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Discussion Board

4. Kehinde Wiley, NAPOLEON LEADING THE ARMY OVER THE ALPS, 2005

You write a clear, concise, and persuasive analysis, in your own words, for the 1 artist and their work that you select from the list above.  The analysis should convince your reader of the validity of your objective interpretation.  I’m looking for a paragraph or two that interweaves the following information:

  • Appropriate course terminology.
  • Your thoughts backed up by evidence. I don’t want to see a string of quotes (which is plagiarism) – think critically.
  • Visually analyzes the artwork: What FEA & PoD are used most prominently in the artwork? Why does the artist make those choices? What medium does the artist choose? 
  • Contextually analyzes the artwork: How does the artwork relate to the time in which it was created? When? Where? What was happening politically, socially, economically, etc., that the artists were responding to? 
  • Thematically analyzes the artwork: What are the major themes are present in the artwork? And how are they applied?
  • Clearly state your objective interpretation of the artwork. This should be the result of thinking critically about the object’s original context, key ideas & characteristics of the movement, FEA, PoD & the major themes of art. 

Finally, you will ask a challenge question for your peers to answer.  Questions and responses to them should: 

  • Derive from course material
  • Center on thinking about the art object in myriad ways. 
  • Not be too obscure, obvious or off topic
  • Challenge each other to think critically about the art object & it’s context. 
  • Focus on developing ideas – think about other themes that may apply to deepen the discussion.

Discussion Board

The thread must be between 400–600 words, demonstrate course-related knowledge, integrate biblical principles, and include at least 1 scholarly source in addition to/other than the textbook/course material and the Bible, cited in Bluebook format.

The Chthonic legal tradition introduces the idea that even at the most basic level of society there are legal traditions. In the textbook, the author divides the Chthonic identity into two basic models. Briefly explain these two models, and provide at least 2 examples of the current exchange of Chthonic and western legal information. Are there any similarities between the Christian tradition of oral history and the Chthonic tradition?

Glenn: Chapters 1 — 3

H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World (5th ed. 2014). ISBN: 9780199669837.

discussion board

Texas Woman’s University
Internship in Health Education: Spring 2022

Weekly Log
Student’s Name: Student ID #:
Internship Site Supervisor’s Name:
Internship Site Organization:
Week of:
Description of Tasks and Alignment to the Areas of Responsibility:

Date: Monday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

Date: Tuesday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

Prasannata Batas 1292024
Ana Santiago

Crossroads Community Service

3/21-3/27

This week relating to area III: I prepared food crates and boxes neededfor clients
nutritional needs. For area I: I assessed the low income family needs to provide proper
nutritious food. For area VI: I asked clients about survey questions to determine what
resources or health information they need.For area V: I I demonstrated good
leadership skills when training others.For area VII: I created a flier to give education
regarding the Obesity topic to the clients.

3/21 8:16 am 4:15 pm

Prepared food crates and boxes
needed for clients nutritional
needs.

Area III: Implement health
education/promotion.

3.2.Train staff members and volunteers
involved in implementation of health
education/promotion.

3/22 8:24 am 4:22 pm

Ask clients survey questions to
determine what resources or
health information they need.

Area VI:Serve as a health
education/promotion resource
person.

6.1.1 Assess needs for
health -related information.

8hrs

8hrs

Date: Wednesday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

Date: Thursday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

Date: Friday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

3/23 8:07 am 4:06 pm

Assess the low income family
needs to provide proper
nutritious food.

Area I: Assess needs, resources
and capacity for health
education/promotion.

1.1.1 Define the priority
population to be assessed.

3/24 8:07am 4:07pm

When training others I
demonstrated good leadership
skills .

Area V : Administer and Manage
health education/promotion.

5.5 Demonstrate
leadership .

3/25 8:00 am 6:00pm

Created a flier to give education
regarding the healthy diet plan to
the clients.

Area III: Implement health
education/promotion.

3.1.2.Develop materials to
implement the plan.

8hrs8hrs

8 hrs

10hrs

Date: Saturday/Sunday Time In: Time Out: Hours Worked
On-Site:

Task Area of Responsibility Specific Competency or
Sub-competency

Total Hours Worked This Week:

Total Hours Worked to Date:

Student’s Signature:

Date:

Site Supervisor’s Signature:

Date:

3/26-3/27 8:00 am 6:00 pm

Created a flier to give education
regarding the Obesity topic to the
clients.

Areas VII:: Communicate, Promote,
and Advocate for Health, Health
Education/Promotion, and the
Profession

7.2 Engage in advocacy for
health and health
education/promotion.

52 285.75

3/29/2022

3/29/2022

10 hrs

Discussion Board

 

This week I propose a different sort of discussion board.

Imagine you are the music director for the documentary film version of Professor Campbell’s Drug War Zone: Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez. As music director, you are charged with choosing the title song for the documentary of the book.

What title song would you choose for the documentary, Drug War Zone?

Here are the questions/instructions you need to respond to:

1. The name of the song, and who sings it or who plays on it. Why are they the artist you have chosen?

2. Provide a link to a Youtube video or Vimeo video (or any video or MP3 or MP4 file that is freely available (in other words, not behind a paywall or firewall)).

3. No more than three sentences (think of it as the length of a Tweet) explaining why you chose that particular song for the film version of Drug War Zone. The idea is to relate the song to the book, Drug War Zone. So answers that run in the vein of, “I chose this song because I like it,” aren’t going to do very well. In fact, I think that may be a good way to fail this test.

4. Engage other students in their choice of music and yours.

The other way to fail this test is to use any song or piece of music that has appeared in any of the seasons of Narcos, or, any of the music used in Sicario or the sequel to Sicario. The requirement is to be original not derivative. If you use any of the theme or title music to Jack Nicholson’s The Border, I’ll be supremely disappointed, too.

Beware, too: we aren’t talking about a song which brings to mind Juárez or El Paso but Juárez and El Paso. This is a very important conceptual point and is very important in how Professor Campbell structured his book. So… if you think you can use some banda from Sinaloa and squeak it past me then you are most certainly barking up the wrong tree. (By the by, I know my narcocultura from Sinaloa. I was a translator for slain Mexican journalist Javier Valdez Cárdenas — but that’s another story and it’s not really one that I like to talk about, save to say, I know Sinaloa…)

Dig into your prodigious knowledge of contemporary or classical music, folks.

Suprise me!

Discussion Board

 

In 2012 in an interview about her documentaryCocaine Unwrapped director Rachel Seifert told journalist Nick Curtis of the London Evening Standard, that:

“I don’t have a moral issue with people taking cocaine, per se. I think we have to accept the fact that people will always take drugs. A lot of us have tried it, and a lot of people like it. If rich people in London want to take cocaine, then let them. But they have to acknowledge they are part of a chain, and should be standing up and demanding that it shouldn’t be attached to death, destruction and blood at the other end.” [emphasis added by Timmons]

Given that statement, answer the following questions in a post of three paragraphs (one paragraph to answer each of the enumerated questions).

1. Is Seifert’s statement:

an assumption

a hypothesis

a form of analysis

or political rhetoric?

2. Describe how Seifert’s film supports what Drugs: Policy, Social Costs, Crime and Justice author Zilney would call an “alternative approach” to drug control. What type of “alternative approach” is Seifert recommending?

3. What questions does Seifert’s documentary neither pose nor answer about contemporary drug control but which merit consideration?

Give scholarly reasons (based in evidence–examples, quotes, etc.) for your answer drawn from Zilney, Cocaine Unwrapped, and other reputable sources. 

This is also due tonight at 11 pm MT. time 

    • 5

    Discussion Board

    After reading a research article about the way nurses suction clients, you decide to perform a literature search on the topic to see whether other studies reinforce the practice. You identify two other research studies that also support the practice change. Armed with the evidence, you create a new practice guideline that describes the new suctioning techniques and present it to your unit director. After taking the guideline through various committees, it is adopted and a new policy is created. You feel empowered and confident that this new practice will have a positive impact on client care outcomes. During the next few weeks, you are confused and discouraged, noting that the nurses are slow in adopting your fabulous new guideline.

    1. Why might you get resistance from the nurses?

    2. Should this resistance have been anticipated?

    3. What specific steps could be taken to encourage the nurses to adopt the practice change?

     

    Participation in the Blackboard discussion board is essential to achieving the course student learning outcomes. Each student must create an original thread focused on each of the three case studies. Each student must also reply to at least two peer’s threads for each case study. Fifteen percent of the course grade is allotted for discussion board postings. Original posts (threads) should be at least 100 words- include referenced material from text. Responses must be at least 30 words Your original post should have at least 2 citations with references. One of your references can be one of your textbooks but the other should be a nursing journal. Your response to peers should have at least 1 citation with reference of any type. Please write in standard English and not in “text-speak” or slang language. Responses should clarify/ expand/ enhance the peer’s thread. Do not agree or praise the peer’s thread.

    Discussion Board

    Watch this video.(20 min)

    You have to answer the questions that are shown on the attached image.

    After you complete the work you have to reply shortly to 2 others people posts.

    Discussion Board

    Write a 175- to 265-word response to the following:

    • What impact do regulatory and accreditation standards have on the risk management process within health care organizations?
    • Why do you think it’s important for you to understand how both affect risk management?
    • Provide examples. 

    Include an external resource to support your initial response to the discussion. Follow APA formatting to cite your source at the end of your post.

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      Discussion board

      Answer ONE (1) of the following questions in your post:

      Question #1: The authors describe several “party families” in European politics. Pick one of these families and describe their general political orientations. Do you think that these resemble any trends in U.S. politics? Why or why not?

      Question #2:  Many are concerned with the growth of “Far Right” parties in European politics. What sort of issues are these parties associated with? Are the policies suggested by these parties troublesome to you? Why or why not?

      Question #3: What are cleavage structures? Why are these structures related to partisanship? Is “dealignment” a problem in European politics? Why or why not?

      Standards: The same standards (3-4 paragraph posts, attention to grammar, critical analysis rather than recitation of materials) 

      Gallagher, Michael, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair. 2011.  Representative Government in Modern Europe (5th Edition). New York: McGraw Hill.

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        Discussion Board

        Write a 175- to 265-word response to the following:

        • How are risk management and quality management used in health care?
        • What is the difference between them?
        • What are the similarities?
        • Why is it important for you to understand the differences and similarities?
        • How will this help you as you prepare to work in the health care industry?
        • Explain your answer.

        Include an external resource to support your initial response to the discussion. Follow APA formatting to cite your source at the end of your post.

          • 25

          Discussion Board

          This week, you have learned how artists will make work to elicit political and social change. Do you think that art should question the status quo?  Do you think this is an effective tool?  How can they make it more effective? Do you think that protest art reaches a large enough audience to be effective? Choose an artwork that you feel elicits a response towards either a political or social change. Address why you you believe it is effective and/or appropriate and what are some of the strategies the artist has used.  You can select works from the text, lecture, or from outside sources that you think will illustrate your opinion (for ex., within the US or Chicago you have personally viewed). Related image

          Discussion board

          PSLO Discussion 4

          3030 unread replies.3030 replies.

          Imagine being so interested in American politics that you decide to do some independent research into the relationship between power and representation in these politically polarized times. As you are learning, knowing who exercises political power helps you understand how power is used and the interests that are represented. Where do you start looking for information?

          Since the three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial) make national policies, you decide to begin with the US Congress because it is the one institution of government where the people’s interests—theoretically—are represented. You choose to look into the makeup of Congress as the first step to understanding who is in power to see if they are representative of “the people.” To get you going, here is some data you can review to learn about the makeup of Congress. Take your time reviewing the link below:

          https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/03/10/the-changing-face-of-congress/ (Links to an external site.).

          What you find may surprise you. Like the number of young people who are now serving or the improvements in the racial, ethnic, gender, and religious diversity of the Congress. The projected changes in the US population over the next 25 years indicate that even greater population diversification will occur (see the Census tables below).

          Instructions

          In a concise (250-300 words) post, answer the following questions utilizing course materials, concepts, and the information above:

          Make a logical argument about power and representation that is informed by the Pew Research article, the US 2020 Census information (see below), and the study of Congress this term. Answer the following questions:

          How do these demographic changes in the U.S. population reflect the demographic make-up in Congress? Explain. How is the quality of representation affected? Would these congressional changes affect the political power of this more diverse population? Explain.

          1. After you have submitted your post, respond to TWO posts from your peers and offer a thoughtful response to what you have read. Each response should be 100-150 words. Use course materials and concepts in your answers, too. Attached are guidelines for good discussion responses for you to follow.

          2. Understand that the main intent of these discussions is to hold a dialogue. Kindly begin work on this discussion well in advance of the deadline to ensure that your classmates are afforded ample time to respond to your posts.


          US Census Bureau 2020 Census QuickFacts https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/HSD410219 (Links to an external site.)

          US Census Bureau 2020 Census QuickFacts.png

          Online Discussion Dos and Don’ts.pdf

          Discussion Board

          Geoffrey Chaucer, “The Miller’s Tale,” from The Canterbury Tales

          Fabliau – The genre of “The Miller’s Tale” is fabliau (plural fabliaux): a short, funny, often bawdy narrative in low style, imitated and developed from French models. These are narratives in which those who win do so not through virtue (as in a moral exemplum) or through virtue coupled with high birth (as in romance). Winners are instead the clever, and often the young and attractive clever. Fabliaux are stories about material gain and bodily comfort for the winners, and the reverse for losers. Such “justice” as they represent is concerned only with getting even, or, to use Chaucer’s term, “quiting.” Their narrative style is streamlined, focusing as it does on those objects that will be used (e.g., tubs and hot pokers). They are unembarrassed about mentioning bodily parts unmentionable in romance. These stories are, in short, materialist, representing a world of material facts and needs to be exploited by the clever. 

          Discussion Questions

          1. Can we compare the fabliau’s vision of the human body to that of the romance? 
          2. What is the religious material doing in this dirty story? 

          Write a one-paragraph (five to nine sentence) response to the questions. Must be completed by today.

            • 5

            Discussion board

            due Feb 22

            Discussion.


            Group Work Optional: You may work with one classmate on this discussion. If you choose to work with a partner, you do not need to clear it with me first. Just add the name of your partner to the top of your discussion response. You will both need to submit a discussion response so that your submission is recorded in Canvas. You will not be required to adhere to the 300-word requirement for this discussion.

            Introduction

            Whether or not you know someone who has spent time in the carceral system, the system still impacts your daily life. If you are pro-prison, a prison abolitionist, or somewhere in between, you are still impacted. Incarcerating people directly relates to the well-being (governmental (local/state/federal), economic (financial), political, social, environmental, healthcare (physical/mental), educational, etc.) of the U.S. How is the increasing wealth gap connected to the carceral system?

            Videos on the Carceral System (Optional)

            I have found a few short videos that should provide you with basic information on the carceral system. Please note: that some of the videos are older and may not reflect the current lexicon.

            The History of Mass Incarceration

            Equal Justice Initiative. (2015, July 7). Slavery to Mass Incarceration. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/r4e_djVSag4 (Links to an external site.)

            Brief History of the Juvenile Carceral System

            The Root. (2018, March 13). History of the Juvenile Justice System. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/c8t9idLFWms (Links to an external site.)

            Problems with the Juvenile Carceral System

            KXAN. (2020, December 5). State of Texas: The promise of juvenile justice reform. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/EvIDPisU5tI (Links to an external site.)

            PBS NewsHour. (2021, October 28). The juvenile justice system is broken. Here is what actually works. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/q1fsysGy_hM (Links to an external site.)

            The Impact of Mass Incarceration

            vlogbrothers. (2014, April 4). Mass Incarceration in the US. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/NaPBcUUqbew (Links to an external site.)

            The 1994 Crime Bill & Mandatory Sentencing

            NBC News. (2019, August 13). What Is The 1994 Crime Bill? YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/0DcN6wNKxZA (Links to an external site.)

            General Data

            Bureau of Justice Statistics (Links to an external site.)

            Prison Policy Initiative (Links to an external site.)

            The Marshall Project: Algorithms (Links to an external site.)

            The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (Links to an external site.)

            The Sentencing Project (Links to an external site.)

            U.S. Census: Criminal Justice Statistics (Links to an external site.)

            Discussion Overview

            The use of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in the carceral system.

            The carceral system is too expansive to cover on a micro-level in just one discussion. I usually select an issue or a pending legal case for the class to discuss. For this discussion, I would like for you to focus on how artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are used in the carceral system as a whole. The benefits and biases of AI have been examined in various industries. There is a documentary on Netflix called Coded Bias if you are interested in learning more. You will need to select a topic related to how algorithms are used in the carceral system and create an infographic or TikTok video. With varied topics, we should all learn something new. I have included a data piece to challenge you to view data as a tool to back up your viewpoint with numbers. When data is leveraged with public policy, it can become a powerful tool to address sustainable societal issues. I borrowed this activity from Dr. Rachel Ellis, please review the citation below. You may visit the tweet from Dr. Ellis for examples. The 300-word limit will not apply to this discussion, however, your infographic or TikTok video will still be graded based on the rubric.

            Optional Videos on Algorithms

            Harvard Kennedy School Executive Education. (2022, January 21). Law, Order, & Algorithms: A Computational Approach to Criminal Justice Reform. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/HO0kg5Oguok (Links to an external site.)

            (59:30 minutes)

            Oxford Law Faculty. (2021, February 5). Predictive Algorithms in the Justice System: The implications of neutrality logics. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/DRk7k7mWjUk (Links to an external site.)

            (41:43 minutes)

            TEDx Talks. (2018, October 2). The danger of predictive algorithms in criminal justice | Hany Farid | TEDxAmoskeagMillyard. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/p-82YeUPQh0 (Links to an external site.)

            (18:29 minutes)

            Assignment

            Your infographic or TikTok video must include the following items:

            Your name

            Title of how algorithms are used in the carceral system

            Facts about your topic illustrated in at least 3 data points (statistics)

            Succinctly describe the larger societal implications to society

            3 possible solutions to the problem

            Include at least 2 cited sources. Due to space limitations, you may only be able to list the link to the sources in the infographic or TikTok video. You must add the entire cited source to the discussion thread to receive credit.

            Upload (attach) the PDF version of your infographic or the link to your TikTok video to the discussion. Let me know if you have difficulty converting your work into a PDF document or uploading your infographic. Feel free to send me your PDF document via Canvas message and I will upload your document to the discussion for you.

            Your infographic and data must be related to how algorithms are used in the carceral system. If you create a TikTok video then you must include captions.

            Free Infographic Resource

            Canva (Links to an external site.)

            Possible Topics:

            Strategies to regulate algorithms that are used in the carceral system.

            What accountability should the creators of biased algorithms in the carceral system face?

            The negative impact to the LGBTQ+ community when algorithms are used in sentencing.

            How often should algorithms that are used in the carceral system be audited?

            Should we stop using algorithms in the carceral system and rely on human judgment?

            When to stop using algorithms in the carceral system.

            Who should sit on the governing board to regulate the algorithms? What background should they have (experience, industry, judges or community advocates, etc.)

            Should algorithms in the carceral system be adjusted to wealth or income level?

            What laws are needed to ensure that algorithms in the carceral system are not harmful?

            How should algorithms in the carceral system be adjusted to accommodate individuals with disabilities?

            What data (recidivism, past history of criminal activity, etc.) should be considered when creating algorithms for the carceral system?

            What safeguards are needed for when algorithms are wrong and violent individuals are freed only to commit more crimes?

            Restructuring algorithms in the arrests and sentencing of drug-related crimes

            Addressing the gender gap when algorithms are used in sentencing

            Citation

            Ellis, Rachel [@RachelEllisPhD]. “I asked the students in my undergraduate Corrections class to create infographics. Here are some of the many incredible submissions on important issues related to punishment in the US criminal justice system. (Shared with permission)” Twitter, 17 May 2021, https://twitter.com/rachelellisphd/status/1394276276853166082?s=21 (Links to an external site.)

            Suggested Reading

            Johnson, C. (2022, January 26). Flaws plague a tool meant to help low-risk federal prisoners win early release. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2022/01/26/1075509175/justice-department-algorithm-first-step-act (Links to an external site.)

            Kolowich Cox, L. (n.d.). How to Create an Infographic in Under an Hour. HubSpot. https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/create-infographics-with-free-powerpoint-templates (Links to an external site.) (There is a video attached to the article.)

            Massaro, V., Dhar, S., Mir, D., & Ryan, N. (2021, December). Analyzing a Carceral Algorithm used by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356818471_Analyzing_a_Carceral_Algorithm_used_by_the_Pennsylvania_Department_of_Corrections (Links to an external site.)

            Mclaughlin, D. (2020, June 11). What Conservative Law-Enforcement Reforms Should Look Like. National Review. https://www.nationalreview.com/2020/06/what-conservative-law-enforcement-reforms-should-look-like/ (Links to an external site.)

            Murray, S. (2018, April 23). Using data science to improve public policy. MIT News. https://news.mit.edu/2018/using-data-science-improve-public-policy-hackathon-0423 (Links to an external site.)

            Nellis, A. (2016, June 14). The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons. The Sentencing Project. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/color-of-justice-racial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-state-prisons/ (Links to an external site.)

            Ofer, U. (2019, June 4). How the 1994 Crime Bill Fed the Mass Incarceration Crisis. ACLU. https://www.aclu.org/blog/smart-justice/mass-incarceration/how-1994-crime-bill-fed-mass-incarceration-crisis (Links to an external site.)

            Sawyer, W. & Wagner, P. (2020, March 24). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020. Prison Policy Initiative. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2020.html (Links to an external site.)

            Teles, S. M. & Dagan, D. (2016, Spring). Conservatives and Criminal Justice. National Affairs. https://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/conservatives-and-criminal-justice (Links to an external site.)

            Texas Alliance for Safe Communities. (n.d.). Justice Reform Myth Vs. Fact. http://texasallianceforsafecommunities.org/justice-reform-facts/ (Links to an external site.)

            Texas Jail Project. (2020, April 18). Why is it important to differentiate between county jails & state prisons? https://www.texasjailproject.org/2020/08/why-is-it-important-to-differentiate-between-county-jails-prisons/ (Links to an external site.)

            Wides, E. (2021, July 13). East Texas inmate advocate speaks against bill that would make it harder for some to bond out of jail. KLTV. https://www.kltv.com/2021/07/14/east-texas-inmate-advocates-against-bill-that-would-make-it-harder-some-people-bond-out-jail/ (Links to an external site.)

            Widra, E. (2021, July 12). New data: People with incarcerated loved ones have shorter life expectancies and poorer health. Prison Policy Initiative. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2021/07/12/family-incarceration/ (Links to an external site.)

            Wilson Gilmore, R. & Kilgore, J. (2019, June 19). The Case for Abolition. The Marshall Project. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2019/06/19/the-case-for-abolition (Links to an external site.)

            Young, A. & Zahuranec, A. (2020, June 20). How Data Can Map and Make Racial Inequality More Visible (If Done Responsibly). Medium. https://medium.com/data-stewards-network/how-data-can-map-and-make-racial-inequality-more-visible-if-done-responsibly-9074ed84e2bf (Links to an external site.)

            Discussion board

            Is Poverty a Choice?

            Visit the interactive tool below from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), a nonpartisan office that creates independent analyses of budgetary and economic decisions for the U.S. Congress. Democratic and Republican congressional members alike rely on the CBO score before voting on legislation including the Build Back Better (BBB) agenda.

            How Increasing the Federal Minimum Wage Could Affect Employment and Family Income (Links to an external site.)

            Questions to Think About: Is poverty a choice or a consequence of poor policies? Is it beneficial for politicians to ensure that poverty exists? Would increasing the federal minimum wage help lift people out of poverty?

            For this discussion, we are going to examine the wealth gap. During the first week in January, the newly elected mayor of New York City, Eric Adams drew criticism and a large debate regarding his comments on the role of “low skilled workers (Links to an external site.)”. The debate between the haves and have nots is not new. Many Americans have opted to join the “great resignation” rather than continue to work for low wages and inhumane conditions. Working-class Americans now have more power in the labor market.

            There has been a new discourse surrounding capitalism and socialism. Some people believe that since America was built on capitalism, a free-market society allows poor people to achieve the American dream. While others believe that a capitalistic society has permitted America to build wealth on the backs of historically excluded groups, and the system perpetuates wealth inequities. You may have heard this statement before, “a small number of the wealthiest Americans own more wealth than the bottom 90%”. If you follow the stock market, you may remember the Robinhood/GameStop fiasco from January 2021. A small number of investors manipulated the stock market and won huge gains until trading platforms halted trade. (Thorbecke, 2021) The vast majority of conservatives and liberals agreed that ordinary people were being punished and considered as market manipulators; while the wealthy were able to legally short stock and trade freely.

            In President Biden’s Build Back Better (BBB) agenda, he mentions lowering the cost of childcare, college, and healthcare among other things; plans to pay for it by raising taxes on corporate America and Americans making over $400K a year. (Biden’s Build Back Better is currently stalled in Congress and does not have bipartisan support.) House Democrats also plan to raise taxes on corporations and high-income earners to pay for social programs. (Schroeder, 2021). The Trump Administration’s 2017 tax bill drastically cut the individual income tax rate for high earners, reduced the tax on large inheritances, reduced the corporate tax rate from 21% to 35%, and created new deductions to benefit wealthy business owners. (Iacurci, 2021) Many conservatives felt that the tax cuts were needed to fuel business growth and that business growth would create more jobs. So, essentially, President Biden aims to reverse the tax cuts of the Trump Administration. Most of the governmental programs (stimulus, child tax credit, etc.) established during Covid to help lift people out of poverty are gone or will be gone soon. The aforementioned examples demonstrate how the powers of the president and governmental policies directly impact the ability of Americans to gain or obtain wealth. Does the president have the power to eliminate poverty in America? Should reducing the wealth gap and poverty be a higher priority for President Biden?

            According to the Economic Policy Institute, in America before the pandemic, “140 million were either were poor or one emergency away from being poor, including approximately 60% of Black, non-Hispanic people (26 million); 64% of Hispanic people (38 million); 60% of indigenous people (2.15 million); 40% of Asian people (8 million); and 33% of white people (66 million)”. The middle class is shrinking, and the Federal Reserve estimates that the wealthiest Americans have 16 times more income than the bottom 50% of Americans.

            In most societies, capitalism and socialism are not binary; they are very much intertwined. They both exist, and they are both needed to create a balanced society. Many of us enjoy the ability to use Uber or Lyft (capitalism) while riding on a highway (socialism). Is it necessary to recalibrate the levels of capitalism and socialism to create a more equitable society? Or, is capitalism vital for America to remain a superpower on the world stage?

            Here is an interesting quote, ”how can someone be anti-capitalist in politics and yet still participate in capitalism (in order to sustain oneself)” -Unknown

            Data

            Aladangady, A. & and Forde, A. (2021, October 22). Wealth Inequality and the Racial Wealth Gap. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/notes/feds-notes/wealth-inequality-and-the-racial-wealth-gap-20211022.htm (Links to an external site.)

            Bhutta, N., Chang, A., Dettling, L. & Hsu, J. (2020, September 28). Disparities in Wealth by Race and Ethnicity in the 2019 Survey of Consumer Finances. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/notes/feds-notes/disparities-in-wealth-by-race-and-ethnicity-in-the-2019-survey-of-consumer-finances-20200928.htm (Links to an external site.)

            Bivens, J, Barber, W. J., Theoharis, L, & Gupta Barnes, S. (2020, October 30). Moral policy = good economics. Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/blog/moral-policy-good-economics-whats-needed-to-lift-up-140-million-poor-and-low-income-people-further-devastated-by-the-pandemic/ (Links to an external site.)

            Pew Research Center. (2020, January 9). Trends in income and wealth inequality. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2020/01/09/trends-in-income-and-wealth-inequality/ (Links to an external site.)

            U.S. Census Bureau. (2021, September). Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2021/demo/income-poverty/p60-273.html (Links to an external site.)

            Discussion Overview

            You will need to examine the various aspects of the wealth gap. Select a topic that is directly impacted by the wealth gap. (There are sample topics below.) For example, in discussion 3 we covered voting rights. How does a person’s ability or inability to vote for elected officials impact their financial status? For this discussion, you will develop a modified case study to make recommendations and create an implementation strategy to support your findings. I am more interested in your knowledge of the subject matter (you will need to do your own research), how you apply course content to the subject matter, and your ability to synthesize the information while formulating your own well-formed opinion based on facts. (You are building on knowledge from discussion 3 and now discussion 5 that will help prepare you for your public policy proposal in discussion 8.)

            Assignment

            1. Watch the optional videos below; Dr. Thomas J. DiLorenzo discusses his book on why socialism is not a viable solution to problems, and author Anand Giridharadas details how the elite fight for equity only to maintain the status quo.

            Harvard Kennedy School’s Institute of Politics. (2019, November 12). A Conversation with Anand Giridharadas. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/7m2AumufJfw (Links to an external site.)

            misesmedia. (2020, July 15). Ten Things You Should Know About Socialism | Thomas J. DiLorenzo. YouTube. [Video].

            https://youtu.be/V_NvazLOYIo (Links to an external site.)

            2. Draft a modified case study on the wealth gap. For the purposes of this discussion, here is how I am defining a case study.

            Case Study: An analysis of a real-life situation where existing problems need to be solved. It should apply ideas and knowledge in a way that attempts to explain the behavior of individuals or situations.

            Your submission must include the components below in essay format (A breakdown of each individual component has been provided below.):

            Synopsis: Select a topic related to the wealth gap and give context and/or background on it. Write what you hope to gain or prove from your research. (I challenge you to select a case study topic that is unusual, neglected, or an outlier. However, if you are unsure about this assignment or concerned about time, feel free to select a topic below. Each topic has been well researched and you will be able to locate data points.) 1-2 sentence(s)

            Synopsis Breakdown: What topic surrounding the wealth gap directly impacts your life or the lives of your loved ones? Select a topic and write why your topic is important. What details of your topic should we be concerned about? How does your topic impact society and future generations?

            Discuss the Powers of the President (You will need to answer all of these questions.): What past or present policies have hindered the ability of people in America to obtain wealth and/or contributed to the increasing wealth gap? What powers does the U.S president have regarding the wealth gap? What responsibility do presidents have to maintain a functioning economy? How should they balance the well-being of citizens and the desires of corporations? 1-2 sentence(s)

            Discuss the Powers of the President Breakdown (You will need to answer all of these questions.): How have current policies or laws impacted your topic on the wealth gap? Have they made it harder for people to pay their bills, increase their savings account, or buy a house? It will help your grade if you can list a specific policy and its impact. What can the president do to reduce the wealth gap? You may want to name a specific policy that they should implement. How should the president balance the need to help Americans and pay for those services that help Americans?

            Findings: After you have researched your topic, identify at least 3 problems that you found. Are there any underlying problems that have never been addressed? Use data and statistics to support your work. 3-4 sentence(s)

            Findings Breakdown: Example: If your topic is on free community college, then you may want to list 3 barriers to offering free community college. Who should it be offered to? What requirements should students abide by? Should undocumented students receive free community college? What would critics say? Is there data that supports free community college? Is there data that supports that requiring students to commit to community service hours would benefit the community? Would offering free community college help lift people and generations out of poverty?

            Summarize the Major Problems: Identify alternative solutions to solve each of the 3 problems that you described above. Briefly outline each alternative solution and evaluate its advantages and disadvantages. 3-4 sentence(s)

            Summarize the Major Problems Breakdown: If your topic is on providing a universal basic income (UBI) payment of $1K a month to every person making under $40K a year. You will need to list 3 possible solutions to get your plan accomplished. For example, you will need to discuss how it would benefit them and how it would impact society. What would critics of the plan say? You are just listing the 3 problems, this can be done with 3 bullet points.

            Recommend the Best Solution to be Implemented: Select one of the alternative solutions above that should be adopted. How will your solution solve inequities in the wealth gap? Explain and justify your reasoning. Convince the reader as to why your solution should be implemented. 1-2 sentence(s)

            Recommend the Best Solution to be Implemented Breakdown: If your topic is on the need to increase the minimum wage. Then, you will select 1 of the 3 major problems and detail how it will help lift people out of poverty. You will want to detail why minimum wage should be increased. Why should we care?

            Implementation: Detail how your selected alternative solution should be implemented. How should it be done, who/whom should do it, when should it be done? Do you have a timeline? Will it take 1 year, 5 years, or 10 years? How much will it cost to implement? 2-3 sentence(s)

            Implementation Breakdown: You will need to provide specifics as to how your 1 solution should be implemented. If your topic is on how discriminating against members of the LGBTQ+ community impacts the wealth gap. Then you will need to discuss specific details on how you will implement your plan. For example, is the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) enough to ensure equity? How should the ERA be enforced? How long will your implementation plan take? How much will it cost? Who will you need to support it?

            Summary: What assumptions did you have to make? If you had more time, what would you have liked to research further? Is there a group of people who have been misrepresented in the media or public opinion? Why have they been misrepresented? Is there a group of people whose voices are missing from the discourse? Why is their voice important? How do we use the current momentum to create lasting change? What should be demanded or asked of elected officials? What accountability standards should be implemented? Is there a political motive for or against your topic? 1-2 sentence(s)

            Summary Breakdown: Summarize your topic. What did you learn about your topic? What would you do differently if you had more time? Who’s voice is missing from the topic? Children? People, who make a certain income? Who’s voice seems to dominate the conversation? The wealth gap impacts a lot of people, how will you ensure that the topic gets attention? What marketing tools would you use to bring attention to the topic? How would you hold elected officials and decision-makers accountable?

            Cause and Effect: Write a cause and effect statement on how the wealth gap has impacted society. This should be a persuasive statement. (Ex: Due to de jure segregation practices like redlining, many historically excluded groups have been denied the ability to gain equity in their homes which has exacerbated the wealth gap.) 1 sentence

            Cause and Effect Breakdown: Write a cause and effect statement on how the wealth gap has impacted society. This should be a persuasive statement. Example: Due to de jure segregation practices like redlining, many historically excluded groups have been denied the ability to gain equity in their homes which has exacerbated the wealth gap.

            Citations: Cite research and data points.

            (I added the sentence length just in case you wanted a guide.)

            Possible Topics Related to the Wealth Gap:

            The “great resignation”

            Universal basic income (UBI)

            Opportunity gap

            Achievement gap

            Free community college

            The rising cost of college tuition

            Poverty

            Capitalism & the disabled community

            Welfare

            Lack of corporate responsibility

            Capitalism

            Socialism

            Health disparities

            Racism, classism, or both

            Housing inequities

            Environmental injustice

            Criminal justice reform

            LGBTQ+ discrimination

            Minimum wage

            Inequities in education

            No universal early childhood programs

            Inequities in the tax system

            Immigration reform

            Digital harms

            Questions to Think About

            Should a plutocracy exist?

            Is socialism bad for democracy?

            How would people pay for goods in a socialist society?

            Is capitalism bad for working-class people?

            Is racism a by-product of capitalism?

            Is capitalism dependent on racism and class inequalities?

            Does it have to be either capitalism or socialism? Is there a balance between the 2 that will create an equitable society?

            Is “our political economy structured to create poverty and inequality”?

            Do you believe that universal basic income (UBI) is an effective measure to bridge the wealth gap?

            Would UBI help create a trickle-up economy vs a trickle-down economy?

            Suggested Reading

            Amanpour & Co. (2020, May 21). Questioning the Seat of Power and Money in the United States. PBS. https://www.pbs.org/wnet/amanpour-and-company/video/questioning-the-seat-of-power-and-money-in-the-united-states/ (Links to an external site.)

            BBC. (2021, January 25). ‘Wealth increase of 10 men during pandemic could buy vaccines for all’. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-55793575 (Links to an external site.)

            Edwards, L. (2020, May 21). The Case for Capitalism. The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/conservatism/commentary/the-case-capitalism (Links to an external site.)

            Edwards, L. (2019, October 16). Three Nations That Tried Socialism and Rejected It. The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/progressivism/commentary/three-nations-tried-socialism-and-rejected-it (Links to an external site.)

            Gornstein, L. (2021, April 1). What is socialism? And what do socialists really want in 2021? CBS News. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cbsnews.com/amp/news/what-is-socialism/ (Links to an external site.)

            Iacurci, G. (2021, January 27). Trump cut taxes for the rich. Biden wants to raise them. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/27/trump-cut-taxes-for-the-rich-biden-wants-to-raise-them.html (Links to an external site.)

            MacDowell, M. (2020, September 16). Your View: Why the U.S. is in better shape than you think. The Morning Call. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.mcall.com/opinion/mc-opi-capitalism-successes-macdowell-20200916-pncjn5r45zhsvhsgyfzc7tjszm-story.html%3foutputType=amp (Links to an external site.)

            Mineo, L. (2021, June 3). Un/Equal. The Harvard Gazette. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2021/06/racial-wealth-gap-may-be-a-key-to-other-inequities/ (Links to an external site.)

            Pew Research Center. (2019, June 25). Stark partisan divisions in Americans’ views of ‘socialism,’ ‘capitalism’. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/25/stark-partisan-divisions-in-americans-views-of-socialism-capitalism/ (Links to an external site.)

            Schrager, A. (2021, September 9). Wage Stagnation and Its Discontents: Rethinking the Safety Net to Encourage a More Dynamic Economy. The Manhattan Institute. https://www.manhattan-institute.org/schrager-wage-stagnation-rethinking-safety-net (Links to an external site.)

            Schroeder, P. (2021, September 12). House Democrats eye corporate tax rate hike, surtax on wealthy in spending package – sources. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/us/house-democrats-expected-propose-hike-corporate-tax-rate-surtax-wealthy-report-2021-09-12/ (Links to an external site.)

            Thorbecke, C. (2021, February 13). GameStop timeline: A closer look at the saga that upended Wall Street. ABC News. https://abcnews.go.com/Business/gamestop-timeline-closer-saga-upended-wall-street/story?id=75617315 (Links to an external site.)

            VerBruggen, R. (2021, September 2). On the 25th Anniversary of Welfare Reform, a Study Asks How It Worked. Institute for Family Studies. https://ifstudies.org/blog/on-the-25th-anniversary-of-welfare-reform-a-study-asks-how-it-worked (Links to an external site.)

            VerBruggen, R. (2021, September 7). Study: ‘Tipped’ Minimum Wage Kills Jobs, Too. National Review. https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/study-tipped-minimum-wage-kills-jobs-too/amp/?__twitter_impression=true%20biden-s-welfare-state-reality-americans-aren-t-debating (Links to an external site.)

            Discussion Board

            Many hospitals are currently experiencing losses from operations., after reviewing the text, powerpoint slides and YouTube videos

            –  Describe some ways that a hospital can improve financial performance by implementing Six Sigma and Lean; and

            –  Provide two (2) examples of using these processes.

              • 5

              Discussion Board

               We often hear claims that “seem” credible and the sources of these claims can also seem credible at least at first glance. Analyze the credibility of media sources:

              1) Do you believe that all media sources are credible? Why or why not?

              2) Why should we (or should we not) question the credibility of the information that is presented to us from media sources?

              Discussion board


              The intersection of multiple identities are difficult topics to discuss in person, let alone online. They are complex, multi-faceted, and can evoke strong emotion. You all have done an amazing job of being respectful. I just ask that you proofread your discussion responses before posting and try not to lump groups of people together. If you make a general statement about a group of people, you will need to include reputable cited sources to affirm your argument. You may want to use the word ‘some’ before discussing a group of people.

              Introduction

              “We just have to convince other people that they have power. This is what they can do by participating to make change, not only in their community, but many times changing in their own lives. Once they participate, they get their sense of power.” – Dolores Huerta

              “How do we all get free?”

              What does liberation really mean?

              Is decolonization the answer?

              If we end racism, ableism, sexism, & all of the other isms, would the world become a better place?

              How can we each acknowledge our individual privilege?

              Who has the power to make change?

              Is having power a bad thing?

              So far, in this course, we have discussed how the U.S. Constitution impacts historically excluded groups (HEG’s), reproductive rights, gun rights, voting rights, representation in Congress, the wealth gap, and the carceral system. One of the main common denominators is power. We have seen various injustices at the U.S. border, book bans, and so much fear-motivated hate. Free and fair elections are vital to securing democracy and equity, yet the U.S. Congress has yet to pass or come to an agreement on the John R. Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act of 2021 (H.R.4) and For the People Act of 2021 (H.R.1).

              HCC Student Life. (2021, September 23). The “We” in We The People-Constitution Day. YouTube. [Video].

              https://youtu.be/SW7MaMkM4qo (Links to an external site.)

              (Optional)

              “We must have the courage to walk the talk, but we must also engage in the continuing dialogues that enable us to break free of old categories and create the new ideas that are necessary to address our realities, because revolutions are made not to prove the correctness of ideas but to begin anew.” – Grace Lee Boggs

              Power

              Many students have asked to discuss race relations, but to have a better understanding of race, I feel that we have to first discuss power.

              How has the government (de jure segregation) and society (de facto segregation) attributed to the heightened power of one group and the weakened power of another? If we truly believe that “all (people) are created equal” then why are there so many injustices? How has the changing demographics in America impacted the new restrictions on elections and new laws across the country?

              Is racism a social construct? Where did racism originate from? Is it a natural instinct to discriminate against someone’s sexual orientation, gender, sexual preference, disability, zip code, etc? Have humans been conditioned in society to hold power over others by reducing the humanity in other people?

              Power: Who has it? Who wants it? What are people willing to do to acquire and maintain it? Is it so wrong for those who have acquired power to want to maintain it? Can we blame those who have power for fighting to keep it? Or, those who vote in their own self-interest and not for the greater good?

              Videos (Optional)

              Liu, E. (n.d.). How to understand power. TEDEd. [Video]. https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-understand-power-eric-liu#watch (Links to an external site.)

              NBC News. (2021, August 21). Census Shows A More Diverse, Urban America. YouTube. [Video].

              https://youtu.be/cqJwKu4dNSk (Links to an external site.)

              Throughout history, when a HEG begins to gain power or a pathway to equity, it is usually followed by new oppressive laws or violence. Litigation is generally required to enforce equitable treatment.

              Examples from the Textbook: Power = Oppression

              Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) = Trail of Tears (President Andrew Jackson refused to abide by a SCOTUS ruling.)

              The 13th & 14th Amendments Enacted = Jim Crow + Increased Lynching of Black Americans + Increased Carceral Rates

              The 15th Amendment Enacted = Literacy Tests/Poll Taxes + Violence Toward Black Americans Attempting to Vote

              Increase in Asian Immigrants = Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 + Immigration Act of 1924 + Executive Order 9066 (Japanese Americans Forced into Internment Camps)

              Increase in Latino Immigration + Mendez v. Westminster (1947) = 1965 Immigration Quotas

              LGBTQ+ Advancements = Stonewall Inn (1969) + Increase in Hate Crimes

              Mexican American (Latino) Civil Rights Movement Advances = Arizona v. United States (2012)

              Roe v. Wade (1973) = 16+ State Bans on Reproductive Rights

              Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) = Refusal of Governmental & For-Profit Entities to Follow Law (Reasonable Accommodations in Employment, Education, Healthcare, etc.)

              “Unless we know ourselves and our history, and other people and their history, there is really no way that we can really have positive kind of interaction where there is real understanding.” – Yori Kochiyama

              Examples Not in the Textbook:

              2020 Social Justice Protests = Critical Race Theory (CRT) Bans (CRT was 1st published in 1995 and was not designed to be taught in EC-12. Why is there an outcry now?)

              The large disparity in the carceral sentences between White and Black/Brown individuals accused of the same crime.

              Islamophobia or anti-Muslim sentiment. (There has been an increase in the last few months with the arrival of Afghans in America.)

              The rise in anti-transgender violence. Black transgender women are murdered at higher rates.

              Anti-Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) hate crimes. (There has been a larger increase since Covid.)

              Companies still exploiting Indigenous land for profit.

              No pathway to citizenship for immigrants, despite past bipartisanship. Studies show that the U.S. needs immigrants. Does it have to do with the increase in the Latino population in U.S. Census records?

              The FBI is concerned about the increase in violence and mobilization of white supremacist groups.

              The rise in antisemitism.

              Despite advancements, women are still paid less than men.

              “Sometimes people try to destroy you, precisely because they recognize your power – not because they don’t see it, but because they see it and they don’t want it to exist” – bell hooks

              Intersectionality

              How does one’s intersecting identities impact their experiences and/or how they are treated in society? How does ones’ intersecting identities impact their access to power?

              The Advocate. (2018, January 25). What Is Intersectionality? | Queer 101 | The Advocate. YouTube [Video].

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXJ4Dbdm1ks (Links to an external site.)

              “The most radical thing that any of us can do is to stop projecting our beliefs about gender onto other people’s behaviors and bodies” – Julia Serano

              Discussion Overview

              I intentionally asked a lot of questions in this discussion. Since the beginning of this course, I have asked that you explore each topic and article from multiple perspectives. Throughout the semester, you have been moving from just examining policy to creating actionable avenues to create meaningful change. Like the other discussions, we are only scratching the surface on the inequities in America. I hope that you will use this macro discussion on power and oppression to support issues you are passionate about after the course has ended.

              Over the past few years, many organizations have been including diversity statements or Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) statements as part of their mission and vision statements. In those diversity statements, an organization explains its commitment to advancing diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility to its employees and customers. After the social justice protests of 2020, you may have noticed the high number of organizations that openly supported the freedom to protest and equity for historically excluded groups (HEG’s). Since then many activists have asked that those diversity statements be followed with actionable outputs. In an attempt to create an inclusive and accessible internal culture, many industries now require candidates to submit a diversity statement for admissions, fellowship applications, education, and leadership roles.

              Side note: I am adding this piece because many of you may need to write a diversity statement in the future. Foundation fellowships can be paid and unpaid. Depending on your field of study and/or desired industry, applying to a fellowship instead of traditional employment after graduation may be beneficial to some of you. Regardless of your ideology, there are a wide range of foundations and fellowships that will pique your interest. Academic institutions, non-profits, think tanks, also offer paid and unpaid fellowships. (Yes, I read your discussion 5 posts and I know that some of you feel that if the wealthy paid their fair share in taxes then foundations would not exist.) Just in case you are interested, the Ford Foundation has made a commitment to disability rights and last fall held a 2-day webinar on disability justice: Link (Links to an external site.).

              Fellowship: A paid or unpaid opportunity to study a particular field or industry under the supervision of a mentor or expert.

              “If you have come here to help me you are wasting your time, but if you have come because your liberation is bound up with mine, then let us work together.” – Lilla Watson

              Assignment

              Select a topic or issue surrounding civil liberties, civil rights, or human rights. Write a fellowship application to a foundation or an organization for a 1-year fellowship. Describe in 150-200 words your desire to research the intersection of power and human rights. You will need to incorporate either de jure segregation or de facto segregation into your application and how your selected form of segregation has impacted your topic. You may want to include portions of a diversity statement if you feel that you might need to write one in the future. You may write your fellowship application to any foundation or organization.

              Question:

              1) Detail why your particular topic or issue should be researched. Why are you passionate about this topic? Explain how you hope to engage in work around antiracism, inclusion, accessibility, and/or equity throughout the fellowship. How has de jure segregation or de facto segregation impacted your topic or issue? Optional: How can we become not just allies, but co-conspirators to each other’s plight?

              2) Write 3 research questions that you would like to answer by the end of your fellowship?

              3) Include at least 2 citations.

              Scribbr. (2020, January 2). How to Develop a STRONG Research Question | Scribbr. YouTube. [Video].

              https://youtu.be/71-GucBaM8U (Links to an external site.)

              Sample Topics/Issues:

              Ableism

              Classism

              Racism

              Ethnicity

              Gender identity

              Gender expression

              Sexual orientation

              Sexual preference

              Religion

              LGBTQ+ rights

              Disability (visible & invisible)

              Sexism

              Intersecting identities

              Misogyny

              Femicide

              Suggested Reading

              Center for Houston’s Future. (2019). Houston’s Economic Future: Immigration.https://www.centerforhoustonsfuture.org/immigration2019 (Links to an external site.)

              First Nations Development Institute. (2018, June 4). Reclaiming Native Truth Call to Action. YouTube. [Video].

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NV-ZIX5Au1s&t=2s (Links to an external site.)

              Fischer, J. (2021, March 2). Domestic terrorism is ‘metastasizing’ across the country, FBI director says in Capitol riot testimony. WUSA9. https://www.wusa9.com/article/news/national/capitol-riots/domestic-terrorism-is-metastasizing-across-the-country-fbi-director-says-in-testimony-on-capitol-riot-oath-keepers-antifa-militia-proud-boys/65-d0cef137-9c47-4882-b9c2-62fd7019f291 (Links to an external site.)

              Ford Foundation. (2016, October 26). #InequalityIs: Tiffany You on inequity and disability. YouTube. [Video].

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsAUbYd5xso (Links to an external site.)

              Gonzalez-Barrerra, A. & Hugo Lopez, M. (2020, July 22). Before COVID-19, many Latinos worried about their place in America and had experienced discrimination. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/07/22/before-covid-19-many-latinos-worried-about-their-place-in-america-and-had-experienced-discrimination/ (Links to an external site.)

              Hillyer, Q. (2021, March 1). Some racial grievance mongers should take chill pills. Washington Examiner. https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/some-racial-grievance-mongers-should-take-chill-pills?_amp=true&__twitter_impression=true (Links to an external site.)

              Man, J. (2021, June 2). How to write a Diversity Statement & Samples. https://diversity.social/diversity-statement/ (Links to an external site.)

              The Broken News. (2020, June 3). Trevor Noah explains how society has broken its social contract on Black America. YouTube. [Video].

              https://youtu.be/QSyPy9vdA_s (Links to an external site.)

              (You may want to search YouTube for the original social contract video by Kimberly Jones. Please note that the original video may contain explicit language.)

              U.S. Census Bureau. (2021, August 12). Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census. https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/racial-and-ethnic-diversity-in-the-united-states-2010-and-2020-census.html

              Discussion board

              For this assignment, you will need to write a TedTalk draft. You will need to include citations for this assignment and your draft must be a minimum of 100 words. You will have 2 attempts. I recommend that you type your essay response into another document to check for grammar. This will also serve as a backup, just in case you encounter technical difficulties.

              3 Prompt

              1. Select 1 Key Concept:

              How should the U.S. Congress use its political power to represent a diverse America?

              Powers of the President

              Strategies to reform the carceral system

              2. Write a TedTalk draft on the key concept that you selected. You should give an overview of your selected key concept and provide an example of its impact on society. Do not forget to include at least 1 data point and quote to support your position. You do not have to introduce yourself in your TedTalk.

              3) You may copy/paste your written TedTalk draft into the exam, upload a video, podcasts, etc. (All videos must have captions.)

              4. Do not forget to include at least 2 citations. (Citations do not count toward the word requirement.)

              DISCUSSION BOARD

              You will need to submit a photo essay to document the impacts of one of the key concepts below. You will have 2 attempts.

              Exam 3 Prompt

              1. Select 1 Key Concept:

              De facto segregation

              De jure segregation

              Isolationism

              2. Photo Essay Components:

              Below you will find a list of photos that must be included in your photo essay. Your photo essay should tell a compelling story on the impact of your selected key concept on society.

              Required Photos

              Title: You are not required to include captions or words, but I will need a title that includes your selected key concept.

              Photo 1: What is the main issue of the key concept?

              Photo 2: What is the current state of the key concept? What is the problem? How has society been impacted? You may use a chart or graph to support your argument.

              Photo 3: What types of changes are needed to mitigate or slow down the impacts of the key concept? What strategies should be used to mitigate or sustain your efforts? You may use a chart or graph to support your argument.

              Photo 4: How will you counteract the power and/or influence of your adversaries to create the needed the change?

              Photo 5: What will happen to the key concept in 2050 if nothing is done?

              Photo 6: What will happen to the key concept in 2050 if your strategies are implemented?

              Citations: You do not need to cite the photos in MLA or APA; just include a link for each photo.

              How to submit your photo essay:

              Here are a few ways to upload your photo essay to the exam: PowerPoint presentation, slide show, zine, infographic, etc. If you have difficulty uploading your documents to the exam, send me a Canvas message with your attached document, and I will upload them for you. Let me know if you have questions.


              Discussion board

              Discussion 8

              Group Work Optional: You may work with one classmate on this discussion. If you choose to work with a partner, you do not need to clear it with me first. Just add the name of your partner to the top of your discussion response. You will both need to submit a discussion response so that your submission is recorded in Canvas. Your assignment should be a minimum of 200 words.

              Introduction

              Public policy is usually derived from the legislature, lobbyists, and interest groups. The White House and governors also can propose public policy. Many of you are passionate about a variety of topics, as noted by your mutual aid programs in discussion 1. Please select an issue to write a brief public policy proposal on. Once you have selected a topic, think through viable solutions, and then create a macro plan for implementation. I am not looking for a 2-page paper, but I want you to be innovative and think about how your proposal will impact the country and residents. In discussion 3, you analyzed voting rights and in discussion 5 you addressed solutions to mitigate the wealth gap. Remember the critiques and suggestions for improvement as you write your public policy proposals. Follow the guidelines listed in the discussion rubric and the outline below. Be sure to take a look at the attached sample public policy proposal. I am sharing it with permission from a former student. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns.

              Requirements: Your proposal must include at least 3 data points (statistics) that support your argument. The data can be incorporated throughout your proposal or condensed to an individual section. Your proposal should be a minimum of 200 words.

              Public Policy Proposal Outline

              Topic Selection: What issue is keeping you up at night? It may not impact you, but rather your loved ones, coworkers, or community. What problem do you want to address or solve? (See below for topic suggestions)

              Describe the Problem: State the problem that you want to address and who is impacted. What are the short-term and long-term concerns if the problem is not addressed? You may want to think about adding the 3 data points here to support your argument. (2-3 sentences)

              Recommendations: Propose 3-4 recommendations to solve the problem. (3-4 bullet points)

              Policy Adoption & Implementation: How should your recommendations be implemented? What governmental agencies or organizations will you need to work with? How will your proposal be funded? State government, local government, private organizations, or nonprofit organizations? Can you provide a brief 3-5 step outline? What evidence, research, or statistics do you have to support your position? These can be from scientific studies, other companies, or organizations that have followed the newly proposed policy and support your argument. (3-5 sentences)

              Conclusion: Write a short conclusion to your public policy proposal. Assess your proposed policy. Will your solution solve the problem? Will it solve an immediate need until a long-term solution can be found? If your solution will not solve the problem, will it mitigate the impact on people or the community? Provide a brief summary of the information you have presented in your policy proposal. Convince the class to support your policy proposal. (2-4 sentences)

              Citations: Be sure to cite your sources. You will need to include at least 2 citations.

              Presentation: Be creative! You may submit your public policy proposal in any creative format you choose, just make sure that you follow the criteria. You may not copy and paste your written proposal into the discussion thread like the other discussions. Here are a few format ideas: video, PowerPoint presentation, slide show, webpage, zine, infographic, podcast, etc. (Many students use their phones to complete coursework, so please be mindful when using certain software. If possible, use closed captions (cc) on all videos. If you cannot, let me know, and will work with you to include it. Closed captions ensure that the material is accessible to everyone.)

              Extra Credit: Do not forget to ask 2 classmates a question or challenge their policy position to earn your extra credit point.

              Additional questions to think about:

              Does your policy proposal align with current legislation? If not, how do you propose to garner support?

              Will others see your policy proposal as political? Or, is it a nonpartisan effort?

              Is your policy proposal popular or on the fringe?

              What organizations or individuals are currently profiting from the problem? How will they respond to the loss in profit?

              What organizations would you partner/align with to support your cause?

              What organizations would you consider advisories?

              What organizations would help support your cause, despite your opposing goals?

              What actions can you take today, this week, month, or year to further the cause? Make calls, create a media campaign, etc.

              What organizations, communities, or individuals will be positively and negatively impacted if your policy proposal is passed?

              Sample Public Policy Proposals

              Holtz-Eakin, D. (2016). Reducing Poverty the Republican Way. Standford University. https://inequality.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Pathways_Presidential_Republican-Way.pdf (Links to an external site.)

              Texas Appleseed. (2019). Out-of-School Suspensions Harm Students Experiencing Homelessness. https://www.texasappleseed.org/sites/default/files/OnePager_OSS_LyricsStory.pdf (Links to an external site.)

              Need help selecting a topic? Here is a sample list of issues:

              Sex trafficking

              Immigration

              Economic justice

              Systemic racism

              Environmental justice

              Religious justice

              LGBTQ+ justice

              Disability justice

              Affordable housing

              Housing/food insecurity

              Survival crimes

              Accessible internet access

              Confederate monuments

              Criminal justice reform

              Education.

              Criminal justice reform

              Education

              Foreign policy

              Occupational segregation

              Sample Student Public Policy Proposal.pdf.

              Discussion board

              Group Work Optional: You may work with one classmate on this discussion. If you choose to work with a partner, you do not need to clear it with me first. Just add the name of your partner to the top of your discussion response. You will both need to submit a discussion response so that your submission is recorded in Canvas. Your assignment should be a minimum of 200 words.

              Introduction

              Public policy is usually derived from the legislature, lobbyists, and interest groups. The White House and governors also can propose public policy. Many of you are passionate about a variety of topics, as noted by your mutual aid programs in discussion 1. Please select an issue to write a brief public policy proposal on. Once you have selected a topic, think through viable solutions, and then create a macro plan for implementation. I am not looking for a 2-page paper, but I want you to be innovative and think about how your proposal will impact the country and residents. In discussion 3, you analyzed voting rights and in discussion 5 you addressed solutions to mitigate the wealth gap. Remember the critiques and suggestions for improvement as you write your public policy proposals. Follow the guidelines listed in the discussion rubric and the outline below. Be sure to take a look at the attached sample public policy proposal. I am sharing it with permission from a former student. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns.

              Requirements: Your proposal must include at least 3 data points (statistics) that support your argument. The data can be incorporated throughout your proposal or condensed to an individual section. Your proposal should be a minimum of 200 words.

              Public Policy Proposal Outline

              Topic Selection: What issue is keeping you up at night? It may not impact you, but rather your loved ones, coworkers, or community. What problem do you want to address or solve? (See below for topic suggestions)

              Describe the Problem: State the problem that you want to address and who is impacted. What are the short-term and long-term concerns if the problem is not addressed? You may want to think about adding the 3 data points here to support your argument. (2-3 sentences)

              Recommendations: Propose 3-4 recommendations to solve the problem. (3-4 bullet points)

              Policy Adoption & Implementation: How should your recommendations be implemented? What governmental agencies or organizations will you need to work with? How will your proposal be funded? State government, local government, private organizations, or nonprofit organizations? Can you provide a brief 3-5 step outline? What evidence, research, or statistics do you have to support your position? These can be from scientific studies, other companies, or organizations that have followed the newly proposed policy and support your argument. (3-5 sentences)

              Conclusion: Write a short conclusion to your public policy proposal. Assess your proposed policy. Will your solution solve the problem? Will it solve an immediate need until a long-term solution can be found? If your solution will not solve the problem, will it mitigate the impact on people or the community? Provide a brief summary of the information you have presented in your policy proposal. Convince the class to support your policy proposal. (2-4 sentences)

              Citations: Be sure to cite your sources. You will need to include at least 2 citations.

              Presentation: Be creative! You may submit your public policy proposal in any creative format you choose, just make sure that you follow the criteria. You may not copy and paste your written proposal into the discussion thread like the other discussions. Here are a few format ideas: video, PowerPoint presentation, slide show, webpage, zine, infographic, podcast, etc. (Many students use their phones to complete coursework, so please be mindful when using certain software. If possible, use closed captions (cc) on all videos. If you cannot, let me know, and will work with you to include it. Closed captions ensure that the material is accessible to everyone.)

              Extra Credit: Do not forget to ask 2 classmates a question or challenge their policy position to earn your extra credit point.

              Additional questions to think about:

              Does your policy proposal align with current legislation? If not, how do you propose to garner support?

              Will others see your policy proposal as political? Or, is it a nonpartisan effort?

              Is your policy proposal popular or on the fringe?

              What organizations or individuals are currently profiting from the problem? How will they respond to the loss in profit?

              What organizations would you partner/align with to support your cause?

              What organizations would you consider advisories?

              What organizations would help support your cause, despite your opposing goals?

              What actions can you take today, this week, month, or year to further the cause? Make calls, create a media campaign, etc.

              What organizations, communities, or individuals will be positively and negatively impacted if your policy proposal is passed?

              Sample Public Policy Proposals

              Holtz-Eakin, D. (2016). Reducing Poverty the Republican Way. Standford University. https://inequality.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Pathways_Presidential_Republican-Way.pdf (Links to an external site.)

              Texas Appleseed. (2019). Out-of-School Suspensions Harm Students Experiencing Homelessness. https://www.texasappleseed.org/sites/default/files/OnePager_OSS_LyricsStory.pdf (Links to an external site.)

              Need help selecting a topic? Here is a sample list of issues:

              Sex trafficking

              Immigration

              Economic justice

              Systemic racism

              Environmental justice

              Religious justice

              LGBTQ+ justice

              Disability justice

              Affordable housing

              Housing/food insecurity

              Survival crimes

              Accessible internet access

              Confederate monuments

              Criminal justice reform

              Education

              Foreign policy

              Occupational segregation

              Sample Student Public Policy Proposal.pdf

              Discussion Board

               

              For this discussion, please be as honest as possible. This is your personal opinion and your position does not impact your grade in any way.

              • What is your position on knock-off furniture? For? Against? Why?
              • What would you, as a designer, do if a client wanted an iconic piece but didn’t want to pay for an original and wanted you to help them find a cheaper reproduction?
                • 5

                Discussion board


                Discussion 9

                66 unread replies.77 replies.

                If you have been following the current events with Russia and Ukraine, as I have, then you have an option to complete discussion 9 on the Russian military invasion of Ukraine. This is an option, you only need to select either Afghanistan or the Russian military invasion of Ukraine, not both. If you are interested in writing a TedTalk draft on Russia and Ukraine, please review my discussion thread below.

                Introduction

                Ending operations in Afghanistan has been noted as President Biden’s biggest failure in his presidency so far. The deaths of 13 service members killed in the Kabul attack, along with the 100+ U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, and Afghan allies that remain in Afghanistan, still weigh on the hearts and minds of so many. Although, President Biden defended his decision to end the U.S. war with Afghanistan many allies were upset by the chaotic process and its negative impact on allied countries.

                ABC News. (2021, September 21). Biden addresses United Nations General Assembly | ABC News. YouTube. [Video].

                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8umSErOLWw (Links to an external site.)

                Historically, America is a force to be reckoned with on the battlefield, but navigating cultural norms and difficult terrain have been challenging. Many historians, military scholars, and those who had first-hand experience have likened the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan to Saigon. Not to mention the overall comparisons of Afghanistan to the Vietnam War. If you have not already watched the Ken Burns and Lynn Novick PBS film The Vietnam War, I recommend it. Both wars spanned several presidents, struggled with terrain and cultural norms, cost countless lives, and had issues with transparency. Within the next few years and maybe decades, the decisions that guided the war in Afghanistan and Iraq should become more apparent.

                Hoang, K. V. (2021, August 21). Vietnamese refugees who came to the US after the fall of Saigon share their stories to show how crucial it is for Afghan families to get the same chance. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/vietnamese-refugees-why-afghan-families-deserve-to-come-to-us-2021-8 (Links to an external site.)

                Le Elston, T. (2021, August 16). Fall of Kabul, fall of Saigon: Their horror was our horror. Anguished, we pray for a miracle. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/voices/2021/08/16/afghanistan-fall-kabul-fall-saigon-vietnam-horror/8146925002/ (Links to an external site.)

                Discussion Overview

                The decision to wage war against another country is complex. Can the conflict be resolved with diplomacy? Is military intervention necessary? What would be the cost of war? What will be the human toll, financial impact, resource depletion? Is there support from allies? Should the War Powers Act be enacted?

                As you complete the assignment, I ask that you keep in mind that America has conducted its own share of atrocities. I am not just speaking of things that have happened within U.S. borders. Gaining superpower status comes at a cost. For many of the countries that are now in distress, America has profited off of them and contributed to their weakened or limited infrastructure. Some atrocities have occurred indirectly through inter-country agreements and some directly. The U.S. may have supported country leadership that was in America’s interest but destructive to the countries people. Many times the targeted country has been left without natural resources to earn revenue and with a fractured infrastructure. Countries with limited infrastructures have been depleted by reducing natural resources, restrictive tariffs, supported invasions, the subjugation of people, economic harms, etc.

                How has imperialism, colonization, and spreading democracy impacted the limited infrastructures of countries? By living in America, do we intrinsically benefit from America’s harmful practices? What responsibility do we have to those harmed? Have America’s past harms created current-day enemies and assisted in global poverty rates?

                CrashCourse. (2013, September 5). American Imperialism: Crash Course US History #28. YouTube. [Video].

                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfsfoFqsFk4 (Links to an external site.)

                (There are several articles/videos on how American involvement in Central America contributed to the U.S. border issues.)

                Brief Timeline

                The Cost of War in Afghanistan

                Wars are more than just numbers, they are human lives. I have included the information below to help provide perspective.

                6,000+ U.S. Soldiers & Contractors Killed

                66,000+ Afghanistan Military & Police Killed

                47,000+ Afghanistan Civilians Killed

                $2 Trillion+ U.S. Debt-Financed for both Afghanistan and Iraq

                Kinckmeyer, E. (2021, August 16). Costs of the Afghanistan war, in lives and dollars. AP News. https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-business-afghanistan-43d8f53b35e80ec18c130cd683e1a38f (Links to an external site.)

                Watson Institute. (2021). Costs of War. Brown University. https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/papers/summary (Links to an external site.)

                Afghanistan Pre-U.S. Involvement

                Bloch, H. (2021, August 31). A Look At Afghanistan’s 40 Years Of Crisis — From The Soviet War To Taliban Recapture. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2021/08/19/1028472005/afghanistan-conflict-timeline (Links to an external site.)

                PBS News Hour. (2021, August 30). A Historical Timeline of Afghanistan. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/asia-jan-june11-timeline-afghanistan (Links to an external site.)

                9/11 + Decision to Enter Afghanistan

                Abdul-Zahra, Q. & Karam, Z. (2021, September 12). Death and suffering in Iraq a painful legacy of 9/11 attacks. AP News. https://apnews.com/article/afghanistan-united-states-iraq-george-w-bush-middle-east-84eaa99721b433d0db1b0c12051bb117 (Links to an external site.)

                AP Archive. (2015, July 21). Bush address on military action in Afghanistan. YouTube. [Video].

                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=osXkym5GHXI (Links to an external site.)

                20 Years of War & 4 Presidents

                Do all 4 presidents deserve part of the blame?

                April 2002 Mission Summary: Stabilize the Afghanistan government, train the national army, and educate boys and girls.

                March 2003 Mission Summary: Destroy weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. (America enters the war with Iraq.) Employ U.S.-led counterinsurgency campaign in Afghanistan (nation-building, building infrastructure, and winning the hearts and minds of the people.).

                Council on Foreign Relations. (2021). The U.S. War in Afghanistan 1999 – 2021. https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-war-afghanistan (Links to an external site.)

                Lai, M. S. (2021, August 30). From Bush to Biden: One war, four US presidents on Afghanistan. BBC News. [Video]. https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-58352128 (Links to an external site.)

                Woodruff, J. (2021, August 31). ‘The Afghanistan Papers’ exposes the U.S.’s shaky Afghanistan strategy. PBS News Hour. [Video]. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/the-afghanistan-papers-exposes-the-u-ss-shaky-afghanistan-strategy (Links to an external site.)

                2020 Peace Deal with the Taliban

                The February 2020 agreement essentially stated that the U.S. would reduce troop presence from 13K to 8K within 3-4 months and the Taliban would stop attacks on the U.S. and allies. The U.S. had the option to abandon the agreement if the Afghanistan peace talks failed, which they did.

                Marty. F. (2021, February 1). The US-Taliban Deal: A Year Later. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2021/01/the-us-taliban-deal-a-year-later/ (Links to an external site.)

                2021: President Biden Withdrawal from Afghanistan

                President Biden has stated that the 2020 agreement with the Taliban required that he “either withdraw from Afghanistan or send more soldiers”. Memos show that the U.S. State Department had been urging American citizens to leave Afghanistan beginning April 2021. 19 alerts were sent and assistance for airfare was offered. Apparently, there was an issue with processing Special Immigrant Visas (SIV) for Afghan nationals from the Trump Administration. Did President Biden make the correct decision? Did he provide a sufficient answer for the chaotic withdrawal from Afghanistan? Why wasn’t there a work-around in place for the Afghan nationals’ SIVs? Was it just poor planning?

                CNBC Television. (2021, August 16). President Biden addresses the nation after Afghanistan falls to Taliban. YouTube. [Video].

                https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02grem9YXkg (Links to an external site.)

                Groope, M. (2021, August 22). Pence aide blames Stephen Miller for ‘devastating’ visa system for Afghans. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2021/08/21/mike-pence-aide-blames-stephen-miller-wrecking-afghan-visa-system/8228495002/ (Links to an external site.)

                Rothkopf, D. (2021, September 2). Inside the State Department’s Afghanistan Evacuation. The Daily Beast. https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-real-story-of-the-state-departments-afghanistan-evacuation (Links to an external site.)

                Afghanistan Now

                There are many people inside and outside of the U.S. who are against the use of drones. The U.S. Pentagon has acknowledged that a drone strike in August killed 10 civilians in Afghanistan. Without an active U.S. presence in the country, intel is limited. Media outlets are reporting that women are forbidden to work and that girls and boys are segregated in school.

                BBC News. (2022, January 27). Afghanistan: The ones who stayed behind – BBC News. YouTube. [Video].

                https://youtu.be/gg-O_Dlga-s (Links to an external site.)

                Bort, R. (2022, January 19). Newly Declassified Video Shows Botched U.S. Drone Strike That Killed 10 Afghan Civilians. Rolling Stone. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/botched-afghan-drone-strike-video-declassified-1287446/ (Links to an external site.)

                Byrd, W. (2021, September 7). After Taliban Takeover, Can Afghanistan’s Economy Survive?. United States Institute of Peace. https://www.usip.org/publications/2021/09/after-taliban-takeover-can-afghanistans-economy-survive (Links to an external site.)

                Assignment

                Conduct a post mortem (after the fact examination) of the U.S. war in Afghanistan. You will need to select 1 perspective below and write a TedTalk draft. You may also write a TedTalk on your unique perspective on the war in Afghanistan. The questions under each perspective are there to help guide you through your TedTalk draft, you do not have to answer them. I am always hesitant to suggest what other people/countries should do or how they should feel. Please do your research and keep in mind cultural norms. (There is a debate on whether using Afghan to describe a citizen or someone from Afghanistan is the correct term. I am using Afghan based on reading several articles from Afghans now living in America.)

                Submission Requirements:

                1) Each TedTalk must discuss the impact of U.S. isolationism on your topic and the war in Afghanistan (good, bad, or neutral). You do not have to introduce yourself in your TedTalk. Your submission must be a minimum of 200 words and include data.

                2) You may copy/paste your written TedTalk draft into the discussion thread, upload a video, podcasts, etc. (All videos must have captions.)

                3) Citations

                Perspectives

                1) U.S. War in Afganistan: U.S. Perspective

                How does isolationism impact U.S. diplomacy and domestic policies?

                Was nation-building an effective strategy? Did the U.S. get lost in domestic issues (women/children/economy)?

                Was Afghanistan a repeat of the Vietnam War?

                Was the war necessary, would another tactic have garnered better results?

                Could the funds spent on this war be better spent in the U.S.?

                2) U.S. War in Afganistan: Military Perspective

                How does isolationism impact U.S. military interventions and training?

                Did the soldiers receive the necessary training to nation-build or act as diplomats?

                How did fighting 2 wars at the same time, impede military resources?

                How did the terrain and cultural norms hinder the mission?

                Should the U.S. have relied on the Afghan government and army?

                (You may want to visit Rise to Peace (Links to an external site.).)

                3) U.S. War in Afghanistan: Perspective of the Afghan People

                How does U.S. isolationism impact the Afghan people?

                For 20 years, Afghans have experienced many freedoms, how has the withdrawal impacted their current lives and future?

                Did the U.S. invade their country and then leave? Did the U.S. leave them worse than before 9/11? Should the U.S. have stayed Afghan?

                Joya, Z. (2021, September 8). ‘They came for my daughter’: Afghan single mothers face losing children under Taliban. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/sep/08/they-came-for-my-daughter-afghan-single-mothers-face-losing-children-under-taliban (Links to an external site.)

                Zitser, J. & Shoaib, A. (2021, August 21). Men from Afghanistan’s secret gay community say they are living through a ‘nightmare’ and fear that the Taliban will execute them at any moment. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/afghanistans-secret-gay-community-is-living-in-fear-of-taliban-terror-2021-8 (Links to an external site.)

                (You may want to visit Rainbow Railroad (Links to an external site.))

                4) U.S. War in Afganistan: Global Perspective

                How does isolationism impact the global world (financial, poverty, Covid, etc.)?

                Should the U.S. have gone to war in Afghanistan? What were the global implications?

                Should the U.S. be a moral authority on human rights, when they have their own internal human rights violations?

                There are vulnerable populations around the world, what makes Afghanistan different?

                “The question is should we have stayed there forever to protect those advances? … there are really awful, despotic regimes all across the world & the US does not make the decision to send troops into every single one.” U.S. Senator Chris Murphy on the plight of women & girls in Afghanistan

                “Many of the same people attacking the Biden Administration for leaving women’s rights behind in Afghanistan are eager to control women’s bodies and choices in the United States.” Unknown

                5) U.S. War in Afghanistan: Share your own unique perspective

                How does isolationism impact your perspective?

                Questions to Think About

                Is it possible to bring democracy to a country with military force?

                Did we accomplish the mission to defeat Al Qaeda, defeat and remove the Taliban from power, “kill terrorists, and establish an Afghan army”?

                After 9/11 did America react too swiftly?

                Was counterinsurgency (nation-building) too tall of an order?

                Did former President Trumps’ isolationism policy hurt U.S. relations with other countries?

                Why did former President Trump broker a peace agreement with the Taliban and not the Afghan government? Was this the right decision or the best decision at the time?

                When should the U.S. become involved in foreign affairs? How has the media tampered down or inflated the issue? How much of our fate is actually tied to the fate of people abroad?

                How do you feel about the use of drones?

                Suggested Reading

                Brooks, K. J. (2021, September 10). Muslim Americans still face hostility 20 years after 9/11. CBS News. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/arab-muslim-americans-discrimination-islamophobia-terrorist/ (Links to an external site.)

                Richards, A. & Simon, S. (2021, September 2). Afghanistan Was a Ponzi Scheme Sold to the American Public. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/09/02/afghanistan-ponzi-scheme-united-states-war/ (Links to an external site.)

                Sanchez-Paramo, C. & Munoz-Boudet, A. M. (2018, March 8). No, 70% of the world’s poor aren’t women, but that doesn’t mean poverty isn’t sexist. World Bank Blogs. https://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/no-70-world-s-poor-aren-t-women-doesn-t-mean-poverty-isn-t-sexist (Links to an external site.)

                Sicard, S. (2020, June 25). A brief history of the Korean War. Military Times. https://www.militarytimes.com/veterans/military-history/2020/06/25/a-brief-history-of-the-korean-war/ (Links to an external site.

                Discussion Board

                 

                After reading the assigned chapters in Everyday Bible Study (Chapters 6-11), identify the following items:

                • Squares: 4 ideas that, in general, square (fit) with your thinking
                • Triangles: 3 angles you have never considered before
                • Circles: 2 questions that are circling in your mind
                • Hearts: 1 idea that you loved.

                Once you have identified these 10 items, list and explain them in a thread. Your full thread should contain at least one quote from Everyday Bible Study to support the thoughts and ideas you are presenting. For an example of this type of thread, please see the provided example

                • 20

                Discussion Board

                 

                Art Deco designer Jacque-Emile Rhulman stated: “The patronage of the rich would elicit the best of modern design.”

                • Do you agree that this statement would have been true in the early 20th century? Why or why not? Include specific examples of the “best of modern design” to support your stance.
                • Do you think that this statement is true in regard to 21st century design? Why or why not? Include specific examples of the “best of modern design” to support your stance.
                  • 5

                  Discussion board

                  Answer the following questions and submit your answers as detailed in the syllabus. This means following the formatting rules. Points will be deducted for not following the rules. Also, remember, this is a Texas government course, all of your examples and references should be about Texas. Each answer should be no less than 250 words. Each question should be answered separately. Write the question before each of your responses.

                  1. Discuss the rights and responsibilities of citizens. The keyword here is “discuss,” not list.

                  2. Why do we need to define some individuals as citizens and others as non-citizens?

                  3. What are the challenges of being a responsible citizen?

                  4. How do public issues get on the agenda of the legislature?

                  5. What factors should lawmakers consider when making policy?

                  6. What are the limits of policymaking?

                  7. What was the most significant thing you learned in this class.

                  Discussion Board

                  A 20-year-old, Black female, 32 weeks pregnant, was brought to the emergency department (ED) in an ambulance by the paramedics. She arrived in the ED immobilized on a flat board with a hard cervical collar in place. The client was the driver of a sedan involved in a single-vehicle collision. Her condition is unstable, critical.

                  The plan of care for her was an immediate blood transfusion and an emergency cesarean section. Matters became complicated when the client informed the medical team that she was a Jehovah’s Witness and refused the proposed plan of care. The physician then recommended the use of alternative blood products. The client insisted that this was also against her religion and she refused the alternative treatments being offered. The medical team advised her that Jehovah’s Witnesses could choose certain blood byproducts, such as albumin, cryoprecipitate, and globulin (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 2004).

                  According to the client and her husband, both believed that if she accepted the blood transfusion or blood products she would no longer be a Jehovah’s Witness and would be condemned to hell. The husband then presented the physician with the client’s blood card, created by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, the governing organization of Jehovah’s Witnesses. The card stated her advance directives, including the prohibition of blood and blood products.

                  The client’s condition worsened within 2 hours of admission to the ED. She went into labor and delivered a stillborn baby boy. She was immediately transferred to the intensive care unit where, despite continued aggressive attempts to stabilize her, she went into cardiac arrest and died.

                  1. What is the ethical dilemma?

                  2. Should the team have ignored the client’s wishes to save the client?  Does the fact that the client was pregnant have any bearing? Support your answer.

                  3. Was the team correct is honoring the client’s autonomy? Support your answer.

                  4. What ethical principles govern a health care workers response to ethical issues?

                  Discussion Board

                  • discussion of 3 key new learning points from the assigned text reading
                  • discussion of the importance of each of these key points in a typical traditional marketing environment
                  • at least 1 supportive citation and reference item for your initial discussion
                  • include headings and subheadings and APA references and citations

                  Discussion Board

                  Essay Discussion Board 

                  Write essay a minimum of 350 words.

                  Topic

                  Explain and defend your views on the following: Is there anything wrong in offering unauthorized immigrants “a path to citizenship”? Should children brought into a country illegally ever be deported?

                  Discussion Board

                  Write a 175- to 265-word response to the following:

                  • Identify two challenges in making risk management decisions.
                  • How can health care leaders overcome risks?
                  • What steps would you take to overcome the two challenges you identified?
                  • Explain your answers. 

                  Include an external resource to support your initial response to the discussion. Follow APA formatting to cite your source at the end of your post.

                  Discussion Board

                  As stated in Chapter 7, many religions do not have images of God or any holy person. Instead, some religions, such as Islam, places of worship are adorned with decorative, abstract patterns rather than realistic representations of their deity/deities. Does the lack of religious icons take away from the spiritual experience? Why or why not?  Why do some religions forbid depictions of their deities while others do not? 

                  DISCUSSION BOARD

                  To understand how to use the discussions tool in Canvas and to meet your classmates, complete the following as your first discussion task:

                  Tell us what you prefer to be called.

                  Tell us what your major is or will be and if you have career goals.

                  Tell us what language(s) you speak.

                  Share one of your personal hobbies or interests that you love to do in your free time, or tell us your favorite food(s) to eat.

                  Keep in mind, your entire class can see your posts, so please don’t post anything too personal. After you post to introduce yourself, don’t forget to reply to at least two classmates using at least 3-5 sentences. Your post and replies will be graded according to this grading rubric

                  Discussion Board

                  Andy Warhol, Marilyn Monroe, 1967 (screen print) 

                  Warhol

                  • Is Warhol’s artwork an example of Representational Art, Abstracted Art, or Non-Representational Art? Explain your reasoning
                  • What media does Warhol use to create his artwork?
                  • How does the use of a specific material in a work of art affect its meaning?
                  • Does the medium of Warhol’s work affect the way you value the artwork? How so?
                  • Analyze the themes of art present in Warhol’s Marilyn Monroe.  Please be thorough and explain your reasoning.

                  Discussion Board

                  The 3 links shown on the attached image:

                  https://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/tag/texas-and-epa/

                  https://www.tceq.texas.gov/

                  Discussion Board

                   

                  Cardiovascular disease includes a class of diseases in which the heart and blood vessels are affected.  Do a little research, and in your own words, describe one type of cardiovascular disease in detail. What actions should be taken by individuals and society as a whole to reduce the prevalence of this disease?

                  Post your answer to the discussion board using about 200 words. Do not copy and paste or plagiarize in any way.

                  Discussion Board

                   

                  Randall’s statements sparked a great deal of controversy and debate; however, they emphasize an underlying reality in the healthcare field: different populations, cultures, and groups have diverse beliefs and practices that impact their health. Nurses and healthcare professionals should be aware of this reality and adapt their health assessment techniques and recommendations to accommodate diversity.

                  In this Discussion, you will consider different socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors that should be taken into considerations when building a health history for patients with diverse backgrounds. Your Instructor will assign a case study to you for this Discussion.

                  To prepare:

                  • Reflect on your experiences as a nurse and on the information provided in this week’s Learning Resources on diversity issues in health assessments.
                  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a case study by your Instructor. Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your case study assignment.
                  • Reflect on the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors related to the health of the patient assigned to you.
                  • Consider how you would build a health history for the patient. What questions would you ask, and how would you frame them to be sensitive to the patient’s background, lifestyle, and culture? Develop five targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her health history and to assess his or her health risks.
                  • Think about the challenges associated with communicating with patients from a variety of specific populations. What strategies can you as a nurse employ to be sensitive to different cultural factors while gathering the pertinent information?
                  By Day 3 of Week 2

                  Post an explanation of the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors associated with the patient you were assigned. Explain the issues that you would need to be sensitive to when interacting with the patient, and why. Provide at least five targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her health history and to assess his or her health risks.

                  Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

                  Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

                  By Day 6 of Week 2

                  Respond on or before Day 6 on 2 different days to at least two of your colleagues who were assigned a different patient than you. Critique your colleague’s targeted questions, and explain how the patient might interpret these questions. Explain whether any of the questions would apply to your patient, and why.

                  Discussion Board

                  As a teacher of students with autism, it is important to design an effective educational program that addresses both behavioral excesses (e.g., challenging behavior) and behavioral deficits (e.g., social skills). Although many tend to associate applied behavior analysis (ABA) only with behavior management aimed at reducing challenging problem behaviors, ABA-based approaches are also powerful tools for teaching. As you watch the video for Chapter 2: “Antecedent-Behavior Consequence (ABC) Sequence: Using Positive Reinforcement to Increase the Likelihood of Appropriate Behavior” in this module/week’s Reading & Study folder, observe the teachers as they use positive reinforcement to teach their students specific skills and behaviors.

                  Based upon the video, reflect upon how you might incorporate positive reinforcement if you were the teacher. Consider the following: How would you identify the reinforcers, schedule of reinforcement, and amount of reinforcement provided? What challenges might you face when using positive reinforcement? How would you ensure the proper use of positive reinforcement and implementation fidelity across team members?

                  Discussion Board

                   Identify:

                  • A subjective claim that people might call “a fact”
                  • An objective claim that people might call “an opinion”
                  • What is the difference between a claim that is “objective” and a claim that is “subjective?”
                  • Explain how mislabeling these claims could negatively impact the quality of a person’s thinking. You might try thinking of claims you could hear in a hospital or another work-related environment. If a person has confused objective with subjective or fact with opinion, what is the solution?

                  Discussion Board

                  This week’s discussion questions by Apr7 EOD. Include:

                  • discussion of 3 key new learning points from the assigned text reading
                  • discussion of the importance of each of these key points in a typical traditional marketing environment
                  • at least 1 supportive citation and reference item for your initial discussion
                  • include headings and subheadings and APA references and citations

                  Discussion board

                  Discuss how your values, beliefs, culture and self-concept affect the nurse practitioner/client relationships. Identify strategies in epidemiology that offer or demonstrate culturally sensitive care. Include in your discussion your personal cultural heritage (Cuban Heritage, I grew up in Cuba and live in USA now) and its impact in your life. (Support your answer with 3 references not including your textbook).

                  Discussion Board

                  BOOK REVIEW ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

                  OVERVIEW

                  The New Testament is filled with references that depict Jesus’ followers as a family with God as

                  their Father. Hopefully the significance of this metaphor has impacted you as you’ve read

                  Hellerman’s When the Church Was a Family. This assignment is an opportunity to review the

                  major themes and arguments presented by the author, examine areas that could be critiqued, and

                  (most importantly) reflect on the ways that these ideas influence the way you live. Our identity

                  as children of God does not only affect the way we live within our local churches; it affects

                  every aspect of our lives.

                  INSTRUCTIONS

                  You will submit a 900 – 1,500-word review of Hellerman’s When the Church Was a Family. The

                  review must be written in current Turabian format and include a summary, critique, and

                  application in addition to a title page and bibliography. The review must address the following:

                   Summary: 300 – 500 words – What is the author’s primary argument and how does he

                  explain/support that argument throughout the book?

                   Critique: 300 – 500 words – Provide a thoughtful analysis of the strengths of the authors

                  argument. Also provide a thoughtful analysis of weaknesses or areas that could be further

                  clarified by the author. If you do not have any personal disagreement with the author,

                  provide an analysis of areas where “others” might object to the author’s argument, and

                  respond to those potential objections.

                   Application: 300 – 500 words – Reflect on how this book has impacted you on a personal

                  level. The items below are suggestions to aid your reflection; you are not required to

                  respond to them specifically.

                  o Discuss any quotes from the book that you found meaningful.

                  o How does this book affect the way you view your role as a church member?

                  o If applicable, how has this book affected your view of your role as a leader within

                  the church?

                  o Do the principles from this book influence any areas of your life outside of the

                  church? Explain.

                  Each section of your paper must be clearly indicated with section headings (Summary, Critique,

                  Application). You are also encouraged to view the Writing Style Guide located in the Student

                  Responsibilities tab of the Course Overview. Once you access the Student Responsibilities area,

                  scroll down to locate the link to the Writing Style Guide. You will then visit the official Turabian

                  style guide required in formulating your assignment.

                  Discussion Board

                  Post your initial responses to this week’s discussion questions by Apr 15 EOD. Include:

                  • discussion of 3 key new learning points from the assigned text reading
                  • discussion of the importance of each of these key points in a typical traditional marketing environment
                  • at least 1 supportive citation and reference item for your initial discussion
                  • include headings and subheadings and APA references and citations

                  Discussion Board

                   

                  In Urban Legends of the New Testament, select two chapters from Part 1 and two chapters from Part 2. After reading your selected chapters, respond to the following items:

                  • List the four chapters you read for this discussion and provide a brief summary of each chapter.
                  • Discuss at least one area from your reading where your understanding of the passage was either changed or strengthened by the background information provided.
                  • Why do you think people accept interpretations of Scripture that aren’t historically accurate?

                  Discussion Board

                  While understanding the basics of financial accounting is certainly important for accountants, it is also an important skill to have in all types of professional fields. In this discussion, you will make connections between your chosen field and what you have learned about financial accounting in this course.

                  Address the following in your initial post:

                  • Describe your current or aspiring professional identity, including your career and the field in which you work or hope to work.
                  • Think about the types of financial transactions your chosen field is likely to generate and how they will need to be reported and accounted for by the business. Describe at least three examples of such transactions and how they affect the financial statements and the business in general.
                  • Reflect on and comment about the importance of financial accounting in your field.

                  In response to at least two of your peers, discuss any similarities with the field you have chosen or the transactions that need accounting. Explain whether you agree with their assessment of the importance of accounting in their field and why.

                  Discussion Board

                  For this week’s assignment on Urban Legends of the New Testament, I have chosen the

                  following chapters: Chapter 6 (All Giving Must Be Done in Secret), Chapter 7 (Do Not Judge

                  Others), Chapter 24 (Grace Is Unmerited Favor), and Chapter 28 (We Can Do Anything Through

                  Christ Who Gives Us Strength).

                  Chapter 6 gives us the prescription on how we are to give of our finances in Matt 6:3.

                  The author places emphasis on how we should never let anyone know how much we give or any

                  of the details of our giving. Because if we tell people about our giving, we have just received all

                  the reward we will ever get: which is praise from people. Any eternal rewards will be forfeited.

                  He suggests that we should give to the Lord, and give generously, but give secretly, as Jesus

                  prescribed. According to the author, Jesus’ main point is that his followers should give to the

                  poor without being motivated by receiving praise from other people. Jesus calls us to secret

                  giving. The author also gives us three concepts which should be the driving forces for our giving:

                  grace driven, relationship driven, and love driven. My understanding of this passage has deepen after the readings. Since whatever I have

                  is from the LORD, therefore, I ask Him to help me be a better steward of the resources He has

                  freely bestowed on me. I pray that as I give joyfully and secretly, I should not do so in effort to

                  receive praise from men but to bring glory and honor to His name.

                  In Chapter 7, the author points out that if there is any area that is mostly cited for

                  hypocrisy it’s judging others. He states that the Greek word translated “judge” by virtually every

                  Bible translation has a range of meanings. It can refer to making a selection (“prefer”), passing

                  judgment based on the correctness of something (“discern”), or judging someone to be guilty

                  (“condemn”). The author states that the prohibition of judging in Matthew 7:1 is against

                  condemning other people. He explains that Jesus is commanding them not to be severely critical

                  and judgmental as judging others disrupt unity and divides the church. He cautions us not to

                  judge other people, either believers or unbelievers, based on what you see them doing, on their

                  lifestyle, on how they dress, or on what music they listen to. While many of us are quick to

                  criticize and condemn other people, the author strongly advises that we should be more generous

                  in our assumptions about other’s actions.

                  One area from the reading where my understanding of the passage was strengthened

                  was where the author said “we are not to be critical or condemning but be more generous in our

                  assumptions about other’s actions.” I think that was well said. And one thing we must not forget

                  is the fact that God is the only Righteous Judge.

                  In Chapter 24, the author touches on one of the most important concept Paul loves, hence

                  he deliberately uses it liberally in his short letter to the church in Ephesus, “Grace.” The author

                  provides the Greek translation of the word “grace” is “charis” which means “unmerited favor, or

                  an undeserved gift.” He further explains that in Ephesians 2:8, the gift that is not deserved, that is

                  unmerited, is salvation. Surprisingly, the author does not disagree with the interpretation of this

                  legend, however, he states that it is incomplete. To drive home his point, he uses two concepts:

                  the idea of by nature and by action. By nature, he explains that no one was born with a good

                  nature. In other words, because of Adam’s sin, we have inherited a disposition toward sin. We

                  did not enter the world in a sinless state, eager to glorify God with our lives. By action, he states

                  that humans also commit sin. No one is exempted. He quotes John MacArthur, “A person does

                  not become a sinner by committing sins but rather commits sins because he is by nature a

                  sinner.” He then compares grace and mercy by giving illustrations of each. In the context of

                  Ephesians 2, the author argues that God was driven by a great love, and he withheld his wrath.

                  Instead, he poured out his mercy and bestowed grace, a gift that was de-earned. So while grace is

                  truly unmerited favor, it is more than that.

                  Although I am very familiar with this theological term “Grace,” however, the author

                  provides in simplistic term what grace is and even gives illustrations to drive home his point. I

                  have learned that God bestowed on us grace in addition to showing us mercy.

                  Lastly, I chose Chapter 28 (We Can Do Anything Through Christ Who Gives Us

                  Strength) which is a verse that is popularly known and quoted by heart among believers. Not

                  only is it often quoted, but it is also very encouraging. Taking a closer look at this verse in

                  Philippians 3:14, the author dissects the meaning of this verse by looking at other Bible

                  translations. He states that the translations are fairly consistent, stating that “I can” (or “am

                  able”) “to do all things.” However, the NIV says, “I can do all this through him who gives me

                  strength.” Even though the Greek word is plural (hence most translations have “all things”), the

                  NIV decided to translate it with the singular word “this.” Why would they do this? Perhaps the

                  translators were trying to get the reader to look closer at the context. The “this” or “things” Paul

                  was referring to were the various circumstances in 4:12. This verse is not promising to make you

                  a better athlete or the next president of the United States. Instead, Paul is declaring that God can

                  help all Christians be content in every circumstance, whether persecution, poverty, or riches; if

                  you live in a mansion or a prison; whether you are eating filet mignon or stale bread. Regardless

                  of the circumstances you are currently in, God can help you be content.

                  Discussion Board

                   Read Romans 3:21 – 4:25. Then read James 2:14-26. Decide what the argument is in each passage and post a thread that briefly shows how Paul and James develop the arguments in the passage. Notice that Paul wrote that one is justified faith apart from works of the law (Rom 3:28) and that Abraham was not justified by works (4:20). Then notice that James says Abraham was, and we are justified by works and not by faith alone (James 2:21; 2:24). Then analyze both points within the flow of thought in Romans 3:21 – 4:25 and James 2:14-26 and suggest a resolution of the apparent tension between James and Paul. 

                    • 10

                    Discussion Board

                    Some current trends in healthcare operations management include: Outsourcing, Integrated Service Delivery, Supply Chain Management, Globalization, Standardization, plus Evidence Based Medicine.

                    Describe their importance and impact to healthcare operations.

                      • 5

                      Discussion Board

                       

                      Your may have additional due dates for discussions, assignments, and projects. Discussion items typically have an ‘initial post’ due date and a ‘response’ due date. There may also multiple points of completion for certain assignments and projects. Please refer to the course content and syllabus for due dates.
                      * To get a detailed view of the completed items, and your total or weighted grade, please go to My Grades.

                       

                      • a month ago
                      • 25

                      Discussion Board

                      Question 1:

                      The incidence of diabetes has reached epic proportions in the U.S. 

                      What are the health-related risks associated with poorly controlled diabetes?

                       Do you have a family member or close friends diagnosed with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes?  

                      In your opinion, are they in compliance with the recommended treatment and care of diabetes?

                      Question 2:

                       https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMOjVYgYaG8, 

                      and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IEuhp8RFMU

                      After viewing the videos on the Paleo and Keto diets, do you have any remaining questions?

                      Did you find anything that you agreed with or disagreed with? 

                      What is your opinion of the Paleo and Keto diets (please support your opinion)

                        • 5

                        Discussion board

                        Requirements: Identify the question you decide to answer at the top of your post. Prompt responses should answer the question and elaborate in a meaningful way using 2 of the weekly class readings (250 words of original content). Do not quote the readings, paraphrase and cite them using APA style in text citations. You can only use ONE multimedia source for your minimum 2 sources each week. The readings must be from the current week. The more sources you use, the more convincing your argument. Include a reference list in APA style at the end of your post, does not count towards minimum word content. 

                        REMEMBER YOU NEED A MINIMUM OF 2 CLASS READINGS TO ANSWER ANY OF THE FOLLOWING

                        Select ONE of the following:

                        1) Analyze the 4 types of vulnerabilities present in this case before the event. what could have been done better? What is the biggest lesson learned from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption? Note: Review Coppola reading on vulnerability (week 2): no need to define each type of vulnerability, it is common knowledge now, Coppola does not count for the 2 minimum sources. 

                        2) Describe the issues with the local/ indigenous community in this case. How can governments better communicate with indigenous groups living in at risk locations?

                        • a month ago
                        • 7

                        Discussion board

                        Readings: Chapter 4 in Gallagher Laver and Mair

                        Assignment

                         Answer ONE (1) of the following questions in your post:

                        Question #1: In the United States it is quite difficult to amend the Constitution. This is not the case in many European countries. Pick a European country of your choice and describe the process by which lawmakers or citizens can amend their constitution. Do you think this is a useful process for the country you have chosen? Why or why not?

                        Question #2: Many scholars believe that a strong and independent court system is an important part of democracy. In Europe, quite a bit of variation exists in this regard. What are the key features of European court systems? In your educated opinion, what are the strengths and weaknesses of these features?

                        Standards:

                        The same standards (3-4 paragraph posts, attention to grammar, critical analysis rather than recitation of materials) apply to your main post this week.

                          • 3

                          Discussion Board

                          Compared to domestic interiors of today, Gothic interiors probably appear very empty. In her book Furniture in History, Leslie Pina asks the question, “Why wasn’t there more furniture?”

                          What reasons could you suggest for the lack of furniture and other elements that may fall under the category “interior design” (referring specifically to Gothic interiors)? 

                          Discussion posts should always be thoughtful and courteous and include some references or direct evidence from the unit’s content, readings, or assignments to support your statements. 

                            • 7

                            Discussion Board

                            Find all the attributes on the form.
                            Establish the dependenci es (determinants).
                            Group attributes that have a common determinant into an entity type; name it.
                            Find directly-related entity type pairs.
                            Determine the connectivity for each pair.
                            Draw the ERD.
                            Review the ERD and update to be in 3NF if ERD from step 6 is not in 3NF.
                            No plagiarism
                              • 12

                              Discussion Board

                              Prompt responses should answer the question and elaborate in a meaningful way using 2 of the weekly class readings (250 words of original content). Do not quote the readings, paraphrase and cite them using APA style in text citations. You can only use ONE multimedia source for your minimum 2 sources each week. The readings must be from the current week. The more sources you use, the more convincing your argument. Include a reference list in APA style at the end of your post, does not count towards minimum word content. 

                              Select ONE of the following: 

                              1) How can the Bhopal experiences contribute to better preparing for this kind of emergencies in the future? Identify 3 lessons learned in this disaster. 

                              2) Describe the physical, environmental, social and economic vulnerabilities present in Bhopal before the event. These vulnerabilities lead to the consequences we read about. Note: Review Coppola reading on vulnerability (week 2): no need to define each type of vulnerability, it is common knowledge now, Coppola does not count for the 2 minimum sources. 

                              Lets see what you think about this man made disaster though lesser known than Chernobyl.

                              • 2 months ago
                              • 7

                              Discussion Board

                              Sitting and the ability to sit varied greatly between the era of Louis XIV and Louis XV, “To Sit or Not to Sit: Etiquette at the Court of Louis XIV.”

                               https://partylike1660.com/ten-rules-of-etiquette-for-your-versailles-visit/

                              http://thisisversaillesmadame.blogspot.com/2016/11/take-seat-seating-etiquette.html

                              https://www.getty.edu/news/sitting-in-style/

                              Explain the difference between the two.  

                              After reading the following articles and the information in the course content, discuss the following:

                              • Compare it to a situation that would be common today.
                              • Can you think of a situation that compares to the story above? Provide a clear comparison between your example and the required reading.

                              In her book The Age of Comfort: When Paris Discovered Casual and the Modern Home Began, Joan DeJean suggests that it was in 18th-century France that “interior decoration came in to existence as a subset of the new architecture of private life.”  In your initial post, answer the following questions:

                              • Why was it not used before?
                              • Why do you think this is the first time people were able to think about decoration of their homes?
                                • 8

                                Discussion Board

                                 

                                Welcome to week 2 of Drug Use, Abuse, and Trafficking.

                                This week you are required to read Zilney, “Chapter 1: Framing Drugs and Their Use.” (I have provided you with a copy of Zilney’s textbook, in PDF, from our homepage. I recommend you download and print the chapters you are required to read. Take me seriously on this point, please: like it or not all of us read differently when there is a physical copy of text in front of us.) I highly recommend you download and print a copy of Zilney’s Table of Contents and the Index to her book.

                                On Wednesday, I will release the discussion board to you. I release the work for the week on Wednesdays. This is to get you into the habit of reading first and doing the work for the class after you have done the reading.

                                You can prepare for this week’s discussion board in a number of ways:

                                1. Do the reading required for the week.

                                2. In this particular week think about what “framing” an issue means. Also, why don’t you look up the Rashomon effect? Try to think about how the issues of drug use, abuse, and trafficking are “framed.” Ask yourself questions about how the issue of “drugs” (whatever that word means to you) has been framed for you. What effects has that framing had on you? When you think of “drugs” are you thinking about “caffeine”? If so, why? If not, why not?

                                In a related note, how do you think of Rashomon? Do you recognize that the only common fact among the divergent stories is that the man died? Or, do you immediately fall into the trap of thinking that the film is a whodunnit and that Tajomaru murdered the man? Or that the man committed suicide? (Neither of these two possibilities are facts. Rather they are interpretations of the man’s death.)

                                3. Read the Sway webpage on the requirements for Writing a Discussion Board. (Print this out!)

                                4. Read the rubric I will use to grade the discussion board. (Print this out!)

                                5. The discussion board prompt will be released to you here on Wednesday before 12pm MT.

                                If you are on the UTEP campus consider cominmg to my office hours for this week: Tuesdays from 2pm to 4pm in BEN 304. You can also meet with me virtually via Zoom during the same time period — just send me an email to let me know that you want to meet via Zoom. The Zoom link is at the bottom of this Blackboard page.

                                  • 10

                                  Discussion Board

                                  APA format discussion board with citations

                                   Discussion Post 2– How useful is the concept of `dominance’ effects? Explain. (400-450 words)

                                  Replies to two post attached (150-200 words)

                                  • 2 months ago
                                  • 10

                                  Discussion Board

                                   

                                  To Prepare
                                  • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
                                  • Your Instructor will assign you a complex case study to focus on for this Discussion.
                                  • Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.
                                  By Day 3 of Week 9

                                  Post a brief description of your patient’s health needs from the patient case study you assigned. Be specific. Then, explain the type of treatment regimen you would recommend for treating your patient, including the choice or pharmacotherapeutics you would recommend and explain why. Be sure to justify your response. Explain a patient education strategy you might recommend for assisting your patient with the management of their health needs. Be specific and provide examples.

                                  You will respond to your colleagues’ posts in Week 10.

                                  Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

                                    • 17

                                    Discussion Board

                                    Good Afternoon, Discussion Board 5 questions. Instructions attached-2 pages-300 words to include references. The Native American experience in the United States both resembles and differs from the experience of African Americans. In this essay, you are to do two things. 1. Describe two similarities and two differences in the experiences of the two groups in the United States. 2. Describe three social structural factors that explain the current situation of Native Americans, and show how each of them has affected Native Americans. Make sure that you focus on social structural factors in your analysis. Discussion Board questions 6 instructions attached-2 page 300 words to include references In this week′s course material, we covered Hispanics, in particular, Hispanics coming to the United States from Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Your mission in this assignment is to apply the concepts of primary and secondary structural assimilation covered earlier in the course to each of these groups. 1. Describe each of these two concepts. 2. Apply both of the concepts to each of the three groups by giving two (2) specific examples for each illustrating the extent to which each group has assimilated in the United States. (6 examples total) 3. Conclude with your evidence-backed assessment as to which of the three groups has been most ″successful″ in assimilating. Support your opinion! *Here′s one reference Healey, J. F., Stepnick, A., & O′Brien, E. (2018). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change (8th ed.). SAGE Publications. 

                                      Discussion board

                                      Gomez 1

                                      Lyana Gomez

                                      Professor Misaghi

                                      English 2

                                      14 November 2021

                                      Freedom and Repression

                                      America is known to have been a colony of Great Britain. It underwent significant

                                      struggle before finally becoming an independent nation with a constitution. Even though women

                                      helped fight in the attainment for independence, they also had to fight for their own

                                      independence, freedom and rights. In America, during the 1890s, women were dependent on

                                      men. They had no rights and their lives were dictated by the men in their life, be it husband,

                                      brother or uncle. It was during these times that Kate Chopin wrote her short story, “ The Story of

                                      an Hour.” The story sheds light on the internal struggle that women denied autonomy underwent

                                      during that time. Kate Chopin presents the theme of freedom, and repression as she explores the

                                      idea of women lacking autonomy and being under the control of their husbands.

                                      “The Story of an Hour” is a short story about the last hour of Mrs. Mallard’s life. Mrs.

                                      Louise Mallard is married to Brently Mallard. There spreads news that a railroad accident

                                      happened and that Mr. Mallard died in the railroad accident. Richard, a friend to Mr. Mallard,

                                      together with Josephine, sister to Mrs. Mallard, rush home to tell Mrs. Mallard the news before

                                      someone else could because she had a heart problem. At first, Mrs. Mallard grieves the idea of

                                      being a widow, she knows she will miss her husband. However, it begins to settle on her that the

                                      death of her husband is her freedom and liberation, it is a form of rebirth into a new life where

                                      she would be free from the patriarchy of her husband. As she goes down stairs with the newly

                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      ^who were
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      This is a comma splice – where you use a comma instead of a period to combine complete sentences. Adding a coordinating conjunction like I did here is one way to correct it.
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      good detail most people miss
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      This is a bit long of a summary before getting into analysis. Without a thesis, it’s not clear what is happening/what direction your essay will go, other than telling us about the story.
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      rushes
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      ^because
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      no comma needed

                                      Gomez 2

                                      profound freedom, she sees her husband enter, she dies instantly. The doctors say that she died

                                      because of the joy that kills, but perhaps she died because she realized she had lost her freedom.

                                      The most prevalent theme in the short story is that of freedom and repression. Repression

                                      can simply be defined as a circumstance where the thoughts, feelings and desires of an individual

                                      are being subdued. It can be looked at as holding down someone. The book is written at a time

                                      when women were repressed. The thoughts and ideas of women were not listened to. Women had

                                      been given the role of submissiveness where they were supposed to be home makers and dutiful

                                      wives to their husbands. A woman had to be cared for by a man because women lacked rights

                                      and they were not allowed to work. Mrs. Mallard is a clear example of a repressed woman, she is

                                      a victim of social repression. Before her husband’s death, Louise Mallard felt like she was a

                                      caged bird. It was because of it that she had wished that she should not have a long life so that

                                      she may not have to suffer being repressed. Also, it can be seen that Louise Mallard is repressed

                                      in that, while her husband moves around travelling, she is left confined in the walls of her house.

                                      Mr. Mallard is free to enter and leave the house as he pleases, nothing restricts him, however,

                                      Louise Mallard is stuck in the house, partly because of her gender and partly because of her heart

                                      condition.

                                      With the death of her husband, Louise Mallard rejoices in her newly found freedom.

                                      Louise’s heart is broken upon hearing the news of her husband’s death. She goes upstairs to her

                                      room to recover and adjust to the news. As she slowly absorbs the news, there are certain

                                      vocabularies that Kate Chopin repeats, “open window”, “open square” and “free” (Chopin 1). As

                                      Mrs. Mallard grieves the loss of her husband, she notices the open window of her room and the

                                      open square outside, Kate Chopin, uses these words to show that Mrs. Mallard is finally getting

                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      words
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      Is this para about word choice – or diction – or something else? This is interesting discussion but there is no stated literary device being discussed.
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      this is all about theme which might make more sense coming right after the intro since that is where you first discuss theme
                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050

                                      Gomez 3

                                      the idea that the death of her husband is her rebirth into a free world. Louise tries to reject these

                                      ideas as she remembers how caring her husband was. But the ideas are too strong she cannot let

                                      them go, finally she embraces them as she realizes she is free. After repeating the word “free”

                                      severally, she decides to come out of the room where her sister is at the doorstep begging her to

                                      open the door. Mrs. Mallard, although sad for the loss of her husband, is clearly happy with the

                                      idea of living a free life that she wishes she should live a long life to enjoy her freedom (Chopin

                                      2). She has experienced a rebirth and with her newly gained confidence she descends the stairs.

                                      The death of Mrs. Mallard marks the end of her freedom. As Mrs. Mallard gets to the

                                      living room, her husband enters as well. He is “a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his

                                      grip-sack and umbrella” (Chopin 3). Richard tries to block Mrs. Mallard from seeing her

                                      husband, however, it is too late, she falls and dies of a heart attack. The doctors say it is the joy

                                      that kills, but it is quite clear she had no joy, instead, she was shocked over the survival of her

                                      husband and the distress of losing her newly found freedom. An hour before her death, Louis

                                      indeed had experienced the joy of being free, she had imagined living a life where she would

                                      finally be in control. And the sight of her husband removed that joy, consequently leading to her

                                      death.

                                      In conclusion, “The Story of an Hour” is a short story by Kate Chopin that explores the

                                      last hour leading to the death of the protagonist. Kate Chopin is able to condense the story

                                      through use of different literary devices while ending it in an ironic manner. The main message

                                      of the story is the repression that women underwent during the 1890s. Women were repressed by

                                      society into submissive individuals who lacked autonomy. Mrs. Mallard is a prime example of

                                      how women were repressed and how many desired to be free from their husbands. However, at

                                      Angelina Misaghi
                                      77140000000014050
                                      this seems mostly summary and some discussion, but it’s not clear which device is being used

                                      Gomez 4

                                      times freedom for women was through the death of their husbands, or the women dying and in

                                      the given case it is the lady that died.

                                      Word Count: 1049

                                      Gomez 5

                                      Works Cited

                                      Chopin, Kate. The story of an hour. Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 1894.

                                      Discussion Board

                                      Post an analysis of how the social environment has contributed to Marcus’s psychological functioning. In what ways has trauma impacted Marcus’s daily functioning? Describe how you as the social worker would integrate elements of psychoeducation with Marcus and his family. How would you adapt psychoeducation for the cognitive level of the family member?

                                      Discussion board

                                      Nova Southeastern University
                                      Ron and Kathy Assaf College of Nursing (ACON)

                                      NSG 5111 Evidence and Practice

                                      Evidence Based Practice: Getting Started

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                                      Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Impact in Nursing:
                                      A Paradigm Shift

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                                      Evidence-Based Practice Movement

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                                      Evidence-Based Practice translates current knowledge applied into common care decisions to improve care processes, improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and empowers clinicians

                                      It is a systematic methodology that integrates best scientific research ( external evidence), clinical expertise (internal evidence) and patient values and preferences

                                      External Evidence

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                                      Evidence generated through rigorous research

                                      Systematic reviews

                                      Meta-analyses

                                      Evidence based theories

                                      National and professional benchmarks

                                      Opinion leaders and expert panels

                                      Internal Evidence

                                      Generated from Clinical Expertise:

                                      Outcomes management projects

                                      Quality improvement projects

                                      Quality improvement data

                                      Patient assessment and evaluation

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                                      Patient Values and Preferences

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                                      Patient care decisions made in the context of caring

                                      Individual patient’s concerns and preferences

                                      Patient-centeredness leads to patient centered care

                                      Shared decision making to promote patient engagement

                                      EBP-Impact on Nursing Practice

                                      EBP must be successfully adopted and sustained by all key stakeholders (e.g. system leaders, policy makers, etc.).

                                      EBP must be achieved across the organization culture to eliminate significant barriers EBP must incorporate a strategy application of “Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety

                                      Nurses must have positive attitudes and desire additional knowledge and skills to face the significant barriers; then effectively demonstrate evidence-based practice interventions.

                                      Magnet Recognition Program – Nurse leaders adopting EBP as a marker of excellence

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                                      Building an Evidence-Based Practice

                                      Cultivate a spirit of Inquiry (clinicians must be comfortable with and excited about asking questions about patient care and institutional or unit-based practices

                                      Nurses and health professionals are encouraged to question current practices

                                      Cadre of EBP mentors needed

                                      Infrastructure with tools needed

                                      Administrative support and leadership needed

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                                      Steps of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      P Patient Population
                                      I Intervention orof Interest
                                      C Comparison intervention or group
                                      O Outcome
                                      T Time Frame

                                      Ask Clinical questions in PICOT format

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                                      Steps of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      In teenagers (the patient population)

                                      How does cognitive-behavioral skills building (the experimental intervention) compared to yoga (comparison intervention) affect anxiety (the outcome) after 6 weeks of treatment (time frame)?

                                      Example of PICOT question:

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                                      Steps of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      Search for best evidence (conduct a systemic, integrated review of literature). Look for peer review citations

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                                      Steps of Evidence-based Practice

                                      Are the results of the study valid? (Are the results as close to the truth as possible?)

                                      What are the results? (Did the intervention work? How Large was the treatment effect? Would replication of the study yield similar results?)

                                      Will the results help me in caring for my patients? (Are the subjects in the studies similar to my patients? (Are the subjects in the studies similar to my patients? Are the benefits greater than the risks? It the treatment feasible? Does the patient desire the treatment?)

                                      Critical appraisal of evidence found

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                                      Steps of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient preferences to make the best clinical decision

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                                      Steps of Evidence-based Practice

                                      Generate internal evidence through an EBP implementation or outcomes management project or a research study

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                                      Models to Guide Implementation of EBP

                                      The Advancing Research and Clinical practice (ARCC)

                                      Clinical Scholar Model

                                      Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      John Hopkins Nursing of Evidence –Based Practice

                                      The Model for Evidence-Based practice change

                                      The Setler Model

                                      The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS)

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                                      Steps of Evidence-Based Practice

                                      Evaluate the outcomes of the practice change based on evidence (Measure patient outcomes or health care quality to determine if this clinical decision was effective)

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                                      Steps of Evidence-based Practice

                                      Disseminate the outcomes of the evidence-based practice change (locally, regionally, nationally)

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                                      Barriers to Evidence-based Practice

                                      Staff lack EBP knowledge and skills

                                      Lack of belief that EBP will result in better outcomes that traditional care

                                      Amount of information published

                                      Lack of time to appraise evidence

                                      Overwhelming patient loads

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                                      Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice

                                      Lack of administrative support

                                      Peer pressure to “not make waves”

                                      Resistance to change

                                      Lack of autonomy over practice

                                      Lack of consequences for not implementing EBP

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                                      References

                                      Melnyk, B.M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia: WoltersKluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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                                      Discussion board

                                      Reviewing Evidence for Practice

                                      NSG 5111

                                      Evidence and Practice

                                      Nova Southeastern University

                                      Ron and Kathy Assaf College of Nursing

                                      Goals of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)

                                      Improve patient interventions and outcomes

                                      Cost-effective care

                                      Reduce variations in patient care

                                      Increase efficient and effective decision-making

                                      Increased job satisfaction

                                      Levels of Evidence/Evidence Hierarchies

                                      Models are used to rate strength and quality of individual studies, position statements, clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and other types of evidence

                                      Posing the Question Using PICOT

                                      Consistent PICOT format drives a successful search

                                      Intervention questions: Asks what intervention most effectively leads to an outcome

                                      Purpose of the PICOT intervention format:

                                      Guides the systematic search of healthcare data bases to find the best and current answer to the question

                                      Patient population (P)

                                      Intervention (I)

                                      Comparison intervention (C)

                                      Outcome (O)

                                      Time (T)

                                      Question Template for an Intervention PICOT

                                      In_____________(P), how does___________(I),

                                      compared with _____________(C), affect _________(O)

                                      within ___________(T).

                                      Hints for Successful Searches

                                      Start with a well formulated PICOT question

                                      Patience-searching takes time and practice

                                      Search all relevant data bases

                                      Do not limit the search to all full text

                                      Use key words from the PICOT question

                                      Use Boolean connectors

                                      AND narrows the search

                                      OR expands the search

                                      Do not hesitate to contact the NSU Library for assistance. They are a wealth of information and help!!

                                      Search Strategies

                                      WHO-WHAT-WHERE-WHY?

                                      What is the purpose of the search?

                                      Practice guidelines

                                      Developing guidelines and need evidence

                                      Comparing past, current, and future practices

                                      Research study

                                      Quality improvement project

                                      Evidence-based practice project

                                      Search Strategies: Where do I Start?

                                      PubMed

                                      Large database that includes over 20 million citations from various sources such as MEDLINE and on-line books. Full text for some sources

                                      ScienceDirect

                                      Online collection of published scientific research

                                      Mosby’s Nursing Consult

                                      Separate tab for EBP. Very good resource

                                      Evidence-Based Nursing Monographs

                                      GATEWAY (entrance to resources from National Library of Medicine)

                                      Search Strategies

                                      CINAHL ® (Cumulative Index of Allied Health Literature)

                                      Begin with search terms. May combine terms using ‘and’, ‘or’

                                      Called Boolean searching technique

                                      Several choices to limit your results

                                      Publication date

                                      Author

                                      Journal

                                      Language

                                      Full text, abstract only

                                      Evidence-based practice

                                      Randomized control trials

                                      Sources

                                      Filtered

                                      Appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice

                                      Systematic reviews; meta-analysis

                                      Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

                                      National Guideline Clearinghouse

                                      Unfiltered

                                      Primary literature reviews

                                      Utilize specific search strategies in various databases (MEDLINE; CINAHL)) to find the best available evidence

                                      The Joanna Briggs Institute

                                      Membership required but many resources are free to non-members

                                      Provides Best Practice Summary Sheets

                                      International collaboration with nursing, medical and allied health researchers, clinicians, academics and quality managers

                                      http://joannabriggs.org/

                                      The Cochrane Collaboration

                                      Over 4,000 reviews in the Cochrane Library

                                      Plain language summaries are free

                                      Membership needed for full guidelines

                                      Interdisciplinary and multifocal

                                      Interventions to improve question formulation in professional practice and self-directed learning

                                      The effects of on-screen, point of care computer reminders on processes and outcomes of care

                                      Best Practice Web Resources

                                      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

                                      https://www.ahrq.gov/

                                      https://www.ahrq.gov/prevention/guidelines/archive.html

                                      https://www.ahrq.gov/gam/index.html

                                      National Guideline Clearinghouse™

                                      https://www.ahrq.gov/gam/updates/index.html

                                      Large database of EBP guidelines and other documents

                                      EBP

                                      Clinical practice guidelines

                                      Guidelines synthesis

                                      Compare guidelines among groups

                                      Example-Prevention of Pressure ulcers

                                      Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing & Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nurses Society

                                      Professional Nursing Organizations with Published Guidelines

                                      Oncology Nursing Society

                                      https://voice.ons.org/topic/clinical-practice-guidelines

                                      American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN)

                                      https://www.aspan.org/

                                      Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario

                                      https://rnao.ca/bpg

                                      Guideline Central

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                                      Models of EBP

                                      University of Iowa

                                      Johns Hopkins Nursing EBP Model

                                      Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI ) Model

                                      Stetler Model

                                      Evidence-Based Advancing Research and Clinical Practice Through Close Collaboration Model (ARCC)

                                      References

                                      Melnyk, B., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019) Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care. A guide to best practice (4rd ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

                                      Discussion Board

                                      Are we alone in the vast universe? This a very polemic question. Most of Scientist (Astronomers, Physicists, Biologists, etc.) state that no civilization has visited our planet. Nevertheless Prof. Abraham Loeb* has written a book describing the visit of an interstellar object called “Oumuamua” that passed 15,040,000 miles from Earth; it is opinion of Prof. Loeb that the object is a piece of advanced technology created by a distant alien civilization.

                                      Prof. Loeb based his hypothesis on the facts that Oumuamua was moving to fast along a strange orbit, it left no trail of gas, and the shape of the object was unusual.

                                      Long time before of the discover of Oumuamua, the astronomer Frank Drake** formulated an equation to estimate the number of civilizations in our galaxy that we might be able to communicate with.

                                      Discussion Board

                                      Compare and contrast the role of HRM departments in your country and one other you know about, critically appraising the impact on firm competitiveness.

                                      Discussion Board

                                      9/17/21, 11:05 AM Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach – Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

                                      https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/calculating-consequences-the-utilitarian-approach/ 1/4

                                      Calculating Consequences:The Utilitarian
                                      Approach to Ethics
                                      Home Markkula Center for Applied Ethics Ethics Resources Ethical Decision Making

                                      Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach


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                                      Imagine that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency gets wind of a plot to set off a dirty bomb in a major

                                      American city. Agents capture a suspect who, they believe, has information about where the bomb is

                                      planted. Is it permissible for them to torture the suspect into revealing the bomb’s whereabouts? Can

                                      the dignity of one individual be violated in order to save many others?

                                      Greatest Balance of Goods Over Harms

                                      If you answered yes, you were probably using a form of moral reasoning called “utilitarianism.” Stripped

                                      down to its essentials, utilitarianism is a moral principle that holds that the morally right course of

                                      action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms for everyone

                                      affected. So long as a course of action produces maximum benefits for everyone, utilitarianism does not

                                      care whether the benefits are produced by lies, manipulation, or coercion.

                                      Many of us use this type of moral reasoning frequently in our daily decisions. When asked to explain

                                      why we feel we have a moral duty to perform some action, we often point to the good that will come

                                      from the action or the harm it will prevent. Business analysts, legislators, and scientists weigh daily the

                                      resulting benefits and harms of policies when deciding, for example, whether to invest resources in a

                                      certain public project, whether to approve a new drug, or whether to ban a certain pesticide.

                                      9/17/21, 11:05 AM Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach – Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

                                      https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/calculating-consequences-the-utilitarian-approach/ 2/4

                                      Utilitarianism offers a relatively straightforward method for deciding the morally right course of action

                                      for any particular situation we may find ourselves in. To discover what we ought to do in any situation,

                                      we first identify the various courses of action that we could perform. Second, we determine all of the

                                      foreseeable benefits and harms that would result from each course of action for everyone affected by

                                      the action. And third, we choose the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs

                                      have been taken into account.

                                      The principle of utilitarianism can be traced to the writings of Jeremy Bentham, who lived in England

                                      during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bentham, a legal reformer, sought an objective basis

                                      that would provide a publicly acceptable norm for determining what kinds of laws England should

                                      enact. He believed that the most promising way of reaching such an agreement was to choose that

                                      policy that would bring about the greatest net benefits to society once the harms had been taken into

                                      account. His motto, a familiar one now, was “the greatest good for the greatest number.”

                                      Over the years, the principle of utilitarianism has been expanded and refined so that today there are

                                      many variations of the principle. For example, Bentham defined benefits and harms in terms of pleasure

                                      and pain. John Stuart Mill, a great 19th century utilitarian figure, spoke of benefits and harms not in

                                      terms of pleasure and pain alone but in terms of the quality or intensity of such pleasure and pain.

                                      Today utilitarians often describe benefits and harms in terms of the satisfaction of personal preferences

                                      or in purely economic terms of monetary benefits over monetary costs.

                                      Utilitarians also differ in their views about the kind of question we ought to ask ourselves when making

                                      an ethical decision. Some utilitarians maintain that in making an ethical decision, we must ask

                                      ourselves: “What effect will my doing this act in this situation have on the general balance of good over

                                      evil?” If lying would produce the best consequences in a particular situation, we ought to lie. Others,

                                      known as rule utilitarians, claim that we must choose that act that conforms to the general rule that

                                      would have the best consequences. In other words, we must ask ourselves: “What effect would

                                      everyone’s doing this kind of action have on the general balance of good over evil?” So, for example, the

                                      rule “to always tell the truth” in general promotes the good of everyone and therefore should always be

                                      followed, even if in a certain situation lying would produce the best consequences. Despite such

                                      differences among utilitarians, however, most hold to the general principle that morality must depend

                                      on balancing the beneficial and harmful consequences of our conduct.

                                      Problems With Utilitarianism

                                      While utilitarianism is currently a very popular ethical theory, there are some difficulties in relying on it

                                      as a sole method for moral decision-making. First, the utilitarian calculation requires that we assign

                                      values to the benefits and harms resulting from our actions and compare them with the benefits and

                                      harms that might result from other actions. But it’s often difficult, if not impossible, to measure and

                                      compare the values of certain benefits and costs. How do we go about assigning a value to life or to art?

                                      And how do we go about comparing the value of money with, for example, the value of life, the value of

                                      time, or the value of human dignity? Moreover, can we ever be really certain about all of the

                                      9/17/21, 11:05 AM Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach – Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

                                      https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/calculating-consequences-the-utilitarian-approach/ 3/4

                                      MARKKULA CENTER FOR APPLIED ETHICS

                                      consequences of our actions? Our ability to measure and to predict the benefits and harms resulting

                                      from a course of action or a moral rule is dubious, to say the least.

                                      Perhaps the greatest difficulty with utilitarianism is that it fails to take into account considerations of

                                      justice. We can imagine instances where a certain course of action would produce great benefits for

                                      society, but they would be clearly unjust. During the apartheid regime in South Africa in the last

                                      century, South African whites, for example, sometimes claimed that all South Africans—including

                                      blacks—were better off under white rule. These whites claimed that in those African nations that have

                                      traded a whites-only government for a black or mixed one, social conditions have rapidly deteriorated.

                                      Civil wars, economic decline, famine, and unrest, they predicted, will be the result of allowing the black

                                      majority of South Africa to run the government. If such a prediction were true—and the end of

                                      apartheid has shown that the prediction was false—then the white government of South Africa would

                                      have been morally justified by utilitarianism, in spite of its injustice.

                                      If our moral decisions are to take into account considerations of justice, then apparently utilitarianism

                                      cannot be the sole principle guiding our decisions. It can, however, play a role in these decisions. The

                                      principle of utilitarianism invites us to consider the immediate and the less immediate consequences of

                                      our actions. Given its insistence on summing the benefits and harms of all people, utilitarianism asks us

                                      to look beyond self-interest to consider impartially the interests of all persons affected by our actions.

                                      As John Stuart Mill once wrote:

                                      The happiness which forms the utilitarian standard of what is right in conduct, is not…(one’s) own

                                      happiness, but that of all concerned. As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism

                                      requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator.

                                      In an era today that some have characterized as “the age of self-interest,” utilitarianism is a powerful

                                      reminder that morality calls us to look beyond the self to the good of all.

                                      The views expressed do not necessarily represent the position of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

                                      at Santa Clara University. We welcome your comments, suggestions, or alternative points of view.

                                      This article appeared originally in Issues in Ethics V2 N1 (Winter 1989)

                                      Aug 1, 2014

                                      Ethics Resources Sections 

                                      9/17/21, 11:05 AM Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach – Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

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