ideals and goals but a historic reaction to the consequences of the civil war and the fact that Texas was on the losing   side in that war and of the attempt to defend agrarian interests in the form of slavery..  Being Democratic from post civil war to the middle of the 20th century  in part meant for decades being in favor of inequality for minorities and defenders in spirit, if not in fact, of slavery.net

    So Texas was never  “Democratic” and never a more liberal interpretation of reality but a reflection of conservative thought and a particular view of individualistic man.

    Is Texas conservative and why?  ( you will need a social, cultural, historical and economic analysis here with supporting evidence)??  Need much more than opinions here.

    Government

    Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
    The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
    The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
    An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
    The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
    Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
    Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

    Considering the nature of this study’s problem that needs to be solved, the study will use the strain theory. Cambridge dictionary defines strain as a force that compels someone to do something (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d). According to Agnew (1999), the tenets of strain theory best explain religious radicalization as a form of domestic terrorism because they explain why individuals opt to join radicalization programs. Proponents of the strain theory purport that people commit crimes because they experience strain (a point) that upsets them, causing a rebellion. Agnew (1999) researched and expanded on the earlier version of the strain theory. He found that strain could explain the differences in severe crimes between various communities. He added to forms of strain that could culminate into rebellion or crimes. Indeed, the tenets of strain theory connect with concepts infused in the study of radicalization. A study done by Agnew (1999) concluded that many innocent people, especially the youths, join radical religious groups because they lack something in life that can be equated to strain in life. One category of strain prevents people from achieving their valued goals, while the second category takes away things people value (Agnew, 1999). Some strain causes are poor health conditions since they block individuals’ pathways towards some goals (Stogner & Gibson, 2010). Strain may result from the want of money, respect, power, and autonomy (Merton, n.d). Strain theory is relevant in studying radicalization and domestic terrorism because it explains some of the strain factors people face, similar to why people join radicalized groups or opt for radicalization and get involved in domestic violence. Comment by Chris Martinez: theory Comment by Chris Martinez: how will you tie in this theory with your research topic and why?

    According to the study done by Jones (2022, March 7), existing studies have tackled the issue of domestic terrorism radicalization in different ways. Some believe that domestic terrorism results from interactions with the terrorists through various media. In contrast, others believe that terrorism results from psychosocial trauma and complicated social relations compel the victims to join and undertake terrorism activities (Jones, 2022, March 7). Religious radicalization is one way through which people are made to become terrorists. Radicalized youths, especially Muslims, believe that killing other people will be forgiven and rewarded. Islamic extremism, the most common form of religious terrorism, is influenced by Quran extreme interpretations (Venkatraman, 2007). These are some ways that enhance strain among the radicalized youth and push them to commit terror crimes in their countries. The strain theory will help understand how various themes impact domestic terrorism in the United States. Some issues to consider are the foreign policies, government interference into internal matters in other countries, and social pressures towards specific groups, which prompt rebellion. Comment by Chris Martinez: By? Comment by Chris Martinez: Who?

    Comment by Chris Martinez: Follow APA 7th edition or your university graduate template on sub headings

    Reference List Comment by Chris Martinez: You have 4 of 5 peered reviewed journal articles on this list this is a good start…strive for 80 percent.
    Also, each reference needs to be cited in the document or removed. Continue to add references exponentially as your research grows…heavily cite your document while synthesizing what others have said.
    Look at APA 7th edition…remove the word “list”

    Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 123–155.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001

    Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state

    Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
    https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states

    Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html

    My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://mypeer.org.au/monitoring-evaluation/types-of-evaluation/

    Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986

    Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

    Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694

    Stogner, J., & Gibson, C. L. (2010). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Incorporating health issues as a source of strain in Agnew’s general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(6), 1150–1159.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.09.003

    Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain

    Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612

    Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

    Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31

    Government

    Question 4:  What are the main differences between liberals and conservatives in the U.S. today on their view on the proper scope of government power?  While there are many types of liberals and many types of conservatives, explain what you see as the most significant trends among liberals as to the roles the government should play in our society, and the most significant trends among conservatives on the same topic.

    Question 5:  What strategies are built into the Constitution to prevent the abuse of power? Article 1 section 9 has direct limits on government powers but there are at least three other ways the Constitution prevents the abuse of power.  You should discuss all three and indicate where these limits are found in the US Constitution.

    600 words for each question.

    Government

    Instructions

    This week you will submit your theoretical framework. The following description for this section of your thesis is from the End of Program Manual (EOP):

    Theoretical Framework/Approach: The theoretical framework section develops the theories or models to be used in the study and shows how the student has developed testable research hypotheses.

    This section should include:

    an introduction discussing gaps in the literature, how this study will help fill some of those gaps, and justification for the theory or model to be used in study;

    a summary of the theory or model to be used in the study, including a diagram of the model if appropriate; and

    a statement of hypotheses to be tested.

    The length of this section can vary significantly. If you are using a socioeconomic theory to explain human trafficking, then this section would be shorter than if you were developing your own model. Within the lessons overview folder there are examples of five different frameworks recently used by graduate students.

    Technical Requirements

    At least 6 pages for the Theoretical section

    Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

    Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

    Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.

    Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

    All submissions will be graded using the assignment rubric.

    government

    2

    Comment by Chris Martinez: Flush this question out. Make it more descriptive and this topic is to broad. Are you looking at religious or racial terrorism?

    A Master Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    of

    American Public University

    by

    Ronald Punzalan

    In Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    of

    Master of Arts

    June/2022

    American Public University

    Charles Town, WV

    Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore

    Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. The contemporary era has witnessed escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement

    A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed by 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

    Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
    A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem

    Domestic terrorism caused by religious radicalization is rising, but there is no proper intervention to handle terrorism. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. The primary intent of domestic terrorism is to intimidate, force, and impact the national policy to work in their favor. The critical infrastructure and national security need to conduct extensive research to assist the government in averting and alleviating terrorist activities. They can achieve this by improving disaster preparedness, recovery, and response towards domestic terrorism activities. Protecting the country from terrorist attacks is the number one priority of Homeland Security. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: The problem to be investigated is…….you will need to narrow you research topic or risk not being able to complete it.

    Ensure you address the problem statement and obtain proper alignment with purpose and question Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement

    Purpose Statement

    Domestic terrorism is partly contributed by religious radicalization. However, the existing research studies do not provide much information on why people choose to be radicalized. The purpose of this case study is to unearth the issues that compel people to radicalization and how policymakers can address them. This can help the community members to avert and mitigate the possible threats carried by domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
    Why are you researching the topic

    Research Question

    To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed

    1. What are the common threads in the cases of domestic radicalization to terrorism?

    1. Does strain theory have a significant influence on domestic terrorist radicalization?

    Literature Review

    Terrorism is a global problem affecting both developed and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities both external and homegrown since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review aims to unearth the common themes on terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Chris Martinez: explore

    Most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as encroachment of their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism. Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes

    Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. (Shapiro & Maras, 2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined ISIS terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time

    Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. One of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians (Wright, 2016). Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Also, Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorist (Wright, 2016). The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

    The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorisms resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done with reasons, protecting or expanding religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. There are many varied issues for Islamic violence that can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows to homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

    The current studies have explored numerous issues explaining the emergence, spread, and occurrence of domestic violence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘pushes” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Also, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups. Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization.

    Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
    The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
    The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
    An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
    The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
    Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
    Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

    The study will use the strain theory. The Cambridge dictionary defines strain as a force that compels someone to do something (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d). Strain theory proponents purport that people commit crimes because they experience strain (a point) that upsets them, causing a rebellion. Agnew (1999) researched and expanded on the earlier version of the strain. He found that strain could explain the differences in severe crimes between various communities. He added to forms of strain that could culminate into rebellion or crimes. One category of strain prevents people from achieving their valued goals, while the second category takes away things people value (Agnew, 1999). Some strain causes are poor health conditions since they block individuals’ pathways towards some goals (Stogner & Gibson, 2010). Strain may result from the want of money, respect, power, and autonomy (Merton, n.d). Comment by Chris Martinez: how will you tie in this theory with your research topic and why? Comment by Chris Martinez: theory

    Existing studies have tackled the issue of domestic terrorism radicalization in many ways. Some believe that domestic terrorism results from interactions with the terrorists through various media. Terrorism also results from psychosocial trauma, and complicated social relations compel the victims to join and undertake terrorism activities. Religious radicalization is one way through which people are made to become terrorists. They believe that killing other people will be forgiven and rewarded afterlife. Islamic extremism, the most common form of religious terrorism, is influenced by Quran extreme interpretations (Venkatraman, 2007). The strain theory will help understand how various strains impact domestic terrorism in the United States. Some issues to consider are the foreign policies, government interference into internal matters in other countries, and social pressures towards specific groups, which prompt rebellion. Comment by Chris Martinez: By? Comment by Chris Martinez: Who?

    Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
    The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
     

    The research will focus on the common themes in cases of domestic radicalization to terrorism. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the paper evaluates American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorism activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will

    Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

    Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bolster understanding of existing policies’ necessity, efficiency, and validity. Some governmental policies adopted to eliminate terrorism are not always practical. Comment by Chris Martinez: Can another researcher duplicate your study based on your decription in this section?

    Other research methods that could be applied in the study are qualitative and quantitative approaches. However, both have not been used in the study for various reasons. First, many qualitative and quantitative studies exist on terrorism and causal factors. Also, it will be challenging to track radicalized individuals to participate in the study due to the complexity and nature of the study topic. Thus, policy evaluation is the best alternative since it is easier to access government records outlining its policies.

    The three major types of evaluation are process, impact, and process. The study will adopt an outcome-based evaluation approach. Outcome analysis is based on the long-term goals of the project (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). The United States government had a long-term goal of ending terrorism by dealing with terrorists and terror groups through military invasion (Drevon & Khalifa, 2016). The reason for choosing outcome-based assessment is to determine whether the government’s long-term goals of ending terrorism have been met through its policies. The failure of these policies will show existing strains that lead to sustained terrorism that evolve to become homegrown. The reason for not using impact-based evaluation is its focus on short-term goals. Thus, while short-term objectives can point are effective, they are not always the same as the long-term goals, which are most vital. Lastly, process-based policy evaluation is not used because the focus is not on implementation procedures but outcomes (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). These outcomes will be vital in relating strain theory and domestic terrorism.

    Comment by Chris Martinez: Follow APA 7th edition or your university graduate template on sub headings

    Reference List Comment by Chris Martinez: You have 4 of 5 peered reviewed journal articles on this list this is a good start…strive for 80 percent.
    Also, each reference needs to be cited in the document or removed. Continue to add references exponentially as your research grows…heavily cite your document while synthesizing what others have said.
    Look at APA 7th edition…remove the word “list”

    Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 123–155.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001

    Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state

    Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
    https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states

    Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html

    My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://mypeer.org.au/monitoring-evaluation/types-of-evaluation/

    Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986

    Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

    Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694

    Stogner, J., & Gibson, C. L. (2010). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Incorporating health issues as a source of strain in Agnew’s general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(6), 1150–1159.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.09.003

    Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain

    Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612

    Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

    Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31

    1

    Perspective on Domestic Terrorism (Religious Radicalization)

    A

    Master Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    o

    f

    American Public University

    b

    y

    Ronald Punzalan

    In

    Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    o

    f

    Master of

    Arts

    June

    /202

    2

    American Public University

    Charles Town, WV

    1

    Perspective on Domestic Terrorism (Religious Radicalization)

    A Master Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    of

    American Public University

    by

    Ronald Punzalan

    In Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    of

    Master of Arts

    June/2022

    American Public University

    Charles Town, WV

    government

    Instructions

    The literature review focuses on how other researchers have addressed similar questions. It places the study in context and discusses how it will differentiate itself from what is already in the field. You are attempting to establish what the literature says, and where the gap exists that you plan to fill with your project. You may find help at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/litreview/. Please make sure not to “stack” sources. Weave each source into the relevance of your project and each other. Group the literature by themes and use headings. This is NOT an annotated bibliography and should not be written like on.

    Your literature review should rely strictly on scholarly material to include government publications and peer reviewed journal articles. Using websites or news/media articles is NOT acceptable. Please see the lesson module for Weeks 4, 5, and 6 for examples of student and scholarly literature reviews.

    Technical Requirements:

    Your paper must be at a minimum of 10-15 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).

    Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

    Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

    Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.

    Government

    2

    ENTER TITLE HERE

    Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore

    Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement

    A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed by 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

    Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
    A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem

    Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities. The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. According to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this
    Dii you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
    Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement

    Purpose Statement

    The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
    Why are you researching the topic

    Research Question

    To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions

    1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?

    1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?

    1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?

    Literature Review

    Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities both external and homegrown since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Chris Martinez: explore

    Religious Terrorism Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes

    Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as encroachment of their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.

    Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory

    Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time

    Islam and Religious Radicalization

    It is no news for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

    Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change

    Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorisms resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done with reasons, protecting or expanding religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. There are many varied issues for Islamic violence that can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows to homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

    Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘pushes” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization.

    Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
    The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
    The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
    An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
    The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
    Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
    Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

    Considering the nature of this study’s problem that needs to be solved, the study will use the strain theory. Cambridge dictionary defines strain as a force that compels someone to do something (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d). According to Agnew (1999), the tenets of strain theory best explain religious radicalization as a form of domestic terrorism because they explain why individuals opt to join radicalization programs. Proponents of the strain theory purport that people commit crimes because they experience strain (a point) that upsets them, causing a rebellion. Agnew (1999) researched and expanded on the earlier version of the strain theory. He found that strain could explain the differences in severe crimes between various communities. He added to forms of strain that could culminate into rebellion or crimes. Indeed, the tenets of strain theory connect with concepts infused in the study of radicalization. A study done by Agnew (1999) concluded that many innocent people, especially the youths, join radical religious groups because they lack something in life that can be equated to strain in life. One category of strain prevents people from achieving their valued goals, while the second category takes away things people value (Agnew, 1999). Some strain causes are poor health conditions since they block individuals’ pathways towards some goals (Stogner & Gibson, 2010). Strain may result from the want of money, respect, power, and autonomy (Merton, n.d). Strain theory is relevant in studying radicalization and domestic terrorism because it explains some of the strain factors people face, similar to why people join radicalized groups or opt for radicalization and get involved in domestic violence. Comment by Chris Martinez: theory Comment by Chris Martinez: how will you tie in this theory with your research topic and why?

    According to the study done by Jones (2022, March 7), existing studies have tackled the issue of domestic terrorism radicalization in different ways. Some believe that domestic terrorism results from interactions with the terrorists through various media. In contrast, others believe that terrorism results from psychosocial trauma and complicated social relations compel the victims to join and undertake terrorism activities (Jones, 2022, March 7). Religious radicalization is one way through which people are made to become terrorists. Radicalized youths, especially Muslims, believe that killing other people will be forgiven and rewarded. Islamic extremism, the most common form of religious terrorism, is influenced by Quran extreme interpretations (Venkatraman, 2007). These are some ways that enhance strain among the radicalized youth and push them to commit terror crimes in their countries. The strain theory will help understand how various themes impact domestic terrorism in the United States. Some issues to consider are the foreign policies, government interference into internal matters in other countries, and social pressures towards specific groups, which prompt rebellion. Comment by Chris Martinez: By? Comment by Chris Martinez: Who?

    Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
    The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
     

    The current qualitative research will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorism activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will

    Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

    Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bolster understanding of existing policies’ necessity, efficiency, and validity. Some governmental policies adopted to eliminate terrorism are not always practical. Comment by Chris Martinez: Can another researcher duplicate your study based on your decription in this section?

    Other research methods that could be applied in the study are qualitative and quantitative approaches. However, both have not been used in the study for various reasons. First, many qualitative and quantitative studies exist on terrorism and causal factors. Also, it will be challenging to track radicalized individuals to participate in the study due to the complexity and nature of the study topic. Thus, policy evaluation is the best alternative since it is easier to access government records outlining its policies.

    The three major types of evaluation are process, impact, and process. The study will adopt an outcome-based evaluation approach. Outcome analysis is based on the long-term goals of the project (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). The United States government had a long-term goal of ending terrorism by dealing with terrorists and terror groups through military invasion (Drevon & Khalifa, 2016). The reason for choosing outcome-based assessment is to determine whether the government’s long-term goals of ending terrorism have been met through its policies. The failure of these policies will show existing strains that lead to sustained terrorism that evolve to become homegrown. The reason for not using impact-based evaluation is its focus on short-term goals. Thus, while short-term objectives can point are effective, they are not always the same as the long-term goals, which are most vital. Lastly, process-based policy evaluation is not used because the focus is not on implementation procedures but outcomes (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). These outcomes will be vital in relating strain theory and domestic terrorism.

    Comment by Chris Martinez: Follow APA 7th edition or your university graduate template on sub headings

    Reference List Comment by Chris Martinez: You have 4 of 5 peered reviewed journal articles on this list this is a good start…strive for 80 percent.
    Also, each reference needs to be cited in the document or removed. Continue to add references exponentially as your research grows…heavily cite your document while synthesizing what others have said.
    Look at APA 7th edition…remove the word “list”

    Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 123–155.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001

    Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state

    Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
    https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states

    Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html

    My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
    https://mypeer.org.au/monitoring-evaluation/types-of-evaluation/

    Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986

    Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

    Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694

    Stogner, J., & Gibson, C. L. (2010). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Incorporating health issues as a source of strain in Agnew’s general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(6), 1150–1159.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.09.003

    Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain

    Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612

    Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

    Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31

    Government

      

    As you conduct your literature review you will identify techniques, sources, and datasets that may prove useful to your classmates. Please address the following three items in your post.

    1. Identify at least one technique that you employed in your literature review that produced sources relevant to your topic (i.e. advanced search strategies)

    2. Identify at least one source that may prove useful to your colleagues (i.e. website, journal article) 

    3. Identify at least one source of data that you will use in your research (data set, government statistics, graphs, charts, archive of presidential speeches, U.N. publications)

    APA Style, at least 500 Words with  Reference. Look for the attachment for Literature Review Part.

    Government

    Instructions

    For this week’s assignment you will write the Research Design section of your research. At this point you will have identified an appropriate research design as a result of writing your literature review and reading the material in this week’s lesson.

    The following description for this section of your thesis is from the End of Program Manual (EOP):

    Research Design/Methodology: Describes how the student will test the hypothesis and carry out his/her analysis. This section describes the data to be used to test the hypothesis, how the student will operationalize and collect data on his/her variables, and the analytic methods that to be used, noting potential biases and limitations to the research approach. It should include:

    · identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables;

    · a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate);

    · justification of case studies used;

    · data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.);

    · a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); and

    · the limitations of study and bias discussion.

     Technical Requirements:

    · Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

    · Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

    · Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework. 

    · Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

    Please just concentrate on Research Design Section

    Government

    2

    ENTER TITLE HERE

    Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed by 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

    Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
    A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem

    . The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities according to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
    Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this
    Did you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: Ensure you address this assertions with a citation Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement

    Purpose Statement

    The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
    Why are you researching the topic

    Research Question

    To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions Comment by Chris Martinez: This is better aligned…well done…leave me a comment that you have addressed it.
    Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Issue resolved.

    1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?

    1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?

    1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?

    Literature Review Comment by Chris Martinez: The meet and potatoes of your document is your literature review and where you will cut your teeth as a researcher. 
    A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper, in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge. Part of your review covers the theory you will use to address your problem.
    I have provided a few documents which may assist you.
    Comment by Chris Martinez: This area needs to be more expansive

    Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities both external and homegrown since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been addressed. Comment by Chris Martinez: explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    Religious Terrorism
    Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Ressolved.

    Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as encroachment of their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.

    Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory Comment by Chris Martinez: You may want to have a sub section just for the theory you will expore
    Comment by Chris Martinez: Have you address this? Without your comments, I don’t know if you have resolved the issue Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been resolved.

    Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    Islam and Religious Radicalization

    It is no news for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

    Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change

    Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorisms resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done with reasons, protecting or expanding religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. There are many varied issues for Islamic violence that can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows to homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

    Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘pushes” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: continue to build on what you have created here

    Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
    The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
    The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
    An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
    The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
    Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
    Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

    Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to domestic terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016).

    A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Several theories have explained why many individuals opt to join radicalization institutions irrespective of their backgrounds and religion. In many instances, radicalizations that are linked to terrorism are religious-oriented. Religious beliefs instigate the principles that are involved in radicalization. However, among the many studies that have been done to investigate the link between religious radicalization and terrorism, a few of them have jointly placed their diverse hypothesis to scrutinize them using empirical data of findings. Lack of knowledge of the different beliefs has created a gap in the literature that serves as an obstacle to studying the subject. Again, the lack of empirical evidence to validate the diverse idea has resulted in a lack of common stance on the issue (Alimi, 2016). Therefore, the current study will use the radicalization theory and the strain theory to synthesize knowledge that can be used to explain the link between religious radicalization and terrorism. Using empirical data from intensive research, the current study will add knowledge to the available literature, bridging the existing gaps on the topic.

    The Theory or Model to Be Used in The Study Comment by Chris Martinez: Stain Theory…just use this as the subsection title Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    A critique of the recent literature on the use of strain-based theory to explain terrorism drawing from the strain theory has yielded a lot of knowledge relating to the understanding of radicalization. The current study draws from the general strain theory and other research to explain how strain theory tenets relate to radicalization and terrorism. According to Merton’s strain theory, terrorism is likely to occur when people experience collective strains that take the following parameters (Alimi, 2016). The joint strain must be high in magnitude and affects the civilians. Secondly, collective pressure should be unjust, and finally, it must be perpetrated by suggestively more significant others, including ‘complicit’ civilians, with whom associates of the strained collectivity have weak ties. Strain theory explains that collective strains increase the likelihood of terrorism for several different reasons or factors. However, it is imperative to understand that the elements in play here do not lead to terrorism in all cases because their effects are conditioned by different factors (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. The theoretical framework implemented will adopt the empirical strategy that will compare responses from the Christian and the Muslim respondents. The respondents will have different degrees of religious radicalization exposure to effectively test the hypothesis (Dalgaard-Nielsen, 2010). Other studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances. Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks (Tusini, 2019). Considering the findings of different studies, it is apparent that radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is evident from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework. Comment by Chris Martinez: Ok…this is appropriate Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: Year needed Comment by Chris Martinez: Redundant….change Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: By who…cite Comment by Chris Martinez: Provide a background on strain theory and how it applies to your study

    Statement of Hypotheses

    The current study was guided by two hypotheses based on the nature of the study subject or the problem under investigation. Considering the model adopted incorporating strain theory, it was apparent from the definition and explanation of the strain theory related to religious radicalization and terrorism (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. Different studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances (Rogers et al., 2007). Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks. The study hypothesis statement will therefore revolve around the two identified hypotheses. Radicalization theory which assumes a process through which people turn to violence because of radical or extreme beliefs, has also been used to explain radicalization. In the current study, the process of religious radicalization in America will be analyzed using the tenets of Merton’s strain theory as an interpretative factor (Borum, 2011). Although many other approaches can be used to test the hypotheses identified in the current study, applying Merton’s theory to this area means selecting to deal with it mainly from a sociological perspective, considering its political, economic, structural, and social features and entrenching the individual tracks within this structure.

    Although the strain theory is not directly related to religious radicalization and terrorism involvement, its historical background provides an excellent foundation to study why people opt to be radicalized. Strains theory conceived a means-and-goals pattern which is the central theme of the idea. Strain theory was first used to test some of the factors that encouraged Americans to pursue aims that, in many ways, were related to the American dream (Borum, 2011). This was a dream in which the tenets of the theory were used to measure the success of individual Americans based on material possession and wealth accumulated. To test the current hypotheses using the strain theory tenets, the researcher will hold the idea that people define legitimate goals hypothetically feasible for all regardless of their demographics. As noted in theory, it is easy to test the hypotheses identified herein using the idea because it provides guidelines on variables on which the process can be done. The procedures involve identifying the different combinations of (legitimate and illegitimate) goals and means conformity (pursuing legitimate purposes through socially approved means); novelty (using socially unapproved or eccentric means to obtain customarily agreed goals); ritualism (refusing culturally accepted plans but using legitimate means for achieving more modest goals respect to those socially proposed) (Rogers et al., 2007). Others include retreatism (rejecting both cultural purposes and means, finding a way to seepage from society); rebellion (rejecting or accepting the artistic goals and standards to replace them with a revolutionary change; 1949).

    Analysis of the factors that promote religious radicalization indicates that relative deficiency and unmet prospects are among the imperative push factors involved in radicalization and subsequent terrorism. Studies have already noted or revealed that the social adjacent environment and peer group relationships play a significant role in the religious radicalization pathways (Alimi, 2016). However, while individual and interpersonal ones are undoubtedly essential but variable factors, operational ones seem to have a continuous role in every America affected by the phenomenon of radicalization. When focusing on the pull and push elements, it is essential to investigate religious radicalization concerning Islamic State (IS) and its effective propaganda to radicalize and recruit Muslim youths to join radicalized and terrorist groups. Radicalization, in this perspective, is done by the IS speak to disappoint Muslims with migratory backgrounds in western countries, America included (Borum, 2012). Tents of the radicalization theory, which has borrowed insights from the strain theory, will conclude that most Muslims in Western countries choose to be radicalized in their capacities because they are second-third generation young born and living in European countries. Their label gives them little chance in life, does not offer them any brilliant opportunity, and disregards them (economically, culturally, socially, and urbanistically).

    Again, analysis or testing of the hypothesis leads to socio-economic considerations. The relative socio-economic deficiency translates to a lack of identification. This is very common among the IS, which is perceived by the youths who lean towards the ideologies of the terrorist group. Many believe that the group has something to fill the void: the possibility of acquiring a complete identity by participating in a radical Pan-Islamic political-religious project that restores their humiliated souls (Borum, 2012). Some studies have already tested the study hypothesis because they have revealed that when a political system turns out to be unnavigable on some sweltering public issue, radicalization can be a rational, individual, or collective response. Again, studies have revealed that there is no linear correlation between radicalization and terrorism or domestics. Furthermore, no suicide bomber or terrorist attack would likely have occurred without Islamic State calling. The young Western Muslims’ dissatisfaction would find different channels of expression (Alimi, 2016). Radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is apparent from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework.

    Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
    The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
     
    Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    The current qualitative research will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorist activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved

    Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

    Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bols

    Government

     

    Mexico had  permitted and even invited immigrants to part of its Northern territory. In the case of the Northeastern section of Mexico, those immigrants  interacted and in a few cases intermarried with the existing inhabitants Northern Mexicanos and Indios.  Although for the most part (like other Northern Mexican regions-today New Mexico , Colorado, California, Arizona, Nevada) the new Anglo immigrants  kept themselves separate.

    The land was vast and was part of the frontier (both qualities which could influence those who came). Central Mexico and the Mexican/Spanish government was far away and did not have much day to day influence.

    Why did the Texas insurrection occur? Be careful here as I do not wish you to just copy what others think nor paraphrase  textbooks or historians but think about  the time period  and the peoples involved and the condition of the Mexican and Spanish state as well as from where the Anglo settlers  immigrated and the nature of the existing Tejanos  (Northern Mexicanos).

    Please examine the underlying factors. The immediate catalysts are not as important or even very important as the underlying factors. Who (what peoples) actually revolted? Who were the leaders of the Texas insurrection?  Who led the opposition to the insurrection ( who in Texas as well as from central Mexico)? What economic , social and political goals were the basis for the actions on each side?

    It is necessary  here to conduct outside research from scholarly sources and to have read at least part of the Buenavida Dilemma.

    Be aware that existing in western lower section of North America were hundreds of thousands of Northern Mexicanos prior  to  1860  and that millions lived in the Western U.S. long before 1960. In other words, the roots of Northern Mexico and Mexico are deep but different and Anglos relatively recent  to this area.

    Remember also that Mexico had just started on the road of nation building ( as did the U.S., just prior to Mexico’s independence from Spain) and like other nation states was in the process of developing and various forms of governing were displayed. Santa  Ana had a history with Mexico governance and was to surface again reflecting various movements. 

    DO NOT USE “

    Causes of the Texas Revolution

    www2.austincc.edu/lpatrick/his1693/causes.html”  or an summary source. These are one view and summary sources.Develop your own analysis based on a variety of sources.

      • 10

      Government

       Need help rewriting/ finishing this and ensuring that all directions are followed. The sources cited, must be used as they have already been submitted. —– *Formal Assessment Guidelines – GOVT 2305 Policy Paper (Mandatory) Introduction This project is an opportunity to carefully examine a contemporary foreign policy issue between the United States government and one other foreign government. Completing this activity is a mandatory component of this course. It serves as the standard course assessment for all GOVT 2305 students and is a college requirement. Failure to submit and complete this project in its entirety will result in a failing grade for the course. There are four steps to completing this project: Step 1 – Identifying the Issue The policy paper will address US foreign policy toward one country. Only the topics listed below may be selected. Pick one and begin your research immediately: • US foreign policy regarding Hong Kong’s political status • US foreign policy regarding political development in Afghanistan • US foreign policy regarding China’s human rights record • US foreign policy regarding political development in Venezuela • US foreign policy regarding the International Criminal Court • US foreign policy regarding NATO’s future • US foreign policy regarding the perpetual War on Terror • US foreign policy regarding Nigerian political instability • US foreign policy regarding economic development in El Salvador • US foreign policy regarding Cuba • US foreign policy regarding military aid to Egypt • US foreign policy regarding military aid to Ukraine • US foreign policy regarding Turkish democratization Step 2 – Gathering Sources Conduct research to locate three academic journal articles (aka: peer-reviewed or scholarly sources) that specifically address issues within the foreign policy relationship you selected and meet the following criteria: • The articles must be no more than ten (10) years old. • The article must have more than five (5) pages of actual content (without graphs, charts, footnotes, citations, etc.). • Books will not count toward the scholarly source minimum requirements. • Carefully choose sources that provide a variety of perspectives on your selected topic. • In addition to the minimum research requirements, you should use high quality sources for essential current events information relevant to your topic. These may include academic sources that are not peer-reviewed (position papers), newspaper articles, magazine articles, and other quality or reputable sources. • The course textbook, encyclopedias (including Wikipedia), and almanacs, are reference materials and are not to be listed as sources on the collegiate level. Step 3 – The Proposal Submit a one to two page proposal to the appropriate dropbox by the date specified in the course calendar. The proposal must: • Identify the topic in one or two paragraphs: Summarize the foreign policy topic you will be addressing Describe the current status of the policy or topic Describe why this policy is important to the United States Cite each of your academic journal articles at least once in the paragraph using correct MLA in-text citations. • Include the Works Cited or Reference section with the three (at a minimum) peer-reviewed academic journal articles that will form the basis of your policy paper. • These three references must be cited in the final policy paper. • Additional sources can be added (and should if a good grade is desired), but they cannot be changed without permission after the proposal is approved. • In-text citations and the Works Cited or Reference section must be formatted using MLA citation style. Other MLA formatting elements (e.g. header, page number format, etc.) are not used in this assignment. • Do not use block quotations (or any quotation that exceeds three lines of text) or first person in the proposal or final policy paper! References provided in the proposal cannot be changed at a later date without approval (see Step 4 below). An example of a good policy proposal is provided in eCampus. A fundamental expectation of college writing is that all key arguments, facts, assertions and claims are supported with research (i.e. parenthetical citations). When a source has been cited, you are expected to acknowledge the source in the body of your text and on a Works Cited page using formal MLA citation format. The paper must be completed using the formatting guidelines provided in the syllabus as “Guidelines for all Coursework.” I do not allow students to recycle or use essays from other courses. You must receive consent from me in order to do so and you will need to provide a solid justification. Please do not simply submit an assignment that you’ve used in another course as it will not be accepted unless approved. Revise and Resubmit Policy The purpose of the proposal process is for your instructor to confirm that 1) you have selected three appropriate academic journal articles, 2) that you have selected an appropriate topic, and 3) that you are able to correctly cite your sources. Additionally, it allows your instructor to give you feedback on your writing (grammar, sentence composition, punctuation, and spelling) as well as your use of proper MLA citation formatting. Should you submit a proposal that does not meet the minimum assignment requirements, you will be asked to “revise and resubmit” the assignment. In such cases, a minimum letter grade deduction is always applied to the resubmitted assignment. The instructor will inform you of the due date and conditions of resubmission. The Revise and Resubmit applies only to policy proposals that are submitted by the due date. Only one “Revise and Resubmit” will be allowed. Failure to resubmit the revision before the provided due date, or failure to correct the identified issues in need of revision, will result in a zero for the proposal grade. More seriously, students that do not successfully complete the proposal assignment are in high danger of failing the course if their policy paper topic and sources do not meet minimum requirements. Step 4 – The Policy Paper Prepare a formal research paper regarding the selected policy. The assignment must be between 5-8 pages excluding quotations, cover page, and Works Cited page(s). The essay should address the following: • An introduction and brief overview of the current issues facing the countries. • The reasons for initiating changes to existing policy. • The possible policy options or alternatives to be considered (discuss several). • The pros and cons of each policy option or alternative (costs vs. benefits). • The best policy option or alternative (pick one). • A summary and conclusion Do not use first person in the proposal or final policy paper! The paper body must be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 8 full pages in length, double-spaced. No more and no less is necessary for this activity. Keep direct quotes to a minimum; do not use block quotations. All key arguments, facts, assertions, and claims must be supported with research. The references approved in the policy proposal must be used in the policy paper: you may add additional sources (and should if you seek an A on the assignment), but you must seek approval from the instructor at least 72 hours before the policy paper due date if you intend to change any of the scholarly sources approved in the proposal. There will be no opportunity to revise and resubmit this assignment. Failure to meet the minimum research and writing requirements will result in a zero for the entire assignment (no partial credit will be awarded as this is a formal institutional assessment). A zero on this assignment will result in a failing grade for the course. Finally, add a cover page and include the References (also known as Works Cited) page at the end. Submit all pages together as one file to the assignment dropbox. Special Notes: The grading standards used to assess the quality of your work for this project will be detailed in a grading rubric, which will be provided during the semester. It is strongly suggested that every student read ahead and use the library database during the first days of the course to begin researching a topic. This project requires carefully planning throughout the semester. Refer to the course calendar for the specific due date. The final product is to be submitted as a single file via the submission guidelines identified by the instructor. 

      • a month ago

      Government

       

      Due Thursday 

      The Founders expected and were guided by the conviction that Americans would take responsibility for citizenship and be active in their government and communities. This would be demonstrated through voting in elections, lawful protesting, petitioning legislators, and running for elective federal office.

      Respond to the following in a minimum of 200 words: 

      • Choose an elective federal office to run for. Identify the elective federal office and why you are running.
      • Identify responsibilities of that elective federal office.
      • How does that elective federal office contribute to the function of the U.S. government?

      In your answers, consider the:

      • The roles, responsibilities, and requirements for the elective federal office for which you chose to run
      • The checks and balances on that branch of the government

      Americans have a responsibility to be active in their government. This can be through voting in elections, lawful protesting, petitioning legislators, and running for public office.

      Due Monday 

      Post 2 replies to classmates or your faculty member. Be constructive and professional.

      Replies should be a minimum of 75 words.

      Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

      Responses (0)

       

        • 5

        Government

         

        You will need to pick a current event about U.S. politics from news outlets to write about. Choose a news articles about your current event (dated January 1, 2020 or later) from a newspaper, magazine, or other reputable news outlet. Include the links to the article and turn it in with your post. You must note on there where the article is from and date of publication, for example, “From New York Times, published May 23, 2017 by author name”

        1. Explain why you selected the event and why you think it is important to share with your classmates?
        2. How does the event relate to our study of American government, which specific chapters are related your selected event, how? 
        3. How do you characterise the author’s coverage of the event: refer to examples/theories/concepts from the chapter on media and politics to support your argument.
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