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Discussion 7

Read the article: SoK_Privacy on Mobile Devices

(every question below should be academic and focus on engineering area)

1. List 3 takeaways from the paper that are most interesting to you.

• bullet point #1

• bullet point #2

• bullet point #3

2. List 3 strengths points from the paper.

• bullet point #1

• bullet point #2

• bullet point #3

3. List 3 weaknesses points from the paper.

• bullet point #1

• bullet point #2

• bullet point #3

Bullet points are good enough for the questions above.

Each point should have complete sentences (1 sentences for each one should be the most, no

more than 1). You should have a clear point and be specific. All those bullet points (All the

points above cannot be very general or talk about the writing skills)

4. Write other 2 short paragraphs about two different and specific points from the article and talk

about your own thoughts. You will be expected to expand a little bit on these thoughts.

Exceeded Expectations

For example, by drawing on materials outside the paper (e.g. news, other research, personal

experience)

Important:

You cannot make unsubstantiated claims. As scientists, it is important for us to be clear about

whether what we are saying is:

• a personal opinion

• our understanding without back up, or researched fact

In the latter case, one should back up that argument with appropriate references such as peer-

reviewed research articles or white papers, or news articles from reputable sources. In your

written submissions, you can either hyperlink or put a short reference at the bottom.

Discussion 7

Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies ; 2016 (3):96–116

Chad Spensky, Jeffrey Stewart, Arkady Yerukhimovich, Richard Shay, Ari Trachtenberg, Rick
Housley, and Robert K. Cunningham
SoK: Privacy on Mobile Devices – It’s Complicated
Abstract: Modern mobile devices place a wide variety
of sensors and services within the personal space of their
users. As a result, these devices are capable of transpar-
ently monitoring many sensitive aspects of these users’
lives (e.g., location, health, or correspondences). Users
typically trade access to this data for convenient appli-
cations and features, in many cases without a full appre-
ciation of the nature and extent of the information that
they are exposing to a variety of third parties. Never-
theless, studies show that users remain concerned about
their privacy and vendors have similarly been increas-
ing their utilization of privacy-preserving technologies
in these devices. Still, despite significant efforts, these
technologies continue to fail in fundamental ways, leav-
ing users’ private data exposed.
In this work, we survey the numerous components of
mobile devices, giving particular attention to those that
collect, process, or protect users’ private data. Whereas
the individual components have been generally well
studied and understood, examining the entire mobile de-
vice ecosystem provides significant insights into its over-
whelming complexity. The numerous components of this
complex ecosystem are frequently built and controlled
by different parties with varying interests and incen-
tives. Moreover, most of these parties are unknown to
the typical user. The technologies that are employed to
protect the users’ privacy typically only do so within
a small slice of this ecosystem, abstracting away the
greater complexity of the system. Our analysis suggests
that this abstracted complexity is the major cause of
many privacy-related vulnerabilities, and that a funda-
mentally new, holistic, approach to privacy is needed
going forward. We thus highlight various existing tech-
nology gaps and propose several promising research di-
rections for addressing and reducing this complexity.

Keywords: privacy-preserving technologies, mobile, An-
droid, iOS

DOI 10.1515/popets-2016-0018
Received 2015-11-30; revised 2016-03-01; accepted 2016-03-02.

Chad Spensky: University of California, Santa Barbara,
cspensky@cs.ucsb.edu
Jeffrey Stewart: MIT Lincoln Laboratory,
jeffrey.stewart@ll.mit.edu

1 Introduction
The rapid proliferation of mobile devices has seen them
become integral parts of many users’ lives. Indeed, these
devices provide their users with a variety of increasingly
essential services (e.g., navigation, communication, and
Internet connectivity), as well as useful functionality
(e.g., entertainment and photography). To accommo-
date these services, modern mobile devices are equipped
with various sensors, capable of collecting extremely rich
information about their users and their surroundings.
Users and developers alike have embraced these data-
collection technologies with open arms, in exchange for
the rich set of high-tech features that they enable. In
fact, many of the apps offering these services are pro-
vided for “free,” with an implicit exchange for access to
portions of this collected data, which is typically used
for advertising [1].

Unfortunately, there is also evidence that users do
not understand the extent of information being collected
about them or the personal details that can be inferred
from this information. For example, a recent study on
behavioral advertising showed that users did not un-
derstand how such advertising worked and found the
information that the advertisers had about them to
be “scary” and “creepy” [2]. Even when the users are
aware of the data collection, one cannot expect them
to fully realize the non-intuitive implications of sharing
their data. Researchers have shown that the sensors on
these devices can be used to covertly capture key presses
(taps) on the phone [3, 4] or a nearby keyboard [5], leak
the users’ location [6–9], record speech [10], or infer the
users’ daily activities [11].

Predictably, having millions of users carrying these
data-collection technologies presents numerous privacy

Arkady Yerukhimovich: MIT Lincoln Laboratory,
arkady@ll.mit.edu
Richard Shay: MIT Lincoln Laboratory,
richard.shay@ll.mit.edu
Ari Trachtenberg: Boston University, trachten@bu.edu
Rick Housley: Stevens Institute of Technology,
rhousley@stevens.edu
Robert K. Cunningham: MIT Lincoln Laboratory,
rkc@ll.mit.edu

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SoK: Privacy on Mobile Devices 97

concerns. The collected data may be accessible to a va-
riety of parties, often without the explicit permission of
the user. For example, companies that provide trusted
kernels [12–14], which are relatively unknown to the
user market, have the technical means to access most
of the private user data that flows through their de-
vices. Similarly, companies that advertise in mobile ap-
plications are able to learn a large amount of private
information about the user (e.g., gender, age, or home
address [15]), and some location-based applications have
been shown to expose the users’ fine-grained physical lo-
cation not only to the application provider, but to the
world [16, 17].

Recent high-profile data leaks have publicized com-
promising photographs [18], large numbers of credit
cards [19], and National Security Agency (NSA) docu-
ments [20]. Leaks of financial, authentication, or medical
data can be used to access costly services (such as medi-
cal operations [21]) and could result in damages that are
extremely difficult to fix [22]. In this climate, it is not
surprising that many users are concerned about their
privacy [23] and have strong incentives to keep at least
some of their data private. One survey, conducted in
2015, found that many Americans believed it to be “very
important” to “be able to maintain privacy and confi-
dentiality in [their] commonplace activities” [24], while
another found that 57% of users avoided or uninstalled
a mobile application because of privacy concerns [25].

In an attempt to address these concerns, numerous
privacy-preserving technologies (PPTs) already exist at
every level of the device stack (e.g., hardware, operating
system, application), and some companies even high-
light these privacy features as part of their marketing
campaigns [26]. However, the complexity of the modern
mobile-device environments, both hardware and soft-
ware, and the piecemeal solutions offered by the indi-
vidual components make security difficult to implement
correctly and privacy difficult to achieve. In fact, the
numerous components are produced and provisioned by
disjoint entities with differing interests and incentives.
In effect, complexity can be the enemy of both security
and privacy, and the current on-device mobile ecosys-
tem is especially complex.

In this work, we shed light on this complex system
by surveying the numerous existing privacy-preserving
technologies, the components that each relies upon, the
parties involved, and the overall ecosystem they all co-
habit. Our findings suggest that existing approaches
have had marginal successes, but are likely going to con-
tinue to fall short of users’ realistic privacy desires unless
they are accompanied with fundamental changes to the

ways that these devices are produced, provisioned, and
regulated.

We scope our analysis to on-device technologies,
which we consider the users’ first line of defense. Still,
we recognize that a lot of private data may also leave
the device and enter a “cloud” infrastructure, introduc-
ing additional privacy concerns that we leave for fu-
ture work. We also focus on identifying gaps in today’s
systems and, rather than providing concrete solutions,
provide high-level and speculative suggestions for future
research. Finally, whereas other studies have analyzed
privacy on mobile devices (e.g., [3, 27–34]), we believe
our work is the first to examine the entire ecosystem
(i.e., hardware, software, human).

Mobile differentiators The problems that we have
outlined underscore the unique challenges of the mobile
device ecosystem with respect to privacy. These chal-
lenges arise from the very nature of the devices, which
are 1) extremely sensor-rich, 2) continually proximate
to their users, 3) often accessed in public and through a
limited interface, and 4) produced in a rapidly-changing
commercial environment. Neither laptops, with their
limited sensors, nor desktops, with their limited user
proximity, nor appliances, with their limited function-
ality and tightly controlled supply chain, provide the
same level of deep-seated risks to the user’s privacy.

Contributions Our work includes the following pri-
mary contributions, with the goal of painting a holistic
picture of the overwhelming complexity in the mobile
privacy space:
– We inventory critical privacy-related components

on modern mobile devices, highlighting interactions
that are likely unintended or unexpected.

– We identify the commercial entities currently re-
sponsible for deploying each technology.

– We itemize the various privacy-preserving technolo-
gies currently in use, calling attention to existing
and historical flaws and gaps.

– We enumerate the types of private data that are
currently accessible to the various parties.

– We describe several novel experiments that we per-
formed to verify privacy-related claims.

– We highlight promising proposals that could help
alleviate some of the existing problems.

Indeed, we conjecture that achieving privacy in the cur-
rent ecosystem is unlikely without fundamentally novel
technical and regulatory approaches.

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2 Mobile Privacy Ecosystem
We begin our analysis by examining the components
that comprise the mobile ecosystem (see Figure 1 for
a brief summary). While mobile devices contain many
of the same components as traditional computing plat-
forms, and face many of the same privacy-related prob-
lems, there are fundamental differences at each layer
that can impact user privacy.

The first differentiator between mobile and tradi-
tional computing platforms is the users’ relationship
with the devices, and the interfaces that they use to in-
teract with them. More precisely, users typically carry
their mobile devices, in a powered-on state, with them at
all times, which is significantly different from the more
stationary use-cases of both laptops and desktops. Sub-
sequently, many user’s have developed a unique psycho-
logical connection with their mobile device, in extreme
cases developing an addiction [35]. Furthermore, while
having a small form-factor is convenient for mobility, it
also restricts potential user interactions. For example,
while computers use separate input and output devices
(e.g., keyboard, mouse, screen), these interfaces are fre-
quently integrated and overlapping in mobile devices
(e.g., touch screen), leading to various alternative in-
terfaces (e.g., audio, vibration, motion). Moreover, this
smaller, integrated, interface also restricts the amount
of information that can be conveyed to or received from
the user, which can lead to sub-optimal privacy imple-
mentations (e.g., omission of security indicators [36]).

The applications and operating systems that users
interact with on mobile devices are also fundamentally
different from traditional platforms. Historically, com-
puters have provided relatively open environments, per-
mitting developers essentially unfettered access to the
system and similarly allowing users to install any ap-
plication and modify their system in any way that they
desired. However, mobile-device providers have adopted
a more closed ecosystem, typically restricting the device
to a single, pre-installed operating system, which is de-
signed to only run applications written in a specific lan-
guage (e.g., Java, Objective-C). These applications sub-
sequently have very limited access to the system, using
pre-defined application program interfaces (APIs), and
are cryptographically attributed to an author. Mobile
devices have also attracted a significant amount of at-
tention from advertisers, due to the rich data available
on these devices that can be used to perform targeted
advertising [37]. This advertising-focused profit model
has led to a significantly different economic model from

User Input/Output Interfaces

Applications Application Code,Third-party Libraries

Operating System
Kernel, Drivers, Application APIs,

Cryptographic Libraries,
Sandboxing, App Verification

Firmware
FSBL, Bootloader, TEE Kernel,

Baseband RTOS, Cryptographic Keys,
SE & SIM OS

Hardware
AP, BP, SIM, SE, Sensors, Touchscreen,

Radios, Power Controller,
Cryptographic Chipset(s)

Fig. 1. High-level abstraction of the components that constitute
modern mobile devices.

that of traditional computers, as the users’ private data
has become the primary currency for most developers.

Finally, mobile devices include a diverse medley of
hardware components to provide the rich experience
that users have come to expect. Due to the relative com-
plexity of each component, they are typically produced
by individual manufactures and then later combined
into one unified device. Most of these hardware compo-
nents have access to a lot of private information, which is
not necessarily managed by the higher-level components
on the device. Moreover, these hardware providers typi-
cally provide their own firmware and drivers to interact
with their component, introducing even more complex-
ity into the software environment.

2.1 Hardware Components

Mobile devices contain a plethora of individual hard-
ware components that interact using various protocols.
In some cases, the components can interact and ex-
pose sensitive user data in ways that were not intended.
While the general hardware architecture of these sys-
tems has become extremely complex and varies wildly
between devices, there are still some overarching simi-
larities in both the included technologies and their in-
terconnections. Figure 2 diagrams the typical hardware
configuration found in modern smartphones.

Application Processor (AP) The application pro-
cessors (APs) on mobile devices are very similar to cen-
tral processing units (CPUs) found in traditional com-
puters, with a few caveats. First, because of the strin-
gent power requirements of mobile devices, many of the

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Application
Processor
(AP)

TEE Coprocessors

Main
Memory

Baseband
Processor

(BP)

SIM
Flash

Memory

RF
Tranceiver

Touchscreen CameraSensors

Flash
Memory

USB
Controller

Power
Controller

Secure
Element

Audio Codec
(Microphone & Speaker)

WiFi/BT NFC GPS

Indicates that the connection is architecture dependent, and not a common configuration.

Wireless Modules

Fig. 2. Typical hardware configuration for a modern mobile device.

APs are designed with specialized low-power compo-
nents and employ aggressive power-saving techniques
(e.g., halting cores). Second, unlike legacy CPUs, many
mobile devices utilize the system on a chip (SoC) model,
wherein various sub-components (e.g., connectivity, me-
dia, location) are all included in a single silicon chip.
Components within the SoC frequently share resources
(e.g., memory), which can potentially leak private data.
Finally, many of the newer APs include a trusted ex-
ecution environment (TEE), which provides hardware-
enforced isolation for “trusted” code, as well as the abil-
ity to arbitrate access to hardware components. These
TEEs can be leveraged to enhance both security and
privacy, but also present another layer of complexity.

Mobile Coprocessors In addition to the main AP,
modern devices are equipped with additional coproces-
sors (e.g., Motorola’s X8 [38] and Apple’s M7 [39]) that
assist the AP with various functions, each accompanied
with their own firmware. More specifically, devices have
recently been incorporating a natural language proces-
sor (NLP) for audio processing, and a contextual com-
puting processor (CCP) for processing environmental
information (e.g., motion, light). These coprocessors are
typically used to offload computation from the AP and
enable “always on” applications (i.e., the device can
still be aware of it’s surroundings while the AP and
screen are in a power-saving state), which only wake
the AP when a trigger event happens (e.g., saying “OK,
Google,” or handling the device). This always-on state
could have serious privacy implications, as the users’
devices are likely collecting data about them even when
they believe the device to be “off.”

Baseband Processor (BP) The baseband proces-
sors (BP) are typically multi-core processors that run
a propriety real-time operating system (RTOS) as their
firmware, which is provided by the BP vendor. Their
sole purpose is to handle cellular communications, and
they are thus typically isolated from the rest of the hard-
ware on the device, with the exception of the micro-
phone, speaker, and subscriber identity module (SIM).
This permits the BP to remain performant when han-
dling voice calls, regardless of the load on the other com-
ponents. While the ideal implementation would enforce
hardware isolation, it is typically cost effective to in-
clude the AP and BP on the same SoC, which could
allow the BP to access main memory [40], and subse-
quently a lot of private user data, in addition to the
cellular communications that it inherently controls.

Universal Integrated Circuit Cards (UICCs) A
typical mobile device will contain at least two UICCs,
a SIM card for authentication to a mobile carrier, and
a secure element (SE) for handling user credentials on
the device itself. Both of these units contain yet another
completely self-contained processing unit in a security-
hardened environment [41]. These components can be
leveraged to protect user data and credentials by pro-
viding an isolated environment for cryptographic oper-
ations, which is typically leveraged for authentication
and encryption. However, modern SIM cards can also
perform other actions on the device (e.g., send short
message service (SMS) messages, open a web browser,
and send messages over the network [42, 43]), which
could be used to violate the users’ privacy.

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Cryptographic Hardware In addition to SEs, some
manufacturers have recently begun including dedicated
cryptographic hardware for data encryption and au-
thentication. For example, modern Apple devices have
a dedicated module for encryption, using keys that are
fused into the application processor during manufactur-
ing to make them inaccessible from software [44]. These
cryptographic modules can be utilized to protect the
user’s private data when the device is “locked.”

Sensors Modern mobile devices are far more sensor-
rich than traditional computers, and are equipped with
a wide variety of sensing capabilities (e.g., movement,
location, light). Additionally, numerous peripherals, or
wearables, also enable access to pedometers, heart rate
monitors, and even sensors to detect blood oxygen lev-
els. These sensors are the source of much of the private
data collected by mobile devices, as even access to a
few of these sensors can provide incredible insights into
the user’s private life. For example, with just location
and accelerometer data, Google is able to provide users
with a complete log of their travels, including the mode
of transportation [45].

2.2 Software Components

While the general software architecture of mobile de-
vices is similar to that of traditional computers, there
are a few key differences, which we briefly highlight.

Trusted Kernel Unlike historic computers, which only
contained a single operating system, mobile devices fre-
quently contain a separate, feature-rich, trusted kernel
which is used inside the TEE. This trusted kernel is the
most trusted code on the device. Its job is to create an
isolated “non-secure,” or “normal,” world for the main
operating system (e.g., Android, iOS) to execute within.
The trusted kernel and the main operating system inter-
act using very limited interfaces (e.g., shared memory
regions), and the trusted kernel always maintains con-
trol of the non-secure world and has access to its entire
memory space. Thus, the trusted kernel can undermine
any data protections or privacy-preserving technology
deployed by the OS provider.

Operating Systems The major differentiator between
mobile OSs and their ancestors is primarily their closed
nature. They are typically more restrictive in both polic-
ing which apps are allowed to be installed, and subse-
quently restricting the app’s access once it is installed
and executed. In order to restrict this access, mobile

OSs employ sophisticated permissions models and ap-
plication sandboxing techniques.

Mobile Applications In addition to the closed envi-
ronment and advertising-focused economic model, the
types of applications available on mobile devices are
also significantly different from traditional computers.
Specifically, mobile applications are very likely to make
heavy use of their access to the various sensors. For ex-
ample, numerous popular social applications leverage
the users’ precise location, and health-related applica-
tions collect intimate details about the users’ personal
lives. However, many of these applications are devel-
oped quickly with functionality as their primary focus
and little thought given to user privacy, which can lead
to this personal data being mishandled (e.g., users’ in-
timate encounters appearing on search engines [46]).

Third-Party Libraries Many of the applications
available for mobile devices make use of third-party li-
braries, such as targeted advertising libraries [33], for
both functionality and profit. However, users are often
unaware of the existence of these third-party libraries
in the apps. What’s worse, because there is currently
no hard isolation between the components of an appli-
cation, these libraries have the same access to data and
sensors as their parent application, which is frequently
leveraged to collect sensitive user data [15, 47].

2.3 Parties Involved

Numerous parties are typically involved in the deploy-
ment and provisioning of mobile devices, each respon-
sible for different components. This significantly com-
plicates privacy protection as the different parties may
have varying incentives. Moreover, these parties often
retain control of their components after deployment
through over-the-air (OTA) updates. Understanding the
parties involved, and their access to, and control of, the
device is critical when analyzing the privacy assurances
that are provided for mobile device data.

Chip Vendors Unlike the AP, which typically runs
software that was provided by the device provider, both
the BP and UICCs typically come with pre-installed
software from their respective manufacturers. Because
of these hardware components’ privileged access in the
device, a vulnerability or backdoor could provide access
to private user data. In fact, Gemalto, a popular UICC
manufacturer, recently made allegations that the United
States’ and Britain’s intelligence agencies attempted to
compromise their devices [48]. Furthermore, the area

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of malicious hardware has been gaining attention re-
cently with recent publications showing just how practi-
cal these attacks are [49]. Detecting malicious hardware,
if it exists, has been shown to be extremely difficult [50].

OS Provider The operating system (OS), and thus
its provider, generally has access to a great deal of sen-
sitive data. The OS is also responsible for ensuring ad-
equate software-based segregation of applications and
data sources. Most mobile OS vendors also employ re-
mote administration capabilities, permitting them to
provide updates post-deployment, as well as install and
remove applications [51, 52]. This could enable them
to change their protections or the amount of private
data they collect, without informing users. More inter-
estingly, many of the OS providers (e.g., Google, Apple)
also have a strong incentive to collect private user data
to leverage for advertising or their own services [53].

Trusted Kernel Manufacturers Recently, the desire
to use the TEE has led to the advent of “trusted ker-
nels,” which come pre-installed on our mobile devices.
Companies like Trustonic [54] and TrustKernel [13] pro-
vide this kernel to the device vendor, which then al-
low developers to install trusted applications within the
TEE. Trustonic claims to have their kernel installed on
more than 400 million devices, and permits over-the-air
(OTA) updates of “Trusted Services”[14]. These parties
have considerable power over mobile devices and an ex-
ploit in their firmware could be leveraged to completely
compromise most security and privacy protections.

OEMs and ODMs The vendor that assembles the in-
dividual components into a mobile device for end users
is called the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
or Original Design Manufacturers (ODM) (e.g., Apple,
Samsung, HTC, LG). These vendors design the hard-
ware system architecture, the connections between the
individual components, and often provide the first-stage
boot loader (FSBL). In the case of the Android, OEMs
typically modify the OS to incorporate specific hard-
ware functionality, pre-install applications, add or re-
move features, and add services to ensure continued
control over the device once it is deployed. Recently,
OEM vendors have also started including their own in-
terfaces and functionalities (e.g., Samsung’s Knox[55])
in the TEEs of their devices. Even when the OEMs have
the best of intentions, they are still capable of intro-
ducing severe vulnerabilities [56] as they are frequently
increasing the complexity and attack surface of the OS.

Mobile Internet Service Providers (MISPs) Most
modern devices rely heavily on Internet access provided

by mobile Internet service providers (MISPs). In fact,
many of the mobile devices on the market today are
sold directly by MISPs. These MISPs inherently can ob-
serve all unencrypted traffic, and can trivially ascertain
the rough physical location of devices using triangula-
tion with their broadcast towers. The 3GPP, a partner-
ship of communications interests, outlines the specifi-
cations for lawful interception of communications [57].
Many MISPs have far more access on devices than their
role of providing Internet access would suggest. In many
cases, they can remotely update the functionality of the
SIM [58], which has access to numerous functions on the
device enabling it to obtain global positioning system
(GPS) coordinates, open a browser, and communicate
with the BP and the AP.

Application Developers Mobile application devel-
opers inherently have the least-privileged access to the
private data. However, most of the device’s functionality
to users is provided through these applications. Thus,
exposing hardware sensors and other data sources to
these applications is typically necessary. While most of
these queries for data (e.g., GPS coordinates) will alert
the user, it has been shown that most users will blindly
accept these requests without much concern for how the
data will be used [29].

Third-party Library Providers Instead of develop-
ing entire applications, some developers focus on creat-
ing libraries that can be included in other applications
to provide specific functionality (e.g., cryptography, ad-
vertising, or graphics). Many developers use these li-
braries, exposing their data to the library provider.
In particular, in exchange for monetary compensation,
numerous applications include advertisement libraries.
Researchers found that as many as 52.1% of appli-
cations utilize ad libraries [33]. Therefore, these ad-
library providers can access a vast amount of user data
spanning numerous applications and operating systems.
Zang et al. found that 73% of Android apps shared per-
sonal information (e.g., name and email) and that 47%
of iOS apps shared location data with third parties [59].

Mobile Device Management Many employers ei-
ther provide mobile devices to their employees, or en-
courage them to bring your own device (BYOD), al-
lowing employees to use their personal devices for busi-
ness purposes. In both cases, the employer typically re-
quires a mobile device management (MDM) solution to
be installed, which provides the employer with a great
deal of control over the device (e.g., install/blacklist ap-
plications, modify security settings, and location track-

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ing). Employees storing personal data on MDM-enabled
phones, and carrying them during off-business hours,
presents some interesting privacy concerns that, to the
best of our knowledge, have been left mostly unexplored.

2.4 Summary

The mobile-device ecosystem is a unique environment
with numerous perils for user privacy. Unlike most desk-
top and laptop computers, mobile devices are filled with
sensors that can collect a vast amount of sensitive data
since the devices are typically always on and always with
their user. Complicating things further, the hardware
components of the mobile-device ecosystem, and their
associated drivers, are provided by multiple vendors and
potentially give these providers access to sensitive user
data. Furthermore, software developers are allowed to
distribute their own code to these devices in the form
of apps with many of these monetizing the available
user data through third-party advertisement libraries.
The result is an ecosystem with multiple agents that
have access to private user data and a clear incentive to
gather, exploit, and share this private data.

3 Protecting Private Data
In this section, we review the numerous privacy-
preserving technologies and techniques employed on
modern mobile devices, across all levels of the stack.
These protections are deployed in an effort to add secu-
rity and privacy to the various components of the mobile
ecosystem discussed in Section 2. In our presentation,
we highlight the aspects of the technologies that make
them particularly interesting on mobile devices. Addi-
tionally, we restrict our analysis to Google’s Android
and Apple’s iOS platforms, which account for 97.8% of
the smartphone market [60].

3.1 Hardware-based Mechanisms

Both Android and iOS leverage hardware-based features
for protecting the privacy and security of sensitive data.

3.1.1 Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)

TEEs provide a hardware-enforced isolated execution
environment for security-critical code, which can pro-

vide a safe haven for storing and processing sensitive
data. The general concept behind TEEs is that this
“trusted,” or “secure,” world, can be verified using tech-
niques like secure or authenticated boot [61] and can be
leveraged to maintain a root of trust on the device, even
when the “normal,” or “non-secure,” world is compro-
mised. The most popular of these, due to their market
dominance, is ARM’s TrustZone [62].

This functionality is available on all modern ARM
cores and has only recently started to be leveraged to
protect user data. For example, both Android [63] and
iOS [44] are using this technology to protect fingerprint
templates and Samsung has deployed Knox [55], which
is used to provide segregation between the user’s per-
sonal and work-related data on the device. Howe

Discussion 7

FEMALE OFFENDERS and their crimes

SECTION VIII

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Introduction

  • Females are involved in a variety of crimes
  • Narrowing of the “gender gap”
  • Gender proportions only
  • Females more likely to engage in property crimes
  • Women’s arrests increased 24.9% between 2003 and 2012
  • NCVS data reveals negligible differences in the gender gap
  • Decreases in male offending rather than increases in female offending

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Women & Drugs

  • Historically, drug use by women was normalized
  • Now, there exists greater stigma and increased negative attitudes, especially toward addicted mothers
  • Women as “targets” of the War on Drugs
  • Resulted in significant increases in incarcerated females
  • Drug use as intertwined with property crimes and sex work
  • Survival crimes

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Women & Drugs

  • Similar pathways of drug use among women
  • Pathways revolve around
  • Early exposure
  • Predicts longevity of substance abuse
  • Early victimization and reoccurring trauma
  • Majority of addicted women have trauma histories
  • Running away leads to survival crimes
  • Social marginalization and economic pressures
  • Issues include unemployment, lack of job skills, homelessness, and domestic violence

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Women & Drugs

  • Pathways and mental health needs
  • Co-occurring mental health issues
  • More severe for women than men
  • Use of substances to self-medicate
  • Survival crimes once on the street
  • Psychological interventions are needed
  • Other pathways to addiction
  • Addicted women perceive few options for improvement of their condition
  • Perception of drug abuse as something to fear

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Property Crime

  • Property crime can include theft, burglary, arson, and fraud
  • Property crime is generally in decline
  • Rates vary depending on type of property crime
  • Property crimes integrated into the drug trade
  • Drugs are the most common factor in female property offending

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Property Crime

  • Economic Survival
  • Unemployment
  • Need money to support themselves and their families
  • May be a secondary consequence of addiction
  • Pink-Collar Crime
  • Shoplifting
  • Used as a primary occupation

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • Hollywood images do not reflect reality
  • Prostitution can take a variety of forms
  • Escort services
  • Craig’s List
  • Work in brothels, bars, truck stops, and street corners
  • The trade of sex for drugs or necessities (food, shelter)
  • These women are most vulnerable

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • Pathways to prostitution
  • Risk factors include abandonment, abuse, addiction, and poverty
  • Impact of early childhood sexual victimization
  • Sex as a commodity
  • Running away from home

Path for predation

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

Prostitutes experience and witness high levels of violence

Do not report out of fear and the belief that police will not help them

Trauma leads to mental health issues

Engage in self-protection

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • Substance abuse significantly increases the likelihood a woman will engage in prostitution
  • Used to cope with trauma prior to prostitution
  • Used to self-medicate while prostituting
  • As time on the street increases so does substance abuse
  • Self-perpetuating cycle
  • Crack cocaine addiction and prostitution
  • Increased number of prostitutes  Decreased price for services

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • Long-term consequences for physical health
  • HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and other chronic issues
  • Death rate is 40 times higher than the overall population
  • Mental health consequences
  • Estimated 2/3 of prostituted women experiences symptoms of PTSD
  • Unable to accurately assess threat levels leading to increased risk for victimization

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • The Legalization Debate
  • Nevada
  • Laws focus on the minimization of risk and reduction of violence
  • The Netherlands
  • Governing the sex trade through licensure
  • Labor laws
  • Created a tax base

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • The Legalization Debate

Sustainable economy of prostitution allows for needs of prostitutes to be met and enables the creation of an economic strategy for these women

However, there is no guarantee that laws will be followed

  • Legislation focusing on criminalizing the demand for sexual services
  • In the U.S. prostitutes are significantly more likely to face sanctions

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prostitution

  • Taking into account larger issues
  • Economics, globalization, poverty, and inequality
  • Legalization does not equal safety or escape from stigma
  • Face victim blaming
  • Lack access to public health services
  • Multiple unaddressed needs limit women from leaving the lifestyle

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Difficult to determine the extent of female gang membership
  • Estimates suggest that 8-11% of gang members are female although official data may not include females
  • Self-report data reflects higher percentages
  • Females in gangs distinguished by sexuality
  • As a girlfriend of a male gang member
  • One who engages in sex with male gang members
  • As one who uses her sexuality in order to avoid detection by rival gang members and police

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Today, more girls are active participants
  • Girls in gangs have troubling histories
  • They lack opportunities for pro-social activities and are pressured to join gangs
  • The gang life may be a family affair
  • Affiliation comes at an early age

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Girls may join a gang in search of a new family
  • Abuse histories
  • The gang provides support and a sense of family
  • Trajectory of girls into gangs
  • Relationship between
  • Neighborhood exposure to gangs
  • Family involvement in the lifestyle
  • Presence of problems in the family

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Lifestyle and structure of female gangs are as diverse as male gangs
  • Initiation
  • Being “jumped” or “walking in line”
  • Being “sexed” in or “pulling a train”
  • Less respect, see as exploitable

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Girls do engage in crimes but media attention is tied more to violations of gender-role expectations
  • “Bad” girls
  • “Independent” girls at risk for violent victimization
  • Take precautionary measures
  • Although male members can serve a protective factor, they may sexually victimize the girls

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Girls in Gangs

  • Exiting the gang
  • Growing up
  • Pregnancy
  • Opportunities for employment/education
  • Incarcerated
  • Jumped out
  • Diminished involvement over time
  • Girls who stay may continue participation and/or marry a gang member

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Violent Female Offenders

  • Homicide
  • Homicide offenses are in decline for both genders
  • Females are more likely to kill a male victim
  • Most commonly females kill their spouses, intimate partners, or children
  • Portrayal by media popular culture
  • Cases:
  • Pamela Smart
  • Casey Anthony

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mothers Who Kill Their Children

  • Filicide
  • Andrea Yates drowned her 5 children
  • History of mental health issues
  • Found not guilty by reason of insanity
  • Categories of filicide
  • Neonaticide: child killed within 24 hours of birth
  • Infanticide: child killed within the first year of life

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mothers Who Kill Their Children

  • Filicide
  • Categories of infanticide
  • Homicide committed for altruistic reasons (Yates)
  • 2 themes

Pressure to be a good mother

Pressure of being the sole caretaker

  • Psychotic offender
  • Killing of an unwanted infant
  • Accidental death
  • Death of child used as revenge against another

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mothers Who Kill Their Children

  • Filicide presents a challenge to cultural ideals of femininity and motherhood
  • Mental illness makes it easier to understand
  • Evidence of postpartum symptoms
  • Court options
  • Insanity defense
  • Diminished capacity
  • Guilty but mentally ill

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 15

  • Cracked Perspectives
  • History of Crack Cocaine
  • Introduced in 1983
  • Crack Era and Marijuana/Blunt Era
  • Women and Children in the Crack Era
  • Concept of drug eras
  • Reflects the fluctuations of disease epidemics but with an emphasis on the cultural aspects of the phenomenon

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 15

  • The Role of Disrupted Attachments
  • Feminist pathways perspective
  • Narrative Reflections
  • Samples/Cohorts
  • Females of color, low socioeconomic status, New York City metropolitan area
  • Drug Involvement
  • Drug Initiation
  • Drug Use
  • Drug-Related Activities

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 15

  • Family Relationships
  • Family composition and structure
  • Emotional Connections
  • Discussion
  • Gendered Nature of Drug Use
  • Implications and Recommendations

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 16

  • Current Research
  • Women and Crime
  • Feminist Research
  • Motivations for Entry Into Prostitution
  • Susceptibility Model
  • Exposure Model
  • Methods and Data Collection
  • Findings
  • Age and Pathways into Prostitution
  • Discussion

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Discussion 7

Processing and sentencing of

female offenders

SECTION IX

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Introduction

  • Gender bias in formal processing
  • Chivalry hypothesis (lenient)
  • Reluctance to criminalize women
  • Reinforces inequality
  • Evil woman hypothesis (harsh)
  • Punished for breaking socialized norms of gender-role expectations

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Introduction

  • Five themes in assessing effects of chivalry
  • Stage of criminal system
  • Race and ethnicity of the offender
  • War on drugs and its effect for women
  • Effects of legal and extralegal characteristics
  • Effects of sentencing guidelines on judicial decision making

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage of the Criminal Justice System

  • Research tends to focus on only one stage
  • Police discretion
  • Girls less likely to be investigated for serious delinquency
  • Women receiving chivalrous treatment from male officers during traffic stops
  • Female officers are more likely to issue citations
  • Age, race, and behavior are also important
  • Girls more likely to be arrested in cases of family violence
  • Harsh treatment for being outside gender norms

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage of the Criminal Justice System

  • Pre-trial Stage: Discretion of Prosecutor
  • Research indicates more lenient treatment for women
  • Receive either no charges or charge-reductions
  • Research is mixed as to whether gender impacts decision making at the pre-trial stage
  • Most important factors are seriousness of crime and criminal history

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage of the Criminal Justice System

  • Pre-trial Release
  • Least studied stage
  • Women less likely to be detained, controlling for offense type/severity and criminal history
  • Women viewed as less dangerous and have significant ties to the community
  • Women are 30% less likely than men to be detained and receive lower bail amounts
  • Officials are more lenient to white women than women of color
  • Women of color are less likely to post bond

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage of the Criminal Justice System

  • Sentencing
  • Women are less likely to recidivate
  • If women receive lenient treatment during pre-trial stage, they are likely to receive lenient sentences
  • Seen as better candidates for probation
  • Gender differences in jail sentences but not prison sentences
  • Offense type impacts the relationship between gender and sentence length

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Race Effects

  • African American women punished more harshly
  • Racial bias
  • Levels of offending
  • Although white women represent the majority, there is an overrepresentation of women of color in prison
  • Female drug offenders in the federal prison system are predominately African American
  • All women receive preferential treatment compared to men of color
  • Differences may be based on economics and not race

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Race Effects

  • Indirect effect of race
  • Legal and extra-legal factors
  • Prior convictions
  • Ties to the community
  • Leniency at sentencing to remedy biased decision making at earlier stages
  • Out-of-home placements as child saving for white girls
  • The impact of skin tone
  • “Light skinned” black women are more likely to receive leniency at sentencing

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Race Effects

  • Limitations of research on race
  • Most studies focus on white and black women, some incorporate Hispanic females
  • Few studies on Asian Americans, Native Americans, or Pacific Islanders
  • Lack of a bi-racial or multi-racial category

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

War on Drugs

  • Nixon and Reagan administrations
  • Anti-Drug Abuse Act
  • Users at greatest risk for arrest and imprisonment
  • “Tough,” mandatory sentences
  • Disparity in sentencing between offenses involving cocaine and crack-cocaine
  • Fair Sentencing Act (2010) reduced disparity to 18 to 1

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

War on Drugs

  • Prior to the War on Drugs, drug offenders generally received community-based sanctions
  • Elimination of judicial discretion left judges unable to consider roles played by women
  • Women of color most affected by more punitive sentencing practices
  • Rise of meth use among women
  • “Pink collar crack”
  • Increases in convictions and sentence length

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

War on Drugs

  • Between 1986 and 1991, incarceration rates of women increased 433%, compared to a 283% increase for men
  • Women are generally users as sexism often prevents them from being mid- or high-level mangers in the drug market
  • Women are likely to turn to prostitution to support their habit
  • Created an economy whereby the value of sexual services has significantly decreased
  • Courts are overloaded with cases and prisons are overcrowded but the drug trade has not been stemmed
  • Significant impact on families and communities

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Effects of Legal and Extralegal Factors

  • It is important to control for mediating factors such as
  • Offense severity
  • Criminal history
  • Levels of victim injury
  • Culpability of the offender

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Effects of Legal and Extralegal Factors

Women more likely to be detained for property offenses whereas males more likely to be detained for drug offenses

Prior detention increased likelihood of being detained for both males and females but more so for females

Men more likely to be incarcerated for lesser offenses

Differences vary by jurisidiction

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Effects of Legal and Extralegal Factors

  • Extralegal Factors
  • Type of attorney
  • Ability to hire a private attorney increases likelihood of pretrial release and is linked to ability to afford bail
  • Ties to the community (family life)
  • Women with dependent children are less likely to face prison time
  • Social costs: not gender, but concern for family
  • Single parenthood and pregnancy as rationale for reduced sentences
  • Can also benefit males who are the primary caregiver

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Impact of Sentencing Guidelines

  • Wide judicial discretion led to a lack of consistency in sentencing
  • Retributive philosophy returned in the 1970s
  • Sentencing guidelines instituted to regulate sentencing practices and eliminate bias
  • Sentencing Reform Act (1984) led to the implementation of the federal sentencing guidelines in 1987
  • Only factors to consider are offense type, presence of aggravating or mitigating circumstances, and criminal history
  • Criticized for being too rigid and harsh

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Impact of Sentencing Guidelines

  • Guidelines led to more women going to prison for longer periods of time
  • Led to abolishment of parole at the federal level and in many states (“truth in sentencing”)
  • Disparities based on gender and race continue to exist

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Impact of Sentencing Guidelines

  • Minnesota

Retributive philosphy

Dependent children as a mitigating factor producing an indirect effect for preferential treatment of women

  • Ohio

Allows for increased judicial discretion

Categorization of felony crimes

  • Broad sentencing range for each category

Decreases in prison sentences and length of sentences

Decreases in racial disparity

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Impact of Sentencing Guidelines

  • Pennsylvania
  • Allows for rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation
  • Increased judicial discretion
  • Guidelines were found to not have an effect on reducing levels of gender disparity
  • Critics of gender-neutral sentencing
  • Guidelines negatively impact women
  • Unique needs are not considered
  • Have led to increased sentences for men and women

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

International Perspective

  • China
  • Paternalism leads to gender disparities
  • Need to protect women leads to sentence reductions
  • Women receive less punishment for drug trafficking and lesser offenses
  • Behavior before the court is an important factor
  • No preferential treatment in more serious cases, specifically those involving a potential death sentence

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

International Perspective

  • South Korea
  • Chivalry present; men more likely to be sent to prison and to serve long sentences
  • In methamphetamine cases, prison time is likely for both males and females but males serve longer sentences
  • South Taiwan
  • Women offenders are expected to demonstrate a submissive and apologetic demeanor (legal variable)

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

International Perspective

  • Finland
  • Greater level of gender equality in general leads to no preferential treatment for women controlling for legal variables and social factors
  • Australia

Unique extralegal factors considered such as history and politics

  • Indigenous persons, regardless of gender, receive preferential treatment, although stronger for females
  • Consider risk to community and context of the offender’s life

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Conclusion

  • Presence of chivalry linked to gender-role expectations
  • Punishment for violating these expectations
  • Gender equality ≠ Sameness
  • Receiving preferential treatment may lead to a reduction in social status

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 17

  • Sentencing Literature
  • Focal Concerns Theory
  • Blameworthiness
  • Dangerousness
  • Practical Constraints
  • Demographic characteristics are used to shape focal concerns
  • Current Literature
  • Literature Review
  • Pre-Trial Release

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 17

  • Gender and Pretrial Release
  • Race-Gender-Age Effects and Pretrial Release
  • Previous studies
  • Methods
  • Variables
  • Results
  • Discussion

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 18

  • Federal Sentencing Guidelines
  • Gender and Sentencing Literature
  • Treatment of women has not been static in the U.S.
  • Female offenders are less likely to be arrested and often sentences more leniently than similarly situations male offenders
  • Familiar Responsibility Literature
  • Females who are married or have children receive more leniency

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 18

  • Theoretical Framework and Research Expectations
  • Expectations
  • Guided by focal concerns
  • Data and Method
  • Variables
  • Results
  • Statistics
  • Independent Effects on Gender
  • Main Effects Model by Gender
  • Discussion and Conclusions

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Discussion 7

The incarceration

of women

SECTION X

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

  • Historically, women were housed in a separate unit within a male prison
  • Conditions included

Solitary confinement

Physical and sexual abuse

Death of Rachel Welch

Unmonitored time with male inmates

  • In 1839, the first facility for women was opened, The Mount Pleasant Prison Annex
  • While a female warden was in place, the Annex was under the supervision of male Sing Sing administrators

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

  • Reform
  • Elizabeth Fry
  • Inspiration for women in the U.S.
  • Responsibility of women in the community to help female offenders
  • Indiana Women’s Prison (1873)
  • First stand-alone female prison
  • Included maximum security

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

  • Institution Models
  • Custodial institutions
  • Similar to the warehousing of male inmates with little opportunity for reform
  • More prevalent in the South
  • More likely to house women of color even if they committed a minor offense
  • Dismal conditions

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

  • Institution Models
  • Reformatory
  • Intent to rehabilitate women, improve their moral character
  • Unladylike offenses
  • Indeterminate sentences, until reformed
  • Reserved for white, working-class women
  • Had female guards and administrators
  • Programming seen as “patriarchy at its finest”

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

  • Reformatory Examples
  • Massachusetts Correctional Institution (1877)
  • Now more similar to a male institution
  • California Institution for Women (1960s)
  • Gendered programs
  • Impact of California’s Uniform Determinate Sentencing Act (1976)

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Historical Context of Female Prisons

Today, most states have at least one women’s prison

House all security levels

Located in remote areas

  • Women are less likely to see their families

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Contemporary Issues for Incarcerated Women

  • There has been a dramatic rise in the number of women incarcerated in the U.S.
  • Women of color are overrepresented
  • Incarceration rates often three times greater than white women
  • Women who struggle
  • Impoverished, unemployed, undereducated
  • Overcrowding in prison facilities
  • Increases in stress, anxiety, and suicidal ideation
  • Facility resources are lacking

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Contemporary Issues for Incarcerated Women

  • Social support inside prison
  • Previous relationships
  • New relationships
  • Trust is difficult
  • Severance (2005) categorized female inmate relationships
  • Acquaintances
  • Friends
  • Family
  • Girlfriends

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Physical and Mental Health Needs

  • CJ system is often ill-equipped to deal with issues
  • Women inmates have significantly higher rates of mental illness
  • “Pains of imprisonment” exacerbate mental health issues
  • Suicidal ideation
  • Resources needed for screening and treatment
  • Medication used as a “cure-all”
  • Failure to take medicine can result in sanctions
  • Limited access to therapeutic interventions
  • Importance of trust and support

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Physical and Mental Health Needs

  • Physical Health Needs
  • Women inmates are more likely to be HIV+
  • Hepatitis C
  • Histories of abuse and risky lifestyles
  • Drug Treatment
  • Therapeutic communities
  • Gender-specific drug treatment programs
  • Address unique needs of women
  • Participants more likely to be successful

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Physical and Mental Health Needs

  • Facility Limitations
  • Understaffed
  • Lacking in diagnostic tools
  • Demand for services significantly outweigh their availability

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Children of Incarcerated Mothers

  • Children of inmates are at high risk for delinquency and future incarceration
  • Pregnant inmates
  • Concern regarding prenatal care and stress of prison life
  • Delivery can be traumatic
  • Shackling
  • Mother and child are separated shortly after birth

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Children of Incarcerated Mothers

  • Prison nursery programs in 9 states
  • Bedford Hills Correctional Facility (NY)
  • Includes parenting classes and support groups
  • Women can stay up to 3 years
  • Overnight visits with children
  • Programs for children
  • Concerns over whether children should be in prison
  • Studies show children who are removed are more likely to be high-risk educationally and emotionally

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Children of Incarcerated Mothers

  • Women inmates stress over who will take care of their children
  • In other cases, children may be placed in foster care
  • Adoption and Safe Families Act 1997
  • Termination of parental rights after 15 months
  • Location and financial concerns prevent frequent visits
  • Telephone calls and letters
  • Programs to help facilitate additional contact

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Children of Incarcerated Mothers

  • Parenting skills programming
  • Girl Scouts Beyond Bars program (GSBB)
  • Girls visit their mothers twice a month to work on projects
  • Allows mothers an active role
  • Many positive benefits
  • Programs such as GSBB require significant emotional, physical, and financial investment
  • Volunteers
  • Funding

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

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Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 19

  • Introduction
  • Females constitute 7.5% of inmates
  • Fastest growing population in the America’s prisons today
  • 1977 to 2008, rate of incarceration of women grew by 943%
  • Prior Research on Incarcerated Mothers
  • Female prisoners share certain characteristics
  • Poor, single, disproportionally racial minorities, on average, mothers have two children
  • Most women in prison are incarcerated for drug-related offenses and were abusing drugs or alcohol
  • Children continue to play a central role in women’s lives eben during imprisonment

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 19

  • Coping with Potential or Actual Separation Due to Imprisonment
  • Stress and coping
  • Methods and Data
  • Results
  • Being a good mother
  • Disassociation from prisoner identity
  • Mothering from prison
  • Role redefinition
  • Self transformation
  • Planning and preparation
  • Self-blame

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 20

  • Incarcerated women are vulnerable and often “invisible”
  • Many women who enter correctional institutions suffer from mental health issues
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • PTSD
  • Addiction

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reading 20

  • Evolution of the Study
  • Review of the literature
  • Gaps in the literature
  • Methods
  • Conducted in a maximum security woman’s prison
  • Findings
  • Worse mental health
  • Improved mental health
  • No change in mental health
  • Discussion

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 

© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mallicoat, Women and Crime: A Text/Reader 2e 
© 2015 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Discussion 7

 

eek 7 Discussion

33 unread replies.33 replies.

As we near the end of the term, it is important to acknowledge the ways you obtained support so far this term. In addition, as we discuss the different ways that you were able to work through the material, this may share ideas with others for the remainder of the term. So, for this Discussion, please share the different ways that you found support (technical, education, emotional, etc….) for the course.

Discussion Expectations:  

The minimum requirements for class discussions are to respond directly to the discussion prompt and to respond to at least two other posts, by other students or the instructor, by the end of the week. The discussion will close on the due date and will NOT be reopened for a late submission. 

  1. Submit one main post responding directly to each part of the discussion prompt(s) by Thursday at 11:59 PM ET.
    • This should be a substantive response (between 75 -150 words minimum) to the topic(s) in your own words, referencing (using APA format) what you have discovered in your required reading and other learning activities.
    • You may use resources in addition to your textbook that supports your post(s); however, you must mention the source(s) that you used in your post(s) using APA format in-text citations and reference lists. You can review APA formatting here: https://library.an.edu/apastyle  (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) 
    • 5

    Discussion 7

     Rhymes, Music, and Poetry – PowerPoint 

     Home and Classroom Activity Examples 

    Phonological awareness in preschoolers is often cited as the single best predictor of later reading success.  These skills include the ability to rhyme, discriminate syllables, and manipulate phonemes (add, delete, substitute and blend individual sounds).  Review the three sample home/classroom activities located in the Readings and Resources section.  As you review them, note the multi-sensory nature of these devices and the ability to tap into various learning styles, as well as, the opportunities for repetition, predictability, and mastery of the targeted phonological skill.  Now create your own!  For this discussion, provide three home or classroom activities targeting each of the following skills:

    • Rhyming
    • Syllables
    • Alliteration

    You might want to mention a favorite children’s book.  If you are a Child Studies major perhaps refer to a lesson plan you have seen in your own practicum.  If you are a Psychology major you may want to visit a popular website like Pinterest or Scholastic for ideas.  Be creative! 

      • 4

      Discussion 7

       The top 10 ways to improve your sleep, according to a functional medicine expertCole Natural Health Centers. 

       23 ways to revamp your nighttime routine

       
      As you have read in this week’s Readings and Resources, what you do directly before bed affects the quality of sleep you get. 

      • What is the importance of good quality of sleep?
      • What is your current nighttime routine?
        • Do you use electronics in bed?
      • How would you rate your quality of sleep?
      • What are two things you could change or add to your nighttime routine for a higher quality of sleep?

      Discussion 7

      Classics in the History
      of Psychology

      An internet resource developed by

      Christopher D. Green

      York University, Toronto, Ontario

      (Return to index

      COGNITIVE MAPS IN RATS AND MEN[1]

      Edward C. Tolman (1948)

      First published in The Psychological Review, 55(4),
      189-208.

      I shall devote the body of this paper to a description of experiments
      with rats. But I shall also attempt in a few words at the close
      to indicate the significance of these findings on rats for the
      clinical behavior of men. Most of the rat investigations, which
      I shall report, were carried out in the Berkeley laboratory. But
      I shall also include, occasionally, accounts of the behavior of
      non-Berkeley rats who obviously have misspent their lives in out-of-State
      laboratories. Furthermore, in reporting our Berkeley experiments
      I shall have to omit a very great many. The ones I shall talk
      about were carried out by graduate students (or underpaid research
      assistants) who, supposedly, got some of their ideas from me.
      And a few, though a very few, were even carried out by me myself.

       

      Let me begin by presenting diagrams for a couple of typical mazes,
      an alley maze and an elevated maze. In the typical experiment
      a hungry rat is put at the entrance of the maze (alley or elevated),
      and wanders about through the various true path segments and blind
      alleys until he finally comes to the food box and eats. This is
      repeated (again in the typical experiment) one trial every 24
      hours and the animal tends to make fewer and fewer errors (that
      is, blind-alley entrances) and to take less and less time between
      start and goal-box until finally he is entering no blinds at all
      and running in a very few seconds from start to goal. The results
      are usually presented in the form of average curves of blind-entrances,
      or of seconds from start to finish, for groups of rats.

      All students agree as to the facts. They disagree, however, on
      theory and explanation.

      (1) First, there is a school of animal psychologists which believes
      that the maze behavior of rats is a matter of mere simple stimulus-response
      connections. Learning, according to them, consists in the strengthening
      of some of these connections and in the weakening of others. According
      to this ‘stimulus-response’ school the rat in progressing down
      the maze is helplessly responding to a succession of external
      stimuli-sights, sounds, smells, pressures, etc. impinging upon
      his external sense organs-plus internal stimuli coming from the
      viscera and from the skeletal muscles. These external and internal
      stimuli call out the walkings, runnings, turnings, retracings,
      smellings, rearings, and the like which appear. The rat’s central
      [p.190] nervous system, according to this view, may be likened
      to a complicated telephone switchboard.

      There are the incoming calls from sense-organs and there are the
      outgoing messages to muscles. Before the learning of a specific
      maze, the connecting switches (synapses according to the physiologist)
      are closed in one set of ways and produce the primarily exploratory
      responses which appear in the early trials. Learning, according
      to this view, consists in the respective strengthening and weakening
      of various of these connections; those connections which result
      in the animal’s going down the true path become relatively more
      open to the passage of nervous impulses, whereas those which lead
      him into the blinds become relatively less open.

      It must be noted in addition, however, that this stimulus-response
      school divides further into two subgroups.

      (a) There is a subgroup which holds that the mere mechanics involved
      in the running of a maze is such that the crucial stimuli from
      the maze get presented simultaneously with the correct responses
      more frequently than they do with any of the incorrect responses.
      Hence, just on a basis of this greater frequency, the neural connections
      between the crucial stimuli and the correct responses will tend,
      it is said, to [p.191] get strengthened at the expense of the
      incorrect connections.

      (b) There is a second subgroup in this stimulus-response school
      which holds that the reason the appropriate connections get strengthened
      relatively to the inappropriate ones is, rather, the fact that
      the responses resulting from the correct connections are followed
      more closely in time by need-reductions. Thus a hungry rat in
      a maze tends to get to food and have his hunger reduced sooner
      as a result of the true path responses than as a result of
      the blind alley responses. And such immediately following need-reductions
      or, to use another term, such ‘positive reinforcements’ tend somehow,
      it is said, to strengthen the connections which have most closely
      preceded them. Thus it is as if-although this is certainly not
      the way this subgroup would themselves state it-the satisfaction-receiving
      part of the rat telephoned back to Central and said to the girl:
      “Hold that connection; it was good; and see to it that you
      blankety-blank well use it again the next time these same stimuli
      come in.”

      These theorists also assume (at least some of them do some of
      the [p.192] time) that, if bad results-‘annoyances,’ ‘negative
      reinforcements’-follow, then this same satisfaction-and annoyance-receiving
      part of the rat will telephone back and say, “Break that
      connection and don’t you dare use it next time either.”

      So much for a brief summary of the two subvarieties of the ‘stimulus-response,’
      or telephone switchboard school.

      (2) Let us turn now to the second main school. This group (and
      I belong to them) may be called the field theorists. We believe
      that in the course of learning something like a field map of the
      environment gets established in the rat’s brain. We agree with
      the other school that the rat in running a maze is exposed to
      stimuli and is finally led as a result of these stimuli to the
      responses which actually occur. We feel, however, that the intervening
      brain processes are more complicated, more patterned and often,
      pragmatically speaking, more autonomous than do the stimulus-response
      psychologists. Although we admit that the rat is bombarded by
      stimuli, we hold that his nervous system is surprisingly selective
      as to which of these stimuli it will let in at any given time.

      Secondly, we assert that the central office itself is far more
      like a map control room than it is like an old-fashioned telephone
      exchange. The stimuli, which are allowed in, are not connected
      by just simple one-to-one switches to the outgoing responses.
      Rather, the incoming impulses are usually worked over and elaborated
      in the central control room into a tentative, cognitive-like map
      of the environment. And it is this tentative map, indicating routes
      and paths and environmental relationships, which finally determines
      what responses, if any, the animal will finally release. [p.193]

      Finally, I, personally, would hold further that it is also important
      to discover in how far these maps are relatively narrow and strip-like
      or relatively broad and comprehensive. Both strip-maps and comprehensive-maps
      may be either correct or incorrect in the sense that they may
      (or may not), when acted upon, lead successfully to the animal’s
      goal. The differences between such strip maps and such comprehensive
      maps will appear only when the rat is later presented with some
      change within the given environment. Then, the narrower and more
      strip-like the original map, the less will it carry over successfully
      to the new problem; whereas, the wider and the more comprehensive
      it was, the more adequately it will serve in the new set-up. In
      a strip-map the given position of the animal is connected by only
      a relatively simple and single path to the position of the goal.
      In a comprehensive-map a wider arc of the environment is represented,
      so that, if the starting position of the animal be changed or
      variations in the specific routes be introduced, this wider map
      will allow the animal still to behave relatively correctly and
      to choose the appropriate new route.

      But let us turn, now, to the actual experiments. The ones, out
      of many, which I have selected to report are simply ones which
      seem especially important in reinforcing the theoretical position
      I have been presenting. This position, I repeat, contains two
      assumptions: First, that learning consists not in stimulus-response
      connections but in the building up in the nervous system of sets
      which function like cognitive maps, and second, that such cognitive
      maps may be usefully characterized as varying from a narrow strip
      variety to a broader comprehensive variety.

      The experiments fall under five heads: (1) “latent learning,”
      (2) “vicarious trail and error” or “VTE,”
      (3) “searching for the stimulus,” (4) “hypotheses”
      and (5) “spatial orientation.”[p.194]

      (1) “Latent Learning” Experiments. The first
      of the latent learning experiments was performed at Berkeley by
      Blodgett. It was published in 1929. Blodgett not only performed
      the experiments, he also originated the concept. He ran three
      groups of rats through a six-unit alley maze, shown in Fig. 4.
      He had a control group and two experimental groups. The error
      curves for these groups appear in Fig. 5. The solid line shows
      the error curve for Group I, the control group. These animals
      were run in orthodox fashion. That is, they were run one trial
      a day and found food in the goal-box at the end of each trial.
      Groups II and III were the experimental groups.

      The animals of Group II, the dash line, were not fed in the maze
      for the first six days but only in their home cages some two hours
      later. On the seventh day (indicated by the small cross) the rats
      found food at the end of the maze for the first time and continued
      to find it on subsequent days. The animals of Group III were treated
      similarly except that they first found food at the end of the
      maze on the third day and continued to find it there on subsequent
      days. It will be observed that the experimental groups as long
      as they were not finding food did not appear to learn much. (Their
      error curves did not drop.) But on the days immediately succeeding
      their first finding of the food their error curves did drop astoundingly.
      It appeared, in short, that during the non-rewarded trials these
      animals had been learning much more than they had exhibited. This
      learning, which did not manifest itself until after the food had
      been introduced, Blodgett called “latent learning.”
      Interpreting these results anthropomorphically, we would say that
      as long as the animals were not getting any food at the end of
      the maze they continued to take their [p.195] time in going through
      it-they continued to enter many blinds. Once, however, they knew
      they were to get food, they demonstrated that during these preceding
      non-rewarded trials they had learned where many of the blinds
      were. They had been building up a ‘map,’ and could utilize the
      latter as soon as they were motivated to do so.

      Honzik and myself repeated the experiments (or rather he did and
      I got some of the credit) with the 14-unit T-mazes shown in Fig.1,
      and with larger groups of animals, and got similar results. The
      resulting curves are shown in Fig.6. We used two control groups-one
      that never found food in the maze (HNR) and one that found it
      throughout (HR). The experimental group (HNR-R) found food at
      the end of the maze from the 11th day on and showed the same sort
      of a sudden drop. But probably the best experiment demonstrating
      latent learning was, unfortunately, done not in Berkeley but at
      the University of Iowa, by Spence and Lippitt. Only an abstract
      of this experiment has as yet been published. However, Spence
      has sent a preliminary manuscript from which the following account
      is summarized.

      A simple Y-maze (see Fig.7) with two goal-boxes was used. Water
      was at the end of the right arm of the Y and food at the end of
      the left arm. During the training period the rats were run neither
      hungry nor thirsty. They were satiated for both food and water
      before each day’s trials. However, they were willing to run because
      after each run they were taken out of whichever end box they had
      got to and put into a living cage, with other animals in it. They
      were given four trials a day in this fashion [p.196] for seven
      days, two trials to the right and two to the left.

       

      In the crucial test the animals were divided into two subgroups
      one made solely hungry and one solely thirsty. It was then found
      that on the first trial the hungry group went at once to the left,
      where the food had been, statistically more frequently than to
      the right; and the thirsty group went to the right, where the
      water had been, statistically more frequently than to the left.
      These results indicated that under the previous non-differential
      and very mild rewarding conditions of merely being returned to
      the home cages the animals had nevertheless been learning where
      the water was and where the food was. In short, they had acquired
      a cognitive map to the effect that food was to the left and water
      to the right, although during the acquisition of this map they
      had not exhibited any stimulus-response propensities to go more
      to the side which became later the side of the appropriate goal.

      There have been numerous other latent learning experiments done
      in the Berkeley laboratory and elsewhere. In general, they have
      for the most part all confirmed the above sort of findings.

      Let us turn now to the second group of experiments.

       

      (2) “Vicarious Trial and Error” or “VTE.”
      The term Vicarious Trial and Error (abbreviated as VTE) was
      invented by Prof. Muenzinger at Colorado[2]
      to designate the hesitating, look-[p.197] king-back-and-forth,
      sort of behavior which rats can often be observed to indulge in
      at a choice-point before actually going one way or the other.

      Quite a number of experiments upon VTEing have been carried out
      in our laboratory. I shall report only a few. In most of them
      what is called a discrimination set-up has been used. In one characteristic
      type of visual discrimination apparatus designed by Lashly (shown
      in Fig.8) the animal is put on a jumping stand and faced with
      two doors which differ in some visual property say, as here shown,
      vertical stripes vs. horizontal stripes.

      One of each such pair of visual stimuli is made always correct
      and the other wrong; and the two are interchanged from side to
      side in random fashion. The animal is required to learn, say,
      that the vertically striped door is always the correct one. If
      he jumps to it, the door falls open and he gets to food on a platform
      behind. If, on the other hand, he jumps incorrectly, he finds
      the door locked and falls into a net some two feet below from
      which he is picked up and started over again.

      Using a similar set-up (see Fig. 9), but with landing platforms
      in front of the doors so that if the rat chose incorrectly he
      could jump back again and start over, I found that when the choice
      was an easy one, say between a white door and a black door, the
      animals not only learned sooner but also did more VTEing than
      when the choice was difficult, say between a white door and a
      gray door (see Fig.10). It appeared further (see Fig.11) that
      the VTEing began to appear just as (or just before) the rats began
      to learn. After the learning had become established, however,
      the VTE’s began to go down. Further, in a study of individual
      dif-[p.198] ferences by myself, Geier and Levin[3]
      (actually done by Geier and Levin) using this same visual discrimination
      apparatus, it was found that with one and the same difficulty
      of problem the smarter animal did the more VTEing.

      To sum up, in visual discrimination experiments the better
      the learning, the more the VTE’s. But this seems contrary to what
      we would perhaps have expected. We ourselves would expect to do
      more VTEing, more sampling of the two stimuli, when it is difficult
      to choose between them than when it is easy.

       

      What is the explanation? The answer lies, I believe, in the fact
      that the manner in which we set the visual discrimination problems
      for the rats and the manner in which we set similar problems for
      ourselves are different. We already have our ‘instructions.’
      We know beforehand what it is we are to do. We are told, or we
      tell ourselves, that it is the lighter of the two grays, the heavier
      of the two weights, or the like, which is to be chosen. In such
      a setting we do more sampling, more VTEing, when the stimulus-difference
      is small. But for the rats the usual problem in a discrimination
      apparatus is quite different. They do not know what is wanted
      of them. The major part of their learning in most such experiments
      seems to consist in their dis-[p.199] covering the instructions.
      The rats have to discover that it is the differences in visual
      brightness, not the differences between left and right, which
      they are to pay attention to. Their VTEing appears when they begin
      to ‘catch on.’ The greater the difference between the two stimuli
      the more the animals are attracted by this difference. Hence the
      sooner they catch on, and during this catching on, the more they
      VTE.

       

      That this is a reasonable interpretation appeared further, from
      an experiment by myself and Minium (the actual work done, of course,
      by Minium) in which a group of six rats was first taught a white
      vs. black discrimination, then two successively more difficult
      gray vs. black discriminations. For each difficulty the rats were
      given a long series of further trials beyond the points at which
      they had learned. Comparing the beginning of each of these three
      difficulties the results were that the rats did more VTEing for
      the easy discriminations than for the more difficult ones. When,
      however, it came to a comparison of amounts of VTEing during the
      final performance after each learning had reached a plateau, the
      opposite results were obtained. In other words, after the rats
      had finally divined their instructions, then they, like human
      beings, did more VTEing, more sampling, the more difficult the
      discrimination.

      Finally, now let us note that is was [p.200] also found at Berkeley
      by Jackson[4] that in a maze the difficult maze
      units produce more VTEing and also that the more stupid rats do
      the more VTEing. The explanation, as I see it, is that, in the
      case of mazes, rats know their instructions. For them it is natural
      to expect that the same spatial path will always lead to the same
      outcome. Rats in mazes don’t have to be told.

      But what, now, is the final significance of all this VTEing? How
      do these facts about VTEing affect our theoretical argument? My
      answer is that these facts lend further support to the doctrine
      of a building up of maps. VTEing, as I see it, is evidence that
      in the critical stages-whether in the first picking up of the
      instructions or in the later making sure of which stimulus is
      which-the animal’s activity is not just one of responding passively
      to discrete stimuli, but rather one of the active selecting and
      comparing of stimuli. The brings me then to the third type of
      experiment.

      (3) “Searching for the Stimulus.”  I refer
      to a recent, and it seems to me extremely important experiment,
      done for a Ph.D. dissertation by Hudson. Hudson was first interested
      in the question of whether or not rats could learn an avoidance
      reaction in one trial. His animals were tested one at a time in
      a living cage (see Fig.13) with a small striped visual pattern
      at the end, on which was mounted a food cup. The hungry rat approached
      this food cup and ate. An electrical arrangement was provided
      so that when the rat touched the cup he could be given an electric
      shock. And one such shock did appear to be enough. For when the
      rat was replaced in this same cage days or even weeks afterwards,
      he usually demonstrated immediately strong avoidance reactions
      to the visual pattern. The animal withdrew from that end of the
      [p.201] cage, or piled up sawdust and covered the pattern, or
      showed various other amusing responses all of which were in the
      nature of withdrawing from the pattern or making it disappear.

      But the particular finding which I am interested in now appeared
      as a result of a modification of this standard procedure. Hudson
      noticed that the animals, anthropomorphically speaking, often
      seemed to look around after the shock to see what it was
      that had hit them. Hence it occurred to him that, if the pattern
      were made to disappear the instant the shock occurred, the rats
      might not establish the association. And this indeed is what happened
      in the case of many individuals. Hudson added further electrical
      connections so that when the shock was received during the eating,
      the lights went out, the pattern and the food cup dropped out
      of sight, and the lights came on again all within the matter of
      a second. When such animals were again put in the cage 24 hours
      later, a large percentage showed no avoidance of the pattern.
      Or to quote Hudson’s own words:

      “Learning what object to avoid…may occur exclusively during
      the period after the shock. For if the object from which
      the shock was actually received is removed at the moment of the
      shock, a significant number of animals fail to learn to avoid
      it, some selecting other features in the environment for avoidance,
      and others avoiding nothing.”

      In other words, I feel that this experiment reinforces the notion
      of the largely active selective character in the rat’s building
      up of his cognitive map. He often has to look actively for the
      significant stimuli in order to form his map and does not merely
      passively receive and react to all the stimuli which are physically
      present.

      Turn now to the fourth type of experiment.

       

      (4) The “Hypothesis” Experiments. Both the notion
      of hypotheses in rats and the design of the experiments to demonstrate
      such hypotheses are to be credited to Krech. Krech used a four-compartment
      discrimination-box. In such a four-choice box the correct door
      at each choice-point may be determined by the experimenter in
      terms of its being lighted or dark, left or right, or various
      combinations of these. If all [p.202] possibilities are randomized
      for the 40 choices made in 10 runs of each day’s test, the problem
      could be made insoluble.

      When this was done, Krech found that the individual rat went through
      a succession of systematic choices. That is, the individual animal
      might perhaps begin by choosing practically all right-handed doors,
      then he might give this up for choosing practically all left-hand
      doors, and then, for choosing all dark doors, and so on. These
      relatively persistent, and well-above-chance systematic types
      of choice Krech called “hypotheses.” In using this term
      he obviously did not mean to imply verbal processes in the rat
      but merely referred to what I have been calling cognitive maps
      which, it appears from his experiments, get set up in a tentative
      fashion to be tried out first one and then another until, if possible,
      one is found which works.

      Finally, it is to be noted that these hypothesis experiments,
      like the latent learning, VTE, and “looking for the stimulus”
      experiments, do not, as such, throw light upon the widths of the
      maps which are picked up but do indicate [p.203] the generally
      map-like and self-initiated character of learning.

      For the beginning of an attack upon the problem of the width of
      the maps let me turn to the last group of experiments.

      (5) “Spatial Orientation” Experiments. As early
      as 1929, Lashley reported incidentally the case of a couple of
      his rats who, after having learned an alley maze, pushed back
      the cover near the starting box, climbed out and ran directly
      across the top to the goal-box where they climbed down in again
      and ate. Other investigators have reported related findings. All
      such observations suggest that rats really develop wider spatial
      maps which include more than the mere trained-on specific paths.
      In the experiments now to be reported this possibility has been
      subjected to further examination.

      In the first experiment, Tolman, Ritchie and Kalish (actually
      Ritchie and Kalish) used the set-up shown in Fig.15.

       

      This was an elevated maze. The animals ran from A across the open
      circular table through CD (which had alley walls) and finally
      to G, the food box. H was a light which shone directly down the
      path from G to F. After four nights, three trials per night, in
      which the rats learned to run directly and without hesitation
      from A to G, the apparatus was changed to the sun-burst shown
      in Fig.16. The starting path and the table remained the same but
      a series of radiating paths was added.

      The animals were again started at A [p.204] and ran across the
      circular table into the alley and found themselves blocked. They
      then returned onto the table and began exploring practically all
      the radiating paths. After going out a few inches only on any
      one path, each rat finally chose to run all the way out on one.
      The percentages of rats finally choosing each of the long paths
      from 1 to 12 are shown in Fig.17. It appears that there was a
      preponderant tendency to choose path No.6 which ran to a point
      some four inches in front of where the entrance to the food-box
      had been. The only other path chosen with any appreciable frequency
      was No.1-that is, the path which pointed perpendicularly to the
      food-side of the room.

       

      These results seem to indicate that the rats in this experiment
      had learned not only to run rapidly down the original roundabout
      route but also, when this was blocked and radiating paths presented,
      to select one pointing rather directly towards the point where
      the food had been or else at least to select a path running perpendicularly
      to the food-side of the room.

      As a result of their original training, the rats had, it would
      seem, acquired not merely a strip-map to the effect that the original
      specifically trained-on path led to food but, rather, a wider
      comprehensive map to the effect that food was located in such
      and such a direction in the room.

      Consider now a further experiment done by Ritchie alone. This
      experiment tested still further the breadth of the spatial map
      which is acquired. In this further experiment the rats were again
      run across the table-this time to the arms of a simple T. (See
      Fig.18.)

      Twenty-five animals were trained for seven days, 20 trials in
      all, to find food at F1; and twenty-five animals were
      trained to find it at F2. The L’s in the diagram indicate
      lights. On the eighth day the starting path and table top were
      rotated through 180 degrees so that they were now in the position
      shown in Fig.19. The dottted lines represent the old position.
      And a series of radiating paths was added. What happened? Again
      the rats ran across the table into the central alley. When, however,
      they found themselves blocked, they turned back onto the table
      and this time also spent many seconds touching and trying out
      for only a few steps practically all the paths. Finally, however,
      within seven minutes, 42 of the 50 rats chose one path and ran
      all the way out on it. The paths finally chosen by the 19 of these
      animals that had been fed at F1 and by the 23 that
      had been fed at F2 are shown in Fig.20. [p.205]

      This time the rats tended to choose, not the paths which pointed
      directly to the spots where the food had been, but rather paths
      which ran perpendicularly to the corresponding sides of the room.
      The spatial maps of these rats, when the animals were started
      from the opposite side of the room, were thus not completely adequate
      to the precise goal positions but were adequate as to the correct
      sides of the room. The maps of these animals were, in short, not
      altogether strip-like and narrow.

      This completes my report of experiments. There were the latent
      learning experiments, the VTE experiments, the searching for the
      stimulus experiment, the hypothesis experiments, and these
      last spatial orientation experiments.

      And now, at last, I come to the humanly significant and exciting
      problem: namely, what are the conditions which favor narrow strip-maps
      and what are those which tend to favor broad comprehensive maps
      not only in rats but also in men?

      There is considerable evidence scattered throughout the literature
      bearing on this question both for rats and for men. Some of this
      evidence was obtained in Berkeley and some of it elsewhere. I
      have not time to present it in any detail. I can merely summarize
      it by saying that narrow strip maps rather than broad comprehensive
      maps seem to be induced: (1) by a damaged brain, (2) by an inadequate
      array of environmentally presented cues, (3) by an [p.206]

      [p.207] overdose of repetitions on the original trained-on path
      and (4) by the presence of too strongly motivational or of too
      strongly frustrating conditions.

      It is this fourth factor which I wish to elaborate upon briefly
      in my concluding remarks. For it is going to be my contention
      that some, at least, of the so-called ‘psychological mechanisms’
      which the clinical psychologists and the other students of personality
      have uncovered as the devils underlying many of our individual
      and social malajustments can be interpreted as narrowings of our
      cognitive maps due to too strong motivations or to too intense
      frustration.

      My argument will be brief, cavalier, and dogmatic. For I am not
      myself a clinician or a social psychologist. What I am going to
      say must be considered, therefore, simply as in the nature of
      a rat psychologist’s ratiocinations offered free.

      By way of illustration, let me suggest that at least the three
      dynamisms called, respectively, “regression,” “fixation,”
      and “displacement of aggression onto outgroups” are
      expressions of cognitive maps which are too narrow and which get
      built up in us as a result of too violent motivation or of too
      intense frustration.

      (a) Consider regression. This is the term used for those
      cases in which an individual, in the face of too difficult a problem,
      returns to earlier more childish ways of behaving. Thus, to take
      an example, the overprotected middle-aged woman (reported a couple
      of years ago in Time Magazine) who, after losing her husband,
      regressed (much to the distress of her growing daughters) into
      dressing in too youthful a fashion and into competing for their
      beaux and then finally into behaving like a child requiring continuous
      care, would be an illustration of regression. I would not wish
      you to put too much confidence in the reportorial accuracy of
      Time, but such an extreme case is not too different from
      many actually to be found in our mental hospitals or even sometimes
      in ourselves. In all such instances my argument would be (1) that
      such regression results from too strong a present emotional situation
      and (2) that it consists in going back to too narrow an earlier
      map, itself due to too much frustration or motivation in early
      childhood. Time’s middle-aged woman was presented by too
      frustrating an emotional situation at her husband’s

      Discussion 7

      Classics in the History of Psychology

      An internet resource developed by

      Christopher D. Green

      York University, Toronto, Ontario

      (Return to Classics index)

      DRIVES AND THE C.N.S. (CONCEPTUAL NERVOUS SYSTEM)[1]

      D. O. Hebb (1955)

      First published in Psychological Review, 62, 243-254.

      The problem of motivation of course lies close to the heart of the general problem of understanding behavior, yet it sometimes seems the least realistically treated topic in the literature. In great part, the difficulty concerns that c.n.s., or “conceptual nervous system,” which Skinner disavowed and from whose influence he and others have tried to escape. But the conceptual nervous system of 1930 was evidently like the gin that was being drunk about the same time; it was homemade and none too good, as Skinner pointed out, but it was also habit-forming; and the effort to escape has not really been successful. Prohibition is long past. If we must drink we can now get better liquor; likewise, the conceptual nervous system of 1930 is out of date and — if we must neurologize — let us use the best brand of neurology we can find.

      Though I personally favor both alcohol and neurologizing, in moderation, the point here does not assume that either is a good thing. The point is that psychology is intoxicating itself with a worse brand than it need use. Many psychologists do not think in terms of neural anatomy; but merely adhering to certain classical frameworks shows the limiting effect of earlier neurologizing. Bergmann (2) has recently said again that it is logically possible to escape the influence. This does not change the fact that, in practice, it has not been done.

      Further, as I read Bergmann, I am not sure that he really thinks, deep down, that we should swear off neurologizing entirely, or at least that we should all do so. He has made a strong case for the functional similarity of intervening variable and hypothetical construct, implying that we are dealing more with differences of degree than of kind. The conclusion I draw is that both can properly appear in the same theory, using intervening variables to whatever extent is most profitable (as physics for example does), and conversely not being afraid to use some theoretical conception merely because it might become anatomically identifiable.

      For many conceptions, at least, MacCorquodale and Meehl’s (26) distinction is relative, not absolute; and it must also be observed that physiological psychology makes free use of “dispositional concepts” as well as “existential” ones. Logically, this leaves room for some of us to make more use of explicitly physiological constructs than others, and still lets us stay in communication with one another. It also shows how one’s views concerning motivation, for example, might be more [p. 244] influenced than one thinks by earlier physiological notions, since it means that an explicitly physiological conception might be restated in words that have — apparently — no physiological reference.

      What I propose, therefore, is to look at motivation as it relates to the c.n.s. — or conceptual nervous system — of three different periods: as it was before l930, as it was say 10 years ago, and as it is today. I hope to persuade you that some of our current troubles with motivation are due to the c.n.s. of an earlier day, and ask that you look with an open mind at the implications of the current one. Today’s physiology suggests new psychological ideas, and I would like to persuade you that they make psychological sense, no matter how they originated. They might even provide common ground — not necessarily agreement, but communication, something nearer to agreement — for people whose views at present may seem completely opposed. While writing this paper I found myself having to make a change in my own theoretical position, as you will see, and though you may not adopt the same position you may be willing to take another look at the evidence, and consider its theoretical import anew.

      Before going on it is just as well to be explicit about the use of the terms motivation and drive. “Motivation” refers here in a rather general sense to the energizing of behavior, and especially to the sources of energy in a particular set of responses that keep them temporarily dominant over others and account for continuity and direction in behavior. “Drive” is regarded as a more specific conception about the way in which this occurs: a hypothesis of motivation, which makes the energy a function of a special process distinct from those S-R or cognitive functions that are energized. In some contexts, therefore, “motivation” and “drive” are interchangeable.

      MOTIVATION IN THE CLASSICAL (PRE-1930) C.N.S.

      The main line of descent of psychological theory, as I have recently tried to show (20), is through associationism and the stimulus-response formulations. Characteristically, stimulus-response theory has treated the animal as more or less inactive unless subjected to special conditions of arousal. These conditions are first, hunger, pain, and sexual excitement; and secondly, stimulation that has become associated with one of these more primitive motivations.

      Such views did not originate entirely in the early ideas of nervous function, but certainly were strengthened by them. Early studies of the nerve fiber seemed to show that the cell is inert until something happens to it from outside; therefore, the same would be true of the collection of cells making up the nervous system. From this came the explicit theory of drives. The organism is thought of as like a machine, such as the automobile, in which the steering mechanism — that is, stimulus-response connections — is separate from the power source, or drive. There is, however, this difference: the organism may be endowed with three or more different power plants. Once you start listing separate ones, it is hard to avoid five: hunger, thirst, pain, maternal, and sex drives. By some theorists, these may each be given a low-level steering function also, and indirectly the steering function of drives is much increased by the law of effect. According to the law, habits — steering functions — are acquired only in conjunction with the operation of drives.

      Now it is evident that an animal is often active and often learns when there is little or no drive activity of the kinds listed. This fact has been dealt with in [p. 245] two ways. One is to postulate additional drives — activity, exploratory, manipulatory, and so forth. The other is to postulate acquired or learned drives, which obtain their energy, so to speak, from association with primary drives.

      It is important to see the difficulties to be met by this kind of formulation, though it should be said at once that I do not have any decisive refutation of it, and other approaches have their difficulties, too.

      First, we may overlook the rather large number of forms of behavior in which motivation cannot be reduced to biological drive plus learning. Such behavior is most evident in higher species, and may be forgotten by those who work only with the rat or with restricted segments of the behavior of dog or cat. (I do not suggest that we put human motivation on a different plane from that of animals [7]; what I am saying is that certain peculiarities of motivation increase with phylogenesis, and though most evident in man can be clearly seen with other higher animals.) What is the drive that produces panic in the chimpanzee at the sight of a model of a human head; or fear in some animals, and vicious aggression in others, at the sight of the anesthetized body of a fellow chimpanzee? What about fear of snakes, or the young chimpanzee’s terror at the sight of strangers? One can accept the idea that this is “anxiety,” but the anxiety, if so, is not based on a prior association of the stimulus object with pain. With the young chimpanzee reared in the nursery of the Yerkes Laboratories, after separation from the mother at birth, one can be certain that the infant has never seen a snake before, and certainly no one has told him about snakes; and one can be sure that a particular infant has never had the opportunity to associate a strange face with pain. Stimulus generalization does not explain fear of strangers, for other stimuli in the same class, namely, the regular attendants, are eagerly welcomed by the infant.

      Again, what drive shall we postulate to account for the manifold forms of anger in the chimpanzee that do not derive from frustration objectively defined (22)? How account for the petting behavior of young adolescent chimpanzees, which Nissen (36) has shown is independent of primary sex activity? How deal with the behavior of the female who, bearing her first infant, is terrified at the sight of the baby as it drops from the birth canal, runs away, never sees it again after it has been taken to the nursery for rearing; and who yet, on the birth of a second infant, promptly picks it up and violently resists any effort to take it from her?

      There is a great deal of behavior, in the higher animal especially, that is at the very best difficult to reduce to hunger, pain, sex, and maternal drives, plus learning. Even for the lower animal it has been clear for some time that we must add an exploratory drive (if we are to think in these terms at all), and presumably the motivational phenomena recently studied by Harlow and his colleagues (16, 17, 10) could also be comprised under such a drive by giving it a little broader specification. The curiosity drive of Berlyne (4) and Thompson and Solomon (46), for example, might be considered to cover both investigatory and manipulatory activities on the one hand, and exploratory, on the other. It would also comprehend the “problem-seeking” behavior recently studied by Mahut and Havelka at McGill (unpublished studies). They have shown that the rat which is offered a short, direct path to food, and a longer, variable and indirect pathway involving a search for food, will very frequently prefer the more difficult, but more “interesting” route.

      But even with the addition of a curi- [p. 246] osity-investigatory-manipulatory drive, and even apart from the primates, there is still behavior that presents difficulties. There are the reinforcing effects of incomplete copulation (43) and of saccharin intake (42, 11), which do not reduce to secondary reward. We must not multiply drives beyond reason, and at this point one asks whether there is no alternative to the theory in this form. We come, then, to the conceptual nervous system of 1930 to 1950.

      MOTIVATION IN THE C.N.S. OF 1930-1950

      About 1930 it began to be evident that the nerve cell is not physiologically inert, does not have to be excited from outside in order to discharge (19, p. 8). The nervous system is alive, and living things by their nature are active. With the demonstration of spontaneous activity in c.n.s. it seemed to me that the conception of a drive system or systems was supererogation.

      For reasons I shall come to later, this now appears to me to have been an oversimplification; but in 1945 the only problem of motivation, I thought, was to account for the direction taken by behavior. From this point of view, hunger or pain might be peculiarly effective in guiding or channeling activity but not needed for its arousal. It was not surprising, from this point of view, to see human beings liking intellectual work, nor to find evidence that an animal might learn something without pressure of pain or hunger.

      The energy of response is not in the stimulus. It comes from the food, water, and oxygen ingested by the animal; and the violence of an epileptic convulsion, when brain cells for whatever reason decide to fire in synchrony, bears witness to what the nervous system can do when it likes. This is like a whole powder magazine exploding at once. Ordinary behavior can be thought of as produced by an organized series of much smaller explosions, and so a “self-motivating” c.n.s. might still be a very powerfully motivated one. To me, then, it was astonishing that a critic could refer to mine as a “motivationless” psychology. What I had said in short was that any organized process in the brain is a motivated process, inevitably, inescapably; that the human brain is built to be active, and that as long as it is supplied with adequate nutrition will continue to be active. Brain activity is what determines behavior, and so the only behavioral problem becomes that of accounting for inactivity.

      It was in this conceptual frame that the behavioral picture seemed to negate the notion of drive, as a separate energizer of behavior. A pedagogical experiment reported earlier (18) had been very impressive in its indication that the human liking for work is not a rare phenomenon, but general. All of the 600-odd pupils in a city school, ranging from 6 to 15 years of age, were suddenly informed that they need do no work whatever unless they wanted to, that the punishment for being noisy and interrupting others’ work was to be sent to the playground to play, and that the reward for being good was to be allowed to do more work. In these circumstances, all of the pupils discovered within a day or two that, within limits, they preferred work to no work (and incidentally learned more arithmetic and so forth than in previous years).

      The phenomenon of work for its own sake is familiar enough to all of us, when the timing is controlled by the worker himself, when “work” is not defined as referring alone to activity imposed from without. Intellectual work may take the form of trying to understand what Robert Browning was trying to say (if anything), to discover what it is in Dali’s paintings that can interest others, or to predict the out- [p. 247] come of a paperback mystery. We systematically underestimate the human need of intellectual activity, in one form or another, when we overlook the intellectual component in art and in games. Similarly with riddles, puzzles, and the puzzle-like games of strategy such as bridge, chess, and go; the frequency with which man has devised such problems for his own solution is a most significant fact concerning human motivation.

      It is, however, not necessarily a fact that supports my earlier view, outlined above. It is hard to get these broader aspects of human behavior under laboratory study, and when we do we may expect to have our ideas about them significantly modified. For my views on the problem, this is what has happened with the experiment of Bexton, Heron, and Scott (5). Their work is a long step toward dealing with the realities of motivation in the well-fed, physically comfortable, adult human being, and its results raise a serious difficulty for my own theory. Their subjects were paid handsomely to do nothing, see nothing, hear or touch very little, for 24 hours a day. Primary needs were met, on the whole, very well. The subjects suffered no pain, and were fed on request. It is true that they could not copulate, but at the risk of impugning the virility of Canadian college students I point out that most of them would not have been copulating anyway and were quite used to such long stretches of three or four days without primary sexual satisfaction. The secondary reward, on the other hand, was high: $20 a day plus room and board is more than $7000 a year, far more than a student could earn by other means. The subjects then should be highly motivated to continue the experiment, cheerful and happy to be allowed to contribute to scientific knowledge so painlessly and profitably.

      In fact, the subject was well motivated for perhaps four to eight hours, and then became increasingly unhappy. He developed a need for stimulation of almost any kind. In the first preliminary exploration, for example, he was allowed to listen to recorded material on request. Some subjects were given a talk for 6-year-old children on the dangers of alcohol. This might be requested, by a grown-up male college student, 15 to 20 times in a 30-hour period. Others were offered, and asked for repeatedly, a recording of an old stock-market report. The subjects looked forward to being tested, but paradoxically tended to find the tests fatiguing when they did arrive. It is hardly necessary to say that the whole situation was rather hard to take, and one subject, in spite of not being in a special state of primary drive arousal in the experiment but in real need of money outside it, gave up the secondary reward of $20 a day to take up a job at hard labor paying $7 or $8 a day.

      This experiment is not cited primarily as a difficulty for drive theory, although three months ago that is how I saw it. It will make difficulty for such theory if exploratory drive is not recognized; but we have already seen the necessity, on other grounds, of including a sort of exploratory-curiosity-manipulatory drive, which essentially comes down to a tendency to seek varied stimulation. This would on the whole handle very well the motivational phenomena observed by Heron’s group.

      Instead, I cite their experiment as making essential trouble for my own treatment of motivation (19) as based on the conceptual nervous system of 1930 to 1945. If the thought process is internally organized and motivated, why should it break down in conditions of perceptual isolation, unless emotional disturbance intervenes? But it did break down when no serious emotional [p. 248] change was observed, with problem-solving and intelligence-test performance significantly impaired. Why should the subjects themselves report (a) after four or five hours in isolation that they could not follow a connected train of thought, and (b) that their motivation for study or the like was seriously disturbed for 24 hours or more after coming out of isolation? The subjects were reasonably well adjusted, happy, and able to think coherently for the first four or five hours of the experiment; why, according to my theory, should this not continue, and why should the organization of behavior not be promptly restored with restoration of a normal environment?

      You will forgive me perhaps if I do not dilate further on my own theoretical difficulties, paralleling those of others, but turn now to the conceptual nervous system of 1954 to ask what psychological values we may extract from it for the theory of motivation. I shall not attempt any clear answer for the difficulties we have considered — the data do not seem yet to justify clear answers — but certain conceptions can be formulated in sufficiently definite form to be a background for new research, and the physiological data contain suggestions that may allow me to retain what was of value in my earlier proposals while bringing them closer to ideas such as Harlow’s (16) on one hand and to reinforcement theory on the other.

      MOTIVATION AND C.N.S. IN 1954

      For psychological purposes there are two major changes in recent ideas of nervous function. One concerns the single cell, the other an “arousal” system in the brain stem. The first I shall pass over briefly; it is very significant, but does not bear quite as directly upon our present problem. Its essence is that there are two kinds of activity in the nerve cell: the spike potential, or actual firing, and the dendritic potential, which has very different properties. There is now clear evidence (12) that the dendrite has a “slow-burning” activity which is not all-or-none, tends not to be transmitted, and lasts 15 to 30 milliseconds instead of the spike’s one millisecond. It facilitates spike activity (23), but often occurs independently and may make up the greater part of the EEG record. It is still true that the brain is always active, but the activity is not always the transmitted kind that conduces to behavior. Finally, there is decisive evidence of primary inhibition in nerve function (25, 14) and of a true fatigue that may last for a matter of minutes instead of milliseconds (6, 9). These facts will have a great effect on the hypotheses of physiological psychology, and sooner or later on psychology in general.

      Our more direct concern is with a development to which attention has already been drawn by Lindsley (24): the nonspecific or diffuse projection system of the brain stem, which was shown by Moruzzi and Magoun (34) to be an arousal system whose activity in effect makes organized cortical activity possible. Lindsley showed the relevance to the problem of emotion and motivation; what I shall attempt is to extend his treatment, giving more weight to cortical components in arousal. The point of view has also an evident relationship to Duffy’s (13).

      The arousal system can be thought of as representing a second major pathway by which all sensory excitations reach the cortex, as shown in the upper part of Fig. 1; but there is also feedback from the cortex and I shall urge that the psychological evidence further emphasizes the importance of this “downstream” effect.

      In the classical conception of sensory function, input to the cortex was via [p. 249] the great projection systems only: from sensory nerve to sensory tract, thence to the corresponding sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and thence directly to one of the sensory projection areas of the cortex. These are still the direct sensory routes, the quick efficient transmitters of information. The second pathway is slow and inefficient; the excitation, as it were, trickles through a tangled thicket of fibers and synapses, there is a mixing up of messages, and the scrambled messages are delivered indiscriminately to wide cortical areas. In short, they are messages no longer. They serve, instead, to tone up the cortex, with a background supporting action that is completely necessary if the messages proper are to have their effect. Without the arousal system, the sensory impulses by the direct route reach the sensory cortex, but go no farther; the rest of the cortex is unaffected, and thus learned stimulus-response relations are lost. The waking center, which has long been known, is one part of this larger system; any extensive damage to it leaves a permanently inert, comatose animal.

      Remember that in all this I am talking conceptual nervous system: making a working simplification, and abstracting for psychological purposes; and all these statements may need qualification, especially since research in this area is moving rapidly. There is reason to think, for example, that the arousal system may not be homogeneous, but may consist of a number of subsystems with distinctive functions (38). Olds and Milner’s (37) study, reporting “reward” by direct intracranial stimulation, is not easy to fit into the notion of a single, homogeneous system. Sharpless’ (40) results also raise doubt on this point, and it may reasonably be anticipated that arousal will eventually be found to vary qualitatively as well as quantitatively. But in general terms, psychologically, we can now distinguish two quite different effects of a sensory event. One is the cue function, guiding behavior; the other, less obvious but no less important, is the arousal or vigilance function. Without a foundation of arousal, the cue function cannot exist.

      And now I propose to you that, whatever you wish to call it, arousal in this sense is synonymous with a general drive state, and the conception of drive therefore assumes anatomical and physiological identity. Let me remind you of what we discussed earlier: the drive is an energizer, but not a guide; an engine but not a steering gear. These are precisely the specifications of activity in the arousal system. Also, learning is dependent on drive, according to drive theory, and this too is applicable in general terms — no arousal, no learning; and efficient learning is possible only in the waking, alert, responsive animal, in which the level of arousal is high.

      Thus I find myself obliged to reverse my earlier views and accept the drive conception, not merely on physiological grounds but also on the grounds of some of our current psychological studies. The conception is somewhat modified, but the modifications may not be entirely unacceptable to others.

      Consider the relation of the effectiveness of cue function, actual or poten- [p. 250] tial, to the level of arousal (Fig. 2). Physiologically, we may assume that cortical synaptic function is facilitated by the diffuse bombardment of the arousal system. When this bombardment is at a low level an increase will tend to strengthen or maintain the concurrent cortical activity; when arousal or drive is at a low level, that is, a response that produces increased stimulation and greater arousal will tend to be repeated. This is represented by the rising curve at the left. But when arousal is at a high level, as at the right, the greater bombardment may interfere with the delicate adjustments involved in cue function, perhaps by facilitating irrelevant responses (a high D arouses conflicting SHR’s?). Thus there will be an optimal level of arousal for effective behavior, as Schlosberg (39) has suggested. Set aside such physiologizing completely, and we have a significant behavioral conception left, namely, that the same stimulation in mild degree may attract (by prolonging the pattern of response that leads to this stimulation) and in strong degree repel (by disrupting the pattern and facilitating conflicting or alternative responses).

      The significance of this relation is in a phenomenon of the greatest importance for understanding motivation in higher animals. This is the positive attraction of risk taking, or mild fear, and of problem solving, or mild frustration, which was referred to earlier. Whiting and Mowrer (49) and Berlyne (4) have noted a relation between fear and curiosity — that is, a tendency to seek stimulation from fear-provoking objects, though at a safe distance. Woodworth (50) and Valentine (48) reported this in children, and Woodworth and Marquis (51) have recently emphasized again its importance in adults. There is no doubt that it exists. There is no doubt, either, that problem-solving situations have some attraction for the rat, more for Harlow’s (16) monkeys, and far more for man. When you stop to think of it, it is nothing short of extraordinary what trouble people will go to in order to get into more trouble at the bridge table, or on the golf course; and the fascination of the murder story, or thriller, and the newspaper accounts of real-life adventure or tragedy, is no less extraordinary. This taste for excitement must not be forgotten when we are dealing with human motivation. It appears that, up to a certain point, threat and puzzle have positive motivating value, beyond that point negative value.

      I know this leaves problems. It is not any mild threat, any form of problem, that is rewarding; we still have to work out the rules for this formulation. Also, I do not mean that there are not secondary rewards of social prestige for risk taking and problem solving — or even primary reward when such behavior is part of lovemaking. But the animal data show that it is not always a matter of extrinsic reward; risk and puzzle can be attractive in themselves, especially for higher animals such as man. If we can accept this, it will no longer be necessary to work out tortuous and improbable ways to explain why human beings work for money, why school children should learn with- [p. 251] out pain, why a human being in isolation should dislike doing nothing.

      One other point before leaving Fig. 2: the low level of the curve to the right. You may be skeptical about such an extreme loss of adaptation, or disturbance of cue function and S-R relations, with high levels of arousal. Emotion is persistently regarded as energizing and organizing (which it certainly is at the lower end of the scale, up to the optimal level). But the “paralysis of terror” and related states do occur. As Brown and Jacobs (8, p. 753) have noted, “the presence of fear may act as an energizer . . . and yet lead in certain instances to an increase in immobility.”

      Discussion 7

      Discussion 7

      This week, critically think about the theories and studies that were developed regarding psychobiology, cognitive psychology, and the study of human behavior associated with brain activity. Familiarize yourself with the Module 7 objectives, introduction, videos, articles, and all other content in the module. For primary references, use our readings for the week, then utilize the Saint Leo Library for peer reviewed sources and to find relevance to the topic this week.

      Please share your information with this thread and answer the following questions:

      1) Psychobiology is a field that helped to establish the biological basis of human behavior. Describe what you feel is the biggest influence from psychobiology that led to how human behavior is viewed today.

      2) In the Pre-1930’s, it was believed that the human brain works like a car and that if certain responses or stimuli are separated, the body cannot function properly. This developed the five most significant stimuli. What do you feel are the most vital stimuli that determine how the human brain operates? Why do feel your choice is the most important?

      Readings for the week

      · Hebb, D. O. (1955). Drives and the C.N.S. (conceptual nervous system). Psychological Review, 62, 243-254.

      · Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

      · Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189–208.

      Discussion 7

       

      Belief Systems

      Fromma Walsh, the author of your text, refers to belief systems as the heart and soul of resilience. Please use the assigned readings and use the Library to research peer-reviewed studies to support your post.

      Please respond to the following:

      • Why does Fromma Walsh refer to belief systems as the heart and soul of resilience?
      • How does an individual, family, or group belief system influence the way in which they make sense of an adverse event?
      • Considering the influence one’s belief system has on their perception of the world around them, why is it so important for human service professionals to consider the client’s belief system when making referrals to resources and interventions?

      Discussion 7

      The phrase “nurses eat their young” has been around for decades. The consequences of bullying include nurses reporting poorer mental health, decreased collaboration with team members, ineffective communication, reduced work productivity, and poor job commitment.

      • Do you feel bullying or horizontal violence is an issue in the clinical environment? Why or why not?
      • Discuss how the nurse mentor can promote professional socialization in the workplace.

      In order to receive full credit, you will need to clearly respond to both parts of the question using subtitles or bullets AND cite at least one scholarly reference in your response

      Discussion 7

      Do some research and find at least three new online resources (that have not been previously discussed in this course) that you could use in your classroom.  Explain what each resource is and how it can be helpful to the age level and subject area that you plan to teach.

      Discussion 7

      Module 7.1 Thinking

      Module 7.2 Language

      Module 7.3 Intelligence

      Module 7.1

      Thinking

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Focuses on how we acquire knowledge about the world

      Cognitive psychologists investigate

      Thinking

      Information processing

      Language

      Problem solving

      When psychology first emerged as an independent science, the focus was on the mind, but introspective methods were limited to subjective experiences that could not be directly observed or measured.

      Some theorists study cognition, the mental processes involved in acquiring and applying knowledge and using language as a means of communication. Cognitive psychology has emerged since the mid-1900s as a major area of study in psychology. This chapter focuses on three major areas of study in cognitive psychology: thinking, language, and intelligence.

      The mental representation and manipulation of information

      Information is represented in the form of:

      Mental Images

      Words

      Concepts

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      The human mind is continually thinking, but what is thinking? How do psychologists define thinking?

      Virtually everything you do, from important decisions to mundane tasks, involve this type of mental manipulation.

      A mental picture or representation of an object or event, not a “photographic” record

      Can be held and manipulated

      Can lead to creative solutions for puzzling problems

      Gender differences in mental imagery

      Women seem to use images more in memories, while
      men use them more in immediate problem-solving

      Not limited to visual images

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      How do we use mental imagery in our daily lives? Can you think of some examples?

      Same

      Same

      Different

      Are the objects
      in each pair the
      same or different?

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      People vary in their abilities to manipulate mental image. Let’s try it out with these examples.

      Mental categories we use to group
      objects, events, and ideas according
      to their common features

      Functions

      Helps us make sense of the world and allow
      us to anticipate the future more accurately

      Allows us to distinguish threatening from
      harmless stimuli

      Helps us to respond more quickly to events

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Concepts are mental representations of information in the form of categories for grouping similar objects, events, and ideas.

      What makes a fruit
      a fruit?

      Logical vs.
      natural concepts

      How do people use natural concepts?

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Myotis/Shutterstock.com

      How do logical concepts differ from natural concepts? How do we develop the concepts we use in our daily lives?

      Logical concepts – clearly defined rules for determining membership

      Natural concepts – the rules for determining membership are poorly defined or fuzzy

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Problem solving – a cognitive process in which we employ mental strategies to solve problems.

      We can sometimes solve problems through:

      Trial and error (hit or miss)

      Insight or “eureka-type” experiences. Insight is believed to result from restructuring a problem. Do you remember the work of Wolfgang Kohler from chapter 5?

      Next we’ll take a look at two problems that involve some creative problem solving strategies.

      Source: Metcalfe, J. (1986). Feelings of knowing in memory and problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
      Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 288-294.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      The problem here is to move only three of the dots to make a downward facing triangle. You can use a set of poker chips to work through the solution. Will you try out every possible solution (trial and error approach)? Or will you sit back and mull the problem over in your head, waiting for a flash of inspiration that leads to the correct solution (insight approach)? The answer is found on the next slide.

      Problem
      Move only three of these dots to
      make a downward-facing triangle

      Solution

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Source: Metcalfe, J. (1986). Feelings of knowing in memory and problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
      Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 288-294.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Algorithms and heuristics can be used as problem-solving strategies.

      An algorithm is a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem, which guarantees a solution. Algorithms used in arithmetic render perfect solutions. So long as you follow the rules for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, you will get the right answer every time. Computers are programmed to apply algorithms to solve problems.

      Heuristics are guiding principles or “rules of thumb” used in solving problems, but they don’t guarantee success.

      The matchstick problem shown here is an example of how heuristics can be used to solve a problem. You must move two matches to form four equal squares.

      An algorithm (trying all possible solutions) in this case will eventually work, but is inefficient, as there are just too many possible rearrangements of the matchsticks to test each one. Instead, you can apply a rule of thumb of discarding unlikely alternatives in order to find a more likely solution.

      [Click to see solution]

      Types of Heuristics include:

      • Means-end analysis – evaluating the difference between a current position and a desired goal, then employing different means to reduce that difference.
      • Working backwards – starting with a potential solution and working backward to see if the data support the solution
      • Creating subgoals – See next slide.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Sub Goal 1

      Sub Goal 2

      Sub Goal 3

      © Cengage Learning

      A

      B

      C

      1

      2

      3

      Formulating subgoals is an example of a problem-solving heuristic by which we approach a complex problem by creating subgoals that break down a larger problem into smaller, more manageable problems.

      In this example (called the Tower of Hanoi problem), you must move the rings from peg A to peg C. You can move only the top ring on a peg and can’t place a larger ring above a smaller one.

      Formulating subgoals is a useful strategy for completing this problem. Think of it this way – your first goal is to move ring 3, the biggest ring, onto peg C. Your second goal is to move ring two to peg B, and so on.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Common barriers to problem solving include functional fixedness, which is the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use (as in the two-string problem); mental set, which exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past but may not apply to the present problem.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Two strings hang from the ceiling but are too far apart to allow a person to hold one and walk to the other. On the table are a book of matches, a candle, and a few pieces of cotton. How could the strings be tied together?

      [Click to see the solution.]

      The solution depends on tying the candle to the string so that the string could be swung like a pendulum. Failure to solve the problem is a classic example of functional fixedness (failing to recognize how a candle can be used in other ways).

      127 Cups

      3 Cups

      21 Cups

      100 Cups

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Suppose that you have a 21-cup jar, a 127-cup jar, and a 3-cup jar. Drawing and discarding as much water as you like, you need to measure out exactly 100 cups of water. How can this be done? Solving this problem requires an ability to reduce numerical relationships to an algebraic formula, which is this case is B (100-cup jar) – A (21-cup jar) – 2C (3-cup jar). Classic studies by Gestalt psychologist Abraham Luchins in the 1940s showed that once people derive a formula that works, they continue to use the same formula even when simpler solutions become possible. An example like the one shown here would be followed by several other similar examples that can be solved by the same formula. Then a new problem appears in which a simpler strategy would work, but most people continue to rely on the earlier but more cumbersome formula. The tendency to rely on strategies that worked in similar situations in the past but that may not be the best solution to the present problem is called a mental set.

      [Click to see the solution.]

      Do you ever look for information that
      “proves” you are right while ignoring
      data that shows you are wrong?

      The tendency to stick to an initial hypothesis even in the face of strong contradictory evidence

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Once you have a first impression – either of a situation or a person – the confirmation bias may explain some of why it is so difficult to get that impression to change.

      Which is more likely?

      They are equally likely

      ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/64

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Which of the two scenarios on the screen seems more likely?

      [Click to see answer]

      The representativeness heuristic involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype or example of that event.

      You may have guessed the answer is the bottom row, as it seems to be more representative of a random sequence than the top row. However, the probability is exactly the same. The representativeness heuristic can lead us to poor decisions when the sample we rely upon is not representative of the larger population (e.g., seeing what turns out to be a lousy movie because we happen to have overheard someone in an elevator recommending it to a friend).

      Words beginning with the letter K

      Which is more frequent?

      Words with K in the third position

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Heuristics are mental shortcuts that people use in forming judgments and making decisions in situations of uncertainty. As we’ve seen, heuristics can be helpful in problem solving, but they sometimes become impediments to problem solving.

      The availability heuristic involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how easily relevant instances come to mind – for example, estimating divorce rate by recalling the number of divorces among your friends’ parents.

      Research by Tversky and Kahneman supports the hypothesis that examples that come to mind more readily, such as words beginning with the letter K, are perceived to be more frequent than examples that may be forgotten, such as words with K in the third position. Thus, applying the availability heuristic can lead to the wrong answer.

      Divergent thinking vs. convergent thinking

      Cognitive processes underlying creativity

      Use of analogy

      Conceptual combination

      Conceptual expansion

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © The New Yorker Collection 1998 Leo Cullum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.

      Here we see some of the processes underlying creative thinking. You don’t need to be a genius to be creative. How can we be creative in our own lives?

      Creativity – thinking that leads to original, practical, and meaningful solutions to problems or that generates new ideas or artistic expressions.

      Divergent thinking – the ability to conceive of new ways of viewing situations and new uses for familiar objects.

      Convergent thinking – The attempt to narrow down a range of alternatives to one correct answer to a problem.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Module 7.2

      Language

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Language is defined as consisting of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.

      Grammar refers to the set rules that dictate how symbols in a given language are used to form meaningful expressions.

      Phoneme:

      s t r ey n j

      Syntax:

      ( a stranger is a person
      you do not know)

      Morpheme:

      strange

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      strangers

      Semantics:

      There are strangers near our house.

      Basic sounds are combined into units with meaning, which are combined into words, which are combined into phrases, which are combined into sentences.

      Phonemes are the smallest units of speech. English uses about 40 phonemes that can combine to form approximately 500,000 words.

      Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in a language, consisting of root words, prefixes, and suffixes.

      Syntax is a system of rules for arranging words into sentences. Different languages have different rules (e.g., verb or subject first in a sentence?)

      Semantics refer to the meaning of words and word combinations. Learning semantics involves learning the variety of objects and actions to which words refer.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © iStockphoto.com/kvisel

      Milestones in Language Acquisition

      Age (Approximate) Vocal Activity Description
      Birth Crying Crying expresses distress
      2 months Cooing Infant begins making cooing sounds (e.g., “aah” and “oooh”).
      6 to 12 months Babbling Phonemes, the basic units of sound, appear.
      12 months One-word phrases Babies imitate sounds and can understand
      some words; they begin to say single words.
      18 to 24 months Two-word phrases
      or sentences
      Vocabulary grows to about 50 words,
      and babies emit two-word phrases or sentences.
      24 to 36 months Complex speech Sentences become longer and more complex and include plurals and past tense; speech shows elements of proper syntax

      Infant vocalizations are initially similar across languages, involving all phonemes. Infants cry, coo, and make repetitive babbling vocalizations of all phonemes.

      Birth – a child will only use crying as a linguistic expression.

      2 months – Cooing

      By the age of 6 months, the babbling sounds begin to resemble those of the infants’ surrounding language.

      By the time an infant is 12 months of age, the first word is typically spoken, usually dada, mama, papa, etc. This is similar across cultures.

      While few words are spoken (expressive language) at this stage, very young children may actually understand (receptive language) more language than they can produce.

      18 to 24 months sees the child using two-word phrases or sentences.

      From 2 to 3 years the child will start mastering complex speech.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      2-5 years: Language
      Development
      for Early Childhood

      By the end of the second year, children begin combining words to produce meaningful sentences. These sentences are characterized as telegraphic, because they resemble telegrams, consisting mainly of content words, with articles, prepositions, and other less critical words omitted.

      By the end of the third year, children can express complex ideas; however, they continue to make mistakes such as overregularizing, which invovles generalizing grammatical rules incorrectly to irregular cases where they do not apply, such as in the example, ”he goed home,” for example.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Clinton Wallace/Globe Photos/ZUMAPRESS.com/Alamy

      Nature and Nurture:

      Chomsky believes we have an inborn propensity to learn language. Chomsky introduced the concept of the language acquisition device (LAD), which he described as an innate, prewired mechanism for language development.

      Both nature and nurture are involved in language acquisition. Humans have a biological capacity to develop language, but need experience with the sounds, meanings, and structures of human speech for language to develop.

      Critics note that Chomsky’s LAD does not explain mechanisms by which language is produced.

      Linguistic relativity hypothesis:
      Language determines thought

      Also called the Whorfian hypothesis

      Research findings

      Language does not determine thought but
      it does influence how we think about the world

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Use example of Rosch’s research with a New Guinea tribe, showing that even though tribal members had only two words to distinguish among many colors, they were just as able as English-speaking people to distinguish between many different colors. That said, language does influence thought. For example, how does the use of the male gender when speaking of certain occupations (e.g., policeman, fireman) influence gender typing of these occupations.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Courtesy of the Great Ape Trust of Iowa

      Researchers have attempted to teach language to a variety of animals, but the most success has been shown with chimpanzees and gorillas.

      One of the biggest problems in teaching human language to nonhuman animals is that the vocal apparatus is not the same. Researchers, therefore, began to use ASL with chimpanzees.

      One early example was Washoe, a chimpanzee who was taught to use ASL. Washoe developed a vocabulary of about 160 words, combining them into simple sentences, but showing little evidence of mastering the rules of language.

      The neurological substrates underlying language may be present in chimpanzees. Still, chimps by no means approach the language facility of an adult human, suggesting an evolutionary basis for human language development.

      Note that many animals species have their own communication systems. Is it fair to judge communication in other animal species by human standards? What would it be like for humans to learn chimp communication?

      General findings are that animals can learn imitation but lack the ability to master grammatical components such as syntax, which would be required for true “language” use.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Module 7.3

      Intelligence

      The capacity to

      Reason clearly

      Act purposefully

      Adapt to one’s environment

      Pursue one’s goals

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Like the word “thinking”, the word “intelligence” is widely used but is difficult to define precisely. The following definition was suggested by the American psychologist and developer of many widely-used tests of intelligence, David Wechsler: “The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.”

      Alfred Binet –
      With colleague Theodore Simon, developed the first formal intelligence test to assess a child’s mental age.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      The Frenchmen Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first modern intelligence test.   In 1912, a German psychologist, William Stern, offered a formula for computing the IQ based on ratio between mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA).

      Lewis Terman

      Adapted Binet-Simon test
      for American use and established norms for comparisons

      David Wechsler

      Introduced concept of deviation IQ where 100 is average

      Created tests designed to measure various mental abilities

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      ©Kristin Sekulic/Shutterstock.com

      The intelligence test came to the U.S. and was developed further with the work of Henry Goddard and, later, of Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman and New York psychologist David Wechsler.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      Here we see examples of subtests similar to those used on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      The distribution of intelligence is represented in terms of a normal distribution (“bell curve”).

      Standardization

      Reliability

      Test-retest method

      Alternative-forms method

      Validity

      Predictive validity

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      What are the characteristics of a good intelligence test? How do tests measure up to these standards?

      Standardization – establishing norms for a test by administering the test to large numbers of people who constitute a standardization sample.

      Reliability – consistency of test scores over time.

      Validity – the extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure.

      Low expectations can become
      self-fulfilling prophecies

      Too much emphasis placed on IQ scores
      in student placement

      May be biased against those from other cultural backgrounds

      Development of culture-fair tests

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      How might IQ tests be misused? Have you ever had an intelligence test? How was it used (or misused)?

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      F64/Digital Vision/Getty Images

      Despite common mythology, neither sex is “smarter” than the other as a general statement.

      Females tend to outperform males on some verbal skills, such as reading, writing, and spelling.

      Males hold an edge in visual-spatial tasks. Traditional differences in math skills have virtually disappeared in recent years.

      Men and women tend to perform similarly on tests of general intelligence and problem-solving skills.

      Intellectual disability

      IQ of about 70 or below

      Difficulty coping with age-appropriate tasks

      Practice of mainstreaming

      Causes can be biological, environmental, or both

      Intellectually gifted

      IQ of about 130 or higher

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Note: IQ ranges and prevalence data are based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) Version for 2010.
      Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; King et al., 2009.

      Levels of Intellectual Disability and Capabilities of School-Age Children

      Level of Intellectual Disability
      (approx. IQ Range)
      Approx. Percentage of Cases Typical Capabilities of School-Age Children
      Mild (50-69) 85% Able to acquire reading and arithmetic skills to about a sixth-grade level and can later function relatively independently and engage in productive work.
      Moderate (35-49) 10% Able to learn simple communication and manual skills, but have difficulty acquiring reading and arithmetic skills.
      Severe (20-34) 4% Capable of basic speech and may be able to learn repetitive tasks in supervised settings.
      Profound (below 20) 2% Severe delays in all areas of development, but some may learn simple tasks
      in supervised settings.

      Important to note that the great majority of people with intellectual disability fall in the mild range of the disorder.

      Spearman’s “g”

      Thurstone’s primary mental abilities

      Gardner’s model of multiple intelligences

      Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Psychologists continue to debate the nature of intelligence. These are some of the major conceptual models.

      British psychologist Charles Spearman emphasized the importance of “g” or general cognitive ability. He also posited the need to account for specific abilities as well as “g’.”

      Verbal comprehension

      Numerical ability

      Memory

      Inductive reasoning

      Perceptual speed

      Verbal fluency

      Spatial relations

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Psychologist Louis Thurstone expanded Spearman’s two-factor model (general ability and specific abilities) to seven primary mental abilities.

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Source: From D. J. Martin and K. S. Loomis, Building Teachers, 1st ed., Figure 5.5, p.136. Copyright © 2007 Wadsworth, a part of Cengage Learning.
      Reproduced by permission. www.academic.cengage.com

      Contemporary psychologist Howard Gardner posits the existence of multiple intelligences. He encourages schools to cultivate these different intelligences, not just the traditional linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences. Do you agree?

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      © Cengage Learning

      © Will & Deni McIntyre/Corbis

      © iStockphoto/Marcus Clackson

      Anders Ryman/Documentary/Corbis

      Another contemporary psychologist, Robert Sternberg, emphasizes how we bring together different aspects of our intelligence in meeting the challenges we face. He believes intelligence comprises three aspects: analytic, creative, and practical.

      Evidence that intelligence has a strong genetic component

      Environmental influences also important

      Verbal interaction, reading, exploration

      Both nature and nurture interact in complex ways

      Heritability suggest that about 50% of the variation
      in intelligence in the population can be explained
      by genetic factors

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      White Americans of European background typically score an average of 15 points higher than African Americans
      on IQ tests

      The reasons for this difference are unclear, though several different theories have been forwarded

      Genetic explanations have generally been discounted,
      and the emphasis is on environmental differences

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Applying Psychology in Daily Life

      Becoming a Creative Problem Solver

      Adopt a questioning attitude

      Gather information

      Avoid getting stuck in mental sets

      Generate alternatives

      Personal brainstorming

      After generating a list, put it aside for a few days

      Find analogies

      Think outside the box

      Sleep on it

      Test it out

      7.1

      7.2

      7.3

      Discussion 7

      Part one: Identify different historical definitions of, and causal explanations for, drug abuse
      Part two: Apply social learning theory to the “causes” of drug abuse
      Part three: Analyze the interactional contexts and personal experiences associated with “soft” and “hard” drug abuse

      • Relevance: the ideas expressed indicate that the student has read and comprehended the assigned material.
      • Clarity, coherence: the ideas are stated clearly and coherently.
      • Critical thinking: there is evidence that the student has adequately analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated the assigned material.
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      Discussion 7

      O U T C O M E S
      for

      Intellectually Gifted
      Education Programs

      2017

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 2

      Carey M. Wright, Ed.D.

      S T A T E S U P E R I N T E N D E N T O F E D U C A T I O N

      Kim Benton, Ed.D.

      C H I E F A C A D E M I C O F F I C E R

      O F F I C E O F E L E M E N T A R Y E D U C A T I O N A N D R E A D I N G

      Nathan Oakley, Ph.D.

      E X E C U T I V E D I R E C T O R

      Robin Lemonis, M.Ed., CALT, LDT
      B U R E A U D I R E C T O R ,
      Office of Intervention Services

      Tenette Smith, Ed.D.
      B U R E A U D I R E C T O R

      Jen Cornett
      G I F T E D E D U C A T I O N S P E C I A L I S T ,
      Office of Intervention Services

      The Mississippi State Board of Education, the Mississippi Department of Education, the Mississippi
      School for the Arts, the Mississippi School for the Blind, the Mississippi School for the Deaf, and the
      Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science do not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color,
      religion, national origin, age, or disability in the provision of educational programs and services or
      employment opportunities and benefits. The following office has been designated to handle inquiries and
      complaints regarding the non‑discrimination policies of the above mentioned entities: Director, Office of
      Human Resources, Mississippi Department of Education, 359 North West Street, P.O. Box 771, Suite 203,

      Jackson, MS 39205‑0771, (601)359-3511.

      Mississippi Department of Education
      359 North West Street
      P. O. Box 771
      Jackson, Mississippi 39205-0771
      (601) 359-3511
      www.mdek12.org/ESE

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 3

      A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S

      The Mississippi Department of Education gratefully acknowledges the following
      individuals who worked to develop the Outcomes for Intellectually Gifted Education
      Programs 2017.

      C O N T R I B U T O R S

      Theresa Bates
      Teacher, Oxford

      Svetlana Lucas
      Teacher, Lamar County

      Lora Beasley
      Teacher, Lamar County

      Emily Nelson
      Executive Director of Leadership
      Development, Desoto County

      Michael Cox
      Teacher, Humphreys County

      Melissa Pierce
      Past President,
      Mississippi Association for Gifted Children

      Pam Dearman
      Literacy Coach, Harrison County

      Jenny Reynolds
      Teacher, Madison County

      Terry Gressett
      Teacher, Union County

      Margaret Snider
      Retired Teacher, Jackson

      Dr. Gail Hammond
      Retired Teacher, Rankin County

      Dr. Royal Toy
      Associate Professor, Mississippi University
      for Women

      Von Jackson
      Teacher, Gulfport

      Donna Welborn
      Psychometrist, Jackson

      Pam Keith
      Retired Teacher, Newton County

      Sherry Willis
      Teacher, Tupelo

      O U T C O M E S S U B ” C O M M I T T E E

      Jennifer Martin
      Teacher, Rankin County

      Carol Paola
      Mississippi Association for Gifted Children
      Executive Director
      Teacher, Long Beach

      Laura McAlpin
      Teacher, Clinton

      Connie West
      Gifted Program Coordinator,
      Vicksburg-Warren

      Special thanks are given to the Mississippi Association for Gifted Children Executive
      Board and membership for their assistance in development and review on preliminary
      versions of this document.

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 4

      Table of Contents

      P R E F A C E ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5

      I N T R O D U C T I O N …………………………………………………………………………. 7

      O U TC OM E S B Y C OM P E T EN C Y ………………………………………………………. 8

      Thinking Skills …………………………………………………………………………………… 9

      Creativity ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

      Information Literacy ………………………………………………………………………… 16

      Success Skills …………………………………………………………………………………… 18

      Affective (Social and Emotional) Skills ……………………………………………….. 21

      Communication Skills ………………………………………………………………………. 23

      O U TC OM E S B Y GR AD E L EV EL …………………………………………………….. 26

      Second Grade ………………………………………………………………………………… 27

      Third Grade ……………………………………………………………………………………. 31

      Fourth Grade …………………………………………………………………………………. 35

      Fifth Grade …………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

      Middle School ………………………………………………………………………………… 44

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 5

      P R E F A C E
      The 2013 Regulations for Gifted Education Programs document defines

      intellectually gifted children as those children and youth who are found to have

      an exceptionally high degree of intelligence as documented through the

      identification process. The purpose of Gifted Education Programs in Mississippi

      is to ensure that gifted children who demonstrate unusually high potential as

      described above are identified and offered an appropriate education based upon

      their exceptional abilities.

      Gifted Education Programs in Mississippi shall be designed to

      meet the individual needs of gifted children and shall be in

      addition to and different from the regular program of

      instruction provided by the district. Gifted children require

      uniquely and qualitatively different educational experiences

      beyond those available in the general education setting.

      These educational experiences must address their

      asynchronous development by supporting cognitive, creative,

      and affective needs while helping them to realize abilities and

      maximize potential.

      In order for intellectually gifted students in Mississippi to be

      challenged to reach their full potential, a well-defined set of

      outcomes/competencies for gifted education programs is

      essential. Gifted learners have the ability to demonstrate

      mastery/understanding and the ability to use the process skills

      outlined in the outcomes/competencies at a much younger age

      and in greater depth and breadth than non-gifted learners.

      While many of the outcomes/competencies established in this

      document are desirable for all students, the point of

      introduction, pace, depth, and complexity of instruction

      require significant differentiation for gifted learners.

      The overreaching competency for intellectually gifted programs

      is metacognition, a process skill requiring mastery and use of

      many other process skills. Simply put, metacognition is

      “thinking about your own thinking.” Students should be aware

      of the mental processes they utilize while engaged in learning.

      They also should learn to self-regulate and oversee their own

      learning in order to make changes as needed. This cognitive

      goal should be the primary focus in guiding metacognitive

      practices and gifted instruction.

      Gifted learners need learning

      experiences that are rich.

      That is, they need learning

      experiences that are

      organized by key concepts

      and principles of a discipline

      rather than by facts.

      They need content that is

      relevant to their lives,

      activities that cause them to

      process important ideas at a

      high level, and products that

      cause them to grapple with

      meaningful problems and

      pose defensible solutions.

      They need classrooms that

      are respectful to them,

      provide both structure and

      choice, and help them

      achieve more than they

      thought they could. These

      are needs shared by all

      learners, not just those who

      are gifted. But good

      instruction for gifted learners

      must begin there.
      Carol Ann Tomlinson, Ed. D.

      The University of Virginia

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 6

      Differentiated curriculum in the gifted class should develop and enhance the

      process skills in the outcomes document, the teaching strategies notebook, and

      required components of the gifted program standards document. Some gifted

      education experiences should be short-term and exploratory to introduce ideas

      and concepts not normally covered in the general education setting. The activities

      should enhance the integration of advanced content and individual student’s

      interests utilizing higher-level thinking skills, problem solving, critical thinking

      skills, research skills, personal growth and human relations exercises, leadership

      skills, and creative expression. Activities also should create an appreciation for

      the multicultural composition of the school and community (Regulations for

      Gifted Education Programs, 2013).

      To maintain the integrity of gifted education programs in the State of Mississippi,

      the needs of gifted students should be addressed based on the Outcomes for

      Intellectually Gifted Education Programs in Mississippi 2017. This document

      shall be the foundation for each school district’s Gifted Education Program

      Instructional Management Plan.

      Gifted Children’s Bill of Rights

      Y O U H A V E A R I G H T T O

      know about your giftedness.

      learn something new everyday.

      be passionate about your talent area without apologies.

      have an identity beyond your talent area.

      feel good about your accomplishments.

      make mistakes.

      seek guidance in the development of your talent.

      have multiple peer groups and a variety of friends.

      choose which of your talent areas you wish to pursue.

      not to be gifted at everything.

      Del Siegle, President
      National Assosication of Gifted Children 2007 – 2009

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 7

      I N T R O D U C T I O N
      This document is designed for use by teachers who serve gifted children. It is

      structured to ensure that students have a strong foundation for applying each

      grade-level standard. Teachers should work to continually build upon the grade-

      level outcomes, while also challenging students to develop and expand upon each

      competency through the gifted education program. Teachers may choose to

      introduce higher outcomes at earlier grade levels to meet the individual needs of

      students and classes and to ensure that students are appropriately and

      meaningfully challenged.

      Overview of Gifted Education Compe tencies

      T H I N K I N G S K I L L S C R E A T I V I T Y

      Given a topic/situation, the learner will

      define and classify the problem(s), make

      connections, and draw distinctions, analyze

      information objectively and critically

      (reflectively developing a relationship

      between facts and values), and differentiate

      truth and beliefs from his/her understanding

      of what is logically and realistically possible.

      Given a real-life situation, the student will be

      able to select from divergent thinking,

      analogical thinking, visualization, attribute

      listing, morphological analysis, synectics,

      intuitive thinking, spontaneous thinking,

      creative problem solving, and/or the creative

      process in an appropriate manner to develop

      a workable solution(s).

      I N F O R M A T I O N L I T E R A C Y C O M M U N I C A T I O N S K I L L S

      Given a real situation, the student will

      identify and define the problem, design a

      research plan appropriate to the problem,

      conduct the investigation, decide on the most

      appropriate media for dissemination of the

      findings/ solutions, and present the results

      before an authentic audience.

      Given the need to retrieve and/or

      disseminate information, the students will

      select and utilize the most appropriate media

      based upon available resources, technology,

      audience, and time available, for the most

      effective communication of information,

      ideas, feelings, and concepts and correctly

      interpreting those of others.

      A F F E C T I V E S K I L L S S U C C E S S S K I L L S

      As a gifted learner, students will develop self-

      acceptance and awareness and demonstrate

      responsibility for personal growth along with

      awareness of personal and cultural diversity

      in others by recognizing forms of bias and

      stereotypes in order to respect unique beliefs

      and experiences in themselves and others by

      understanding and embracing giftedness,

      appropriately coping with stress in order to

      become healthy, responsive, contributing,

      and productive members of classroom

      communities and society as a whole.

      Given a real-life situation, the student will

      utilize effective organizational, decision

      making, goal-setting, project management,

      and time management skills, including

      controlling impulses and adapting to

      unforeseen circumstances, in order to

      develop solutions to problems and achieve

      goals whether working individually or as a

      leader or member of a team.

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 8

      O U T C O M E S
      by

      Competency

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 9

      Thinking Skills
      C

      O
      M

      P
      E

      T
      E

      N
      C

      Y

      Given a topic/situation, the learner will define and classify the problem(s), make
      connections, and draw distinctions, analyze information objectively and critically
      (reflectively developing a relationship between facts and values), and differentiate truth
      and beliefs from his/her understanding of what is logically and realistically possible.

      S E C O N D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      METACOGNITION
      (Abstract Thinking

      and Reflection)

      TS 2.1 Analyze abstract thinking skills modeled by others

      TS 2.2 Compose lower-level questions to develop a foundation for
      higher-level inquiry

      TS 2.3 Reflect upon learning experiences

      CONVERGENT
      THINKING

      (Logical Thinking)

      TS 2.4 Apply analogical thinking to identify relationships between
      two familiar items or events to identify an unknown

      TS 2.5 Apply deductive reasoning of general to specific information
      to analyze and organize sets of limited clues and reach
      logical conclusions

      CRITICAL THINKING
      (Decision Making)

      TS 2.6 Distinguish facts from opinions

      TS 2.7 Inventory, compare, and contrast attributes of varying objects
      and ideas

      TS 2.8 Identify, analyze, and evaluate information in order to make
      decisions, solve problems, and establish priorities

      TS 2.9 Appraise implications and consequences of personal actions
      and decisions

      T H I R D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      METACOGNITION
      (Abstract Thinking

      and Reflection)

      TS 3.1 Apply abstract thinking skills modeled by others

      TS 3.2 Compose elaborating questions to extend and
      stretch learning

      TS 3.3 Analyze, reflect upon, and justify learning experiences

      TS 3.4 Observe and analyze reflective thinking modeled by others

      CONVERGENT
      THINKING

      (Logical Thinking)

      TS 3.5 Apply inductive reasoning from specific to general
      information to predict probable conclusions

      TS 3.6 Apply abstract reasoning to identify relationships in figural
      analogies from possible options

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 10

      CRITICAL THINKING
      (Decision Making)

      TS 3.7 Construct questions to deepen understanding

      TS 3.8 Classify information into logical categories

      TS 3.9 Discuss and analyze events in the news to develop an
      awareness of social issues and world cultures

      TS 3.10 Identify and analyze relationship between ideas and data to
      determine cause and effect of actions and events

      F O U R T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      METACOGNITION
      (Abstract Thinking

      and Reflection)

      TS 4.1 Observe, analyze, and apply abstract thinking skills

      TS 4.2 Develop hypothetical questions to explore possibilities

      TS 4.3 Analyze, reflect upon, and justify learning experiences,
      identifying what was learned, tasks completed, skills
      developed, additional needs, and value of the experiences

      CONVERGENT
      THINKING

      (Logical Thinking)

      TS 4.4 Demonstrate an understanding of analogical reasoning by
      identifying, explaining, and giving examples of the forms
      of analogies

      TS 4.5 Utilize analogical reasoning to create analogies using
      multiple categories

      TS 4.6 Apply deductive reasoning of general to specific information
      to analyze and organize multi-faceted clues and identify data
      to support logical conclusions

      CRITICAL THINKING
      (Decision Making)

      TS 4.7 Utilize intuitive thinking to deepen understanding and
      analyze varying perspectives

      TS 4.8 Discuss and analyze events and issues for problem
      identification

      TS 4.9 Assess the organization, content, value, effectiveness, and
      results of actions/decisions.

      TS 4.10 Appraise implications and consequences of personal actions
      and decisions

      F I F T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      METACOGNITION
      (Abstract Thinking

      and Reflection)

      TS 5.1 Develop and ask hypothetical questions to explore
      possibilities and test relationships

      TS 5.2 Analyze and establish needs for exploration of chosen topics

      CONVERGENT
      THINKING

      (Logical Thinking)

      TS 5.3

      Demonstrate depth of thought in deductive reasoning by
      evaluating and justifying data that supports logical
      conclusions drawn

      CRITICAL THINKING
      (Decision Making)

      TS 5.4 Appraise evaluation techniques for decision making

      TS 5.5 Assess and analyze local, national, and world issues and
      defend opinions with supporting evidence

      TS 5.6 Appraise implications and consequences of local and national
      events and decisions

      TS 5.7 Prove or disprove ideas by presenting evidence

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 11

      M I D D L E S C H O O L O B J E C T I V E S

      METACOGNITION
      (Abstract Thinking

      and Reflection)

      TS MS.1 Develop and ask higher-level questions to clarify the
      coherence and logic of given information

      TS MS.2 Reflect upon learning strengths and needs and establish
      learning goals for independent thinking and autonomous
      learning

      CONVERGENT
      THINKING

      (Logical Thinking)

      TS MS.3 Demonstrate an understanding of analogical reasoning by
      identifying, explaining, and giving examples of the forms of
      analogies to support thoughts/ideas

      TS MS.4 Demonstrate depth of thought in deductive reasoning by
      creating deductive reasoning problems with multi-faceted
      clues and justifying data included to support logical
      conclusions

      CRITICAL THINKING
      (Decision Making)

      TS MS.5 Identify, analyze, evaluate, and justify information in order to
      make decisions, form beliefs, solve problems, and set
      priorities based on evidence

      TS MS.6 Appraise global implications and consequences of historic
      and current world events

      TS MS.7 Recognize and assess hidden agendas

      TS MS.8 Assess accuracy and relevance of points used to support
      conclusions and make decisions

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 12

      Creativity
      C

      O
      M

      P
      E

      T
      E

      N
      C

      Y

      Given a real-life situation, the student will be able to select from divergent thinking,
      analogical thinking, visualization, attribute listing, morphological analysis, synectics,
      intuitive thinking, spontaneous thinking, creative problem solving, and/or the creative
      process in an appropriate manner to develop a workable solution(s).

      S E C O N D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      CREATIVE THINKING
      Williams Model: Cognitive Domain

      (Fluency/Flexibility/Originality/
      Elaboration/Synthesis)

      CR 2.1 Demonstrate fluency by brainstorming to generate a
      large quantity of ideas, thoughts, products, or plans
      to a given prompt

      CR 2.2 Demonstrate flexibility by adapting given ideas,
      thoughts, products, or plans for many different uses

      CR 2.3 Demonstrate originality by using given objects in
      ways different from their intended purposes

      CR 2.4 Elaborate on given ideas, thoughts, products, or
      plans to create new possibilities

      CR 2.5 Demonstrate synthesis by combining given ideas,
      thoughts, products, or plans in unusual ways

      CREATIVE EXPRESSION
      Visual and Performing Arts

      CR 2.6 Experiment with various materials and tools to
      create products related to personal interest or
      subject matter

      CR 2.7 Identify and explain how and where different
      cultures record and illustrate stories and history of
      life through art

      T H I R D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      CREATIVE THINKING
      Williams Model: Cognitive Domain

      (Fluency/Flexibility/Originality/
      Elaboration/Synthesis)

      CR 3.1 Apply fluency by brainstorming to generate a large
      quantity of ideas, thoughts, products, or plans to a
      selected prompt

      CR 3.2 Apply flexibility by adapting selected ideas,
      thoughts, products, or plans for many different uses

      CR 3.3 Apply originality by using selected objects in ways
      different from their intended purposes

      CR 3.4 Apply elaboration to selected ideas, thoughts,
      products or plans to create new possibilities

      CR 3.5 Apply synthesis by combining selected ideas,
      thoughts, products or plans in unusual ways
      (morphological analysis)

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 13

      CREATIVE THINKING
      Williams Model: Affective Domain

      (Curiosity/Risk-Taking/
      Complexity/Imagination)

      CR 3.6 Demonstrate curiosity by selecting an idea, topic,
      product, or plan and based on interests, compile
      questions to be answered to gather additional
      information in a training activity

      CR 3.7 Demonstrate risk-taking by making predictions
      and experimenting in an unstructured training
      situation

      CR 3.8 Demonstrate complexity by organizing logical
      steps needed to accomplish selected ideas in a
      training activity

      CR 3.9 Demonstrate imagination by visualizing ideas, the
      process to be followed, possible outcomes, and
      consequences of ideas, thoughts, or plans in a
      training situation

      CR 3.10 Apply methods to overcome creative blocks
      (Brainstorm, SCAMPER, etc.)

      CREATIVE EXPRESSION
      Visual and Performing Arts

      CR 3.11 Make, explain, and justify connections between
      artists and artwork or artwork and history

      CR 3.12 Analyze and utilize the elements of art (line, shape,
      value, color, texture) through various materials
      and tools to explore personal interests, questions,
      and subject matter

      F O U R T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      CREATIVE THINKING
      Williams Model: Cognitive Domain

      (Fluency/Flexibility/Originality/
      Elaboration/Synthesis)

      CR 4.1 Apply fluency by brainstorming to generate a large
      quantity of ideas, thoughts, products, or plans to
      solve a given problem

      CR 4.2 Apply flexibility by adapting generated ideas,
      thoughts, products, or plans for many different
      creative uses to solve a given problem

      CR 4.3 Apply originality in generating original ideas or
      alternative solutions to given problems

      CR 4.4 Elaborate on identified ideas, thoughts, products
      or plans to solve a given problem

      CREATIVE THINKING
      Williams Model: Affective Domain

      (Curiosity/Risk-Taking/
      Complexity/Imagination)

      CR 4.5 Apply curiosity in compiling questions to be
      answered to solve a given problem

      CR 4.6 Apply risk-taking by making predictions and
      experimenting in an unstructured setting to solve a
      given problem

      CR 4.7 Apply complexity of thought to organize logical
      steps needed to solve a given problem

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 14

      CR 4.8 Apply imagination by visualizing ideas, the
      process to be followed, possible outcomes, and
      consequences of ideas, thoughts, or plans to solve
      a given problem

      CR 4.9 Demonstrate the ability to follow the Creative
      Problem Solving (CPS) process to solve a given
      problem

      1. Identify and define a problem
      2. Gather ideas and data
      3. Brainstorm aspects of the problem
      4. Identify underlying problems or sub-

      problems
      5. Produce alternative solutions
      6. Develop criteria for judging solutions
      7. Evaluate alternative solutions using the

      criteria
      8. Select and implement chosen solutions.

      CREATIVE EXPRESSION
      Visual and Performing Arts

      CR 4.10 Interpret art by analyzing the mood suggested
      by a work of art and describing relevant
      subject matter

      CR 4.11 Analyze and utilize principles of design (contrast,
      repetition, alignment, proximity) to create
      various products based on subject matter or
      personal interest

      F I F T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      CREATIVE THINKING CR 5.1 Apply the CPS process to solve an identified
      problem

      1. Identify and define a problem
      2. Gather ideas and data
      3. Brainstorm aspects of the problem
      4. Identify underlying problems or sub-

      problems
      5. Produce alternative solutions
      6. Develop criteria for judging solutions
      7. Evaluate alternative solutions using the

      criteria
      8. Select and implement chosen solutions.

      CR 5.2 Reframe ideas through various points of view to
      enhance meaning

      CR 5.3 Examine various meanings, contexts, and points
      of view including humor and opportunities
      for change

      CR 5.4 Apply thinking strategies modeled by mentors

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 15

      CREATIVE EXPRESSION
      Visual and Performing Arts

      CR 5.5 Create a product (work of art, design, presentation,
      or media) to meet an identified goal based on
      personal interest or subject matter

      CR 5.6 Develop criteria to analyze a work of art, design, or
      media to meet an identified goal

      M I D D L E S C H O O L O B J E C T I V E S

      CREATIVE THINKING CR MS.1 Apply the CPS process to solve an identified
      problem, develop and present a plan of action to
      an authentic audience

      CR MS.2 Manage creative flow

      CR MS.3 Set goals with purpose and meaning

      CR MS.4 Adjust the creative process based on feedback

      CR MS.5 Focus on the task at hand and long term goal
      without distraction

      CREATIVE EXPRESSION
      Visual and Performing Arts

      CR MS.6 Select and apply principles of design and produce
      a product (work of art, design, or media) that
      clearly communicates information and ideas

      CR MS.7 Apply relevant criteria to examine, reflect upon,
      and plan revisions to a product in process

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 16

      Information Literacy
      C

      O
      M

      P
      E

      T
      E

      N
      C

      Y

      Given a real situation, the student will identify and define the problem, design a research
      plan appropriate to the problem, conduct the investigation, decide on the most
      appropriate media for dissemination of the findings/ solutions, and present the results
      before an authentic audience.

      S E C O N D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      INFORMATION LITERACY

      IL 2.1 Identify topics for research based on interests

      IL 2.2 Formulate questions for study

      IL 2.3 Analyze topics to determine needed research

      IL 2.4 Interpret research from teacher-approved
      resources

      IL 2.5 Assemble information to provide new knowledge
      or understanding in a particular area

      T H I R D G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      INFORMATION LITERACY

      IL 3.1 Examine a historical event or person by analyzing
      and synthesizing historical information

      IL 3.2 Assemble information by conducting interviews
      related to research topics

      IL 3.3 Employ various digital tools, media, and
      strategies to locate and collect accurate and
      reliable information

      IL 3.4 Create and visually organize information using
      maps, webs, chronological order, sequence, or
      compare/ contrast

      IL 3.5 Demonstrate ability to effectively interpret and
      evaluate information by distinguishing between
      fact and opinion/ point of view in a variety of
      situations

      OUTCOMES for INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED EDUCATION PROGRAMS 17

      F O U R T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      INFORMATION LITERACY

      IL 4.1 Conduct experiments and investigations by
      effectively utilizing the Scientific Method

      IL 4.2 Assemble information by utilizing effective
      survey techniques

      IL 4.3 Create and visually organize information using
      charts, tables, graphs, evidence, or patterns

      IL 4.4 Justify conclusions and generalizations based
      upon data gathered through research

      F I F T H G R A D E O B J E C T I V E S

      INFORMATION LITERACY

      IL 5.1 Analyze the difference between primary and
      secondary sources

      IL 5.2 Utilize primary and secondary sources to
      provide new knowledge or understanding in a
      particular area

      IL 5.3 Define and identify use of propaganda
      techniques to clarify ideas, judge information,
      solve problems, and evaluate relia

      Discussion 7

      Beyond stimulating aldosterone secretion, list the effects of ANG II. Give examples and brief descriptions of pharmaceutical agents that work by altering responses in the RAS pathway. The kidneys assist in the regulation of blood pressure via regulation of blood volume. How is renal regulation of blood volume achieved? Categorize your answers in terms of effects on GFR and on reabsorption.

      Be detailed in your explanation and support your answer with facts from your textbook, research, and articles from scholarly journals. In addition, remember to add references in APA format to your posts to avoid plagiarism.

      discussion 7

      2

      Lisa.

      Communication and Relationships: Conflict, styles, manager’s role, and Emotional Intelligence.

       

      Conflict – Is inevitable, therefore it is important to understand, and know your instincts in dealing with it. By having a framework for the better management of conflicts at work you can be prepared and actually gain creativity and innovation from it (Cellucci, 2019) .

      Two primary sources of workplace conflict are relationship and task:

      1. Relationship conflict is when coworkers experience tension, animosity, and annoyance amongst themselves.

      2. Task conflict – is a disagreement among coworkers about the tasks being performed, these can be differences in approaches to work, philosophies of care, or priorities and desired outcomes

      There are five generalized styles for dealing with conflict

      1. Dominating style – Involves high concern for self and low concern for others; demanding and imposing one’s will on others with little or no concern about the impact on the other party.

      2. Accommodating style – Involves low concern for one’s own position and high concern for that of others

      3. Avoidance style – Involves low concern for self and low concern for others; often presents itself as withdrawal or lack of cooperation

       

      4. Compromising style – Involves a reasonable level of concern for self and for others; aims to keep both sides equal and actively searches for the middle ground, ensuring that one side does not give in more than the other.

       

      5. The problem-solving style- demonstrates high concern for self and high concern for others. It does more than search for the middle ground; it actively works toward finding the best possible outcome for all parties. It is assertive and cooperative (Cellucci, 2019).

       

       Manager’s Role – Conflict can be complex, emotional, and intense. It might seem natural to avoid conflict or to respond with anger, but you should consider taking a step back, clearly defining the issues, and thinking about the relative power of the parties, the criticality of the issue, and each party’s willingness to confront the other. A manager may have a preferred style for responding to conflict but it is wiser to consider the situation and use a conflict style that is appropriate for the scenario(Cellucci, 2019).

      Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, as well as recognize and influence the emotions of those around you. EI is broken down into four core competencies:

      1. Self-awareness

      2. Self-management

      3. Social awareness

      4. Relationship management (Emotional intelligence in leadership: Why it’s important, 2019)

       

      Resources

      Emotional intelligence in leadership: Why it’s important. Business Insights Blog. (2019, April 3). Retrieved April 1, 2022, from https://online.hbs.edu/blog/post/emotional-intelligence-in-leadership#:~:text=Emotional%20intelligence%20is%20defined%20as,popularized%20by%20psychologist%20Daniel%20Goleman.

      Leigh Cellucci. (2019). Essentials of Healthcare Management: Cases, Concepts, and Skills, Second Edition: Vol. Second edition. Health Administration Press.

      Dia.

      The topic that I will be discussing this week is Health Literacy: Cultural influence, challenges, impact of different populations, and global perspectives. According to (Levin-Zamir et al., 2017,) health literacy is influenced by the demands and complexities of health systems, as well as social systems, workplaces, the environments, and the corporate world. Health literacy impacts not only health but human development at a population level as well. According to (Nattaphat et al., 2021,) developing peoples health literacy can be a promising way to improve their health outcomes and quality of life.

       

      According to (Levin-Zamir et al., 2017,) cultural norms influence the way in which families and people react/ communicate with regards to health. Cultural values and influences tend to be hierarchical. An example that was found while doing my research was in relation to the Chinese culture. According to (Levin-Zamir et al., 2017,) people in the Chinese culture will often not ask health providers questions because they believe it is seen as impolite or challenging the provider. This is in reference to the more traditional health decision making verses the western cultures health decision making. While some might not see asking these questions as impolite, some people/ cultures do. Cultural values/ influences like this make the impact of health literacy on populations differ. Health literacy can look different for individuals, families, and communities locally and globally.

       

      When looking at health literacy across multiple generations, it is found that behaviors vary throughout the different age groups. While older generations might be less inclined to share or participate in health literacy, the younger generation tends to be more willing to do so. This could create challenges between the age groups because the younger and older generations are not understanding the differences between the two. Immigrants also encounter many challenges. A lot of times there are language barriers with healthcare providers. This language barrier has led to the reduction in appointment follow through from these patients because the lack of effective communication. It is also important for healthcare professional to understand how their client’s engagement with health services reflects the balance between the individuals served, the ability, the demands, and the complexities of the healthcare systems overall. The U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) understands the need to create more health literacy-based decision-making tools for parents, educators, and child health professionals (Levin-Zamir et al., 2017.)  When more people are able understand the importance of health literacy and all it entails, the quality of care provided increases as well. I wonder what would happen if the CDC started holding health literacy to a higher standard and making trainings on this topic more mandatory or even policies.

       

      References

      Levin-Zamir, D., Leung, A., Dodson, S. and Rowlands, G., (2017). Health literacy in selected populations: Individuals, families, and communities from the international and cultural perspective. Information Services & Use, 37(2), pp.131-151.

                  
      Week 7 UMGC Library Article Health Literacy in Special Populations.pdf

      Nattaphat Janchai, Wannee Deoisres, & Nujjaree Chaimongkol. (2021). Improving Health Literacy using the Health Education and Health Empowerment Program in Thai Adults with Uncontrolled Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research25(4), 600–613.

      Discussion 7

      Discussion 7 250-300 words

      · Part A: Discuss the misconceptions you had about dyslexia before looking at the Mississippi Best Practices Dyslexia Handbook. Then discuss what you learned from the handbook that will inform your future instructional decisions for students with reading difficulties.

      · Part B: Compare/contrast the outcomes included in the Outcomes for Intellectually Gifted Education Programs 2017 to your general knowledge about the Mississippi College and Career Ready Standards. Share a strategy you will use in the future (or have used) to differentiate instruction so that gifted students are challenged appropriately in your classroom.


      Discussion 7

       What specific behaviors can you identify that will help you create a positive self-change? Are these behaviors the same for school and home (work)? 

      Discussion 7

       This is a ‘post-first’ discussion forum.There are currently 11 threads in this forum. Join the conversation by creating a thread!Create ThreadFORUM DESCRIPTION

      After reviewing the Chp. 7 ppt-

      Describe what is language?

      Describe the milestones in language development.

      Who is Noam Choms

      Discussion 7

       Beyond stimulating aldosterone secretion, list the effects of ANG II. Give examples and brief descriptions of pharmaceutical agents that work by altering responses in the RAS pathway. The kidneys assist in the regulation of blood pressure via regulation of blood volume. How is renal regulation of blood volume achieved? Categorize your answers in terms of effects on GFR and on reabsorption.

      Be detailed in your explanation and support your answer with facts from your textbook, research, and articles from scholarly journals. In addition, remember to add references in APA format to your posts to avoid plagiarism.

      Discussion 7

      Mississippi Department of Education
      Office of Curriculum and Instruction

      2010 Mississippi Best Practices

      Dyslexia Handbook

      Tom Burnham, Ed. D., State Superintendent of Education

      December 2010

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      ii

      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      Denise P. Gibbs, Ed. D. CCC/SLP, Director
      Alabama Scottish Rite Foundation Learning Centers, Huntsville, Alabama

      Donna Porter, M.S., CCC-SP,

      Picayune School District, Picayune, Mississippi

      Martha C. Sibley, M. Ed., CALT, Consultant
      Grapevine, Texas

      Cathy South, M. Ed., CALT, Consultant

      Madison, Mississippi

      Office of Curriculum and Instruction
      Mississippi Department of Education

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      iii

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii

      TABLE OF CONTENTS iii

      PURPOSE v

      HANDBOOK COVER PAGE 6

      I. DEFINITION OF DYSLEXIA 8

      A. Components of Definition 8
      B. Secondary Consequences 9

      II. CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA 9

      A. Insufficient Phonological Processing Ability 9
      B. Variable Difficulty with the Alphabetic Principle 11
      C. Observable Difficulties in Classroom Performance 12

      III. TYPICAL AREAS OF DIFFICULTY 12

      A. Oral language 12
      B. Reading 12
      C. Language components 13

      IV. TYPICAL BEHAVIORS/PERFORMANCES

      OBSERVED AT VARIOUS GRADE LEVELS 13
      A. Grades K-2 13
      B. Grades 3-4 13
      C. Grades 5-6 14
      D. Grades 7-8 14
      E. Grade 9 and beyond 14

      V. COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT DYSLEXIA 14

      VI. INDENTIFICATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA 17

      A. Cumulative Folders/Permanent Records 17
      B. Dyslexia Checklist for Teachers 17
      C. Parent Interview 17
      D. Dyslexia Evaluation 17

      VII. INTERVENTIONS 18

      A. Specific Instruction for Students with Dyslexia 18
      B. Components of Dyslexia-Specific Instruction 19
      C. Instructional Approaches/Programs 19
      D. Specific Training for Teachers/Interventionists 20
      E. Other Training Options 20

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      iv

      VIII. ACCOMMODATIONS/STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL

      EDUCATION STUDENTS 21
      A. Purpose 21
      B. Definitions 21
      C. General Accommodations 22
      D. Most Commonly Requested Classroom Accommodations 23
      E. Types of Accommodations 23
      F. Instructional Needs 27
      G. Assignments 27
      H. Purpose of the Assignment 29
      I. Types of Assignments and Areas of Curriculum to 30

      Consider Adapting and Accommodating

      IX. RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RtI) 34
      A. Three Tier Instructional Model 34
      B. Dyslexia as Noted in the RtI Best Practices Handbook 34

      X. APPENDICES 37
      A. Dyslexia Checklist for Teachers – Elementary 38
      B. Dyslexia Checklist for Teachers – Middle/High School 39
      C. Parent Interview Checklist 40
      D. Glossary of Terms 41
      E. Dyslexia Resources 42
      F. References 43

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      v

      PURPOSE OF HANDBOOK

      The purpose of the 2010 Mississippi Best Practices Dyslexia Handbook is to provide
      Mississippi educators with guidelines for academic instruction for students with
      characteristics of dyslexia. This handbook will provide:

      current scientific-based information concerning dyslexia,

      identification of characteristics of dyslexia,

      identification of the specific components for appropriate multisensory, systematic,
      explicit, language based reading programs, and

      general education classroom accommodations/strategies.

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      Mississippi Department of Education
      Office of Curriculum and Instruction

      2010 Mississippi Best Practices

      Dyslexia Handbook

      Tom Burnham, Ed. D., State Superintendent of Education

      Lynn J. House, Ph. D., Deputy State Superintendent
      Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Operations

      Trecina Green, Bureau Director, Office of Curriculum and Instruction

      Jackie Mockbee, Dyslexia Coordinator, Office of Curriculum and Instruction

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      7

      Mississippi Department of Education
      Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Operations

      Office of Curriculum and Instruction
      359 North West Street

      P.O. Box 771
      Jackson, MS 39205-0771

      Phone: 601-359-2586
      Fax: 601-359-2040

      http://www.mde.k12.ms.us

      The Mississippi State Board of Education, the Mississippi Department of Education, the
      Mississippi School for the Arts, the Mississippi School for the Blind, the Mississippi
      School for the Deaf, and the Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science do not
      discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color, religion, national origin, age, or disability in
      the provision of educational programs and services or employment opportunities and
      benefits. The following office has been designated to handle inquiries and complaints
      regarding the nondiscrimination policies of the above mentioned entities:

      Director, Office of Human Resources
      Mississippi Department of Education

      359 North West Street
      Suite 203

      Jackson, Mississippi 39205-0771
      601-359-3511

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      8

      I. DEFINITION OF DYSLEXIA

      The following definition of dyslexia was endorsed by the Board of Directors of the
      International Dyslexia Association on November 12, 2002:

      Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is
      characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and
      by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from
      a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected
      in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom
      instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading
      comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of
      vocabulary and background knowledge.

      A. Components of the Definition:

      Dyslexia is:

      A specific learning disability…
      The broad term “learning disability” does not specify the area of difficulty
      well enough to determine interventions for students. Dyslexia is specific to
      print language.

      Neurological in origin …
      The student with dyslexia is born with a brain that is structurally and
      functionally different from the brain of a student who does not have
      dyslexia. Some of these differences negatively impact phonological
      processing skills, rapid naming, word recognition, reading fluency, and
      comprehension.

      A brain difference …
      There is a disruption (disconnection) of the brain centers used in reading
      which causes scattered activity in the right hemisphere rather than
      focused activity in the left hemisphere. The brain function of a dyslexic
      student changes with interventions that are designed specifically for
      dyslexia. (Shaywitz, 1996)

      Characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition…
      The student with dyslexia has difficulty being consistent in identifying sight
      words accurately and in reading with appropriate expression and rate.
      According to the National Reading Panel (2000), “Fluency is the ability to
      read quickly, accurately, and with good understanding.”

      A deficit in poor spelling and decoding abilities…
      The student with dyslexia usually does not spell or decode words
      intuitively nor learn these skills implicitly. Phonics rules governing spelling
      and decoding should be taught directly and explicitly for best results.

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      9

      A deficit in the phonological component of language…
      Students with dyslexia have a core deficit in phonological processing skills
      (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatic
      naming). Phonological awareness usually has the most pronounced
      deficit, particularly in phonemic awareness (recognition, segmentation,
      deletion, and manipulation of sounds in spoken words). The student with
      dyslexia may also have difficulty with phonological memory and rapid
      naming. Phonological memory is the ability to temporarily store bits of
      verbal information and retrieve them from short term memory (Shaywitz,
      2003). Rapid naming is the ability to quickly retrieve the name of a letter,
      number, object, word, picture, etc., from long term memory.

      Often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities…
      Students with dyslexia exhibit reading difficulties in spite of demonstrated
      cognitive abilities in other areas. According to Shaywitz (2003), a key
      concept in dyslexia is “unexpected difficulty in reading in children and
      adults who otherwise possess the intelligence, motivation, and reading
      instruction considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading.”

      B. Secondary Consequences of Dyslexia:

      Dyslexia causes:

      difficulties in reading comprehension

      reduced reading experiences that can impede growth of vocabulary and
      background knowledge

      The lack of growth of vocabulary and background knowledge highlights
      the “downstream consequences of dyslexia,” according to Reid Lyon
      (2002). Because students with dyslexia do not read as much as their
      reading peers, their word knowledge and background knowledge does not
      keep pace with expectations for their age and grade level. Therefore,
      reading comprehension will be impaired without adequate reading
      experience, vocabulary, and background knowledge.

      II. CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA

      A. Insufficient Phonological Processing Ability is the most common deficit in

      dyslexia. Joseph K. Torgesen (1995) defines phonological awareness as the
      “sensitivity to, or an explicit understanding of, the sound structure of spoken words
      and the ability to identify, think about, and manipulate the individual sounds.”
      Students with characteristics of dyslexia will show deficits in the following
      components:

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      10

      1. Phonological Awareness:

      The phonological processing skill that has the most impact on the student’s
      ability to understand the alphabetic principle is phonological awareness.
      Successful readers have well-developed phonological awareness.

      These deficits in phonological awareness result in difficulty learning phonics
      through traditional teaching strategies and require interventions to develop
      these skills.

      Phonological awareness skills normally develop in the following order and
      should be taught in the following hierarchy:

      o Blending
      o Segmentation
      o Rhyme and Alliteration
      o Manipulation

      The most complex level of phonological awareness involves the smallest unit
      of speech and is referred to as phonemic awareness. This is the ability to
      recognize the number of sounds in a word, then isolate and name those
      sounds.

      Development of this skill progresses in the following order:

      o Sound blending (starting with two-phoneme words)
      o Sound matching (initial, then final sound in a word)
      o Sound isolation (initial, final, then medial sound in a word)
      o Sound segmentation (starting with two-phoneme words)
      o Sound manipulation (substitution, deletion, addition, reordering of

      sounds in words)

      Examples of tasks to build phonemic awareness:

      Phoneme Isolation: Requires recognizing individual sounds in
      words. (Example: “Tell me the first sound in the word cat.”)

      Phoneme Identity: Requires recognizing the common sound in
      different words. (Example: “Tell me the sound that is the same in
      map and pot.”)

      Phoneme Categorization: Requires recognizing the word with the
      odd sound in a sequence of three or four words. (Example:
      “Which word does not belong: bin, bun, rag?”)

      Phoneme Segmentation: Requires breaking a word into its
      sounds by tapping out or counting the sounds or by pronouncing
      or positioning a marker for each sound. (Example: “How many
      sounds are in the word tree?”)

      Phoneme Deletion: Requires recognizing the word that remains
      when a specified phoneme is removed. (Example: “What is smile
      without the /s/?”)

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      11

      2. Phonological Memory

      Phonological memory is:

      remembering a sequence of unfamiliar sounds,

      storing sound sequences within words in short-term memory and
      effectively recalling words from short-term memory, and

      reading and spelling long words.

      Strong phonological memory skills are predictive of successful decoding skills,
      reading accuracy, and larger vocabularies.

      3. Rapid Automatic Naming

      Automaticity in naming is learned by first learning the name of something, and
      then having to name it under increasing levels of stress and distraction. Rapid
      automatic naming is the efficient retrieval from long term memory of phonological
      information, such as, individual sounds in words, pronunciations of common word
      parts, and pronunciations of whole words.

      Strength in rapid automatic naming skill is predictive of continued development of
      adequate reading fluency and rate. Graham Nauhaus (2002) considers rapid
      automatic naming (RAN) to be an integral part of reading and is highly correlated
      with success in reading.

      “Although some children will learn to
      read in spite of incidental teaching,
      others never learn unless they are
      taught in an organized, systematic,
      efficient way by a knowledgeable
      teacher using a well-designed
      instructional approach.”
      (Louisa Moats, 1999)

      NOTE: Research demonstrates that phonological awareness is more closely related to
      success in reading than intelligence (Torgesen, 1995).

      B. Variable Difficulty with the Alphabetic Principle:

      Difficulty naming the letters of the alphabet

      Difficulty with letter-sound relationships

      Difficulty recognizing and forming letter shapes

      Difficulty with directionality when writing

      Difficulty with alphabetizing

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      12

      C. Observable Difficulties with Classroom Performances in the Following Skills:

      Accurate and fluent word recognition

      Decoding

      Spelling

      Reading text

      Reading comprehension

      Written expression

      Short attention span

      Handwriting/penmanship

      Oral language development

      Mathematics

      NOTE: Be aware that students with dyslexia possess variable and diverse strengths
      and deficiencies. Dr. Sally Shaywitz (2005) stated, “A dyslexic child has a weakness in
      decoding, but that weakness is surrounded by a sea of strengths.” In the identification
      process, be sure to notice any co-existing complications and/or assets that may either
      exacerbate or “mask” the student’s difficulties with print language task.

      III. TYPICAL AREAS OF DIFFICULTY

      According to the International Dyslexia Association (2003), individuals with dyslexia may
      display difficulties with some of the following characteristics:

      A. Oral Language

      Learning to talk

      Pronouncing words

      Acquiring vocabulary

      Using age appropriate grammar

      Following directions

      Confusing before/after, right/left, etc.

      Learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs

      Understanding concepts and relationships

      Retrieving words or naming problems

      B. Reading

      Learning to read

      Identifying or generating rhyming words or counting syllables in words
      (Phonological Awareness)

      Hearing and manipulating sounds in words (Phonemic Awareness)

      Distinguishing different sounds in words (Auditory Discrimination)

      Learning the sounds associated with letters

      Remembering names and/or shapes of letters

      Reversing letters or the order of letters when reading

      Misreading or omitting common small words

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      13

      Stumbling through longer words

      Comprehending during oral or silent reading

      Reading slow and laboriously

      C. Language Components

      Processing printed language
      o naming letters
      o recognizing letters of the alphabet
      o recognizing words as units
      o reading words, phrases, sentences

      Producing written language
      o handwriting (letter shapes)
      o spelling
      o expressive writing
      o proof-reading
      o integrating basic written language skills with creative writing and

      comprehension tasks

      Sequencing
      o sounds in words
      o letters in words
      o series of instructions
      o organization
      o study skills

      IV. TYPICAL BEHAVIORS/PERFORMANCES OBSERVED AT
      VARIOUS GRADE LEVELS

      A. Grades K-2

      Trouble segmenting and blending

      Poor letter-sound recall

      Poor application of phonics

      Inconsistent memory for words and lists

      Mispronouncing words

      Inability to spell phonetically

      B. Grades 3-4

      Poor phonetic decoding

      Inconsistent word recognition

      Over reliance on context and guessing

      Difficulty learning new words (spoken)

      Confusion about other symbols (math and music)

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      14

      C. Grades 5-6

      Poor spelling and punctuation

      Reverts to manuscript from cursive

      Difficulty organizing writing

      Decodes laboriously, skips unknown words

      Avoids reading, vocabulary declines

      D. Grades 7-8

      Reads slowly, loses the meaning

      Persistent phonological weakness

      Poor spelling and writing

      Confuses similar words

      Responds best with structured, explicit teaching of language

      E. Grade 9 and beyond

      Difficulty with foreign language study

      Persistent writing and spelling difficulties

      Slow and laborious reading

      Difficulty with larger writing assignments

      Louisa Moats (2004)

      V. COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT DYSLEXIA

      A. “Students outgrow dyslexia.”

      FACT: Dyslexia is neurological in origin and is a lifelong learning disability.
      Students with dyslexia can overcome some of their academic difficulties with
      early identification and intervention but they will always have dyslexia.

      B. “Students with dyslexia see letters and words backwards.”

      FACT: Dyslexia does not cause students to see letters and words backwards.
      Some students may confuse similar letters, misread similar words, and have
      trouble forming letters due to their lack of phonological skills (Louisa Moats,
      1999). “They have difficulty attaching appropriate labels and names to letters
      and words; they do not see them backwards.” (Shaywitz, 2003)

      C. “Dyslexia is very rare.”

      FACT: The prevalence of dyslexia is between 10% and 15% of any population.

      D. “There is a test for dyslexia.”

      FACT: There is no single test for dyslexia. A comprehensive battery of tests
      should be administered. This battery should assess phonological processing,
      oral language, alphabet knowledge, decoding, word recognition, reading fluency,
      reading comprehension, spelling, written expression, and cognitive functioning.

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      15

      A “dyslexia screener” can be used to identify students with characteristics of
      dyslexia.

      E. “Dyslexia is a medical problem, so only medical doctors can diagnose
      dyslexia.”

      FACT: The problem is educational; therefore, the diagnosis is educational,
      although evaluation may involve pediatricians or other members of the medical
      community. Assessment can be administered by educators who are
      knowledgeable of the characteristics in dyslexia and also are familiar with the
      instruments and procedures for identifying the characteristics of dyslexia.

      F. “Dyslexia cannot be identified until 3

      rd
      grade.”

      FACT: Early intervention is critical to the success of students with dyslexia.
      Educators need to assess kindergarten students’ phonemic awareness, letter
      knowledge, and speed of naming and sound-symbol matching because these
      skills predict reading success in first and second grade. Dyslexia can definitely
      be identified by the mid-point of first grade after students have been exposed to
      effective scientific research-based reading instruction.

      G. “Dyslexia is a general, catch-all term.”

      FACT: Dyslexia is a specific term for a learning disability that is neurological in
      origin and is specific to print language. The research-based definition of dyslexia
      adopted by the International Dyslexia Association and supported by the National
      Institutes of Health provides clear delineation of the characteristics of dyslexia.

      H. “Dyslexia is a newly discovered disorder.”

      FACT: The concept of this type of developmental reading disability was first
      recognized in 1877 by Adolph Kussmaul and confirmed by J. Pringle Morgan in
      1896. The disability was termed “dyslexia” and came into general use in the
      1960s.

      I. “Students with dyslexia do not understand phonics, so they cannot be taught to
      read” and/or “Students with dyslexia do not understand phonics, so they
      should be taught using whole word methods that avoid phonics.”

      FACT: Although these students may not have natural intuitive ability in phonics,
      they can learn decoding and spelling rules if taught directly and explicitly. With
      early identification and effective research-based, intensive, systematic, multi-
      sensory, structured-language intervention designed specifically for students with
      dyslexia, these students can be successful in learning to read and write.

      J. “Dyslexia is caused by poor teaching or exposure to whole word methods.”

      FACT: Poor instruction does not cause dyslexia but can exacerbate the reading
      difficulty. Conversely, effective instruction promotes reading success and
      alleviates many difficulties associated with dyslexia. Louisa Moats (1999) states,
      “Studies have shown that whole word methods are generally the least successful
      for students with reading disabilities. Teaching directly about sounds, letters,

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      16

      words, sentences, and discourse is the most effective treatment for dyslexia,
      regardless of the student’s apparent learning style.”

      K. “If dyslexic students would just try harder they would succeed.”

      FACT: Dyslexia is the result of a neurological difference beyond the control of
      the student. Motivation is not usually the primary problem for the student with
      dyslexia but may become a secondary problem because of continued lack of
      success in academic endeavors.

      L. “Dyslexia is caused by brain damage.”
      FACT: The exact causes of dyslexia are not completely clear, but anatomical
      and brain imagery studies show differences in the way the brain of a dyslexic
      person develops and functions. The neurological differences associated with
      developmental dyslexia are genetic rather than the result of brain injury, damage
      or disease.

      M. “Dyslexia is a special education issue and should be dealt with through the
      special education process.”

      FACT: The crucial factor for students with dyslexia is to have early identification
      followed by effective, scientific research-based instruction designed for dyslexia.
      Dyslexia intervention is most effectively provided within the school’s general
      education program as a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention. {See Section IX, page 34,
      for more information on dyslexia within Response to Intervention (RtI).} The key
      to success is to provide students with an educator who has been well trained in a
      specialized curriculum designed specifically for dyslexia.

      “Teaching matters. You can change a child’s brain
      when it comes to reading.”

      Dr. Sally Shaywitz (2003)

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      17

      VI. IDENTIFICATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA

      The following process of identification is suggested as a model or an example.
      It provides the framework for identifying a pattern of typical strengths and deficits found
      in dyslexia. Implementing this process can effectively identify students with
      characteristics of dyslexia who should be matched to a multisensory, systematic, and
      explicit reading curriculum developed for dyslexia.

      Identification Components:

      A. Cumulative Folders/Permanent Records

      The following information may be significant in considering causes of academic
      difficulties:

      attendance

      curriculum-based assessments

      educational experience

      medical information

      vision screening

      hearing screening

      cognitive abilities

      nonverbal measures

      problem solving/math competence

      receptive language

      B. Dyslexia Checklist for Teachers (See Appendices A and B)

      This is a screening measure for students who are perceived as struggling readers
      and/or those who have not made adequate progress in reading.

      C. Parent Interview (See Appendix C)

      This is an example of questions that can be used with the parent/guardian in an
      informal manner to obtain optimal information and insight into pertinent background
      information. The teacher will generally serve as the scribe, while the parent answers
      the questions orally. The interviewing teacher may expand upon any of the
      questions as needed.

      D. Dyslexia Evaluation

      In addition to the information obtained through the review of cumulative
      folders/permanent records, a dyslexia checklist, and/or parent interview, various
      other areas of assessment may be considered. The student’s reading difficulties
      and characteristics of dyslexia will be reflected or supported by low performance for
      the student’s age and educational level in some or all of the following skill areas:

      Oral language

      Phonological processing skills

      Mississippi Department of Education – 2010

      18

      Phonological awareness, with an emphasis on phonemic awareness

      Phonological memory

      Rapid automatic naming

      Letter knowledge (name and write letters in alphabetical order/recognize and
      name letters presented in random order)

      Reading words in isolation

      Reading comprehension

      Decoding (real and nonsense words)

      Spelling

      Fluency/rate and accuracy

      Based on the student’s academic difficulties and characteristics, additional areas
      that may be considered include vocabulary, written expression, handwriting, and
      mathematics.

      VII. INTERVENTIONS

      Any program that is used for dyslexia intervention should have been originally designed
      only for students with dyslexia. Interventions based upon traditional reading
      instructional programs and only adapted for students with dyslexia should be avoided
      because they will not include all of the components necessary for success.

      A. Specific Instruction for Students with Dyslexia

      The National Reading Panel (NRP) emphasized the importance of providing
      students with reading instruction supported by scientifically-based research
      consisting of five key components – phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary,
      fluency, and comprehension. While students with dyslexia may derive some benefit
      from this instruction as described by the NRP for typical developing readers, they
      are not likely to overcome reading difficulties without reading instruction specifically
      designed for dyslexia.

      In order for a student with dyslexia to achieve the goal of reading efficiently,
      appropriate dyslexia-specific reading, writing, and spelling instruction should be
      offered in a one-on-one or small group setting. Dyslexia intervention strategies
      utilize individualized, intensive, explicit and multisensory methods.

      “To read efficiently, students must apply letter-sound
      correspondences, blend sounds together to read words, and
      recognize that some words are irregular. In addition, they must
      learn that when they do not understand something they are
      reading, they can use comprehension and vocabulary
      strategies to construct meaning from the text.”

      S. Vaughn and S. Linan-Thompson, 2004

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      19

      B. Components of Dyslexia-Specific Instruction

      Components of instruction in programs that are specifically designed for dyslexia
      include:

      Phonemic awareness instruction that enables students to detect, segment, blend,
      and manipulate sounds in spoken language;

      Systematic phonics instruction that takes advantage of the letter-sound
      association in which words that carry meaning are made of sounds and sounds
      are written with letters in the right sequence. Students with this understanding
      can blend sounds associated with letters into words and can separate words into
      component sounds for spelling and writing;

      Language structure instruction that encompasses morphology (the study of
      meaningful units of language such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots), semantics
      (ways that language conveys meaning), syntax (sentence structure), and
      pragmatics (how to use language in a particular context);

      Linguistics instruction directed toward proficiency and fluency with the patterns
      of language so that words and sentences are the carriers of meaning; and

      Process-oriented instruction to teach explicitly and directly the procedures or
      strategies for decoding, encoding, word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and
      comprehension for skills that students need to become independent readers.

      NOTE: Without a curriculum specifically designed for students with dyslexia, these
      students will be unlikely to become successful and efficient readers.

      C.

      Discussion 7

       

      For this week’s discussion forum, imagine you have just opened your new entrepreneurial business – the one you’ve dreamed of all your life.  Finally, you have rented office space, purchased equipment, and hired employees.  Suddenly, one month after opening, the COVID-19 pandemic occurred and your business was forced to close for an unknown period of time by the government.  

      1. As a new business start-up owner and entrepreneur, how would you handle this situation?  

      2. What are some of the challenges you would face?  

      3. How would you best deal with them in order to overcome them and stay afloat?  

      Remember, you are an entrepreneur, so think like one.  Make sure your post is at least 250 words in length or more.

      Discussion 7

      The discussion questions this week are from Chapter’s 16, 17, 18, 19 & 20 (Jamsa, 2013). Each chapter 4 topics and use only 50-words max per topic to discuss and present your answer.

      Chapter 16 topics:

      · Define and describe a capital expense. How are capital expenses different from operational expenses?

      · Define and describe economies of scale and provide a cloud-based example.

      · Define and describe “right sizing” as it pertains to cloud computing.

      · Define Moore’s law and discus how it might influence cloud migration.

      Chapter 17 topics:

      · Compare and contrast functional and nonfunctional requirements and provide an example of each.

      · Discuss why a designer should avoid selecting an implementation platform for as long as possible during the design process.

      · Discuss various trade-offs a designer may need to make with respect to nonfunctional requirements.

      · Discuss why the system maintenance phase is often the most expensive phase of the software development life cycle.

      Chapter 18 topics:

      · Using Yahoo! Pipes, create a pipe that displays the names of pizza restaurants within a given zip code.

      · Using Google App Engine, create a page that displays the following Python script:

      . print “Content-type: text/html\n\n”

      . print “<html>Cloud Computing, Chapter 18</html>”

      Chapter 19 topics:

      · Define scalability.

      · List five to ten potential relationships that align with the Pareto principle, such as how 80 percent of sales come from 20 percent of customers.

      · Compare and contrast vertical and horizontal scaling.

      · Explain the importance of the database read/write ratio.

      Chapter 20 topics:

      · List and describe five ways you think the cloud will change the future of TV.

      · List and describe five potential uses for intelligent fabric.

      · Discuss how the cloud will impact future operating systems.

      · List and describe three potential location-aware applications.

      Please write 2-3 pages with no plagiarism and need this document tomorrow Tuesday at 3 PM EST time.

      Discussion 7

       

      Your active participation in the weekly Discussions is important to the shared learning experience. Active Discussions will also develop your community of professionals. Please participate as early in the week as possible to help promote a robust discussion.

      After you have completed the readings, post your initial response to the following discussion. Your post should respond to all parts of the topic(s) in complete sentences, and should extend the discussion of the group by including original thoughts or ideas with support from multiple academic outside sources and/or course materials, correctly using APA style, both in-text and complete reference at the end of the post.

      After you have submitted your initial post, review other posts and respond to multiple classmates. Your response to other classmates should ask follow-up questions or provide additional ideas that expand on the topic. Be sure to post your responses over multiple days throughout the unit week as this helps promote a real discussion. Refer to your Discussion Board Rubric for specific grading explanation.

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        Discussion 7

        Discussion 7. Challenges

        Let’s discuss the challenges you had while conducting your literature review about your topic. How did you adapt your topic based on these challenges? What suggestions can you provide to your peers from your learning experience?

        Peer Response:

        Comment on at least two posts submitted by your peers.