Perspective on Domestic Terrorism (Religious Radicalization)
Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.
Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
. The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities according to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resilved Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this
Did you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: Ensure you address this assertions with a citation Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement
The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
Why are you researching the topic Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions Comment by Chris Martinez: This is better aligned…well done…leave me a comment that you have addressed it.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Issue resolved.
1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?
1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?
1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?
Literature Review Comment by Chris Martinez: The meet and potatoes of your document is your literature review and where you will cut your teeth as a researcher.
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper, in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge. Part of your review covers the theory you will use to address your problem.
I have provided a few documents which may assist you.
Comment by Chris Martinez: This area needs to be more expansive Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities, both external and homegrown, since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been addressed. Comment by Chris Martinez: explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Ressolved.
Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as an encroachment on their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.
Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory Comment by Chris Martinez: You may want to have a sub section just for the theory you will expore
Comment by Chris Martinez: Have you address this? Without your comments, I don’t know if you have resolved the issue Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been resolved.
Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to an extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Islam and Religious Radicalization
It is not new for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.
Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change
Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorism resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done to protect or expand religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. Many varied issues of Islamic violence can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows into homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).
Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘push” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: continue to build on what you have created here
Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.
Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to domestic terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016).
A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Several theories have explained why many individuals opt to join radicalization institutions irrespective of their backgrounds and religion. In many instances, radicalizations that are linked to terrorism are religious-oriented. Religious beliefs instigate the principles that are involved in radicalization. However, among the many studies that have been done to investigate the link between religious radicalization and terrorism, a few of them have jointly placed their diverse hypothesis to scrutinize them using empirical data of findings. Lack of knowledge of the different beliefs has created a gap in the literature that serves as an obstacle to studying the subject. Again, the lack of empirical evidence to validate the diverse idea has resulted in a lack of common stance on the issue (Alimi, 2016). Therefore, the current study will use the radicalization theory and the strain theory to synthesize knowledge that can be used to explain the link between religious radicalization and terrorism. Using empirical data from intensive research, the current study will add knowledge to the available literature, bridging the existing gaps on the topic.
The Theory or Model to Be Used in The Study Comment by Chris Martinez: Stain Theory…just use this as the subsection title Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
A critique of the recent literature on the use of strain-based theory to explain terrorism drawing from the strain theory has yielded a lot of knowledge relating to the understanding of radicalization. The current study draws from the general strain theory and other research to explain how strain theory tenets relate to radicalization and terrorism. According to Merton’s strain theory, terrorism is likely to occur when people experience collective strains that take the following parameters (Alimi, 2016). The joint strain must be high in magnitude and affects the civilians. Secondly, collective pressure should be unjust, and finally, it must be perpetrated by suggestively more significant others, including ‘complicit’ civilians, with whom associates of the strained collectivity have weak ties. Strain theory explains that collective strains increase the likelihood of terrorism for several different reasons or factors. However, it is imperative to understand that the elements in play here do not lead to terrorism in all cases because their effects are conditioned by different factors (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. The theoretical framework implemented will adopt the empirical strategy that will compare responses from the Christian and the Muslim respondents. The respondents will have different degrees of religious radicalization exposure to effectively test the hypothesis (Dalgaard-Nielsen, 2010). Other studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances. Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks (Tusini, 2019). Considering the findings of different studies, it is apparent that radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is evident from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework. Comment by Chris Martinez: Ok…this is appropriate Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: Year needed Comment by Chris Martinez: Redundant….change Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: By who…cite Comment by Chris Martinez: Provide a background on strain theory and how it applies to your study Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Statement of Hypotheses
The current study was guided by two hypotheses based on the nature of the study subject or the problem under investigation. Considering the model adopted incorporating strain theory, it was apparent from the definition and explanation of the strain theory related to religious radicalization and terrorism (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. Different studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances (Rogers et al., 2007). Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks. The study hypothesis statement will therefore revolve around the two identified hypotheses. Radicalization theory which assumes a process through which people turn to violence because of radical or extreme beliefs has also been used to explain radicalization. In the current study, the process of religious radicalization in America will be analyzed using the tenets of Merton’s strain theory as an interpretative factor (Borum, 2011). Although many other approaches can be used to test the hypotheses identified in the current study, applying Merton’s theory to this area means selecting to deal with it mainly from a sociological perspective, considering its political, economic, structural, and social features and entrenching the individual tracks within this structure.
Although the strain theory is not directly related to religious radicalization and terrorism involvement, its historical background provides an excellent foundation to study why people opt to be radicalized. Strains theory conceived a means-and-goals pattern which is the central theme of the idea. Strain theory was first used to test some of the factors that encouraged Americans to pursue aims that, in many ways, were related to the American dream (Borum, 2011). This was a dream in which the tenets of the theory were used to measure the success of individual Americans based on material possession and wealth accumulated. To test the current hypotheses using the strain theory tenets, the researcher will hold the idea that people define legitimate goals hypothetically feasible for all regardless of their demographics. As noted in theory, it is easy to test the hypotheses identified herein using the idea because it provides guidelines on variables on which the process can be done. The procedures involve identifying the different combinations of (legitimate and illegitimate) goals and means conformity (pursuing legitimate purposes through socially approved means); novelty (using socially unapproved or eccentric means to obtain customarily agreed goals); ritualism (refusing culturally accepted plans but using legitimate means for achieving more modest goals respect to those socially proposed) (Rogers et al., 2007). Others include retreatism (rejecting both cultural purposes and means, finding a way to seepage from society); rebellion (rejecting or accepting the artistic goals and standards to replace them with a revolutionary change; 1949).
Analysis of the factors that promote religious radicalization indicates that relative deficiency and unmet prospects are among the imperative push factors involved in radicalization and subsequent terrorism. Studies have already noted or revealed that the social adjacent environment and peer group relationships play a significant role in the religious radicalization pathways (Alimi, 2016). However, while individual and interpersonal ones are undoubtedly essential but variable factors, operational ones seem to have a continuous role in every America affected by the phenomenon of radicalization. When focusing on the pull and push elements, it is essential to investigate religious radicalization concerning Islamic State (IS) and its effective propaganda to radicalize and recruit Muslim youths to join radicalized and terrorist groups. Radicalization, in this perspective, is done by the IS speak to disappoint Muslims with migratory backgrounds in western countries, America included (Borum, 2012). Tents of the radicalization theory, which has borrowed insights from the strain theory, will conclude that most Muslims in Western countries choose to be radicalized because they are second-third generation young born and living in European countries. Their label gives them little chance in life, does not offer them any brilliant opportunity, and disregards them (economically, culturally, socially, and urbanistically).
Again, analysis or testing of the hypothesis leads to socio-economic considerations. The relative socio-economic deficiency translates to a lack of identification. This is very common among the IS, which is perceived by the youths who lean towards the ideologies of the terrorist group. Many believe that the group has something to fill the void: the possibility of acquiring a complete identity by participating in a radical Pan-Islamic political-religious project that restores their humiliated souls (Borum, 2012). Some studies have already tested the study hypothesis because they have revealed that when a political system turns out to be unnavigable on some sweltering public issue, radicalization can be a rational, individual, or collective response. Again, studies have revealed that there is no linear correlation between radicalization and terrorism or domestics. Furthermore, no suicide bomber or terrorist attack would likely have occurred without Islamic State calling. The young Western Muslims’ dissatisfaction would find different channels of expression (Alimi, 2016). Radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is apparent from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework.
Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
This paper is qualitative and programs evaluation research that will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. This research aims to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The variable is terrorism attack, and it will be compared with other variables such as country/state, religion, weapons, targets, and type of the attacks. After identifying the variables, the next stage is the operationalization of variables. In this part, the variables will get measured using various means. The variables will be placed on different scales, with one thing in common, ten survey questions about factors that facilitate terrorism attacks and five survey questions on measures that can be put in place/ government interventions of policies to curb terrorism attacks. Furthermore, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions of Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorist activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: This is background but doesn’t tell the reader how to duplicate your study Comment by Chris Martinez: What are they? Comment by Chris Martinez: You will need IRB approval to do this…see the module on IRB application and dealing with human subjects Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved