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At the beginning of class on Thursday, April 28, you MUST attach your working document to this assignment. I should be able to see what you’ve completed by the end of class and your continuous usage of the same document as you complete the assignment and make any edits. (I should be able to look back on your edit history.)

You can choose any poem and any piece of art from the slide show. If there is a different Harlem Renaissance poem or piece of art that you would prefer to write about, just clear it with me first.

Note: You may be marked down on your overall paragraph response if it contains errors in structure, development, or conventions of grammar, etc that make it difficult to follow or affect the readability.

English

Bell 1

Bell 1

Bell 1

Great Student

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30 Nov. 2041

Twenty-First Century Divide

The highly rated Netflix original documentary, The Social Dilemma, directed by Jeff Orlowski, sheds light on what is presented as the greatest threat to the modern world, social media. Now, this was not a highly anticipated piece of film prior to release, however, word-ofmouth made the documentary explode with views and popularity. The only real issue since the debut of the film is that some people think that the documentary is a touch too dramatic and believe that social media is not bad and the documentary over exaggerated the importance behind the message. While others maintain the idea that social media is bad and is causing real problems across not only America but the whole world. Although the documentary is slightly dramatic in the delivery, the overall message set fourth is that social media has created polarization, spread misinformation, created addiction, and created a new way of thinking which is that the user’s attention is the product, not the product itself.

Social Media was originally created with all good intentions. It was an idea that was built to bring people closer together even from a distance and allow everyone to connect even if you are online. Many of us that used social media from the very beginning would probably agree that it felt like that too! However, in recent years social media has come under major scrutiny for ethical reasons and how much social media really is involved in our personal lives even though we may not know it. Well, after The Social Dilemma was released in early 2020, it was clear that there was a massive divide between how the audience received the message. And this message summed up is, social media is bad and is controlling your life and the user is the target. Due to the message behind this film social media became even more scrutinized over what was portrayed by one side. On the other hand, the opposing crowd says that the documentary perceived social media in a dramatic manner and is completely exaggerating the extent to which social media has an influence on the personal lives of individuals. Although social media has created a divide and sold personal information for monetary gain, the documentary did dramatize the narrative to a great extent by creating these fictional characters that the documentary followed upon each topic of discussion. The program even went as far as to create fictional people that were supposed to be social media’s “algorithms” that would send people notifications, supply content that they were interested in, and sold the users data for ads. As

Polina Kroik describes in her rebuttal of the film, “This dramatization isn’t much better written and acted than the cautionary videos we’ve been shown at school, yet the young protagonists are sympathetic, and the simple narratives get the point across.” This did make the documentary feel slightly dramatic and took away from the serious message that the producers were trying to make but did get the overall intent across.

One of the main points the documentary tries to prove is that social media has created an addiction unlike any other. This addiction is fueled by a process called positive intermittent reinforcement. Positive intermittent reinforcement as described in the documentary can be shown with an example. Every time you pull down and refresh the page you are met with brand new content every time no matter how many times you do this. The production lay this out as a key reason for why social media becomes addicting to many people in modern society. Tristan Harris, who is an ex-Google employee who worked as a design ethicist and was also featured in the film explained it as the following. “When we check our phones hoping that we have a notification, it’s like we are pulling the lever of a slot machine hoping we hit the jackpot.” It is incredibly interesting that social media and such a basic function of it is being compared to the feeling of thrill that you get from a slot machine while gambling. However, the difference between the two is that you do not have to pay for one or worry about losing money, or do you? Perhaps one of the most important themes of this documentary is that we as the users are the product. The way it is explained is that because we do not pay for these products and services that social media provides and the advertisers are the ones paying for the services, then we as the users are the product. Tristan Harris again in the The Social Dilemma says this, “The classic saying is, if you’re not paying for the product, then you are the product.” The main point that the producers are trying to get across from this is that these massive social media companies are competing for your attention because that is valuable to them. Nearly all social media platforms business model is revolved around advertisement, hence the companies selling a good or service pay the social platforms to be presented to you on your feed. Therefore, the user is seen as the product and not the platforms themselves.

In conclusion, the Netflix original documentary The Social Dilemma presents what are seen as many pressing issues with massive tech giants of today. The documentary lays out a plethora of reasons on why social media is destroying society. Overall, these issues are presented as misinformation, addiction, and monetary gain when the user is the product. However, there is an enormous divide between parties when deciding if the documentary displays an accurate picture of social media platforms and the negative effects they cause, or if there is just too much drama and it is all a hoax. You will have to decide for yourself.

Work Cited

Kroik, Polina. “Netflix’s Social Dilemma Tells Us How Facebook Hacks Our Minds, but It Leaves out One Crucial Thing.” Medium, Digital Diplomacy, 7 Oct. 2020, https://medium.com/digital-diplomacy/netflixs-social-dilemma-tells-us-how-facebookhacks-our-minds-but-it-leaves-out-one-crucial-thing-8bad086c2670.

“3 Things We Learned about Social Media from Netflix’s ‘The Social Dilemma.’” Blackstone LaunchPad, 2 Nov. 2020, https://launchpad.syr.edu/3-things-we-learned-about-socialmedia-from-netflixs-the-social-dilemma/.

English

Emmanuel

Topic: what do all religions have in common?

Under this topic, I need the introduction, body, conclusion, and annotated references page and be at least1800 words.

At the conclusion of the paper or topic, please be Argumentative to get other viewpoints.

The entire paperwork is all about Arguments.

These are the Annotated references page to use on the paperwork.

English

ENGL1121

Yuan Ding, Ph.D.

Project III: Research Paper on a TV Show/Movie/Music Video

Introduction

TV shows, movies and music videos entertain us by evoking (and sublimating) the economic, social, and racial conflicts or anxieties of our time. As Maasik and Solomon observe in the introduction to Chapter 6 of SOL, “you can interpret semiotically an entire system of television programs, illustrating how the associations among, and differences between, various series over a number of years can reveal broad movements within American social history” (399). However, as the authors also point out, the seeming transparency of images on the screen, i.e. icons, often mask their rhetorical nature, so that we are tempted to receive it uncritically as reflections of reality. Thus, Project III asks you to turn a critical eye towards your own entertainment taste, and read beyond the denotation of a TV show/movie/music video to mine its connotative significance.

Overview

For Project III, you are asked to make a specific ARGUMENT (typically a cultural claim) about a TV show/movie/music video of your choice. To successfully fulfill the assignment, you will be relying on the descriptive and analytical skills you have developed so far through the previous two projects. You can significantly revise Project I into Project III, but you should not feel obligated to keep your previous choice of text. You are welcome to choose one of my suggested texts (on D2L). Either way, treat Project I as an extended brainstorm exercise and jumping-off point.

The research component of this assignment requires you to cite at least THREE credible outside sources. These could be reviews from popular sources such as newspaper and magazines (e.g. the New Yorker, New York Times, Slate, The Atlantic, LA Times, etc), or scholarly writings on mass culture (peer-reviewed journal articles or books). In addition to their credibility, you should evaluate your sources in terms of their relevance to your topic and the helpfulness in deepening your analysis. Generally, the better your sources are, the stronger your analysis will be.

Remember, you’re not pulling a rabbit out of a hat. Rather, you are participating in an existing critical conversation about a particular cultural phenomenon. The outside sources you pick should either support your argument, or serve as a counter-argument, against which you’ll pitch your claim. Either way, think of your writing as part of a larger critical conversation. By research and writing about the topic, you are contributing to the conversation and participating in making sense of the culture you live in.

Where do I start?

In order to successfully complete this assignment, you need to research the “sign system” to which the text of your choice belongs. As the authors of SOL suggest: “Your interpretation of a movie or group of movies should begin with a construction of the system in which it belongs — that is, those movies, past and present, with which it can be associated. While tracing those associations, be on the lookout for striking differences from films that are otherwise like what you are analyzing, because those differences are what often reveal the significance of your subject.” (447) Be on the lookout for metaphors, archetypes and paradigms.

To start brainstorming, ask yourself the following questions: (A version of this is in the Brainstorm Worksheet on D2L.)

1. “What genre does this movie/show/video belong to?”

This “genre” could be sci-fi, fantasy, horror, romance, drama, sit-com, musical or it could be medical, legal, crime, high school drama, etc.

2. “How is this movie/show/video different from or similar to others in the same genre?”

Chances are, if you like Gossip Girl, you also watched other high school dramas. (In fact, it is likely your taste to similar dramas that drew you to the show in the first place.) But what make this movie/show/video stand out? A show either deviates or conforms to the stereotypes of its genre, although it is sometimes a combination of both.

3. A related question: “How is X portrayed?”

X” could be anything that piques your interest, such as the hero or anti-hero, gender, race, class, high school life, the medical/legal/law-enforcement profession, etc. This question forces you to look at the show/movie carefully, and identify archetypes, metaphors, stereotypes, cultural myths, ideology, etc.

4. Notice things that puzzle you about the show/movie/video, like if it seems to be sending two contradicting messages (such as in Mad Man, Downton Abby, Glee, etc.), or if its characters seem contradictory.

A final word of advice: A good paper depends on a good choice of TEXT and TOPIC, two things you will investigate thoroughly in the coming weeks. You have read a fair amount of articles throughout the semester, all of which can serve as both sample analyses and credible outside sources. Note that, due to the limit of our time, I only selected a handful of articles from the book that sparked particular interest in me. Please feel free to read other ones, if they are relevant to your research. For more instructions on how to conduct semiotic analysis on visual texts, please (re)read the introductions to Chapters 6, 7, and 8. And feel free to pick a text from my suggestion list.

Purposes

· Learn to pose research questions and develop a thesis.

· Learn to conduct research using the ARCC library databases.

· Learn to produce an Annotated Bibliography.

· Continue practicing semiotic analytical skills.

· Familiarize yourself with academic writing conventions and the MLA citation style.

Steps

1. Brainstorm for TV shows and movies, and free-write on possible research questions. (Thursday, Apr 7) 5%

2. Annotated Bibliography Draft. (Thursday, Apr 14; See separate prompt) 5%

3. Annotated Bibliography Peer Review (Saturday, Apr 16) 10%

4. Annotated Bibliography Final Draft (Tuesday, Apr 19) 5%

5. Rough Draft (Monday, Apr 25) 10%

6. Revised Draft (Monday, May 9) NO GRACE PERIOD 65%

Requirements

· Final Draft is typed, 5-6 pages double-spaced, Size 12, Times New Roman font

· MLA Citation Style

English

Paragraph Template for DBQ
50 points

Directions: Please feel free to “morph” this template to your liking. Use your own paper to create your synthesis paragraph, please.

Topic Sentence: Upon examining the evidence selections regarding ________________( topic), the ideas expressed within Item A,
____________________( describe the evidence/author), reflect/oppose the ideas presented within ___________________( describe the
evidence/author) Item B.

WHAT/CD/PS Evidence #1: For example, the evidence presented as Item A explores _________________________________ ( describe
ideas of Item A), as created by ______________________________ ( discuss specific elements that create the ideas).

HOW/COM/SS Analysis of devices: The author’s use of ____________________(specific element) creates an understanding of
_________________________( discuss author’s intended message) for the audience because _____________________________( explain
why).

WHY/COM/SS Analysis of Author’s purpose : The author uses these specific images to illustrate the message of _______________(
message) for the audience.

WHAT/CD/PS Evidence #2: Similarly/However, the creator of the second piece of evidence, ______________________________ ( add title
and author, if possible/describe) utilizes _____________________________________( discuss specific elements of Item B) to convey, or
show, the ____________________________________ ( message).

HOW/COM/SS Analysis of devices: The specific element that agrees/disagrees with the concepts expressed within Item A is
_________________________________( specify element), which in the context of the evidence , means_________________________; this
agrees/differs from item A, in that ____________________________________( explain why).

WHY/COM/SS Analysis of Author’s purpose: Indeed, the author’s purpose in employing ___________________________( specific
element) is to __________________________ ( define author’s usage), thus emphasizing the message of _____________________(author’s
purpose/message).

Concluding Sentence: Therefore, the two pieces of evidence express similar/differing views on __________________( subject), which
emphasizes the message of __________________________( messages).

Please make sure to use transition words between your two pieces of evidence:
● For agreement: Similarly, Likewise, In addition
● For disagreement: However, Unlike the first author,

English

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The Social Dilemma

Introduction

The Social Dilemma is an American Documentary drama released on Netflix in September 2020 and directed by Jeff Orlowski. Jeff Orlowski is an American filmmaker, and he is best known for producing two documentaries that won the Emmy awards. He was born and raised in Staten Island, New York. Comment by Sarah H.: Titles of films should be capitalized and italicized

Film thesis

The film argues that social media will benefit companies rather than people because the corporations are not limited in how much the business is profitable by mining our attention.

My essay thesis

To discuss whether social media causes mental illness. Comment by Sarah H.: I would recommend making this a complete sentence. It might not be required by your professor for this specific exercise, but I tend to rather be safe than sorry.

Summary

The documentary focuses on addressing how social media’s design nurture addiction and spreads theories of conspiracy and disinformation in order for them to maximize profit. The film uses several interviewees, such as former workers from top tech companies and social media platforms such as Google, Twitter, TikTok, Facebook, and Mozilla. The people being interviewed in the film share their main experiences at their respective companies and discuss how these platforms have caused negative social, political, and cultural consequences. Though some of the interviewees try to show some positive impacts that these big tech companies have provided, there is less importance attached to the positive side. Through the interview of various people, the film presents how social media platforms have influenced the spreading of fake news over the years. Comment by Sarah H.: At this point in this section, you haven’t named who would be maximizing the profit, so I don’t know who this pronoun is referring to. I recommend specifying there who exactly you think will maximize profit from social media. Comment by Sarah H.: Can you give some additional details about this? How does this happen? Is it because the documentary dedicates less time to these stories? Are the interviewees the ones who attach less importance to these stories or is it done by the producer?

There are scripted dramatizations of addiction among teenagers caused by social media. The dramatization shown in the film draws attention to the concerns that have been raised of the radicalization of the youth on the internet. Different actors are used to portraying what is dramatized in the film. Ben is a teenager who slowly falls for the manipulation tactics as he gets deeper into the addiction to social media. Tristan, who used to work in one of the big tech companies, states that there are risks of artificial intelligence and fake news as he sees it as a profit business model that benefits from disinformation. Those being interviewed expressed their fear about the artificial intelligence role in social media and the impacts the platforms have on society. Comment by Sarah H.: What are these dramatization based off of? Are the completely fictional or are they based off real events? Comment by Sarah H.: What does “it” refer to here? Pronouns refer to a previously mentioned subject. Since you have mentioned several subjects leading up to this word, such as artificial intelligence, fake news, and big tech companies, I’m not sure which one “it” refers to.

Response

I think that the film is trying to warn the consumers of social media about the dangers that are involved with social media apps. It is a good film, especially with increased social media usage to the extent that people have become addicted to it. The film tries to address major issues brought about by social media; it is a kind of an eye-opener to the world that makes you want to delete your apps immediately after watching the film. The film opens your eyes and mind to see the big picture aside from the benefits that come with social media. Although the film is good and convincing in portraying its ideas, but it fails to acknowledge the advantages of social media and the role that social media plays across the world. Comment by Sarah H.: Tries – In the rest of this paragraph, you refer to the film in present tense, but here you slip into a past tense. To keep your verb tense consistent, use the present tense here as well.

The film fails to examine what the world would have been without the existence of social media apps. What happens if we all delete the social media apps from our phones and all other computerized software? The film’s ideas only focus on the harm caused by social media and by the depiction of technology as the sole cause of the harm. The director has tried to prove his thesis somehow but not completely because you cannot convince people by only displaying the bad side of something but rather giving an opinion on both positive and negative effects and then choosing an opposing or proposing side. So, I think he has not achieved convincing the audience because even looking at the criticism the film achieved from great people, it is evident that the audiences were not completely convinced. Comment by Sarah H.: I don’t think this is the correct word to use in this context. “Outlook” is a noun that means a person’s point of view on something. A better word here might be “examine” or “analyze.” Comment by Sarah H.: “Cannot” is one word

I think the director makes various assumptions that by giving a distorted view of social media platforms, it will be able to create a scapegoat for increasing moral degradation and other social problems. The director also assumes that releasing a film like The Social Dilemma addressing various social issues will make it a hit. I’m afraid I have to disagree with the director’s assumptions which he conveys by using various persons working with apps like google and the rest. It would have been understandable if Orlowski used these individuals to convey both the goods and harms of the platforms. And it is through this; that I believe that the director omitted some information that would have conflicted with his ideas. Why didn’t he use those personnel to show how social media platforms have improved people’s lives, from the young ones to adults? Comment by Sarah H.: See previous comment about how to format the name of documentaries in MLA Comment by Sarah H.: I love that you are you making this bold claim. I think that this sentence would be even better if it was the topic sentence of this paragraph. With this as your topic sentence, you could combine everything I have highlighted in blue to be one cohesive paragraph about how you feel like the director omitted information from the documentary to make his point.

Many people worldwide use social media platforms to make a living; why didn’t he use those content creators in social media to show the great impacts that the platforms have played in improving several live?. To achieve his objective, the director has used several rhetorical strategies like narration, cause, effect, and explaining a process. Orlowski uses the narration strategy by using several significant narrators, and it is through their narration, that the narrators explain the causes and effects of social media platforms. The cause of the harm of using social media is technology. Its effects are the harm they cause in damaging a person’s mental health, addiction, manipulation of people’s emotions, views, and behaviors, and spreading of fake news. Comment by Sarah H.: You start this sentence as a question so it needs to end with a question mark. Comment by Sarah H.: To achieve Comment by Sarah H.: You list narration, cause, effect, and explaining a process at the tools the director uses and then you explain narration, cause, and effect but leave out explaining a process. Since you introduce explaining a process as one of the primary tools the director uses, I think it’s important to include an explanation of what that means and how it functions in the documentary.

One of the main documentary points is that it attempts to address the issue of social media’s impact on mental health, including the mental health of adolescents and the increasing teen suicide rates. Social media has a great link with mental health because people use the platforms to display their lifestyles. This makes some people feel inadequate in their lives; it causes self-harm, anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts. The documentary uses several interviewees, shows and captures the reality of this issue. The film documents that many people are rightly concerned about the negative effects on the users’ mental health of the apps. It argues that some technologies like Silicon Valley pervasive technology have become an existing threat to humanity. An average number of adults spend almost two hours a day on social media, and a moderate number of teenagers spend up to nine hours a day on social media, which is not good for a person’s mental health.

Conclusion

Social media causes harm to society, and it is also beneficial to the users. However, some restrictions should ensure that the platforms do not continue harvesting data to sell ads advertisements. The platforms shouldn’t also be allowed to continue controlling our lives. Instead, measures on the code of ethics should be implemented to prevent them from causing more harm than good. Comment by Sarah H.: Based on your assignment sheet, I think that you should shift the focus of this conclusion. Instead of discussing what you personally think about social media platforms, your conclusion should be about the documentary and if the director/producer successfully created a convincing argument.

References

 “The Social Dilemma”. Television Academy. Retrieved February 6, 2022. Comment by Sarah H.: A documentary should be cited like a film. You can find guidelines for how to create an entry for a film at this website:
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_other_common_sources.html

 Ehrlich, David (January 29, 2020). 

“‘The Social Dilemma’ Review: A Horrifyingly Good Doc About How Social Media Will Kill Us All”

. IndieWire. 

Archived

 from the original on April 17, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020. Comment by Sarah H.: Only the title of the main source should be in italics. In this case, it would be IndieWire, since that is the name of the website where you found the article.

Also, your retrieval date should be the date that YOU accessed the article, so you will need to update the “retrieved” date.

Last thing, I don’t see where you have used this source in your response. Remember to include in-text citations in your writing when you are referring to ideas or information that you read somewhere else.

English

The Social Dilemma Essay Instructions

You probably have quite a bit of experience reading and summarizing. Since grade

school, you have been writing book reports and suffering through summer reading

programs. Reading, comprehending, and summarizing are vital skills. At the college

level, however, simply regurgitating material is insufficient. One of the most important

benefits of a college education is the ability to think critically. Understanding someone

else’s ideas and then responding to them is one of the most common tasks you will

encounter in your college classes. And although your future employer may never ask

you to provide a literary analysis of The Scarlett Letter or a research paper about global

warming, you will be expected to exercise critical thinking skills on a regular basis.

Assignment:

Write a summary-and-response essay about the documentary, The Social Dilemma. You

are not being asked to discuss whether you like/dislike the film or agree/disagree with

the ideas set forth in it. Instead, you are being asked to deconstruct the film and assess

the validity of the arguments set forth in it.

The summary portion of the essay should be fairly brief, preferably limited to

the

introductory paragraph but certainly no more than one body paragraph. Your

response

should take up the bulk of the paper.

Requirements:

• For this essay, you will incorporate two secondary sources. You may use The Social

Dilemma rebuttal articles as your sources, or you may choose your own sources

after conducting research. You must properly incorporate these sources into the

essay, using signal phrases to introduce the sources and using parenthetical

citations to credit the authors. You also will include a Works Cited page with correct

MLA citations for each source. In addition, you must properly cite The Social

Dilemma.

• You must adhere to the formatting guidelines set forth in The MLA Handbook, 8th

edition. Be sure that all margins measure 1 inch and that you use the Times New

Roman 12-point font. You should also follow MLA formatting guidelines regarding

the page heading, running header, page numbering, etc. Finally, your citations must

conform to MLA citation style.

• The essay’s assigned length is 1,000−1,200 words.

Guidelines:

Step 1. Grab some snacks and watch the film. The first time you view the film, do not

take

notes. Just enjoy it (hopefully) like you would any other movie.

Step 2. Watch the movie a second time. This time, you should pay close attention to

the

director’s argument. In addition, you should try to identify the director’s purpose and

intended

audience. Take notes. Write down any relevant facts or statistics.

Step 3. Write a response to the film. Some questions to consider:

• What did you think about the film?

• Do you agree or disagree with the ideas set forth in it?

• Does the director convincingly prove his thesis? If not, why?

• What are the director’s underlying assumptions?

• What is Orlowski assuming that you will agree/disagree with?

• Does Orlowski omit information that would damage his argument? If so, what

information does he omit?

• What rhetorical strategy/strategies does Orlowski use? (See for

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/04/ more information about

rhetorical strategies).

Step 4. Complete the “Deconstructing a Documentary Film Worksheet.”

Step 5. Write the summary portion of the essay. Do not write the film equivalent of a

book

report. Instead, identify the director’s thesis and then summarize the evidence he uses

to support

that thesis. Be objective. Do not allow your own thoughts to creep into your summary.

Step 6. For the response section of the essay, choose one of the following strategies

for writing a

response essay:

• Analyze the effectiveness of the director’s argument – In this case, the response

analyzes key features, such as the clarity of the main idea; the organization of

the argument; the quality of the supporting evidence; and/or the effectiveness of

the author’s style, tone, and voice.

• Agree or disagree with the director’s argument – Often, responders react to the

ideas or the argument of the essay. In this case, the responders show why they

agree or disagree with what the director says.

• Interpret and reflect on the director’s argument – The responder examines the

underlying assumptions or the implications of the director’s argument. Often the

responder reflects on how his or her own experiences, attitudes, and

observations relate to the film.

English

Name of Student

Instructor’s Name

Institution

Course

Date

How depression and anxiety disorder affects student

Depression is a common mental problem characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, a feeling of tiredness, and low self-worth. Depression may be caused by the loss of loved ones, the ending of a relationship such as a marriage or someone you have dated for many years, and the loss of a job, among other factors. Anxiety disorder is a group of mental illnesses that cause constant fear and worry. Depression and anxiety are the two most common obstacles young teenagers and adults face. Every year, there are many cases reported among children by America’s anxiety and depression association. Every eight children are affected which can make it challenging for teachers to identify these disorders. Both show different signs among different people, but this is why knowing the combinations of behavior to look for is key.

Loss of hope for the future and being unable to picture a future for oneself may lead someone to depression. The first nation group in Canada suffered from a loss of hope for the future due to being forced off their ancestral land into the reservation, from generation to generation. As a result, suicide cases were higher among first nation people compared to any other group in Canada. When someone loses hope for the future, they may realize that they cannot control the future and that there is no way of influencing it; therefore, it is hard for someone to picture happiness when feeling as if it is unattainable. Another reason for depression and anxiety is disconnection from intrinsic motivation, which is when one loses interest and motivation to participate in the activities they once enjoyed. In most cases, however, people are forced into the activities since they are not motivated (Milić, Jakov, et al. 658). In addition, depression and anxiety are caused by overworking; for example, when a young adult is overworked while at home, he or she may be tired and probably will not pay attention in the classroom because they are stressed. When the brain is exposed to chronic stress its chemical balance is interrupted.

People with untreatable health conditions are at high risk of becoming depressed. Prolonged exposure of the illness can manifest as depression. Some diseases are untreatable especially cancer when recognized at the final stage. Therefore, patients suffering from this disease are at high risk of becoming victims of depression. Genetics and family history is a major cause of anxiety disorder as well. For example, one may suffer from neuroticism if a family member suffers from the disease. Another cause of the anxiety is stress, especially in early life, because stress causes the hormone cortisol. Anxiety disorder is also caused by traumatising events, where one’s suffering may be prolonged. 2017 research indicated that many people suffering from anxiety disorder had a difficult time in their life coping with childhood trauma. As a result the brain adopts opposing thought processes and forms neural networks that disturb its natural chemistry.

Globally, nearly four in ten adults say their lives have been affected to some extent by depression and anxiety. According to research done in 2020, close to one in five adults said their lives had been affected by depression which also affected their close family members or friends, since their regular daily activities had been interfered with. Research done in certain regions such as America, Western Europe, and Northern America, include that the majority of people between the age of 15 and above said they had experienced this condition or knew somebody who had it. Reports indicate that globally both men and women equally experience depression and anxiety, which affect their regular activities.

Internationally, depression and anxiety has affected economic development where many people spend a lot of money on medication and therapy sessions in order to treat depression. According to the world health organization, depression is the second most common reason for disability in the world and only ten percent of people receive proper treatment. Therefore, depression is a world health disorder hence affecting many countries. It can also affect the way people perform at work, leading to possible unproductivity. When there is low production in the work field, this may affect a country in terms of goods being exported, which may lower, or decrease.

Depression is not a terminal disease, however, it can cause individuals to commit actions that end their life. If a parent is depressed and decides to take their life, this can possibly cause their child to then grow up in an orphanage (depending on circumstances). This child/teen may even turn to drug abuse as an escape from their own depression growing up, due to the lack of proper guidelines. Therefore, in this case, it is not the depression itself that harmed the individual, but it is what drove them to partake in harmful and possibly terminal actions. Depression and anxiety in the world has affected the bright future of many students who end up performing poorly in school or even sometimes dropping out. A lot of big visions have been interfered with by depression where some learners who have the potential of becoming the doctors and lawyers of tomorrow have their dreams shattered because of this harmful mental illness.

It is important for students to study about depression and anxiety disorder in order for them to understand that talking about it is not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength. When celebrities talk about their struggle with depression, anxiety, or any other mental distress, it sends several important messages, especially to young students who are going through the same struggle. One celebrity in a tweet shared “I did not learn about depression immediately but it took me some time, therefore the key is to be open minded and ready to share struggles.” Many male students have a tendency to keep depression to themselves in order to fit societal norms, however if hearing other male influencers speak up, they may begin to see the importance of opening up, and start to feel accepted.

Learning about depression is important to students and people in general because they are able to understand the challenges that come with it. Learning enables people to understand that opening up and being truthful on how they feel about depression on a societal level gives students the best opportunity to find solutions. Therefore, studying depression is important because it enables learners to understand that it is a part of life and they should not be scared.

In today’s society, Depression and Anxiety are extremely stigmatized. Unfortunately, most of people surrounding us tend to put buriers for people who need help but studying depression help student and people affected by depression that we should not stigmatized people but rather we should give a shoulder for someone to lean on (Islam, Akhtarul, et al 15.8). Do not be afraid to seek help if you need it waiting will only make the problem worse, and there is no need to suffer longer than you have to. Helping to break the stigma so that we can all get help when we or someone close to us needs our help.

Another important reason for studying depression among student is that it enable student to know early sign of depression even before it become worse; therefore with early sign of depression, student are able to get help as early as enough. When learners are taught about depression, they are in a position to learn know how to handle it if at any given chance they might be affected.

How to prevent depression

Settings goals its one of the method which help to prevent depression. Depressed people and students might feel they are not compatible and cannot accomplish anything in life, and this makes them feel worse about themselves. To offset this set some daily goals, starting with small things you can accomplish. Another important aspect is doing exercise whereby regular exercise helps the brain to maintain clarity. Also eating healthily can help fix depression. One should take care of themselves not to neglect their body because health food can help ease depression.

Having fun help prevent depression, sometimes it is simply necessary to make time for things you enjoy. Keep trying as much fun as possible it might help. Sometimes it is good you go dinner with friends because this will help ease depression. Seek professional help and talk to others for support and assistance, especially friends. Also trying something new is also another method of preventing depression and anxiety. Sometimes it is good to try new methods such as going to a museum or just seat in the park and read a book (Xiao, Huidi, et al 5047). Also challenging negative thought its another aspect of preventing depression. Sometimes its good to change on how you think. You can beat back those negative thought before they get out of control.

Sufficient sleep it’s another method to prevent depression. Too little sleep can make depression worse. One may take al destruction out of bedroom such as TV in order for them to have enough sleep. Another important aspect of preventing depression is taking responsibility and occupying yourself with activities that will keep you busy. Staying involved and having daily responsibility is important in countering depression because these activities usually keep you busy and you do not have enough time to be idle hence, you cannot overthink.

Conclusion

Depression is a common illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness. Its common among young adult. Depression and anxiety disorder are different; even though some people with depression experience similar system to those with anxiety disorder. Most people who develop depression has an history of anxiety disorder in their lives. Depression and anxiety is caused by various aspect, including loss of life to our beloved ones, loss of job, being isolated especially in school or in society, long illness, cancer, family history and disorder, stress among many factors. Depression has many impact to student an globally such as many student dropping out of school or poor performance, many death including suicide, a lot of disabilities, economy decline and poor output due to lack of motivation. Therefore, depression can be prevented through exercise, trying new method such visiting museum, going dinner with friends, eating health food among other factor(Lun,Chunli, et al 195). When depression is studied and made awareness to both students and people, therefore there will be fewer cases of people committing suicide because they already have knowledge of depression. People should support each other. When people are educated about depression in the future, there will be little number of people who will be affected by depression because of people are able to seek help when they are depressed.

References

Islam, Md Akhtarul, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey.” PloS one 15.8 (2020): e0238162..

Liu, Chunli, et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among doctoral students: The mediating effect of mentoring relationships on the association between research self-efficacy and depression/anxiety.” Psychology research and behavior management 12 (2019): 195.

Milić, Jakov, et al. “High levels of depression and anxiety among Croatian medical and nursing students and the correlation between subjective happiness and personality traits.” International Review of Psychiatry 31.7-8 (2019): 653-660.

Xiao, Huidi, et al. “Social distancing among medical students during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in China: disease awareness, anxiety disorder, depression, and behavioral activities.” International journal of environmental research and public health 17.14 (2020): 5047.

Anointed Bibliography

Othman, Nasih, et al. “Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-9.

The authors were from the school of health policy and management, York University, Toronto, Canada. Authors were students during the time of the research who came from different departments but the majority came from psychology departments. The article summarizes the causes of mental health disorders and their solution, along with qualitative study on stress, anxiety and depression among post-secondary students. Coming up with a resolution to depression was their motivation. They were able to interact directly with affected students, where they obtained primary data. These sources support my thesis by adding knowledge on causes of depression. They focused on how young adults are most affected by depression and anxiety disorder.

Faisal, Rajib Ahmed, et al. “Mental health status, anxiety, and depression levels of Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.” International journal of mental health and addiction (2021): 1-16.

Current student at Bangladeshi university did a survey. Researchers were undergraduate students between the age of 17 and 38 years. The survey was about item valid tools for mental health inventory. Depression affects all aspects of life, including education. Biased in this source is that the survey was done using social media; hence some people did not have access to social media therefore they did not participate in research. In addition, self-report was utilized in this study to measure depression. This survey supports my thesis by inventing tools to measure depression. In addition, they come up with who depression affects most.

Kebede, Mebratu Abraha, Birke Anbessie, and Getinet Ayano. “Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-8.

A medical student in China did this research. The author of this article was creative. The summary of this article highlighted the problem of depression and anxiety among medical students. Also summarized how social and economic factors contribute to depression and anxiety disorder. Motivation of this source included analysis of the prevalence of depression and anxiety based on a large sample size, and a potential solution to dismiss mental health disease. This source supports my thesis on how medical students relate with depression and how social and economic factors contribute to depression and social anxiety.

Lun, K. Wc, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Med J 24.5 (2018): 466-472.

A student in Hong Kong did this article research. The article focuses on determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety. It Also summarizes factors associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorder among university students. The motivation of this article is that depression can be prevented. In the article, they got primary data on depression and anxiety disorder by interviewing young students in the field. This source supports my thesis by adding more knowledge on factors associated with depression and anxiety, and getting information from primary sources on the symptoms of depression.

English

Proposal

Assignment: Define a problem affecting a community that you belong to and research the causes of that
problem. Then, propose a specific solution, taking care to define the parameters of your proposal and

explain how it can be implemented. Finally, defend your proposal by discussing how it will address the

problem and outlining any additional potential benefits. Your proposal should:

• Provide adequate background information regarding the problem you intend to solve. This may
include a description of the problem, a discussion of what makes the problem significant, and an

enumeration of some of the solutions already proposed by others.

• Propose your own solution in a clear thesis statement.

• Discuss how your solution will be implemented.

• Provide support for your proposal by explaining how it will alleviate the problem and by
enumerating any additional benefits.

• Account for and respond to possible objections.

• Conclude by summarizing your proposal, discussing its significance, and offering a powerful
emotional appeal.

Learning Objectives:
• To provide experience in utilizing the rhetorical strategies of argument to make real change in the

world.

• To provide experience synthesizing different genres of argument in a single text.

• To provide experience with engaging an on-going conversation conducted in and through written
texts.

• To provide practice with the strategies of academic writing, including critical analysis, crafting
thesis statements, crafting supporting paragraphs, responding to objections, and incorporating

sources.

Audience: MTSU Academic Community. Do not assume the audience has read the essays you are
discussing. Provide enough details about the author and the essay for the reader to understand both their

positions and your own.

Tips:
• Review Chapter 12 of your textbook for help thinking through the kinds of claims and strategies

of support typical of proposals.

• Try framing your proposed solution as a call to action in the thesis statement:
o E.g. If we really want to solve problem X, we must do A, B, C.

• Use a range of evidence types (facts, statistics, examples, authorities, analogies) as support in
order to engage all the rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos)

• For help organizing your essay, refer to the sample proposals included in your textbook on pages
307-17.

Requirements: 3-5 typed pages. Double Spaced. Include the standard assignment block in the upper
left-hand corner (i.e. Your Name / Class Name / Instructor Name / Type of Assignment / Date). Use MLA

style and formatting throughout. Use the appropriate tone for an academic essay, as well as correct

grammar, spelling, and punctuation. This essay requires a minimum of three outside sources. All sources
should be cited both in the text of your essay and in a separate works cited page.

Due Dates: See Schedule.

Essay Evaluation Sheet

Student ___ Final Grade

This evaluation sheet serves as an indication of where your essay is strong and weak. Use this information as a guide

when you write, revise, and edit your papers in the future. Remember: you can come in and talk to me about your

papers at any time during the process of writing them or 24 hours after they are returned to you. Each category uses the

Very Good to Weak scale; 100 total points are possible. Your grade is based on the points you receive out of those

possible 100 points and your final point score is calculated by applying the percentage of points out of 100 to the total

number of points possible for the specific assignment.

AREA SCORE OVERALL QUALITY SCORED CRITERIA

CONTENT _____ Very good *Interesting topic/title 5…4…3…2…1

30 points _____ Good * Clear significance 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Average * Meets the assignment 5…4…3…2…1

/30 _____ Needs improvement * Attention to Audience 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Weak * Strong support 5…4…3…2…1

*Vivid detail 5…4…3…2…1

ORGANIZATION _____ Very good

* Introduction 5…4…3…2…1

* Conclusion 5…4…3…2…1

30 points _____ Good * Development/control of ideas 5…4…3…2…1

/30 _____ Average * Logical sequencing of ideas 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Needs improvement * Transitions 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Weak * Unified paragraphs 5…4…3…2…1

Style _____ Very good * Accurate, precise word choice 5…4…3…2…1

20 points _____ Good * No wordiness 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Average * Tone/Voice 5…4…3…2…1

/20 _____ Needs improvement * Sentence variety 5…4…3…2…1

_____ Weak

GRAMMAR _____ Very good

* Misplaced or missing possessive apostrophes

3…2…1…0

15 points _____ Good

*Comma Use

3…2…1…0

_____ Average

* Sentence fragment

3…2…1…0

/15 _____ Needs improvement

*Agreement (s/v, p/a, tense)

3…2…1…0

_____ Weak * Run-on sentences 3…2…1…0

MECHANICS _____ Very good * Spelling/typos 2…1…0

5 points _____ Good * MLA style/Formatting 3…2…1…0

_____ Average

/5 _____ Needs improvement

_____ Weak

TOTAL

/100

  • Learning Objectives:
  • Tips:

English

Name of Student

Instructor’s Name

Institution

Course

Date

How depression and anxiety disorder affects student

Depression is a common mental problem characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, a feeling of tiredness, and low self-worth. Depression may be caused by the loss of loved ones, the ending of a relationship such as a marriage or someone you have dated for many years, and the loss of a job, among other factors. Anxiety disorder is a group of mental illnesses that cause constant fear and worry. Depression and anxiety are the two most common obstacles young teenagers and adults face. Every year, there are many cases reported among children by America’s anxiety and depression association. Every eight children are affected which can make it challenging for teachers to identify these disorders. Both show different signs among different people, but this is why knowing the combinations of behavior to look for is key.

Loss of hope for the future and being unable to picture a future for oneself may lead someone to depression. The first nation group in Canada suffered from a loss of hope for the future due to being forced off their ancestral land into the reservation, from generation to generation. As a result, suicide cases were higher among first nation people compared to any other group in Canada. When someone loses hope for the future, they may realize that they cannot control the future and that there is no way of influencing it. “It is hard for someone to picture happiness when feeling as if it is unattainable” (Liu, pg.34). Another reason for depression and anxiety is disconnection from intrinsic motivation, which is when one loses interest and motivation to participate in the activities they once enjoyed. In most cases, however, people are forced into the activities since they are not motivated (Milić, Jakov, et al. 658). In addition, depression and anxiety are caused by overworking; for example, when a young adult is overworked while at home, he or she may be tired and probably will not pay attention in the classroom because they are stressed. When the brain is exposed to chronic stress its chemical balance is interrupted.

People with untreatable health conditions are at high risk of becoming depressed. Prolonged exposure of the illness can manifest as depression. Some diseases are untreatable especially cancer when recognized at the final stage. Therefore, patients suffering from this disease are at high risk of becoming victims of depression. Genetics and family history are a major cause of anxiety disorder as well. For instance, one may suffer from neuroticism if a family member suffers from the disease. Another cause of the anxiety is stress, especially in early life, because stress causes the hormone cortisol. “Anxiety disorder is also caused by traumatising events, where one’s suffering may be prolonged” (Islam). 2017 research indicated that many people suffering from anxiety disorder had a difficult time in their life coping with childhood trauma. As a result the brain adopts opposing thought processes and forms neural networks that disturb its natural chemistry.

Globally, nearly four in ten adults say their lives have been affected to some extent by depression and anxiety. According to research done in 2020, close to one in five adults said their lives had been affected by depression which also affected their close family members or friends, since their regular daily activities had been interfered with. Research done in certain regions such as America, Western Europe, and Northern America, include that the majority of people between the age of 15 and above said they had experienced this condition or knew somebody who had it. Reports indicate that globally both men and women equally experience depression and anxiety, which affect their regular activities.

Internationally, depression and anxiety has affected economic development where many people spend a lot of money on medication and therapy sessions in order to get treatment. According to the World Health Organization, “Depression is the second most common reason for disability in the world and only ten percent of people receive proper treatment.” Therefore, depression is a world health disorder hence affecting many countries. It can also affect the way people perform at work, leading to possible unproductivity. When there is low production in the work field, this may affect a country in terms of goods being exported, which may lower, or decrease.

Depression is not a terminal disease, however, it can cause individuals to commit actions that end their life. If a parent is depressed and decides to take their life, this can possibly cause their child to then grow up in an orphanage (depending on the circumstances). This child/teen may even turn to drug abuse as an escape from their own depression growing up, due to the lack of proper guidelines. Therefore, in this case, it is not the depression itself that harmed the individual, but it is what drove them to partake in harmful and possibly terminal actions. “Depression and anxiety in the world has affected the bright future of many students who end up performing poorly in school or even sometimes dropping out” (Xiao, pg. 23). A lot of big visions have been interfered with by depression where some learners who have the potential of becoming the doctors and lawyers of tomorrow have their dreams shattered because of this harmful mental illness.

It is important for students to study about depression and anxiety disorder in order for them to understand that talking about it is not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength. When celebrities talk about their struggle with depression, anxiety, or any other mental distress, it sends several important messages, especially to young students who are going through the same struggle. One celebrity in a tweet shared “I did not learn about depression immediately but it took me some time, therefore the key is to be open minded and ready to share struggles.” Many male students have a tendency to keep depression to themselves in order to fit societal norms, however if hearing other male influencers speak up, they may begin to see the importance of opening up, and start to feel accepted.

Learning about depression is important to students and people in general because they are able to understand the challenges that come with it. Learning enables people to understand that opening up and being truthful on how they feel about depression on a societal level gives students the best opportunity to find solutions. Therefore, studying it is important because it enables learners to understand that it is a part of life and they should not be scared.

In today’s society, Depression and Anxiety are extremely stigmatized. Unfortunately, most of the people surrounding us tend to put barriers for people who need help. Studying depression teaches student and people affected by depression that we should not stigmatize people, but rather give a shoulder for someone to lean on (Islam et al 15). Another important reason for studying depression among students is that it enables them to acknowledge early signs of depression before it becomes increasingly worse; therefore, with early awareness, students are able to get help as early as possible. When learners are taught about depression, they are in a position to learn how to handle it if at any given chance they might be affected.

Setting goals is one of the ways that can assist in working toward prevention. Depressed individuals and students might feel hopeless, or as if they are not worthy to accomplish set goals. To offset this mindset, individuals with the disorder can be taught to set daily goals, starting with small accomplishments such as making their bed or brushing their teeth. Another important aspect is doing exercise; regular exercise helps the brain maintain clarity. Simply making time for the things we enjoy is another way to decrease the effects of depression. Referring to an article discussing the importance of mental health, experts say, “Seek professional help and talk to others for support and assistance, especially friends. Also trying something new is another method of preventing depression and anxiety. Sometimes it is good to try new methods such as going to a museum or just sit at the park and read a book” (Xiao, Huidi, et al 5047).

Sufficient sleep is another imperative factor. Too little sleep can heighten and even make depression worse. Ways to prevent this may include removing distractions such as silencing ones cellphone/avoiding screen time an hour-two hours before bed, darkening the sleeping environment, listening to white noise, and smelling the scent of lavender. Staying involved and having daily responsibility is important in countering depression because these activities usually keep you busy and you do not have enough time to be idle hence, you cannot overthink.

Depression is a common illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness. Its common among young adult. Depression and anxiety disorder are different; even though some people with depression experience similar system to those with anxiety disorder. Most people who develop depression has an history of anxiety disorder in their lives. Depression and anxiety is caused by various aspect, including loss of life to our beloved ones, loss of job, being isolated especially in school or in society, long illness, cancer, family history and disorder, stress among many factors. Depression and anxiety are the two most common obstacles young teenagers and adults face. Every year, there are many cases reported among children by America’s anxiety and depression association. Every eight children are affected which can make it challenging for teachers to identify these disorders. Both show different signs among different people, but this is why knowing the combinations of behavior to look for is key. Depression has many impacts to student and globally such as many students dropping out of school or poor performance, many deaths including suicide, a lot of disabilities, economy decline and poor output due to lack of motivation. Therefore, depression can be prevented through exercise, trying new method such visiting museum, going dinner with friends, eating health food among another factor (Lun, et al 195). When depression is studied and made awareness to both students and people, therefore there will be fewer cases of people committing suicide because they already have knowledge of depression. People should support each other. When people are educated about depression in the future, there will be little number of people who will be affected by depression because of people are able to seek help when they are depressed. Moreover, Learning about depression is important to students and people in general because they are able to understand the challenges that come with it. Learning enables people to understand that opening up and being truthful on how they feel about depression on a societal level gives students the best opportunity to find solutions. Therefore, studying depression is important because it enables learners to understand that it is a part of life and they should not be scared.

Anointed Bibliography

Othman, Nasih, et al. “Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-9.

The authors were from the school of health policy and management, York University, Toronto, Canada. Authors were students during the time of the research who came from different departments but the majority came from psychology departments. The article summarizes the causes of mental health disorders and their solution, along with qualitative study on stress, anxiety and depression among post-secondary students. Coming up with a resolution to depression was their motivation. They were able to interact directly with affected students, where they obtained primary data. These sources support my thesis by adding knowledge on causes of depression. They focused on how young adults are most affected by depression and anxiety disorder.

Faisal, Rajib Ahmed, et al. “Mental health status, anxiety, and depression levels of Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.” International journal of mental health and addiction (2021): 1-16.

Current student at Bangladeshi university did a survey. Researchers were undergraduate students between the age of 17 and 38 years. The survey was about item valid tools for mental health inventory. Depression affects all aspects of life, including education. Biased in this source is that the survey was done using social media; hence some people did not have access to social media therefore they did not participate in research. In addition, self-report was utilized in this study to measure depression. This survey supports my thesis by inventing tools to measure depression. In addition, they come up with who depression affects most.

Kebede, Mebratu Abraha, Birke Anbessie, and Getinet Ayano. “Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-8.

A medical student in China did this research. The author of this article was creative. The summary of this article highlighted the problem of depression and anxiety among medical students. Also summarized how social and economic factors contribute to depression and anxiety disorder. Motivation of this source included analysis of the prevalence of depression and anxiety based on a large sample size, and a potential solution to dismiss mental health disease. This source supports my thesis on how medical students relate with depression and how social and economic factors contribute to depression and social anxiety.

Lun, K. Wc, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Med J 24.5 (2018): 466-472.

A student in Hong Kong did this article research. The article focuses on determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety. It Also summarizes factors associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorder among university students. The motivation of this article is that depression can be prevented. In the article, they got primary data on depression and anxiety disorder by interviewing young students in the field. This source supports my thesis by adding more knowledge on factors associated with depression and anxiety, and getting information from primary sources on the symptoms of depression.

References

Islam, Md Akhtarul, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey.” PloS one 15.8 (2020): e0238162..

Liu, Chunli, et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among doctoral students: The mediating effect of mentoring relationships on the association between research self-efficacy and depression/anxiety.” Psychology research and behavior management 12 (2019): 195.

Milić, Jakov, et al. “High levels of depression and anxiety among Croatian medical and nursing students and the correlation between subjective happiness and personality traits.” International Review of Psychiatry 31.7-8 (2019): 653-660.

Xiao, Huidi, et al. “Social distancing among medical students during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in China: disease awareness, anxiety disorder, depression, and behavioral activities.” International journal of environmental research and public health 17.14 (2020): 5047.

Othman, Nasih, et al. “Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-9.

Faisal, Rajib Ahmed, et al. “Mental health status, anxiety, and depression levels of Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.” International journal of mental health and addiction (2021): 1-16.

Kebede, Mebratu Abraha, Birke Anbessie, and Getinet Ayano. “Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-8.

Lun, K. Wc, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Med J 24.5 (2018): 466-472.

English

American Dream Synthesis Essay

Reading Time: 15 minutes Suggested

Writing Time: 40 Minutes

Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying four sources. This question
requires you to integrate a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. When you
synthesize sources you refer to them to develop your position and cite them accurately. Your
argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Avoid merely
summarizing sources. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations.

Prompt: The American Dream, the idea that our country offers everyone, regardless of
background or circumstance, opportunity, freedom, and the promise of prosperity, is part
of the social and cultural history of the United States. Consider the source material that we
have already read:

● The Crucible by Arthur Miller
● “To the Right Honorable William, Lord Dartmouth” by Phillis Wheately
● “Sympathy” by Paul Lawrence Dunbar
● “I Sing America” by Walt Whitman, in which he celebrates the working people

● “A Bird Came Down the Walk” by Emily Dickinson

● “ Fall of the House of Usher” by Poe

● Coming Out of the Shadows speeches

The idea of the American Dream remains a part of our public discourse. Does our country
still provide the promise of prosperity regardless of circumstance?

Assignment: In an essay that synthesizes at least two sources for support, construct an argument
about the American Dream.

▪ intro– thesis ( opinion of the possibility/accessibility of the American

Dream ideal)

▪ Body paragraph #1– topic

● evidence

▪ Body Paragraph #2–topic

● evidence

▪ Conclusion

Cite sources:
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/ml
a_formatting_and_style_guide.html

Introduce sources in the introduction.

In text citation: According to ____________, the author states….

Parenthetical: “ blah blah blah” ( name author).

Additional Sources

Source A: (“Welcome to All” Puck 1880)

See:
https://www.hppr.org/post/immigration-stories-caricatures-and-stereotypes-stauth-museum

Source B ( Hughes)

“I, Too” BY LANGSTON HUGHES

I, too, sing America.

I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.

Tomorrow,
I’ll be at the table
When company comes.
Nobody’ll dare
Say to me,
“Eat in the kitchen,”
Then.

Besides,
They’ll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed—

I, too, am America.

Source C ( Bernstein)

Lyrics to “America” from West Side Story: https://www.westsidestory.com/america
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhSKk-cvblc

Source D ( Marcello, Tureen, and Salter)

Article:
https://apnews.com/article/immigration-churches-sanctuary-biden-9904b23125e3db6fa0844be34
982438c

English

Name of Student

Instructor’s Name

Institution

Course

Date

How depression and anxiety disorder affects student

Depression is a common mental problem characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, a feeling of tiredness, and low self-worth. Depression may be caused by the loss of loved ones, the ending of a relationship such as a marriage or someone you have dated for many years, and the loss of a job, among other factors. Anxiety disorder is a group of mental illnesses that cause constant fear and worry. Depression and anxiety are the two most common obstacles young teenagers and adults face. Every year, there are many cases reported among children by America’s anxiety and depression association. Every eight children are affected which can make it challenging for teachers to identify these disorders. Both show different signs among different people, but this is why knowing the combinations of behavior to look for is key.

Loss of hope for the future and being unable to picture a future for oneself may lead someone to depression. The first nation group in Canada suffered from a loss of hope for the future due to being forced off their ancestral land into the reservation, from generation to generation. As a result, suicide cases were higher among first nation people compared to any other group in Canada. When someone loses hope for the future, they may realize that they cannot control the future and that there is no way of influencing it. “It is hard for someone to picture happiness when feeling as if it is unattainable” (Liu, pg.34). Another reason for depression and anxiety is disconnection from intrinsic motivation, which is when one loses interest and motivation to participate in the activities they once enjoyed. In most cases, however, people are forced into the activities since they are not motivated (Milić, Jakov, et al. 658). In addition, depression and anxiety are caused by overworking; for example, when a young adult is overworked while at home, he or she may be tired and probably will not pay attention in the classroom because they are stressed. When the brain is exposed to chronic stress its chemical balance is interrupted.

People with untreatable health conditions are at high risk of becoming depressed. Prolonged exposure of the illness can manifest as depression. Some diseases are untreatable especially cancer when recognized at the final stage. Therefore, patients suffering from this disease are at high risk of becoming victims of depression. Genetics and family history are a major cause of anxiety disorder as well. For instance, one may suffer from neuroticism if a family member suffers from the disease. Another cause of the anxiety is stress, especially in early life, because stress causes the hormone cortisol. “Anxiety disorder is also caused by traumatising events, where one’s suffering may be prolonged” (Islam). 2017 research indicated that many people suffering from anxiety disorder had a difficult time in their life coping with childhood trauma. As a result the brain adopts opposing thought processes and forms neural networks that disturb its natural chemistry.

Globally, nearly four in ten adults say their lives have been affected to some extent by depression and anxiety. According to research done in 2020, close to one in five adults said their lives had been affected by depression which also affected their close family members or friends, since their regular daily activities had been interfered with. Research done in certain regions such as America, Western Europe, and Northern America, include that the majority of people between the age of 15 and above said they had experienced this condition or knew somebody who had it. Reports indicate that globally both men and women equally experience depression and anxiety, which affect their regular activities.

Internationally, depression and anxiety has affected economic development where many people spend a lot of money on medication and therapy sessions in order to get treatment. According to the World Health Organization, “Depression is the second most common reason for disability in the world and only ten percent of people receive proper treatment.” Therefore, depression is a world health disorder hence affecting many countries. It can also affect the way people perform at work, leading to possible unproductivity. When there is low production in the work field, this may affect a country in terms of goods being exported, which may lower, or decrease.

Depression is not a terminal disease, however, it can cause individuals to commit actions that end their life. If a parent is depressed and decides to take their life, this can possibly cause their child to then grow up in an orphanage (depending on the circumstances). This child/teen may even turn to drug abuse as an escape from their own depression growing up, due to the lack of proper guidelines. Therefore, in this case, it is not the depression itself that harmed the individual, but it is what drove them to partake in harmful and possibly terminal actions. “Depression and anxiety in the world has affected the bright future of many students who end up performing poorly in school or even sometimes dropping out” (Xiao, pg. 23). A lot of big visions have been interfered with by depression where some learners who have the potential of becoming the doctors and lawyers of tomorrow have their dreams shattered because of this harmful mental illness.

It is important for students to study about depression and anxiety disorder in order for them to understand that talking about it is not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength. When celebrities talk about their struggle with depression, anxiety, or any other mental distress, it sends several important messages, especially to young students who are going through the same struggle. One celebrity in a tweet shared “I did not learn about depression immediately but it took me some time, therefore the key is to be open minded and ready to share struggles.” Many male students have a tendency to keep depression to themselves in order to fit societal norms, however if hearing other male influencers speak up, they may begin to see the importance of opening up, and start to feel accepted.

Learning about depression is important to students and people in general because they are able to understand the challenges that come with it. Learning enables people to understand that opening up and being truthful on how they feel about depression on a societal level gives students the best opportunity to find solutions. Therefore, studying it is important because it enables learners to understand that it is a part of life and they should not be scared.

In today’s society, Depression and Anxiety are extremely stigmatized. Unfortunately, most of the people surrounding us tend to put barriers for people who need help. Studying depression teaches student and people affected by depression that we should not stigmatize people, but rather give a shoulder for someone to lean on (Islam et al 15). Another important reason for studying depression among students is that it enables them to acknowledge early signs of depression before it becomes increasingly worse; therefore, with early awareness, students are able to get help as early as possible. When learners are taught about depression, they are in a position to learn how to handle it if at any given chance they might be affected.

Setting goals is one of the ways that can assist in working toward prevention. Depressed individuals and students might feel hopeless, or as if they are not worthy to accomplish set goals. To offset this mindset, individuals with the disorder can be taught to set daily goals, starting with small accomplishments such as making their bed or brushing their teeth. Another important aspect is doing exercise; regular exercise helps the brain maintain clarity. Having fun help prevent depression, sometimes it is simply necessary to make time for things you enjoy. Keep trying as much fun as possible it might help. “Sometimes it is good you go dinner with friends because this will help ease depression” (Milic, pg. 34). Seek professional help and talk to others for support and assistance, especially friends. Also trying something new is also another method of preventing depression and anxiety. Sometimes it is good to try new methods such as going to a museum or just seat in the park and read a book (Xiao, Huidi, et al 5047). Also challenging negative thought its another aspect of preventing depression. Sometimes its good to change on how you think. You can beat back those negative thought before they get out of control.

Sufficient sleep it’s another method to prevent depression. Too little sleep can make depression worse. One may take al destruction out of bedroom such as TV in order for them to have enough sleep. Another important aspect of preventing depression is taking responsibility and occupying yourself with activities that will keep you busy. Staying involved and having daily responsibility is important in countering depression because these activities usually keep you busy and you do not have enough time to be idle hence, you cannot overthink.

Conclusion

Depression is a common illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness. Its common among young adult. Depression and anxiety disorder are different; even though some people with depression experience similar system to those with anxiety disorder. Most people who develop depression has an history of anxiety disorder in their lives. Depression and anxiety is caused by various aspect, including loss of life to our beloved ones, loss of job, being isolated especially in school or in society, long illness, cancer, family history and disorder, stress among many factors. Depression and anxiety are the two most common obstacles young teenagers and adults face. Every year, there are many cases reported among children by America’s anxiety and depression association. Every eight children are affected which can make it challenging for teachers to identify these disorders. Both show different signs among different people, but this is why knowing the combinations of behavior to look for is key. Depression has many impacts to student and globally such as many students dropping out of school or poor performance, many deaths including suicide, a lot of disabilities, economy decline and poor output due to lack of motivation. Therefore, depression can be prevented through exercise, trying new method such visiting museum, going dinner with friends, eating health food among another factor (Lun, et al 195). When depression is studied and made awareness to both students and people, therefore there will be fewer cases of people committing suicide because they already have knowledge of depression. People should support each other. When people are educated about depression in the future, there will be little number of people who will be affected by depression because of people are able to seek help when they are depressed. Moreover, Learning about depression is important to students and people in general because they are able to understand the challenges that come with it. Learning enables people to understand that opening up and being truthful on how they feel about depression on a societal level gives students the best opportunity to find solutions. Therefore, studying depression is important because it enables learners to understand that it is a part of life and they should not be scared.

Anointed Bibliography

Othman, Nasih, et al. “Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-9.

The authors were from the school of health policy and management, York University, Toronto, Canada. Authors were students during the time of the research who came from different departments but the majority came from psychology departments. The article summarizes the causes of mental health disorders and their solution, along with qualitative study on stress, anxiety and depression among post-secondary students. Coming up with a resolution to depression was their motivation. They were able to interact directly with affected students, where they obtained primary data. These sources support my thesis by adding knowledge on causes of depression. They focused on how young adults are most affected by depression and anxiety disorder.

Faisal, Rajib Ahmed, et al. “Mental health status, anxiety, and depression levels of Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.” International journal of mental health and addiction (2021): 1-16.

Current student at Bangladeshi university did a survey. Researchers were undergraduate students between the age of 17 and 38 years. The survey was about item valid tools for mental health inventory. Depression affects all aspects of life, including education. Biased in this source is that the survey was done using social media; hence some people did not have access to social media therefore they did not participate in research. In addition, self-report was utilized in this study to measure depression. This survey supports my thesis by inventing tools to measure depression. In addition, they come up with who depression affects most.

Kebede, Mebratu Abraha, Birke Anbessie, and Getinet Ayano. “Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-8.

A medical student in China did this research. The author of this article was creative. The summary of this article highlighted the problem of depression and anxiety among medical students. Also summarized how social and economic factors contribute to depression and anxiety disorder. Motivation of this source included analysis of the prevalence of depression and anxiety based on a large sample size, and a potential solution to dismiss mental health disease. This source supports my thesis on how medical students relate with depression and how social and economic factors contribute to depression and social anxiety.

Lun, K. Wc, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Med J 24.5 (2018): 466-472.

A student in Hong Kong did this article research. The article focuses on determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety. It Also summarizes factors associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorder among university students. The motivation of this article is that depression can be prevented. In the article, they got primary data on depression and anxiety disorder by interviewing young students in the field. This source supports my thesis by adding more knowledge on factors associated with depression and anxiety, and getting information from primary sources on the symptoms of depression.

References

Islam, Md Akhtarul, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey.” PloS one 15.8 (2020): e0238162..

Liu, Chunli, et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among doctoral students: The mediating effect of mentoring relationships on the association between research self-efficacy and depression/anxiety.” Psychology research and behavior management 12 (2019): 195.

Milić, Jakov, et al. “High levels of depression and anxiety among Croatian medical and nursing students and the correlation between subjective happiness and personality traits.” International Review of Psychiatry 31.7-8 (2019): 653-660.

Xiao, Huidi, et al. “Social distancing among medical students during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in China: disease awareness, anxiety disorder, depression, and behavioral activities.” International journal of environmental research and public health 17.14 (2020): 5047.

Othman, Nasih, et al. “Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-9.

Faisal, Rajib Ahmed, et al. “Mental health status, anxiety, and depression levels of Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.” International journal of mental health and addiction (2021): 1-16.

Kebede, Mebratu Abraha, Birke Anbessie, and Getinet Ayano. “Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” International journal of mental health systems 13.1 (2019): 1-8.

Lun, K. Wc, et al. “Depression and anxiety among university students in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Med J 24.5 (2018): 466-472.

english

Abiola Bombata Comment by Amanda Bessette: language: proofread and edit to take out unnecessary wordiness especially in your intro and conclusion.  Smooth out any awkward phrasing.

MLA: fix title punctuation, citations, spacing, works cited.

thesis needs to make a more specific argument in response to the prompt.

Primary source – quotes need to be selected more thoughtfully and embedded more smoothly.  When you analyze, you must always answer the question “how do you know?” any time you make a statement about the book.

You need to make more consistent use of your secondary source.  This should be propping up your analysis.

Ms. Bassett

English II

Mar 30, 2022

Nick Carraway: Character Portrayal and Progression

The Great Gatsby is narrated from the perspective of one, Nick Carraway, a character who participates and narrates simultaneously. Nick seems to be the only character who actually changes as the narrative progresses. In the beginning, Nick appears to play a rather secondary role, but gradually he comes to light, turning out to be a critical medium for the narrative’s essence. In the great gatsby, Nick is portrayed as a character who seemingly has noble intentions, who is not consumed by material wealth and who earns the trust of everyone around him, including Gatsby’s; who else can we trust to give an honest account of the events that occurred? It considers how he changed from just seeking an escape from home and amassing his own fortune to finding and losing a friend in Gatsby and how his attitude towards wealth changed with his time around the wealthy, perhaps a character whose reliability Fitzgerald believes the audience will have faith in. Fitzgerald uses the portrayal of Nick to express his view on wealth and how it can corrupt, and how we can show restraint, like Nick does.

Nick Carraway partly represents the regular man, while also being immensely complex. He was brought up in the Midwest and seems to come from a well-off background as deduced from his description of how his relative “sent a substitute” in his stead during the civil war and took that opportunity to initiate the family business. The text, “Whenever you feel criticizing anyone …, just remember that all the people in the world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had.” (F. Scott Fitzgerald, p. 3) describes Nick’s father explaining their privileged background.

Nick moves to the East pursuing his aspirations of financial success and breaking free from the monotony he believes pervades the Midwest, “…by extension, America’s main goal, which is to achieve more, rather than be satisfied with what they have,” (F. Scott Fitzgerald, p. 24). Nick is a learned individual whose aspirations seem to surpass what the Midwest could offer. He stands out because he seeks more from life but does not let his indulgences consume him, “… but I felt Tom would drift on forever seeking…” (F. Scott Fitzgerald p. 8). He surrounds himself with the top tier of society Gatsby, Tom, Daisy and so on, but he does not seem to lose himself or turn into those he associates with. Upon coming to the realization of how those he considers his social superiors actually are, seeming not to care, selfish, materialistic etc. He was revolted and instead of continuing to indulge them, he retreated to himself, hoosing a path of social suicide far from the likes of Jordan baker and the Buchanans (F. Scott Fitzgerald).

Nick is an up-standing individual and his moral compass sets him apart from the rest. He seems to be the only one who held disdain for how phony these socialites were, “But it wasn’t any use. Nobody came” (F. Scott Fitzgerald, p. 175) he was the only one moved by Gatsby’s tragic demise. Gatsby died and they all vanished leaving Nick, who couldn’t comprehend how not a single one of Gatsby’s affiliates could attend his funeral, to take matters upon himself and make sure there was at least someone to pay their last respects. Throughout the progression of the story, Nick grows, from just pursuing his fortune, to intimately understanding the misery associated with a fortune (F. Scott Fitzgerald).

Nick’s personality perfectly suits him for the role of narrator. He mentions in Chapter 1, his tolerance, open-mindedness, reservedness, and good listening skills, and, following suit, people tend to confide in him. Gatsby trusted him enough to divulge his secrets and intentions. According to Taylor S. Murtaugh’s paper “Why We Believe Nick Carraway: Narrative Reliability American Identity in The Great Gatsby”, Fitzgerald’s critique of the upswing in materialism surrounding American society, can only be brought to light if Nick remains a shining example of morality, capable of steering away from social pressures associated with material wealth. Taylor maintains that if Nick was an unreliable narrator, he would be as enthralled with superficial fortune as were Tom and daisy. Taylor asserts that Nick’s reliability allows the reader to perceive him as uncorrupted by materialistic tendencies (Murtaugh).

Taylor believes that Nick’s nature is why he is suited for narrating the Great Gatsby. Nick allows the reader to step into Fitzgerald’s mind and understand the characters. He seems to be the perfect vehicle to relay the story’s massage and as he changes, so does the reader’s understanding. He does not succumb to the wiles of wealth and he does not abandon his friend when the friendship ceases to be a convenience, unlike the rest who were only there for Gatsby when he was throwing huge parties.

Works Cited

Gatsby, The Great. F. Scott Fitzgerald. n.d.

Murtaugh, Taylor S. “Why we believe Nick Carraway: Narrative Reliability & American Identity in The Great Gatsby.” Trinity College Digital Repository 2013.

english

The Harlem Renaissance
1918 – mid 1930s

Background

The Basics

● Cultural, social & artistic
movement, centered in
Harlem, NY

● Gave birth to seminal
works of lit by Af-Am
authors

● Racial & cultural pride
○ Showcase culture &

history
○ Dispel common

stereotypes
○ Combat reinforced racist

beliefs

General Info Continued:

● Known as “New Negro Movement” during the time
● W.E.B. Du Bois (essayist, protest leader, historian)

encouraged talented artists to leave the South
○ Encouraged others to leave Caribbean
○ “Great Migration”

● HUGE impact on subsequent lit and art

“Great Migration”:
● End of Civil War led to Reconstruction Era

○ Emancipated began to strive for civic participation,
political equality and economic and cultural
self-determination

● By late 1870s, Democratic whites regained power in South
○ From 1890-1908 – legislation that disenfranchised AA and

poor whites, trapping them without representation
○ Established: white supremacist regimes, Jim Crow

segregation, laws that forced many AAs back into (often
unpaid) labor in mines, on plantations, and on public
works projects, work as sharecroppers

“Great Migration” cont…:

● Dissatisfaction led people to move north
● Most of the AA literary movement arose from a

generation that had memories of the grains and
losses of Reconstruction after the Civil War
○ Many people’s grandparents had been enslaved

Harlem: Epicenter of this “cultural awakening”

● District had originally been developed in the 19th
century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle
and upper middle classes
○ Stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class

amenities (Harlem Opera House)
○ Abandoned by white upper class bc of influx of

European immigrants in late 19th c. (bc racist &
classist)

Harlem: Epicenter of this “cultural awakening”

● Early 20th c. – Harlem = destination for migrants
around the country
○ People sought work from the South and and

educated class who made the area a center of
culture, as well as a growing Af-Am middle class

● Becomes “the center of a spiritual coming of age”
(Alain Locke – 1920s sociologist)

Despite increasing
popularity

/acceptance of
African American

culture, racism
persisted

(obviously):

● After the end of WWI,
many Af-Am soldiers
came home to a nation
whose citizens often did
not respect their
accomplishments

● Race riots and other civil
uprisings occurred
throughout the US during
the “Red Summer of
1919”

Characteristics & Themes:

● No single unifying theme, but…
● Common Goals:

○ Through intellect and production of literature,
art, and music could challenge the pervading
racism and stereotypes to promote progressive or
socialist politics, and racial and social integration

○ Prove humanity and demand equality

Characteristics & Themes:

● Individual self-expression
○ Not “imitating” anymore, according to Hughes
○ Hughes – realistic poems of downtrodden &

determined
○ Cullen – elegant sonnets

● Realism

Lasting Impact:

● Laid foundation for post WWII protest movement of
the Civil Rights Movement

● Many black artists who rose to creative maturity
afterward were inspired by this literary movement
○ Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison, Richard Wright…

● New racial consciousness through ethnic pride

Art

Saturday Night – Archibald Motley (1935)

Take a
minute –
what do
you see
1st?

Next?

Saturday Night – Archibald Motley (1935)

Focus in:
Color
Movement
Character
Emotion
Faces
Light
Shapes
Atmosphere

Poets

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)

● Precursor to HR / Influential to
many HR poets

● Born to formerly enslaved
parents

● Knew Frederick Douglass
● Focus: Daily plantation life &

social issues
● 1st Af-Am to:

○ support self entirely by
writing

○ Earn national recognition &
acceptance

“We Wear the Mask” (1896)

● What does it mean to
“wear a mask”?
○ How would one do

that?
○ Why would one do

that?

James Weldon Johnson (1927)
Godʼs Trombones: Seven Negro
Sermons in Verse

“We Wear the
Mask” (1896)

● Analyze for word
choice / emotion /
contrasts / shifts /
progression

● Who is this poem for?
● What does the mask

represent / allow /
provide?

Final Thoughts:

● How does the speakerʼs emotional state progress?
● How does the purpose of wearing the mask develop over

the course of the poem?
● What is the most significant line? Why?
● How is his situation different from the common idea of

“wearing a mask”?

Countee Cullen (1903-1946)
● Poet, writer, clergyman,

president of the Harlem chapter
of the NAACP

● Work illustrates dichotomy of his
experiences/education
○ “While his informal

education was shaped by
his exposure to black ideas
and yearnings, his formal
education derived from
almost totally white
influences.” (Poetry Foundation)

“Any Human to Another” (1935)

● What is the message of
the poem?

● How does he get that
point across?

● Consider:
○ Word choice / tone /

symbolism / specific
lines / etc

Palmer Hayden (1930) Untitled
(Dreamer)

“For a Poet” (1925)

Aaron Douglas (1927) Birds in Flight

Langston Hughes (1901-1967)
● poet, social activist, and writer /

focused on portraying the experiences
of Black life in America

● “refused to differentiate between his
personal experience and the common
experience of black America” (PF)

● “During the twenties when most
American poets were turning
inward,… Hughes turn[ed] outward,
using language and themes, attitudes
and ideas familiar to anyone who had
the ability simply to read.” (PF)

3 Poems by Langston Hughes

“Tired” (1930)

“I Dream a World” (1941)

“Still Here” (1957)

Hale Woodruff (1926) Twilight

“The Negro Speaks of Rivers” (1921)

● “Negro” – term of
self-identification during the
time period / not
used/appropriate today

● How does he portray the
black community through
this poem?

● How do the various
elements of the poem
contribute to that portrayal?

Schoolʼs Out – Allan Rohan Crite (1936)

“I, too” (1932)

● Published 10 years
before the CR
movement

● Tone of the poem?
● How do his choices, his

phrases, shifts, etc,
contribute to his overall
message?

Harlem Beauty – Werner Drewes (1930)

Claude McKay (1990-1948)
● Jamaican born
● Complimented as a “good black

poet”
○ Why does this matter?

● Poetry was censored bc it was
“inflammatory” & “seditious”

● “His philosophically ambitious
fiction, …addresses
instinctual/intellectual duality,
…central to the Black individualʼs
efforts to cope in a racist society.”
(Poetry Foundation)

“Harlem Dancer” (1917)

● Sonnet: final 2 lines tie
up or add meaning

● Focus on:
○ *Contrasting images

/ tone / WC / view of
dancer / speaker /
last 2 lines

James Lesesne Wells (1928)
Looking Upward

“If we must die” (1919)

● Sonnet: final 2 lines tie
up or add meaning

● Focus on:
○ Word choice / tone /

contrasts / animal
imagery / shifts

● All works to develop
what idea? Lois Malilou Jones (1938) Les

Fetiches

English

Organizational Strategies for The Social Dilemma Essay

Outline #1 Outline #2

I. Introduction

A. Introduce the film by providing the title of the film, the
director’s name, and perhaps a small amount of information

about the author.

B. State the thesis of the film.

C. State your thesis of your essay.

II. Summary

A. Point/Argument #1

B. Point/Argument #2

C. Point/Argument #3

D. Point/Argument #4

III. Response

A. Respond to Point/Argument #1

B. Respond to Point/Argument #2

C. Respond to Point/Argument #3

D. Respond to Point/Argument #4

IV. Conclusion

I. Introduction

A. Introduce the film by providing the title of the film, the
director’s name, and perhaps a small amount of information

about the author.

B. State the thesis of the film.

C. State the thesis of your essay.

II. Point/Argument #1

A. Summarize Point/Argument #1

B. Respond to Point/Argument #1

III. Point/Argument #2

A. Summarize Point/Argument #2

B. Respond to Point/Argument #2

IV. Point/Argument #3

A. Summarize Point/Argument #3

B. Respond to Point/Argument #3

V. Point/Argument #4

A. Summarize Point/Argument #4

B. Respond to Point/Argument #4

VI. Conclusion

English

Camerder Musa

Yuan Ding, Ph.D.

ENGL1121

Annotated Bibliography

My research topic is about “This Is America” by Childish Gambino (also known as Donald Glover). The music video is a rollercoaster of events; calm sections are broken up by abrupt violence and chaos. The video focuses on the current and past racial tensions and inequalities that black Americans faced. It includes references to slavery in southern America, Jim Crow, police brutality, targeted terrorism, and other issues. In summary, the music video “This Is America” raises awareness of past and current racial inequalities in America through historical references and distractions; How are historical references significant to current racial tensions? How does the video use distraction to convey its message?

Akingbe, Niyi, and Paul Ayodele Onanuga. “‘Voicing Protest’: Performing Cross-Cultural Revolt in Gambino’s ‘This Is America’ and Falz’s ‘This Is Nigeria.’” Contemporary Music Review, vol. 39, no. 1, Feb. 2020, pp. 6–36. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/07494467.2020.1753473.

In this article by Niyi Akingbe and Paul Ayodele Onanuga, it analyzes the similarities between “This Is America” and “This Is Nigeria.” They assert that these music videos fall under the category of “conscious music,” where the music raises awareness of issues and prompts its listeners to solve them. It deeply analyzes historical references in the lyrics, filming techniques, and music.

Both Akingbe and Onanuga are experienced in English, cultural studies, and literary analysis, as they both have a Ph.D. in those related fields.

This article provides more examples of historical references and possible uses of distraction in the music video. They state that the dancing in the foreground “may be interpreted as mocking the way in which entertainment bellies violence, and now distracts the public from seeing and reacting appropriately to the realities around them” (Akingbe and Onanuga 20).

Osman, Ladan. “Slaying New Black Notions: Childish Gambino’s ‘This Is America.’” World Literature Today, vol. 92, no. 4, July 2018, pp. 40–41. EBSCOhost, doi:10.7588/worllitetoda.92.4.0040.

Ladan Osman denotates the scenes of the music video, and she discusses the cultural significance of those scenes. From as far back as Jim Crow and as recent as a 2015 church shooting, she points out historical references to racial segregation in the past. Some analyses of certain scenes are also present, applying every scene to a wider cultural phenomenon.

Osman has won numerous awards for her works about traumatic experiences of marginalized people, one of which is her book Exiles of Eden, where she created poems about the traumatic experiences of displaced people (won the Hurston/Wright Legacy Award).

This article fits into the subclaim of how the music video uses distraction to convey its message. In reference to the distraction of the dancers (primarily Donald Glover) in the center of chaos, Osman states: “The point is that our inattentiveness is designed to maintain a system which allows some citizens to act as a virus while others become viral in death” (Osman 41).

Prettyman, Michele. “The Persistence of ‘Wild Style’: Hip-Hop and Music Video Culture at the Intersection of Performance and Provocation.” JCMS: Journal of Cinema & Media Studies, vol. 59, no. 2, Winter 2020, pp. 151–157. EBSCOhost, search-ebscohost-com.accarcproxy.mnpals.net/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=141941629&site=ehost-live.

This article by Michele Prettyman interprets the historical references of many music videos, such as “This is America,” and it groups them into a hip-hop style called “wild style.” In these wild-style music videos, various gestures and dances performed by characters can be traced back to African American, Caribbean, and Latin heritage. They have meshed into a chaotic or surreal setting, hence the “wild” in wild style.

Through her focus on African American culture and film in her Ph.D., Prettyman is well qualified and experienced in analyzing scenes and connecting them to historical attributes, as she has published many articles in journals about film.

This will add to both of my research questions; Prettyman argues that the music video complicates “the historical relationships of performance, audiences, institutions of media, culture, and entertainment, revealing the peculiar interdependency of these spheres and the legacy and insanity of racial terror” (Prettyman 115). As I interpret it, the music video includes how distractions were historically used to counteract or to cope with racial terror.

Akingbe and Onanuga: http://accarcproxy.mnpals.net/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=143696570&site=ehost-live

Osman: http://accarcproxy.mnpals.net/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=130182899&site=ehost-live

Prettyman:

http://accarcproxy.mnpals.net/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=141941629&site=ehost-live

English

Potential Topics for The Social Dilemma Essay

The following is a list of potential topics for The Social Dilemma essay. Don’t limit

yourself to these topics. Feel free to choose your own topic.

1. Is The Social Dilemma, biased? Is it accurate? What information provided in the film

is misleading?

2. Is social media beneficial, detrimental, or both beneficial and detrimental?

3. Is social media a drug? Is it addictive? Is this a problem?

4. Does social media damage our sense of self-worth and identity?

5. Does social media cause mental illness? For example, does it lead to depression and

anxiety? Do you agree with Orlowski (the director) that it can lead to suicide?

6. Do you agree with Orlowski that social media leads to a false sense that everyone

agrees with you because it narrows your social sphere to people who think like you?

Does it lead to polarization? In other words, does social media create ideological

divisions?

7. Do you agree with Orlowski that social media propagates conspiracy theories and

fake news?

8. Should children be allowed to use social media? For example, many social media

platforms require users to be at least 13 years old. What age limit do you feel is

appropriate for social media use?

9. Does social media lead to bullying?

10. Does social media drive us apart or bring us together? Does it make us more/less

lonely and isolated?

11. Do you agree with Orlowski that social media is an assault on democracy? Does it

destabilize and erode society?

12. Should social media be permitted to collect data regarding our interests, political

views, et cetera?

13. Should social media platforms be permitted to tailor advertising to our personal

interests?

14. Do you agree with Orlowski that social media is an existential threat that brings out

the worst in society?

15. Should the government regulate social media?

16. Orlowski says that social media platforms should be designed humanely. Is this

possible?

17. Does social media cause us to compare our real lives to others’ idealized lives? In

other words, does it cause us to compare our real selves to other people’s fake

selves?

english

Harlem Renaissance: Formative Prompt 21-22

We have spent a good deal of time analyzing both art and poetry from the Harlem Renaissance. Now, choose one poem and one piece of art and discuss not only your interpretation of each one, but also how the two pieces function together to create an overall impression, message, or idea.

In a single paragraph, you should talk about the relationship between these two pieces, and how they function to create a unified message. Be sure to discuss the visual elements, language choices, point of view, symbolic elements, etc to build your analysis.

You may use any piece of art or poem from the slideshow and/or handout that was provided in class.

Effective

Adequate

Inadequate

Needs Improvement

Analysis of Poem

RL.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.

Student effectively and accurately analyzes the message of the poem by looking at the poetic elements that create that message. Explanations and reasoning are valid and thorough.

Student adequately and accurately analyzes the message of the poem by looking at the poetic elements that create a message, but may be slightly vague or overly simplistic in either part of analysis.

Student inadequately or inaccurately analyzes the message by either not directly addressing the message of the poem or by not discussing the poetic elements that create the message.

Student either does not identify a message or poetic elements. Responses in this category might only mention a related topic or talk about the piece in vague generalities.

Analysis of Painting

RL.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.

Student effectively and accurately analyzes the message of the painting, by looking at the visual elements that create that message. Explanations and reasoning are valid and thorough.

Student adequately and accurately analyzes the message of the painting by looking at the visual elements that create a message, but may be slightly vague or overly simplistic in either part of analysis.

Student inadequately or inaccurately analyzes the message by either not directly addressing the message of the painting or by not discussing the visual elements that create the message.

Student either does not identify a message or visual elements. Responses in this category might only mention a related topic or talk about the piece in vague generalities.

Analysis of Relationship Between Poem and Painting

RL.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.

Student effectively and accurately analyzes the relationship between the message of the poem and the painting. Explanations and reasoning are valid and thorough.

Student adequately and accurately analyzes the relationship between the message of the poem and the painting, but may be slightly vague or overly simplistic.

Student inadequately or inaccurately analyzes relationship between the message of the poem and art by only vaguely addressing the relationship.

Student does not identify the relationship between the messages. Responses in this category might only discuss the painting and poem separately.

Note: You may be marked down on your overall paragraph response if it contains errors in structure, development, or conventions of grammar, etc that make it difficult to follow or affect the readability.

English

Topic. What do all religions have in common?

Annotated References Page Creating an APA Reference Page

General Guidelines:

1. At the end of the paper, create a list of every source cited in the paper. At the top of this page, the word

References (bolded but without italics) should be centered one inch from the top of the page.

2. List each source cited in the body of your paper alphabetically. Alphabetize the list by the last names of

the authors (or editors); when the author or editor is unknown, alphabetize by the first word of the title

other than A, An, and The.

3. Use a hanging indent: type the first line of each entry flush with the left margin and indent any

additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces).

4. Double space within each entry, and double space between each entry. In other words, your reference

The page should look double spaced throughout just as the body of your paper does; do not quadruple space

between sources.

5. Double-space after the word References.

6. Include a page number and header (same as throughout the body of

your paper) on your reference page. The numbering should be

consecutive with the rest of your paper—if your paper ends on page 8,

your reference page will be page 9.

7. Because an APA reference page includes only references that are recoverable, do not include personal

communications, such as letters, memoranda, and informal electronic communication. These types of

sources will be cited in the actual text instead. We will discuss how to cite these types of sources within

the body of your paper when reviewing in-text citations.

Specific Formats for Sources

Books Author. (Date). Title of book. Publisher. Goodman, K. (1996). On reading: A common-sense look at the nature of language and the science of reading. Heinemann.

Articles in magazines

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Magazine, volume number (issue number if

available), page numbers.

Quizno, P. R. (1995, August 4). The hidden causes of heart disease. Time, 134 (3), 33-36.

Little Details to Remember:

Capitalization: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title of an article or a book, the first letter of the first word immediately following a colon, and all proper nouns. Do not capitalize all keywords, except when giving the title of a periodical or newspaper. Book: On reading: A common-sense look at the nature of language and the science of reading. Magazine Article: Sending away for help: A mother’s cry for extended family in New England.

21or more authors: List the first 19 authors and the very last author on the source. Use ellipses between

the sixth and last author.

Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J.,

Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K.,

Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. … Zhang, Z. Z. (Date). Title. Source.

Editor as author: For a source with an editor instead of an author, including the Ed. title in parentheses after

the editor’s name:

Collins, W. (Ed.). (1992). Spiritual heights: Climbing God’s holy mountain. Westinghouse.

Article/chapter in an edited book: If you use an anthology (a book with a compilation of many

essays/articles written by various authors), use the following format:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Date). Title of essay/chapter of the book that the author wrote. In

Editor’s Name with first initial and last name (Ed.), Title of an anthology (pp. of selection).

Publisher.

Smith, D. (2004). The fight for life. In T. Stanford (Ed.), Harrowing stories of life and death (pp.

234-250). Miller and Motley

Edition (other than 1st edition): After the title, include the edition number in parentheses.

Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J.J., Jr. (1994). Answers to distraction (2nd ed.). Bantam.

Journal titles and volume numbers: The underline/italics in an entry of a periodical should cover the

periodical title and the volume number.

Smith, T. (1998). Becoming friends with the wind. Journal of New Technology, 23, 34-50.

Journal issue numbers: If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number of the journal in

parentheses immediately after the volume number with no space in-between and no underline/italics of

the issue numbers.

Brach, M. P. (1995). The disintegration of the relational zone. Psychology Profile, 23(3), 12-34.

Newspaper page numbers: When giving the page numbers of a newspaper article, use a comma to show

that the page numbers are discontinuous. The newspaper article in this example started on A3 and then

continued on A5.

Salsbury, P. (1998, June 4). A new approach to mathematics comes to some Twin Cities’ school

districts. The Pioneer Press, A3, A5.

Writing Annotations (APA Style)

If you have been thorough in completing a source sheet on each source that you have researched for your paper,

writing annotations for your bibliography will be fairly easy. Use the notes you have already gathered on these

sheets about your sources and their authors to write your annotations

Annotations include (in this order):

1. A 1-2 sentence summary of the source.

2. The author’s credentials.

Please keep in mind the following guidelines:

● Write annotations for credentialed sources only.

● Annotations should be written formally (in complete sentences to match your paper).

● Annotations start immediately after the reference page citation; do not press <enter> and then start the

annotation.

● For a source with multiple authors, write credentials for all authors in the citation if possible.

● If an author has many credentials that would require writing more than two sentences, be selective in

what credentials you include for your audience. You should spend no more than 2 sentences on an

author

Sample Annotated Bibliography:

References

Baron, A. (2005). The people impact of outsourcing. Strategic Communications Management, 9 (1), 13. This

article describes the human element and effects of global outsourcing and provides a less business

focused and more human-focused point of view. Baron cites the effects of poorly done outsourcing.

Baron is the Senior Manager, Global Services Business Operations & Strategic Planning, Cisco Systems

Inc., she has also been a consultant worldwide for HR companies.

Facanha, C., & Horvath, A. (2005). Environmental assessment of logistics outsourcing. [Abstract]. Journal of

Management in Engineering, 21(1), 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.01.024 This article

briefly describes the environmental benefits of outsourcing practices. Horvath, a co-author of this article (with Ph. D candidate Facanha), is an Assistant Professor at the University of California,

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

Finch, B. (2003). OperationsNow.com. McGraw-Hill. This college textbook gives some good summaries on

the causes and effects of outsourcing in today’s global world, specifically stating the efficiency and

economics of global outsourcing. Finch has a BS and an MS from Iowa State University and is currently

Professor of Operations Management at Miami University. He has been published in journals such as

the Journal of Operations Management and the International Journal of Production Research, as well as

being the author and co-author of many textbooks.

Jones, W. (2004, March 5). From IPO to BPO: The growth of offshore outsourcing. Silicon India, 42-43.

Tyson, L. (2004, February 23). Outsourcing: Who’s safe anymore? Business Week Online.

https://www.businessweek.com/print/magazin/content/04_08.htm This article

states the fears and possible consequences of losing American jobs to global outsourcing. Tyson

is the Dean of the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley. Between

February 1995 and December 1996, she served as the President’s National Economic Adviser of

the U.S. She has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

english

English 1010

Research Project: Annotated Bibliography

Five separate sources (minimum of three typed pages, total) on your choice of subculture or counterculture—the same as was used for your Ethnographic Essay

· An annotation is a brief summary or description of a piece of longer writing, i.e., a source

· A bibliography is a list

· The annotated bibliography begins with an introduction and ends with a conclusion

· All of the sources used in the annotated bibliography are listed in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names, the same as this is done on a works cited page

· Each annotation is double spaced

· Each annotation includes the MLA citation for the source that is being annotated. The annotation for each source is made up of, in the exact order below:

· (1) The MLA Citation for that source

· (2) Between two to four sentences that summarize the main idea or ideas of that specific source (article, book, website, etc.),

· (3) One or two sentences that connect that source (the article, book, etc.) to the topic that you are researching

· (4) One or two sentences that talk about the source’s intended audience and what they could get out of reading/watching, etc. this source.

· This is the standard format for an annotation and should be a paragraph in length.

· The annotation should include direct quotes from the source and for each quote, an in-text citation must be used to show where the quote was found. The same rule applies to paraphrasing.

· Hanging indents are used for each source. The first line of the annotation begins at the left margin of the page and each following line is indented four spaces (see sample annotated bibliography for an example of this).

· The annotation is a continuation of the source’s citation. Do not start the annotation on a new line, just keep typing until you are finished with that annotation.

· Websites can be used as a source but absolutely no Wikipedia!

· The same MLA format rules apply for an essay and an annotated bibliography including heading on the first page, header on the top right of each page, one-inch margins on all sides of each page, double spacing, 12-point font, etc.

· Like an essay, the Annotated Bibliography must have a title.

Due: The annotated bibliography will be accepted no later than Sunday, April 24, 2022 at 11:59 p.m. via Canvas submission.

______________________________________________________________________________

english

Comparing Social Media – Subtopic: Racial Bias

In this article, the author discusses Google’s (parent company of YouTube) lack of willingness to engage in an audit for racial bias. The author also draws comparisons to Facebook’s civil rights audit.

· Read Cristiano Lima’s “Democrats Urged Google to Get Itself Vetted for Racial Biases. It Hasn’t Budged.”

· Answer the questions below.

1) According to the article, why did Senator Booker and others state that a racial equity audit was needed by Google (parent company of YouTube)?

2) The author includes a counterargument in the form of Google spokesman Jose Castaneda’s comments. Do you think Castaneda does enough to refute concerns of racial bias within Google websites and platforms? Why or why not?

3) According to the article, why were concerns about racial bias at Facebook raised?

4) According to the article, which social media platform has taken concerns about racial bias most seriously? What steps has this platform taken to address these concerns?

5) Do you personally agree with the author’s judgment (which you discussed above in #4)? Or, if you were writing an essay in which racial bias was one of your subtopics, do you think this more research and information from sources would be needed to draw a conclusion? Explain.

English

Ad Analysis Workshop Read: “A Faint Green Sell: Advertising and the Natural World” (305-323)

Portfolio of Advertisements (glossy pages between 310 and 311). (Consider them part of the suggested ads for Project II, in addition to these.)

Write: Choose to answer ONE of questions 2, 3, or 6 under “Reading the Signs of life in the USA” (on page 323).

Write one additional question for this reading. (Please answer in approximately 100 words.)

English

Profile Essay Instructions and Guidelines

Profiles are written portraits – of people, places, events, or other things. We find profiles of

celebrities, travel destinations, and offbeat festivals in magazines and newspapers, or radio and

TV. A profile presents a subject in an entertaining way that conveys its significance, showing us

something or someone that we may not have known existed or that we see every day but don’t

know much about.

Assignment:

Write an essay about an intriguing person, group of people, place, or activity in your community.

Observe your subject closely, and then present what you have learned in a way that both informs

and engages readers.

Note – You are not permitted to profile celebrities, including but not limited to:

• musicians

• actors

• professional athletes

• corporate CEO’s

• politicians

If you profile a person, it must be a person whom you know personally.

If you profile a place, it must be a place that you have visited.

If you profile an event, it must be an event that you have attended.

General Guidelines:

The subject may be something unusual, or it may be something ordinary shown in an intriguing

way. Whether you are writing about a person, place, or event, you need to spend time observing

and interacting with your subject. With a person, interacting means watching and conversing.

With a place or event, interacting may mean visiting and participating, although sometimes you

may gather even more information by playing the role of silent observer. You need to include

details that bring your subject to life. These include sensory images, figurative language,

dialogue, and anecdotes. Choose details that show rather than tell, that let your audience see and

hear your subject rather than merely read an abstract description of it.

Requirements:

The essay’s assigned length is 1000-1200 words. Be sure that all margins measure one inch and

that you use the Times New Roman 12-point font. Also, follow MLA formatting guidelines

regarding the page heading, running header, page numbering, etc.

english


Thinking about the readings from this Module, write a 400 word discussion board post in which you explore one or more of these questions:

· Choose one story or from this module and discuss how it portrays the theme that the past affects the present.

· How is the theme introduced and expressed?

· What literary devices are prominently used to help illustrate or emphasize this theme?

· Why do you think the work you’ve chosen does or doesn’t belong in this module?

· What other theme is expressed in the work?

english

Body paragraphs (sometimes called “discussion sections”) are the parts of your essay that aren’t the intro or conclusion. Each of these paragraphs will have: a leading topic sentence that states the paragraph’s focus, evidence (quotes, examples, or research), and analysis (your explanation of how the evidence supports the paragraph’s main idea. 

Prepare

· Choose a story or poem from this Module to focus on

· Decide what aspect or element of the story to focus your paragraph on. (For instance: how the setting emphasizes the story’s meaning, or how a character changes in the story)

· Re-read or scan through the story or poem to find quotes to use in your paragraph

· Be sure you’ve read Chapter 30, pages 1914-1918

· Use these reference guides to help you understand paragraph composition:

·
Writing Toolkit: Paragraphs / Discussion Sections

·
Writing Toolkit: Formatting Your Paper For Submission

·
Writing Toolkit: Direct Quoting, Partially Quoting, Paraphrasing

·
Writing Toolkit: What is literary analysis?

Write

Paragraph that includes:

· Topic sentence

· Explanation

· Example from selected story or poem (Summary and Paraphrase)

· Quote from selected story or poem

· Analysis of evidence

· Summary sentences bringing it all together

Check

Your writings should be:

·  About 300 words long

· Related to the readings, assignments, and/or discussions from the selected Module

· Evidence of critical thinking

You should avoid:

· Including material from anything other than the selected literary work

· Googling, researching, or looking up the story or poem

· Copy / pasting from other submissions

· Unprofessional discourse

· Conversational language (you, I, etc.)

Rubric

Setting Paragraph

Setting Paragraph

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFormatting

20 pts

Exemplary

Submitted as an MLA formatted Word document. Appropriate length (300 ish words) Internal citations. No outside sources. No first person.

16 pts

On Target

This submission met most but not all of these standards:- Submitted as Word document- MLA formatted- 200-300 words- Internal citations- No outside sources- Includes author and story names- No first or second person

10 pts

Not Yet

This submission met few of these standards:- Submitted as Word document- MLA formatted- 200-300 words- Internal citations- No outside sources- Includes author and story names

20 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis & Content

60 pts

Exemplary

Meets almost all of these standards: – Clear focus – identifies literary elements – Topic sentence leads paragraph – Paragraph includes quotes from story / poem – Paragraph includes analysis of the elements’ significance and meaning – Does not over-rely on summary – Avoids including extraneous/irrelevant details

48 pts

On Target

Meets many of these standards: – Clear focus – identifies literary elements – Topic sentence leads paragraph – Paragraph includes quotes from story / poem – Paragraph includes analysis of the elements’ significance and meaning – Does not over-rely on summary – Avoids including extraneous/irrelevant details

30 pts

Not Yet

Meets few of these standards: Meets almost all of these standards: – Clear focus – identifies literary elements – Topic sentence leads paragraph – Paragraph includes quotes from story / poem – Paragraph includes analysis of the elements’ significance and meaning – Does not over-rely on summary – Avoids including extraneous/irrelevant details

60 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGrammar

20 pts

Clear writing with evidence of proofreading. Relatively free from errors at the sentence-level.

16 pts

Mostly clear with some errors that may confuse meaning. Would benefit from additional proofreading to avoid sentence-level errors.

10 pts

Errors obscure meaning. Sentences are not composed clearly. Paragraph does not demonstrate proofreading and careful revision.

20 pts

Total Points: 100


Previous


Next

ENGLISH

1) What are your proudest achievements during this semester (examples are community service; campus involvement; family life; charity work; major improvement to grades; etc.)? Major improvement in grade, was been on the dean’s list

 

2) What obstacles did you have to overcome to achieve your academic success this semester? Driving uber as a full time job and having to take care of my sick father.

Just one page without title page.

english

Complete these readings from the textbook:  brown-and-white clocks

· Literature

· A Rose for Emily

· Barn Burning

· Norton Chapter 7 (pages 429-431)

· Norton Chapter 30 (pages 1914-1918)

Remember that academic reading is a skill you develop over time.

English

Proposal for Profile Essay

1. Write a 250 word proposal for your profile essay. Basically, I am asking you to give me a

brief summary of what you intend to say in your profile essay. You do not have to organize

the essay at this time, as you will be writing an outline later this week. Your goal for this

assignment is to pick an essay topic and to start thinking about what you want to do with that

topic.

English

Now it’s time to start brainstorming/prewriting and create an outline for your research.

To complete this assignment, please see the blank outline template below and submit it filled out with your own information/planning for your own persuasive research essay. This outline has a specific format, which is listed below with details, examples and a blank template for you to use/fill out with your topic. Your detailed outline submission must include all 3 sections listed: Topic Overview, Supporting Paragraphs and Conclusion. The final draft of your outline must be 2 pages. YOUR OUTLINE MUST LOOK LIKE THE ONE THAT FOLLOWS.

OUTLINE ACTIVITY (WRITE IN COMPLETE SENTENCES) TEMPLATE

 

HEADING                                                                                                          HEADER

                                                                TITLE

 

1. INTRODUCTION:

       A. ATTENTION GETTER ________________________________________________________________

       B. SOURCES TO BE PEER REVIEWED & CATEGORIZED (List only the titles of the sources) 1. _______________ 2. _________________ 3.  _______________ 4.  __________________ 5.___________________

       C. THESIS____________________________________________________________________________

2. SUPPORTING PARAGRAPH:

       A. TOPIC SENTENCE ___________________________________________________________________

       B. CITED QUOTE/PARAPHRASE USED TO SUPPORT TOPIC SENTENCE ____________________

3. SUPPORTING PARAGRAPH:

       A. TOPIC SENTENCE ___________________________________________________________________

       B. CITED QUOTE/PARAPHRASE USED TO SUPPORT TOPIC SENTENCE ____________________

4. SUPPORTING PARAGRAPH(S): This is to be repeated for each supporting paragraph you have

       A. TOPIC SENTENCE __________________________________________________________________

       B. CITED QUOTE/PARAPHRASE USED TO SUPPORT TOPIC SENTENCE ___________________

5. COUNTER-ARGUMENT: Provide one sentence for each line item

       A. COUNTER-ARGUMENT POSITION ____________________________________________________

       B. REFUTATION ________________________________________________________________________

       C. EXPLANATION ______________________________________________________________________

       D. SUMMATION _______________________________________________________________________

6. CONCLUSION:

       A. RESTATE MAIN IDEA _________________________________________________________________

       B. MAJOR TAKEAWAY FOR YOUR AUDIENCE ___________________________________________

english

Module 4: Lesson and Notes

 Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1zKaERpWgQ&feature=emb_title

Topic or Theme?

Most of what we think of as literary themes are examples of topics

Topic: What the work is exploring. The topics are the repeating or central subjects, or recurring ideas in a piece of literature.

· Examples: love, friendship, growing up, good and evil.

Theme: What the work says about the topic. Themes are always expressing as complete sentences and represent the universal idea expressed in the work. 

· Examples: the bonds of friendship may be stronger than family ties, the past will always affect the present, what appears good may not always be so, not all things can be overcome by love, growing up requires sacrifice.

Common Literary Topics

· Love

· Death

· War

· Good and evil

· Coming of age / growing up

· Power and corruption

· Survival / Overcoming hardship

· Courage 

· Social issues (like prejudice, poverty, injustice, inequality)

· Nature

· Climate

· Forgiveness

What is Theme?

· Theme is always a complete sentence.

· Theme is an arguable claim made by a story.

· Theme is the point the story is trying to make.

· Theme connects fiction to our lived human experiences.

· Theme is a big idea, a universal statement, an argument or claim about one of life’s big ideas.


This page (including a short video) (Links to an external site.)
 is a good start to understanding theme

What isn’t Theme?

· Theme can never be one word: love, friendship, dogs, or tacos are big ideas, but they’re not claims.

· Theme can never be summary: what happens in the story reveals the meaning, but the theme is universal and can be applied to your life and mine.

· Theme is not an easy lesson: “listen to your parents,” or “be nice to people” are good ideas, but they aren’t complex enough to drive literature.

Common Literary Themes

· Love will only grow when it is nurtured.

· Practice pays off.

· Power requires responsibility.

· Cooperation is the key to survival.

· It is important to protect the environment.

· Painful experiences can make a person stronger.

· The past will always impact the present and future.

· Some family bonds are not worth fighting for.

· Love requires sacrifice.

· Adulthood is a rewarding burden.

· Independence requires responsibility.

· Hope is powerful, but also dangerous.

Things to Remember When Writing About Theme

· Why is more important than what. Identifying a symbol is only important if you also explain what it means and how it relates to the theme.

· Think about what the story seems to value and promote? What gets rewarded? What is learned?

· Explain and analyze how a theme is shown, what in the story reveals the theme or relates to it.

Who Cares?

Reading for theme has many benefits:

· We will read to find out what happens, what the literature is about, but also what the literature has to say. 

· What we will discover this semester is that literature from hundreds of years ago still relates to our experiences. 

· We will also learn about the experiences of those who have lived in wholly different civilizations. This broader perspective is one of the important benefits of reading literature. 

· Finally, reading and thinking about literature helps us better understand our own lives and worlds. As we consider literature, we consider ideas, situations, and themes as they might relate to us. 

english

1

Argumentative Prewriting

1) Which TWO social media platforms are you planning to write about? Why do these platforms appeal to you? What prior knowledge (if any) do you have about these platforms?

2) State at least THREE subtopics that you plan to research for these social media platforms. Examples are available on the writing prompt.

1.

2.

3.

3) Conduct some preliminary research in which you find four sources for this assignment. Write the Works Cited/Reference citations for the sources that appear within the essay.
You should have at least one source for each subtopic. You may also wish to include some background information about the social media platforms you chose.

1.

2.

3.

4.

4) How are you defining “most successful” social media platform? (Most versatile platform, most user-friendly platform, most accessible, best overall, etc.) Why have you chosen this approach to your paper?

5) Based on your preliminary research, which social media platform do you think is more successful in each category? Explain your answer.

1. Subtopic #1:

i. Most Successful Platform:

ii. Why?

2. Subtopic #2:

i. Most Successful Platform:

ii. Why?

3. Subtopic #3:

i. Most Successful Platform:

ii. Why?

6) Below, write a thesis for this topic. (Remember to include your judgment and subtopics.)

English

In 1,400 words or less, describe how the quotation applies to your life:

“If you are silent about your pain, they’ll kill you and say you enjoyed it.” ~ Zora Neal Hurston

English

Follow files 

NO PLAGIARISM 

need done by tonight 

first file is rubric 

2nd file is instruction 

3rd file is where you choose any poem and any piece of art from the slide show

only 1 GREAT paragraph needed 

English

 

For this assignment you are given even more responsibility and autonomy than before. However if you prefer to write an assignment that is prescripted please let me know and I will forward a handout. Otherwise let us see how this goes. 

In a Google Doc please answer the five questions below and be prepared to share in class. 

  1. What would you like to write about and get feedback on? 
  2. What style of writing will you be using and why? 
  3. Do you have a title in mind? If so please write. 
  4. Do you have a thesis statement in mind? If so please write

English

 MLA style

  • Choose a story or poem from this Module to focus on
  • Decide what aspect or element of the story to focus your paragraph on. (For instance: how the setting emphasizes the story’s meaning, or how a character changes in the story)
  • Re-read or scan through the story or poem to find quotes to use in your paragraph
  • Be sure you’ve read Chapter 30, pages 1914-1918
  • 2 months ago
  • 10

english

Suitable for college and high school students and those learning on their own,
this fully illustrated coursebook provides comprehensive instruction in the
history and practical techniques of Chinese calligraphy. No previous knowledge
of the language is required to follow the text or complete the lessons.

The work covers three major areas:1) descriptions of Chinese characters and
their components, including stroke types, layout patterns, and indications of
sound and meaning; 2) basic brush techniques; and 3) the social, cultural,
historical, and philosophical underpinnings of Chinese calligraphy—all of which
are crucial to understanding and appreciating this art form.

Students practice brush writing as they progress from tracing to copying to
free-hand writing. Model characters are marked to indicate meaning and stroke
order, and well-known model phrases are shown in various script types, allowing
students to practice different calligraphic styles. Beginners will fi nd the author’s
advice on how to avoid common pitfalls in writing brush strokes invaluable.

CHINESE WRITING AND CALLIGRAPHY will be welcomed by both students
and instructors in need of an accessible text on learning the fundamentals of the
art of writing Chinese characters.

WENDAN LI is associate professor of Chinese language and linguistics at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

C H I N E S E L A N G U A G E

Cover illustration: Small Seal Script by Wu Rangzhi, Qing dynasty, and
author’s Chinese writing brushes and brush stand.

Cover design: Wilson Angel

UNIVERSITY of HAWAI‘I PRESS
Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822-1888

LI

LI-ChnsWriting_cvrMech.indd 1 4/19/10 4:11:27 PM

Chinese Writing and Calligraphy

A Latitude 20 Book

University of Hawai‘i Press

Honolulu

Chinese Writing and Calligraphy

We n d a n L i

© 2009 University of HaWai‘i Press
all rights reserved

14 13 12 11 10 09 6 5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Li, Wendan.
Chinese writing and calligraphy / Wendan Li.

p. cm.
“a Latitude 20 book.”

includes bibliographical references and index.
isBn-13: 978-0-8248-3364-0 (pbk. : alk. paper)

isBn-10: 0-8248-3364-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Calligraphy, Chinese. 2. Chinese characters. 3. Calligraphy, Chinese—technique. i. title.

nK3634.a2L4975 2010
745.6’19951—dc22

2009047054

University of Hawai‘i Press books are printed on
acid-free paper and meet the guidelines for permanence

and durability of the Council on Library resources

Designed by Julie Matsuo-Chun
Printed by sheridan Books, inc.

ix P R E F A C E

1 C H A P T E R 1 INTRODUCTION

2 this Book
3 the Chapters
5 Writing and Calligraphy in Chinese society
16 the artistic Qualities of Chinese Writing
18 abilities that Can Be acquired by Practicing Calligraphy
19 to Learners with no Background in the Chinese Language
19 Discussion Questions

20 C H A P T E R 2 WRITING INSTRUMENTS AND TRAINING PROCEDURES

20 the four treasures in a Chinese study
27 the training Process
32 Getting ready to Write
36 Moisture, Pressure, and speed
37 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

38 C H A P T E R 3 BRUSH TECHNIQUES AND BASIC STROKES I

38 Brush techniques (1): Pressing Down the Brush and Bringing it Up
40 an overview of the Major stroke types
42 stroke type 1: the Dot
45 stroke type 2: the Horizontal Line
46 stroke type 3: the vertical Line
47 tracing
48 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

50 C H A P T E R 4 BRUSH TECHNIQUES AND BASIC STROKES II

50 Brush techniques (2): Center tip versus side tip
51 Brush techniques (3): revealed tip versus Concealed tip
52 stroke type 4: the Down-Left slant
54 stroke type 5: the Down-right slant
55 stroke type 6: the right-Up tick
56 Chinese Culture (1): Chinese names
60 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

Contents

c o n t e n t s

vi

61 C H A P T E R 5 BASIC STROKES III AND STROKE ORDER

61 stroke type 7: the turn
62 stroke type 8: the Hook
65 summary of Major stroke types
66 suggestions for Beginners to avoid Common Pitfalls
67 stroke order
71 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

73 C H A P T E R 6 THE FORMATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS

73 the nature of Chinese Written signs
75 Categories of Characters
80 the Complexity and Developmental sequence of the Categories
81 Chinese Culture (2): Dates in Chinese according to the Western Calendar
83 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

84 C H A P T E R 7 THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF CHARACTERS AND

THE AESTHETICS OF WRITING

84 the structure of Characters
89 aesthetic Principles
96 Chinese Culture (3): What is Written in Chinese Calligraphy?
98 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

100 C H A P T E R 8 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY I:

THE SEAL SCRIPTS

100 an overview of scripts and styles
102 the Great seal scripts
109 the small seal script
114 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

115 C H A P T E R 9 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY II:

THE CLERICAL SCRIPT

115 the Clerical script
119 Writing the Clerical script
123 Chinese Culture (4): the Chinese traditional Dating Method
128 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

129 C H A P T E R 1 0 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY III:

THE REGULAR SCRIPT

129 the regular script
130 the regular and Clerical scripts Compared
131 Masters of the regular script
138 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

c o n t e n t s

vii

140 C H A P T E R 1 1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY IV:

THE RUNNING AND CURSIVE STYLES

141 the running style
147 the Cursive style
152 Writing the running and Cursive styles
153 Concluding remarks on the Development of Chinese Calligraphy
154 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

155 C H A P T E R 1 2 THE ART OF COMPOSITION

157 Components of a Calligraphy Piece
166 Chinese Culture (5): Chinese seals
173 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

175 C H A P T E R 1 3 THE YIN AND YANG OF CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY

175 Diversity in Harmony
178 Dialectics in the art of Calligraphy
180 appreciation of Calligraphy
183 Chinese Calligraphy and Health
185 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

185 C H A P T E R 1 4 BY WA5Y OF CONCLUSION:

CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY IN THE MODERN ERA

186 Modern Developments in Chinese Calligraphy
192 Chinese Calligraphy in the West
195 What is Chinese Calligraphy?
197 Discussion Questions and Writing Practice

199 A P P E N D I X 1 : B R U S H W R I T I N G E X E R C I S E S

243 A P P E N D I X 2 : P I N Y I N P R O N U N C I AT I O N G U I D E

247 A P P E N D I X 3 : C H I N E S E D Y N A S T I C T I M E L I N E

251 N O T E S

255 G L O S S A R Y ( E N G L I S H – C H I N E S E – P I N Y I N )

259 R E F E R E N C E S

263 B O O K S I N E N G L I S H F O R F U R T H E R S T U D Y

265 I N D E X

ix

Preface

This book is a collection of teaching materials I accumulated over the past ten
years, during which I taught the course Chinese Culture through Calligraphy at
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The materials and the order of
topics were tested and revised throughout these years. They reflect special concerns
in teaching Chinese calligraphy to college students in the West who may not have
any background in Chinese culture and the Chinese language. For these students,
the instructor needs to be meticulous not only in demonstrating the details of the
techniques, but also in explaining cultural manifestations, significance, and differ-
ences. The goal is to make the traditional Chinese art reverberate on the harp of the
American brain, which has been tuned to the scales of Western culture.

I had rich resources to draw from when writing this book. The long history of
Chinese culture, language, and calligraphy and the numerous scholars who studied
and wrote about Chinese calligraphy or simply practiced the art were a joy to read
about and to reflect on. I learned a great deal from the works of many other scholars
who are pioneers in introducing Chinese culture to Western readers and who wrote
extensively about Chinese art and calligraphy in English. Notable among them are
Yee Chiang, Yuho Tseng, and Da-Wei Kwo. I am deeply grateful to the late Tsung

p re f a c e

x

Chin, professor at the University of Maryland. It was through working with him
on a collection of papers following the First International Conference on East Asian
Calligraphy Education in 1998 and also through our personal conversations that my
idea of offering a Chinese calligraphy course started to take shape.

I wish to express my gratitude to the Grier/Woods Presbyterian China Initiative
and to the Freeman Foundation for fellowships and travel awards I received through
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill that allowed me to work on this
project, to the Boardman Family Foundation for their support in my teaching and
research, and to the Department of Asian Studies of the University of North Caro-
lina at Chapel Hill for its support in furnishing optimal teaching facilities for the
Chinese calligraphy course I teach. I have also benefited from presenting parts of the
materials in this book and discussions of course design at conferences, including the
International Conferences of East Asian Calligraphy Education (2004 in Columbia,
South Carolina, and 2006 in Hiroshima, Japan) and annual conferences of the Chi-
nese Language Teachers Association.

I owe a special debt of gratitude to Dwight St. John, Kay Robin Alexander,
Carl Robertson, and two anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of earlier
drafts of the manuscript and their invaluable advice and suggestions for revision.
My sincere thanks also go to Susan Stone for excellent copy editing and to Keith
Leber of the University of Hawai‘i Press for his assistance throughout the publica-
tion process.

I would like to thank calligraphers Xu Bing, Harrison Xinshi Tu, Ren Ping,
Mao Rong, and Wang Chunjie for permission to use their artwork in this book.
Thanks also go to the National Palace Museum, Taiwan, for their permission to use
images from their collection as illustrations. Sources of other illustrations, for which
I am also grateful, are mentioned in the captions of specific figures.

To the students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill who took
the Chinese calligraphy course with me over the past years, I say thank you. Your
learning experience and feedback on the course played an important role in shaping
this book.

1

c h a p t e r o n e

introduction

Chinese calligraphy, 書法 shū fǎ in Chinese, has been considered the quintessence
of Chinese culture because it is an art that encompasses Chinese language, history,
philosophy, and aesthetics. The term’s literal translation, “the way of writing” (shū,
“writing,” and fǎ, “way” or “standard”), identifies the core of the art, which has
close bonds with Chinese written signs, on the one hand, and painting, on the
other. In China, adeptness in brush calligraphy is among the four traditional skills
that cultivate the minds of the literati, along with the ability to play qín (a stringed
musical instrument), skill at qí (a strategic board game known as “go” in the West),
and ability to produce huà (paintings). In the modern age, shū fǎ is known world-
wide as a unique type of art, representing one of the most distinctive features of
Chinese civilization.

To people in the West, Chinese calligraphy symbolizes a complex, distinct, re-
mote, and mysterious cultural heritage. These perceptions stem in part from differ-
ences between Eastern and Western worldviews, but the written signs themselves also
present a seemingly insurmountable barrier. However, Chinese calligraphy is also fas-
cinating and attractive in Western eyes. Recent advances in communication between
China and the rest of the globe have piqued interest in China’s culture, language,

c h i n e s e w r i t i n g a n d c a l l i g r a p hy

2

worldview, and way of life. Both within China and elsewhere, knowledge of Chinese
calligraphy is seen a mark of education, creativity, and cultural sophistication.

tHis BooK

This book introduces Chinese calligraphy and its techniques to anyone with an in-
terest in Chinese brush writing. It does not presuppose any previous knowledge of
the Chinese language or writing system. The chapters are designed with the follow-
ing objectives: (1) to describe in detail the techniques of Chinese brush writing at
the beginning level, (2) to provide high-quality models with practical and interesting
characters for writing practice, and (3) to introduce linguistic, cultural, historical,
and philosophical aspects of Chinese calligraphy. In the discussion comparisons are
made with Western culture and characteristics of the English language and callig-
raphy. The book consists of fourteen chapters of text supplemented in an appendix
with models for brush-writing practice.

Detailed instruction in brush-writing techniques form the heart of the book. A
standard training procedure is outlined first, followed by a detailed examination of
three fundamental elements of Chinese calligraphy: stroke techniques, the structure
of Chinese characters, and the art of composition. Training in brush writing be-
gins with brush strokes in the Regular Script. According to the traditional Chinese
training method, domestic calligraphy students always spend a substantial amount of
time mastering the Regular Script before moving on to other styles. Learners in the
West, however, generally prefer to have the opportunity to learn about and practice
writing various scripts. Therefore, this book focuses on basic brush writing skills in
the Regular Script in the first half and then introduces Small Seal Script, Clerical
Script, and Running/Cursive styles in the second half.

Learners are exposed to a diversity of script styles. They are not expected to
master them by the end of this book, although some students, with repeated prac-
tice, may be able to write some characters in a particular script quite well. Some
learners or instructors may prefer not to practice all the scripts introduced in this
book. Instructors or individual learners can decide the number of additional script
types to be included in the course of study, whether hands-on writing practice is
done for all of them, and the amount of time to be devoted to each script. Serious
students will no doubt need further training and practice in order to gain compe-
tence in artistic and creative production. For this purpose, the reading list at the end
of this book provides some resources for further study in English.

The book also describes in detail the formation of Chinese characters, their
stroke types, stroke order, components, and major layout patterns. Many of the
explanations given here are not found in other calligraphy books. The book title
Chinese Writing and Calligraphy well reflects this special feature. The history of the
Chinese calligraphic art is presented through a review of early Chinese writing, the

i n t ro d u c t i o n

3

development of different writing styles, the ways in which calligraphy is adapting to
the modern age, and the ongoing debate on the future of the time-honored tradi-
tional art. Cultural aspects discussed in the book include writing instruments (their
history, manufacture, and features), Chinese names and seals, the Chinese world-
view (for example, the cyclic view of time), and the Daoist concept of yin and yang
as a fundamental philosophical principle in Chinese calligraphy.

Model sheets for brush-writing practice are designed to accompany the discus-
sion in the chapters and to provide opportunities for hands-on writing practice.
Learners are guided from tracing to copying and then to freehand writing. Single
strokes are practiced before characters, which are followed by the composition of
calligraphy pieces. Writing skills are developed in the Regular Script first. Then op-
portunities are provided for learners to write characters in Small Seal, Clerical, and
Cursive styles so that they can explore and identify their personal preferences. The
selection and arrangement of model characters reflect a number of considerations.
Preference is given to characters that serve practical teaching and learning goals or
characters that frequently appear in calligraphy pieces. Repetition of characters,
either in the same or different scripts, also serves specific pedagogical functions.
Since no two calligraphy courses are the same, instructors or individual learners may
decide to repeat or to skip certain pages depending on their specific goals.

On the model sheets for brush-writing practice, each character is marked with
its meaning in English and the stroke order in Regular Script. The model characters
are also sequenced by level of difficulty. After individual characters, well-known
phrases are also practiced. The brush-writing models in the four script types are
all based on works of Wang Xizhi (303–361 CE), the calligraphy sage of the Jin
dynasty whose writing represents the peak of the art. As is traditional and to avoid
confusion, Chinese personal names throughout the book are presented with the
family name first, followed by the given name; the Chinese characters presented in
this book are in their full (traditional) form. The romanization of Chinese terms is
in Pinyin.

As will be discussed in Chapter 2, Chinese calligraphy is written on absorbent
paper. Following that tradition, the learner is advised to use absorbent paper, ideally
“rice paper,” for writing practice. Nowadays, such paper (even with a printed grid
specifically for Chinese calligraphy practice) can be purchased online or in art stores.
Rice paper, which is quite transparent, can be laid on top of the model characters
provided in this book for tracing.

tHe CHaPters

Chapter 2 first describes the instruments used in Chinese brush writing, including
their history, manufacture, features, and maintenance. Elementary training issues
are dealt with next, including steps of the training procedure, the management of

c h i n e s e w r i t i n g a n d c a l l i g r a p hy

4

pressure, and the roles of moisture and speed in writing. Other rudimentary issues
such as brush preparation and arrangement of writing space are also discussed.

Chapters 3, 4, and 5 expound upon the basic skills in writing individual strokes.
First the techniques of pressing down and lifting up of the brush are discussed and
illustrated, followed by an overview of the eight major stroke types. Step-by-step in-
structions on how to write each stroke type are then laid out and amply illustrated.
The discussion also includes variant forms of each stroke type, techniques involved
in writing, stroke-order rules, and common mistakes made by beginning learners.
Models for writing practice are provided. To prepare learners for producing calli-
graphic pieces and one’s signature, cultural topics related to calligraphy are also dis-
cussed. Chapter 4, for example, offers a discussion of Chinese names, including how
a Chinese name is chosen for a person based on his or her original Western name.

The next chapters proceed to the actual formation of Chinese characters. Chapter
6 describes the nature of Chinese written signs and categorizes characters in terms
of their composition. Chapter 7 delineates the internal layout patterns of characters
and some basic principles of writing. The cultural topics for these two chapters are
dating in Chinese according to the Western calendar and the themes and content
of calligraphy pieces.

Historical factors that molded Chinese calligraphy are presented in Chapters 8
through 11. Since this evolution started more than three thousand years ago, the
discussion only summarizes the major line of development, emphasizing the events
and calligraphy masters with a profound influence on the art. Each of these chapters
deals with one script type (Seal Script, Clerical, Regular, and Running/Cursive).
Together these chapters seek to foster an understanding of the historical develop-
ment of the calligraphic art, to build a knowledge base for distinguishing and appre-
ciating the various script styles, and to provide opportunities to practice the major
scripts. Discussion concentrates on how each script was developed, how it differs
from other styles, its main characteristics, and life stories of major calligraphers. Il-
lustrations and model sheets are also provided. For the Regular Script, the personal
styles of the three greatest masters, Wang Xizhi, Yan Zhenqing, and Liu Gongquan,
are compared in Chapter 10, so that learners have a chance to examine subtle dif-
ferences within one major script type. For a cultural topic, Chapter 9 describes
the Chinese traditional time-recording method commonly used to date calligraphy
works.

Composing a calligraphy piece is the topic of Chapter 12. Details of components
and layout patterns are described, followed by a discussion of the making and use
of the Chinese seal. Chapter 13 explores the Daoist concept of yin and yang, and its
significance in Chinese culture. This chapter also discusses how to appreciate a callig-
raphy piece and the relation of calligraphy and health: it will be shown that calligra-
phy practice is a healthy union of motion and tranquillity. The motion of calligraphy
writing not only corresponds to rhythms of the physical body, such as breathing and

i n t ro d u c t i o n

5

heartbeat, but also accords with the writer’s moods and emotions. Chapter 14, the last
chapter, examines how calligraphy, as a traditional art form, is adapting to the age of
modernization and globalization.

WritinG anD CaLLiGraPHy in CHinese soCiety

All languages serve the practical function of communication. In different cultures
and societies, however, language and its roles are perceived differently.

According to Jewish and Christian cultures, God created language (human
speech). In Chinese culture, however, the origin of speech is never accounted for;
instead, the historical emphasis has always been on writing. To the Chinese, the
creation of language means the creation of Chinese characters. Credit for this inven-
tion is given to a half-god, half-human figure called Cang Jie, who lived about four
thousand years ago. The ancient Chinese believed that Heaven had secret codes,
which were revealed through natural phenomena. Only those with divine powers
were endowed with the ability to break them. Cang Jie, who had four eyes (Fig-
ure 1.1), had this ability. He was able to interpret natural signs and to transcribe
the shapes of natural objects (e.g., mountains, rivers, shadows of trees and plants,
animal footprints, and bird scratches) into writing. Legend has it that when Cang
Jie created written symbols, spirits howled in agony as the secrets of Heaven were
revealed. Since then all Chinese, from emperors to ordinary farmers, have shared a
tremendous awe for written symbols. They have venerated Cang Jie as the origina-
tor of Chinese written language. Today shrines to Cang Jie can be found in various
locations in China. The one in Shanxi Province, not far from the tomb of the Yel-
low Emperor, the legendary ancestor of the Chinese people (ca. 2600 BCE), is at
least 1,800 years old. Memorial ceremonies are held every year at both shrines.

Figure 1.1. Cang Jie, creator of Chinese characters (legendary). [ from zhou, hanzi jiaoxue lilun fangfa , p. 5, where
no indication of source is given ]

c h i n e s e w r i t i n g a n d c a l l i g r a p hy

6

One reason for the great respect for the written word in China has to do with
the longevity of Cang Jie’s invention: the written signs he created have been in
continuous use throughout China’s history. This written language unites a people
on a vast land who speak different, mutually unintelligible dialects. It is also the
character set in which all of the classics of Chinese literature were written. Using
these characters, the Chinese were the first to invent movable type around 1041 CE.
It is estimated that, until the invention of movable type in the West, no civilization
produced more written material than China. By the end of the fifteenth century
CE, more books were written and reproduced in China than in all other countries
of the world combined!

The central, indispensable role of the written language in China nurtured a
reverence for written symbols that no other culture has yet surpassed. Written char-
acters hold a sacred position, being much more than a useful tool for communica-
tion. As we will see throughout this book, characters have been incised into shells
of turtles and shoulder blades of oxen; they have been inscribed on pottery, bronze,
iron, stone, and jade; they have been written on strips of bamboo, pieces of silk,
and sheets of the world’s first paper. They are on ancestral worship tablets and for-
tuneteller’s cards; they appear at building entrances and on doors for good luck.
When new houses are built, inscriptions are put on crossbeams to repel evil spirits.
Significant indoor areas or the central room in a traditional residence always have
brush-written characters visible at a commanding height. Decorating such halls
and rooms with calligraphy is a ubiquitous tradition in China, which should not be
compared to the Western tradition of hanging framed biblical admonitions, printed
in Gothic letters, on the wall of an alcove. The importance of the latter resides much
more in its message, whereas that of the former is predominantly its visual beauty.
(See Figures 1.2–1.4).

Written characters are also an integral part of public scenes in China. Simply by
walking down the street, one can enjoy a feast of numerous calligraphic styles on
street signs, shop banners, billboards, and in restaurants and parks. During festivities
and important events, brush-written couplets are composed and put up for public
display. There are marriage couplets for newlyweds, good-luck couplets for new
babies, longevity couplets on elders’ birthdays, spring couplets for the New Year,
and elegiac couplets for memorial services. Calligraphy works written in various
styles can be purchased on the street or in shops and museums; these may feature
characters, such as 福 fú, “blessings,” and 壽 shòu, “longevity,” written in more than
one hundred ways. (See Figures 1.5–1.8).

The decorative function of Chinese calligraphy is a common sight in China.
At tourist attractions, writings of past emperors and calligraphy masters or famous
sayings and poems written by famous calligraphers are engraved on rocks or wood
to enhance the beauty of nature. They can even be found on sides of mountains,
where huge characters are carved into stone cliffs for all to view and appreciate

Figure 1.4. Living room in a modern urban residence with a piece of calligraphy
carved on wood hanging on the wall. [ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.2. entrance of the yuelu academy 岳麓書
院 in Changsha (established 1015 ce), one of the four
great academies of northern song China. the hori-
zontal inscription bearing the name “yuelu academy”
was bestowed by emperor Zhenzong. the couplet,
which reads vertically from right to left, says: “Promis-
ing scholars gather on the land of Chu; the majority of
them are here.” [ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.3. Central room of a traditional Chinese
house, where everything of spiritual value to the
owner is displayed and worshiped, from Buddha
to national leaders to photos of deceased family
members. Brush-written couplets are indispens-
able to such a display. Photo taken in rural
Guangxi. [ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.6. restaurant sign Brocaded red Mansion 錦繡紅樓 in small
seal script. [ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.5. Wallpaper in a restaurant with 福 (blessings) in various styles.
[ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.7. Welcome sign 賓至如歸 (guests coming home) in small seal script at the entrance of a modern
hotel. [ photo by wendan li ]

Figure 1.8. a wall decorated with characters at Beijing international airport. the large charac-
ter 和 in the middle means “harmony.” [ photo by wendan li ]

c h i n e s e w r i t i n g a n d c a l l i g r a p hy

10

(Figures 1.9–1.12). The Forest of Monuments in the historic city of Xi’an and the
inscriptions along the rocky paths of Mount Tai are the largest displays of Chinese
calligraphy. Places well-known calligraphers visited and left such writing are historic
landmarks protected by the government today.

The importance of writing in Chinese society and, more specifically, the im-
portance of good handwriting are apparent to students of Chinese history. Before
the hard pen and pencil were introduced to China from the West in the early twen-
tieth century, the brush was the only writing tool. Brush writing was a skill every
educated man had to master. In the seventh century CE, the imperial civil ser-
vice examinations were introduced in China to determine who among the general
population would be permitted to enter the government’s bureaucracy. Calligraphy
was not only a subject that was tested, but also a means by which knowledge in
other subject areas (including Confucian classics and composition) was exhibited.
In theory at least, anyone, even a poor farmer’s son, could attain a powerful govern-
ment post through mastery of the subjects on the exams. This new system standard-
ized the curriculum throughout China and offered the only path for people with

Figure 1.9. Daguan (Grand view) Peak inscribed wall at Mount tai (1). Calligraphy written by emperors and
famous calligraphers was carved into cliffs to praise the natural beauty and the scenery. the two large red
characters on top left (meaning “peaks in clouds”) were the calligraphy of the Kangxi emperor (1654–1722) of
the Qing dynasty. the text below was written by the Qianlong emperor (1711–1799), also of the Qing dynasty.
[ photo by wendan li ]

i n t ro d u c t i o n

11

talent and ability to move up in society. Accordingly, success in the civil service
examinations became the life dream of generations of young men, and calligraphy
was virtually a stepping stone. From a very early age, students would start practic-
ing calligraphy and studying the Confucian classics. For thirteen centuries, the civil
service examinations were central to China’s political and cultural life. They created

Figure 1.10. Daguan (Grand view) Peak inscribed wall at Mount tai (2). this
lengthy prose text commemorating his visit to the scenic spot was written
by Li Longji (685–762), a tang dynasty emperor known for his calligraphy.
Carved into the cliff in 726, it stands 43.6 feet high and 17.4 feet wide and
consists of 1,008 characters. each character is 6.5 x 10 inches in size, writ-
ten in the Clerical script. the other carvings were added later during va

english

Select Quotes from The Great Gatsby that would relate to your chosen prompt. You should list these quotes out in a document to submit to this folder by the beginning of class on FRiday, March 11. You should have 10-15 quotes with page numbers.

Choose one of the following prompts:

· How do the characters in The Great Gatsby define themselves as individuals? How does that compare to American society’s views at the time? You might consider limiting your analysis to 1-2 characters.

· Analyze the portrayal/progression of one or more of the characters in the novel. How do they/don’t they change over the course of the text, and what is Fitzgerald attempting to suggest through their portrayal? You could choose to focus on one character, characters in contrast, or the various female characters for instance.

· Select one symbol and examine how that symbol functions in the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole.

· What is Fitzgerald suggesting to readers in regards to modern society? The American Dream? The focus on the past? Or another topic of your choice? Through his presentation of particular characters, events, symbols, etc., what is Fitzgerald attempting to tell his readers in regards to this concept?

· Make up a prompt of your own – this must be approved BEFORE class on Friday, March 11, so you can move on with the next parts of the assignment with the rest of the class.

English

 

  • Choose one story or from this module and discuss how it portrays the theme that the past affects the present.
    • How is the theme introduced and expressed?
    • What literary devices are prominently used to help illustrate or emphasize this theme?
    • Why do you think the work you’ve chosen does or doesn’t belong in this module?
    • What other theme is expressed in the work?
  • 2 months ago
  • 10

English

Descriptive Essay

· Write a 500-750 word essay using description as the chief method of development.

· Use your own thoughts, observations, and/or experiences as the sources for this essay. Research is NOT required or expected for this essay.

Writing Assignment

Purpose: to inform

Method of Development: description

Choose your own topic, but make sure that the topic allows you to be able to describe it. You can choose to describe a place, your favorite piece of clothing, an event, your cell phone, a friend, or something else totally different. If you have something in mind but you are unsure if it will work as a descriptive essay, please send me a message through the Messages link for assistance. 

Reminders

1. Brainstorm for topics.

2. Accumulate as many details as you can about your topic, and then sift through them, discarding those that are irrelevant, weak, or unrelated to the impression you would like to convey.

3. Organize your ideas.

4. Use vivid language and varied sentence structure.

5. Remember this is not a narrative. This essay is based on painting a picture for the audience.

6. Check the syllabus for due dates.

Writing Approach

In this essay assignment, description will be the dominant technique used to develop a distinct impression of your topic. Remember that description must appeal to the senses: taste, touch, sound, sight, smell. While you need not appeal to every sense in your essay, be sure to give the reader enough description so that he/she can be a part of your topic’s development. You may certainly use figurative language in your descriptions – simile, metaphor, personification, etc. In any case, be aware of your audience (your classmates) and your tone. Your choice of words may greatly influence your reader’s impression of your topic. Be careful to present your topic as you would like it to be interpreted.

Descriptive Essay

·

Write a 500

750 word essay using description as the chief method of development.

·

Use your own thoughts, observations, and/or experiences as the sources for this essay.

Research is NOT required or expected for this essay.

Writing Assignment

Purpose: to inform

Method of Development: description

Choose your own topic, but make sure that the topic allows you to be able to describe it.

You can

choose to describe a place, your favorite piece of clothing, an event, your cell phon

e, a friend, or

something else totally different. If you have something in mind but you are unsure if it will work

as a descriptive essay, please send me a message through the Messages link for assistance.

Reminders

1.

Brainstorm for topics.

2.

Accumulate as ma

ny details as you can about your topic, and then sift through them,

discarding those that are irrelevant, weak, or unrelated to the impression you would like

to convey.

3.

Organize your ideas.

4.

Use vivid language and varied sentence structure.

5.

Remember this is

not a narrative. This essay is based on painting a picture for the

audience.

6.

Check the syllabus for due dates.

Writing Approach

In this essay assignment, description will be the dominant technique used to develop a distinct

impression of your topic. Remem

ber that description must appeal to the senses: taste, touch,

sound, sight, smell. While you need not appeal to every sense in your essay, be sure to give the

reader enough description so that he/she can be a part of your topic’s development. You may

certa

inly use figurative language in your descriptions

simile, metaphor, personification, etc. In

any case, be aware of your audience (your classmates) and your tone. Your choice of words may

greatly influence your reader’s impression of your topic. Be carefu

l to present your topic as you

would like it to be interpreted.

Descriptive Essay

 Write a 500-750 word essay using description as the chief method of development.

 Use your own thoughts, observations, and/or experiences as the sources for this essay.

Research is NOT required or expected for this essay.

Writing Assignment

Purpose: to inform

Method of Development: description

Choose your own topic, but make sure that the topic allows you to be able to describe it. You can

choose to describe a place, your favorite piece of clothing, an event, your cell phone, a friend, or

something else totally different. If you have something in mind but you are unsure if it will work

as a descriptive essay, please send me a message through the Messages link for assistance.

Reminders

1. Brainstorm for topics.

2. Accumulate as many details as you can about your topic, and then sift through them,

discarding those that are irrelevant, weak, or unrelated to the impression you would like

to convey.

3. Organize your ideas.

4. Use vivid language and varied sentence structure.

5. Remember this is not a narrative. This essay is based on painting a picture for the

audience.

6. Check the syllabus for due dates.

Writing Approach

In this essay assignment, description will be the dominant technique used to develop a distinct

impression of your topic. Remember that description must appeal to the senses: taste, touch,

sound, sight, smell. While you need not appeal to every sense in your essay, be sure to give the

reader enough description so that he/she can be a part of your topic’s development. You may

certainly use figurative language in your descriptions – simile, metaphor, personification, etc. In

any case, be aware of your audience (your classmates) and your tone. Your choice of words may

greatly influence your reader’s impression of your topic. Be careful to present your topic as you

would like it to be interpreted.

English

Opinion Essay Instructions

Assignment:

For this essay, you will choose a controversial issue and write an opinion piece/op-ed. I

am giving you considerable leeway in choosing a topic. The options literally are endless!

You may choose any topic that interests you. However, I strongly discourage you from

choosing overused and/or highly emotional topics, such as gun control, abortion rights,

climate change, the death penalty, undocumented immigrants, or marijuana

legalization, mask mandates, and COVID vaccinations. Be creative! Choose an issue

that you feel passionate about. I welcome your ideas. Because issues involve multiple

perspectives, students must consider a wide range of opinions and address any

counterarguments.

You are not required to use secondary sources, although you may use them sparingly if

you feel that they will support your discussion. However, don’t allow sources to take

over your essay. This is not a report or a research paper. Instead, you will present your

own opinion in a logical, thorough, well-organized, and coherent manner.

General Guidelines:

The purpose of this essay is to develop an articulate, persuasive argument about an

issue of social, political, environmental, scientific, or historical significance. Remember,

this essay is not a report. In other words, you will not inform the reader about your

topic. Instead, you will present an opinion and support that opinion with evidence and

examples. You might also choose to address a problem and propose a solution. Your

job is to convince the reader that your opinion is right.

You are not limited to the topics below. However, I do want to provide a few example

topics to help you get started. You may use them as a “jumping off point” for your own

essay, or you may choose to write about an issue that is not included in the list.

• police brutality

• student debt

• homeschooling

• organic foods

• animal rights

• the obesity crisis

• vegetarianism/veganism

• monetary compensation for college athletes

• electronic cigarette safety and regulation

• rent control

• rural broadband

• economic inequality, homelessness, and poverty

• teaching evolution in schools

• mental illness

• fake news

• domestic violence

• DNA testing

• gender discrimination

• distance learning

• addiction

Requirements:

• The essay’s assigned length is 1,000−1,200 words.

• You must adhere to the formatting guidelines set forth in most recent edition of The

MLA Handbook. Be sure that all margins measure 1 inch and that you use the Times

New Roman 12-point font. You should also follow MLA formatting guidelines

regarding the page heading, running header, page numbering, etc.

• You are not required to use secondary sources for this essay. However, if you

choose to use secondary sources, you must properly cite them, both in the text of

the essay and on the Works Cited page.

English

Alshehri 3

Profile Essay

Abdulrahman Alshehri

Wilson, Jennifer

English 1010-KD1

15th March 2022

I was best friends with a girl, we could finish each other’s sentences, and we always knew what the other was thinking. We shared everything, all the events of our daily lives, significant or not. Still, I felt there a certain impenetrable wall, behind which she often hid, with a blank smile on her face to avoid having to answer any questions.

Lina was one of the coolest people that I have ever met. She was almost good at everything. She has never been perceived as attention-seeking or even narcissistic. She was very talkative and sometimes it was tiring for me. It can be said that she was a person with a very high degree of openness she was also very enthusiastic in everything that she pursued. For the time I spent with her, I realized that she was the most intriguing person and very different from the rest of my friends. She had unique qualities that were both manifested in her personal and professional life. She was friendly to almost everybody and for this reason, she had a lot of friends.

In addition, she was a very humble person. When you talk to her it was very difficult to know that she was from a well-up family. She treated everybody with respect regardless of age. She did not show any sign of pride or ego; she was willing to accommodate everyone from different backgrounds. This quality of being adaptable to any type of environment is what amazed me the most. This taught me to be always humble and to be dynamic in life. She liked to listen more than she talked despite knowing a lot of things and having had different experiences.

She was a down to earth and very agreeable. She was very flexible to solve conflicts. This quality was intriguing because she seemed to be able to solve any problem or conflict brought to her. She wished good for all people but was very protective of those people that she held dear to her heart. She enjoyed helping others and especially those that are in need. She was very responsive even in matters that did not concern her. She was open to diversity and open to learning without criticism. She always reminded me that moderation is very crucial in dealing with people. She also told me to be sensitive to others and try to understand people on a deeper level. She never neglected or assumed anyone. She paid attention to anyone this enabled her to interact well l with a lot of people and thus make many friends.

Lina was my best friend and there is a lot of reason for that. One was because she was a loyal and trustworthy friend. Whenever I needed help, she was the first person to offer a hand

She was very talented when in terms of public speaking and communication. She was confident and eloquent, and people liked to listen to her. She motivated people with her talks and speeches

She seemed like a model; she could lift one’s spirit. Everyone wanted to be around her. We called her a role model. She could easily make people laugh simply by being herself. She loved to listen to people’s problems and interject with quality advice that could help people solve the problems and struggle that they had. Most of the time I was mystified by her abilities to just sit and listen and people pour their problems to her expecting a solution. The most intriguing part about her abilities was that she could take any situation and turn it around and people see the best in the worst. She was very Enlighted on matters on life and relationships, she handled issues very well. She proves that she could have done in any situation. She laughed often and could bring joy even in the most barren situation.

She was one of the most responsible people that I know. Just being able to hand people’s problems and still manage to do just well by herself was very commendable. I learned a lot from her. Her courage and confidence inspired me to stand against injustices. She was one of the smartest minds that excelled academically and also in life. She seemed to be multitalented. The quality that appealed to me the most was her compassionate nature. Whether it was toward the animals or fellow human beings, she always kept the same approach. For instance, there was a tie that she med an injured dog on her way home. She took the dog home, she even skipped school to nurse the dog, she treated the dog and adopted him.

There was a subtle air of mystery in her aura, and it often gave me the feeling that as well as I knew her, there was more to her than she ever let on. She was a unique person in many ways, a paradox of characteristics that is very difficult to find in any one person. She was strongly emotional and fearlessly opinionated. I often felt her fearless attitude was the foil for her insecurities and the untapped emotion inside her which she didn’t reveal to anyone.

She had a strong support system, a loving family, and a group of friends who truly cared, as friends should. She was always surrounded by family and friends, and I often felt like she was striving to be more expressive, to share her emotions so that she could become a better individual and learn from her experiences. But something inside of her didn’t let her, she would try, fail, and then retreat in her cozy cocoon, where she kept everyone at arm’s length, even her best friends. It didn’t stop her from wanting to be different though. She yearned desperately to become a more open person, to live her life out loud, to express her dreams and aspirations, her fears and insecurities, her inner self. She wanted to tell everyone around her that she was a person who loved, who needed to be loved, who believed and had dreams that she wished would someday come true. That she was different than the façade she had built around herself. It was only after a drastic event that fate threw her way, which changed her forever, and allowed this transformation to take place.

.

English

Experiencing the United States: Shays’ Rebellion (50 points)

About the assignment:

1. Throughout the semester, there will be supplemental activities and discussions about the weekly subject matter. This week you will have the opportunity to explore Shays’ Rebellion.

2. For this assignment, you will view a website that is devoted to Shays’ Rebellion.

3. This assignment uses Turnitin. Once this assignment is graded, the grade stands.

4. Do not use any outside sources.

The web source:

Link for the source:
http://shaysrebellion.stcc.edu/index.htmlLinks
to an external site.

Instructions:

1. In your own words, begin with a description of the Shays’ Rebellion web page (10 points). This should be a minimum of four sentences.

2. From one of the four topics below (see the icon links on the page), choose a photo or an artifact/photo from the exhibit and write a description about the topic, and include the name of your selected topic (15 points).

2. a. The photo/topic must be included along with the topic/photo link. (10 points) For some topics/photos, there may be two links, one for the photo and one for the page link.

3. Next, tell me what you found interesting about the topic you chose. This should be a minimum of five sentences. (15 points)

4. Number each of the answers (1-3). -2 points for not numbering the answers.

The four topics: Choose only from (these are the four of the seven icons on the page)

Historic Scenes

People

Artifacts and Documents

Maps

Do not choose one of these for your topic: Themes and Essays, Songs and Music, or Timeline

Deductions:

1. -2 points if you don’t number your answers

2. Syntax and spelling errors. Capitalize proper nouns. When in doubt if a word is capitalized, ask “the” Google.

3. Selecting one of the “do not choose” topics (-25 points).

Late Submission:

If for some reason you can’t take this quiz by the Sunday due date, you may have until Wednesday at 11:59 pm. For each day late, there is a three-point late deduction, and this includes if you submit a few minutes after the Sunday due date time.

Choose a submission type

Select submission type TextText

Select submission type UploadUpload

More submission optionsMore

I AGREE TO THE TOOL’S END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENTLINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.THIS ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION IS MY OWN, ORIGINAL WORK

Requirements: n.a

English

SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE

STUDENT:

INSTRUCTOR:

COURSE:

DATE:

TITLE:

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the nature, extent, and symptoms of panic attacks.

Central Idea: Panic attacks are serious medical conditions whose fearful symptoms affect millions of people.

Introduction

I. Attention: I can’t breathe, my arms are tingling, I’m really dizzy, and it feels as if my heart is about to fly out of my chest. When this happened to me three years ago at an outdoor concert, I was really frightened. At the time, I had no idea what was going on.

II. Topic: My doctor told me later that I had experienced a panic attack.

III. Credibility: I have learned a lot about my condition during the past three years, and I did additional research for this speech from sources such as the National Institute of Mental Health and the American Psychiatric Association as well as others.

IV. Preview: Today I would like to inform you about the nature of panic attacks, the people affected most often by them, and the options for treatment.

(Transition: Let’s start with the nature of panic attacks.)

I. Panic attacks are a severe medical condition with a number of physical and mental symptoms.

A. As defined by the National Institute of Mental Health, panic attacks involve “unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms.”

1. The attacks usually come out of nowhere and strike when least expected.

2. Their length can vary from a few minutes to several hours. B. There are a number of symptoms common to most panic attacks. 1. Physical symptoms include a pounding heart, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and legs. (Baskin)

2. Mental symptoms include acute fear, a sense of disaster or helplessness, and a feeling of being detached from one’s own body.

(Transition: Now that you know something about the nature of panic attacks, let’s look at how widespread they are.)

II. Panic attacks affect millions of people.

A. According to the American Psychiatric Association, six million Americans suffer from panic attacks.

B. Some groups have a higher incidence of panic attacks than do other groups.

1. The National Institute of Mental Health reports that panic attacks strike women twice as often as men.

2. Half the people who suffer from panic attacks develop symptoms before the age of 24. (National Institutes of Health) 3. Presentation aid (United)

(Transition: Given the severity of panic attacks, I’m sure you are wondering how they can be treated.)

III. There are two major options for treating panic attacks. A. One option is medication.

1. Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed medication for panic attacks.

2. They rearrange the brain’s chemical levels so as to get rid of unwanted fear responses. (Choy)

B. Another option is cognitive-behavioral therapy. This therapy involves techniques that help people with panic attacks gain control of their symptoms and feelings.

1. Some techniques involve breathing exercises.

2. Other techniques target thought patterns that can trigger panic attacks. (Brantley)

3. According to David Barlow, author of the Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, cognitive behavior can be highly effective.

Conclusion

I. Summary: As we have seen, panic attacks affect millions of people. Fortunately, there are treatment options to help prevent panic attacks and to deal with them when they occur. In my case, the combination of medication and cognitive- behavioral therapy has been extreme helpful.

II. Close: I don’t know if I will ever be completely free of panic attacks, but at least I understand now what they are and what I can do about them.

Works Cited

Barlow, David. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, 4th ed. New York: Guilford, 2008. Print.

Baskin, Kara. “Not Just Any Old Butterflies.” Washington Post 9 Jan. 2007: F1. LexisNexis.

Web. 23 Oct. 2008.

Brantley, Jeffrey. Calming Your Anxious Mind: How Mindfulness and Compassion Can Free You from Anxiety, Fear, and Panic, 2nd ed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2007. Print.

Choy, Yujuan. “Treatment Planning for Panic Disorder.” Psychiatric Times Feb. 2008: 40–44.

Print.

Lucas, Stephen E. The Art of Public Speaking, 10th ed. New York: McGraw, 2009.

ConnectLucas.com. Web. 12 Aug. 2010.

United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Web. 23 Oct. 2008.

1

1

1

4

National Institute of Mental Health. Panic Disorder.

National Institutes of Health 2 Apr. 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2008.

English


Self-Evaluation Form

Note: A completed self-evaluation form must be turned in with your final draft of every essay.

READ THIS FIRST:

Self-Evaluation of Essays: A Brief Guide to Evaluating Your Own Writing

By Richard Nordquist

You’re probably used to having your writing evaluated by teachers. The odd abbreviations (“AGR,” “REF,” “AWK!”), the comments in the margins, the grade at the end of the paper – these are all methods used by instructors to identify what they see as the strengths and weaknesses of your work. Such evaluations can be helpful, but they’re no substitute for a thoughtful self-evaluation.

As the writer, you can evaluate the whole process of composing a paper, from coming up with a topic to editing the final draft. Your instructor, on the other hand, often can evaluate only the final product.

A good self-evaluation is neither a defense nor an apology. Rather, it’s a way of becoming more aware of what you go through when you write and of what troubles (if any) that you regularly run into. Writing a brief self-evaluation each time you have completed a writing project should make you more aware of your strengths as a writer and help you see more clearly what skills you need to work on.

Finally, if you decide to share your self-evaluations with a writing instructor or tutor, your comments can guide your teachers as well. By seeing where you are having problems, they may be able to offer more helpful advice when they come to evaluate your work.

So after you finish your next composition, try writing a concise self-evaluation.

Author: In order to help your instructor evaluate this essay, you should be as specific as possible in answering the following questions.

1. Without looking at the assignment sheet, paraphrase the assignment for this essay.

2. What is the thesis (main idea) of your essay? What are you trying to say in this essay?

3. What part of writing this essay took the most time? What did you have the most trouble with?

4. What are the strengths of your essay? What do you like best about your essay?

5. What are the weaknesses of your essay? What do you like least about your essay? What part of this essay could still be improved?

6. How much time did you spend on this essay?

7. Free-write for a few minutes (at least 75 words) about the process of writing this essay and how you feel that it turned out. Was it easy to write or difficult to write? How did you find the revision process? What changes did you make during revision? Are you overall pleased with the results?

8. What grade do you deserve on this essay? Justify it.

Sources:

Richard Nordquist – http://grammar.about.com/od/developingessays/a/selfeval.htm

Christine Alfano – http://www.stanford.edu/~steener/PWR/sp02/forms/sev1.htm

Tori Haring-Smith. Brown University – http://library.cn.edu/wacn/WACforFAC/Ex3_SelfEval.pdf

http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~uwc/Faculty_Resources/fac_assessing_writing_pages/fac_questions_student_evaluation.htm

Cooper & Odell. Evaluating Writing, Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1977. 143

Brooks Educationhttp://brooks-education.com/blog/?page_id=224

English

What can you say about the probability of a certain event if (a) the probability is 1, (b) the probability is 0.

Explain how a nonstandard normal distribution differs from the standard normal distribution. Describe the process for finding probabilities for nonstandard normal distributions. Illustrate with examples

English

Running Head: PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION ESSAY 2

2

Philosophical Reflection Essay

Shy Phillips Comment by Nathan W Bollig: Hi Shy, Nathan here to ask that you scroll to the end for commentary on why you received a zero.

Wilmington University

Introduction

Part I: Philosophical Thinking

In our society today, Philosophical thinking plays a critical role in our daily proceedings. Philosophy has played a crucial and important aspect of linguistics in the human study and development history. In this paper, the research carried out on philosophical thinking as a discipline will be discussed. According to Helskog (2019), Philosophical thinking provides something to your full attention. Over the years the definition of Philosophy has evolved, but in an article published to define philosophy as the search of truth, knowledge and wisdom (Tesar et al., 2021). In Greek, the word philosophy spells out as ‘love of wisdom.’ philosophy necessitates human reasoning about why nature acts in a certain ways; Philosophy is all about the values and meaning of life. Philosophical thinking is concerned about the present and past. Philosophy differentiates areas of study such as humanities and science.

According to Thagard (2019), philosophy has three main areas: Metaphysics, ethics, and epistemology. Ethics is a field of study that is more focused with morally right or wrong and good or evil. Ethics focuses at the dignity of rights or wrongs. In overall, epistemology can be defined as an understanding. Case in point, Plato’s epistemology seeks out to acknowledge how knowledge is good and what it was. On the contrary, Metaphysics centre of attention is on the first causes of things and the nature of human beings.

Knowledge is a popular term in philosophy as it arises frequently, and many philosophers attempt to spell out knowledge. Knowledge is the condition or fact of understanding something with ease acquired through an encounter or experience (Thagard, 2019). According to Plato’s belief that truth is objective and results from beliefs that have been rightly justified in reasons; thus, knowledge is a justified and true belief. Often epistemology is all about understanding and reasons which signifies the important link of knowledge to epistemology. Mainly epistemology provides answers to the questions arising about knowledge and hence gives the reasons and comprehension.

In philosophy, questions often arise on what is reality? The word is obtained from the word real, which means something that can make true sense; therefore we understand reality as the occurances and understanding of the world that assists to determine how things are manifested to you (Thagard, 2019). For instance, the seasons, winter, spring, autumn, and summer can be considered as facts and not fiction. The reality of life is mainly based on a metaphysic branch of philosophy. It describes the focuses on first causes of things and the nature of being. It details the reality of things, not the illusion and the fantasies. In general, metaphysics deals with reality and views what is real and what is not.

On the topic of ethics, we view morality in general, thus raising the question of what is a good life and how I ought to live it. Philosophers of all ages have pondered the question of a good life. Do we know what a good life is or who views what kind of a good life a person wants to live in? Thus, people are still discovering what a good life is because the term itself means various things to different people. Living a good life has its perspectives as it means a different thing to different people. The first perspective is all about what gives you joy and satisfaction. That thing that makes me draw my happiness and desire to be in this world for a long period is what I derive as a good life in the first perception (Tesar et al., 2021). Every person aspires for something since childhood; thus, if the person achieves the desires, that is a good life. According to Foucault (2020), some people term a spiritual life of good morals a good life, and they believe in it entirely, however other human being defines a good life as seeking wealth, social status, and fame as they hope these aspects will define their good life. They associate the good life with money and material.

Previous studies have highlighted the difference between the three primary branches of philosophy. I noted the difference between the two branches of epistemology and metaphysics in the outer sections. Metaphysics focuses mainly on reality and proves what is real and what is not. It focuses on the nature of reality, while epistemology focuses on how people acquire their knowledge.

Part II: Reflection

This account seeks to discuss what knowledge is in detail. My main reason for focusing on knowledge is the advantages of having more knowledge on the happenings. Throughout my life, those who knew are well respected, fear and even turned to in the event of unknown occurrence. Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle concluded that knowledge takes the universal form in the particular primary substance as its object. Aristotle agreed it is true, and what is true should be justified to show the truth (Helskog, 2019). There is something you know for every person while others you do not know.

According to Foucault (2020), knowledge articulates getting the truth of something or getting answers to something. For example, if the world knows about the war between Russia and Ukraine, they know they can either protect themselves or assist in the matter. Knowing something does not constitute the whole event. It may be a glimpse of it. According to some theories, analyzing knowledge identifies the components that made the knowledge first—for example, learning what occurs during a volcanic eruption or what causes the second world war ( (Thagard, 2019). Philosophical thinking shows acting based on reasons. I view philosophical thinking to acquire more knowledge on something and clarify the subject of my study, event, or experience.

The evidence from these studies shows that philosophical thinking answers the various questions on how we live. We get to know the difference between right and wrong, reality and fantasy, and acquire the knowledge of our existence. This study indicates that every being has a different understanding and interpretation of its own life.


Reference

Foucault, M. (2020). Power/knowledge. In The new social theory reader (pp. 73-79). Routledge.

Helskog, G. H. (2019). Philosophizing the dialogues way towards wisdom in education: Between critical thinking and spiritual contemplation. Routledge.

Tesar, M., Hytten, K., Hoskins, T. K., Rosiek, J., Jackson, A. Y., Hand, M., … & Jackson, L. (2021). Philosophy of education in a new key: Future of philosophy of education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 1-22.

Thagard, P. (2019). Natural philosophy: From social brains to knowledge, reality, morality, and beauty (treatise on mind and society). Oxford University Press.





Touchstone 1 Rubric and Feedback

Rubric Category

Your Grade

Definitions – 13%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not properly define philosophy and distinguish and define each of the three main branches of philosophy covered in this class.

Connections – 7%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not connect each of the philosophical questions with the associated branch of philosophy as defined in the course.

Examples – 27%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not illustrate the differences between the three branches of philosophy, using cited examples from the course.

Philosophical Thinking – 7%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not describe philosophical thinking and reflect on how it can help in a personal way.

Impact – 13%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not describe the influence of philosophical viewpoints from the course on personal views and opinions.

Reflection – 33%

Non-Performance (0%) – Does not select a single philosophical question to explore. Does not provide and explain your personal reflection on the question.

SCORE: 0/75

Shy,

This second attempt touchstone 1 has been returned with a zero grade because 100% of this essay is taken from another student’s paper. Additionally, it looks like outside sources are used in this essay and those sources reference modern philosophers like Foucault (who is not covered in this course). The provided course materials are the only source that you need to successfully complete the assignment. The goal of this assignment is to compose an original, cohesive essay that includes all of the elements laid out in the Assignment Guidelines, which directly engages with the actual course materials as much as possible, so that your familiarity with the content of the course can be adequately assessed. Each time you draw from the course, it should be properly cited as such. Not outside materials are necessary and in most cases, they are discouraged since they detract from the purpose and goal of your essay.

Nathan

english

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism:
From Cultural Heritage to Landscape
Symbol and Media of the Tourism Industry

Jie Zhang, Wenyue Tang, Chunyun Shi, Zehua Liu and Xia Wang
Institute for Tourism Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

In this article, the authors attempt to explain whether and how Chinese calligraphy –
a characteristic cultural symbol – plays and will play an important role in the modern
tourism industry in China given its historic context and modern renaissance. Chinese
calligraphy as heritage, with its long history, diverse types and forms, broad connota-
tion, maturity in theory, wide distribution, pervasive existence, and close relationship
to living culture, is a tourist attraction and also a symbolic element characterizing the
cultural landscape as national identity; in fact there exists a substantial calligraphic
landscape. Investigations have revealed that there are many diverse calligraphy land-
scapes perceived. Chinese calligraphy connects a system of cultures and forms a cul-
tural chain. Reviewing recent research on cultural landscapes and heritage as well
as calligraphy landscapes, some new ideas on tourism landscapes integrated with
this culture of calligraphy are discussed in this paper. Based on characteristics of
a culture chain that links calligraphy and the Chinese cultural system, a possible
model with calligraphy to promote tourism is presented. The transformation
process is as follows: calligraphy heritage!calligraphic context!traditional calli-
graphy landscape !generalised calligraphic landscape!pervasive calligraphic sym-
bolic system. With this process, calligraphy is transferred from cultural heritage to a
holistic medium for the development of the tourism industry.

doi: 10.1080/13683500802475836

Keywords: calligraphy, symbolic space, regional context, calligraphic landscape,
tourism

Introduction
Calligraphy is involved in various writing systems in the world (Martin,

1984, pp. 7 – 35). The art of Chinese calligraphy seems to be a nationwide
tourist attraction for Chinese domestic tourists rather than for foreign arrivals.
Yet calligraphy is still a potential tourist attraction for foreign visitors, since
without understanding it one would otherwise lose much of the appreciation
and experience of the real China and Chinese culture. In China, Chinese calligraphy
– basically the art of writing characters – is considered as a fine art, along with
poetry and painting, which comprise the three perfections of Chinese art
(Sullivan, 1986). On the Chinese scale of aesthetic values, top priority is given
to calligraphy, painting, poetry, and music (Bussagli, 1988, p.13). For most
Westerners, it is probably not very evident what aesthetic quality is attached
to Chinese calligraphy (Willetts, 1958), some early European experts on
Chinese art did not even mention calligraphy in the whole system of Chinese
art (e.g. Cohn, 1935). Calligraphy had become a popular and elevated art

1368-3500/08/06 529-20 $20.00/0 # 2008 Taylor & Francis
CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM Vol. 11, No. 6, 2008

529

form as early as 2000 years ago in the Han Dynasty (25 – 220BC) with both
popular public participation and the emergence of related theories of art criti-
cism or aesthetics. Chinese calligraphy is characterised by its origins, distri-
bution, cultural connotations, and classification, and results in a so-called
calligraphy culture chain (Zhang, 2006a), which has the potential for tourism
development and the construction of identities of destinations. In most treatises
on the Chinese cultural landscape, calligraphy itself has not been thought to be
a kind of landscape, e.g., Wu and Liu (2004, p. 378) noticed that verse couplets
in China were a linguistic landscape rather than a calligraphic landscape,
though calligraphy actually played a basic visual communication medium
in this case. However, calligraphy is distributed almost all over China in
the forms of cliff epigraphs, signboards, and couplet epigraph boards,
especially in those famous tourist destinations. Chinese geographers have
claimed the existence of calligraphic landscape (e.g., Wu & Situ, 2002), and.
Zhang (2003) redefined the calligraphic landscape and presented a detailed
classification. Based on characteristics of calligraphy as heritage symbols and
landscape, this paper will focus on the calligraphy’s role in future Chinese
tourism during the process that China becomes a hot international tourist
destination.

Chinese calligraphic heritage system – calligraphy as
cultural heritage
Chinese calligraphy as widespread culture in Chinese civilization

Chinese calligraphy has a long history and lasting continuity. The Sumerian
cuneiform scripts and the Egyptian hieroglyphics belonging to the period
before 3500 BC (Gaur, 1987; Wissler, 1923) are older than the Chinese character
system, yet the Chinese character system being is the only surviving writing
system out of those far ancient civilizations of the world. Many Chinese char-
acters being used now still have the same structure and the meaning as their
antecedents of 3500 years ago. The earliest calligraphy can be identified to
the period of the oracle bone inscriptions (Chen, 1990, p. 36), a genius superior
art form since the Han Dynasty (Wang, 1990, p. 1).

The peoples involved with Chinese calligraphy and its related culture live in
regions including China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. Calligraphy is also
a folklore culture. For instance, practising calligraphy and the appreciation of
calligraphic works have been a tradition of Chinese leisure since the Han
Dynasty. Calligraphy continues to be practised as a graceful and healthy
leisure activity by modern Chinese. In China, calligraphy gained an elevated
position in art since Confucius nominated ‘writing’ as one of the six essential
arts (liuyi). Calligraphy as one’s handwriting, like that in European graphology
(Gullen-Whur, 1984; Nesos, 1986), is thought to be associated with one’s per-
sonality, character, temperament, emotion, and even to one’s moral character
in the classics of Chinese calligraphy theory.

In terms of its forms, Chinese calligraphy may be classified into art
works, crafts, and landscapes. Calligraphic art works include original brush
works on rice paper (hanging scrolls, hand scrolls, fans, mounted albums,
etc.) and copies (stone inscription rubbings, porcelain plates or craft, wood

530 Current Issues in Tourism

carvings, etc.). Calligraphic landscapes include stone inscription tablets, cliff
inscriptions, resort epigraphy, plaque, and signboard, couplets in various
tourist destinations like resorts, gardens, national parks, scenic spots, and
tourist attractions.

Calligraphy in its form as resort epigraphy on cliffs, inscription tablets of
mausoleums, and cenotaph historical sites is a record of historical information
excluded from formal historical documents.

Chinese calligraphy as literati culture in Chinese civilization

Chinese calligraphy is thought to be the essence of the Chinese culture
(Hsiung, 2003, cover), and the typical and superior form of traditional
Chinese art. For example, some European researchers considered Chinese
paintings as the only real art of China, yet Chinese painters usually first practise
calligraphy before they turn to painting (Swan, 1958). Meanwhile, brush
inscription of calligraphy composed a full composition of Chinese painting
(Chiang, 1935). Techniques of calligraphic brushwork used to be fundamental
elements in traditional Chinese paintings (Grousset, 1967, p. 286; Kwuo,
1981, p. XV; Tregear, 1980, p. 7). Because of its perceived superiority, calligraphy
has been earning a unique status in Chinese civilization and in modern China’s
heritage tourism. With some of its traits having originated from Chinese
philosophy (Woo, 1979), Chinese calligraphy is also a unique type of art in
world art.

As a system of traditional culture, calligraphy possesses is diversified in type,
widely distributed, broadly connoted, and mature with plenty of theories.
theories., and wide distribution. The Chinese calligraphic theory in practice
and appreciation may reflect Confucian, Taoist, Zen Buddhism, traditional
philosophy, and aesthetics, as well as military strategic theory (Ledderose,
1984). On the other hand, calligraphic theory made its own contribution to
Chinese aesthetics (Chen, 2003). It even becomes the rule of other styles of
art and technique, such as seal engraving, painting, crafts, and even architec-
ture (Chiang, 1973, pp. 225 – 239; Lin, 2000, pp. 283 – 290, 308). Chinese calligra-
phy is also a kind of culture carrier that spreads traditional Chinese philosophy,
classics, poems, odes, verse, ancient lyrics, distich verse, as well as famous quo-
tations. Calligraphy penetrates philosophical thinking, economic culture,
material culture, religion, leisure culture, and architecture. The Chinese idea
of nature and the universe may also be reflected in calligraphy aesthetics
with that has a systematic tradition since the beginning of calligraphic theory
2000 years in the Han Dynasty.

Chinese calligraphy as heritage

Heritages can be classified into tangible and intangible ones. In current heri-
tage preservation practice in China, folkloric intangible heritage has been the
only one given proper attention. Since calligraphy is often thought to be elite
culture, it is not cited in the recently publicised First Round National
Intangible Heritage List of China. There exist four types of calligraphy (Table 1).

Calligraphy matches the UNESCO definition of intangible cultural heritage
to the extent that it can be thought of as performance, ritual, craftsmanship,
and as concerned with man and nature.

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism 531

For the Chinese, practicing calligraphy used to be one of the recreations and
leisure activities of the literati; but nowadays it has become a popular leisure
activity amongst all (Figure 1). With highly flexible brushes, variable chroma
in Chinese ink, and highly absorptive rice paper, calligraphy is also extremely
diversified in its style, tastes, and aesthetic imaginations. In this, the aesthetics
of calligraphic knowledge and practices often reflect the way Chinese relate to
nature and the universe (Zhang, 2004).

Calligraphy has also been a form of performing art in traditional salons and
artistic gatherings for centuries. At the closing ceremony of the Asian Games,
Doha, Chinese calligraphy was also performed in the promotional programmes
for the following Asian Games of Guangzhou (China).

The manufacture of writing tools has had a long tradition as a craft. The four
basic tools for the practice of Chinese calligraphy, i.e., brush, ink stick, rice
paper, and ink slab, became the ‘four treasures’ in traditional Chinese literati
studios. The production of these four tools could also enhance the reputation
of certain towns. For example, rice paper in China used to be called as Xuan

Figure 1 Percentage of citizens practising calligraphy from four metropolises
of China in 2003 – 2004
Source: Adapted from Huang, 2004.

Table 1 Cultural heritage system of Chinese calligraphy

Category Type Case calligraphic culture

Tangible
heritage

Hard landscape Epigraphy on cliff faces and stone tablets in scenic
spots, couplets and signboards in gardens or
towns, inscription on torsi or houses

Mobile tangible
heritage

Masterpieces of calligraphic works in museums
and private collections

Intangible
heritage

Folklore Calligraphy-related folktale and religion,
calligraphic craft and related manufacturing
technique

Elite or non-
folklore

Historic record of calligraphic evolution,
important events in calligraphy history,
calligraphy-related literature, calligraphic
theory like aesthetics and critiques

532 Current Issues in Tourism

Paper, because the rice paper produced in Xuan Cheng county was of superior
quality for calligraphy and painting; likewise, Huimo (literally Hui ink-sticks
produced in Hui-zhou county), Duanyan (ink-slabs produced in Duanzhou
county), and Hubi (brushes made in Huzhou county) (Du & Du, 2002,
pp. 153 – 157). Furthermore, finely decorated instruments or materials of calli-
graphy such as the four treasures of the studios became artefacts, crafts, and
even artworks in themselves, e.g., ink slab carvings established many
Chinese national folk art masters.

Calligraphic works were often used in folklore rituals, and people often hung
a large calligraphic work with single large Chinese character (longevity)
in the centre of a guest hall to celebrate one’s important birthdays, such as
turning 50, 60, and so on. Hanging spring festival couplet scrolls on doors,
on either side of doors, or on walls was a new year ’s celebration ritual for
most traditional Chinese families.

For writing tools, derived culture might include related decorative arts and
the techniques of manufacture, while the related historic sites might be the
places of high-quality raw materials and famous local artisans. The intangible
culture might be other related traditional craftsmanship. As a communication
medium, its derived culture might be the textual researches and archeology,
and the related historic sites might be the relict sites of discovery, e.g., the
Anyang relict site of Henan Province was included in the list of World
Cultural Heritage of UNESCO with the discovery of the first generation of
mature Chinese scripts, i.e., oracle bone inscriptions.

Calligraphy as folklore

Folklore is characterised by nationality, locality, historical continuity, regional
history, and cultural diversity, and such characteristics promote tourist attrac-
tions. As a result, folklore becomes an effective, pervasive, penetrative, conno-
tative, and attractive cultural resource. Based on Burne’s (1914) trichotomy
classification of folklore, a system of hexachotomy folklore tourism attraction
was proposed (Zhang, 1997), and calligraphy could be included in various
types of folk tourist attractions (Table 2).

Calligraphy as tourist attractions
Calligraphy as keel of a cultural chain

Calligraphy is a kind of cultural heritage that reflects genetic processes, evol-
ution, and the related functions of human civilization. In recent research, a cul-
tural chain of calligraphy was discussed and identified as a series of widely
involved Chinese cultures with interrelationships based on calligraphy as the
hinge or keel (Zhang, 2005a). So Calligraphic Cultural Chains (CCC) can be
defined as an interrelated culture system with calligraphy as a structural keel
or hinge linkage. CCC can cover various fields such as economy, society, phil-
osophy, religion, literature, folklore, landscape, and history. For example, as a
result of a pioneer calligrapher ’s aesthetic preference to diversified forms of cal-
ligraphic works, diversification of contemporary rice paper production in
colour, shading decoration, and form, as well as mounting styles emerged,
instead of the traditional status with single white paper.

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism 533

Calligraphy is the symbol of Chinese culture. It plays a role as a marker of
national identity and increasingly draws attention from people in the era of glo-
balisation. Since CCC is pervasive and characteristic in Chinese civilisation,
with calligraphy as the symbol of Chinese culture, it becomes a very important
resource that the tourism industry should develop. In this case, derived cul-
tures, related landscapes, heritage sites, types of heritage, and regional historic
contexts related to CCC become the main attributes for tourism attraction
assessment (Table 3).

Calligraphy as regional historic context

The regional cultural context is composed of a cultural system and related
cultural symbols and landscapes. The Chinese writing system dates back
almost 3500 years, and the evolution of the script from oracle-bone inscription
to seal script, then to official script, to cursive script, to regular script, and to
running script often match certain historical periods or dynasties. So the
in situ epigraphy as calligraphic landscape may become regional historic
documents with its epoch-connotative script style. Like other heritages, calli-
graphy in China has also been exploited and developed to create a market in
real, fake, and reproduced antiquities. Such tourist arts generally satisfy
foreign tourists’ interest in the ancient past (Evans-Pritchard, 1993).

Calligraphy as regional historic context might be characterised with the
regional school of calligraphy art, local master calligraphers, regional events,
and anecdotes of calligraphy, master calligraphic works of local inscriptions,
and the derived regional culture system (e.g., manufacturing writing tools).
Generally speaking, regional historic context is the foundation of the identity
and image of the region; it is a heritage system derived from long historic
regional development. Such a heritage system is directly related to a specific
place, or its origin, critical developing stages, and related events. It can be
easily perceived or experienced with certain carriers, specific historic records,
and oral histories. Regional historic context often possesses certain integrated

Table 2 Calligraphy as folklore

Folklore type Cases of Calligraphy folklore

Belief folklore Gods of Chinese character, Buddhism and Zen calligraphy, Taoist
calligraphy

Social folklore Spring festival scrolls, folklore calligraphy, calligraphy rituals,
calligraphy tools, Chinese graphology based on fortune-telling

Living folklore Large calligraphy works, calligraphy couplets, fan calligraphy

Economic folklore Manufacturing rice paper, ink sticks, ink slabs, mounting
techniques, calligraphy signboards, calligraphy market

Legend folktale Calligraphy context folktales, Calligraphy context idioms and
vulgarisms

Recreation and
Games

Competitive games of calligraphy, Lanting annually gathering,
calligraphy logogriphs and riddles, Calligraphy as leisure
activity and therapy

534 Current Issues in Tourism

Table 3 Calligraphic cultural chain and the qualitative evaluation of the related tourism attraction

Core of the
chain

Branch of the
chain

Component culture
of the chain

Derived
Culture

Historic
context

Related
historic
sites

Tangible
heritage

Intangible
heritages

Tourism
attraction

Chinese
calligraphy

Writing tools Brush þ þþ þ þ þþþ þ

Xuan paper (rice
paper)

þ þ þ 2 þþþþ þ

Ink stick þ þ þ þ þþ þ

Ink slab þþ þ þþ þþ þþþþ þþ

Others: Brush holder,
etc.

þþ þ 2 þþ þ þ

Communication
media

Oracle inscriptions þ þþþþ þþþþ þþþþ 2 þþþ

Stone & brick
inscriptions

þþ þþþ þþþ þþþþ 2 þþ

Bronze inscriptions þ þþþ þþ þþþþ 2 þ

Bamboo slips 2 þþþ þþþ þþ 2 þþ

Inscription on silk and
textiles

þ þþþ þþþ þþ 2 þ

In situ epigraphs in
scenic spots

þþ þþþþ þþþþ þþþþ 2 þþþþ

Historic records and
documents

þ þþþþ þþþþ þ þ þ

Historic context History of calligraphy þ þþþ þþ þ 2 þþ

History of calligraphic
schools

þ þþ þþþ þþ 2 þþþ

(Continued)

C
h
in
e
se

C
a
llig

ra
p
h
y
a
n
d
To

u
rism

5
3
5

Table 3 Continued

Core
of the
chain

Branch of the
chain Component culture of the chain

Derived
Culture

Historic
context

Related
historic
sites

Tangible
heritage

Intangible
heritages

Tourism
attraction

Master calligraphers and
regional history

þþ þþþ þþþþ þ 2 þþþþ

Succeeding of master works of
calligraphy

2 þ 2 þþþþ 2 2

Script evolution and varieties þ þþ þ þþþ 2 þ

Performance
techniques

Dot and stroke morphology þ þþ 2 2 2 þ

Character composition þþ þ 2 2 2 þ

Paragraph composition þþ þ 2 – 2 þ

Sense of brush-control: wet –
dry, thick – thin, fast – slow
moved

þþþ þ þ 2 2 þ

Appreciation aesthetics þþþþ þþ þþ þ þ þþþ

Communicated
content

Quotations of classics,
philosophy

þ þþ þ 2 2 þ

Literature: Poem, verse,
couplet. . .

þþ þþ þþþ þ þ þþþþ

Folklores and nostalgic
elements

þþþ þþþ þþ þ þþ þþþþ

Famous calligraphic works 2 þ þþ þþþþ 2 þ

Symbol of well-educated trait
and identity of social status

þþ þþþþ 2 2 þþþ þþ

Practice education Leisure activity and recreation þþþ þþ þþþþ þ þ þþþ

Health and recreation therapy þþþ þþþ 2 2 þþ þþþ

Note: þþþþ, extremely important; þþþ, very important; þþ, important; þ, positive; 2, not important, obviously.

5
3
6

C
u
rre

n
t
Issu

e
s
in

To
u
rism

spiritual connotations that result in related cultural symbols and ambience,
which specifically attract significant public attention. Regional historic contexts
exist in real landscapes, in folklore, and in human geographical ambience.
Calligraphy with its cultural chain, therefore, is such a regional context with
various branches and values (Table 3), and may be related to various local
real landscapes or mobile landscapes.

Calligraphy as landscape symbols

Tuan (1991), through citing the famous Qing dynasty novel The Story of Stone
(The Dream of Red Mansion), pointed out that written words perfect a good
Chinese garden and landscape. Here the written words are in fact the calligra-
phy often on a signboard. The terminology of calligraphic landscapes concerns
the role of calligraphy in a regional culture and place. Applying the classic defi-
nition of cultural landscape of Sauer (1963), an early definition of calligraphic
landscape mechanically refers to it as ‘a cultural configuration of modified
physical environment by [the] calligrapher’ and the attached artistic configur-
ation to physical landscape (Wu & Situ, 2002). In order to avoid the restrictions
of such a definition, in the later research (Zhang, 2003), calligraphic landscape
was defined as a portion of geographical space with specific visual character-
istics and special sense of place resulting from the laying-out of assemblies of
calligraphy as landscape elements, and the calligraphic landscapes were then
systematically classified (Table 4).

Public perception of calligraphic landscape has been noticed and studied in
some of the latest researches. The existence and the regional differentiation of
calligraphic landscape were recognised and revealed (Zhang, 2006b). And
investigation on the image of a township in Jiangsu Province revealed a coinci-
dence: the existence of a calligraphic landscape dimension along with the geo-
graphical dimension (Zhang et al., 2006). In our recent investigation on
perceived places of calligraphic landscapes (Figure 2), it is revealed that calli-
graphic landscapes occurred most frequently on scenic sites, which implies
the significance of calligraphy as landscape attractions for tourism.

Calligraphy as an alternative tourist attraction

For tourists from Western countries, Chinese calligraphy might be a tourist
attraction possessed of certain obstacles that limit their ability to understand
or appreciate it; however, Chinese calligraphy can be easily appreciated in
the first instance as long as it is treated as a visual art with certain attributes
like painting or drawing. Moreover, calligraphic culture chains are located in
the centre of Chinese culture with its visual symbolic significance, especially
in this era of globalisation.

Generally speaking, from the view of classification of tourist resources
(National Bureau of Standards, 2002), calligraphy belongs to the category of
cultural attraction. However, calligraphy emerges widely in natural scenic
sites and some service resources. For example, in some famous mountain
scenic spots listed as World Natural Heritage by UNESCO, such as Mt.
Huangshan (Figure 3) and Mt. Taishan, there are many calligraphic landscapes
by way of epigraphs on cliffs or tablets.

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism 537

As a matter of fact, calligraphy exists pervasively in almost every destination
of China. With the Regional Tourism Websites Index (Zhang et al., 2004), we inves-
tigated calligraphy and regional tourism with regional units of provinces, and
the results revealed that calligraphy might be closely related to regional
tourism with significant potentiality for future tourism development (Figure 4).

Calligraphic works and the derived crafts of calligraphy serve as souvenirs
with the contents of showcasing locally related literature. Practicsing calligra-
phy is still a very important leisure activity for the recreation of urban citizens
(Figure 1). For the younger generation, practising calligraphy is symbol of
accomplishment, while for the aged generation practising calligraphy is a
health regime and recreational therapy, much like acting and music act as

Table 4 Classification of calligraphic landscape and/or space

Category Type Descriptions and cases

Scale Landscape
(narrow sense)

Larger than architecture, composed of
assemblies of architecture, community
blocks or even regions.

Setting Smaller than single architecture

Appearance Scenery As landmarks of scenery, e.g., epigraphs of
natural scenery

Ornament As ornaments of interior design, e.g.,
calligraphy couplet

Exhibition As a temporal show forming an interior
landscape/space

Dominance in
space

Panorama Calligraphy as pervasive landscape elements

Theme As focus of landscape system, e.g., epigraphy
tablet in a city or town square

Intersperse As the subordinate of landscape, e.g.,
calligraphy ornament in urban design

Cultural attribute Religion Symbols of a sacred landscape, e.g.,
monument stone

Folklore Symbols of folklore space, spring festival
scrolls

Economic Symbols of commercial space, e.g., signboard,
and crafts etc.

Living As ornaments of living space, e.g., interior
design

Literati Symbols of literati space, e.g., calligraphy
works of quotations

Aesthetics As guidelines of landscape aesthetics

Existence of
calligraphy

Real landscape As the concrete existence of the environment,
stone epigraphy

Mobile landscape Calligraphy as mobile articles of art works or
ornaments

Source: Adapted from Zhang, 2003. Modified.

538 Current Issues in Tourism

therapies in the West (Pavlicevic, 1997; Sporre, 2000, p. 8). Chinese arts are for
both creation and recreation (Lin 1998, p. 371), and this is typified with the case
of calligraphy. Thus, calligraphy might have its role in the leisure industry.
Recent research noticed the current Chinese leisure industry’s lack of status
and deep meaningful experience within most amusement parks (Zhang et al.,
1998). Instead, practising calligraphy as a popular and traditional leisure
activity with elegant taste and deep cultural and aesthetic experience could
be used as commercial leisure products by providing better practising
environments.

In Chinese history, calligraphy used to be a dominant elite culture that was
distinguishable from folk culture. Elite culture, as the dominant culture of

Figure 3 Calligraphic cliff epigraph in Huangshan National Park

Figure 2 Frequency of visitors to places with calligraphic landscapes (n ¼ 496)

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism 539

the elite class or literali, is usually documented within historical records, and
thought of as the authentic cultural heritage. This, however, is not the real
status of calligraphy. Nowadays calligraphy faces a period that on the one
hand, its significance as symbolic culture becomes increasingly important in
the era of globalisation, while on the other hand, traditional calligraphy due
to its declining popularity in everyday life is losing its former status as a
superior art in the cultural system (Cong, 2002; Zhang, 2006a).

Calligraphy as a dominant culture has a close relationship to other aspects of
the dominant culture. For example, style and aesthetic tastes of calligraphy in
the Wei and Jin Dynasties (220 – 420) were influenced by Taoism and metaphy-
sics in the same period (Ledderose, 1984; Su, 2000; Sun, 2001; Wang, 2002,
p. 228), while the freehand esteemed school of calligraphy of the Song
Dynasty was highly influenced by Zen philosophy (Song, 2005). During the
Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644), there was a kind of literary romanticism, based
on Wang Yangming’s philosophy of mind and ideas that was promoted by Li
Zhi ( , 1527 – 1620) and Tang Xianzu ( , 1550 – 1616) on individuality.
This advanced diversified individual styles of calligraphy that esteemed indi-
viduality, personality, expressionism, and emotionalism. It further resulted in
a profusion of diversified schools of calligraphy such as the plainly simple
school; heavy strong school; classic elegance school; classic simple school;
and aestheticism school etc. (Chen, 2000, Ye, 2000). Calligraphy works as the
written data of history that documented ancient social lives, social affiliations,
and social customs. As famous ancient calligraphers belonged to the elite, they
were often recorded in formal historical documents and chorography, which
has resulted in the formation of an important regional historic context for
tourism attraction. Throughout history, calligraphy as the dominant culture
emerged in formal government institutions and offices, and the related tangible

Figure 4 Web pages searched on www.google.com using the Chinese
keywords Tourismþprovince and calligraphyþtourismþprovince (May, 2007)

540 Current Issues in Tourism

heritage or their relics are often of large scale, well-designed and delicate
techniques, and in or on refined architectural structures, which has produced
a series of related cultural attractions (Figure 5) of even more historic, cultural,
and artistic value.

In brief, calligraphy is not only a simple tourist attraction of art works, but
also an alternative system of attraction in regional historic contexts and land-
scapes, of souvenirs, and even a participative leisure activity of tourism pro-
ducts.

Calligraphy as tourism development drive
Ideas of calligraphic landscape, calligraphic cultural chain, and the visualisa-

tion of regional calligraphic contexts are the main theoretical foundations for
the development of calligraphic tourism products.

Calligraphy as tourism product

Landscape components possess certain semantic values (e.g., Ozbilen &
Kalin’s study on plants, 2001). New definitions of calligraphic landscapes
encompass wide fields that can be applied to tourism. More recent research
proposes the use of calligraphic landscape as ornaments in a modern urban
landscape design (Figure 6) (Zhang & Zhang, 2004) and as symbolic elements
in an urban leisure space (Zhang, 2005b). The evolving processes of calligraphy
from signal to sign and then to symbol in the visualisation of calligraphic con-
texts in modern urban landscape design has been shown by Zhang et al. (2004,
Table 5).

Detailed discussion on CCC suggested a mode for developing tourism pro-
ducts that possess a pervasive calligraphic culture (Zhang, 2006a), and has
resulted in an integrated enhanced status for both calligraphy and tourism.

Figure 5 Calligraphy in the emperor’s chamber (Taihedian Hall) of the
Forbidden City, Beijing

Chinese Calligraphy and Tourism 541

Figure 6 Calligraphy as landscape elements in modern urban design (Nanjing
(a) and Beijing (b))

Table 5 Visualisation of calligraphy context into landscape

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5. Click on Health and Medical

6. Click on PubMed

7. Type in the topic of what you want to do research on.

8. Select three articles and post the articles in Canvas using the table below.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Title of Article

Author

Year of Publication

Summary of Article

English

Statistics

1)  Discuss the difference between “Population” and “Sample”

2) Give two examples of a Sample and its corresponding Population            

English

Argument 

 You MUST include a complete introduction and conclusion. However, for the supporting evidence section, please provide the research evidence/quotes you will use to support your reasons. Remember to cite your sources.

choose one of the following:

Should K-12 schools be allowed to use metal detectors as a safety protocol in U.S. ? OR

Should gene editing be allowed in the United States?

English

Opinion Essay Proposal

Reminder: Your technology essay is an opinion piece. You are not required to consult

outside sources, although you can if you like. If you choose to use sources, use them

sparingly. The goal of this assignment is to present your own opinion, in a logical,

thorough, well-organized, and coherent manner.

1. What is your subject? In other words, what issue do you plan to discuss?

2. What is your opinion/position regarding this issue?

3. Why do you hold this opinion?

4. What is your thesis statement?

5. Write a 250-word summary of the main ideas you will discuss in the essay. You do

not have to organize the essay at this time, as you will be writing an outline later

this week. Your goal for this assignment is to pick an essay topic and to start

thinking about what you want to do with that topic.

English

Name:




Module 1: What is theatre? What is a play?


Chapter Questions

Read the “Introduction” (pages 1 to 5), Chapter 1 “What Is Theatre” (pages 6 to 19), and Chapter 2 “What Is a Play” (pages 20 to 35) in your textbook.


Choose only 5 of these questions to answer. Write your answers in your own words; if you choose to quote from the textbook, remember to identify the source. Sample:


Question 0 –
Give an example of one of the paradoxes of theatre.

 
Answer –
Despite many weeks of rehearsals, an actor is expected to “…‘live in the moment’ during…performance” (Cohen & Sherman, 2020, p. 5) as though this is the first time for the character to say these words and do these actions.


 

Question #

Chapter

Questions

1

1

Provide evidence that theatre is difficult work.

2

1

Identify the two modes of performance and explain the differences.

3

1

Explain how theatre is “repetition with a difference.”

4

2

Explain the difference between plot and story.

5

2

Define CONVENTION as it applies to theatre, and give an example as provided in the textbook.

6

2

This is a two-part question:

Give an example of Pre-Play.

Name the two reasons for the use of a curtain call.

7

2

Define the four parts of a play.

English

Opinion Essay Instructions

Assignment:

For this essay, you will choose a controversial issue and write an opinion piece/op-ed. I

am giving you considerable leeway in choosing a topic. The options literally are endless!

You may choose any topic that interests you. However, I strongly discourage you from

choosing overused and/or highly emotional topics, such as gun control, abortion rights,

climate change, the death penalty, undocumented immigrants, or marijuana

legalization, mask mandates, and COVID vaccinations. Be creative! Choose an issue

that you feel passionate about. I welcome your ideas. Because issues involve multiple

perspectives, students must consider a wide range of opinions and address any

counterarguments.

You are not required to use secondary sources, although you may use them sparingly if

you feel that they will support your discussion. However, don’t allow sources to take

over your essay. This is not a report or a research paper. Instead, you will present your

own opinion in a logical, thorough, well-organized, and coherent manner.

General Guidelines:

The purpose of this essay is to develop an articulate, persuasive argument about an

issue of social, political, environmental, scientific, or historical significance. Remember,

this essay is not a report. In other words, you will not inform the reader about your

topic. Instead, you will present an opinion and support that opinion with evidence and

examples. You might also choose to address a problem and propose a solution. Your

job is to convince the reader that your opinion is right.

You are not limited to the topics below. However, I do want to provide a few example

topics to help you get started. You may use them as a “jumping off point” for your own

essay, or you may choose to write about an issue that is not included in the list.

• police brutality

• student debt

• homeschooling

• organic foods

• animal rights

• the obesity crisis

• vegetarianism/veganism

• monetary compensation for college athletes

• electronic cigarette safety and regulation

• rent control

• rural broadband

• economic inequality, homelessness, and poverty

• teaching evolution in schools

• mental illness

• fake news

• domestic violence

• DNA testing

• gender discrimination

• distance learning

• addiction

Requirements:

• The essay’s assigned length is 1,000−1,200 words.

• You must adhere to the formatting guidelines set forth in most recent edition of The

MLA Handbook. Be sure that all margins measure 1 inch and that you use the Times

New Roman 12-point font. You should also follow MLA formatting guidelines

regarding the page heading, running header, page numbering, etc.

• You are not required to use secondary sources for this essay. However, if you

choose to use secondary sources, you must properly cite them, both in the text of

the essay and on the Works Cited page.

english

Sample Speech Two

Title: How Much Protection Do Kids Need?

Introduction:

Attention-Getting Opening: You’ve told your 4 year-old son ten times not to go too close to his grandfather’s catfish pond. Each time, he steps back for a couple of minutes before walking back to the muddy edge.

Context for Speech: It’s Christmas day in Alabama and a windy 30 degrees. Yet your son, who cannot swim, seems intent upon ending up in the frigid water in spite of your rational explanations that he would not enjoy this experience. What do you do? Do you make him leave the area to prevent a mishap? Do you keep explaining that it’s dangerous to get too close to the edge? Do you let him fall in, believing that the cold water won’t kill him and that this is the best way to learn a lesson? If you asked a thousand people those questions, you’re likely to get a thousand different answers based on their different ideas on how much protection kids need.


Thesis: I will focus this speech on three of the many perspectives a person could have on the question, “how much protection should parents give their kids when it comes to physical safety?”

Preview of Main Points: 1) kids need a great deal of protection; 2) kids need some freedom and a moderate degree of protection; and 3) kids need minimum protection and a lot of freedom.

Transition to Main Point One: I will start on one extreme and move to the other.

Main Point One: When researching this speech, my on-line library search on “keeping kids safe” yielded nearly three million articles, mostly on keeping kids safe from internet predators, automobiles, and household products. I will focus on two different sources who advocate carefully monitoring kids’ behaviors and environments: The World Health Organization and Safe Kids Worldwide.

The World Health Organization researches and reports on the United Nations’ health system and is known for their high-quality research. Their 2008, 232 page “World report on child injury prevention” offers a comprehensive view of the countless dangers children face each year globally. There are sections on poisons, disease, the environment, road safety, and drowning, to name a few. The WHO report’s exhaustive litany of dangers is supported throughout with research findings and statistics such as, “[s]tudies show that 56% of unintentional poisonings in young children occur within the child’s home, and another 17% occur in or around someone else’s home” (“World report” 134). Because the document focuses exclusively on dangers, accidents, and prevention, the cumulative effect gives the impression that the world is a very dangerous place, with lethal deathtraps lurking around every corner. And the responsible facts and statistics that back the claims further support this vision of the world as highly dangerous for children.

Safe Kids Worldwide, “a global network of organizations whose mission is to prevent unintentional childhood injury, a leading killer of children 14 and under” (Safe Kids Worldwide) unconditionally supports the World Health Organization’s approach. In their December 10, 2008 “Statement by Safe Kids Worldwide in Support of WHO and UNICEF’S World Report on Child Injury Prevention” their leader, founder, and director stated “[b]ased on the research and recommendations contained in this comprehensive World Report, Safe Kids Worldwide will be redoubling and fine-tuning its efforts to better address unintentional injuries to children” (“Statement”).

Transition to Main Point Two: The second perspective I will address is a middle ground between extreme caution and extreme freedom.

Main Point Two: Though I found many articles that favor moderation, I will focus on the two most interesting ones: Michael Ungar’s American Journal of Family Therapy article “Overprotective Parenting: Helping Parents Provide Children the Right Amount of Risk and Responsibility” and Laura Morice’s “Are you fighting your kid’s battles” that appeared in the September 2004 edition of Good Housekeeping magazine.

Michael Ungar, a clinical practitioner in the Dalhousie University School of Social Work in Nova Scotia is highly critical of people who deny their kids the freedom he feels they need in order to develop into healthy adults. Ungar notes that “[b]ehaviors that are perceived as having an element of risk and responsibility (e.g., walking to school alone or in pairs, riding bicycles in the street, sleepovers … with groups like Guides and Scouts) are being denied to children by parents who fear for their offspring’s safety” (258). Based on research in his field, Ungar concludes that this protection is “unnecessary,” interferes with healthy development, and keeps kids from becoming independent as adults (258).

However, Ungar doesn’t deny that real dangers exist. Rather, he advocates for a realistic assessment of danger by demonstrating that perceived danger bears little resemblance to real danger because he feels the world is statistically becoming safer over time (263). Ungar doesn’t believe that parents are intentionally harming their kids, he just thinks that overprotectiveness is caused by such factors as the sensationalistic news media and parental insecurities (269) and the fact that parents often overlook their own childhood experiences that “taught them self-respect, demonstrated capacities, [and] fostered independence” (265).

Laura Morice, author of “Are you fighting your kids’ battles,” similarly stresses the importance of allowing kids to fight at least some of their own battles. Her focus is on “[w]hen to let your kids go it alone—and when you absolutely must get involved (102). Morice’s expertise comes from being an experienced parent and from consulting published works by experts on the subject. For instance, Morice quotes Megan McClelland, PhD., “an assistant professor at Oregan State University” (103) as saying “If your son or daughter is not sleeping, not eating, or not going to school, you need to get directly involved” (103). She further builds ethos by quoting other experts in the field who believe parents should most often let kids resolve their own conflicts.

Morice’s own experiences have also informed her position that kids are more resilient and resourceful than parents give them credit for, but that there are times when parents should intervene. For instance, Morice learned the hard way not to question a teacher’s motive when she discovered that her son had deserved the detention his teacher had given him.

Transition to Main Point Three: The final perspective I will cover is the other extreme, the belief that kids need freedom to make mistakes, even to the point of experiencing pain.

Main Point Three: Advocates of this position include Hara Estroff Marano, author of the 2004 Psychology Today article entitled “A Nation of Wimps” and professional skier Bode Miller and his parents. Marano vehemently criticizes what she considers overprotection of kids from even the slightest pain. She opens with “[p]arents are going to ludicrous lengths to take the lumps and bumps out of life for their children. However well-intentioned, parental hyperconcern and microscrutiny have the net effect of making kids more fragile” (58) and gets more forceful as the article progresses. Marano is highly critical of the antiseptic, sugar-coated world adults try to provide for their kids and believes this harms kids. Throughout the article, Marano mocks such things as rubber playgrounds, sanitizing gels, over-diagnosed disorders, and helicopter parents and argues that “[i]t’s bad enough that today’s children are raised in a psychological hothouse where they are overmonitored and oversheltered. But that hothouse no longer has geographical or temporal boundaries. For that you can thank the cell phone” (Marano 58). She believes that the only way that kids can become functional adults is to learn to become critical thinkers, which means that parents must give them the freedom to make mistakes that they can learn from.

Bode Miller epitomizes the notion of letting kids have the freedom to take risks. As Lydia Polzer notes in her 2006 article on Off-Grid.Net, “Miller was born and raised in the woods around Franconia, NH…his parents choosing a lifestyle that would foster independence and free thinking. He was raised without electricity or running water, and roamed the forest freely” (Polzer). As a child, Miller was encouraged to freely explore nature, even at a very early age. He attributes his continued passion for skiing to parents who didn’t hover over him or push him to perform to their standards. In the 2008 NH.com article, “Being Bode: Young Man of the Mountain,” the author discusses Bode’s father Woody who “says that Bode’s childhood years spent wandering the woods and mountains ‘taught him that he can figure things out for himself’” (Hirshberg). Bode’s mother, Jo, also attributes his fearlessness on the slopes in part to “his comfort with the elements, the ground, the snow… For his first 10 years, when he wasn’t in ski boots he was barefoot. He can look at a ski course and pick a unique line. That comes from a life of looking at the ground, walking on rocks, and climbing trees” (Hirshberg). Bode is a clear exception to Marano’s “nation of wimps.”

Transition to the Conclusion: But which of these approaches is right?

Conclusion: Each source is highly credible and presents a convincing argument about safety and prevention of injury. Nobody can argue with WHO and Safe Kids Worldwide that significant, quantifiable dangers exist and that a huge number of kids experience devastating injuries each year. At the same time, it’s hard to fault such authors as Michael Ungar and Laura Morice for their suspicion of people who fixate on danger without weighing the risks. It’s equally tempting to admire authors like Marano and people like Bode Miller and his parents who believe that childhood

should be a period of great freedom and becoming one with nature. These articles have made me think hard about my own childhood and the childhood I have attempted to provide my own children. So what would I do in the case of the 4 year-old teetering on the bank of the catfish pond? You will see in my final speech.

Works Cited:

· Hirshberg, Meg Cadoux. “Being Bode: Young Man of the Mountain” NHmagazine.com (August 1, 2008). Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.nh.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080801/NHM01/528060869/-1/nhm39>. Comment by Isandra Martinez: ISANDRA – Keep URLs from here (AND on previous “WORKS CITED” pages. Share with Monica so she can add them as “Additional Resources” on ICON.

· Marano, Hara Estroff. “A Nation of Wimps.” Psychology Today 37:6 (Nov/Dec 2004): 58-103. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO Host. University of Iowa Lib., Iowa City, IA, Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu>.

· Morice, Laura. “Are you fighting your kid’s battles?” Good Housekeeping 239.3 (September 2004): 102-104. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO Host. University of Iowa Lib., Iowa City, IA, Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu>.

· Polzer, Lydia. “Bode Miller: Off-Grid Role Model.” Off-Grid.Net (24 Jan 2006). Web. 5 May 2009 <http:off-grid.net/2006/01/24/off-grid-role-rodel>.

· Safe Kids Worldwide. 2009 International. Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.safekids.org/>.

· Safe Kids Worldwide. “Statement by Safe Kids Worldwide in Support of WHO and UNICEF’s World Report on Child Injury Safety” (December 10, 2008). Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.safekids.org/pdf/WHO%20Statement%20of%20Support%20SKW%202008.doc>.

· Sejal, Mandalia. “Glad to have been sheltered.” New Statesman 133:4704 (26 September 2004): 17. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO Host. University of Iowa Lib., Iowa City, IA, Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu>.

· Ungar, Michael. “Overprotective Parenting: Helping Parents Provide Children the Right Amount of Risk and Responsibility.” The American Journal of Family Therapy 37 (2009): 258-271. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO Host. University of Iowa Lib., Iowa City, IA, Web. 5 May 2009 <http://www.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu>.

· World Health Organization. “World Report on Child Injury Prevention.” Ed. Margie Peden, Kayode Oyegbite, Joan Ozanne-Smith, Adnan A Hyder, Christine Branche, AKM Fazlur Rahman, Frederick Rivara and Kidist Bartolomeos. (2008): 1-232. Web. 5 May 2009 <http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563574_eng.pdf>.

English

1

Opinion Essay Outline/Plan

Directions: Use the chart below to plan your opinion essay. You do not have to write your
essay word for word, but your answers should be fairly detailed. If you need help choosing a
lead-in/hook strategy, please scroll to the bottom of this document, where I have listed and
defined a variety of lead-in strategies.

Part 1:

Subject

What issue do you plan to address in your essay?

Part 2:

Essay Element Outline

Lead-In/Hook

What type of lead-in/hook will you use to gain your reader’s attention?

Thesis Statement

Write down your working thesis statement.

Body Paragraph
#1

Reason #1 why your thesis statement is true. Write a topic sentence &
summary of what you intend to say in this paragraph:

Body Paragraph
#2

Reason #2 why your thesis statement is true. Write a topic sentence &
summary of what you intend to say in this paragraph:

2

Body Paragraph
#3

Reason #3 why your thesis statement is true. Write a topic sentence &
summary of what you intend to say in this paragraph:

Body Paragraph
#4

Reason #4 why your thesis statement is true. Write a topic sentence &
summary of what you intend to say in this paragraph:

Conclusion
and
Public Resonance

Explain how you will conclude the essay. Explain how you think the thesis
of this essay might be relevant and/or interesting to other people (i.e.,
your audience).

Review: Lead-in Strategies

In some essays, your thesis statement alone may be controversial or striking enough to capture
the readers’ attention. At other times, you will want to use a lead-in. A lead-in is basically
anything that immediately captures the reader’s interest and encourages him/her to keep
reading.

An effective lead-in . . .
1. Catches the reader’s attention
2. Announces the subject matter and tone of your essay (e.g., humorous, satiric, serious, etc.)
3. Sets up, or leads into, the presentation of your thesis.

Effective lead-in strategies include the following:

3

1. A paradoxical statement or a statement of a popular misconception – A paradox
is a statement that goes against common sense but is true nonetheless. One way to gain
your readers’ attention is by asserting an unexpected point of view. A statement that is
startlingly different from popular belief will spark interest. Because your reader isn’t
expecting such a claim, he or she is therefore motivated to read the rest of the essay.

2. A statistic – Statistics and facts give you instant credibility with the reader. However,
this information must be true and verifiable (which means that someone needs to be able
to look up the information and see that it’s true), but it doesn’t have to be totally new to
your readers. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the point you
wish to make.

3. A question – One way to catch your reader’s attention is by asking an interesting
question which you will answer in your essay. Questioning is a powerful way to pull a
response from your readers. It can grab their attention and motivate them to find out
what you have to say.

4. An analogy or comparison – Take something the reader is unfamiliar with and relate it
to something he/she is familiar with.

5. An anecdote or story – An anecdote is a story that illustrates a point. Be sure your
anecdote is short, to the point, and relevant to topic of your essay. Telling a vivid
personal story is also an especially effective way to capture the reader’s interest.

6. A joke – Jokes can be an effective way to start an essay because they create positive
emotions in your readers. However, you must use this type of lead-in carefully. First,
make sure that the joke is actually funny. Otherwise, you will lose your reader’s interest,
which defeats your purpose. Also, the joke needs to be short and related to the topic of
the essay.

7. A dialogue – An appropriate dialogue does not have to identify the speakers, but the
reader must understand the point you are trying to convey. Use only two or three
exchanges between speakers to make your point. Then, follow dialogue with a sentence
or two of elaboration.

8. A definition – Provide a dictionary definition for a key term used in the essay.

9. A quotation – Beginning your essay a quotation from a famous person, a recognized
authority in a particular field (Albert Einstein or Bill Gates, for example), or from a well-
known literary work can effectively capture your reader’s attention.

*** Dictionary definitions and quotations should be used sparingly, however, because they are
overused, especially by amateur writers.

You should not decide that some lead-in methods are better than others. Use the approach
that best fits each essay. Resist the temptation to use the same kind of introduction in every
essay you write.

4

Avoiding errors in lead-ins:

1. Make sure that your lead-in introduces your thesis. A frequent weakness in
introductory paragraphs is an interesting lead-in but no smooth or clear transition to the
thesis statement. To avoid a gap or awkward jump in thought in your introductory
paragraph, you may need to add a connecting sentence or phrase between your lead-in
and thesis.

2. Keep your lead-in brief. Use a brief, attention-catching hook to set up your thesis.
Don’t make your introduction the biggest part of your essay.

3. Avoid overused lead-ins. Your introduction should never contain statements like, “In
this paper, I will argue that . . . .” Find an original way to lead in. Also avoid dictionary
definitions and quotations, which are overused. Use one of these methods only when it
is obviously the best choice for your paper.

English

Audience: A hostile academic audience.

Writing Style: Argumentative, Synthesis

Purpose: to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.

Background: A research/argumentative essay uses reasoning and evidence—not emotion—to take a definitive stand on a controversial or debatable issue. The essay explores two sides of a topic and proves why one side or position is the best. Where reasoning and evidence are primary, an effective use of pathos is expected.

Assignment: Consider the topic of the course.  Construct an argumentative research paper.

• Generate your own sub-topic on some aspect of it. You can go in-depth about an issue mentioned in class, or you can branch out into other aspects of the topic.  

• Make an argument about your sub-topic.  This argument must be clearly stated in a working thesis statement.  All body paragraphs must be focused and organized, clearly relating back to your thesis.

• Research sources appropriate to your topic, and effectively use those sources as evidence to support and prove your thesis.  Although you may use articles in your reader, you must research outside sources*.  

• Cite all sources using MLA Format.  Your paper must include proper parenthetical citations and a Works Cited page.  

 * A Few Notes about Required Sources:  Your sources must be reputable and reliable.  Good sources include the following:  

▪ newspapers (San Francisco Chronicle, New York Times, etc.)

▪ magazines (Time, Newsweek, etc.)

▪ books

▪ scholarly journals

▪ some websites

Remember that a well-researched paper will include a variety of sources.  Also remember that for academic papers, books and scholarly journals tend to provide the best information.  The research paper must include 6 sources (4 academic/scholarly and 2 popular sources. You may have all your sources be academic/scholarly)

Structure:

Your Essay must be written in MLA format; please see CANVAS for more information. It must be 5-8 pages in length, typed, double spaced, and be written in 12-point Times New Roman font.

Some Rubric

Some Rubric

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLocate and evaluate different types of evidence for logic, credibility, reliability, and bias (i.e. primary sources, online and written secondary sources)

100 pts

Excellent

Exceeds criteria

85 pts

Above Proficient

Exceeds criteria

75 pts

Proficient

Meets criteria

65 pts

Approaching Proficient

No answer

100 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCompose humanities style research papers that include an evaluation of different types of evidence to support an original thesis and language appropriate for the audience and purpose

100 pts

Excellent

Exceeds criteria

85 pts

Above Proficient

Exceeds criteria

75 pts

Proficient

Meets criteria

65 pts

Approaching Proficient

No answer

100 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSynthesize their own writing with a breadth of primary and secondary sources with proper in-text citations and a list of citations to avoid plagiarism

100 pts

Excellent

Exceeds criteria

85 pts

Above Proficient

Exceeds criteria

75 pts

Proficient

Meets criteria

65 pts

Approaching Proficent

No answer

100 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDevelop an original and effectively supported thesis that is appropriately complex and significant

100 pts

Excellent

Exceeds criteria

85 pts

Above Proficient

Exceeds criteria

75 pts

Proficient

Meets criteria

65 pts

Approaching Proficient

100 pts

Total Points: 400


Previous


Next

English

  Choose five of the questions and answer them 

PLEASE OPEN THE TWO MICROSOFT WORD DOCUMENT and   Choose five of the questions and answer them 

MEANING YOU WILL ANSWER 10 QUESTIONS..

THIS IS A SAMPLE

 

Sample

Question – Give an example of one of the paradoxes of theatre.

Answer – Despite many weeks of rehearsals, an actor is expected to “…‘live in the moment’ during…performance” (Cohen & Sherman, 2020, p. 5) as though this is the first time for the character to say these words and do these actions.

English

Competency

Utilize virtue and character-based ethical theories in case studies.

Instructions

For this assessment, you will get the chance to highlight your creative writing skills and your knowledge surrounding Aristotle. Be the Best You, is a career coaching and mentorship agency that works with employees to not only achieve their professional goals, but their personal goals as well. By using a virtue and character-based approach. As a coach for Be the Best You, you are part of the training committee that creates new training material for the clientele. The agency is seeking 3 new training sessions related to the golden mean, Aristotelian friendship, and eudemonia. Part of these trainings include scenarios that the clientele read and then answer applicable questions. You will be creating three, fully developed scenarios for the golden mean, Aristotelian friendship, and eudemonia.

Your submission, in its final state will include 3 scenarios including 1 for the golden mean, 1 Aristotelian friendship, and 1 for eudemonia. For each scenario, include 3 questions, 9 in total.

Each scenario must include:

· A fully developed fictional scenario that clearly highlights which of the three (the golden mean, Aristotelian friendship, and eudemonia) is being presented. Clearly define the characters and the actions that are representative of the selected topic.

· Three, open-ended questions pertaining to the scenario that the clientele would answer in relation to the facts and the topic of the scenario.

English

Abdulrahman AlShehri

Wilson, Jennifer

English 1010-KD1

03/25/2022

This essay highlights the role of the production industry, its merits, and demerits and how it has helped improve our lives and diminished it at some point. Scholars and parents however argue that children are getting lazier by the day, ostensibly with the advanced technology of the industry. They greatly rely on the invented machines, and they wonder whether they can do anything without them. Nevertheless, we can all agree that this industry has played a big role in impacting our lives. This makes many wonder what they would do without it.

Products are items that benefit customers in terms of their needs, requirements, and expectations. The production industry encompasses a wide range of subjects. Among the items are food, machines, clothes the list is endless. This industry has brought support to people as it has aided in a lot of tasks that involved human beings, but machines have now taken over. Apparently, this has succeeded due to the inventory of robots. Various foods ready for consumption are manufactured making it easier for those who are busy. An instantiated example is the refrigerator. By producing it, many have been able to acquire ice cubes from it allowing them to make iced beverage at home. Moreover, with it came the idea of ice creams where people can earn a living from it. In addition, foods are also frozen and the probability of them going bad is minimal. Therefore, this proves that without the production industry, we would do little progress.

1

english

English II Research Paper: The Great Gatsby

Throughout the year, we have delved into texts that cover many important topics such as the human experience, gender equality, racism, identity, and poverty among many others while picking apart the effects of an author’s intent, characterization, symbolism, motifs, themes, and more. In this paper, you will write a literary analysis of The Great Gatsby that synthesizes the ideas of other critical minds in order to support your argument.

Research Paper Goals:

Students will demonstrate mastery of

· The synthesis of multiple perspectives on a topic

· The inquiry process

· The advancing of an explanation or analysis of a topic

· The use of evidence to support claims

· Proper quote integration

· Proper MLA format and citation


PROMPT:

Choose one of the following

1. How do the characters in The Great Gatsby define themselves as individuals? How does that compare to American society’s views at the time? You might consider limiting your analysis to 1-2 characters.

2. Analyze the portrayal/progression of one or more of the characters in the novel. How do they/don’t they change over the course of the text, and what is Fitzgerald attempting to suggest through their portrayal? You could choose to focus on one character, characters in contrast, or the various female characters for instance.

3. Select one symbol and examine how that symbol functions in the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole.

4. What is Fitzgerald suggesting to readers in regards to modern society? The American Dream? The focus on the past? Or another topic of your choice? Through his presentation of particular characters, events, symbols, etc., what is Fitzgerald attempting to tell his readers in regards to this concept?

5. Make up a prompt of your own – this must be approved BEFORE class on Tuesday, March 15, so you can move on with the next parts of the assignment with the rest of the class.

A Few Notes on Research:

*You must use 1 secondary source. You will synthesize the arguments made in this source with your own analysis, thus ADDING TO the overall conversation about the book in a meaningful way. Your sources are used to facilitate your argument, not stand in place of your own analysis.

*You should focus your research on Database sources (EBSCO, Gale Virtual Reference Library, JSTOR – see Lane Tech Library Page for more). Minimal Internet use is encouraged from credible sites only.

· If searching outside of a Database, use Google Scholar. Sources that end in .com are generally not appropriate and should be avoided (there are minimal exceptions to this general rule).

· While your usage of websites may be limited, you are welcome to use ebooks at your own discretion.

Troubleshooting your paper:

Problem: Your thesis and topic sentences are too limiting.

Solution:

1. Establish a debatable, specific, and intellectually stimulating thesis statement in your introduction

2. Make sure you can articulate the guiding principle, or logic, behind your organization

3. Subtopics of your essay develop analysis and argument in a logical way

4. Clear away the stifling fluff

Problem: There is no life in your paper: incoherent paragraphs, wavering support, decontextualized materials, and flickering research.

Solution:

1. Establish unity by finding the “key” word in the topic sentences of the paragraphs. If everything in the paragraph does not somehow relate back to that “key” word, your paragraph lacks unity.

2. Establish coherence by using logical transitions and connections through coordination of ideas

3. Illustrate specific incidents from sources (like the film) instead of summarizing the plot.

4. Use direct quotations, summary, and paraphrase wisely by working evidence from your sources into nearly every page of your paper.

5. Synthesize your research throughout your essay and avoid dividing your paper up by source

6. Make sure you choose, read, understand, use, and explain quality sources.

Problem: Your diction is uncontrolled throughout your paper.

Solution:

1. Read your paper to someone who doesn’t know your topic and who you know won’t be “nice” to you. Is there understanding the same as you intended?

2. Extract all linking verbs, passive voice, and lame transition words.

Problem: Silly mistakes are weakening the presentation of your hard work.

Solution:

1. Polish your MLA format

2. Proofread for grammar, mechanics, and usage

Requirements for Final Draft:

· MLA format

· 2-3 pages long

· 1 credible secondary source used

· MLA parenthetical citations and a works cited page

· All quotes embedded effectively

· An argument is developed with a line of reasoning

Timeline:

Assignment

Points

Due on GC or shown in class

GG Quotes for chosen topic

10

Tues, March 15 (BOC)

Secondary Source chosen

5

Friday, March 18 (BOC)

Secondary Source quotes chosen

5

Fri, March 18 (EOC)

Secondary Source Quotes Analyzed

10

Fri, March 18 (EOC)

Rough Thesis Statement (Revise what you have)

10

Monday, March 21 (BOC)

Revised Thesis Statement and 1 Body Paragraph

10

Tues, March 22 (EOC)

Final Draft

100

Wed, March 30 by 11:59pm

**BOC=beginning of class; EOC=end of class

Warning about PLAGIARISM:

The teacher reserves the right to give any student a failing grade for plagiarism on any of these assignments at their own discretion. They are NOT required to allow you to make up or redo plagiarized work. If you have questions about plagiarism, please ask BEFORE any assignment deadline passes.

Rubric:

Effective (4)

Adequate (3)

Inadequate (2)

Little Success (1)

CC.9-10.W.1 Argument (20%)

Student effectively writes an argument in an analysis of The Great Gatsby, using valid reasoning from both TGG and secondary source.

Student adequately write an argument in an analysis of The Great Gatsby, using valid reasoning from both TGG and secondary source, but may be oversimplified or lack sophisticated depth.

Student writes an argument in the analysis of The Great Gatsby using reasoning from one or all sources, but may not answer the prompt sufficiently or completely.

Student may fail to write an argument in the analysis of The Great Gatsby by doing one more more of the following:

-doesn’t answer prompt

-states a fact not an argument

-argument cannot be found

CC.9-10.W.9 Primary Source Usage: The Great Gatsby (20%)

-Student effectively draws evidence from The Great Gatsby to support analysis, reflection, and research of all sources.

-All quotes are embedded in a sophisticated manner.

-Analysis of TGG consistently supports thesis

-Student adequately draws evidence from The Great Gatsby to support analysis, reflection, and research of all sources, but may not consistently choose the best possible quotes or portions of quotes. -Some quotes may not be embedded in the most effective way.

-Analysis may be occasionally be inconsistent, but for the most part soundly supports thesis.

Student inadequately draws evidence from The Great Gatsby to support analysis, reflection, and research of all sources by doing one or more of the following

-does not embed quotes

-uses long chunks of text instead of carefully selecting quotes

-quotes selected seem irrelevant to topic of paragraph

-analysis may not support thesis on multiple occasions

Student fails to draw evidence from The Great Gatsby to support analysis, reflection, and research of all sources by doing one of the following

TGG is not quoted

TGG quotes do not support analysis, reflection, and research of all sources

-analysis does not support thesis

TGG is simply summarized

CC.9-10.W.8 Secondary Source (20%)

-Student effectively gathers relevant information from 1 authoritative secondary source;

-Student effectively uses each source in answering the entire prompt;

-Student effectively embeds information into their analysis selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.

-Analysis of secondary sources consistently supports thesis

-Student adequately gathers relevant information from 1 authoritative secondary source;

-Student adequately uses each source in answering the entire prompt;

-Student adequately embeds information into their analysis selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.

-Analysis may be occasionally be inconsistent, but for the most part soundly supports thesis.

-Student inadequately gathers relevant information from 1 authoritative secondary source;

-Student inadequately uses each source in answering the entire prompt;

-Student inadequately embeds information into their analysis by either not being selective enough or not embedding into analysis.

-Analysis may not support thesis or student may simply summarize their secondary sources.

-Student fails to gather relevant information from 1 authoritative secondary source;

-Student fails to use each source in answering the entire prompt;

-Student fails to embed information into their analysis.

-Incorporation of secondary sources may not be present, may be used to sparsely, or may be simply summarized

CC.9-10.W.4 Language (20%)

Student effectively produces clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to the topic, purpose, and audience. This includes the intro paragraph, topic sentences, transitional elements, and a conclusion paragraph. The essay is obviously polished.

Student adequately produces clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to the topic, purpose, and audience. This includes the intro paragraph, topic sentences, transitional elements, and a conclusion paragraph. There may be some inconsistencies, but mostly the language is sound.

-Student inadequately produces clear and coherent writing

-The development, organization, and style may not be appropriate to the topic, purpose, and audience.

-Intro paragraph, topic sentences, transitional elements, and conclusion may need work or are not consistently present

-Distracting errors in language/mechanics may be present

-Student fails to consistently produce clear and coherent writing

-The development, organization, and style is not appropriate to the formalness of the paper.

-Intro paragraph, topic sentences, transitional elements, and conclusion may need significant work or are rarely present

-Lack of proofreading is distracting

MLA Format and Citations (20%)

CC.9-10.W.8

– 2-3 pages long

– Times New Roman

-12 pt font

-Double spaced

-Proper -Heading/header

-1” Margins

-Works Cited Page is properly formatted

-Plagiarism is consistently avoided following MLA format for parenthetical citation

-A few MLA errors are made, but for the most part, the correct professional format is present and said errors are not distracting from the content of your paper.

-Plagiarism is consistently avoided.

-Several noticeable and/or distracting MLA errors are made affecting the professionalism of your paper

-Plagiarism is not consistently avoided through the use of parenthetical citations.

-Drastic MLA formatting errors are made

-The look of the student’s paper is unprofessional and unpolished.

-Plagiarism is not avoided through the use of parenthetical citations

Total Points: ________/100

*Failure to complete this assignment will result in a 0, which will drastically impact your semester grade.

English

I had a chance to spend my time with a colleague who was far from the rest . My colleague was called Durma and he was quite different form the rest of the many people I have ever met. One of the qualities that he has was] that he is a very adaptable person. Even though he comes from a high profiled background, heshows no signs of pride or seeking recognition. He would adapt in any environment and accommodate anyone. He is highly educated and very learned but still he always believes-that he knows nothing. Anytime I was in a conversation with him, all he[SH3]  was listen more and enquiring yet he has a lot of experience. This also applies in the workplace, he would barely show how strategically and professional he is but always got the best reward at the end of the year because of brilliant performance.

He is also very open-minded. For the time I spent with him, [SH4] there is nothing you wouldn’t discuss with him. He is open to be diverse and learn without criticizing. He is also very sensitive to other people’s [SH5] opinions and experiences. H listen and gives attention to everyone. He openly makes people feel validated for the feelings that they have. Drama has an insatiable curiosity. This applied to everything. When it comes to sport, I could see that he has won many games. When it comes to technology, he is an expert. He is educated and informed about so many things. He know many languages and how to speak them fluently. This makes him a unique person because he has a lot to share. Durma is just a colleague in person that I have never met in my lif

English

Hudson 1

Raquel Hudson

Derrick Brown

English 1020 LD-07

February 26, 2022

“Justice for CJ”

The protagonist is Captain Richard Davenport, who is a black male military officer and also a

lawyer who was sent by Washington, DC to investigate a murder case in Fort Veal, Louisiona. After a

black Sergant is murder Vernon Waters, Captain Davenport is assigned to solve this murder. Who killed

Sergeant Waters? Captain Davenport is wondering if it’s two white officers or the Ku Klux Klan. Captain

Davenport job is to find who murdered Waters.

The murder is first blamed on the Ku Klux Klan and two white officers. The first man that is

Interviewed is Private Wilkie. Wilkie was Waters’ sidekick. They are always together. Wilkie tells

Davenport about the blacks baseball team and how they beat the white soldiers at the baseball. Wilkie

tells Davenport and talks about CJ who is also one of the black soldiers, who was good at baseball but

can sing and play the guitar as well. Waters didn’t care too much about CJ; he just pretended to like CJ.

For example Waters had Wilkie to plant a gun under CJ pillow, so he can get his three stripes back that

he lost.

Derrick Brown
How does this body paragraph support your point/thesis you made in your thesis statemenr?
Derrick Brown
Derrick Brown
In Addition you need to also share the When & Where this play/film takes place.

Then you share the information about the murder and then after providing that basic information to your readers…you then shift into the thesis statement. When you introduce the characters, provide some background (which you have done) you must make sure your Thesis statement is clear and follows the goal of this essay which is to make a clear point about the murder.

Instead of focusing on Davenport;s worries, you need to make it clear in your thesis about why Davenport is the protagonist and why Sgt. Waters (currently dead). You must make the goal of this essay clear.

Either you are showing the reader who the bad guy is or who the protagonist is.

Your goal is to select one character and explain why one is the protagonist or one is the antagonist and the rest of the essay must follow that direction in your thesis statement, which closes out the introduction and you need to make sure you have chosen three specific pieces of supporting evidence that will build your three body paragraphs that will support your decision

Derrick Brown
Raquel,

This introduction needs some structuring and some order.

Remember that the introduction consists of you providing some basic information about the play/film; you need to remember to share the title of the play/film and the name of the person who wrote the play/film. In this case “A Soldier’s Story” written by playwright Charles Fuller…

Derrick Brown
Derrick Brown
Good heading
Derrick Brown
Derrick Brown
Correct heading
Derrick Brown

Hudson 2

The next soldier to be interviewed is Peterson. Another black soldier told Davenport that he and

Waters had a one on one fight, and Waters beat him. Peterson didn’t see eye to eye anyway. Peterson

challenged Waters and they began to fight. While in the interview with Peterson, Taylor who is the white

officer who already told Davenport that he will get no respect from no one because he is black man.

Taylor stopped the investigation because he said two white officers beat Waters. Of course Davenport

accuses Taylor for tryng to cover up a black mans murder.

Davenport has his clues and notes on all the soldiers. Now he can narrow down and try and

figure out who was last seen with Waters the day of the murder. Even though Waters is the one who

told Wilkie to plant that gun under CJ’s pillow. Cj didn’t kill him over that. Cj ended up in jail and

committed suicide. Peterson and Small were on guard duty the night of Waters murder. Davenport

interrogates Small. Small of course confesses Peterson killing Waters as revenge for CJ death, and to

get justice for CJ.

Soldiers are one of the greatest assets of the country. A soldier’s job is one of the toughest things to

do in the world. Many lacks viewed World War II as a white man’s war, but in Waters view it was a

chance for blacks to prosper. One of the reasons why he was so hard on his men and wanted them to

do it a whites man’s way. Racism still exists and will never go away, but trust me we came a long way!

Derrick Brown
remember all three body paragraphs are explaining or providing eveidience to show the reader, WHO is the ptotagonist, WHAT do they do and WHY, specificallyto prove your argument.
Derrick Brown
Derrick Brown
This looks like you trying to provide correct in-text citations without doing it properly.
Derrick Brown
Derrick Brown
While you dids great job naming these characters make sure you set up these three body paragraphs in the particular order you introduced them in the intro.
Derrick Brown

Hudson 3

English

Final Draft Instructions

—– The document should NOT be double spaced.

—– Margins: 1 inch on top, bottom, left, and right

—– Fonts: Times New Roman, Arial, or Cambria font (size 12)

—– No title page

—– Set a running header with last name and page number in the top right-hand corner. The
number on the first page is optional.

—– Turn It In will screen every document. If you plagiarize you will receive a zero.

—– In-text citations (required)

Part 1: Outline (centered title, research question, thesis statement, outline)

Part 2: Begin essay on page 2 (length should be 4-5 pages. You will be penalized if
it does not meet the minimum requirements.)

Part 3: Begin the Bibliography on the page after the essay ends.

Research Project (Major Grade)

Standard Points Possible Points Awarded

Outline with the research
question and thesis statement

20

Clear Ideas with Support and
Documentation

50

Advanced Conclusion

(I don’t need the summary of
the essay in the conclusion)

30

Total Grade: ____________

MLA Format (Daily Grade)

Standard Points Possible Points Awarded

Formatting and mechanics

(font, margins, page numbers,
grammar, spelling, punctuation)

40

MLA Bibliography 30

In-text documentation 30

Total Grade: ____________

Outline

Health Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction Among Low-Income People

Research Question: How Do The US and The UK Compare Health Outcomes and
Patient Satisfaction Among Low-Income People With Chronic Illness?

Thesis Statement: While both systems have world-class health outcomes, the
U.K. health care system has far less variation in health outcomes across its
population than does the U.S. In terms of financial fairness, the UK is also
ranked higher than the U.S.

I. Background information of low-income people
II. Comparing U.S and U.K health outcomes and patient satisfaction

III. Contrasting U.S and U.K health outcomes and patient satisfaction
IV. Impact on people from other countries

English

1

2

Profile Essay Outline

Abdulrahman Alshehri

English-1010-KD1

Wilson, Jennifer

1st, March 2022

Part 1

Subject: A Colleague

Organization: Narrative Plan

Writer’s Role: A participant Observer

Dominant Impression: An intriguing person I have ever met

Part 2

Durma is the most intriguing person I have ever met. I had a chance to spend my time with a colleague who was very different from the rest. Durma was very different from the rest of the many people I have ever met due to his unique qualities. I loved his qualities which were manifested both in his personal and professional life. Some of the unique qualities Durma had been that he was a very adaptable person, accommodating, highly educated and learned, and good performing. Durma is the most intriguing person I have ever met with distinguishable qualities from the rest.

Durma was a very adaptable person. While interacting or conversing with him, it was difficult to know that he came from a high profiled background. He did not display any signs of pride or seek recognition despite being from such a background. Besides, he would accommodate anyone regardless of their background and could fit in any environment. His adaptability to any person and environment was a quality worth emulating.

Despite Durma being highly educated and learned, he did not show off to others. I loved this quality about Durma because sometimes I would wonder whether such a highly educated and learned person could interact with people who were less learned. This trait taught me the significant of respecting everyone around me and treating them equally regardless of my position on society or education level. He could listen more and talk less although he had a lot of experience. In the workplace, he would barely show how strategically and professionally he was but always got rewarded at the end of the year due to his brilliant performance. In addition, his uniqueness as quite fascinating and showed the important of keeping a low profile but always doing the right thing.

He was very open-minded. There is nothing I would not discuss with Durma whenever I spent time with him. He was open and never concealed anything. He was opened to be diverse and learned without criticizing. Durma always remained sensitive to others’ opinions and experiences. He listened and paid great attention to everyone. Such trait made him openly make people feel validate for the feelings they have. He was insatiably curious to everything, which allowed him to learn more. Being very open-minded, giving attention to everyone, and remaining sensitive to others’ opinions and experiences enabled Durma to interact well with others.

Durma was very talented. When it comes to sport, he had won many games. He was a technological expert and remained educated and informed on several things. He would speak many languages fluently. His unique abilities were amazing and made him a very distinctive individual I have ever met.

In conclusion, the unique qualities, and abilities that Durma exhibited made him a unique person with a lot to share and learn. He was just a colleague in person that I have never met in my life. Durma serves as an example for other people to learn the kind of qualities they need to lead such a fulfilling life.

English

D.Brown
ENGL 1020-LD-07

SHORT PAPER #2: COMPARE/ CONTRAST

Essay Proposal (see folder) DUE: Tuesday March 22nd by 11PM
First Draft: Saturday, March 26th via Blackboard by 11PM

Assignment Description: Compare and Contrast
Compare and /or contrast two different works from the assigned readings and or
films between Weeks 1-8. Students will have to decide what element will serve as
their main point, but consider characters, theme, setting, style, etc. The thesis
should make a larger point and not simply be a listing of similarities and difference.
Your goal is to ultimately, show how the two compared elements affect the story,
teach a lesson, show continuity of a problem or issue over time, dispel a long
accepted truth, etc.

Thesis Example: The protagonists from “Cask of Amontillado” and “Grief
Management” reveal how point of view can be used to create unreliable narrators
that force the reader to question the sanity or morals of the character/narrator
telling the story.

Essay content could show how both of these characters could be characterized as
such and how this affects the interpretation of the works, or what the reader has to
do to fully appreciate the effect of the narrators’ states on the other characters.

Essay Format:
Heading Example (the upper left corner of page 1):
Student Name
ENGL 1020-LDXX
Date
Short Paper #2
Semester Year

-3-5 typed, double-spaced pages
-Create a title that describes the unique focus of your essay (centered at the top of page
1).
-Use MLA format for in-text parenthetical citations and include an MLA-style works cited
page. See Rules for Writers, Bedford Handbook or visit:
http://dianahacker.com/bedhandbook/ for more information.
-Third person objective point of view; no first (I/we/our) or second (you) person language.

Structural Suggestions
Introduction- The introduction to grab your reader’s attention; create a sense of
expectation that makes readers want to continue on to discover the insights of
your analysis. Offer a short summary of no more than two to three sentences. The
essay should clarify whatever issues are necessary so that readers who may have
not read the literary text will still find your essay to be intelligible. The introduction
should end with a thesis statement that identifies the main purpose of your

ENGL 1020: Essay 2-Compare/Contrast

essay. What two elements are you comparing and why?

Body- The body of the literary analysis should support the thesis in detail by
exploring three to four subtopics. Quotes from the literary text should be used to
support your claims in the body. However, be sure to avoid writing an essay that
strings together many quotations without establishing a context for what the
quoted passages are designed to illustrate. Also avoid retelling the story. Once
your thesis is established the essay’s job is to prove your thesis valid.

Conclusion- The conclusion should sum up the essay without being repetitious. In
the case where the body looks at the subjects of comparison separately, the
conclusion should bring the two together. . In the final paragraph of the essay, you
can draw some conclusions on the overall impact of the literary work, the intent of
the writer, or the larger message that work is trying to convey.

ENGL 1020: Essay 2-Compare/Contrast

  • D.Brown
  • ENGL 1020-LD-07
  • SHORT PAPER #2: COMPARE/ CONTRAST

English

Reading in Preparation for Writing: Opinion Essay

For your next essay, you will be writing an opinion piece about a controversial issue. In

order to generate writing ideas and to practice evaluating the credibility of sources of

information, I would like you to read articles that address the types of topics you will be

exploring in your essays.

Assignment:

In preparation for writing your essay, please choose three of the of the articles linked

below. Resist the temptation to choose the first three articles! Open all of them and

choose the three that interest you most.

Note: Please let me know if any of these links have expired. I try to keep them

updated.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/08/opinion/opioid-epidemic-sacklers-

settlement.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/08/13/universal-free-school-meals-

moms-california-maine/

https://www.longislandpress.com/2021/08/15/oped-community-college-is-a-path-to-a-

bright-future/

https://thehill.com/opinion/education/566932-unlike-free-college-discharging-student-

loans-in-bankruptcy-is-a-great-idea

https://hechingerreport.org/opinion-time-to-talk-about-the-many-ways-higher-

education-must-change/

https://www.medpagetoday.com/pediatrics/generalpediatrics/91846

https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/31/opinions/gay-pride-during-pandemic-

hope/index.html

https://www.newsweek.com/we-need-balance-when-it-comes-gender-dysphoric-kids-i-

would-know-opinion-1567277

https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2020-09-18/remote-learning-hard-make-easier

When you have finished reading, answer the following questions for each of the essays

you chose. Thus, you should have a total of 24 answers (8 for each essay) when you

finish.

1. What is the title of this article?

2. Who is the author of the article?

3. How credible are the author, the article content, and the source?

4. Who is the intended audience for the essay? What types of people are likely to read

this essay? What clues suggest a particular audience?

5. What do you feel is the author’s main idea for the essay? Write down the sentence

that you believe best expresses this main idea. In other words, write down the

author’s thesis statement.

6. What kinds of evidence does the author use to support his/her point? (e.g., personal

experiences, statistics, facts, definitions, quotations, expert testimony, etc.)

7. Is this evidence credible? Issues to consider:

• Is the evidence fact-based or opinion based?

• Can the information be verified?

• Is the information current?

8. Do you agree or disagree with the author’s assertions? Explain your answer.

English


Module 2: The Playwright and the Director


Chapter Questions

Read Chapter 4 (pages 55 to 79) and Chapter 6 (pages 134 to 178) in your textbook.


Choose only 5 of these questions to answer. Write your answers in your own words; if you choose to quote from the textbook, remember to identify the source.


Reminder for how to answer the questions:


Question 0 –
Give an example of one of the paradoxes of theatre.

 
Answer –
Despite many weeks of rehearsals, an actor is expected to “…‘live in the moment’ during…performance” (Cohen & Sherman, 2020, p. 5) as though this is the first time for the character to say these words and do these actions.


 

Question #

Chapter

Questions

1

4

Identify the playwright’s fundamental tools.

2

4

Identify the three major tasks of the playwriting process and the main challenge of each task faced by the playwright.

3

6

On the artistic level, what are the three fundamental responsibilities of the director?

4

6

Contrast the styles of realism and antirealism in terms of the role of the director.

5

6

Identify the four aspects of a director’s conceptualization and the question attached to each aspect.

6

6

Identify the three aspects of CORE CONCEPT that the director provides.

7

6

What is a DRAMATURG, and what does that professional provide during the preparation period of a production?

8

6

Identify the role of the director in staging, actor-coaching, pacing, and coordinating.

English

Profile Essay Instructions and Guidelines

Profiles are written portraits – of people, places, events, or other things. We find profiles of

celebrities, travel destinations, and offbeat festivals in magazines and newspapers, or radio and

TV. A profile presents a subject in an entertaining way that conveys its significance, showing us

something or someone that we may not have known existed or that we see every day but don’t

know much about.

Assignment:

Write an essay about an intriguing person, group of people, place, or activity in your community.

Observe your subject closely, and then present what you have learned in a way that both informs

and engages readers.

Note – You are not permitted to profile celebrities, including but not limited to:

• musicians

• actors

• professional athletes

• corporate CEO’s

• politicians

If you profile a person, it must be a person whom you know personally.

If you profile a place, it must be a place that you have visited.

If you profile an event, it must be an event that you have attended.

General Guidelines:

The subject may be something unusual, or it may be something ordinary shown in an intriguing

way. Whether you are writing about a person, place, or event, you need to spend time observing

and interacting with your subject. With a person, interacting means watching and conversing.

With a place or event, interacting may mean visiting and participating, although sometimes you

may gather even more information by playing the role of silent observer. You need to include

details that bring your subject to life. These include sensory images, figurative language,

dialogue, and anecdotes. Choose details that show rather than tell, that let your audience see and

hear your subject rather than merely read an abstract description of it.

Requirements:

The essay’s assigned length is 1000-1200 words. Be sure that all margins measure one inch and

that you use the Times New Roman 12-point font. Also, follow MLA formatting guidelines

regarding the page heading, running header, page numbering, etc.

English

1. Please describe in 150 words or less, your community involvement and service, generally and in relation to African Americans (e.g., service, organizations, causes, in or outside of school, etc.), including your specific role, and the approximate number of weeks you devoted to each such activity over the last 3 years. 

2. Please describe in 75 words or less a personal challenge you have overcome having to do with race, discrimination, identity, or any other personal challenge. 

3. Please describe in 75 words or less the kind of activities in which you might participate at UC San Diego 

English

English Assignment

Tentative Topic.

My Topic: what do all religions have in common?

Welcome to ENG2209! You have entered this course with a solid background on what makes up a quality essay. Now you will take that learning to another level because you will be required to do more extensive research, which will allow you the opportunity to really explore a topic in a whole new way and with greater depth. 

This week you will be choosing a topic and developing a tentative thesis statement. When choosing a topic, it is important to choose one that is debatable, relevant, and supported by credible, scholarly research. (Remember, a minimum of 4 of your sources must be scholarly. See the syllabus for more details.)  It is helpful to choose a topic that you are passionate about and interested in; however, be sure that you choose a topic that allows you to be objective. Sometimes if we choose topics that trigger highly strong emotions, we lose the ability to reason at the best of our ability. Thus, as a word of caution, be careful with this and remain self-aware. Be sure to receive your instructor’s approval on your topic as well.

This week you will begin your research, and you will complete two library assignments that will help you find the best resources for your topic. Please contact the course librarian for questions with your library research.

Important Course Information

· All assignments are due at midnight on the day assigned. Thus, Day 4 is always Thursday, and Day 7 is always Sunday. 

· All weekly resources are linked in the course schedule of weekly overview pages. All documents are also located in a weekly documents folder on the course home page.

· Do not hesitate to contact your instructor with any questions. Do not struggle in silence. Always ask!

· Check your Northwestern email on a regular basis. Read all emails/

announcements

 from your instructor.

Tips

· As you draft your thesis statement, remember that it is the heart of your research paper, so be sure to closely follow the guidelines given for this week’s assignments. A well written thesis statement can save you time and energy in the long run because it will help to set up the entire structure of your paper. Always  feel free to contact your instructor with questions.

Outcomes of the Week

· WO-1. Choose a legitimate argumentative research topic (CO 1). 

· WO-2. Locate and evaluate sources (CO 2 & 4). 

· WO-3. Develop a tentative thesis statement (CO 1, 4 & 5). 

Requirements

Course Orientation due Day 4 at midnight

· Review 

Getting Started in Your Course

· Complete the 

Understanding Plagiarism Presentation and Quiz

· Complete Student Responsibilities Exercise (complete as final step of Course Orientation)

· Post your introduction to the 

Introductions Forum

Due Day 4

· Read Wood, Chapters 1 and 6

· View 

Guidelines for Topic Selection (5:29)

· Access the 

Finding a Topic Library Guide

 or review the 

Potential Topics List

 document for 

possible topics

· Read 

Topic Guidelines

 document

· Complete 

Possible Topics

 assignment

·

Possible Topics Assignment File

· Complete 

Library Assignment #1

· View 

Sample Essay “Stadium Subsidies”

· Read 

English Department Grading Standards

Due Day 7

· Read Wood, Chapter 3

· Read 

Constructing a Tentative Thesis Statement Handout

· View 

Creating a Tentative Thesis Statement (4:45)

· Submit 

Tentative Thesis Assignment

· View 

Finding the Best Sources (10:35)

· The information from this presentation is also presented in the “

Finding the Best Sources

” document.

· Complete 

Library Assignment #2

Optional Learning Resources

·

Online Library Research Tutorials

· Personal Argument Style activity (Wood, pp. 22-23, 3.a.)

·

Personal Argument Style (OPTIONAL)

·

Personal Argument Style Assignment (OPTIONAL)

English

D.Brown
ENGL 1020-LD-07
Spring  2022
 

SHORT PAPER   #1:   CHARACTER ANALYSIS
 
Essay Proposal Form(See folder) DUE:          Thursday, February 24th,
2022 via Blackboard by 11:00pm
First Draft DUE:                                             Saturday, February 26th via
Blackboard by 11PM
 
Assignment Description: Using one of the works of drama assigned, write
a character analysis on the antagonist or protagonist of the selected
work. Consider how the antagonist or protagonist is portrayed, and how he or
she interacts with the other characters as part of your analysis.
 
Thesis Example: Sgt.Waters’s ability to manipulate C.J. to eventually
commit suicide is rooted in his role as the antagonist. Once Water’s
background is revealed, the reader is able to learn what motivates his
treacherous actions against the supporting characters.

The analysis would show what elements in Water’s past have molded him
into the main antagonist of the play and how his traumatic past, motivates
the ways in which he threatens and abuses the black soldiers under his
command and  how his actions eventually lead to his murder.
 
Thesis Proposal Format for Instructor Review:  Log onto
Blackboard. Download and complete the Thesis Proposal Form found on
Blackboard in the Writing Assignments section. PAY ATTENTION: Failure to
submit a proposal will result in an automatic five-point deduction from your
final paper grade. Proposals that are handwritten and/or submitted using the
anything but the approved form will also incur a five-point deduction from
your final grade. NO EXCEPTIONS.

Essay Format:
Heading Example (the upper left corner of page 1):
Student Name
ENGL 1020-LDXX
Date
Short Paper 2
Semester Year
 

 3-4 typed, double-spaced pages
 Create a title that describes the unique focus of your essay (centered at the

top of page 1).

 Use MLA format for in-text parenthetical citations and include an MLA-style
works cited page. See Rules for Writers, for more information.

 Third person objective point of view; no first (I/we/our) or
second (you) person language.

 Review Course Overview for additional assignment format.
 
Structural Suggestions
Introduction- The introduction to grab your reader’s attention; create a
sense of expectation that makes readers want to continue on to discover the
insights of your analysis. Offer a short summary of no more than two to three
sentences. The essay should clarify whatever issues are necessary so that
readers who may have not read the literary text will still find your essay to
be intelligible.  The introduction should end with a thesis statement that
identifies the main purpose of your essay.  What are you saying specifically
about the antagonist?
 
Body- The body of the paper should support the thesis in detail by exploring
three to four subtopics.  Quotes from the literary text should be used to
support your claims in the body.  However, be sure to avoid writing an essay
that strings together many quotations without establishing a context for
what the quoted passages are designed to illustrate.  Also avoid retelling the
story. Once your thesis is established the essay’s job is to prove your thesis
valid.
 
 
Conclusion- The conclusion should sum up the essay without being
repetitious.  In the case where the body looks at the subjects of comparison
separately, the conclusion should bring the two together. .  In the final
paragraph of the essay, you can draw some conclusions on the overall
impact of the literary work, the intent of the writer, or the larger message
that work is trying to convey.
 

  • D.Brown
  • ENGL 1020-LD-07
  • SHORT PAPER #1: CHARACTER ANALYSIS

English

APA Paper specifics

· .

· Reminder to not self-plagiarize/ plagiarize as this results in failure of the course

***Late papers will not be accepted***

· Must follow
APA 7th guidelines

. Some helpful sources: The handout on D2L, APA manual, and
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

· If there are no in-text citations throughout the entire paper you will receive a zero for the assignment and possibly subject to Academic Misconduct. If you do not have a references page you will receive a zero for the assignment and possibly subject to Academic Misconduct.

· Title page + 3 FULL pages of content+ References page = 5 pages total

-Abstract not required and does not count towards the minimum 3 full pages

-For each page short of 3 full pages, there will be a deduction of 20 points (Half a page short results in 10 point reduction).

· At least 4 sources and 2 must be scholarly references such as journals, books, and similar sources other than websites. These 2 scholarly references may be online format.

· 12 font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins

· This is an academic paper, Do not write in first person (I, me, we, etc.), rather write your paper in third person (he, she, they, the researcher, etc.)

· Save in a .doc or .docx file format and upload into the D2L dropbox

· Try to summarize and paraphrase more than direct quotes. (In other words, avoid excessive direct quotations in your paper)

·
Limit to 1 block quote
(block quote is a direct quote of more than 40 words)

· Do not use Wikipedia or blogs as sources

· Keep your Turnitin score UNDER 20%, you may submit several papers until you revise it enough to get it under this percentage. I will be grading the latest submission only.

· Do not simply cite NTSB accidents throughout your paper. You may integrate relevant accidents/incidents by summarizing the key points and tying it into your paper.

· The University Writing Center (UWC) is located in James E. Walker Library, Room 362 Call 904.8237


Aviation Weather Research Paper

1). Find an aviation weather-related paper topic that you find interesting. This is to be a research paper that follows APA format, not an opinion paper. The following are the three areas that need to be addressed: 1) Discussion of weather phenomenon, 2). Related accident and/or incidents, and 3). Types of weather avoidance, weather charts available, etc. The specifics of the paper is on D2L labeled “paper specifics”.

2). For APA help, I have posted some helpful information on D2L.

3). Once you have determined your paper topic, look for research in this area. Go to the library website and browse through online journals, magazines, books, etc. Do not use obscure websites, pilot forums, and other unreliable sources. I advise saving any articles you find to your flash drive or your email, dropbox account, etc. I find using Google scholar and then going to the library website and finding the article with the journal locater is very helpful. If you are not familiar with the library website, there are several useful tools and guides to help you. Take the initiative and learn how to navigate the site and find research. For the airplane accident/incident research, go to
www.ntsb.gov
and click on the aviation accident database link.

english

Chapter1:

Write an appropriately short summary of Chapter 1 (under 75 words). This will be your first paragraph.

Then write your thoughts, feelings and reactions to the ideas in the chapter (to reach word minimum of 250 words).

Chapter2:

First write a brief summary of the chapter. It should be about 75 words long and should include the author’s name, book title, and title of the chapter.

In this chapter, we learn that Adam Smith was a strong proponent of economic growth. All players in the economy must always be striving for more: higher profits; higher wages; and of course, that means more products (Kasser 39). What would Annie Leonard, the maker of The Story of Stuff video, have to say about Smith’s ideas? Do you agree more with Smith or with Leonard? (minimum total words 250)


english

Synthesis of Secondary Source and Your Analysis of the Primary Source

It’s important to figure out where the overlap is between your secondary source’s analysis of The Great Gatsby and your analysis of The Great Gatsby. The secondary source will not be saying the exact same thing as you (or, at least, it shouldn’t), but you need to figure out how to converse with this source in a way that furthers your argument in the end.

Step 1: Start with a general TOPIC
(ex: The American Dream, Daisy’s progression through the text, use of ‘green’, Nick’s tone, Tom vs Wilson, etc…)

Topic:

Step 2: Think, what is the book suggesting ABOUT that topic? (This is your basic argument – ex: Fitzgerald suggests that The American Dream…, Daisy’s progression through the text is symbolic of…, The use of the color green is meant to suggest…)

Step 3: HOW does the author go about doing this? What quotes can you pull from the book to address this concept?

Ideas from the Book (quote, moment, general idea, etc with page numbers)


DUE: 3/15 (BoC)

Your Analysis

(Consider: What does this show? How does this relate to/develop your idea? Why is this significant? What other moments in the text does this connect to? What larger idea does this connect to?)


DUE: 3/16 (EoC)

Secondary Source’s Analysis (quotes that address this idea)


DUE: 3/18 (EoC)

Consider:

· What is similar about what you are both saying?

· Where do the analyses differ?

· How does the secondary source still help you to prove your argument?

· How does this help you think differently about the book?


DUE: 3/18 (EoC)

“We drew in deep breaths… as we walked back…through the cold vestibules, unutterably aware of our identity with this country for one strange hour, before we melted indistinguishably into it again.”

“He stretched out his arm towards the dark water… and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away… when I looked once more for Gatsby, he had vanished…”

“Gatsby’s main goal in life, and by extension, America’s main goal, which is to always achieve more, rather than be satisfied with what they have.”

“Gatsby is one version of America- the resourceful, athletic, restless young nation striving to make itself better.”

“Because of his mind building her up into unrealistic expectations, he can never be happy with her, and will continue to move forward and seek the next accomplishment: the next thing he believes will make him happy.”

“Anything can happen now that we’ve slid over this bridge,’ I thought; ‘anything at all…’ even Gatsby could happen, without any particular wonder.”

“Why they came East I don’t know…I had no sight into Daisy’s heart, but I felt that Tom would drift on forever seeking, a little wistfully, for the dramatic turbulence of some irrecoverable football game.”

“For, although this is the United States of America, it is also a society marked by class and racial divisions.”

“It sounds like all the rich people send their kids off East to Prep school. What is it about the East in comparison to the West? Are the two regions really that different?”

“The American dream is the continuous desire for better, it is impossible to fully grasp.”

“In the green light, the orgiastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter- tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther.”

English

Tentative outline

Topic. What do all religions have in common?

Subtopic. Do Christians, Muslims, and Jews worship the same God?

The paradigm for an Argumentative Researched Paper Traditional or Classical Argument Purpose: to win; to get the audience to agree with the arguer with evidence to support the claim and evidence to strongly refute any counterarguments Organizational Paradigm:

I. Introduction Attention-grabber or lead—a story, example, statistic, or quotation that introduces your topic and draws your audience into the paper An overview of the primary issues—a section highlighting the different issues people would consider when looking at your topic; this section might also include the following content: o Definitions of key terminology—definitions of any terms that are associated with your topic; some topics will have multiple terms to define whereas other topics will have few terms to define o Background information—information regarding how the issue in your paper has developed into a controversy and/or any essential historical information highlighting the issue over time Proof of the controversy—a section demonstrating the validity of the controversy; this section typically includes quotations or paraphrases from your research that indicate the controversial nature of the subject; in other words, this section must demonstrate disagreement about the issue in your paper Thesis statement—your primary assertion about your topic; the thesis usually comes at the end of your introduction and should be one to two sentences in length Antithesis—an optional part of the introduction; this section consists of a paragraph presenting the primary opposing views on the issue; it ends with a statement that restates your thesis, emphasizing the importance of the thesis **For a 2300-4000 word paper, the introduction will usually be between one and two pages in length. II. Body Sub claims to prove the overall claim Specific support (evidence) from research to prove the sub-claims (See Wood p. 226 table 10.2 for the optimal types of proofs for different claims) Rebuttals (counterarguments): Any arguments or other perspectives that would come against the claim. Note, that developing rebuttals is a required part of the argument for this course. (See Wood, pp. 114-115 – “Backing” and “Rebuttal” for an example of how to refute the counterarguments with an argument [claim, support, warrant]) III. Conclusion Reassertion of your thesis in different words A statement of the consequences of not embracing your position A strong clincher—an appropriate, meaningful final line (you may be able to revisit your attention-grabber in the introduction as a clincher

English

Work One

Competency

Construct professional documents.

Instructions

Throughout your career you will be asked to create several professional documents. Each time you must create a document written at the highest level of knowledge, grammar, spelling and capability.

For this assignment you are going to pick two of the three following documents and create them. Please follow the specific instructions for each type of document that you choose.


Action Plan
 – your employer has asked you to create an action plan for your professional development for the next year. You need to include some of the following information; conferences you will attend, what you will do to educate yourself in your field and any trainings you need to attend.

· Goal

· Action Steps

· Resources/Support

· Deadline/Timing

· Status


Resume/Cover Letter
 – obtain a job description that you will turn in with your resume and cover letter. Write the cover letter and resume, tailoring it to the job description you selected.


PowerPoint Problem Solution Plan
 – Pick a problem that is currently happening in your community, a school referendum, a city ordinance, a recent rise in crime, use your imagination in picking a topic. Create a PowerPoint Presentation that covers each of the following elements:

· Introduction to the problem

· Effect on the community

· Possible Solution(s)

· Conclusion/Action Steps

Work two

Competency

Analyze audience, occasion, and purpose in message strategies.

Instructions

Knowing how to analyze who your audience is, what the occasion calls for and what the purpose of a speech is a process that is imperative before presenting information.

For this assignment you are going to prepare a written speech that you would deliver if you were asked to deliver the commencement address at your school graduation.

At the top of the written speech please identify who you believe will be in the audience, what a graduation speech calls for and the purpose. Then write out a manuscript of the speech. The entire document should not exceed 2 pages and the speech should not exceed 10 minutes.

English

Finding a Relevant Paper Topic

1). Find a paper topic that you are interested in that integrates Federal Aviation Regulations in some fashion. This is to be a research paper that follows APA format, not an opinion paper. Remember, I gave you several examples and if you need to refresh your memory visit www.ntsb.gov and find their “Most Wanted” list, the FAA website, and NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System website (ASRS). On the NASA ASRS website, click on the ASRS report sets and this should give you several good paper topics. Also, conducting a basic review of the latest aviation safety research will provide you with paper topics.

2). Once you have determined your paper topic, look for research in this area. Go to the library website and browse through online journals, magazines, books, etc. Do not use obscure websites, pilot forums, and other unreliable sources. I advise saving any articles you find to your flash drive or your email, dropbox account, etc. I find using Google scholar and then going to the library website and finding the article with the journal locater is very helpful. If you are not familiar with the library website, there are several useful tools and guides to help you. Take the initiative and learn how to navigate the site and find research.

3). Read the Paper Specifics for information on paper length, sources, etc. The topic needs to integrate FAR’s and be relevant to the industry (so, no papers on people, historical events, etc. Focus more on an issue that interests you, safety issue, and so on)

4). Lastly, for APA and writing help, I have posted some helpful information on D2L.Take the time to review these documents, along with the common writing and format errors.

English

1. Explain what the ingredients are? Can you figure out what the ingredients go into making? Do not just look at one page. Look over the entire book before answering and cite examples from the text when you make your claim.  The ingredients are chem

2. Schmitt has left out the caption or item that corresponds to the ingredients list: in other words, we know what the ingredients are, but we don’t know what the product is. He’s given ingredients to things but not told us what thing the ingredients go into making. 

Why would he do that? 

Come up with AT LEAST THREE REASONS HE MIGHT HAVE DONE THAT and lay them out A, B, C. EXPLAIN THESE REASONS IN DETAIL.

3. In a normal product, ingredients are listed in order. Explain what the order is. You may have to look this up.

4. The ingredients are laid out on the page in a particular way. Explain how the layout affects our interpretation of the work. Detail what exactly he has done. Talk about left and right justification, placement on the page, everything. Do not leave anything out. You will receive more points, the more things you note. 

5. Say something about how we consume products today and relate this to Schmitt’s Ingredients.

6. Say something about the nature of this work. It’s presented on a website as creative work, possibly literature. How is this work different from traditional works of literature like novels or books of poetry? Remember that this is a born digital work. It was not printed as a book and it was written on a computer, largely via copy and pasting. Does this tell you anything about the nature of literature in a digital era? What? How is the text connected to the author Joachim Schmitt? Something is clearly different about this work of literature–what is it? Nail it down. List as many things that make this different from traditional works of literature as possible.

7. Ask yourself: is the work creative? If not, why not? Has the idea of creativity been shifted? And wherein exactly, does the creativity lie?

What might make this work interesting? What possible things could it make you think about vis a vis your own life and the products you consume? 

English

SEARCHING FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE 1

SEARCHING FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE 13

Searching for the Origins of Language

xxxxxx xxxxxxxx

University of Maryland Global Campus

WRTG 391: Advance Research Writing

xxxxxx xxxx

Introduction

Language is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. As such it may not seem to stand out as a particularly remarkable characteristic of being human, unless one considers what the human animal would be like without an ability to comprehend and use language. In fact, it could be argued that human language is one of the few traits which completely distinguishes human behavior from that of other animals, as so much of our success depends upon our manipulation of complex, language-based, communication. Language involves combining and recombining concepts. You use language in an internal language of thought. It can be used for communication through either speech, signing, or writing. However, in the context of linguistics, writing is considered an externalization which builds upon language, but is not itself language. The capacity for language, rather than the way it is externalized is the issue which has inspired the deepest curiosity. Although over the past seventy years many scientists have studied other animals’ communication systems in the search for insight into the origins of human language, it is cognition which now seems to hold the key to understanding its evolution. This literature review explores how the field expanded from theories about the nature of language, its relationship with animals’ communication systems and animal cognitive skills, to hypotheses about both why and how our ancestors developed a fully formed capacity for language.

What is the Definition of Language?

When people developed an interest in how human language evolved, they began to study animal communication systems. But to compare animal communication systems to human language they first had to have a clear understanding of the features that defined language. Although people have been analyzing language and describing its grammar for centuries, the modern field of linguistics developed only in the last century. Researchers looked to this emerging field, and to the work of Noam Chomsky in particular, for help in defining the essentials of human communication (Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005).

Human language is comprised of certain core elements which are present, be it in the use of speech or sign language: phonology (sound/spatial-temporal quality); semantics (symbols with meaning, like words); grammar (the particular rules of a given language); and syntax (a subset of grammar, e.g. more general rules referring to sentence structure) (Suzuki, et al. 2019; Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005). When considering syntax, Suzuki et al. suggest three criteria for compositional syntax: 1. That the meaning of individual signals, and combinations thereof reflect a context; 2. That the meaning of a combination of words is only understood because the component parts are meaningful; 3. And further, that the precise order of the signals (i.e. words in a sentence) can determine the meaning (2019). With this kind of analysis, researchers could determine if animal communication systems had these important characteristics of human language.

What is Unique About Human Language?

Some researchers came to the opinion that there is another essential aspect of human language which is not only characteristic but unique. Bolhuis et al. (2014) locate this uniqueness in a cognitive ability to combine mental representations, then recursively re-combine these to create mental representations of almost infinitely complex ideas—they call this ability “merge.” They claim that merging concepts recursively is the core of human grammar, and that this is an innate and uniquely human capacity. The merge concept suggests that these combinations are inherently pairwise: taking n elements, placing them into pairs, and recombining those in nearly infinite compositions.

A competing if similar theory is termed “Unification” (Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005). Based partly on considerations of the nature of idioms, Jackendoff and Pinker propose that a binary rearrangement of similar elements is inadequate to explain the richness of human language. Bolhuis et al. present no explanation for idioms where Jackendoff and Pinker insist that no explanation of human language can ignore sentences which are consistent with proper grammatical usage, but have an actual meaning which is different from their literal meaning (e.g. ‘Bite the bullet’). The merge theory assumes that all sentences are comprised of smaller elements for which we have mental representations. The Unification theory proposes that mental representations are much more flexible, even for an entire sentence, which would be the case for an idiom like ‘Stick ‘em up.’ Humans can think non-linguistically, but a large portion of our stream of consciousness and mental life is in the form of language.

The similarity in both the Unification and merge theories is that we compose sentences by recombining elements. It is these processing characteristics which researchers generally agree most fully typify the core of human language. Therefore, these features are what were looked for as a basis for comparison in animal communication systems, as well as in the cognitive capabilities of animals.

Potential Insights into the Evolution of Human Language?

Just as clearer definitions about human language developed in the latter half of the 20th century represented a major inflection point in answering questions about the evolution of human language; further understanding whether language is primarily a behavior or a cognitive function and therefore how investigations into its evolution should be pursued has been an ongoing debate which represent a second inflection point.

Animal Communication Systems

Clearly animals communicate too. When researchers first began investigating the question of the evolution of human language they looked mainly to our closest genetic relatives, the great apes, and to birdsong, as the most complex observed example of animal communication. Everyone who has heard birdsong can recognize that it consists of different notes, combined in different orders, and one might imagine that it is used for communication rather than expending energy for no purpose. Writing of chick-a-dee birdsong, Hailman observed that “the staggering variety of call-types created from combinations of note-types and their repetitions is not likely to be haphazard variation” (1985, p. 1). In 1985 there were very high hopes for finding close analogies between human and animal communication as suggested by the title The ‘chick-a-dee’ calls of Parus atricapillus: A recombinant system of animal communication compared with written English (Hailman).

However, the study of animal communication systems did not provide clear answers quickly and work continues today. In their paper Suzuki et al. give a brief overview of the current state of the field (2019). They describe observations which suggest that various species may combine predator warning calls with contact calls. The significant point is that two calls with consistently observed responses (i.e. meanings) may be combined in a different context to provoke an entirely different response. For instance, paired meanings in putty-nosed monkeys are given as a possible example of idiomatic usage (Suzuki et al., 2019, p. 5). However, this may simply be a recombination of two sounds, each with a meaning, where the combined sound has a third meaning such as in the German word Kühlschrank—kühl meaning cool, and Schrank meaning cupboard, which in combination means refrigerator. There is not evidence in animal communication of anything approaching a sentence.

A different research path was to try to teach language to our closest genetic relatives (chimps, gorillas, and bonobos). They were either taught to sign or to touch a symbolic interface, as it was clear that they could not mimic sounds. While people enthused over early results, showing that apes could learn hundred of signs, combinations were another matter. In fact, one of the more impressive outcomes was announced in 1977, when a chimpanzee named Washoe saw a swan in the park and signed ‘Water + Bird’ (Suzuki et al., 2019). However, given that there were never repeated examples of this kind of spontaneous generation of a combination of words/signs to indicate a concept it is not clear that Washoe’s communication even rose to the level of the putty-nosed monkey’s Kühlschrank.

Cognitive Insights into the Evolution of Human Language

The research program in the latter half of the previous century attempting to teach great apes human language highlighted the simplicity of great ape signaling behavior, but this stands in great contrast to ongoing research showing the sophistication of great ape cognitive capacities. Tecumseh Fitch points out that “animal signals do not equal animal concepts” (2019, p. 4). In fact, there is now clear evidence that many species have considerable cognitive sophistication. Dolphins for example can demonstrate in their behavioral responses that they are able to interpret complex sentences with grammatical order, as well as concepts like ‘same’ and ‘different’ (Tecumseh Fitch, 2019). Yet they have never been successfully trained to communicate in a way which could be viewed as even roughly translating to the system of grammar and semantics that underlies human language.

Many animals display evidence of highly complex mental representations, intricate concepts, tool use, social relationships, planning for the future, and mental maps of their environment (Tecumseh Fitch, 2019). There is always skepticism about recognizing whether animals have any cognitive capacity because they cannot directly tell us. However, researchers are conducting more subtle experiments to reveal animal cognition. Tecumseh Fitch (2019) describes evidence that some animals even have a theory of mind, which does not begin to develop in humans until about age 3-5. This ability to consider the mental state of other actors and what information they have can be deduced from the fact that many animals will wait to hide something desirable until a competitor is not looking, or that they can recognize themselves in a mirror. Another example of social cognitive sophistication was illustrated in experiments conducted by Martin et al. (2014). They demonstrated that in certain strategy games which require guessing what your partner is likely to do, pairs of chimps performed better than pairs of humans.

A different cognitive capacity is the perception of sequencing which is critical in syntactic structure. Jensen et al. (2019) designed an experiment on sequence perception which also showed that it was not simply rewards that governed the monkeys ability to make cognitive inferences like, if a is to the left of b, and b is to the left of c, then it follows that a is to the left of c. Illustrative of trends in the field, Jensen’s senior coauthor, Herbert Terrace, famously lead a project in the 1970s attempting to teach language to a chimpanzee subject whom they playfully named, Nim Chimpsky (Terrace et al., 1979). Clearly in the intervening decades Terrace shifted his focus from animal communication to animal cognition as a central means of insight into the evolution of human language.

Studies about animal communication like, those done with Nim Chimpsky, clearly showed that chimpanzees are not good vocal mimics, but the fact that they were able to learn hundreds of signs, indicated that they are excellent gestural mimics. Mirror neurons are nerve cells that fire either when you do a motion, or you see someone else perform a motion you recognize. Arbib (2017) points out that the presence of mirror neurons in primates and their ability to learn, mimic, and refine hand motions could represent an important evolutionary link toward language with our closest genetic relatives. Going even further, in a review Tecumseh Fitch (2017) argues using evidence from various animal behavior studies, that great ape cognitive sophistication reaches a level where it supplies all the elements necessary for language to evolve.

What Drove the Evolution of Human Language?

Once there was better clarity about exactly what defines human language and whether it is best observed as a cognitive process, it became possible to ask what selective forces drove its evolution. Dunbar (2017) hypothesizes that human language evolved specifically to facilitate the social interactions necessary for humans to form larger social groups. Dunbar analyzed data showing primate species that live in larger groups have larger neocortical surface areas and spend more time engaged in the mutual grooming (2017, p. 209). Primates who live in large groups ensure their stability by forming alliances using these behaviors, but this system of mutual grooming requires a considerable investment of time. The implication Dunbar (2017) drew is that for group sizes typical of early humans, maintaining social cohesion by grooming would have demanded more than twelve hours a day (longer than there is daylight most places). Clearly humans would have needed something to allow bonding with more than one potential ally at a time to support stability in groups as large as they did. Being able to gossip and bond using language fit the bill, especially since it could be done at night.

Another researcher, Donald (2017) proposes a quite different alternative, namely that early humans developed a protolanguage to think about tools, and perhaps communicate about them in gestures. Using paleo genetic analysis and records of human tool construction, Donald (2017) reconstructed the gradual emergence of complex tools made early in human history and finds that the “…archeological evidence suggests strongly that human ancestors were skilled [tool makers] long before they were articulate” (p. 205). The cognitive capacity required for making complex multi-part tools, and passing the knowledge along, provided the impetus for tool-making and language to co-evolve.

How Did Human Language Evolve?

The issue of exactly how speech developed is addressed in some detail by Dunbar (2017) and Donald (2017). Donald proposes that there must have been a stepwise co-evolution from protolanguage and moderately complex tools to fully developed language embedded in a complex culture of tool-makers (2017). Donald emphasizes the connections between cognitive skills necessary for complex tool-making and language: working memory, episodic memory, sequencing, and hierarchical analysis. He proposes multiple stages for development from a gestural “mimetic” protolanguage, after which the eventual evolution language would have only needed cultural drivers as the underlying cognitive capacity necessary would have already been developed through tool-making. Basically by the time early humans could make bows and arrows the cognitive capacity existed for fully human language to develop.

Dunbar (2017) discusses evidence pointing to the development of voluntary breath control needed for speech. He explains that the breath control for speech requires such an enlarged thoracic nerve that the thoracic spine was modified to accommodate it (Dunbar, 2017). Consequently, the fossil records show which hominids had breath control. He also considered the issue of how the steps on the road to language would have been rewarded. He suggests that laughter would have been the first rewarding vocal bonding signal (Dunbar, 2017, p. 210). Implied is that it is both rewarding and pro-social even in modern humans. He then speculates that music or chanting may have played the next a role, citing examples of modern humans using songs without meaningful words to bond while working together (Dunbar, 2017). The final stage, developing language sophisticated enough to discuss events and individuals, is not as elaborated. But Dunbar (2017) does note that in modern workplaces a large part of verbal communication is not about work but instead centers around social chatter, and gossip about mutual acquaintances, or famous people.

Conclusion

Despite the discovery of complex cognition in animals, especially primates, the most unique attribute of human language, the process of recombining mental representations, has yet to be conclusively demonstrated in animals. Tecumseh Fitch (2019) emphasizes how important it would be to discover whether the merge process is present in animal cognition, saying that it is crucial to “…explore in detail animals’ abilities to combine concepts. To the extent that they can do so in a flexible, hierarchical manner, I think we can see the germs of the recursive symbolic system that underlies human linguistic concepts” (p. 6). Semantics (i.e. meaningful concepts) are clearly present in animals and can include sophisticated understandings of social relationships (Tecumseh Fitch, 2017). The question of whether these concepts can be recombined in a way which resembles recursive syntax is less clear. If the recursive ability which underlies syntax could be found in the cognitive systems of animals, then animals may have something closer to a language of thought than we are currently able to demonstrate. Given the direction that research has previously gone and its current projections, it seems unlikely that the study of animal communication systems alone will provide the breakthrough insights into the origins of human language.

Tecumseh Fitch suggests that human language may have had multiple evolutionary forces which drove it (2017). The advantage gained by being able to construct complex tools may have been the force that led to the emergence a hierarchical language of thought, merge, perhaps first expressed in gestures. But Fitch contends that this does not preclude and could in fact complement Dunbar’s ideas about the advantages of bonding in large social groups (2017). Hominids could have also been using drumming and chanting-like sounds first, then music to bond, leading eventually to something like words. From a proposed universal grammar to a range of ideas about how language began, progress in our understanding of how human language evolved continues.

References

Arbib, M. A. (2017). Toward the Language-Ready Brain: Biological Evolution and Primate Comparisons. Pschonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 142-150. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1098-2

Bolhuis, J. J., Tattersall, I., Chomsky, N., & Berwick, R. C. (2014). How Could Language Have Evolved? PLoS Biology, 12(8), 1–6. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001934

Donald, M. (2017). Key cognitive preconditions for the evolution of language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 204–208. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.3758/s13423-016-1102-x

Dunbar, R. I. M. (2017). Group size, vocal grooming and the origins of language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 209–212. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1122-6

Hailman, J. P., Ficken, M. S., & Ficken, R. W. (1985). The “chick-a-dee” calls of Parus atricapillus: A recombinant system of animal communication compared with written English. Semiotica, 56(3/4), 191. https://www.degruyter.com/journal/key/SEMI/html

Jackendoff, R., & Pinker, S. (2005). The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky). Elsevier Cognition, 97, 211-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2005.04.006

Jensen, G., Alkan, Y., Ferrera, V. P., & Terrace, H. S. (2019). Reward associations do not explain transitive inference performance in monkeys. Science Advances, 5(7), eaaw2089. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw2089

Martin, C. F., Bhui, R., Bossaerts, P., Matsuzawa, T., & Camerer C. (2014, June 05). Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions. Scientific Reports, 4, 5182. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05182

Suzuki, T. N., Wheatcroft, D., & Griesser M. (2019). The syntax–semantics interface in animal vocal communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375: 20190046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0405

Tecumseh Fitch, W. (2017). Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution. Psychomonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 3-33. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1236-5

Tecumseh Fitch, W. (2019, November 18). Animal cognition and the evolution of human language: why we cannot focus solely on communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375: 20190046. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0046

Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J., & Bever, T. G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206(4421), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.504995

English

ENGL 1110G: Rhetoric & Composition

Spring 2022: General Education Assessment Assignment

___________________________________________________________________

The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate your Critical Thinking skills in this general education course. The assessment will gauge your ability to review a data set, identify a problem or issue, gather credible evidence relevant to the problem or issue, and develop conclusions about the problem or issue.

Topic

Attention to universal basic income (UBI) programs rose during the last U.S. presidential election because of Democratic presidential candidate Andrew Yang’s proposal to offer economic support to Americans who experience job loss, especially employment lost to new technology. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rise of unemployment and economic insecurity has brought even more attention to the idea that all working Americans have a right to a guaranteed income. Review the graph below to learn more about what the data reveals about support for UBI in the United States.

Data Prompt: “Universal Basic Income…” by Lorna Collier

Process: You will have a maximum of one week to complete the series of writing steps for the assessment. You will be required to use outside research.

1. In at least one well-developed paragraph, state and describe a problem or issue.

2. Pose a potential research question(s):

3. Locate two relevant, credible sources that helps us understand the problem or issue. Cite and write a summary and evaluation annotation (4-6 sentence note) for each of the two sources.

4. In two paragraphs, state what you think should be done to address the problem or issue, and support your reasoned evaluation with evidence.

Evaluation: This assignment will be evaluated based on the Critical Thinking Rubric below.

Critical Thinking (address all 4)  

Criteria  

Proficient  

3 points 

Developing  

2 points 

Emerging  

1 point 

Not Demonstrated or Missing  

0 points  

CRIT 3.1 Problem Setting   

Delineate a problem or question appropriate to the context.   

  

Student states, describes and defines components of problem or question appropriate to the context  

Student states and defines problem or question appropriate to the context  

Student states problem or question appropriate to the context  

Not Demonstrated or Missing  

CRIT 3.2 Evidence Acquisition   

Identify and gather the information/data necessary to address the problem or question.   

  

Student identifies problem/questions and systematically gather sufficient evidence to address the problem/question in context without personal bias  

Student identifies problem/question and gather evidence associated with problem/question in context with limited personal bias  

Student partially identifies problem/question and gather evidence that may not be fully associated with the context. Personal bias may be evident  

Not Demonstrated or Missing  

CRIT 3.3Evidence Evaluation  

Evaluate credible, valid, and relevant information for a situation.  

Student evaluates credible, valid, and relevant information for a situation  

Student evaluates credible and relevant information for a situation  

Student evaluates credible information for a situation  

Not Demonstrated or Missing  

CRIT 3.4Reasoning/Conclusion  

Develop conclusions, solutions, or outcomes that reflect an informed, well-reasoned evaluation.  

Student develops strongly supported conclusions, solutions, or outcomes based on strongly supported evidence and a well-reasoned evaluation  

Student develops well-supported conclusions, solutions, or outcomes based on evidence and evaluation  

Student develops weakly supported conclusions, solutions, or outcomes  

Not Demonstrated or Missing  

 

English

APA Paper specifics READ CAREFULLY

· Due on Thursday, April 14th by 11:59pm. Submit through the dropbox labeled “Paper” on D2L.

Late papers will not be accepted.

· Must follow
APA guidelines.

Some helpful sources: The handout on D2L, APA manual, and owl.english.purdue.edu

· If there are no in-text citations throughout the entire paper and/or no reference page it will result in automatic failure for the assignment

· Title page + 5 FULL pages of content + Reference page

Abstract not required. If you do include an abstract, this will not count towards your 5 pages of content

-For each page short of 5 full pages there will be a deduction of 20 points (Half a page short results in a 10 point reduction).

· At least 5 sources and 3 must be scholarly references such as journals, books, and similar sources other than websites. These 3 scholarly references may be online format.

· 12 font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins

· Do not write in first person (I, me, we, etc.), rather write your paper in third person (he, she, they, the researcher, etc.)

· Try to summarize and paraphrase more than utilizing direct quotes. (In other words, avoid excessive direct quotations in your paper) You will have a higher matching score of the turnitin if you use too many quotes.

·
Limit to 1 block quote
(block quote is a direct quote of more than 40 words)

· Do not use Wikipedia as a source. Online blogs and forums are also not acceptable sources for a collegiate paper

· Plagiarism results in failure of the course (refer to course syllabus for more information).

-Example of plagiarism= Copy and paste from internet.

-Using someone else’s words without giving them credit (correct way: providing a citation with author’s last name, year of publication, and if it is a direct quote also include the exact page number from which the quote was derived).

-Self plagiarism- using a paper you wrote in another class

· The Turnitin tool in D2L is turned on for you to submit prior to paper submission. 20% or higher matching for turnitin will result in a zero on the paper and perhaps a zero in the course. You can submit to this as many times as you like. I will know the LAST

english

1

2

Comment by Sarah H.: Hello! Good to see you again! I’ll be looking over your research paper today. It looks like you are just looking for some general feedback on how to improve, so I will use your assignment sheet and guidelines to make sure you have all the components of the paper included. Then I will look through your content and give you suggestions on how to improve.

………….

…………

………….

…………

………….

AVIATION LAWS AND REGULATIONS Comment by Sarah H.: All of your headings in APA should be consistent. Since all of your other headings are in normal case and bold, I suggest you do the same here. If this is meant to be the title of your research paper, then it should go on the cover sheet above.

Aviation Law is one of the subfields of law that deals with the regulation of aircraft. This field’s unique qualities and needs are taken into account by air law, a broad approach to the subject. There is no regulatory organization that has the legal authority to set international air rules, or there is no international law to manage the air. A system of tacit and formal agreements between the countries is known as Air Law. Conventions are the term for these agreements. As many as a dozen conferences are held each year throughout the world. Let’s take a closer look at the legislation governing aviation. This discipline of law addresses legal and commercial issues related to air transportation (Hong, 2018). A set of guidelines governing the use of airspace by aircraft to maximize safety and efficiency while also benefiting the general public and other countries. Around 1910, as German air balloons frequently infringed on French territory, an effort was made to establish an air law. Comment by Sarah H.: It looks like this is a continuation of your previous point, so the conjunction “and” would work better here. Comment by Sarah H.: Which countries? Does this just apply to North America Europe? Asia? All of the above? Or do different countries create different Air Laws between one another? This is a place where you can add some more details for your reader. Comment by Sarah H.: What is the purpose of these conferences? Add that information to the end of this sentence. Comment by Sarah H.: This is a very specific detail and it seems like there should be an in-text citation with it to let the reader know where you found this information.

Also, what is the significance of this detail? Is this the first time that air law was ever established? Tell your reader why this detail is important.

Aviation law has some overlap with admiralty law, and because of the worldwide aspect of air transport, most of it is considered a subject of international law. However, aviation law also governs the commercial elements of airlines and their regulation. Air travel’s legal and commercial elements, such as air traffic rights, aviation safety and security, airline economic restrictions, and the management of airports, are governed by aviation law. Aviation law is regulated by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which acts as a kind of international arbitrator in the international arena (Legal,House, & Heath, 2018). Comment by Sarah H.: It looks like you have a small error in formatting here – just include a space after the comma and before “House.”

Because of federal law and court judgments, states are not allowed to actively control aviation issues in the United States. Due to the federal nature of aviation, a New York court recently found the state’s Passenger Bill of Rights illegal (Hong, 2018). To be clear, although the United States Constitution specifies a federal role for admiralty law, it omits any mention of an aviation law equivalent. Aviation is regulated indirectly by states and municipalities. Comment by Sarah H.: What is the significance of this ruling? What did the Passenger Bill of Rights include? What about it was illegal?

National Law of Aviation

The bulk of aviation legislation is administered at the federal or state level, with some assistance from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (FAA in the United States and the European EASA in Europe are the world’s two main aviation authorities. All new aircraft in the world must be certified by one of these two organizations. Civil aviation in other nations is governed by a National Aviation Authority (NAA). The FAA and EASA have a wide range of duties, ranging from enforcing airworthiness regulations to controlling flight operations. Maintaining aircraft and equipment; licensing pilots and maintenance professionals; certifying airports; and issuing guidelines for air traffic management are just some of the other tasks that the FAA has to ensure the safety of airplanes (Kluwer et al., 2019). It has become more common for aviation lawyers to defend those who have been accused of breaking statutory aviation laws. Comment by Sarah H.: Since you have already spelled out the entire name of this organization once in your paper and included the acronym (ICAO) with that spelled version, you can continue by just using the acronym through the rest of the paper. Comment by Sarah H.: Since you have NOT spelled out the entire name of these organizations previously, you need to spell them out here and include the acronym. Then you can continue by just using the acronym in the rest of the paper. Comment by Sarah H.: Since you say that this is the European group, you do not need to also state that it is in Europe. Comment by Sarah H.: Is there a particular reason you have this quote in bold? It’s unusual to see quotes formatted in this way in APA format. I suggest removing the bold and just using the regular type.

Aircraft navigation and maintenance, air traffic control safety, and pilot licensing restrictions all come under the umbrella of aviation laws. The Federal Aviation Administration enforces most aviation laws and standards (FAA). Airline passenger safety is also regulated by the “Transportation Security Administration (TSA)” and the “National Transportation Safety Board”. Comment by Sarah H.: So here, I see that you’ve spelled out the whole organization name, which is great, except that you should do that the very first time that you mention the organization in your writing. In this case, you should be doing this at the beginning of the previous paragraph. Comment by Sarah H.: Include abbreviation here (NTSB)

Additionally, the nations’ rules through which an aircraft travels apply to international flights. In terms of aviation regulations, states have little power to enact legislation. Local airports may set their hours of operation and noise levels in accordance with local zoning rules that do not conflict with federal legislation.

International Airspace

International law normally recognizes both the airspace over land and the airspace over a country’s territorial waters as belonging to the country’s sovereign airspace. 12 nautical miles is the maximum distance a country’s territorial waters may stretch from its coast. Airspace that does not lie inside a country’s boundaries is referred to as international airspace. Comment by Sarah H.: You have a lot of specific details in these two paragraphs, but I only see one in-text citation. Did all of this information come from that one source? Make sure that you are using an in-text citation any time that you are including information that you learned from an outside source.

International treaties may designate certain areas of international airspace, such as those above oceans or the polar regions, belonging to a particular country (Naboush, & Alnimer, 2020). For example, despite being in international airspace, the United States has control over vast stretches of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Canada, Iceland, and the United Kingdom share the remaining northern Atlantic airspace. Canada and Russia share the northern polar airspace. The vertical limits of a country’s airspace are not governed by any international treaty. Although it is widely accepted that no government controls space, no international agreement has been reached on the boundary between airspace and space Increasing space travel and the prospect of civilian space flight need study in this field.

When it comes to flying internationally, there has to be a common set of rules and regulations. The free flow of international aviation traffic is hindered by a patchwork approach. “The International Civil Aviation Organization” was founded as a result of the Chicago Convention (ICAO). Ideas and methods for international air navigation will be improved, and international air transportation will be supported. Standards for international air travel are overseen by the “United Nations’ International Civil Aviation Organization” (ICAO). Comment by Sarah H.: This is interesting to me as your reader, but I do not know what you mean by it. I recommend including more details here about what this “patchwork approach” is exactly and how it hinders international aviation. Comment by Sarah H.: This sentence suddenly switches into the future tense. Is this something that has not happened yet, but will happen in the future? If so, that it is appropriate to use the future tense. However, is this is something that already happened in the past, it should be in the past tense.

The ICAO has three divisions. Meeting every three years, the Assembly is a representative group tasked with assessing the ICAO’s progress, formulating policy directives, approving the organization’s budget, and electing representatives to the ICAO Council, which makes rules for the organization. It is up to the Assembly to approve any changes to the Chicago Convention, which each Member State must ratify before they may take effect. Comment by Sarah H.: I think that it would help your reader if you briefly list out the different branches here before you go on to explain them in detail. For example:
The ICAO has three divisions: the Assembly, the executive branch, and ____________.
Part of the reason this would be helpful is because when I am reading through this section, I am having trouble identifying the name of the third branch. Introducing the names of the branches before giving their descriptions will help guide your readers through this section.

Secretariat is ICAO’s executive branch, responsible for carrying out Assembly-approved policies. “Air Navigation Bureau, Air Transport Bureau, Technical Co-Operation Bureau, Legal Bureau, and Bureau of Administration and Services” make up the five sections of the agency, which is led by a Secretary General (Hodgkinson, & Johnston, 2018). Implementing safety and environmental regulations, as well as monitoring the ICAO’s Standards and Recommended Practices, are handled by the several bureaus that comprise the organization (SARPs).

The air is divided into five distinct freedoms. In addition to the three commercial freedoms, there are two additional technological freedoms: To exercise this privilege, an aircraft from State A may fly directly over the territory of State B without having to make an approach or landing. 2) The right of an airplane from one country to land in another country for technical reasons is known as the Second Freedom (Hodgkinson, & Johnston, 2018). Comment by Sarah H.: I have a couple ideas for this paragraph:
1. Since you need a little bit more content, you could list of the names of the freedoms. You could say something like, “There are three commercial freedoms, which are _______”
2. It looks like you ARE listing out the two additional technological freedoms after the colon. For the second freedom, you use 2) to show that it is the second. This is totally okay to do, but you should also then use 1) to distinguish the first freedom. For example:
“There are two additional technological freedoms: 1) To exercise this ….” Comment by Sarah H.: For the APA in-text citation, you do not need to include the commas between the authors’ names. For example:
(Hodgkinson & Johnston, 2018)

A plane from State A may accept paying traffic from State A and set it down in State B, under the Third Freedom. State A aircraft may pick up paying traffic in State B and land in State A under the Fourth Freedom. The right of airplanes from one state to transport paying passengers from another state to a third state is known as the “fifth freedom.” Comment by Sarah H.: Okay, I see now that this is there you listed the three commercial freedoms. I would still suggest combining this information with the previous paragraph and moving it to the beginning right after you identify the three commercial freedoms for the first time.

Conclusion

This field’s unique qualities and needs are taken into account by air law, which is a broad approach to the subject. As soon as a discrepancy between an international norm and a state’s national practice is discovered, the Council must immediately notify all other governments of the disparity. Public transportation depends on limited resources, such as those found on the Earth’s surface. Due to its dependence on limited resources such as fuel, aviation cannot be considered long-term sustainable. Over vast distances, today’s aircrafts are benefiting from the most advanced technologies. Air travel is becoming more popular across the globe as people’s quality of living improves. Society and the environment must bear the cost, and certain inconveniences like noise, pollution, and resource use must be accepted. In terms of aviation’s environmental impact, noise is the most pressing issue. Comment by Sarah H.: Could you provide some specific examples here? Comment by Sarah H.: This sentence is a little confusing. The phrase “over vast distances” makes it seem like you are about to talk about physical places that aircrafts travel, but it seems like you are using this phrase to show how advanced the technology is for aircraft. I recommend revising the first part of the sentence with a different, more conventional phrase that still makes this point. For example: “By leaps and bounds…” Comment by Sarah H.: I think this would actually be a better place to start your last paragraph. Your last paragraph right now doesn’t really have a topic sentence (the first sentence deals directly with issues of noise, but the entire paragraph isn’t just about noise). Since this is where you begin talking about the effects on society, it would be better to start the last paragraph here.

People who live near airports are exposed to communication interference, sleeplessness, and hearing because of the noise pollution. At addition to affecting students’ ability to study, the noise also has a negative influence on patients in adjacent hospitals. At least 10,000 feet above the earth, the aircraft does not make a substantial amount of noise. To a large part, aircraft engines run on the combustion of gasoline. As a result of emissions from burning gasoline, the air quality within a few kilometers of the airport is dramatically reduced. The air quality is hindered by the fact that the plane is 3 kilometers above the ground during takeoff and 6 kilometers below the ground at landing. Comment by Sarah H.: In – the correct conventional phrase is “In addition to…” Comment by Sarah H.: For – the conventional expression is “for a large part”
You could also say “to a large extent” Comment by Sarah H.: Your professor is very adamant that you have five FULL pages of content. This looks like it’s closer to half a page of content, and your professor says they will take off 10 points for that. Are there any more details you can include to help you reach the page expectation? I’ll look to see if there is anywhere you can add information to help get to five full pages. Comment by Sarah H.: I feel like this conclusion is missing something. The majority of your paper is about Air law, but then you conclude with a new idea about how air traffic can effect civilians. The conclusion is the area to wrap up or summarize your argument. You usually do not introduce new information in the conclusion. Instead, the conclusion is the place where you explore the “so what” of the rest of your research – it is where you explain why your research is significant. I would recommend revising your conclusion with those characteristics in mind.

References

Dempsey, P. S. (2021). Introduction to Aviation Law.

Hodgkinson, D., & Johnston, R. (2018). Aviation law and drones: Unmanned aircraft and the future of aviation. Routledge.

Hong, C. C. (2018). An Inquiry into the Legal Considerations for Passenger Mental Injuries in International Aviation Laws. International Journal of Education, Culture and Society3, 19.

Kluwer Law International BV. Larsen, P. B., Sweeney, J., & Gillick, J. (2019). Aviation law: Cases, laws and related sources

Legal, W. K., House, R., & Heath, H. (2018). ISSN 0927-3379© 2018 Kuwer Law International BV, The Netherlands.

Naboush, E., & Alnimer, R. (2020). Air carrier’s liability for the safety of passengers during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of air transport management89, 101896.

English

The Social Dilemma: The Opposition

As the saying goes, “There are two sides to every story.” In each of the following
articles, the author disputes the argument(s) set forth in The Social Dilemma. Read four
of the articles and write a 75-word summary/response for each.

Review of The Social Dilemma: No, Social Media Is Not “Hijacking” Your Brain

https://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/netflix-social-dilemma-tech-1.5740351

https://www.theverge.com/interface/2020/9/16/21437942/social-dilemma-netflix-review-

orlowski-sarah-zhang-memo-facebook-buzzfeed

https://medium.com/digital-diplomacy/netflixs-social-dilemma-tells-us-how-facebook-hacks-our-

minds-but-it-leaves-out-one-crucial-thing-8bad086c2670

https://medium.com/the-anticapital/what-netflixs-the-social-dilemma-gets-wrong-2d3a48f9e488

https://www.ripplemarkeg.com/blog/news/netflix-social-dilemma

english

METHLAND

By the Same Author

The Last Cowboys at the End of the World

METHLAND
THE DEATH AND LIFE OF AN
AMERICAN SMALL TOWN

NICK REDING

Copyright © 2009 by Nick Reding

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever
without written permission from the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles or reviews. For information address Bloomsbury USA, 175 Fifth Avenue, New

York, NY 10010.

Published by Bloomsbury USA, New York

Some of the names in this book have been changed.
All of the events portrayed are completely factual.

All papers used by Bloomsbury USA are natural, recyclable products made from wood grown in
well-managed forests. The manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the

country of origin.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLLICATION DATA

Reding, Nick.
Methland : the death and life of an American small town/Nick Reding.—1st ed.

p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.

eISBN: 978-1-60819-156-7
1. Methamphetamine abuse—Iowa—Oelwein.
2. Methamphetamine—Iowa—Oelwein. I. Title.

HV5831.I8R43 2009
362.29’9—dc22
2008045398

First U.S. Edition 2009

1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2

Typeset by Westchester Book Group
Printed in the United States of America by Quebecor World Fairfield

To my wife and my son

For most of those which were great once are small today; and those which used to be small
were great in my own time . . . Human prosperity never abides long in the same place.

—Herodotus, The Histories

CONTENTS

Prologue: Home
Part One: 2005
1. Kant’s Lament
2. The Most American Drug
3. The Inland Empire
4. Family
5. The Do Drop Inn

Part Two: 2006
6. Mirror Imaging
7. The Cop Shop
8. Waterloo
9. The Inland Empire, Part Two
10. Las Flores

Part Three: 2007
11. Algona
12. El Paso
13. Disconnected States
14. Kant’s Redemption
15. Independence

Epilogue: Home Again
Acknowledgments
A Note on Sources

PROLOGUE

HOME

As you look down after takeoff from O’Hare International Airport, headed west for San Francisco,
California, it’s only a few minutes before the intricate complexity of Chicago’s suburban streets is
overcome by the rolling swell of the prairie. The change is visceral as the plane’s shadow floats
past houses hidden within protective moats of red cedar and evergreen shelter belts. The land
unfolds a geometric sweep of corn and switchgrass. Grain elevators shine like tiny pieces in a
diorama; next to them, venous brown-water creeks extend their fingers warily onto the negative
space of the prairie. And if you look closely as the plane climbs past Mississippi Lock and Dam
Number 10, on the Iowa side of the river, you’ll see a little town called Oelwein, population 6,772.
You’ll see, for a few ascendant moments, every street, every building, and every pickup truck in
brittle, detailed relief. Briefly, you can look at this photographic image of a town, imagining the
lives of the people there with voyeuris tic plea sure. And then Oelwein (along with your curiosity,
perhaps) is gone.
Such is the reality of thousands of small communities dotting the twenty-eight landlocked states of

the American flyover zone. Lying beneath some of the most traveled air routes in the world, they
are part of, and yet seemingly estranged from, the rest of the country. In many ways, it’s easier to
get from New York to Los Angeles, or from Dallas to Seattle, than it is to get from anywhere in
America to Oelwein, Iowa. Yet much of what there is to know about the United States at the
beginning of the new millennium is on display right there, gossiping at the Morning Perk café,
waiting for calls at Re/Max Realty, or seeing patients in the low brick building occupied by the
Hallberg Family Practice. In their anonymity, and perhaps now more than ever, towns like Oelwein
go a long way toward telling us who we are and how we fit into the world. Who we are may well
surprise you.
Look again, then, this time from the window of a commuter flight from Chicago as it descends

into Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on a clear May morning. Follow the gentle arc of I-380 north, over the
Cedar River and past the red-and-white-checked logo of the Purina plant, which bathes everything
for miles around in the sweet smell of breakfast cereal. What appears from the plane window to be
only a few inches is really an hour’s drive to the junction of Highway 150, a no-nonsense two-laner
that eschews the complexity of cloverleaf exits and overpasses. Every twenty miles or so, the speed
limit drops from fifty-five to twenty-five as Highway 150 bisects another cluster of three-and four-
story buildings bookended by redbrick churches and bright metallic water towers. The names of the
towns are as companionable and familiar as the country is harsh: Bryantsburg, In dependence, and
Hazleton accompany the road all the way to where the Amish homesteads sit kitty-corner from the
Sportsmen’s Lounge. There, just across the Fayette County line, is Oelwein, pronounced OL-wine.
Like most small towns in Iowa, Oelwein’s four square miles are arranged on a grid system

divided into quadrants. At what would be the intersection of the x and y axes is the central feature
of Oelwein’s architecture and economy: the century-old Chicago Great Western roundhouse, where
trains were once turned back north or south and where entire lines of railroad cars could be

worked on without regard for the often-brutal weather outside. An enormous brick and steel
structure the size of three football fields, the roundhouse, like the town it long supported, is the
biggest thing for many miles. Amid the isolation, Oelwein’s very presence defines the notion of
somewhere.
On the surface, Oelwein would appear to be typical in every way. Driving into town from the

south, you first notice the softening profile of the maples and oaks that fill out the middle distance
of an otherwise flat landscape. Once you are inside the city limits, Oelwein’s skyline is divided
between the five-story white spire of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church and, six blocks farther north,
the four-story red bell tower of Grace Methodist. Between them is a jewelry store, a sporting goods
shop, two banks, a florist, a movie house, and four restaurants, all housed in turn-of-the-twentieth-
century brick and stone buildings. Across the street from Las Flores Mexican Restaurant, there’s a
clothing boutique, a photography studio, and a crafts store. There are almost as many bars in
Oelwein (eleven) as there are churches (thirteen). The biggest congregations are Lutheran and
Catholic, owing to the two separate movements of immigrants into the county: Scandinavians and
Bavarians at the end of the nineteenth century; Irish and Italians at the beginning of the twentieth.
Von Tuck’s Bier Haus generally sees the high-end clientele, which is likely to stop in following a
lasagna supper at Leo’s Italian Restaurant, the newest incarnation of a business that Frank Leo began
as a grocery store in 1922, shortly after arriving from Italy. The Do Drop Inn, on the other hand, is
Oelwein’s seediest and most eclectic watering hole. Run by Mildred Binstock, the Do Drop, as it’s
known, is decorated in what Mildred terms “High Amish Kitsch,” a smorgasbord of lace doilies,
mismatched wooden chairs, and all manner of antique farm equipment washed in the harsh reds and
soft greens of year-round Christmas lights.
Heading south on Main Street, back toward Hazleton, you’ll find a Dollar General, a Kmart, and

a Kum and Go gas station. For the most part, though, things in Oelwein are still owned by the same
families that have owned them forever. There is no Starbucks, and there are no plans for one. This
is not a town that thrives on fanfare. Luxury is not a word that comes to mind inside either of
Oelwein’s clothing stores, VG’s and Sam’s, where wool dominates the fabrics of the men’s suits and
the ladies’ dresses alike. Practical, on the other hand, is a word that applies at nearly every turn.
Even the photography studio, despite its large picture window full of high school vanity shots, has a
decidedly utilitarian feel, owing in part to the long shadow cast by the wide aluminum awning—a
necessary ac-coutrement in an area of the Midwest that sees three feet of rain and five feet of snow
in a normal year.
The closest thing to opulence in Oelwein comes in the predictably reserved form of a coffee shop,

the Morning Perk. There, members of Oelwein’s professional class gather each morning around an
antique oak dresser featuring brushed aluminum carafes of both regular and flavored coffee. Next to
the carafes, a wicker basket is filled with containers of liquid creamers in hazelnut, amaretto, and
cinnamon flavors—this in a state (and a region) where packages of granulated nondairy creamer are
de rigueur. Their husbands off to work, the wives of Oelwein’s best-known men (the mayor, the high
school principal, the police chief, and the Methodist minister) linger on big couches and in stiff-
backed chairs to gossip and make collages. Later, it’s off to the Kokomo to have their hair and nails
done.
How and where you drink your coffee speaks volumes about who you are and what you do in

Oelwein. Three doors away from the Morning Perk is the Hub City Bakery, a leaner, more hard-
edged sibling of its sophisticate sister. Painted a dirty, aging white, and with a long, family-style
folding table covered in a paper tablecloth, Hub City looks less like a café and more like the

kitchen of a clapboard farm house. There is no focaccia or three-bean soup. In fact, there’s not even
a menu. Instead, there’s a plastic case of doughnuts and a two-burner gas stove where the cook and
owner fries eggs destined for cold white toast on a paper plate. Not that the old men mind as they
linger at the table, layered in various forms of Carhartt: their discussions of corn prices and the
relative merits and deficiencies of various herbicides are ongoing, if not interminable. A refined
palate is not a prerequisite for entry at what is referred to by regulars as simply “the Bakery,”
though it helps to be short on appointments and long on opinions. Questioning the cook, like taking
your coffee with cream, amounts to something like a breach of etiquette.
Together, the separate constituencies of Oelwein’s two cafés give a sense of the pillars on which

society in that town is built. Life in a small midwestern town lingers in the bars and passes weekly
through the church sanctuaries. But it’s rooted in the stores that line Main Street, and on the green
and yellow latticework sprawl of the farms that begin just feet from where the pavement ends. The
fit is symbiotic, though not always seamless. Without the revenues generated by the likes of the 480-
acre Lein operation—a sheep and corn farm twelve miles north of town—Repeats Consignment
Store and Van Denover Jewelry Plus would be hard-pressed to stay in business. As life in the
fields and along the sidewalks goes, so goes the life of the town, and along with it, the life of the
hospital, the high school, and the local Christmas pageant, for which Oelwein is known throughout
at least two counties.
And yet, things are not entirely what they seem. On a sultry May evening, with the Cedar Rapids

flight long gone back to Chicago, and temperatures approaching ninety degrees at dusk, pass by the
Perk and Hub City on the way into Oelwein’s tiny Ninth Ward. Look down at the collapsing
sidewalk, or across the vacant lot at a burned-out home. At the Conoco station, just a few blocks
south of Sacred Heart, a young man in a trench coat picks through the Dumpster, shaking despite the
heat. Here, amid the double-wides of the Ninth Ward, among the packs of teenage boys riding, gang-
like, on their Huffy bicycles, the economy and culture of Oelwein are more securely tied to a drug
than to either of the two industries that have forever sustained the town: farming and small business.
This is the part of Oelwein, and of the small-town United States, not visible from the plane window
as the flat stretch of the country rolls by. After sundown in the Ninth Ward, the warm, nostalgic
light that had bathed the nation beneath a late-afternoon transcontinental flight is gone.
Against the oppressive humidity, the night’s smells begin to take shape. Mixed with the moist,

organic scent of cut grass at dew point is the ether-stink of methamphetamine cooks at work in their
kitchens. Main Street, just three blocks distant, feels as far away as Chicago. For life in Oelwein is
not, in fact, a picture-postcard amalgamation of farms and churches and pickup trucks, Fourth of July
fireworks and Nativity scenes, bake sales and Friday-night football games. Nor is life simpler or
better or truer here than it is in Los Angeles or New York or Tampa or Houston. Life in the small-
town United States has, though, changed considerably in the last three decades. It wasn’t until 2005
—when news of the methamphetamine epidemic began flooding the national media—that people
began taking notice. Overnight, the American small town and methamphetamine became synonymous.
Main Street was no longer divided between Leo’s and the Do Drop Inn, or between the Perk and
the Bakery: it was partitioned between the farmer and the tweaker. How this came to be—and what
it tells us about who we are—is the story of this book. And this book is the story of Oelwein,
Iowa.

By the time I went to Iowa in May 2005, I’d already spent six years watching meth and rural
America come together. The first time I ran across the drug in a way that suggested its symbolic

place in the heartland was not in Iowa but in Idaho, in a little town called Gooding. I went to
Gooding in the fall of 1999 to do a magazine story on that town’s principal industry, ranching. At
the time, I didn’t know what meth was; it was completely by accident that I found myself in a place
overrun with the drug, though the obviousness of meth’s effects was immediate. That first night in
Gooding, I went to have dinner at the Lincoln Inn, a combination road house and restaurant. On
Friday nights, the road crews who’d busied themselves all week paving and grading the county’s
few byways descended on the Lincoln to drink beer. An inordinate number of them, it seemed to
me, were also high on meth. When the sheriff and a deputy drove by in the alley around midnight,
they stopped to look in through the back door. Then they got back in their cruiser and drove away.
What could they do, the two of them, faced with a room full of crank users? Two nights later, I
was in the bunkhouse of a nearby ranch when three Mexicans drove up in a white Ford F-150.
They were meth dealers, and the oldest among them, a nineteen-year-old who gave his name as
Coco and said he’d been deported three times in the last four years, explained the crank business to
me this way: “At first we give it away. Then the addicts will do anything to get more.” Meth, it
seemed, was just a part of life for the 1,286 inhabitants of Gooding, Idaho.
Back in 1999, very little was being written about the drug, with the exception of a few

newspapers on the West Coast and a smattering of smaller ones like the Idaho Mountain Express.
At the time, I was living in New York City. To read the New York Times, the Washington Post, and
even the Chicago Tribune was to be largely unaware of methamphetamine’s spread throughout the
United States. When I talked to friends about what I’d seen in Gooding, no one believed it. That, or
they dismissed crank as one more unseen, unfathomable aspect of life in The Middle: as prevalent
as corn, as inscrutable as the farm bill, and as tacky as evangelical theology. Whether I traveled to
Ennis, Montana, to Merced, California, or to Canton, Georgia, local consciousness of the drug was
invariably acute, even as meth somehow avoided coherent, national scrutiny. For four years,
wherever I went, there meth was, as easy to discount as it was to discover; once I was back in any
major American city—be it New York or Chicago—whatever I’d seen or heard lost all context. I
even began to get the feeling that the drug was somehow following me around. I tried and failed on
numerous occasions to convince my agent and several magazine and book editors that meth in
American small towns was a major issue. Eventually, I tried to forget about it and move on. But I
couldn’t ignore what I saw in November 2004, five years after being in Idaho, which is that meth
had become a major feature in the landscape of my home.
I grew up near St. Louis, Missouri. Fifty-five miles away, near the town of Greenville, Illinois, is

a wetland complex that is one of the more important stopover points in North America for what is
annually the world’s most concentrated migration of waterfowl. I’ve duck-hunted there for much of
my life, and consider Greenville to be a part of the place, largely defined, from which I come. Like
St. Louis, Greenville sits in the midst of the bluff prairies and timbered hollows that once stretched
along the Mississippi Valley from east-central Missouri down to Kentucky. Together, this area is a
discrete subset of the southern Midwest, unified by a geography, an accent, an economy, and a
cultural sensibility that is an elemental part of who I am. Hunting ducks each autumn at Carlyle
Lake has always served as an annual exploration of my family’s history, for the birds that hatch on
the prairies of northwest Iowa and the Dakotas migrate south, like my father did six decades ago,
down the Missouri River toward the promise of St. Louis. There, they meet with great masses that
have moved north along the Mississippi River, just as thousands of people have done, my
grandmother included: she left an Ozark mountain subsistence farm along Ebo Creek, Missouri, and
came looking for a better life on the fertile floodplain that surrounds St. Louis. Not far from where

the two strands of my family came together, there’s Carlyle Lake, and the little town of Greenville,
where I have always felt at home. Somehow, despite having run across meth in small towns all
over the Mountain and Middle West, I had persisted in thinking that the area where I grew up was
somehow immune to its presence. That all changed one night in Greenville.
I was in Ethan’s Place, a bar to which I’ve retired for many years after duck hunting. There, I met

two men whom I’ll call Sean and James. Sean was a skinhead. He’d just a few days earlier been
released from the Illinois state penitentiary after serving six years for grand theft auto and
manufacture of methamphetamine with the intent to distribute. He was a thin and wiry six feet one,
170 pounds, with a shaved head and a predictable mixture of Nazi tattoos. He was twenty-six years
old. James was black, twenty-eight years old, and a heavily muscled six feet three. His frame was
less sturdy, it seemed, than his burden, for James moved with a kind of exhausted resignation, like
someone who suffers from chronic pain. For the last six years, James had been serving with the
Army Airborne, first in Afghanistan, where he participated in the invasion of that country; then in
Iraq, where he was also a member of the initial offensive; and finally, as a policeman back in
Afghanistan, where he’d found himself in the curious position of protecting people who had been
shooting at him a couple of years before. Like Sean, James had been in a sort of prison, and he
was finally home.
Shared history is stronger than the forced affiliations mandated by jail or the military, and pretty

soon James and Sean, the black and the neo-Nazi, talked amiably about all the people they knew in
common. They drank the local specialty, the Bucket of Fuckit, a mixture of draft beer, ice, and what
ever liquor the bartender sees fit to mix together in a plastic bucket. As they played pool, James
stalked around the table, shooting first and assessing the situation later, each time hitting the balls
more aggressively. The contours of his face formed themselves into a look of desperate perplexity
beneath the shadow of his St. Louis Cardinals cap. Why, he seemed to be thinking, will the balls
not go in?
Sean, too, moved around the table with a kind of pent-up aggression. Whereas James’s muscular

shoulders sagged in defeat beneath his knee-length Sean John rugby shirt, Sean’s movements were
fluid and decisive inside his Carhartts. His confidence was palpable. The enormous pupils of his
blue eyes brimming with lucid possibility, Sean easily crushed James in the game of pool. Sean was
riding the long, smooth shoulder of a crank binge.
As I shot pool and talked with James and Sean over several nights, it hit me with great force that

meth was not, in fact, following me around. Nor was it just a coincidental aspect of life in the
places I’d happened to be in the last half decade, in Gooding or Los Angeles or Helena. Meth was
indeed everywhere, including in the most important place: the area from which I come. There, it
stood to derail the lives of two people with whom, under only slightly different circumstances, I
could easily have grown up.

Meeting Sean and James took away the abstraction that I’d felt regarding meth since 1999. In the
wake of what I’d seen in Greenville, writing a book about the meth epidemic suddenly took on the
weight of a moral obligation. Around that same time, after a decade in New York City, I’d begun
yearning to return to the Midwest. My desire to understand the puzzle of meth had now conspired
with an instinct to view the fullness of the place I’d left when I was eighteen. So, too, was the
need to consider both parts of the puzzle growing more urgent. By mid-2005, meth was widely
considered, as Newsweek magazine put it in its August 8 cover story, “America’s Most Dangerous
Drug.”

In the end, meth would have a prolonged moment in the spotlight during 2005 and 2006, which
can in some ways be traced to a late-2004 series called “Unnecessary Epidemic,” written by Steve
Suo for the Oregonian, an influential newspaper in Portland. In all, the Oregonian ran over two
hundred and fifty articles in an unprecedented exploration of the drug’s ravages. Following the cover
story in Newsweek, a Frontline special on PBS, and several cable television documentaries, the
United Nations drug control agency in late 2005 declared methamphetamine “the most abused hard
drug on earth,” according to PBS, with twenty-six million addicts worldwide. Even as global
awareness of the drug grew, meth’s association with small-town America remained strongest. The
idea that a drug could take root in Oelwein, however, was treated as counterintuitive, challenging
notions central to the American sense of identity. This single fact would continue to define meth’s
seeming distinctiveness among drug epidemics.
In 2005, after six years of trying, I got a contract to write this book under the assumption that

meth was a large-scale true-crime story. In that version of the meth story, the most stupefying aspect
is the fact that people like Sean could make the drug in their homes. Or that Coco, the Mexican
teenager I’d met in 1999, would risk deportation for a fourth time in order to come to Gooding,
Idaho, to sell the drug. By 2005, many law enforcement officers were being quoted in newspapers
predicting that the state of Iowa would soon take over from my native Missouri as the leading
producer of so-called mom-and-pop methamphetamine in the United States. For this reason, and
because Sean and James had made it clear that they did not want to be written about, I’d been
focusing my research on the state from which half my family comes, and which seemed poised to
become the newest meth capital of America. One day, while poring over archived newspaper
articles in the Des Moines Register, I came across an interesting quote made by a doctor in the
northeast part of the state. I called the doctor one afternoon from my apartment in New York City.
We talked for an hour and a half, during which the doctor began to change my thinking about meth
as a crime story to one that has much more pervasive and far-reaching implications. What struck me
most was his description of meth as “a socio cultural cancer.” Later that day, I spoke at length to
the doctor’s twin brother, who was the former county public defender, and then to the assistant
county prosecutor. The doctor lived in Oelwein. I made the calls on a Saturday. The following
Wednesday, I was driving north on Highway 150, following flights from New York to Chicago to
Cedar Rapids.
The doctor’s name is Clay Hallberg. Doctor Clay, as he’s known around town, is Oelwein’s

general practitioner and onetime prodigal son. As his father had done before him for forty-five
years, Clay has for two decades delivered babies, overseen cancer treatments, performed surgeries,
and served as proxy psychologist, psychiatrist, and confidante to Oelwein’s wealthy farmers and
poor meatpackers, to its Mexicans and Italians and Germans, its Catholics and Lutherans and
evangelicals. Oelwein, replete with its humdrum realities and unseen eccentricities, passes daily
through Clay’s tiny, messy office across the street from Mercy Hospital, one block north of the
senior high school. Clay grew up in town and had come back following medical school and a
residency in southern Illinois. He raised three children there with his wife, Tammy, all the while
living down the street from his parents and his two brothers. Really, I went to Oelwein for the
reason that Clay and his hometown seemed inseparable to me, in the same way that hometown
America was becoming inseparable with meth. I thought Clay could explain to me how that had
happened.
By May 2005, Oelwein was on the brink of disaster. As I stood on First Street in front of the

post office, the signs of entropy were everywhere, and hardly less subtle than those in East New

York, Brooklyn, or in Compton or Watts, in Los Angeles. The sidewalks were cracked, half the
buildings on Main Street stood vacant, and foot traffic was practically nonexistent. Seven in ten
children in Oelwein under the age of twelve lived below the poverty line. Up at the four-hundred-
student high school, on Eighth Avenue SE, 80 percent of the students were eligible for the federal
school lunch program. The principal, meantime, was quietly arranging with the local police to patrol
the halls with a drug-sniffing dog—essentially, to treat the high school as a perpetual crime scene.
The burned-out homes of former meth labs dotted the residential streets and avenues like open
sores. At the same time, the Iowa Department of Human Services, whose in-home therapists serve
as one of the only realistic options for dealing with a mélange of psychiatric ailments, drug
addiction, and all manner of abuse in Oelwein, was cutting 90 percent of its funding to the town.
The meatpacking plant was on the verge of closing its doors. The industrial park sat unoccupied.
Unemployment was pegged at twice the national level. For Larry Murphy, Oelwein’s embattled
second-term mayor, the question was this: How would he keep his town from literally vanishing into
the prairie?
The afternoon that I arrived in Oelwein, Clay Hallberg’s friend Nathan Lein met me at the Super

8 motel. For forty years, Nathan’s parents have farmed and raised livestock on 480 acres north of
town. Following law school in Indiana, Nathan returned home to take the job of assistant Fayette
County prosecutor. On our way to the police station, Nathan drove by what he described as several
working meth labs on the pretty, oak-lined streets that fill out Oelwein’s residential neighborhoods,
where the hand-laid stone houses date back in some cases 120 years. We passed Amishmen coming
to town in their buggies, the Rent-a-Reel movie rental store, and the farm co-op. Two blocks farther
on, Nathan pointed out his favorite restaurant, a drive-in burger joint called EI-EI-O’s, which had
recently closed. On the boarded-up windows, the owner had scrawled in red spray paint, “Make
Offer—Please!”
The Oelwein Cop Shop, as the police station is known, is a nondescript 1960s-era brick building

by the railroad tracks, one block north of the Chicago Great Western round house. Inside, past the
blue-lit dispatch station, Nathan introduced me to the new chief of police, Jeremy Logan. Logan had
recently been promoted from sergeant by Mayor Murphy with mandates to clean up a force with a
reputation for impropriety and to spearhead a desperate effort to get Oelwein’s small-time meth
manufacture under control. Sitting in his windowless office wearing a bulletproof vest, Logan
scrolled through mug shots of Oelwein’s best-known crank dealers and most notorious addicts, one
of whom had recently been taken from his home along with fifteen assault rifles and thousands of
rounds of ammunition—all while his fifteen-year-old daughter watched. Many of Oelwein’s addicts
and dealers, said Logan, hung out at the Do Drop Inn. The idea was that I would go there and, with
the blessing of Logan and Nathan Lein, have free range to meet whomever I could. The further hope
was that I would get the stories of several addicts and dealers and, with luck, be allowed to follow
their lives for the next two years.
It didn’t take long. Two days later, I was in the dank living room of Roland Jarvis’s small house,

watching TV with the shades drawn against the bright May sunlight. Jarvis, a thirty-seven-year-old
former meatpacking worker, had just smoked some crystalline shards of crank heated on a small
piece of tinfoil, the vapor of which he sucked through a glass pipe. As we settled in for the
denouement of the mobster movie Goodfellas, Jarvis told his story, principally about the night he
blew his mother’s house up while cooking a batch of meth. That night had earned him three months
in the burn unit at the University of Iowa Hospital in Iowa City, and had melted most of his hands
and face off.

Clay Hallberg is Roland Jarvis’s doctor. Nathan Lein put Jarvis in jail. On the frigid winter night
in 2001 when Jarvis blew up the house, he ran screaming onto the street, begging then-sergeant
Jeremy Logan—with whom Jarvis had gone to Oelwein High School in the 1980s—to shoot him.
Such was the pain of burning alive. And so, too, is this just a small part of the difficulty caused a
tiny rural community by the specter of a drug epidemic, which directs life there in a thousand
unseen ways. Nathan Lein and his girlfriend, a caseworker with the Department of Human Services,
hardly ever went out to dinner anymore, for fear of seeing people that Nathan had put in jail, or
whose children his girlfriend had recommended be taken away by the state. Of Roland Jarvis’s four
children, one, at thirteen, already needed a kidney transplant, a defect that Jarvis blames on his and
his wife’s intravenous meth use while the child was in utero. Summing up the damage done to
Oelwein one morning at the Perk, Tim Gilson, the former principal of the nearly bankrupt high
school, was almost driven to tears remembering the harsh metrics of the job from which he’d
recently resigned in order to finish his Ph.D. in education. “We just didn’t have the money and the
staff to help the kids that needed the most of it,” Gilson said, describing the events leading up to
asking the police to patrol the halls. “On the one hand, I had an obligation to my te

English

SEARCHING FOR THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE 1

SEARCHING FOR THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE 2

Searching for the Origins of Human Language

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WRTG 391: Advance Research Writing

University of Maryland Global Campus

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Language is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. As such it may not seem to stand out as a particularly remarkable characteristic of being human, unless one considers what the human animal would be like without the ability to comprehend and use language. In fact, it could be argued that human language is one of the few traits which completely distinguish human behavior from that of other animals, as so much of our success depends upon our manipulation of complex, language-based, communication. Language involves combining and recombining concepts. You use language in an internal language of thought. It can be used for communication through either speech, signing, or writing. In the context of linguistics, writing is an externalization of language but not considered itself to be language. The capacity for language, rather than the way it is externalized is the issue which has inspired the deepest curiosity. Questions surrounding the evolution of human language are still actively debated today by researchers in a variety of fields, despite having already been studied intensively for many decades. The topic is now being tackled by researchers from a wider range of backgrounds, each brining a special perspective to an established sphere of enquiry.

Within the large body of literature surrounding the evolution of human language, one of the most prominent thinkers is a man sometimes referred to as the father of modern linguistics, Noam Chomsky. Chomsky first argued for the innateness and unique nature of human language, and this is reiterated and expanded on in his collaboration with Bolhuis et al. (2014). Bolhuis et al. (2014) locate the uniqueness of human language in a cognitive ability to combine mental representations, then recursively combine these to create mental representations of almost infinitely complex ideas—they call this ability “merge.” They claim that merging concepts recursively is the core of human grammar, and that this is innate and uniquely human. By contrast, Tecumseh Fitch (2019) emphasizes the continuity of the capacity for mental representation between humans and animals. Tecumseh Fitch (2019) wonders if the merge tendency may be observable in animals, saying that it is crucial to “…explore in detail animals’ abilities to combine concepts. To the extent that they can do so in a flexible, hierarchical manner, I think we can see the germs of the recursive symbolic system that underlies human linguistic concepts” (p. 6).

These writers argue about whether there is a gap in cognitive ability to merge mental representations. However, they agree that even if language evolved for the purpose of communication, evidence suggests that it did not evolve directly from great ape communication systems, which are largely based on instinctive calls (Tecumseh Fitch, 2019). Bolhuis et al., (2014) state that “the origin of the language faculty does not generally seem to be informed by considerations of the evolution of communication” (p. 1). Similarly, Tecumseh Fitch (2019) argues using evidence from various animal behavior studies, that great ape cognitive sophistication reached a level where it supplied all the elements necessary for language to evolve. Starting from a less cognitive perspective, Dunbar (2017) hypothesizes that human language evolved specifically to facilitate the social interactions necessary for humans to form larger social groups. Dunbar analyzed data showing that primate species that live in larger groups have larger neocortical surface areas and spend more time in social interactions/mutual-grooming (2017, p. 209). Primates in large groups form alliances through mutual grooming. The implication Dunbar (2017) drew is that even for early humans, maintaining social cohesion in typical group sizes would have demanded more than twelve hours a day spent grooming (longer than there is daylight most places). Humans needed something to allow bonding with more than one potential ally at a time. Being able to gossip and bond using language fit the bill. Another researcher, Donald (2017) proposes a quite different alternative, namely that early humans needed language to communicate about tools. Using paleo genetic analysis and records of human tool construction, Donald (2017) reconstructs the gradual emergence of complex tools early in human history and finds that the “…archeological evidence suggests strongly that human ancestors were skilled [tool makers] long before they were articulate” (p. 205). The cognitive capacity required for making complex multi-part tools, and showing your children how to make them, provided the impetus for tool-making and language to co-evolve.

These writers have very different approaches to finding evidence about the how human language evolved. The issue of exactly how speech per se developed, the steps along the way, are not addressed in any detail except by Dunbar (2017). Donald (2017) proposes that there must have been a stepwise co-evolution from protolanguage and moderately complex material creations to fully developed language embedded in a fully complex material culture. However, no details are mentioned. Dunbar (2017) discusses evidence pointing to the development of voluntary breath control needed for speech. He explains that the breath control for speech requires such an enlarged thoracic nerve that the thoracic spine was modified to accommodate it (Dunbar, 2017). As a consequence, the fossil records show which hominids had breath control. He also considered the issue of how the steps on the road to language would have been rewarded. He suggests that laughter would have been the first rewarding vocal bonding signal (Dunbar, 2017, p. 210). Implied is that it is both rewarding and pro-social even in modern humans. He then speculates that music or chanting may have played the next a role, citing examples of modern humans using songs without meaningful words to bond while working together (Dunbar, 2017). The final stage, developing language sophisticated enough to discuss events and individuals, is not as elaborated. But Dunbar (2017) does note that in modern workplaces a large part of verbal communication is not about work but instead centers around social chatter, and gossip about mutual acquaintances, or famous people.

The range of ideas about the origins of human language is clearly vast. Even ideas about what questions are most important vary. Yet by considering a range of evidence from the fields as disparate as animal cognition, archeology, paleo-genetics, musicology, anatomy, and considerations of the rewarding qualities of various types of speech, an interdisciplinary approach gives hope that progress may gradually be realized. More and more modern researchers are focused on language as a cognitive phenomenon. Even a researcher like Dunbar (2017) who sees language as evolving for the purposes of communication emphasizes that it was to discuss cognitive concepts like the motivations of other individuals (i.e. theory of mind). Given the direction that research has gone and is now continuing, it seems less likely that the study of animal communication systems alone will provide the breakthrough insights into human language origins.

References

Bolhuis, J. J., Tattersall, I., Chomsky, N., & Berwick, R. C. (2014). How Could Language Have Evolved? PLoS Biology, 12(8), 1–6. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001934

Donald, M. (2017). Key cognitive preconditions for the evolution of language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 204–208. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.3758/s13423-016-1102-x

Dunbar, R. I. M. (2017). Group size, vocal grooming and the origins of language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 209–212. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1122-6

Tecumseh Fitch, W. (2019, November 18). Animal cognition and the evolution of human language: why we cannot focus solely on communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375: 20190046. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0046

English

THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE 1

THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE 8

Searching for the Origins of Language

xxxxxx xxxxxxxx

University of Maryland Global Campus

WRTG 391: Advance Research Writing

xxxxxx xxxx

Introduction

Language is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. As such it may not seem to stand out as a particularly remarkable characteristic of being human, unless one considers what the human animal would be like without the ability to comprehend and use language. In fact, it could be argued that human language is one of the few traits which completely distinguishes human behavior from that of other animals, as so much of our success depends upon our manipulation of complex, language-based, communication. Language involves combining and recombining concepts. You use language in an internal language of thought. It can be used for communication through either speech, signing, or writing. However, in the context of linguistics, writing is considered an externalization which builds upon language, but is not language itself. The capacity for language, rather than the way it is externalized is the issue which has inspired the deepest curiosity. Although over the past seventy years many scientists have studied other animal’s communication systems in the search for insight into the origins of human language, it is cognition which now seems to hold the key to understanding its evolution.

What is the Definition of Language?

When people developed an interest in how human language evolved, they began to study animal communication systems. But to compare animal communication systems to human language they first had to have a clear understanding of the features that defined language. Although people have been analyzing language and describing its grammar for centuries, the modern field of linguistics developed only in the last century. Researchers looked to this emerging field, and to the work of Noam Chomsky in particular, for help in defining the essentials of human communication (Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005).

Human language is comprised of certain core elements which are present whether you’re using speech or sign language; phonology (sound/spatial-temporal quality), semantics (symbols with meaning, like words), grammar (the particular rules of a given language), and syntax (a subset of grammar; more general rules referring to sentence structure) (Suzuki, et al. 2019; Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005). When considering syntax, Suzuki et al. suggest three criteria for compositional syntax: 1. That the meaning of individual signals, and combinations thereof reflect a context; 2. That the meaning of a combination of words is only understood because the component parts are meaningful; 3. And further, that the precise order of the signals (i.e. words in a sentence) can determine the meaning (2019). With this kind of analysis, researchers could determine if animal communication systems had these important characteristics of human language.

What is Unique About Human Language?

Some researchers came to the opinion that there is another essential aspect of human language which is not only characteristic but unique. Bolhuis et al. (2014) locate this uniqueness in a cognitive ability to combine mental representations, then recursively re-combine these to create mental representations of almost infinitely complex ideas—they call this ability “merge.” They claim that merging concepts recursively is the core of human grammar, and that this is innate and uniquely human. The merge concept suggests that these combinations are pairwise: taking n elements, placing them into pairs, and recombining those in nearly infinite compositions.

A competing if similar theory is termed “Unification” (Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005). Based partly on considerations of the nature of idioms, Jackendoff and Pinker propose that a binary rearrangement of similar elements is inadequate to explain the richness of human language. Bolhuis et al. present no explanation for idioms where Jackendoff and Pinker insist that no explanation of human language can ignore sentences which are consistent with proper grammatical usage, but have an actual meaning which is different from their literal meaning (e.g. ‘Bite the bullet’). The merge theory assumes that all sentences are comprised of smaller elements for which we have mental representations. The Unification theory proposes that mental representations are much more flexible, even for an entire sentence, which would be the case for an idiom like ‘Stick ‘em up.’ Humans can think non-linguistically, but a large portion of our stream of consciousness and mental life is in the form of language.

The similarity in both the Unification and merge theories is that we compose sentences by recombining elements. It is these processing characteristics which researchers generally agree most fully typify the core of human language. Therefore these features are what were looked for as a basis for comparison in animal communication systems as well as in the cognitive capabilities of animals.

Animal Communication as an Insight into the Evolution of Human Language

Clearly animals communicate too. When researchers first began investigating the question of the evolution of human language they looked mainly to our closest genetic relatives, the great apes, and to birdsong, the most complex observed example of animal communication. Everyone who has heard birdsong can recognize that it consists of different notes, combined in different orders, and one might imagine that it is used for communication rather than expending energy for no purpose. Writing of chick-a-dee birdsong, Hailman observed that “the staggering variety of call-types created from combinations of note-types and their repetitions is not likely to be haphazard variation” (1985, p. 1). As the title The “chick-a-dee” calls of Parus atricapillus: A recombinant system of animal communication compared with written English suggests, in 1985 there were very high hopes for finding close analogies between birdsong and human language.

However, the study of birdsong as well as other animal communication systems continues. Suzuki et al. give a brief overview of the current state of the field (2019). They describe observations which suggest that various species may combine predator warning calls with contact calls. The significant point is that different calls with consistently observed responses (i.e. meanings) may when combined with other calls provoke entirely different responses. Nevertheless, the evidence is not overpowering. For instance, paired meanings in putty-nosed monkeys are given as a possible example of idiomatic usage (Suzuki et al., 2019, p. 5). However, this may simply be a recombination of two sounds, each with a meaning, where the combined sound has a third meaning such as in the German word Kühlschrank—kühl meaning cool, and Schrank meaning cupboard, which combined means refrigerator.

A different research path was to try to teach language to our closest genetic relatives (chimps, gorillas, and bonobos). They were taught sign languages or language through a symbolic interface, as it was clear that they could not mimic sounds. While people enthused over early results, which exhibited how many concepts apes could learn to sign, combinations were another matter. In fact, one of the more impressive outcomes was announced in 1977, when a chimpanzee named Washoe saw a swan in the park and signed ‘Water + Bird’ (Suzuki et al., 2019). However, given that there were never repeated examples of this kind of spontaneous generation of a combination of words/signs to indicate a concept it is not clear that Washoe’s communication even rose to the level of the putty-nosed monkey’s Kühlschrank.

Cognition as an Insight into the Evolution of Human Language

The research program in the latter half of the previous century attempting to teach great apes human language highlighted the simplicity of great ape signaling behavior, but this stands in great contrast to ongoing research showing the sophistication of great ape cognitive capacities. Tecumseh Fitch points out that “animal signals do not equal animal concepts” (2019, p. 4). In fact, there is now clear evidence that many species have considerable cognitive sophistication. Dolphins for example can demonstrate in their behavioral responses that they are able to interpret complex sentences with grammatical order, as well as concepts like ‘same’ and ‘different’ (Tecumseh Fitch, 2019). Yet they have never been successfully trained to communicate in a way which could be viewed as either resembling or even roughly translating to the system of grammar, and semantics that underlies human language.

Many animals display evidence of highly complex mental representations, intricate concepts, planning for the future, social relationships, and mental maps of their environment (Tecumseh Fitch, 2019). Tecumseh Fitch (2019) describes evidence that some animals even have a theory of mind, which does not begin to develop in humans until about age 3-5. This could be deduced from the fact that they will hide something desirable only once their competitor is not looking, or that they can recognize themselves as an individual in a mirror.

There is always skepticism about recognizing whether animals have these cognitive capacities, because they cannot directly tell us. However, more and more researchers are conducting subtle experiments that can demonstrate that the animal subject is not simply being rewarded for giving the ‘right’ answer without truly having a cognitive representation of the concept under examination. For example, to demonstrate the capacity for the perception of sequencing inherent to syntactic structure, researchers designed an experiment to show that it was not simply incidental rewards that lead to the conclusion that monkeys could make cognitive inferences like, if a is to the left of b, and b is to the left of c, then it follows that a is to the left of c (Jensen et al. 2019). Illustrative of trends in the field, Jensen’s senior coauthor Herbert Terrace famously lead a project in the 1970s attempting to teach language to a chimpanzee subject whom they playfully named, Nim Chimpsky (Sukuki et al., 2019). Clearly in the intervening decades Terrace shifted his focus from animal communication to animal cognition as a central means of insight to the evolution of human language.

Conclusion

The most unique attribute of human language, the process of recombining mental representations, whether best described as merge or Unification, is a capacity which has yet to be conclusively demonstrated in animals. Tecumseh Fitch (2019) emphasizes how important it would be to discover whether the merge process is present in animal cognition, saying that it is crucial to “…explore in detail animals’ abilities to combine concepts. To the extent that they can do so in a flexible, hierarchical manner, I think we can see the germs of the recursive symbolic system that underlies human linguistic concepts” (p. 6). Semantics (i.e. meaningful concepts) are clearly present in animals. The question of whether these concepts can be recombined in a way which resembles recursive syntax is less clear. If the recursive ability which underlies syntax could be found in the cognitive systems of animals, then animals may have something closer to a language of thought than we are currently able to demonstrate. Given the direction that research has previously gone and its current projections, it seems unlikely that the study of animal communication systems alone will provide the breakthrough insights into the origins of human language. The study of animal cognition currently looks more promising.

References

Bolhuis, J. J., Tattersall, I., Chomsky, N., & Berwick, R. C. (2014). How Could Language Have Evolved? PLoS Biology, 12(8), 1–6. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001934

Hailman, J. P., Ficken, M. S., & Ficken, R. W. (1985). The “chick-a-dee” calls of Parus atricapillus: A recombinant system of animal communication compared with written English. Semiotica, 56(3/4), 191. https://www.degruyter.com/journal/key/SEMI/html

Jackendoff, R., & Pinker, S. (2005). The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky). Elsevier Cognition, 97, 211-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2005.04.006

Jensen, G., Alkan, Y., Ferrera, V. P., & Terrace, H. S. (2019). Reward associations do not explain transitive inference performance in monkeys. Science Advances, 5(7), eaaw2089. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw2089

Suzuki, T. N., Wheatcroft, D., & Griesser M. (2019). The syntax–semantics interface in animal vocal communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375: 20190046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0405

Tecumseh Fitch, W. (2019, November 18). Animal cognition and the evolution of human language: why we cannot focus solely on communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375: 20190046. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0046

English

Argumentative.  It should be in MLA or APA format. Please make sure your argumentative  is organized, effective, and convincing. refer to the power points and other resources A minimum of 700words (2-3 pages). You must also include a reference or works cited page.

You can only choose one of the topics below:

Should the legal drinking age be lowered to 18 years old?

Should healthcare be free for all American citizens?

english

Write a 350- to 400-word personal essay concerning unfairness, persecution, or discrimination. You should explain one situation or event. It can either be a personal experience or an experience of someone you know. This essay should use a problem/solution type of organization. The essay should begin with an introduction. The next paragraph should explain the situation or problem. The third paragraph should explain a solution. The solution should be a way to handle the problem or remedy it. Then, finish the essay with a conclusion. Use any resources as necessary. Cite any sources mentioned or quoted using Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Revise and edit the draft. Also, if possible, have someone else read it and make corrections before you submit it.

English

Deconstructing a Documentary Film

As you view the film, use this worksheet to identify the director’s main points/arguments. You must identify at least five (5) arguments. The remaining five (5) are optional. However, by identifying more points/arguments than you need in order to write a good essay, you give yourself the luxury of choosing which ones you would like to respond to.

Director’s Thesis: Click here to enter text.

Director’s Argument

Agree or Disagree?

Why or Why Not?

Point/Argument #1

Click here to enter text.

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Point/Argument #2

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Point/Argument #3

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Point/Argument #4

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Point/Argument #5

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Point/Argument #6

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Point/Argument #7

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Point/Argument #10

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English

Support for a universal basic income (UBI) varies by age and
political party. According to a poll taken in September, 72
percent of registered voters ages 18 to 34 support a UBI
program, while only 26 percent of those ages 65 and older
do. Democrats are more likely to support the policy than
Republicans. Overall, support for universal basic income rose
from 43 percent in March to 49 percent in September.

Sources: Tess Bonn, “Voter support for universal basic
income grows: poll,” The Hill, Sept. 25, 2019,
https://tinyurl.com/y44sz942; Matthew Sheffield, “Poll:
Younger voters want universal basic income while older ones
reject it overwhelmingly,” The Hill, March 22, 2019,
https://tinyurl.com/y3q8qstp

Data for the graphic are as follows:

Category Percentage of
Support in March
2019

Percentage of Support
in September 2019

All
Registered
Voters

43% 49%

Ages 18 to
34

55% 72%

Ages 35 to
49

57% 58%

Ages 50 to
64

38% 37%

Ages 65+ 21% 26%

Republicans 27% 30%

Democrats 54% 66%

Independents 44% 48%

English

Competency

This competency will allow you to demonstrate your understanding of notable Eastern ethical systems through explanation and description.

Instructions

Often, when one thinks of ethical perspectives in the workplace, the focus tends to be on theories such as utilitarianism and egoism. While there is certainly a place for these two theories in the workplace, there remains a whole world of different perspectives and systems. For this deliverable, you will be creating a pamphlet that highlights Eastern Ethical Systems and their benefits within the workplace. Your pamphlet will need to address the following topics:

· A description of Buddhism and Confucianism.

· Key ethical themes that run through each of these traditions.

· Describe similarities and differences between the two traditions.

· Relate themes of Buddhism and Confucianism common themes within American culture.

· Describe features of the ethical perspectives of Buddhist and Confucian traditions that would be beneficial within a workplace/community.

The pamphlet that you are creating will vary in length. Draw attention to your pamphlet by using well-placed art, an easy to read design with your content, and effective use of color.

Grading Rubric

0

0

80

90

100

No Pass

No Pass

Competence

Proficiency

Mastery

Not Submitted

An inadequate or inappropriate description of Buddhism and Confucianism with the key ethical themes.

Describes Buddhism and Confucianism with the key ethical themes with basic information.

Describes Buddhism and Confucianism with the key ethical themes with strong supporting information.

Describes Buddhism and Confucianism with the key ethical themes with well-integrated, strong supporting information.

Not Submitted

An inadequate or inappropriate description of the similarities and differences between the two traditions.

Describes the similarities and differences between the two traditions with basic supporting information.

Describes the similarities and differences between the two traditions with strong supporting information.

Describes the similarities and differences between the two traditions with well-integrated, strong supporting information.

An inadequate or inappropriate relation of the themes of Buddhism and Confucianism common themes within American culture.

Relates themes of Buddhism and Confucianism common themes within American culture with 3 detailed examples.

Relates themes of Buddhism and Confucianism common themes within American culture with 4 detailed examples.

Relates themes of Buddhism and Confucianism common themes within American culture with 5 detailed examples.

An inadequate or inappropriate description of the features of the ethical perspectives that would be beneficial within a workplace/community.

Describes features of the ethical perspectives that would be beneficial within a workplace/community with 3 detailed examples.

Describes features of the ethical perspectives that would be beneficial within a workplace/community with 4 detailed examples.

Describes features of the ethical perspectives that would be beneficial within a workplace/community with 5 detailed examples.

Attempts a pamphlet; however, there are major mistakes in formatting, and the text is hard to read. Lacks artwork.

Pamphlet is in the required format; however, it lacks appropriate artwork or has issues with the readability of the text.

Pamphlet is correctly formatted and addresses all pieces of the required elements with minimal errors

Pamphlet is correctly formatted and provides fully developed elements with appropriate artwork and text.

English

Evaluating Types of Proof for Validity

Directions: Read the following excerpts from the sample research papers. For each paragraph determine if the types of proofs used to support the claim are valid. Signify any problems within the argument below. See Wood pages 307-312 for ideas and questions on how to evaluate each type of proof.

Note: These examples follow the MLA documentation style. The author of this document required paragraph numbers for most internet sources; thus, you will notice the use of “par.” for many parenthetical references.

SAMPLE ONE:

CLAIM: Violence on television should be censored because violence on television causes children to become overly aggressive.

There are many facets to discovering how television causes children to become aggressive. Gerald May suggests that “children who watch violent TV shows exhibit more aggression, especially right after the show” (par. 4). He cites the work of Albert Bandura who did the first landmark study of violent television and children. Bandura found that watching images of adults engaged in violent behavior caused a greater aggressiveness on the part of the children afterward (par. 5-6). Children witness a lot of violence starting at a very young age. In fact, by the time a child graduates from elementary school, he or she will have witnessed 8,000 killings on television (Graper 9). In addition, according to Canfield and Norton, “Young viewers are more likely to attend violent programs than older viewers” (56). With all the violence there is on television, it is no mystery why children have become so violent today.

Has the author made a valid argument that television causes violence? Explain.

When it comes to violence, there are differences between boys and girls. Resnick states that male children are far more likely to become involved in watching violent television than are female children (34). He goes on to say that the average boy watches 5.5 hours of violent television programming per week while girls watch an average of 2.6 hours of such programming per week (36). This is a reason why boys are so much more violent and aggressive than girls. Montague reports that aggressive boys tend to be heavy television watchers (116). Therefore, violence on television affects boys more than it effects girls.

Has the author made a valid argument by showing signs that violent television affects boys more than girls? Explain.

SAMPLE TWO:

CLAIM: Standardized tests should be less emphasized in public schools because it puts too much unnecessary stress on both teachers and students.

Teachers are definitely stressed when it comes to high-stakes testing. Green observes: “I counsel teachers all the time who are discouraged and burnt-out from the emphasis on standardized tests. They feel they must spend a great deal of time teaching to the test just to keep their jobs.” (45). Teacher Jackie Taggert says, “Teaching is already a stressful profession, but when you add the pressure of high-stakes testing, the level of stress nears the breaking point for many of us” (98). Moore reports that the period between 1993 and 2003 saw the greatest flight from the teaching profession ever noted. He says that ex-teachers rank “high job-related stress” as a predominant factor in their decision to leave teaching (31). The stress of preparing students for standardized tests is very great and is undoubtedly causing many teachers to resign.

Is this argument a valid induction for teachers being stressed out by tests? Explain.

In addition to undue stress upon the teachers, high-stakes testing also takes a toll upon the students. Martha Williams, a mother of three in Grand Rapids, Michigan, comments: “Two of my three children have had to struggle through standardized testing. They become noticeably nervous around test time. One even experienced a stomach illness the day of the test” (qtd. in Roberts 64). Echoing Williams’ comments, one teacher notes, “It’s not unusual for several students in my class to become sick around the day of the test. The illnesses definitely appear to be stress-related” (qtd. in Roberts 66). The stress of high-stakes testing is such that many students develop health issues.

Many experts agree that the pressure of high-stakes testing is too much for many students. Education expert Max Duncan believes that the stress of high-stakes tests is significant: “These tests, especially for children in junior high or middle school, create a pressure-cooker situation for these young people. They are simply too young to handle the pressure of a single test that determines whether they move to the next grade or not” (par. 22). Reynolds agrees to believe that childhood already has so many stresses already. He says that the problems of family and relationships create a lot of stress for grade-schoolers, and families should work to reduce the pressures placed upon young people whenever possible (141). Removing the pressure of standardized testing would be a step forward in helping students to live less pressured lives.

Is this argument showing a valid cause/effect relationship between standardized testing and stress in students? Explain.

English

What can you say about the probability of a certain event if

 (a) the probability is 1, (b) the probability is 0.

Explain how a nonstandard normal distribution differs from the standard normal distribution. 

Describe the process for finding probabilities for nonstandard normal distributions. Illustrate with examples

English

joachim georg schmitt

ingredients

Publishing the Unpublishable
/ubu editions

2009

Ingredients

Joachim Georg Schmitt

Publishing the Unpublishable 050
©2009 /ubu editions
Series editor: Kenneth Goldsmith

/ubu editions

www.ubu.com

Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond)
Oil, Water (Aqua), Lanolin, Alcohol, Glyceryl
Stearate SE, Beeswax (Cera Flava), Calendula
Officinalis Flower Extract, Xanthan Gum,
Fragance (Parfum)*, Limonene*, Linalool*,
Benzyl Benzoate*, Benzyl Salicate*,
Geraniol*.

* from natural essential oils

u
b
u
.c
o
m

Aqua, Sorbitol, Polyethylene, Hydrated Silica,
Hxdroxyethylcellulose, Olaflur, Silica
Dimethyl Silylate, Aroma, Titanium Dioxide,
Saccharin, Potassium Hydroxide.

4

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

Modifizierte Stärke, Aroma (mit Soja,
Weizen, Sellerie), JODsalz, Reismehl, pflanzli-
ches Öl (gehärtet), Champignonextrakt,
Gewürze (Zwiebeln, Pfeffer), Butterpilze,
Maltodextrin, Hefeextrakt, Kräuter,
Paprikaextrakt, Ge-schmacksverstärker
(Mononatriumglutamat, Guanylat, Inosinat),
Verdickungsmittel (Xanthan, Guarkernmehl),
Säuerungsmittel Citronensäure, Farbstoff
Ammoniak-Zuckerkulör, Emulgator E472e.

[Spuren: Eier, Milch, Senf]

5

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

LINALOOL, BENZISOTHIAZOLINONE,
METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE, POTASSI-
UM SORBATE, SODIUM BENZOATE, FOR-
MIC ACID.

6

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

AQUA · SODIUM LAURETH SULFATE ·
COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE · SODI-
UM CHLORIDE · GLYCERYL OLEATE ·
COCO-GLUCOSIDE · GLYCOL DISTEA-
RATE · SODIUM BENZOATE · PARFUM
· HEXYL CINNAMAL · LINALOOL ·
POTASSIUM SORBATE · LAURETH-4 ·
CITRIC ACID · BUTYLOCTANOL ·
LAURYL METHYL GLUCETH-10
HYDROXY PROPYLDIMO-NIUM CHLO-
RIDE · CI 15985.

7

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

huile végétale, hydrogénée, amidon modifié,
farine de froment, poudre de lait écrémé, sel,
malto-dextrine, lactose, exhausteur de goût
(E62, E627, E631), tomates, poisson (3%),
céleri, carottes, protéines de lait, arôme,
extrait de poisson, extrait de hornard, farine
de tapioca, sirop de glucose, algues de mer,
curcuma, acidifiant (acide citrique), extrait
d’oignon, extrait de betteravs rouges, extrait
de poivron.

8

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

Aciclovir 50 mg, Propylenglycol, weißes
Vaselin, Cetylstearylalkohol (Ph.Eur.), dick-
flüssiges Paraffin, Poloxamer 407,
Natriumdodecylsulfat, Dimeticon 20, gerei-
nigtes Wasser.

9

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

u
b
u
.c
o
m

Cyclomethicone, Aluminium Zirconium
Tetrachlorohydrex GLY, PPG-14 Butyl Ether,
Stearyl Alcohol, Hydrogenated Castor Oil,
Talc, Parfum, BHT, Corn Starch Modified,
Mannitol, Helianthus Annuus, Chloresterol,
Lecithin, Tocopherol, Methylpropional,
Citronellol, Geraniol, Hexyl Cinnamal,
Limonene, Linalool, Citric Acid, Sodium
Ascorbate, Calcium Disodium EDTA.

10

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Water, n-Alkanes C 14-16, Sodium Laureth
Sulfate, Plastic Scrubber, Sulfated Castor Oil,
Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Sodium Chloride,
Quaternium-18 Bentonite, Titanium
Dioxide, Cellulose Gum, Fragrance, 2-
Bromo-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol.

11

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Aqua, Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate, Borago
Officinalis, Cetearyl, Isononanoate, Sodium
Lactate, Glycerin, Hydrogenated Castor Oil,
Panthenol, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride,
Ozokerite, PEG-2 Hydrogenated Castor Oil,
Sorbitan Isostearate, Cera Alba, Magnesium
Sulfate, Parfum, Panthoractone, Phytantriol,
Phenoxyethanol, Methyldibromo
Glutaronitrile, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Glyceryl
Laurate, Ethylparaben, Arachis Hypogaea,
Tocopherol, Citric Acid.

12

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Aqua, Paraffinum Liquidum, Octyl Stearate,
Petrolatum, Cetearyl Octanoate, Panthenol,
PEG-22/Dodexyl Glycol Copolymer,
Propylene Glycol, Sorbitan Oeate,
Magnesium Sulfate, Phenoxyethanol,
Isopropyl Myristate, Parfum, Pantholactone,
Lanolin Alcohol, Glycerin, Serine, Sodium
Lactate, Sorbitol, Urea, Cetearyl Alcohol,
Lactic Acid, Sodium Chloride, Alcohol, Lauryl
Aminopropylglycine, Lauryl Diethyl-enedia-
minoglycine, BHT.

13

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Terbinafinhydrochlorid; Benylalkohol; Cetyl-
alkohol; Cetylpalmitat; Isopropylmyristat;
Natriumhydroxid; Polysorbat 60; Sorbitan-
monostearat; Stearylalkohol; gereinigtes
Wasser.

14

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Glucose-Sirup; gereinigtes Wasser; 2,2’-
Methylen-bis-(6-tert.-butyl-4-methylphenol);
2,2’-(Propan-1,2-diyldiiminodimethyl) diphe-
nol; Schwertlilienwurzelstock/Reismehl-
Gemisch; Kautschuk; Poly(butadien-block-
styrol) (76,5:23,5); cis-1,4-Polyisopren;
Talkum (E553b); Beta Pinen; Poly(2-methyl-
but-2-en-co-penta-1,3-dien); hydrierter
Kolophoniumglycerolester; dünnflüssiges
Paraffin; Wollwachs (Lanolin) (enthält
Butylhydroxytoluol (E32 I); Cellulosefaser
(Pflasterträger), einseitig silikonisiertes
Papier (Abdeckpapier).

15

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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AQUA, ISOPROPYL ISOSTEARATE, GLY-
CERYL STEARATE SE, ISOPROPYL PALMI-
TATE, GLYCERIN, PROPYLENE GLYCOL,
CETYL ALCOHOL, DIMETHICONE,
PANTEHNOL, METHYL GLUCOSE SES-
QUISTEARATE, SODIUM CETEARYL SUL-
FATE, METHYLPARABEN, PHENOXYET-
HANOL, SODIUM CARBOMER, BISALBO-
LOL, CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA, PROPYL-
PARABEN, BUTYLPARABEN, ETHYLPARA-
BEN, ISOBUTYLPARABEN, PARFUM.

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ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Talc, Mica, Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Polysorbate
80; Sorbitan Oleate Hydrogenated
Polyisobutene; Mineral Spirits, Silica
Dimethyl Silylate, Caprylic.Capric
Triglyceride, Propylparaben, Methylparaben,
[+/- CI 77491 (Iron Oxide Red), CI 77492
(Iron Oxide Yellow), CI 77499 (Iron Oxide
Black), CI 15850:1 (D&C Red 7 Ca. Lake).]

17

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Aqua, Glycerin, Paraffinum Liquidum,
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride,
Cyclomethicone, Cetyl Alcohol,
Dimethicone, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-40
Stearate, Gingko Biloba, Butyro-spermum
Parkii, Tocopheryl Acetate, Phenoxyethanol,
Propylene Glycol, Methyl-paraben, Trisodium
EDTA, Propylparaben, Sodium Carbomer,
Parfum, Linalool, Limonene, Butylphenyl
Methylpropional, Hydroxyisohexyl 3-
Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde, Citronellol,
Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone.

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ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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AQUA · ALOE BARBADENSIS · GLY-
CERIN · PEG/PPG-14/4 DIMETHICONE
· PEG-8 DIMETHICONE · ACRYLA-
TES/C10-30 ALKYL ACRYLATE CROSSPO-
LYMER · CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA ·
PEG-40 HYDROGENATED CASTOR OIL
· SODIUM PCA · SODIUM LACTATE ·
PROPYLENE GLYCOL · ALLANTOIN ·
PARFUM· TETRASODIUM EDTA ·
DMDM HYDANTOIN · SODIUM
HYDROXIDE · METHYLPARABEN.

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ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Alcohol, Commiphora myrrha, Mentha pipe-
rita, Glycerin, Menthol, Pimpinella anisum,
Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus limonum,
Foeniculum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Melissa
officinalis, Eugenia cayophyllus, Melaleuca
alternifolia, Carum carvi, Cinnamomum zey-
lanicum, Vanillin, Thymus vulgaris.

20

ingredients joachim georg schmitt

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Aqua, Glycerin, Ethylhexyl palmitate, Cyclo-methi-
cone, Titanium Dioxide, Stearic Acid, Polyglyceryl-
4 Isostearate, Cyclopentasiloxane, Cetyl Alcohol,
Probylparaben, Methylpapraben, [+/- Iron Oxide
Yellow (CI 77492) Iron Oxide Red (CI 77491)
Iron Oxide Black (CI 77499).]

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Publishing the Unpublishable

/ubu editions
ubu.com/ubu

english

Zhang

Zhang

What should you do when you find out your child smokes?

Introduction

You have caught your child smoking and it is devastating and disturbing because these are unfamiliar occurrences. The child defends himself that smoking is something that he sees in TV shows and the surrounding. Why should I stop smoking when I see it every day? That is the shocking response and question you get from your child after catching him a smoking. What do you do? If you ask multiple individuals the same question, you will get multiple answers and perspectives that will indulge you to look for extremes and finer details to enable you to come to an exclusive agreement that requires time and evidence-based research for data-driven decision-making. I will focus this speech on three of the many perspectives a person could have on the question, what should you do when you find out your child smokes? I will cover the three fundamental perspectives including (1) stopping him from smoking immediately and warning him not to smoke again (2) Coming forward to ask him if there is something wrong with him recently; (3) Smoking with him.

Main Points

Main Point One

When considering what you should do when you find out your child smokes, stop him from smoking immediately and warn him not to smoke again is one fundamental perspective that requires research-based articulations. In research to investigate primary care as cessation of smoking cigars among children and adolescents, behavioral counseling from parents and elderly is underpinning. The authors submitted that “that primary care–feasible behavioral interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent tobacco use in school-aged children and adolescents have a moderate net benefit” (American Medical Association pp. 15960. )Thus, the perspective of stopping him from smoking immediately and warning him not to smoke again is fundamental.

Main Point Two

In the order of extreme perspective, coming forward to ask him if there is something wrong with him recently needs fundamental considerations. Sharing with a child without putting forward a warning on the smoking behavior can create an effective environment for discussion and behavior management. Family forums create an effective platform for open discussion that would help a child with smoking behavior to stop such behaviors. According to the authors, family and carer smoking control forums give a significant platform to assist children exposed to a smoking environment to stop smoking (Behbod et al. 24). Thus, perspective two, stopping smoking among children is a notable option that needs further exploration.

Main Point Three

Finally, the perspective of joining a child and smoke would equally need notable articulation on the evidence-based fining to ensure that there is critical thinking and decision-making. Notably, considering the age of a child and legal implications, for instance, when your child is below 21 years, joining the child to smoke is illegal. In research to investigate why children decide to smoke or not to smoke, the researchers submitted that “Children often linked smoking to the less educated and less successful social groups but also the rich” (Hrubá and Žaloudíková P. 208). Thus, joining a child in smoking require fundamental legal, ethical, moral, and age consideration for an effective decision on the option

Conclusion

In conclusion, the three perspectives What should you do when you find out your child smokes, (1) 1) stop him from smoking immediately and warn him not to smoke again (2) Come forward to ask him if there is something wrong with him recently; (3)Smoke with him are all fundamental. All accommodated notable research-based sources that require critical thinking and ethical dilemma resolution. My next essay will give the most applicable perspective in the case.

Question

1. What do you think of smoking?

2. Have you ever been caught smoking by your parents?

3. Will you stop your child from smoking when he becomes an adult?

Works Cited

American Medical Association. “Primary Care Interventions for Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. JAMA. 2020; 323(16):1590-1598. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4679

Behbod Behrooz, Sharma Mohit, Baxi Ruchi, Roseby Robert, and Webste Premila. “Family and carer smoking control programs for reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001746.

Hrubá Drahoslava and Žaloudíková Iva . “Why to Smoke? Why Not Smoke? Major reasons for children’s decisions on whether or not to smoke.” Cent Eur J Public Health 2010; 18 (4): 202–208

English

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English

As I mentioned in the 
Week 13 announcement
, you will be working on the 
Annotated Bibliography Rough Draft
, and participating in another Peer Review Workshop this week. The 
submission portal
 for the Annotated Bib rough draft is now open. As indicated in the 
course schedule
, the Annotated bib rough draft is due on Thursday (4/14) noon. Your TWO reviews are due on Sunday (4/17) noon. There will NOT be a grace period for the Peer Review Workshop, as your peers will rely on your reviews to start their revisions. (As with the previous peer review workshop, there is NO need to sign into Turnitin.com. If you are prompted to sign in, please exit, and relaunch D2L using the Chrome browser.)

To start, have a look at:

·
Annotated Bibliography Prompt

·
Documenting Sources in MLA Style PDF


 (Do not read this from beginning to end. Skim for reference only.)

·
Let’s Talk: A Pocket Rhetoric: 
Chapter 20: “MLA Style” (305-356) (Do not read this from beginning to finish. Skim pages 305-344 for references, then read page 344-356.) 

· Watch my quick 
Library OneSearch Tutorial video
. OneSearch typically pulls information from a variety of databases, so it is great for brainstorming and generating research questions. (In contrast, the searches through databases like JSTOR and EBSCO are more refined and specific to the disciplines of the Arts and Humanities, and they offer additional search functions unique to each database.) In this video, I demonstrate how to do a quick search using the title of a text. From there, I show you how to narrow down to a couple of related peer-reviewed articles, how to generate and refine your own keywords from those sources, and how to quickly retrieve the bibliographic information of library sources in MLA style.

· If you have trouble locating reputable outside sources, I strongly advise you to switch to a text with wider critical appeal. 

Here

 is a list of my suggested popular media texts!

· Sample Annotated Bibliographies: 
Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3
.

Finally, if you are still struggling with your 
research questions
 after completing the Brainstorm Worksheet, read as many reviews on your chosen text as you can. When conducting research using a popular search engine (e.g. Google), please make sure to search for reputable sources, such as The New Yorker, The New York Times, The Guardian, Los Angeles Times, The Atlantic, Slate, NPR, etc.

I also posted some 
Suggested Readings 
 (including an article I wrote on Crazy Rich Asians). I will keep adding more articles to this folder, as I think of more relevant sources. These articles can hopefully give you some inspiration on how to make strong arguments on popular culture and mass media texts.

Yuan

ENGLISH

The Parental Rights and Education Bill has stirred a lot of controversy in Florida. Please watch the news segment and additional videos regarding the bill to gain insight about the bill. Then express your views regarding the issue. Answer the following questions:

Do you agree or disagree with the “Don’t Say Gay Bill?” Explain why or why not? Use direct quotes from the videos to support your response.

What are the proponents and opponents arguments regarding the bill? Use direct quotes in your response

What do you believe are the future implications if the bill is passed or not passed?