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COVID-19 and HBCU Students

1. Birthday:

2. Age (circle one)

(1) 15-19 (2) 20-24

(3) 25-29 (4) 30–34

(5) 35+

 

2. Race (circle one)

African American White

Hispanic/Latino Asian

Other: ________

 

3. Employment Status (circle one)

(2) Employed

(1) Retired

(0) Unemployed

4. What HBCU do you attend

____________________________________

5. Did you receive Emergency Funding (College CARES Act, PPP, Stimulus, EBT) as a result of Covid-19? (circle one)

(2) Yes (2) No

6. Have You ever tested positive for COVID-19 (circle one)

(2) Yes (1) No (0) Unknown

7. How many days did you engage social distancing, quarantine or isolation as a result of testing positive for Covid-19? (Circle One)

(1) 0-5days (2) 5-7 days

(3) 7-10 days (4)10-14 days

Other ______

8. What were the COVID-19 restrictions that you experienced? (circle one)

a. stay-at-home order (1)

b. closing public places (2)

c. mask mandates (3)

d. travel restrictions (4)

e. all of the above (5)

f. none of the above (0)

9. Have recommendations for socially distancing caused stress for you? (circle one)

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all

 

10. Have recommendations for socially distancing caused stress for your family and loved one? (circle one)

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

11. In the past two years have you experienced the following because of Covid-19: (Circle one)

(1) Not enough money to pay rent

(2) Not enough money to pay for gas

(3) Not enough money to pay for food

(4) Do not have a regular place to sleep or stay

(5) All The Above

 

12. In the past two years have your family or loved one experienced the following as a result of Covid-19:

(1) Not enough money to pay rent

(2) Not enough money to pay for gas

(3) Not enough money to pay for food

(4) Do not have a regular place to sleep or stay

(5) All The Above

 

13.Which aspect of Covid-19 affected you the most: (Select One)

(1) Socially Distancing

(2) Isolation & Quarantine

(3) Covid-19 Death of Immediate Family Member

(4) Covid-19 School Mandated Remote Learning

(5) Covid-19 Mandated Testing & Vaccinations

(6) Covid-19 Mandated Closings

14. To cope with your previous response, which action did you take most and how often? (Select one)

14A.Taking care of your body, such as deep breaths, stretching, or meditating

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

14B. Connecting with others, including talking with people you trust about your concerns

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14C. Smoking more cigarettes or vaping more

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14D. Using prescription drugs (like valium, etc.)

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14E. Using non-prescription drugs

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14F. Using cannabis or marijuana

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14G. Drinking alcohol

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

14H. Eating high fat or sugary foods

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

14I.Cutting or self-injury

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

  

14J. Eating more food than usual

(3) A lot (2) Somewhat

(1) A little (0) Not at all 

 

 

15. Where did you get your information about COVID-19:

Friends Family

Social media News

Unknown

 

16. I believe that Covid-19 is a serious disease:

Yes No Unsure

 

17. How much information do you feel you know about Covid-19

A lot Some

A little Nothing

 

Completion

Darielle Brooks

Dr. Thompson

SSC 416: Social Research

February 5, 2022

Angle and Research Interest

This study will argue that Covid-19 deaths, particularly of the immediate family member, mother, father, brother, sister, or grandparent, influence psychological distress, which increases alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students. Since the Covid-19 outbreak in 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) reports over 5 million people as of February 2022 (Kılınç et al., 2022). The people who have died have been immediate family members, fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, and grandparents. Due to these deaths, many people, including HBCU students on campus, have experienced psychological problems such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, stress, depression, and sadness, leading to an increase in alcohol and other substance usages, abuse, and addiction.

Several pieces of evidence have shown a close relationship between adverse psychological issues and an increase in alcohol and drugs usage, abuse, and addiction among youth, adults, and even older adults. According to Smith et al. (2017), negative emotions like depression and stress influence alcohol and drug initiation and consumption as a coping strategy. Self-Medication Theory will be used to demonstrate the link between psychological distress and increase of alcohol and other substance usages, abuse and addiction among HBCU students. It will also support the research’s angle and confirm the hypothesis. Despite particular studies arguing that alcohol intake, abuse, and addiction tend to reduce during a disaster because of limited availability and financial challenges, this study emphasizes the “increase perspective” influenced by the psychological challenges associated with the pandemic.

The research interest is to understand how Covid-19 deaths cause psychological distress, which can, in turn, lead to an increase in alcohol and other substance use, abuse and addiction among HBCU students. The study is also interested in revealing useful approaches to address the negative emotions associated with a pandemic to reduce alcohol and other substance consumption, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students.

References

Kılınç, M., Arslan, G., Çakar, F. S., & Yıldırım, M. (2022). Psychological maltreatment, coping flexibility, and death obsession during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-mediation analysis. Current psychology, 1-9..

Smith, L. L., Yan, F., Charles, M., Mohiuddin, K., Tyus, D., Adekeye, O., & Holden, K. B. (2017). Exploring the link between substance use and mental health status: what can we learn from the self-medication theory?. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved28(2), 113-131.

Completion

Death Made Me Do It

Student Scholar: Darielle Brooks, Department of Social Sciences

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Willie J. Thompson

1530 Harden Street Columbia SC, 29204


Abstract

Since the Covid-19 outbreak, more than five million people have died, comprising immediate family members, including fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, and grandparents. As a result of these deaths, HBCU students on campus experienced significant psychological concerns such as anxiety, stress, post-traumatic disorder, depression, and sadness, leading to increased alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction. The primary purpose of this survey was to establish the relationship between Covid-19 deaths and the rise in alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students. The study hypothesized that Covid-19 deaths increase the use of alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students. It utilized the self-medication theory to confirm the hypothesis. Besides, the study used a simple and descriptive research design and collected data through questionnaires and interviews. A random sampling method was used and involved a sample size of 120 participants. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. The findings showed a strong relationship between Covid-19 deaths and increased alcohol and substance use, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students. The deaths led to psychological distress such as anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression among HBCU students, influencing them to take alcohol and abuse drugs. They resorted to this decision to try to cope with the negative emotions. In conclusion, Covid-19 deaths caused emotional problems, which increased alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students. Continued communication and support can help address the issue. 


Key Words

: Covid-19 deaths, psychological distress, coping strategy, substance use, addiction.

 

Completion

Literature Review

Darielle Brooks

Department of Social Sciences, Allen University

SSC 416: SOCIAL RESEARCH

Dr. Thompson

March 5, 2022

COVID-19 DEATHS

· Psychological Distress

· Increased of alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction.

Figure 1. Analytical Model within The Impact of COVID-19 on Alcohol and other Substance Use , Abuse and Addiction Among HBCU students.

Theory: The Covid-19 deaths have led to numerous psychological problems such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, stress, depression, and sadness, which have increased alcohol and other substance usage, abuse, and addiction among HBCU students.  

Question: With HBCU students losing their immediate family, mother, father, sister, brother, or grandparent to Covid-19, it has influenced significant psychological issues like anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, stress, depression, and sadness, increasing alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction.              

Supporting Theory: The hypothesis for this study states that Covid-19 deaths increase the use of alcohol and other substance, abuse and addiction among the Historically Black Colleges and Universities students. The research expects that the Covid-19 deaths of the immediate family, mother, father, brother, sister, or grandparent each participant experiences will influence psychological disturbances, increasing alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction. The study will use the Self-Medication Theory to confirm the hypothesis and support the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Self-Medication theory posits that individuals use alcohol and other substances as a coping strategy to address negative emotions, especially when a particular disaster happens (Nishith et al., 2022). In this sense, the theory will help show the link between the negative emotions associated with Covid-19 deaths and alcohol and other substance usages, abuse, and addiction increase.  

Independent Variable: Covid-19 Deaths

Dependent Variables: Psychological distress

                                  Increased of alcohol and other substance

Since its outbreak in 2019, Coronavirus has resulted in millions of deaths globally. According to the World Health Organization, over 5 million individuals have died so far with more than 200 million infections. These deaths led to profound psychological distress, resulting in other adverse implications such as increased alcohol intake and drug abuse. Virtually everyone felt these impacts, including Historically Black College and University (HBCU) students on campus. Several scholars have argued the relationship between Covid-19 deaths and increased alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction. This section provides notable empirical studies related to the subject topic. 

The research about the link between alcohol and other substance abuse use, abuse, and addition first came into the limelight during the major pandemics in the 19th and 20th centuries when the world experienced significant disasters such as the world wars and the 2001 bomb attack in the United States. For instance, according to Esterwood and Saeed (2020), the 2001 bombing attack in the United States, where about 2,977 people lost their lives, terrified the country, leading to numerous and adverse psychological impacts such as anxiety, stress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). Consequently, many people indulged in alcohol and other substances like bhang, cocaine, and cigarettes to cope with negative emotions. In other words, individuals thought that drinking alcohol or taking other substances would help them suppress anxiety, stress, and depression. This particular trend has been visible across the major pandemics, and the Covid-19 health crisis has not been an exception.

From the 1980s to around 2002, Dr. Ed Khantzian developed the Self-Medication Theory, which has since enabled scholars and healthcare professionals to explain alcohol and drug use, abuse, and addiction from the psychological suffering viewpoint. According to Khantzian, individuals take alcohol and other drugs because of the need to fulfill a psychological need (Khantzian, 2018). The doctor added that there exists a close link between alcohol and drug addiction with an individual’s emotional status. When people suffer from specific mental health issues like anxiety or stress, they resort to alcohol and drug use, abuse, and addiction to address and cope with these negative emotions. Many scholars and experts have used the self-medication theory widely to explain the association between Covid-19 deaths and increased alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction.

In research by Kilinc et al. (2022) about the Covid-19 deaths, psychological effects, and coping strategy during the pandemic, the findings revealed that Covid-19 deaths led to negative psychological consequences among children and young adults. As these groups lost their loved ones to the deadly virus, they became stressed, depressed, anxious, sad, and frustrated. In other words, Covid-19 deaths influenced psychological distress. Kilinc and colleagues further added that due to the psychological issues children and young adults experienced, they developed coping strategies, such as taking alcohol and drugs. They took these drugs to manage the negative emotions or feelings associated with losing their loved ones. 

Also, Nishith et al. (2022), in their study, “A test of self-medication hypothesis for drug use in homeless persons: The role of severe mental illness,” indicated that the link between Covid-19 deaths and increase of alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction could be explained better using the Self-Medication Theory. According to Nishith and the company, there is a close relationship between mental illness and drug use. When individuals experience mental distress, they are likely to engage in drug use, abuse, and addiction as a coping strategy. The coping scheme focuses on addressing the negative emotions that often come with the psychological illness. This is as per the Self-Medication Theory. Khantzian (2018) defined Self-medication Theory as a model suggesting that individuals use alcohol and other substances as a coping strategy to address negative emotions, especially when a particular disaster has happened.

Smith et al. (2017) supported Nishith and colleagues’ findings in their survey, exploring the link between substance use and mental health status. In this investigation, the authors claimed that severe mental health situations influence substance initiation and consumption among individuals. Using the Self-Medication Theory, Smith and colleagues established that severe mental health situation such as high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression causes individuals to resort to substance use as a coping strategy against negative emotions. They also supported their arguments using the Self-medication theory, which holds that individuals’ alcohol and substance use, abuse, and addiction increases when they experience negative psychological distress. 

In another study by Roberts et al. (2021) that focused on establishing the reasons for the increase of alcohol consumption and other substance use during a pandemic, the findings revealed that the percentage of individuals consuming alcohol ranged from 21%-72%, while those taking other substances ranged from 3.6%-17.5% during the health crisis (Roberts et al., 2021). The authors stated that psychological factors were responsible for increasing alcohol and substance use. For instance, when individuals lost their loved ones, they were subjected to stress and depression, leading them to consume alcohol or other substances to cope with the negative emotions. A survey by Sun (2021) supported the findings of Roberts and his colleagues. According to Sun, Covid-19 associated problems such as forced mandates and deaths significantly affected HBCU undergraduate students. These students suffered numerous psychological issues such as stress, frustration, and anxiety, especially those who lost their loved ones, including parents, brothers, sisters, and grandparents, to Coronavirus. As a result, most of them developed stress management and coping skills. One of such approaches was consuming alcohol and other substances. The students used the little money they had to buy alcohol and other drugs to cope with the challenging emotional situation they experienced.

Moreover, Reyes-Portillo et al. (2022), in their survey on the psychological, financial, and academic impacts of Covid-19 infection and deaths among college students of color, found that Covid-19 disease and deaths disproportionately affected the students of color. In other words, these students were severely impacted by the financial, academic, and Covid-19-related stressors. The worries about loneliness, stressful conditions, and dropping out of college because of Covid-19 infections and deaths deteriorated their mental status. They became anxious, stressed, depressed, and frustrated. As a result, most HBCU students started consuming alcohol and other substances as a coping strategy. More than 80% of the participants in the survey indicated they had experienced at least one psychological issue because of the Covid-19 deaths Reyes-(Portillo et al., 2022). To them, losing a loved one was emotionally draining, and they had to look for ways to manage the painful feelings. 

Another study by Wang and Goodman (2021) on the mental health status of HBCU students during the Covid-19 pandemic showed that mental health concerns and alcohol and other drugs intake increased significantly among these students as the health crisis ravaged the world. The authors found that Covid-19 deaths contributed hugely to the mental health issues escalation. Typically, as the students received death reports of their parents, siblings, or relatives, they became worried and stressed-up (Wang & Goodman, 2021). Some even isolated themselves from others and spent most of their time alone. Because of the worries and loneliness, some of these students began taking alcohol and other substances as a coping strategy. Those who were already taking the drugs increased their use and addiction. Wang and Goodman noted that this was a case of self-medication where students tried to suppress the adverse emotions using alcohol and other substances. 

In summary, the scholars above gave their perspectives regarding the relationship between the Covid-19 deaths and increase in alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and intake. Most researchers agreed that Covid-19 fatalities and deaths from other pandemics cause psychological distress like anxiety, stress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD), which influences individuals to consume alcohol and other drugs as a coping strategy. The studies based their arguments on the Self-Medication Theory developed between the 1980s and 2002 by Dr. Ed Khantzian. The theory posits that alcohol and drug use, abuse, and addiction depend on a person’s mental status. Adverse mental concerns such as stress and anxiety influences alcohol and other substances use as a coping strategy. In other words, people take alcohol and other drugs to address the negative feelings associated with psychological distress. The theory explains why alcohol and other substance use, abuse, and addiction increased among HBCU students during the Covid-19 pandemics. 

References

Esterwood, E., & Saeed, S. A. (2020). Past epidemics, natural disasters, COVID19, and mental health: learning from history as we deal with the present and prepare for the future. Psychiatric quarterly91(4), 1121-1133.

Khantzian, E. J. (2018). The self-medication hypothesis and attachment theory: Pathways for understanding and ameliorating addictive suffering: The twentieth John Bowlby Memorial Lecture. In Addictions from an attachment perspective (pp. 33-56). Routledge.

Kılınç, M., Arslan, G., Çakar, F. S., &, Yıldırım, M. (2022). Psychological maltreatment, coping flexibility, and death obsession during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-mediation analysis. Current psychology, 1-9..

Nishith, P., Huang, J., Morse, G. A., Dell, N., Murphy, A., &.,  Mueser, K. T. (2022). A test of self-medication hypothesis for drug use in homeless persons: the role of severe mental illness. Journal of Social Distress and Homelessness, 1-8.

Reyes-Portillo, J. A., Masia Warner, C., Kline, E. A., Bixter, M. T., Chu, B. C., Miranda, R., … & Jeglic, E. L. (2022). The Psychological, Academic, and Economic Impact of COVID-19 on College Students in the Epicenter of the Pandemic. Emerging Adulthood
21676968211066657
.

Roberts, A., Rogers, J., Mason, R., Siriwardena, A. N., Hogue, T., Whitley, G. A., & Law, G. R. (2021). Alcohol and other substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Drug and alcohol dependence229, 109150.

Smith, L. L., Yan, F., Charles, M., Mohiuddin, K., Tyus, D., Adekeye, O., &.,  Holden, K. B. (2017). Exploring the link between substance use and mental health status: what can we learn from the self-medication theory?. Journal of health car for the poor andunderserved, 28(2), 113-131.

Sun, W. (2021). HBCU undergraduate students’ perceived stress management and coping skills. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 1-12.

Wang, S. X., & Goodman, J. (2021). Mental Health of HBCU College Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. medRxiv

Completion

in

Q1. Birthdate Q2. Age Q3. Race Q4. Employment Status Q5. What HBCU do you attend Q6. Did you receive Emergency Funding (CollegeCARES Act, PPP, Stimulus, and EBT) because ofCovid-19? Q7. Have you ever tested positive for COVID-19 Q8. How many days did you engage social distancing, quarantine or isolation because of testing positive for Covid-19? ( Q9. What were the COVID-19 restrictions that you experienced? Q10. Have recommendations for socially distancing caused stress for you? Q11. Have recommendations for socially distancing caused stress for your family and loved one? Q12. In the past two years have you experienced the following because of Covid-19: 1=A, 2=B, 3=C, 4=D, 0=E Q13. In the past two years have your family or love done experienced the following as a result ofCovid-19: 1=A, 2=B, 3=C, 4=D, 0=E Q14. Which aspect of Covid-19 affected you the most: 1=A, 2=B, 3=C, 4=D, 5=E, 6=F Q15. To cope with your previous response, which action did you take most and how often? Q15A. Taking care of your body, such as deep breaths, stretching, or meditating Q15B. Connecting with others, including talking with people you trust about your concerns Q15C. Smoking more cigarettes or vaping more Q15D. Using prescription drugs (like valium, etc.) Q15E. Using non-prescription drugs Q15F. Using cannabis or marijuana Q15G. Drinking alcohol Q15H. Eating high fat or sugary foods Q15I. Cutting or self-injury Q15J. Eating more food than usual Q16. Where did you get your information about COVID-19: Q17. I believe that Covid-19 is a serious disease: Q18. How much information do you feel you know about Covid-19 Interviewer Initials
7311999 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 0 1 4 2 3
8162000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 3 5 1 1 0 0 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 2 4 2 2
4162001 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 2 5 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 3
1201996 3 1 2 Allen University 2 2 4 5 2 1 0 0 2 2 3 0 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 3 2 3
4231999 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 2 LDR
192000 2 1 0 Allen University 1 2 3 5 2 2 0 0 4 1 3 2 0 1 3 1 3 2 2 4 2 2
3302000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 5 2 2 0 0 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 0 2 LDR
9172001 2 1 2 South Carolina State University 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 4 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 4 2 3
3101999 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 6 2 3 0 1 3 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 2 3 2 3 DEB
8162000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 3 5 2 2 0 0 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 2 2 2
9161998 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 1 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 3 0 3 LDR
171998 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 1 1 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 2 3 3 3 0 1 2 1 2 DEB
12182000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 2 3 3 6 3 3 1 0 0 0 2 3 0 3 4 2 3
3142000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 4 5 3 3 0 0 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 3 2 2
2222000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 5 2 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1
272001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 3 1 0 2 4 4 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 2 4 2 1
2222000 2 1 2 AU 2 1 1 5 2 0 0 0 5 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 4 2 2
272001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 1 3 3 4 2 3 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 2 0 3
3142000 2 1 0 A.L.S. 2 1 1 5 2 1 0 0 5 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 1
281999 2 1 0 Allen University and A.L.S 2 2 3 1 2 1 4 4 5 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 1
10142000 2 1 0 Claflin University 2 1 1 5 1 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 2 2 LDR
9272002 1 1 0 Allen University 1 2 3 1 3 3 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 4 2 2
5282001 2 1 2 Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University 2 2 3 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 3 3 3 0 0 4 2 3
12142000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 2 2 KW
12182000 2 1 2 Allen University (A.L.S) 2 1 1 2 0 1 3 3 6 3 2 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 4 2 3
4172002 1 1 0 Allen university 2 2 4 5 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
12212000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 1 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 3
7132000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 2 3 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 3 2 1 MO
3112000 2 1 0 Allen University (Mercedes) 2 1 1 5 M 2 1 1 5 3 3 2 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 4 2 2 MO
3242001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 2 0 6 2 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 3 0 2
6211997 2 1 2 Allen University 1 1 4 5 1 3 0 0 4 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 0 3
4192002 1 1 2 Allen university (Mercedes O.) 2 2 4 5 1 1 2 0 4 3 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 4 2 1
1112000 2 1 0 Allen 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1
662001 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 0 2 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 3 2 2 KW
9221999 2 1 2 Howard University 2 1 2 5 3 1 2 0 4 3 1 3 1 0 1 1 1 0 3 4 3 1 LDR
tc={0B7275FE-B462-9B4A-B141-68D1A5B7DE22}: [Threaded comment]

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LR

10182002 1 1 0 Jackson State University 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 4 2 3 LDR
6172000 2 1 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 2 2 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 3
3252002 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 2 0 3 1 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 4 2 2 MSH
242002 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 2 1 3 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 4 0 3 MSH
11141996 3 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 2 2 2 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 4 2 2 KW
7261994 3 1 2 Allen University 2 2 1 5 3 3 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 4 2 3 KW
1241997 3 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 1,2,3 2 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1, 2, 4 2 KW
4251999 2 1 0 Allen University (2020) 2 1 1 5 2 2 0 0 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 2 2 KW
12062000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 2 0 0 1 4 4 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3,4 1 2 KW
4102000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 0 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 4 2 3 KW
1022000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 1 2 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 2 2 KW
2262000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 3 KW
11132002 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 4 5 0 1 4 4 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 KW
12221997 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 4 3 0 2 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 1 3 1 2 KW
1021997
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To Guest contributor can you please move down to number 50, So all of my data can be incorporated in one section please.

3 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 0 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 DEB
9012000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 4 5 2 2 3 3 5 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 4 2 3 DEB
8242000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 5 2 1 3 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 DEB
4162001 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 2 5 1 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 3 DEB
1201996 3 1 2 Allen University
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Who is guest contributor?

2 2 4 1 3 2 0 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 1 DEB
8111996
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51 please sorry and thank you


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Who is guest contributor?


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3 1 2 Allen University 2 2 2 1 2 0 6 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 3 DEB
328200 1 1 2 Allen University 2 1 5 0 2 3 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,2,3,4 2 2 DEB
1112002 2 1 South Carolina State University 2 1 1 5 1 1 0 2 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3,4 2 1 DEB
4262003 1 1 0 Benedict College 2 2 3 1 3 1 4 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 DEB
10081999 2 1 2 Benedict College 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 3 DEB
8072001 2 1 2 Benedict College: Phone Survey 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 3 3 3 4 2 2 DEB
8232000 2 1 0 Benedict College 2 2 2 5 0 0 4 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 DEB
7202000 2 1 2 Benedict College 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 0 2 3 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 2 3 2 1 DEB
10231997 2 1 2 Benedict College 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 3 DEB
11241999 2 1 2 Claflin University 2 2 4 5 2 2 4 3 3 0 1 3 3 2 0 0 3 2 3 DEB
4252001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 4 5 0 0 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 3 MSH
8172001 2 1 0 Morris College 2 1 5 1 2 3 0 0 5 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 4 2 2 MSH
172000 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 4 5 3 3 2 1 5 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 4 2 2 LDR
2252001 2 1 0 Claflin University 2 2 1 5 0 2 2 0 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1,3,4 2 2 MSH
10302001 2 1 2 Allen University 2 2 4 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2 LDR
912001 2 1 0 HAMPTON UNIVERSITTY 2 1 5 0 0 1 0 0 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2 MSH
1162001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 5 6 2 2 4 4 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 2 2 LDR
291993 3 1 0 Southern University 2 1 1 5 1 1 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 4 1 1 AJN
242001 2 1 2 Allen University 2 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 2 MSH
3112001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 1 3 2 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 2 1 LDR
2132001 2 1 0 Allen University 2 1 1 5 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 4 2 3 LDR
1202000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 2 5 2 3 3 0 4 3 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 2,4 1 2 MSH
7172000 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 4 5 2 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 MSH
1111999 2 1 0 Allen University 2 2 1 1 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 3 2 3 MSH
1242000 2 1 0 Grambing State 2 2 Other(32) 5 1 1 1 1 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 AJN
10132000 2 1 0 Benedict College 2 2 3 5 1 1 3 2 2 0 3 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 2 3 MSH
3121997 2 1 2 NCA&T 2 2 4 5 2 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 3,4 2 2 AJN
1121997 3 1 NCA&T 2 2 4 5 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 1 0 0 0 3 1

Completion

Covid 19 Deaths: Death Made me do it

Demographics Table: 4 Variables

· Age

· Caused stress for you

· Drinking alcohol

· Aspect of Covid 19 affected you the most

IV Table: Covid 19 Deaths: Any Variable in the data

DV Table: The effects on Covid 19 deaths

Graphs to be used in Covid 19 deaths is

1. Demographics table (frequency distribution)

2. Independent variable (frequency distribution)

3. Dependent Variable ( IV on DV percentile)

4. IV/DV Table ( IV on DV percentile)

5. Variance in IV/DV (variance)

6. Standard Deviation

7. Correlation Coefficient IV/DV: (Pearson’s)

Formulas to use for variance and standard deviation:

R:h-1

Standard deviation formula

Variance formula

Methodology: what you doing throughout the whole data set.

In completing this assignment we are gathering information within putting information into our graphs that is being needed for each paper. Summarizing the paper and putting it to a completion. I have provided the final data that we took for our surveys and all together we had 130 to receive a feedback but of all my people they are initialed with my name initials which is DEB in the satay set in the last column so that you can provide feed back for my paper and initial research of my responses.

Completion

1

A Basis For Grade Point Average:
A Study of the Relationship between a
student’s grade point average and the

number of hours sleep.

A research conducted by
Willie J. Thompson Jr.
December 2008

2

Introduction

In the university culture the grade point average is a key indicator of a successful

college career and vice versa. Most students would agree that in order to achieve the

highest grade point average, various conditions have to be met: a balanced course load,

consistent interaction with professors and staff, encouragement from a supporting family

or network and lastly, proper rest and relaxation. However many students have found

proper rest, or adequate sleep amounts to be a challenging area to conquer. This study

seeks to present findings about sleep hours as a key determinant of student’s grade point

average. In the preparation for the work force, a college student experiences could vary

from stressful situations, high campus involvement to depression, fear, and separation

anxiety. But does the lack of sleep can affect academic performance on any level?

Problem

Our question here is to understand the relationship between a student’s grade

point average and the number of hours sleep. The Grade point average (hereafter GPA) is

a number that represents the average of a student’s grades during his or her time at an

institution, and usually weighted by a number of credits given for the course. Most

colleges and universities in the US use a four-point system. And the GPA is sometimes

used as a determining factor of the student’s ability to engage further academic material

and the acquisition of graduate and post graduate degrees. However sleep is defined as

the innate state of bodily rest and is suggested by scientist as needed for survival.

Anderson A. Zagler, found that sleep deprivation affects the immune system and

metabolism (Zagler R504-R509.)i. Zagler’s study also shows numerous ways in which

sleep is related to memory processing, preservation, stating a person is most safe when

3

asleep. Engaging the above factors and comparing them to the experiences of the average

college student. This study has significance to the student who engages in a loaded course

of study and a sharp memory is needed during examination and testing seasons. This

study is scientifically significant for its uncommonness. Julian R. Betts and Darlene

Morell conducted a study the relative importance of family background, high school

resources and peer groups as determinant of GPA, but hours of sleep were not

considered. It causes this study to explore the hours of sleep a student gets, and its affect

on academic measuring systems such as GPA.

Hypothesis & Theory

It is hypothesized that the numbers of hours of sleep will have an inverse affect on

GPA. It is speculated that the hours sleep each respondent gets will affect the hours

engaged in rigorous academic work, therefore impacting the students GPA. As the

college student is in need of well rested functioning faculties’ to satisfy academic

requirements that are measured by the GPA.

Specifically, the study will explore: if the hours of study, hours working for an

employer, and if the respondent experiences trouble sleeping, all affect both the

respondents sleep hours and GPA; the on/off campus living situation can affect the

respondents sleep hours; and lastly the type of high school a student graduated from and

the respondents head(s) of household highest level of education can impact the GPA as

listed in Figure 1 below:

4

Figure I. Analytical Model of Relationships among Hours Sleep and Grade Point

Average and Other related Variables.

Methodology

The handed survey research design was chosen to gather data for this problem.

This process is where questionnaires were distributed by hand, completed by respondents

and returned to data collector by hand. This allows for a personal connection between

respondent and collector, is found to be cost efficient, and easily managed by the

collector. This also allows the data collected to be free of possible confidentiality

Hours of
Study

Hours Working
for an

Employer

Hours
Sleep

GPA
Residency

On/Off
Campus

High
School

Attended

Head(s) of
Household

Highest
level of

Education

Trouble
Sleeping

5

breaches, and destruction. The handed subtype does have drawbacks in which the

respondent might not feel comfortable sharing answers to certain questions with the

collector even though the questionnaire is anonymous and the respondent attitude, attire,

and presentation may be a factor in the distribution process.

Selection of the study participants were completed through two non-probability

processes called availability and quota sampling. The former sampling method is also

known as a haphazard, accidental, or convenience sample (Schutt 2006).ii This research

sampling consists of random number of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors and

graduate students, both male and female. Data collectors went to certain buildings or

areas on the campus of Howard University and simply asked students who were available

to complete the survey, once all surveys were handed out and returned the sampling

process was over. The benefit of availability sampling it is convenient is easily

administered. The disadvantage to availability sampling is the prejudice the research staff

may have to the work/class schedules of respondents.

Quota sampling is intended to overcome the most obvious flaw of availability

sampling—that the sample will just consist of whoever or whatever is availability,

without any concern for its similarity to the population of interest (Schutt 154.)iii. This

research sampling consists of an equal number of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors

and graduate students, both male and female. Data collectors went to certain buildings, or

areas on the campus of Howard University and simply asked students who fit the

characteristics to complete the survey, once the quota was reached the sampling process

was over. The benefit of quota sampling is the narrowed focus and is easily administered.

6

The disadvantage to quota sampling is the limited research the findings will provide. It is

not representative of the entire population, and it dispels random selection.

Table 1 below, presents the demographics of the respondents to the questionnaire:

61% of the respondents were female; 36% of the respondents were from homes whose

parent(s) held a bachelors degree; 162 respondents parents share a family income of less

than 40,000; and 502 of them grew up in suburban/rural areas.

Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of Sample

Demographic Characteristics Frequency Percent

Gender

Female 619 61.0
Male 367 36.2
Total 986 97.2

Education of Family Head

No college degree 310 31.7
Bachelors degree 373 36.8
Master’s degree or higher 295 29.1
Total 978 96.4

Annual Family Income
Less than $40,000 162 15.9
$40,000 to $59,999 156 15.4
$60,000 to $79,999 153 15.1
$80,000 to 99,999 138 13.6
$100,000 to 149,999 126 12.4
$150,000 or higher 95 9.4
Total 830 96.4
Median: $70,000

Type of Area Grew Up In
Urban 474 46.7
Suburban/Non Urban 502 49.7
Total 976 96.3

7

To collect data a questionnaire was designed by the fall 2008 Sociological

Methods class under the guidance of Dr. Johnny Daniel. A total of 8 questions were

asked to aid us in our understanding of the relationships among hours sleep and grade

point average and other related variables. Specifically: How many hours a week, on

average, do you spend studying, and measured on a scale ranged from less than 1 hour to

40 hours or more? Please indicate whether you experienced trouble sleeping during this

semester and asked to check if applicable? Was your high school public or private which

included the option of other? Do you live on-campus or off-campus, as a yes-on or no-off

measurement? How many hours of sleep do you get on an average night, and asked to

write in response? Which category best represents your overall grade point average,

measured on a scale ranging from 0= GPA not established to 12= 4.0? What is your

classification with choices ranging from freshmen to graduate or professional student?

And, what is the highest level of education the head(s) of your family household received

measure by a range from Elementary school diploma to Degree beyond the bachelor’s

degree?

The advantages to these questions were they were all closed ended and refined by

the professor. The questions maintained a consistent focus, and were not tedious, boring,

or lengthy. The disadvantages could have been the opened ended questions in which

respondents could not circle but have to give careless written responses.

To data was analyzed on an aggregate basis, in which all responses are combined

for the purpose of explanation, description or evaluation. This quantitative research uses

statistical procedures: univariate (frequency and percent distribution of grade point

8

average, (hereafter DV), bivariate (percent distribution of hours of sleep, (hereafter KIV),

variance, range, mean, mode, correlation, t-test, ANOVA, and regression checks.

Findings

The GPA of a student is simply a measuring rod of all the academic course work a

student has engaged in at an institution. In the administered questionnaire the Howard

University grading system ranged from GPA not yet established to 4.0, which is an A.

Students were asked to identify which category best represents their overall grade point

average this variable indicated here is the dependent variable.. The chart below describes

a percentage distribution of the respondents GPA.

In Table 2, the pattern of the distribution of GPA’s according to shows the modal

category for respondents is GPA category 2.6 to 2.9. The mean GPA for the respondents

is 3.1.

Table 2
Frequency Distribution and Percentage Distribution of

the Grade Point Average
GPA Frequency %

2.5 or less 73 8.3
2.6 to 2.9 181 20.6
3.0 to 3.1 147 16.7
3.2 to 3.3 151 17.2
3.4 to 3.5 131 14.9
3.6 to 3.7 101 11.5
3.8 to 4.0 96 10.9
Total 880 100
Mean 3.1

9

In Table 3 we find a cross tabulation between the respondents grade point average

and hours of sleep. This table shows that there is almost to no relationship between the

KIV and DV. The chi square test reads only a .099% of non-significance.

Table 3
Percentage Distribution of the GPA by the R Hours Sleep

Index of R

Hours Sleep

Index of GPA
– 5 hours 5 hours 6 hours 7 hrs 8 hrs 9 hrs +

2.5 or less 7.6 10 7.7 4.7 5.7 15.2
2.6 to 2.9 24.1 23.3 19.9 15.3 28.6 17.4
3.0 to 3.1 17.7 20.7 17.6 15.3 12.4 17.4
3.2 to 3.3 21.5 18 13.5 21.2 20 13
3.4 to 3.5 13.9 11.3 17.9 15.9 10.5 10.9
3.6 to 3.7 5.1 10 11.5 13.5 15.2 8.7
3.8 to 4.0 10.1 6.7 11.9 14.1 7.6 17.4
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
Number 79 150 312 170 105 46

Chi-Square= 40.324^, df=30, p=.099

During the t-test the entire group of respondent is divided in two, by the number

of hours sleep. Group 1 (getting 5 to 6 hours of sleep) is 4.00 and the mean for group 2

group (getting 7 to 9 or more hours of sleep) is 3.58. The respondents hours of sleep in

either group does not encourage or discourage the respondents GPA. The other results

were; t-value=1.83, df=860, and p-value=0.67. The p-value of the t-test records no

significant relationship between group means.

Table 4 shows the mean GPA while comparing the results of the DV, and KIV

between groups which measures 0.011 represents a significant difference. The Scheffe

test shows there is a GPA difference between the people in Group 1 who get 5 hours of

sleep and those in Group 2 who get 7 hours of sleep.

10

Table 4
Results of the ANOVA Comparing Means of the Grade Point Average by

the R Hours Sleep

Sum of
Squares

df Mean
Square

F Sig.

Between
Groups 48.267 5 9.654 2.977 0.011

Within Groups 2775.817 856 3.243
Total 2824.08 861

Table 5 shows, the correlation to be statistically significant, yet inconsistent with

the hypothesis that the numbers of hours sleep has an inverse impact on the DV.

Variables that have significant yet small direct relationships with the DV is the

respondents: head(s) of household highest level of education, on/off campus living

situation, if respondent experienced trouble sleeping, and the number of hours the

respondent works per week.

Table 5
Matrix Correlation Coefficients Resulting from the

Intercorrelation of the Variables in Study

Variables

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1 Grade Point Average .0587 -.0211 .1534 00263 -.0398 .1794 -.0218
2 Number of hours of sleep R gets on a
average night -.0249 .033 -.0074 -.1494 .0953 .0007

3 Type of high school R attended -.0427 .0253 .0088 -.0305 -.0015
4 Highest level of education of R’s family
household head -.0676 .0008 .0076 -.0243
5 Whether R live on-campus or off-
campus .0179 -.0641 -.2684

6 Trouble sleeping -.0821 -.0186
7 Number of hours per week studying -.0032
8 Number of hours per week working
for an employer

*Coefficients that are statistically significant are in bold. Range in Number of cases: 2 to 8.

11

Table 6 shows, the coefficient are statistically significant but inconsistent with the

hypothesis. . This table reveals respondents; hours of study, hours of work, trouble

sleeping and the head of household highest level of education have significant effects on

the DV and the type of high school, and number hours of sleep don’t, this also helps to

understand the multiple R and R square relations. In comparing the standardized

coefficients, if they were to be ordered the KIV would be the very last determinant of the

DV.

Table 6
Results of the Regressions of Grade Point Average

on a Model Composed of Sleep Hours, High School, Family Education, Residency,
Trouble Sleeping, Study Hours, and Work Hours

Variables In Model
Unstandardized

Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients

Number of hours per week studying 0.342 0.176
Number of hours per week working for an employer -0.014 -0.011
Trouble sleeping -0.069 -0.018
Type of high school R attended -0.084 -0.019
Whether R live on-campus or off-campus 0.212 0.058
Highest level of education of R’s family household
head 0.420 0.181

Number of hours of sleep R gets on a average night 0.008 0.005
(Constant) 2.062
Multiple R 0.626
Multiple R Square .392
Number 734

*Coefficients that are statistically significant are in bold.

Notes: Predictors (constant) number hours of sleep R gets on an average night.

Conclusions

The findings presented under the six statistical procedures all reject the

hypothesis. The variables are not related to each other in the 2008 fall study conducted on

12

the campus of Howard University. While a student’s GPA may be affected by several

factors however in this case the hours of sleep one engages is not a significant factor. In

this case the respondent’s classification, parents education, residency, trouble sleeping,

hours of study, and high school privatization were all considered and yet the table shows

the hypothesis to be overthrown. This implies it is not necessary for people to focus on

the hours of sleep they get but on the hours of study they engage in at an academic

institution of high learning.

13

REFERENCES

i Zager, A., Andersen, M. L., Ruiz, F. S., Antunes, I. B., & Tufik, S. (2007). Effects of acute and chronic
sleep loss on immune modulation of rats [Electronic version]. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative
Physiology, 293, R504-R509.
ii Schutt, Russell K. Investigating the social world: the process and practice of research. 5th ed. P. 152
iii Schutt, Russell K. Investigating the social world: the process and practice of research. 5th ed. P. 154

Completion

Skim all of the work you have done so far, read the provided Final Report.docx template, and produce a Final Report of the project. The report should be 3,000 words (eight to ten pages in length.) The time required to do this research and write up this deliverable should take at least 10 hours.

a. Skim all of your previous deliverables.

b. Study the provided Final Report.docx template.

b. Reflect on the discussion and any insights you may have gained and key lessons you have learned from the courses in your program.

c. Craft the deliverable addressing each of the items listed above.

d. Reflect on what you have produced. Does the deliverable you have produced truly demonstrate your capabilities? If you are not proud of this work, take more time and refine/polish it.