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Criminal justice

This assignment is an introduction to research that is currently being used in many aspects of criminal justice. It is referred to as “ACEs” or Adverse Childhood Experiences. 

For this first assignment watch a video then answer questions relating to that video.How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime | Nadine Burke Harris (Links to an external site.)
How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime | Nadine Burke Harris

1. What is the impact of exposure to childhood trauma?

2. What are some examples of childhood trauma?

3. What was the name of the study that changed her career?

4. According to Dr. Harris, what are the two most important findings from the study that changed her career?

5. How do ACE’s impact the brain and brain development?

6. Why does Dr. Harris think we don’t take childhood trauma more seriously?

7. Briefly describe how you think the information in this video could be used to enhance theories about criminal behavior. 

Criminal justice

CPSS/420 v2

Relapse Prevention Plan

CPSS/420 v2

Page 2 of 2


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Relapse Prevention Plan

Relapse planning is a tool to help you to create a plan that will help you prepare and prevent relapse from occurring. These plans should remain fluid and be updated as goals are met and resources or situations change. Please use the Angel Case study and the treatment plan you created in week four to complete this Relapse Plan from Angel’s perspective.

Please include 3 evidence-based strategies and 2 references (and the in-text citations) that support how this would be an effective plan.

Goal Identification

What would you like to continue to focus on improving? (i.e., losing weight, saving money to buy a car, finding a better job.)

What encourages you?

What outcomes of the changes motivate you? (i.e., fitting into your clothes, working out in the gym, gaining computer skills)

Difficulties you might encounter…


What difficulties might you encounter? These could be triggers that may challenge you. (i.e., going to the old neighborhood, relational break ups, losing a job)

My coping skills

These are skills and tools used to cope and maintain sobriety (i.e., calling my coach/sponsor, regularly going to meetings, mindfulness playing the tape to the end)

Relapse Prevention Action Steps

These action steps are put in place to prevent relapse from happening. (i.e., building sober support system, giving back to the community through service, attending faith-based community activities, exercising, thinking before acting.)

My self-care plan

Identify how you will grow your life by taking care of your mind, body and spirit. (I.e., acquire new skills, chair a meeting, stretch, attend workshops, gain faith-based or spiritual insight)

Sober people who support me

Who are the sober people who support you, are your cheer leaders and want you to succeed? (i.e., parents, spouse, siblings, sponsor/coach, pastor.)

I will stay accountable by these consequences

If I have a lapse or don’t meet my goal, I must keep myself accountable. (i.e., I will fine myself $10.00 a day, I will volunteer for additional service to my community, 1 hour for every day I was short of my goal.)

I am grateful for

Daily expression of the things in life we are grateful for reminds us of how far we have come and who has helped us along the way.

Copyright 2021 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2021 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Criminal Justice

 Briefly discuss the impact of external societal factors on a juvenile’s decision to participate in delinquency. Identify at least three (3) different external societal factors that can influence a juvenile when deciding whether to participate in delinquent behavior. 

1,000 words/APA Format/Third Person Narrative

3 references from Google Scholar

 

Criminal Justice

Identify at least three (3) influences or factors that occur in the school setting that might cause a juvenile to participate in delinquent behavior. Discuss why some juveniles choose to avoid delinquent behavior while others decide to participate in delinquent behavior despite the fact that the majority of students are exposed to these same influences or factors within a school setting. 

600 words and 3 references

 

Identify and describes at least two landmark court decisions directly related to the way the criminal justice system must handle a juvenile offender. Explain the key differences in how a juvenile offender is handled by the criminal justice system as opposed to an adult offender as a result of these landmark court cases, being sure to highlight the reasoning behind these differences.

600 words and 3 references

criminal Justice

GOVT 2350: Reflection Paper Instructions

The purpose of this assignment is to allow you an opportunity to reflect on a topic in this course that you may be particularly drawn to or wish to analyze further. Using the information you have learned throughout this course, you will select from a list of provided topical questions.

These questions touch on topics that have been discussed in class. Then, you will write a 3-page reflection paper that thoroughly answers the question, as well as incorporates one of HBU’s “Faith and Reason Pillars”.

Instructions: Select from one of the 4 provided question topics below; thoroughly answer the questions. Then, select the pillars provided and compare and contrast the selected pillar in response to your question.

Questions: Choose 1 of the following questions and provide a thorough reflection.

1. How has technology affected the practice of criminal justice in America during the past century? How has it affected the criminal law?

2. Why do criminal laws have to change to keep up with changes in technology? What modifications in current laws defining criminal activity might soon be necessary to meet the criminal possibilities inherent in new technology?

3. What threats to individual rights might advance technology create? Will our standards as to what constitutes admissible evidence, what is reasonable privacy, and so on undergoes a significant reevaluation as a result of emerging technologies?

4. What is a “sentinel event”? How can sentinel events be used to improve the justice system? Pillars:

Write on the pillar below and apply the concept or quote/scripture to the topic/question you chose

Pillar VI: Learning and Teaching as Discipleship

We believe that all forms of instruction, whether by teaching, counseling, performance, coaching, training, or research, are best done not only by reading and lecturing but by a kind of practicing discipleship. Professors and counselors are intended to be academic and professional leaders, well trained in their fields, knowledgeable experts who are able to teach. We also affirm that the transmission of knowledge occurs through human interaction and example, is empowered by relational engagement, and aims toward accountable and disciplined learning that produces transformed behavior and thinking. “The life of the mind” is not the cultivation of thinking and reflection in isolation. Those valuable disciplines of deep work and thought flourish in community and are intended to engender synthesis, communication, apprenticed learning, and constructive, purposeful behavior aimed at fulfilling God’s mission for the world. Work therefore is a divinely mandated expression of what it means to be truly human. It is an expression of vocation, and whether compensated or voluntary, it is an act of worship, stewardship, and obedience.

Instructions:

• Title page • Minimum of 3-pages (excluding the title page) • Current APA format for all elements within the paper o Double-spacing o 12-point, Times New Roman font

Criminal Justice

 

Discuss U.S. reliance on critical infrastructures. If the U.S. suffered a major nationwide cyber attack, which of these critical infrastructures would be most impacted? Consider what daily activities or resources they would no longer be able to participate in or use. Many of you will realize such an attack’s effect on the internet, cell phones, etc., but they may not consider its impact on water supplies or modes of transportation. Please be detailed in your response.

300 words 

Criminal Justice

Several landmark Supreme Court rulings that address the way the criminal justice system interacts with juveniles were presented in the lesson this week. In your initial response, select the Supreme Court ruling that you believe had the biggest impact on the way law enforcement and courts deal with juvenile offenders. Begin by briefly explaining the premise of the case that led to the ruling, what the Supreme Court decided, and how the ruling impacts interactions with juvenile offenders.

In your response posts to classmates, evaluate the Supreme Court ruling selected by the classmate. If you agree with the classmate that it had the biggest impact, provide additional points to support selecting this case over others that have occurred. If you disagree, respectfully explain why you believe a different Supreme Court ruling had a bigger impact on the way law enforcement and courts deal with juvenile offenders.

500 words… 1 reference

Criminal Justice

 Find a video that shows how to perform a specific network forensics process, summarize the video, and attach it to your discussion. As an investigator, why do you need to know how to do network forensics? 

 

What does an investigator need to do to determine if an access point is a rogue access point?

2. Explain briefly how a Web browser works.

3. What is a cache history?

    • 5

    Criminal Justice

     Identify an external cause / influence that you believe presents the biggest risk for juveniles and is most likely to lead them to participate in delinquency. Explain the primary issues associated with the external cause you have selected and defend why it is a bigger risk for juveniles as opposed to other potential external causes. 

    500 words and 1 reference

    Criminal Justice

    Research the Church Of Scientology. Have there been activities of the church or its members that have drawn the scrutiny of government regulators? Please be sure to find research to support your post. 

    Criminal Justice

     explain the primary differences in the types of theories that fall into each of these four groupings. (1) Individual causes; (2) Societal causes; (3) Social process; and (4) Social interaction. As part of your response, utilize examples of theories that fall within each grouping, being sure to explain why those theories best align with the group you identified as opposed to another grouping. 

    3 sources from google scholar… APA Format (600 words)

     Discuss the key factors between male and female juveniles and their decisions to avoid or participate in delinquent acts. Next, identify and discuss at least three family factors that might increase the likelihood that a juvenile will participate in deviant activities.

    3 sources from google scholar… APA Format (600 words)

    Criminal Justice

     

    1. Answer ALL questions FULLY in your text entry, Word Document or PowerPoint project presentation. 

    For example:  Is the roadblock to check license and registration valid?  You would answer this as:  The roadblock to check license and registration is valid because …

    Recap and state information that is contained in the scenario so I can understand what happened. 

    2. Choice as to how to upload your response:

    Online Entry Options:

    • Text Entry (type directly in the box) or Document Upload (Word Document File Upload)
    • PowerPoint presentation File Upload

    For this assignment, if you are writing a written response, please answer the following questions below the scenario in 2-4 paragraphs. Your paragraphs need to be long enough to express your idea or ideas and long enough to thoroughly explain the topic you are writing about – so in other words — NOT a ONE sentence paragraph!

    If you are creating a PowerPoint – you will need at the bare minimum ten (10) slides.

    The License and Registration Checkpoint – Chapter 8

    You can refer to Chapter 8 – Motor Vehicle Stops:  Searches and Inventories to assist you with this assignment.

    See the source image

    Durham, North Carolina, police set up a roadblock on Elliott Road, a major road that runs through town and close by the Duke University campus.  Their intention is to stop every vehicle that passes through this roadblock and ask the driver to produce his or her driver’s license and vehicle registration.  State law requires drivers to carry these documents with them any time they are operating a motor vehicle.  The officers also hope to determine if any of the drivers may be transporting drugs, as there have been a number of arrests for drug use and sale in the area, particularly on the Duke University campus.See the source image

    After stopping and verifying the driver’s license and registration, the police ask the drivers if they can search their vehicles.  Those drivers who give consent have their vehicles searched; those who do not give consent are detained roadside while a narcotics detection dog sniffs the detained vehicle; the sniff is usually done within five minutes.

    See the source image

    1. Is the roadblock to check license and registration valid?  What Supreme Court case can you find that deals with this and what was their decision?
    2. Is the search of a vehicle, with the driver’s consent valid? Explain why or why not.
    3. Is the use of the dog to sniff the detained vehicle valid? Why or why not?  What Supreme Court case can you find that deals with this (in particular with roadblocks) and what was their decision? 
    4. If drivers are detained for usually only five minutes, what does the Supreme Court say about this? What if the detention is longer – say 20 minutes?  What does the Supreme Court say about that?

    Criminal Justice

     

    The use of force by law enforcement officers is sometimes required when dealing with suspects resisting arrest and/or individuals disobeying direct orders. However, when the use of force becomes excessive or is used unnecessarily, law enforcement officers are arguably committing ethical violations.

    Criminal justice

    For this assignment, you have the choice to write either a paper OR create a PowerPoint Presentation.

    The focus of this project will be on the Exclusionary Rule which is discussed in your Chapter 4 of your textbook.  

    Your paper or PowerPoint will need to contain these five (5) topics:

    1. Define the Exclusionary Rule
    2. Identify the purpose of the Exclusionary Rule
    3. Explain the role of the judiciary in forming the Exclusionary Rule – in other words, it is a judge-made rule to protect our 4th Amendment rights (list which one of the rights in this Amendment)
    4. Explain briefly how the Exclusionary Rule developed in the Federal and State Courts (the historical development of the Rule) and especially mention the very important case of Mapp v. Ohio.
    5. List the two kinds of evidence that the Exclusionary Rule excludes (hint:  look at pages 97-98 in your textbook and tell me specifically what is primary evidence and secondary evidence that is excluded by the Exclusionary Rule)

    PAPER OPTION:
    If you are writing a paper – you will need at the bare minimum seven (7) paragraphs:

    • Introduction paragraph
    • Definition of Exclusionary Rule
    • Purpose of Exclusionary Rule
    • Role of judiciary in forming Exclusionary Rule
    • Historical development with mention of Mapp v. Ohio
    • Exclusion of two kinds of evidence
    • Conclusion paragraph

    criminal justice

     

    As an investigator with the Federal Public Defender’s Office, you are assisting Assistant Federal Defender Lilly Jones with gathering background information on offender Ben Smith, who pled guilty to distribution of a controlled substance (5 kilograms of cocaine). Mr. Smith is being sentenced next month.

    In a 2–3-page paper, provide an overview of the following:

    • Why were the federal sentencing guidelines developed, and what is their purpose?
    • Who created the Federal Sentencing Guidelines?
    • What factors will a court take into consideration when sentencing Mr. Smith?
    • In your opinion, do the federal sentencing guidelines allow judges enough discretion when imposing a sentence in this type of case?
    • Should judges have more or less discretion when it comes to sentencing?
    • What are the 3 most important things that Ms. Jones should tell the judge at sentencing about Mr. Smith to aid in sentencing?

    Criminal Justice

      discuss some of the differences in legal definitions concerning what constitutes a juvenile. Next, identify and explain two different ways that juvenile delinquency is measured. Conclude your response by identifying the measurement of juvenile delinquency that you believe is most effective, and briefly explain why you believe this is an effective measurement of juvenile delinquency. 

    500 words minimum and at least 1 reference

    criminal justice

    ISSC457

    Week 2 Lab 1

    Name: _________________________
    Date: _____________

    Fill in your name above, put your full response below the question, save the file using the file naming convention: “ISSC457_Lab1_LastName_FirstName.doc” where LastName is your last name and FirstName is your first name, then return this document for grading.

    In this lab: Review the steps only.

    Estimated completion time: 60 minutes

    Outcome

    Report the steps you need to perform these tasks.

    Validation/Evaluation

    · Where can you find Apache logs?

    · What are some of the logs maintained by Apache?

    · Where can you find ProFTP logs?

    · What are some of the logs maintained by ProFTP?

    · What are other common logs maintained in Ubuntu via Syslog?

    Lab Solution

    1. VMWare

    image1.png

    Note: We are using VMWare Workstation 6.5 for this exercise but the following steps are similar for VMWare Player.

    2. Click on “Open Existing VM or Team” to open an existing virtual machine and browse to the directory where you extracted the UbuntuWebServer image. Select the Ubuntu.vmx file and click on Open.

    image2.png

    image3.png

    3. Click on “Take Ownership” on the following dialog box.

    image4.png

    4. Click on Power on this virtual machine to start the UbuntuWebServer virtual machine.

    image5.png

    5. On the next window, select “I copied it” and click OK.

    image6.png

    6. Wait while the virtual machine starts.

    image7.png

    7. Press Enter to bring up the login prompt and login with username root, and password password.

    image8.png

    8. Type cd /var/log and press Enter to go to the directory storing the log files.

    image9.png

    9. Type ls –la | more and press Enter to list all log files.

    image10.png

    image11.png

    image12.png

    The most relevant log files include:

    · auth.log

    · daemon.log

    · debug

    · kern.log

    · messages

    · syslog

    10. Apache 2 stores its log files in /var/log/apache2. Type cd apache2 and press Enter to go to this directory.

    image13.png

    11. Type ls –la and press Enter to list all log files used by Apache.

    image14.png

    The access.log file keeps a record of all accesses to the Web server. The error.log file stores error messages generated by the server.

    12. Type nano access.log and press Enter to open the access log file.

    image15.png

    Get familiar with the structure of each entry in this log file.

    13. Next, type nano error.log and press Enter to open the error log file.

    image16.png

    Again, get familiar with the structure of each entry in this log file.

    14. Now, go to the /var/log/proftpd/ directory on your UbuntuWebServer box. ProFTP is used by UbuntuWebServer to offer an FTP server. This tool logs all login attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, to /var/log/proftpd/proftpd.log.

    image17.png

    15. Type nano proftpd.log and press Enter to open the access log file.

    image18.png

    Get familiar with the structure of this log file.

    16. Close all windows.

    Criminal Justice

     Explain how prevalent delinquency is among adolescents. Be sure to include current, scholarly data to support your position. Next, be sure to identify and describe in detail what theory best explains juvenile delinquency from your perspective. Support each with current, scholarly research literature. 

    Criminal Justice

    write a summary of the video, your opinion on the video and how the video relates to what you have been learning in the course; this should be between 250-500 words. Be sure to submit this in a Microsoft Word or RTF format document. Please review the sample learning module that we have provided for you.

    link to video 

     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2W0FSM27g8

    video title  : White-Collar Crime

    in class we learned about white collar crimes. 

    criminal justice

      

    The criminal justice system has actually been referred to as the criminal justice “non-system” by many observers of modern criminal justice in America. What do we mean when referring to the criminal justice system as a “non-system?” Do you believe that the criminal justice system is a true system, or is it better characterized as many staggering parts working across multiple layers of government at the local, state, and federal level?

    Criminal Justice

    Each week, you will be asked to watch one of the three videos provided. You will then write a summary of the video, your opinion on the video and how the video relates to what you have been learning in the course; this should be between 250-500 words. Be sure to submit this in a Microsoft Word or RTF format document. Please review the sample learning module that we have provided for you.

    watch  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5TxBCICb0U

    title : Michelle shows how laws protect offenders and hurt victims of this cyber crime

    Criminal Justice

    1. Who was the first person to use the term “white-collar crime” and how did he define it? Provide two examples of white-collar crime in the 20th century and your own thoughts as to why it was becoming so widespread.
    2. Who was Charles Ponzi and what is a Ponzi scheme? These schemes are still very much alive in the 21st century; provide a couple examples of Ponzi scheme operations today. Provide your own thoughts and comments about these types of schemes.
    3. What is a “bait-and-switch,” telemarketing, and pyramid scams?
    4. Where is Big Tobacco today? Look at advertising and the rise or decline in tobacco use.  Is there still litigation or legislation attempting to control tobacco use? Should consumers be able to sue for voluntary use of a substance?
    5. Find recent cases of people becoming ill from adulterated food.  Who was responsible?  Were they accidents or negligence?  Could they have been prevented?

    Journal Assignment Grading:Each assignment is given equal weight out of 100 points.; each question is worth 20 points. If a question is not answered, no points will be received for that response.  Each question is weighted equally. Please post all answers as an attachment in a Microsoft Word document or a Rich Text Format file.
    APA FORMAT

    Criminal Justice

     

    Law enforcement agencies are frequently compared to the military when discussing their organizational structure. The term “quasi-military” is often used to describe the type of reporting structure that exists within most law enforcement agencies.

    Criminal Justice

     discuss whether you believe personal or societal factors have the biggest influence on juvenile delinquency. Next, identify one specific personal characteristic or societal factor that you believe most accurately explains what contributes to juvenile delinquency. Briefly defend the personal characteristic or societal factor you selected by explaining why it is more accurate than other theories presented this week. Be sure to address all of the above in your response. 

    criminal justice

    What are your perceptions of white-collar crime? Provide examples to justify your thoughts. Examine the cost of white-collar criminality and explain why it cannot be measured in dollars and cents. Please be sure to find research to support your post.

    Criminal Justice

    Please review the APA material in the Getting Started section if you need assistance.  As a criminal justice professional, it is imperative that you learn the finer aspects of writing.  Citing and referencing are part of the gradable criteria for your weekly work.

    All questions are worth 20 points:

    Criminal Justice

     discuss whether you believe the theories related to one’s social environment or societal interactions best explain why juveniles engage in acts of juvenile delinquency. Next, select the theory out of these two groups that you believe best explains juvenile delinquency. Briefly describe the premise of the theory you selected, and then explain why you believe it most accurately explains why juveniles engage in acts of delinquency. 

    criminal justice

    ISSC457

    Week 6 Assignment

    Name: _________________________
    Date: _____________

    Fill in your name above, put your full response below each question, save the file using the file naming convention: “ISSC457_Week6_Assignment_LastName_FirstName.doc” where LastName is your last name and FirstName is your first name, then return this document for grading.

    Upon reading pages 9, 106, 152, & 181, in your book, you should be able to provide information regarding the below question. You are required to answer the question(s) using at least the book.

    Assignment Rubric ( 100 Points)

    Synthesis of Concepts

    60

    Writing Standards – APA format

    20

    Timeliness

    20

    1. Explain the Chain of Custody.

    criminal justice

    ISSC457

    Week 6 Lab 5

    Name: _________________________
    Date: _____________

    Fill in your name above, put your full response below the question, save the file using the file naming convention: “ISSC457_Lab5_LastName_FirstName.doc” where LastName is your last name and FirstName is your first name, then return this document for grading.

    Hardware/Software Setup Required

    Spam Arrest (available at
    http://www.spamarrest.com/
    )

    Problem Description

    Spam Arrest is a tool used to protect e-mail accounts against spam. It uses challenge/response technology. Go to the Spam Arrest Web site and read more about it. Then, write a brief report explaining how it works, its main characteristics, and at least five advantages and five disadvantages of Spam Arrest.

    Estimated completion time: 60 minutes.

    Outcome

    A brief report explaining how Spam Arrest works, including its main advantages and disadvantages

    Validation/Evaluation

    · How does Spam Arrest work?

    · What are its main characteristics?

    · What are its main advantages?

    · What are its main disadvantages?

    Lab Solution

    1. Go to
    http://www.spamarrest.com/
    .

    image1.png

    2. Click on Learn in the “See How Spam Arrest Works” panel or go directly to
    http://corp.spamarrest.com/howitworks/
    to check how Spam Arrest works.

    image2.png

    3. Click on “SHOW ME” to start the presentation.

    image3.png

    4. Click on the Help tab on the top of the window.

    image4.png

    5. Then, click on the General FAQ option on the navigation menu at the left of the window. Read all the information presented in that page to get a better understanding of Spam Arrest.

    image5.png

    image6.png

    Criminal Justice

     Identify two different steps in the criminal justice process flow where juveniles must be treated differently. Explain the steps criminal justice professionals must take in both steps you identified to ensure the rights of juveniles are protected. Conclude your response by explaining why it is important to provide these additional protections for juveniles. 

    500 words and at least 1 reference

    Criminal Justice

     

    Suspect Dawn is detained by store security detectives at a large retail chain for shoplifting.  Store detectives place handcuffs on Dawn, place her in a locked security office, and contact the police.

    Officer Smith is dispatched to the store.  In her investigation, Officer Smith reads the store detective’s report and establishes probable cause to arrest Suspect Dawn. 

    Officer Smith removes the store detective’s handcuffs from Dawn’s wrists places her own handcuffs on Dawn, and advises Dawn that she is under arrest.

    Officer Smith then reads Dawn the Miranda warnings and asks Dawn, “Would you like to make a statement?”  Dawn responds, “No, I want a lawyer.” 

    Officer Smith then transports Dawn to the police station.  Officer Smith submits her police report detailing the arrest.

    Several hours later, Detective Jones is assigned to the case.  Detective Jones places Dawn in the interview room, reads Dawn the Miranda warnings, and asks her if she would “like to talk.”  awn says s and subsequently confesses to the shoplifting.

    1. Is Dawn’s confession to Detective Jones admissible?  Why or why not?
    2. What if Detective Jones did not know that Dawn had previously been Mirandized by Officer Smith – would Dawn’s statement then be admissible?

    criminal justice

    ISSC457

    Week 5 Assignment

    Name: _________________________
    Date: _____________

    Fill in your name above, put your full response below each question, save the file using the file naming convention: “ISSC457_Week5_Assignment_LastName_FirstName.doc” where LastName is your last name and FirstName is your first name, then return this document for grading.

    Upon completing the reading in lesson 6, you should be able to provide information regarding the below question.

    Assignment Rubric ( 100 Points)

    Synthesis of Concepts

    60

    Writing Standards – APA format

    20

    Timeliness

    20

    1. What is URL redirection?

    2. Describe the different classes of IP addresses.

    criminal justice

    ISSC457

    Week 5 Lab 4

    Name: _________________________
    Date: _____________

    Fill in your name above, put your full response below the question, save the file using the file naming convention: “ISSC457_Lab4_LastName_FirstName.doc” where LastName is your last name and FirstName is your first name, then return this document for grading.

    Hardware/Software Setup Required

    VisualRoute 13.1 (available at
    http://www.visualroute.com/

    McAfee Visual Trace (available at
    http://www.softpedia.com/progDownload/McAfee-NeoTrace-Professional-Download-42.html
    )

    Problem Description

    When investigating Internet crimes, sometimes you need to trace the connection back to a particular URL of IP address. In this lab, you will compare two tracing tools, VisualRoute and McAfee Visual Trace, and learn how to use them when tracing a network path across the Internet.

    Estimated completion time: 60 minutes.

    Outcome

    Report the main characteristics of each tracing tool.

    Validation/Evaluation

    · Are the characteristics for both tools similar?

    · Do both tools display similar information?

    · What other options or commands are offered by each tool when examining a particular node?

    Lab Solution

    1. Install VisualRoute and McAfee Visual Trace on your computer and start McAfee VisualTrace.

    image1.png

    2. We want to trace the network path from our computer to the EC-Council Web site. Therefore, write
    www.eccouncil.org
    as the target value:

    image2.png

    3. Click Go to start the tracing.

    image3.png

    4. VisualTrace displays the resulting network path along with additional information.

    image4.png

    Note: The trace result may vary depending on your geographical location. The results presented here are only used as an example.

    5. In this case, the network path consists of three nodes. For each node, VisualTrace offers additional information divided into four categories: Summary, Registrant, Network, and Timing.

    image5.png

    6. The Summary tab displays information such as the name, IP address, location, and network for the node.

    image6.png

    7. The next tab shows registrant information for the node.

    image7.png

    8. The Network tab displays WhoIs information for the current node.

    image8.png

    9. The final Timing tab displays ping results for the node.

    image9.png

    10. Finally, right-click on any node on the Map view and choose External Applications for additional options, including connect via FTP, ping, and telnet the host.

    image10.png

    11. In addition to Map view, VisualTrace also offers a List view and a Node view.

    image11.png

    image12.png

    12. Now, we will repeat the same experiment but this time using VisualRoute to compare the results and options with those offered by McAfee Visual Trace. Start VisualRoute.

    image13.png

    13. We will trace the network path from My Computer to
    www.eccouncil.org
    . So, select My Computer for the Trace field,
    www.eccouncil.org
    for the to field, and 80 for the port.

    image14.png

    14. Click the green arrow next to the port field to start the tracing.

    image15.png

    15. VisualRoute displays the tracing information using several views. image16.png

    16. The top panel shows a map view of the network path.

    image17.png

    17. The next panel shows a Route Graph view.

    image18.png

    18. The next panel contains the OmniPath view.

    image19.png

    19. The bottom panel displays a Table view of the nodes in the network path. This table displays additional information including the location, time zone, the average round-trip time, graph, and network for each node in the path.

    image20.png

    20. Notice that VisualRoute shows many more nodes in the path than McAfee Visual Trace.

    21. Now, on the Route Graph or OmniPath view, move your mouse over any of the nodes. VisualRoute displays an information summary for that node.

    image21.png

    22. Right-click on the node to execute some commands for that node, including network and domain whois, traceroute, and HTTP and FTP port probe.

    image22.png

    23. Try any of the previous commands. For example, select the HTTP Port Probe option to probe HTTP ports for a particular node.

    image23.png

    24. In addition, select the Network whois option to display the whois information for the node.

    image24.png

    25. Select the Domain whois option to display the registrant information for the node.

    image25.png

    26. Also observe the firewall icon on the network path in the OmniPath view.

    image26.png

    27. Close all windows.

    Criminal Justice

    1.  What were the major police-related offices and their functions during the early English and colonial periods?

    2.  What legacies of colonial policing remained intact after the American Revolution?

    3.  List the three early issues of American policing, and describe their present status.

    4. What were some of the major characteristics of the political and reform eras of policing? How did they square with the earlier principles of policing as set forth by Sir Robert Peel?

    5. What led to the development of the contemporary community-oriented policing and problem-solving era, and what are some of its main features?

    Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the textbook and to the topic of policing in America. It begins with a brief introduction to how four primary criminal justice officers (sheriff, constable, coroner, and justice of the peace) developed in early England and how they function in modern-day America. The early English system of policing is discussed, including a brief review of the early frankpledge system, an explanation for its failure by the sixteenth century, and a discussion of the potential for corruption and the need for a new system of policing in England by about 1800.

    The chapter then moves on to a review of policing in colonial America, which first closely resembled the system used in England. Several colonial-era “crime waves” are discussed, including one involving the Puritans and Quakers and another involving witchcraft. Law enforcement was a low-priority issue in colonial America, which created problems after the American Revolution, when it became clear that America, like England, required a more formal and dependable system of law enforcement. The three main legacies of the colonial period to modern policing are reviewed: the commitment to local policing, the development of republicanism, and the beginnings of crime prevention theory.

    The contributions of three English reformers—Henry Fielding, John Fielding, and Patrick Colquhoun—are discussed. The influence of Sir Robert Peel and his eventual success in creating a full-time, paid police force in London is reviewed. The London Metropolitan Police Act, passed in 1829, created the London Metropolitan Police. The characteristics of the new force are described, along with many of Peel’s forward-thinking ideas. Peel’s twelve principles of policing are discussed.

    Americans observed Peel’s successes and eventually the move to improve policing in America led to the development of a full-time force in New York. However, the first organized, publicly funded “modern” form of policing in the United States is arguably the Southern slave patrols, which were the legal mechanism for enforcing the slave codes that defined slaves as property and gave slave masters the right to control their property through discipline and punishment. The first slave patrol was probably organized in South Carolina in 1704; slave patrols enforced colonial and state laws and had the right to flog slaves who violated the codes.

    Although the New York City police force was modeled after Peel’s force, there were several key differences, including placing the force under local political control. Other cities quickly adopted the basic model and by 1880, nearly every major city in America had a police force based on the Peel model. The three key issues that these departments faced included the question of whether they should wear uniforms, whether they should be armed, and the extent to which they should use force. These issues are discussed. The system of political patronage prevailed in most cities. The primary determinant of police behavior was tradition. Hostile interactions between citizens and the police were common but large cities in the late nineteenth century did become more orderly places. Religious and ethnic disputes developed within many departments and political influences were extremely strong. Police corruption surfaced and officers routinely committed perjury to protect each other against civilian complaints.

    The American frontier developed a different form of policing, because of the absence of government. The four main groups responsible for keeping the peace and enforcing the law in the west included private citizens, federal marshals and their deputies, businessmen, and town officials. Vigilantism and “informal justice” were common on the frontier. 

    Because police departments were under local political control, they frequently provided a very wide variety of social services, in addition to crime fighting, crime prevention and order maintenance. Some departments operated soup kitchens, provided temporary lodging in station houses for new immigrants and the homeless, and found lost children.

    The reform or professional era of policing was characterized by an attempt to eliminate political patronage. The development of the concept of policing as a profession emerged as reformers realized the primary cause of police corruption and politicization was partisan politics. During the early twentieth century, August Vollmer pioneered the police professionalism movement but also advocated the view of police as social workers. Vollmer and other reformers emphasized the removal of political influence from policing, leading to the development of civil service systems. Other innovations included the application of the scientific theory of administration to policing, limitations on discretion, and the creation of specialized units. The “crime fighter image” emerged during this period as well.

    The early 1900s also saw the development of crime commissions, including the Wickersham Commission, which produced the first the first national study of crime and criminal justice in 1931. The Commission’s reports included a detailed discussion of police misconduct and corruption, and provided a blueprint for police professionalism. Another influence on policing in the mid-twentieth century was William H. Parker, who became the chief of the Los Angeles Police Department in 1950. He worked to transform the LAPD into an extremely professional department, with rigorous selection standards and training programs. He also developed the concept of the “thin blue line.” The civil rights movement in the late 1960s and 1970s greatly impacted the police, placing them in opposition to many college-aged youths and minority groups in the United States. Events such as the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which was eventually termed a “police riot”, led to questions and concerns about the police and their function and role. The police were focused on reform and professionalism, but the failure of the professional era is evident from the large number of urban race riots, attacks against the police, and other forms of upheaval and unrest. Many of the police-community relations problems were linked to the larger problem of racism in American society.

    The social unrest of the 1960s and the concerns about the police led to the formation of a number of national commissions in the 1960s and 1970s to examine police practices. The most well known was the President’s Crime Commission; its report restated many of Peel’s principles and basically called for a retreat from the professional model of policing. This led to a new stream of research that challenged traditional methods of policing and dispelled many basic assumptions underlying police activities.

    This led to the beginning of the community era of policing. The concept of team policing evolved and was implemented but ultimately failed due to poor planning, hasty implementation, and lack of support by middle management. Other developments in the 1970s and early 1980s included a return to foot patrol and the introduction of the problem-oriented approach to policing. This eventually led to the development of community-oriented policing and problem solving. The factors that set the stage for the emergence of community policing and problem solving, which primarily involve police isolation from the public, are reviewed. The potential of the community era is described, but several concerns that remain are also discussed.

    Lecture Notes

    Policing before “modern” police departments
    English and Colonial Officers of the Law

     Four primary criminal justice officials in early England—all either still exist or existed until recently in the United States
     Sheriff
    •    From the term “shire reeve”
    •    Maintained law and order in the tithings
    •    Basic source of rural crime control in the United States

    Constable
    •    Traced back to Anglo-Saxon times
    •    In American colonies, had control over night watch
    •    Unpaid, little prestige

    Coroner
    •    Various roles throughout history
    •    Determines cause of death
    •    Issues over qualifications

    Justice of the Peace
    •    Existed as early as 1195 in England
    •    Presided over trials, issued warrants for arrest
    •    Lay and inexpert upholders of the law

    The Old English System of Policing
    Old English Traditions
    •    Frankpledge
    •    Constable / justice of the peace system
    •    Decline of system by 1800

    Policing in Colonial America
    •    Early “crime waves”
    •    Break down of citizen-participation form of policing
    •    Social and political unrest

    Legacies of the Colonial Period
    •    Commitment to local policing
    •    Republicanism
    •    Theory of crime prevention
    •    London experiments with policing
    •    Contributions of Henry Fielding, John Fielding, Patrick Colquhoun

    Police Reform in England
    •    Impact of urbanization and industrialization on policing
    •    Sir Robert Peel—Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
    •    London Metropolitan Police
    •    Peel’s principles of policing
    •    Emphasis on crime prevention

    Policing Comes to the United States
    •    United States watching Peel’s experiments
    •    Less urgency for full-time policing in the United States until industrialization increased
    •    Policing eventually became entrenched in America and evolved through three eras: political, reform, community

    The Political Era—1840s to 1930s
    Imitating Peel
    •    New York City established full-time preventive police force in 1844
    •    Very different from London model
    •    Local control
    •    Encouraged political patronage

    Early Issues and Traditions
    •    Uniforms
    •    Firearms
    •    Use of force

    Attempts at Reform in Difficult Times
    •    Policing a popular job
    •    System of political patronage prevailed over merit systems for hiring police
    •    Tradition a key determinant of police behavior
    •    Police were multifunctional: dealt with riots, fires, strikes

    Increased Politics and Corruption
    •    Ethnic, religious disputes common in police departments
    •    Political influences affected promotions, assignments, transfers
    •    Police corruption surfaced
    •    The “shoofly” —early form of internal affairs

    Meanwhile, on the American Frontier…
    •    Absence of government creates variety of forms of policing in West
    •    Private citizens (posses, bounty hunters, vigilantes), U.S. Marshals, businessmen, town officials all assumed responsibility for law enforcement

    The Entrenchment of Political Influence
    •    Police provided wide variety of services to citizens
    •    Decentralized organizational style
    •    Officers recruited from ethnic groups in community
    •    Officers integrated into neighborhoods
    •    Lack of organizational control contributed to inefficiency and disorganization

    The Reform Era: 1930s to 1980s
    Attempts to Thwart Political Patronage
    •    Reformers sought to remove political involvement by the police
    •    Civil service systems were created to eliminate political patronage
    •    Focus on crime control over “social work” noncrime activities
    •    Emphasis on production and unity of control
    •    Police leaders routinized and standardized police work, limited discretion as much as possible

    The Era of August Vollmer 
    •    One of the most important periods in the development of police professionalism
    •    Vollmer a leading proponent of police professionalism
    •    Innovations included police school, crime lab, mobile patrol force, college students as recruits, recruitment standards, first radio car
    •    Advocated police as social workers

    The Crime Fighter Image
    •    O.W. Wilson emerged in 1930s as the leading authority on police administration, police role was redefined, crime fighter image became more popular
    •    Professionalism came to mean a combination of managerial efficiency and technological sophistication and an emphasis on crime fighting
    •    Social work aspects of policing disappeared

    The Wickersham Commission
    •    First national study of crime and criminal justice
    •    Report made many recommendations calling for increased police professionalism

    Police as the “Thin Blue Line”: William H. Parker
    •    Focus on police as professional crime fighters
    •    Police as “thin blue line”
    •    Opposed restrictions on police methods
    •    Conflicts between effective police operations and individual rights should be resolved in favor of the police
    •    Rights of society took precedence over rights of individual

    1960s and 1970s: The Struggle for Civil Rights
    •    Social turbulence, civil disobedience, progress in civil rights
    •    Police focused on professional model – removed from personal contact with the public
    •    Major race riots across the United States
    •    Failure of police–community relations

    A Retreat from the Professional Model
    Coming Full Circle to Peel: President’s Crime Commission
    •    National commission focusing on solutions to America’s internal crime problems
    •    Included many recommendations for police
    •    Restated many of Peel’s original principles
    •    Systematic demolition of assumptions underlying professional era of policing

    The Community Era: 1980s to Present
    •    Team policing concept a failure
    •    Foot patrol became popular
    •    Problem-oriented approach to policing
    •    Demise of professional era, and the emergence of the community era of policing

    President’s Task Force on Twenty-First Century Policing
    •    Established in 2014 to identify best practices and offer recommendations on how policing practices can promote effective crime reduction while building public trust
    •    Produced a series of recommendations focused along six core themes
    •    Final report supported by many government officials, academics, members of the public
    •    Recommendations have been implemented slowly and inconsistently

      • a month ago
      • 20

      Criminal Justice

      Answer the following questions:

      1.  What are some of the problems confronting today’s police recruiters and some of the unique measures they use to obtain a viable applicant pool?

      2.  What is generally the hiring process of new police officers and the kinds of tests that are commonly given to applicants?

      3.  What are the methods and purposes of the FTO and PTO programs?

      4.  What is meant by the term working personality, how was the concept developed, and what is its function?

      5.  What are the ideal traits of police officers?

        • 10

        Criminal Justice

        There has been much discussion about the defund the police movement over the last year. Some major cities have already implemented defunding of their police departments. The first was Minneapolis where they cut $1.1 million from the police budget. New York City cut $1 billion from their police budget, Los Angeles cut $150 million and Seattle cut $23 million from their police budgets. Since then, a number of these cities have changed their stance and added funding back to the police agencies.   

        For this discussion, share your thoughts on defunding police and the consequences it might have. Research news stories on major cities that defunded and now refunded police and why it changed. Can some of the police duties be met using non-sworn, unarmed personnel? If so, for what situations? Do some research into Minneapolis, New York, Los Angeles, and Seattle to see what has happened in those cities since they defunded their police and include those results in this discussion. 

          • 10

          Criminal Justice

          Using Criminal Justice databases in CSUs Galileo, or any other library resource, look for literature on the implementation of the concept of Community-Oriented-Policing. Locate four sources with the following specifications:

          • Two sources must address the concepts history, purpose, or goals.
          • One source must address the scope of the problem it is trying to fix.
          • One source must be an empirical study evaluating the concepts effectiveness.

          Describe the research strategy you used to find the sources and summarize, in your own words, the key ideas in each one of the documents.

            • 20

            Criminal Justice

             

            Your department’s leadership, to improve community/ police relations, is examining the effectiveness of body camera technology in law enforcement. Your Captain has the task to gather data on camera technology and how it is used in contemporary policing. He must present his findings to the command staff in three weeks. The Captain has tapped you as the resident expert on using body cameras in law enforcement. You are instructed to research the body camera issue and gather information on best practices and policies. Your Captain is particularly interested in how body cameras affect police decision-making during enforcement? What is the effect body cameras have on citizens’ complaints? What are the logistical issues associated with housing recordings and storing the technology? How was criminal behavior (if any) impacted after implementing body cameras? What concerns did union leadership have with implementing body camera technologies?

            Your research must consist of four to six articles, publications (books), peer review documents on the use of body cameras in policing. The articles must be no more than ten years old. Wikipedia is not a reliable source for this assignment. You must use step 1, as demonstrated in the assigned video, to separate your sources and summaries. Then, you must submit those two documents to me via Canvas. Remember, one is a list of your citations and a list of paragraphs associated with each source. 

              • 7

              Criminal Justice

              Recall your Introduction to Criminal Justice class and the subject of the policing history. You probably remember the three eras of policing (also you can find this topic on our textbook): the political, professional/reform, and community eras.

              Besides the periodization, you may also be familiar with the various types of policing that have emerged or been popularized in the United States, particularly since mid-1990s, such as zero tolerance policing, Homeland Security, evidence-based policing, police militarization, etc.

              Do you agree with that we live in the community policing era? Why or why not? Or, do you agree with that American policing already entered into a new era? If so, how do you call or name this new era, and why? Do your own research to support your idea. Share your thoughts and reasons by posting a conversation (at least 150 words in length excluding quotes) .

                • 10

                Criminal Justice

                 Please answer each question separately and each question should have 2-3  scholarly sources

                Criminal Justice

                 How can the news media be used in crime analysis? Do you consider the news media to be a valuable asset? Why or why not? 

                Criminal Justice

                – Examine the role of court administrators with ensuring that the appropriate punishment is imposed when sentencing alternatives exist. For the purposes of this question the term “court administrators” is defined as judges and prosecutors. As part of your response provide examples of factors that must be considered when determining the appropriate sentence for an offender.