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## Civil Engineering homework help

CE 4354/5358

Solid Waste Engineering Project – Spring 2022

Due Monday May 2, 11:59 p.m. (midnight) Late submissions: 10% off per day

The Problem

Green City, population 550,000, is going to build a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) for its recyclables. Your first task is to design a MRF for the city.

The city is also considering combustion and anaerobic digestion as alternatives to landfilling. The by-products from any of these processes would still need to be landfilled. Your second task is thus to compare the following two options and recommend one to the city:

A. MRF + anaerobic digester + landfill (you will only be able to have the yard waste and food waste go to the digester)

B. MRF + combustor + landfill.

The waste composition for Green City is:

 Component Percent by Weight Food 19 Paper 27 Textiles 8 Yard 12 Wood 5 Steel 3 Glass 5 Aluminum 6 Plastic 15

I recommend setting up a spreadsheet to do repetitive calculations. Pay attention to significant digits – points will be subtracted for using more than 3 significant digits.

Part 1. MRF Design (43%)

Citizens separate out paper, steel, glass, aluminum, and plastics. Assume a 45% recycling participation rate (45% of the recyclables in the waste stream are separated out and sent to the MRF; the other 55% remain part of the waste stream with the refuse and go to the combustor, digester, or landfill).

The MRF will include the following unit operations, targeted to separate out the material in parentheses:

· Hand sorting (plastics)

· Trommel screen (glass)

· Eddy current separator (aluminum)

· Magnet (steel)

· Air classifier (paper)

· Shredder after the air classifier, to shred the separated paper.

· Roll crusher after the magnet, to flatten cans.

f-values (rejection fractions) for the separation processes are given in the following table:

 Component Air Classifier Trommel Screen Magnet Hand Sorting Eddy Current Separator Paper 0.1 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 Glass 0.8 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 Ferrous/steel 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.9 Aluminum 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.1 Plastic 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.2 0.9

The shredder and roll crusher process 100% of the waste fed to them (f = 0 for all materials).

1. (3 points) Estimate the mass per day of paper, steel, glass, aluminum, and plastics that enter the MRF.

2. (17 points) Specify the order of the 5 separation processes (air classifier, trammel screen, magnet, hand sorting, and eddy current separator), if the objective is to obtain the highest effectiveness for separation of paper. As a measure of effectiveness, multiply recovery of paper by purity of paper (the 2 equations in the book do not apply because we have more than one separation process and more than two materials). Recovery of paper should be calculated as follows:

Recovery of paper = (paper extract separated by air classifier)/(total paper entering
MRF
) * 100%

There are 5 separation processes, which means there are 5! = 120 possible orders. To simplify the analysis, estimate the effectiveness of paper removal for 5 possible orders:

A. air classifier first (which should give maximum recovery of paper),

B. air classifier second and hand sorting first (less recovery of paper than Option A but greater purity),

C. air classifier second and trommel screen first (less recovery of paper than Option A but greater purity),

D. air classifier second and eddy current separator first (less recovery of paper than Option A but greater purity),

E. air classifier last (which should give the maximum purity of paper).

The order in which you place the other separation processes does not matter for this analysis.

Hint: For some of the options, you don’t need to calculate all of the coefficients in the matrix.

3. (3 points) Draw a schematic of the MRF process train (example: Fig. 5-36), including all 7 unit processes in the order chosen in #2. Label the kind of material that is separated by each process.

4. (4 points) Determine the capacity of each of the 7 unit operations (5 separators plus the shredder and roll crusher). The capacity is the mass of material that each unit will process per day.

Hint #1: The 5 separators are in series. So the first separator will process all of the waste that goes to the MRF. The second separator will process all of the waste minus the waste extract separated out by the first process, and so on.

Hint #2: From #2, you already have the matrix of masses of each component exiting each separator (reject). Simply sum the masses of the various components to find the total mass entering the next unit.

Hint #3: All of the material separated out by the magnet (extract) goes to the roll crusher. All of the material separated out by the air classifier goes to the shredder.

5. (5 points) Using your matrix with the chosen order of separation processes from #2, estimate the quantity (mass/day) and purity of the 5 materials recovered (paper, steel, glass, aluminum, and plastics). (Purity of paper was already determined in 2.) The quantity recovered for sale is what ends up in the target extract only (paper separated by the air classifier only, for example).

6. (1 point) Estimate the amount of waste from the MRF that must go to the landfill, as all materials are not recovered. The waste that must go to the landfill is the waste that passes through the last separation process, without being separated out (reject).

7. (1 point) Estimate the critical speed of the trommel screen (2.75 m diameter).

8. (2 points) Calculate the characteristic size of the shredder, assuming that it must produce a product such that 95% of the material passes the 1” sieve (n=1.15).

9. (3 points) Calculate the velocity in the air classifier needed to suspend the paper pieces, assuming a 4” aerodynamic diameter. CD = 2.5, void fraction = 55%. (2 points)

10. (4 points) Calculate the size of rollers required for the roll crusher. Use 7.4 cm for the can diameter. Desired crushed particle size = 0.9 cm. Coefficient of kinetic friction for steel on steel is 0.57. Calculate the roller width W needed to meet the required capacity. Assume M = 42 rpm and = 250 lb/yd3.

Part 2. SWOLF Life Cycle Inventory Modeling (24%)

11. (10 points) Use SWOLF to compare the 2 options A and B. For option A, you will only be able to have the yard waste and food waste go to the digester. You will need to run the model twice.

SWOLF will provide output to compare the 2 options in terms of total cost, total greenhouse gas emissions, and percent diverted. Create a table of your own to summarize the comparison.

12. Use a decision-making matrix with weightings and ratings to compare the 2 options A and B based on the quantitative values in the table created in #11, as well as your semi-quantitative assessment of the following:

· air emissions (besides greenhouse gases),

· water pollution potential,

· water use,

· land impacts, and

· any other appropriate factors.

Explain your weightings of all criteria, and your ratings of the semi-quantitative criteria based on information about the options discussed in class. Based on your decision-making matrix, which option would you recommend? (13 points)

13. In a real-world situation, what other factors would need to be considered in making a decision among alternatives? Consider the 3 pillars of sustainability. (1 point)

Part 3. Combustor or Digester (16%)

Depending on whether you chose anaerobic digester or combustor in #12, address one of the following sets of questions below. For example, if you chose combustor, address the combustor questions only, NOT the digester questions.

Combustor

14. (4 points) Assuming the percents given in the composition table on p. 1 are on a wet basis, estimate the heat value of the waste.

15. (11 points) The wastes are being burned to produce electricity. Estimate the maximum amount of power production, given the following assumptions:

a. Air flow rate is 9500 kg/h, and the air contributes negligible heat.

c. 6% of the fuel remains uncombusted in the ash, which exits the combustion chamber at 700°C.

d. The specific heat of ash is 0.837 kJ/kg/°C, and the specific heat of air is 1.0 kJ/kg/°C.

e. The lowest temperature at which the exhaust gases can exit the stack is 25°C.

f. The efficiency conversion of steam to electricity is 38%.

16. Estimate the mass of material that must go to the landfill (mass of ash) (1 point).

Digester

17. (2 points) What is the C/N ratio of the waste mixture? What could be done to adjust the ratio to 30? Assume C/N values as follows: food waste = 15:1, Assume all information for yard waste is the same as for grass.

18. (4 points) Estimate the actual methane production from the waste (assume biogas is 60% methane).

19. (3 points) What amount of water would need to be added to bring the overall moisture content to 85%?

20. (5.5 points) Find the volume of the digester to handle the waste mixture and added water.

21. (1.5 points) The heating value of biogas is anticipated to be 600 Btu/ft3. Assume that the thermal efficiency of the turbine used to generate electricity will be 40%. Estimate electricity production in kW.

Part 4. Landfill (12%)

22. Run the CLEEN model to estimate methane production from the waste. Use rainfall of 30 in./year and temperature of 70°F. Assume the landfill opened in 2000 and use year 20187 gas production for your values. (8 points)

23. Assume that the thermal efficiency of the turbine used to generate electricity will be 40%. Estimate electricity production. (2 points)

24. Estimate the mass of recyclables that will not degrade. (2 points)

Part 5. Executive Summary (5%)

Prepare an executive summary (around 1-2 pages single spaced using a word processor) which includes:

· A brief summary of the problem,

· Main features of your designs for the MRF, combustor, and digester (a table would be a good way to summarize the quantitative values) and

· A summary of your comparison of the 23 options and your recommendation to the city and rationale.

What to submit:

Electronic:

· Spreadsheet of calculations (Clearly define/label each columns with units)

· CLEEN model

· SWOLF model file for each run

Electronic or hard copy:

· A solution to each part of the project

· Hand-written sample for each type of calculation in the spreadsheet (If a number of cells use the same formula, only one written example calculation is needed)

· Executive summary (2-3 pages max)

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## Civil Engineering homework help

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Environment

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 4

Coursework Specification

1 Module Information
1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery

1.2 Module Code Number KB7039

1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits

1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 02

1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 60%

1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem

1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton

1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2019-20 Semester 2 only

2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students W/c 27th January 2020

2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP

2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students 11:59 pm 12th May 2020

2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP

2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students 9th June 2020

2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to
Students eLP

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 4

3 Assessment Details
3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

What will I be expected to achieve?

Knowledge & Understanding:

MLO1 – Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the work-based practice through the analysis and
evaluation of research-based theory and relevant case studies, by formulating solutions to the effective
and efficient delivery of construction engineering projects.

Intellectual / Professional skills & abilities:

MLO2 – Critically evaluate innovative approaches to product, process and services delivery in
construction engineering through consideration of theory and practice.

Personal Values Attributes:

MLO3 – Formulate strategies for improvement within the global construction engineering industry to
demonstrate cultural, ethical and sustainable awareness.

3.2 Coursework Overview
There are two assessed pieces of work in this module, which are connected and will allow the you to
show a progression of learning within the module. The second component requires the you to consider
existing problems related to waste in the construction industry. Once the you have selected a single
problem and can define the problem, you need to critically analyse the potential solutions formulated from
the module and provide considered solutions to the problem, with clear links between the problem and
the potential solutions.

3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
You will produce an individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding
front page, Content page and Reference List). The illustrated journal needs to include all of the following:

1. Select a construction industry problem related to forms of waste discussed during the module, including a
short description and a statement that clearly and concisely defines the scope of the problem.

2. Justify (through industry and academic literature) why this is a problem, who the problem affects, and the
impact of the problem.

3. Critically analyse possible solutions to the problem from learning during this module AND independent
research.

4. Provide a visual illustration that links the problem to the solutions, i.e. fishbone diagram or another suitable
visual tool.

5. A visual improvement model which summarises HOW the problem can be solved.
6. The illustrated journal should use an effective combination of text AND images to provide an interesting and

visually engaging document. All images should be relevant and of an appropriate size and quality.

The illustrated journal should include cited, good quality academic literature, as well as industry
best practice. The content should be guided by the learning outcomes, the marking criteria and the
learning from this module.

3.4 Expected Size of Submission
An individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding front page,
Content page and Reference List). If more than 6 pages of content are provided, only the first 6 pages will
be marked and assessed.The illustrated journal is to include approximately 50% text (using font size 10)
and approximately 50% images.

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 3 of 4

3.5 Referencing Style

You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system.
An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:

https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

3.6 Assessment Criteria
Quality of presentation (including the ability to generate audience interest) 10%
Depth of analysis of the industry problem 30%
Analysis of possible solutions 40%
Ability to relate the problems to the solutions (visual illustration) 10%
Clarity and relevance of the model. (Visual model to represent solution) 10%

4 Referral

The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards
Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to
undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled
sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your
programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.

5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 4 of 4

KB7039 Construction Project Planning and Delivery – Assignment 2 [to be marked out of 100% and converted]
Name ………………………………… Mark:

OUTCOMES I CAN’T BELIEVE
IT!

[ 100%]

WOW! [ 85%] DISTINCTIVE [ 75%] COMMENDABLE [
65%]

PASS [ 55%] FAIL [ 45%] POOR FAIL [ 0%]

Quality of
presentation
(including the ability
to generate
audience interest)
10%

This work is of
outstanding quality
and has surprised
the markers.

Shows deeper learning
than would normally be
expected.

Excellent and very
clear with few
problems.

Very good and
reasonably clear with
some problems.

Quite a few problems
but overall the

Too many problems so
the presentation was
unclear.

Very poor with little
ability to express the
ideas in a clear and
interesting manner.

Depth of analysis of
the industry
problems
30%

A good attempt with
few mistakes – the
student clearly
understands the
problems.

A good attempt with
some mistakes – the
student’s
understanding is
generally good

Some attempt with
some mistakes – the
student’s
understanding is
acceptable.

Little attempt with
many mistakes – the
students show little
understanding.

Very little effort has
gone into this – the
student shows no real
understanding.

Analysis of possible
solutions
40%

The student has an
excellent grasp of
possible solutions.

The student has a
good grasp of possible
solutions although
there are some minor
problems.

The student does not
fully grasp the
solutions but there is
some merit in what is
said.

The student is not able
to analyse solutions
though there is
evidence of a fair
attempt.

The student has little
or no grasp of the
issues.

Ability to relate the
problems to the
solutions (visual)
10%

Solutions are clearly
problems.

Solutions arise from
problems in most
instances although
there is some lack of
clarity.

solutions and problems
but the work lacks
depth.

Evidence of only
surface understanding

Little evidence of ability
to derive the solutions
from the problems.

Clarity and
relevance of the
improvement model
10%

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
excellent with few
problems.

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
good though there are
a few problems.

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
acceptable but there is
some confusion.

The work lacks clarity
and cogency – difficult
to follow

The work is confusing
and has little merit.

Feedback – 3 areas of good practice, 3 areas for potential improvement:

• 1 Module Information
• 1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery
• 1.2 Module Code Number KB7039
• 1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits
• 1.4 Module Leader Hazel Ponton
• 1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 02
• 1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 60%
• 1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem
• 1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton
• 1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2019-20 Semester 2 only
• 2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
• 2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students W/c 27th January 2020
• 2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP
• 2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students 11:59 pm 12th May 2020
• 2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP
• 2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students 9th June 2020
• 2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students eLP
• 3 Assessment Details
• 3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework
• 3.2 Coursework Overview
• 3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
• 3.4 Expected Size of Submission
• 3.5 Referencing Style
• 3.6 Assessment Criteria
• 4 Referral
• 5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

## Civil Engineering homework help

1 | P a g e

Def ect w a st e p ro b le m i n t he co nst ruct io n I nd ust ry ! ! !

Collapse of buildings

Source Aljazeera News, 2019

Student Number: W19042969

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE18ST, United

Kingdom

2 | P a g e

onstruction defect can be defined as a fault in design, the worship and material system which leads to project failure.

Collapse of buildings

Source: (Aljazeera News, 2019))

C

Generally, defects occur as a result of failure to follow required guidelines resulting to

financial, property and personal damages as argued by Robson, (2015). Construction defects

are usually hard to identify since only experts can analyze when a procedure is not correctly

followed (Waziri, 2016).

Types of construction defects

Design defects

Errors in designing

Source:(Katume, 2017))

Design defects occurs when engineers and architects make errors when

planning on how facilities are going to be constructed. The most likely losses

errors that might occur includes the water penetration plan, poor draining

(Cogurcu2015).

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Material defects

Material defects in projects

Source: (Hazem, 2017)

Workmanship

Source:(Levelset,2018)

Material defects occurs when inferiorproducts are

used during the construction. The material used in

construction projects is based on the requirement of

the end products. the higher the quality of the end

product, the higher the material quality that should

be used. The use of inferior products means that the

buildings and infrastructures cannot last for long

period ((Tayeh, et, al, 2017)

The interpretation of designs is important for the safety of the

occupants and users of buildings. Workmanship is a scenario

where construction is not undertaken as per the directions of the

designers. It results from misinterpretation of designs and pans

leasing to poor quality of buildings (Bagdiya&Wadalkar,2015)

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How defects lead to wastages in the construction industry

Effects of defects in construction

Source:(LMT,2018)

In construction works, defects must be corrected otherwise, they might lead to greater losses in

future. The wastage in defects comes as a result of additional work that needs to be performed to

correct defects that are noted.

Financial wastages

Financially, organizations are forced to use more funds to undertake repairs as a result of additional

work to mend the effects of defects. Since projects are run under strict budgets, there is need for

project managers to ensure that the actual expenses do not exceed the budget. However, it is

difficult for project managers in construction project to ensure that budget is actualized since more

resources will be allocated in order to amend the defects.

Human resource wastage

In terms of human resources, organizations are made to committee more employees for repairs as

opposed to using the employees in undertaking other important stages of the projects. In presence of

defects in construction projects hence means that employees will be used to undertake repeat tasks

rather than undertaking progress tasks and advancing the projects (Dey, et al., 2017).

Time wastage

Construction projects are undertaking in consideration with a time plan. This means that project

managers are required to follow the project plans in order to deliver each milestone at the right

time. However, the presence of defects in the projects is likely to lead to delays in the process of

project management (Gulghane&Khandve, 2015). Since defects have to be solved immediately,

they are realized, time is used when trying to redo the work. This leads to time wastage and project

delay. Milestones cannot be reached at the required time since employees have to concentrate in

amending the defects to reduce risks of losses and accidents upon completion of the project (Tejale,

et al., 2015).

Material wastages

Before the commencement of projects, engineers and designers guide the

project managers in terms the required material when undertaking the

construction works. The control of material used is important as it ensures

that cost is controlled (Arshad, et al., 2017). However, defects call for

unplanned material to be used when redoing the construction work in order

to fix errors that occurred. This hence might lead to demolition of some

parts as the project managers try to fix problems associated with defects.

This results to the excess use of material than the planned for hence leading

to increase in project cost (Udawatta, et al., 2015)

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Causes of defects in construction industry

Fishbone image of causes of defects in the construction industry

Source:(Ilie&Ciocoiu, 2010)

Generally, the causes of defects can be categorized in to six components as shown in the

above fishbone diagram.

Material

Material challenges that might lead to defects includes poorly stored material. Construction

material needs to be stored in a good manner that will minimize chances of destruction. Such

material includes metal which needs to be stored in places with less moisture to avoid

rusting. Other material such as cements, ballast and stones need to be safely stored in order

to avoid breakages and destruction by water as argued by (Jingmond&Ågren, 2015). The use

of expired material is also a challenge in the construction management and is likely to lead to

defects in the final products. such material includes paints, cements and other manufactured

commodities used in construction work. This is likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

Composition of components used in the building process might lead to defects in case

measurements are not done in the required way. A perfect example is the mixture of ballast,

sand and cements. Failure to ensure that material is well balanced is likely to lead to defects

in the buildings the use of expired material is also a challenge in the construction

management and is likely to lead to defects in the final products. such material includes

paints, cements and other manufactured commodities used in construction work. This is

likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

Measurement

Measurement in the building process is determined by the lay out designs. Workmanship is

very important when it comes to putting the layout design in to actuality. There is need to

ensure that scaling and estimations are done well to reduce chances of defects in size and

length (Choudhry, et al., 2017).

Machine

Machines are likely to lead to defects in case there is power failure. Such incidence might

cause delay and destruction. Human error where employees are required to feed the

machines might lead to the wrong results hence defects in the projects. There is also a risk in

wrong feed rate since construction machines depends on the instruction given by the

Employees

Generally, human aspects in the construction project is important since projects

are realized through the human resource efforts. However, defects might result

from inadequate training of the employees where they take a job without full

knowledge of what is required of them. The risk of human error is also likely to

lead to defects (Gamil& Rahman, 2017).

Environment

Environment in which buildings are established is likely to affect the

construction work.

Subsurface Moisture Incursion might affect the strength of buildings in terms of

its strength. This is likely to lead to defects following cracks as a result of excess

moisture (Ye, et al., 2015). Weaknesses of soil is likely to lead to Foundation

Displacement which might also result to cracks and need to rework. Insufficient

climate control such as the failure to protect building site from excess water from

rain, non-regulated sunshine among other factors might also lead to defects

(Aljassmi, et al., 2016).

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Methods

Poorly design methods are likely to mislead engineers in their construction works. This hence makes it a risky affair as use of such designs might lead to defects. On the other hand,

project plan that does not in to consideration all activities in to place is likely to lead defects since some activities might be skipped (Asgari&Rahimian, 2017).

The case study of Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse.

ne other greatest disaster ever seen in the construction industry is the collapse of Sampoong Department Store(Fay, 2019). The main cause of the collapse as per the reports by

investigators was because of poor planning, poor material of construction and poor design. This case led to the death of five hundred pole most of them being workers(Fay,

2019).Human ignorance and greed were the major reasons for the errors that occurred during the construction causing massive losses. This shows how failure to consider important

aspects during construction could lead to, massive losses(Fay, 2019).

Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse

Source, Great Disasters

O

From the case study above, it is hence observable that

Financial wastages

Human resource wastage, Time wastage, Material wastages

are experienced since the building caused losses of lives,

time to evacuate the affected and the waste of human

resources who were engaged in building process(Fay, 2019)..

Solutions to the defect wastage problem

Employee training

Through employee training, employees will be able to understand their

roles in the construction. They will also be able to understand the most

important activities and how to undertake them. As a result, there will

be a decline in chances of making errors hence minimizing defects in

construction industry (Hanaysha, 2016).

Employee training

Source: (Andriotis, 2018)

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Expert consultation

There is need to consult experts in every stage of construction. The project managers should work together with the external experts in order to ensure that all activities are undertaken in

accordance with the plan and quality needed. The experts will help in checking gaps that might lead to defects in constructions (Elziny, et al., 2016).

Proper Environmental analysis

Experts consultation Collapse of buildings

Source: (Reporting, 2019) Source:(Pentago,2018)

Proper project management strategies

Project management process

Source:(Kerzner,2018)

In order to reduce chances of defects caused

by environment, the construction engineers

should study environmental factors such as the

surface level of water, the probability of

having earthquakes among other factors before

settling on the site. This will help to reduce the

probability of occurrence of a defect as a result

of occurrence of an environmental risk (Tixier,

et al., 2016).

Project management process

Source: (Kerzner, 2017)

Proper planning of activities is important in ensuring that there is a

good procedure followed. Through strategic project management, the

project managers are going to ensure that there is no omission of

important activities in construction hence reduce chances of defects in

building (Kerzner, 2017).

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References

Aljassmi, H., Han, S. and Davis, S., 2016. Analysis of the complex mechanisms of defect generation in construction projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(2), p.04015063.

Aljazeera News. 2019. Four killed in Taiwan building collapse after quake. [Online]. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/02/hotel-collapses-taiwan-major-earthquake-180206171245403.html (Accessed

on 8/4/2020).

Andriotis, N. 2018. 5 Popular Employee Training Methods for Workplace Training. [Online]. Available at: https://elearningindustry.com/how-choose-training-methods-for-employees (Accessed on 8/4/2020).

Arshad, H., Qasim, M., Thaheem, M.J. and Gabriel, H.F., 2017. Quantification of material wastage in construction industry of Pakistan: An analytical relationship between building types and waste generation. Journal

of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2), pp.19-34.

Asgari, Z. and Rahimian, F.P., 2017. Advanced virtual reality applications and intelligent agents for construction process optimisation and defect prevention. Procedia engineering, 196, pp.1130-1137.

Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

Choudhry, R.M., Gabriel, H.F., Khan, M.K. and Azhar, S., 2017. Causes of discrepancies between design and construction in the Pakistan construction industry. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2),

pp.1-18.

Cogurcu, M.T., 2015. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, 15(4).

Dey, S., Manikanda Prabhu, S. and Siva Subramani, G., 2017. Identification and mitigation of factors affecting human resource productivity in construction. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology,

8(1), pp.123-131.

Elziny, A.A., Mohamadien, M.A., Ibrahim, H.M. and Fattah, M.A., 2016. An expert system to manage dispute resolutions in const ruction projects in Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 7(1), pp.57-71.

Gamil, Y. and Rahman, I.A., 2017. Identification of causes and effects of poor communication in construction industry: A theo retical review. Emerging Science Journal, 1(4), pp.239-247.

Gulghane, A.A. and Khandve, P.V., 2015. Management for construction materials and control of construction waste in construction industry: a review. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,

5(4), pp.59-64.

Hanaysha, J., 2016. Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229(298-306), pp.298-306.

Hazem, Z. 2017. Construction defect management – Risk analysis of causes and effects. [Online]. Available at: https://www.planradar.com/construction-defect-management-risk-analysis-and-effects/(Accessed on

8/4/2020)

Ilie, G. and Ciocoiu, C.N., 2010. Application of fishbone diagram to determine the risk of an event with multiple causes. Management research and practice, 2(1), pp.1-20.

Jingmond, M. and Ågren, R., 2015. Unravelling causes of defects in construction. Construction Innovation.

Katume, N. 2017. 3 Ways to avoid Construction Defect Claims. CR. [Online]. Available at: https://constructionreviewonline.com/2017/09/3-ways-to-avoid-construction-defect-claims/(Accessed on 8/4/2020)

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

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8/4/2020).

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Tayeh, B.A., Al-Hallaq, K., Yusuf, M.O. and Sabha, F.A., 2017. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school buildings in Gaza Strip. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school

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Tixier, A.J.P., Hallowell, M.R., Rajagopalan, B. and Bowman, D., 2016. Automated content analysis for construction safety: A natural language processing system to extract precursors and outcomes from unstructured

injury reports. Automation in Construction, 62, pp.45-56.

Udawatta, N., Zuo, J., Chiveralls, K. and Zillante, G., 2015. Improving waste management in construction projects: An Australian study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 101, pp.73-83.

Waziri, B.S., 2016. Design and construction defects influencing residential building maintenance in Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 10(3).

Ye, G., Jin, Z., Xia, B. and Skitmore, M., 2015. Analyzing causes for reworks in construction projects in China. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6), p.04014097.

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## Civil Engineering homework help

~ 1 ~

CEE 4920 – Professionalism and Ethics
Monday, April 18, 2022

Prescott Hall 208

Week 13 – Leadership and Workplace Behavior

1. Read the Forbes.com article posted on iLearn entitled “How Introverted Leaders

Can Leverage their Natural Strengths”.

2. While the article is oriented toward introverts, most of the leadership
recommendations are adaptable to extroverts as well. Write a short essay in
which you describe your personality type and how you plan to use some of the

Requirement Points
Minimum length of 500 words / 1
MS Word .doc or .docx file format / ½
Double spaced / ½
12-point Times New Roman font / ½
State your personality type and give representative examples / 1
State how you will apply at least 3 of the recommendations / 1
Total / 5

4. Essays are due by noon, Wednesday, April 27.

B. Workplace behavior

1. Federal Law: Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act, and other laws

2. Protected Classes include:

Race Color Age (40+) Sex Religion
Disability Nationality Ethnicity Genetics Citizenship

3. Harassment – Unwelcome conduct based on a protected class.

• Note that intent is not a requirement.
• Quid pro quo – Type of sexual harassment in which terms of employment

are conditioned on fulfilling sexual demands.

4. Who can engage in harassment?

~ 2 ~

5. Hostile work environment – Harassment that becomes a condition of employment

or is severe or pervasive such that a reasonable person would consider the
environment intimidating, hostile, or abusive, is unlawful.

6. What is not unlawful?

Random teasing and offhand comments; isolated incidents which do not affect
employment

7. Harassment prevention
Treat others how they want to be treated.
There are no instances in which harassment is considered acceptable.
Criticism unrelated to a protected class is not harassment.

8. Dealing with harassment:
a. Ask the offender to stop.
b. If continues, report harassment to your manager.
c. Legal action may be necessary but should be a last resort.

9. Corporate policy
• Company should have an anti-harassment policy that includes reporting

procedures.
• Company should take complaints seriously and follow-up accordingly.
• Observed harassment should be reported—even if you are not the target.

10. Corporate complaint evaluation
a. Document complaint
b. Interview witnesses and alleged harasser
c. Determine validity—if valid complaint, take action to prevent recurrence
d. Communicate outcome and action taken to involved parties

11. Retaliation
It is illegal to retaliate in any way against someone who has lodged a complaint or
cooperated in a complaint evaluation.

12. Failure to take action
If an employer is aware of inappropriate behavior, or reasonably should have been
aware, but does not take action to prevent the harassment, the employer is
subject to legal action.

## Civil Engineering homework help

Homework 14

1. (30 points) Write an essay (about 2 pages) to describe how to better forecast trip generation and distribution. You may do a literature review and summarize your findings.

The rubric for grading is as below:

 Criteria Inadequate= 2 (Below Standard) Adequate= 3 (Meets Standard) Above Average= 4 (Exceeds Standard) Exemplary= 5 (Far Exceeds Standard) Organization Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Serious errors. Writing is coherent and logically organized. Some points remain misplaced and stray from the topic. Transitions evident but not used throughout essay. Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. Overall unity of ideas is present. Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points. Unity clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Level of Content Shows some thinking and reasoning but most ideas are underdeveloped and unoriginal. Content indicates thinking and reasoning applied with original thought on a few ideas. Content indicates original thinking and develops ideas with sufficient and firm evidence. Content indicates synthesis of ideas, in-depth analysis and evidences original thought and support for the topic. Development Main points lack detailed development. Ideas are vague with little evidence of critical thinking. Main points are present with limited detail and development. Some critical thinking is present. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and quantity. Critical thinking is weaved into points Main points well developed with high quality and quantity support. Reveals high degree of critical thinking. Grammar & Mechanics Spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors create distraction, making reading difficult; fragments, comma splices, run-ons evident. Errors are frequent. Most spelling, punctuation, and grammar correct allowing reader to progress though essay. Some errors remain. Essay has few spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors allowing reader to follow ideas clearly. Very few fragments or run-ons. Essay is free of distracting spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors; absent of fragments, comma splices, and run-ons. Style Mostly in elementary form with little or no variety in sentence structure, diction, rhetorical devices or emphasis. Approaches college level usage of some variety in sentence patterns, diction, and rhetorical devices. Attains college level style; tone is appropriate and rhetorical devices used to enhance content; sentence variety used effectively. Shows outstanding style going beyond usual college level; rhetorical devices and tone used effectively; creative use of sentence structure and coordination Format Fails to follow format and assignment requirements; incorrect margins, spacing and indentation; neatness of essay needs attention. Meets format and assignment requirements; generally correct margins, spacing, and indentations; essay is neat but may have some assembly errors. Meets format and assignment requirements; margins, spacing, and indentations are correct; essay is neat and correctly assembled. Meets all formal and assignment requirements and evidences attention to detail; all margins, spacing and indentations are correct; essay is neat and correctly assembled with professional look.

## Civil Engineering homework help

Case Study in Civil Engineering:

– Prepare a case study or studies related to civil engineering

-Written report shall be an extended abstract with a maximum of 4 pages (including tables and

figures) with a minimum of 5 references.

-The objective of this project is to provide students with useful information pertaining to past,

present, or future issues in civil engineering.

-The report should be in general terms and provide a broad overview.

EXAMPLE CASE STUDY IN FORENSIC ENGINEERING

Given your assigned engineering failure or disaster, describe it in some detail

and discuss what ethical issues might have been at least partly responsible for

the failure. Prepare a failure analysis report that includes:

• What failed and why it failed.

• Who was at fault and why.

• Possible corrective actions (i.e., how to make it not fail).

If appropriate, describe how a lack of “professionalism” or “ethics” may have

An abbreviated abstract and a list of references (relevant publications can be

found in ASCE Journals, Engineering Index, Science Citation Index, Google, etc.)

Potential projects include:

• Wind induced bridge failures (Tacoma Narrows Bridge)

• Failures during construction (Injaka Bridge-South Africa; FIU Sweetwater

University City Pedestrian Bridge-Florida)

• Fatigue and fracture failures (Silver Bridge-WV, Mianus River Bridge-CT)

• Support settlement (differential bridge settlement at bridge approaches)

• Bridge failures due to scour (Schoharie Creek Bridge-NY)

• Bridge failures due to connection issues (Mississippi River Bridge-MN)

• Bridge failures due to other issues (Genoa Bridge-Italy)

Other failures can be found at the following site:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_structural_failures_and_collapses

*ASCE Author Guide: https://ascelibrary.org/doi/pdf/10.1061/9780784479018.ch05

## Civil Engineering homework help

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 6

Coursework Specification

1 Module Information

1.1 Module Title Procurement and Supply Chain Management

1.2 Module Code Number KB7035

1.3 Module Level and Credit Points Level 7, 20 credits

1.4 Module Leader Dr. Victor Samwinga

1.5 Coursework Title Procurement Report

1.6 Coursework Specification Author Dr. Victor Samwinga

SEM1 2021-22

2 Coursework Submission and Feedback

2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students

17:00 BST on 1 October 2021

2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students

Assessment and Submission folder on Blackboard module

2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students

11:59 PM on 13 December 2021

2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students

Turnitin digital submission portal in Assessment and Submission folder on Blackboard module

2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students

11:59 PM on 31 January 2022

2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to
Students

Turnitin digital submission portal and/or My Grades on Blackboard module

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 6

3 Assessment Details

3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

1. MLO 1 – Establish a conceptual understanding of procurement and supply chain strategies within

the built environment projects.
2. MLO 2 – Implement and critically evaluate appropriate procurement processes by which

construction projects and services are acquired from internal and/or external sources.
3. MLO 3 – Identify and critically evaluate appropriate client requirements to develop respective

procurement and supply chain strategies that enable project success, business benefits and overall
sustainable operations.

4. MLO 4 – Embrace professionalism, demonstrate multi-disciplinary skills and apply expert and
specialised knowledge in the field of construction project management.

5. MLO 5 – Embrace intercultural cooperation through consciousness, responsible and professional
ethical conduct in a reflexive way.

3.2 Coursework Overview

Context Statement:
The construction sector continues to face many project delivery challenges such as time and cost
predictability. The need to identify and critically evaluate client requirements to develop appropriate
procurement processes has never been more important for project managers, clients and the industry at
large.

This assessment requires the submission of an individual piece of coursework. It requires the production
of a procurement report that engages with the knowledge base as well as the project and client-specific
characteristics.

It is to be written from the perspective of an inhouse procurement specialist who is making a theoretically-
, and evidence-, informed project-delivery strategy report.

This task is worth 100% of the module and addresses all Module Learning Outcomes.

3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students

CLIENT PROJECT BRIEF

As part of Riverside Sunderland Masterplan, the Sunderland City Council plans to build 1,000 homes to

rent and buy, with community facilities and social infrastructure for a population of 2,500. The proposed

project seeks to create a unique place to live, i.e. a carbon-neutral community in a stunning landscape

setting in the heart of a great industrial city. With an extensive walking and cycling network and easy

access to public transport, Riverside Sunderland will encourage healthy living and reduce car

dependency. Smart homes will be digitally enabled for comfort, convenience and energy efficiency.

Community facilities will promote sociability and active citizenship.

Following the recent entry of the insurance giant, Legal and General, into the housing market, others are

keen to get involved too. In particular, Vitality Life has secured (for the purposes of this task) a

collaboration with the Sunderland City Council, as the primary funder, to deliver the vision for the

Riverside development project, specifically, the 1,000 homes.

The first 800 homes will be delivered in four new neighbourhoods: Vaux, Farringdon Row, Ayre’s Quay

and Sheepfolds. As the new community takes shape other opportunities will come forward, notably in the

Heart of the City. 45% of the new homes (367 units) will be south of the river, at Vaux, Farringdon Row

and Ayre’s Quay, and 55% (445) north of the river, at Sheepfolds.

The majority (72%) will be houses and maisonettes including 378 3/4-bedroom family houses. The

development will aim to achieve a relatively high density of around 74 homes per hectare across the

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 3 of 6

whole site, with a limit of less than one car parking pace per dwelling, due to the big push to reduce car

dependency and promote active travel.

Key Programme Features are described below:

1. standardised designs,

2. more accurate market intelligence,

3. providing jobs, training and supply-chain opportunities for Sunderland residents and businesses,

4. reduced costs with an ambitious 15% target,

5. improved programme certainty,

6. reduced risk, and

7. greater innovation and improved relationships across the supply chain.

Key Project features are described below:

1. Substantial cost savings,

2. Innovative, high-quality designs and sustainable standards,

3. Flexible use of space,

4. Tight construction programme with improved programme certainty,

5. Collaborative working by integrated team, across Client and Contractor teams,

6. Commitment to local economy, and

7. Improved employment and skills outputs.

The Council put forward its land assets in this partnership with Vitality Life who will, in turn, provide the

finance for the £160 million development, with both parties sharing equally in any development profit

where a development achieves a positive land value.

Although planning approval for the scheme has not yet been granted, planners are confident that this will

be secured. Although the Council’s inhouse estates team has technical construction expertise, they have

no capacity to design and project manage a scheme of this magnitude. They are therefore now seeking to

procure the necessary expertise to move the project forward:

• Necessary consultants to assist in getting the project off the ground by January 2022.

• Construction contractor(s) and such other specialists as are necessary to carry out the various

elements of construction work.

• The council’s own inhouse estates team has some initial ideas which they’re keen to explore with

the selected consultant designers.

• The client is undecided on whether to award the entire project as one contract or to break it into the

four natural packages, according to the four new neighbourhoods, namely: Vaux, Farringdon Row, Ayre’s

Quay and Sheepfolds.

• The client is also undecided as to what other key consultant it needs to assist in the securing the

completed project in order to achieve completion by September 2023.

As the only one with procurement expertise within the Local Authority’s inhouse estates Team, you have

been tasked to develop a report (refer to “Tasks to be completed by students” for further details) to guide

the council in the procurement of the various works and services required on this major redevelopment

project. The client is eager to use this project to improve the image of the North East as well as to attract

investment to Sunderland.

TASKS TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENTS

Based on the client project brief above, prepare a high level but comprehensive procurement

report for the client, which:

1. Provides a ‘road map’ for the Local Authority, demonstrating how you should procure each

of the works and services, how the client can ensure that the scheme is completed within

budget and on time, how the client and funding partners will be involved at each stage of

the process, and other specific consultants and project participants you propose they

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 4 of 6

should procure and their primary roles in the process. In the submitted report, due

consideration should be given to:

a) Identifying the client and stakeholder needs based on this brief and associated

documentation,

b) the most suitable procurement arrangement, bearing in mind the variety of options,

c) the most suitable main standard form of contract to support the overall strategy,

d) The most suitable tendering strategy for obtaining the most economically

e) the mechanism for pricing and agreeing the price for the project,

2. Provide a critical analysis of how the Sunderland City Council and its development partners

might be able to achieve their broad aim of driving efficiencies through the supply chain

and thereby save 15% of total construction and design costs.

Your report should be well presented, with a one-page executive summary (no more than 250 words) at
the beginning of the report, followed by contents page, an introduction, main body and overall
conclusion/recommendation(s) at the end of your report. All the above should be submitted under a
suitable front cover, stating ONLY your student registration number, assignment title, this module’s code
and tutor name. Your report must be well structured and formatted including a contents page, page
count.

Please note there is a maximum file size limit (20MB) on submissions to Turnitin and students must be
aware of this when preparing their report. Reports submitted by the due date and time due to their file
size will be treated as late submissions.

3.4 Expected Size of Submission

▪ The upper maximum limit for this work is 4,000 words. This word count includes:

▪ Any executive summary.
▪ The main body of text.
▪ In text citations [e.g. (Smith, 2011)].
▪ Direct quotations from primary or secondary source material.
▪ Title & Contents page.
▪ Words within tables, figures, and illustrations.
▪ Reference list.
▪ Bibliography (if also provided).
▪ Appendices.
▪ Glossary.
▪ Footnotes.

▪ Figures (diagrams, illustrations, photographs etc.) and tables are welcome to support the text, but
must be fully incorporated into the submission, integrated and following the text that fully explains
why they are exhibited. 200 words will be counted for each separate figure/table used.

▪ The work must form a structured and coherent whole.
▪ A contents page is required, including a basic front sheet for the submission, that identifies the

student number (not name), the total number of words used (including references section), and
the number of figures/tables used.

▪ ‘Footnotes’/’Endnotes’ will be permitted, as they can offer sufficient value, providing, their use is
minimal, sufficiently concise, and appropriate – they offer only ‘clarifying’ information, or add
‘adjacent’ value to the sentences already written. In other words, they are not to be used to ‘hide’
words that would otherwise normally be expected to be contained within the main body of the
text, and their use will be considered in accordance with the University policy regarding word
limits.

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 5 of 6

3.5 Referencing Style

You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system.
An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:

https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

3.6 Assessment Criteria

Marks will be awarded based on the marking matrix attached to this coursework (refer to Appendix
A).

4 Referral

The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards
Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to
undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled
sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your
programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.

5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 6 of 6

APPENDIX A: Assessment criteria / marking scheme

HIGHER

DISTINCTION (>79%)

DISTINCTION (70-

79%)

COMMENDATION

(60-69%)

PASS (50-59%) FAIL (40-49%) POOR FAIL (0-39%)

PRESENTATION (15%)

Presentation

(structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling, references)

DEMONSTRATES

OUTSTANDING

ABILITY TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

DEMONSTRATES

EXCELLENT ABILITY

TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

DEMONSTRATES

GOOD ABILITY TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

DEMONSTRATES

TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

DEMONSTRATES

ABILITY TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

DEMONSTRATES

LITTLE OR NO

ABILITY TO:

Present the work

paying attention to

structure/style,

logic/rigour, grammar

and spelling,

references

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

AND INTRODUCTION

(5%)

Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive executive

summary that includes

are the key elements

including purpose or

report, background,

proposals and key

conclusions

DEMONSTRATES

OUTSTANDING

ABILITY TO:

Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DEMONSTRATES
EXCELLENT ABILITY
TO:
Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DEMONSTRATES
GOOD ABILITY TO:
Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DEMONSTRATES
TO:
Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DEMONSTRATES
ABILITY TO:
Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DEMONSTRATES
LITTLE OR NO
ABILITY TO:
Write an introduction

section and

comprehensive

executive summary

that includes are the

key elements including

purpose or report,

background, proposals

and key conclusions

DETAILED

PROCUREMENT PLAN

FOR THE CLIENT (50%)

A detailed procurement

map’ for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services, how

the client can ensure that

the scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process, and

other specific consultants

and project participants

you propose they should

procure and their primary

roles in the process,

giving due consideration

should be given to the

most suitable

procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES

OUTSTANDING

ABILITY TO:

A detailed procurement

map’ for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES
EXCELLENT ABILITY
TO:
A detailed procurement

map’ for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES
GOOD ABILITY TO:
Develop a detailed

procurement plan

for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES
TO:
Develop a detailed

procurement plan

for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES
ABILITY TO:
Develop a detailed

procurement plan

for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

DEMONSTRATES
LITTLE OR NO
ABILITY TO:
Develop a detailed

procurement plan

for the client,

demonstrating how you

propose they should

procure each of the

works and services,

how the client can

ensure that the

scheme is completed

within budget and on

time, how the client will

be involved at each

stage of the process,

and other specific

consultants and project

participants you

propose they should

procure and their

primary roles in the

process, giving due

consideration should

be given to the most

suitable procurement

arrangement, the main

contract, tendering

arrangements and the

mechanism for pricing

and payment for the

project.

HOW TO DRIVE

EFFECIENCIES

THROUGH THE

SUPPLY CHAIN (20%)

Provide a critical analysis

of how the Sunderland

City Council and its

development partners

might be able to achieve

efficiencies through the

supply chain and thereby

save 15% of total

construction and design

costs

DEMONSTRATES

OUTSTANDING

ABILITY TO:

Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

DEMONSTRATES
EXCELLENT ABILITY
TO:
Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

DEMONSTRATES
GOOD ABILITY TO:
Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

DEMONSTRATES
TO:
Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

DEMONSTRATES
ABILITY TO:
Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

DEMONSTRATES
LITTLE OR NO
ABILITY TO:
Provide a critical

analysis of how the

Sunderland City

Council and its

development partners

might be able to

aim of driving

efficiencies through the

supply chain and

thereby save 15% of

total construction and

design costs

CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

(10%)

Conclusions and

recommendations to the

report

DEMONSTRATES

OUTSTANDING

ABILITY TO:

Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

DEMONSTRATES
EXCELLENT ABILITY
TO:
Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

DEMONSTRATES
GOOD ABILITY TO:
Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

DEMONSTRATES
TO:
Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

DEMONSTRATES
ABILITY TO:
Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

DEMONSTRATES
LITTLE OR NO
ABILITY TO:
Write Conclusions and

recommendations to a

report

## Civil Engineering homework help

ABSTRACT

Bridges without design plans are an existing problem

throughout the United States and other countries.

Conventional load rating techniques cannot be

utilized when evaluating planless prestressed

concrete bridges, as no design documentation exists

to indicate the amount and location of reinforcement.

This paper presents an implementation plan for load

rating prestressed concrete bridges without plans

using advanced structural analyses in conjunction

with non-destructive experimental methods.
A multi-step procedure was developed that

includes the following. First, the material properties
of the bridge, amount of prestressing steel, and strand
eccentricity are estimated based on historical code
requirements and Magnel diagrams. Second, the
estimate of the number of prestressing strands and
locations is validated, and the shear reinforcement
layout in the bridge beams is determined using non-
destructive testing equipment (e,g., rebar scanner). In
addition, a Windsor Probe penetration test is
conducted to verify the concrete strength assumption.
Third, the available strain capacity in the existing
bridge beams is calculated based on the structure
dimensions, material properties, physical condition,
and estimated cracking moment. Also computed is
the minimum target proof load needed to reach the
available strain capacity based on the axle weights
and spacings of the test vehicles. Fourth, the bridge
is instrumented to measure the strains induced by
physical testing. Fifth, a diagnostic load test is
conducted under a truck load of roughly 60% of the
and sixth, a proof test is performed until the available
strain capacity (based on concrete cracking) or the
target proof load is reached. Seventh, rating factors
for AASHTO and New Mexico legal loads are
computed for the serviceability limit state (i.e.,
concrete cracking) based on the proof test results in
accordance with the AASHTO Manual for Bridge
Evaluation (2011). Eighth, using a load rating
software program, the rating factors for the strength
limit state (i.e., shear or flexural capacity) are
determined based on the measured bridge dimensions
and estimated material properties. Finally, the
serviceability ratings from proof testing and strength
ratings from the load rating software program are

compared to determine the final load ratings and need
for posting the bridges. This procedure was organized
into a flowchart, shown in Figure 1. The initial
condition of the bridge and the results from non-
destructive experimental testing are used in the flow
chart to guide the evaluation process for each bridge
by selecting the most efficient load rating procedure.

Finally, three case studies involving double T-beam,
box beam, and I-grider bridges are presented to show
the inspection and evaluation process. Overall, the
implementation plan is shown to be effective in load
rating prestressed concrete bridges, regardless of
superstructure type.

REFERENCES

American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Officials (AASHTO). (2011). Manual for Bridge

Evaluation, 2nd Edition, Washington, D.C.

Implementation Plan for Load Rating Prestressed Concrete Bridges
without Plans

.

## Civil Engineering homework help

1.
Summary

12
In the student’s own words, highlights the main purpose of the research, results, and conclusions; is between half a page and a page in length.

9
In the student’s own words, highlights the main purpose of the research and most of the significant results and conclusions; is between half a page and a page in length.

6
In the students own words, highlights the main purpose of the research and only some of the significant results and conclusions; or, alternatively, includes so much detail that it is not a summary; is less than half a page or more than a page in length.

3
Fails to adequately summarize research purpose, results, and conclusions.

2.
Significance of Research Question

12
Explains why the research question is/is not significant for the field of air quality modeling, and why it is/is not significant to society at large. Justifies the significance/insignificance of the question using 2 details from the article.

9
Explains why the research question is/is not significant for the field of air quality modeling, and why it is/is not significant to society at large. Justifies the significance/insignificance of the question using 1 detail from the article.

6
Explains why the research question is/is not significant for the field of air quality modeling, or why it is/is not significant to society at large.

2
Fails to adequately explain why the research question is/is not significant.

3.
Method Used to Answer the Question

12
Discusses 3 specific reasons why the method was valid or not.

8
Discusses 2 specific reasons why the method was valid or not.

4
Discusses 1 specific reason why the method was valid or not.

1
Fails to justify whether the method was valid or not.

4.
Were the Results Expected or Surprising?

12
Provides 3 reasons, based on what we discussed in class, why the results are expected or surprising.

8
Provides 2 reasons, based on what we discussed in class, why the results are expected or surprising.

4
Provides 1 reason, based on what we discussed in class, why the results are expected or surprising.

1
Does not explain why the results are expected or surprising.

5.
What additional research related to this topic should be conducted?

12

9
Provides 2 creative ideas, or 3 adequate ideas.

6
Provides 1 creative idea, or 2 adequate ideas.

3

6.
What were the strengths of the article, and what were its weaknesses?

12
Explains 4 strengths/weaknesses (2 strengths and 2 weaknesses, or 3 and 1, NOT 4 of each).

9
Explains 3 strengths/weaknesses.

6
Explains 2 strengths/weaknesses.

3
Explains 1 strength/weakness.

7.
How did the article relate to what we studied in class?

12
Describes 3 ways the article relates to what we studied in class.

8
Describes 2 ways the article relates to what we studied in class.

4
Describes 1 way the article relates to what we studied in class.

1
Does not adequately describe how the article relates to what we studied in class.

8.
If you could ask the author one question about the article, what would it be?

6 Provides an insightful question.

3

Format

10 Review is 3 to 5 pages, single spaced, 12-point Times Roman font, 1” margins.

7
Review is ½ a page short or ½ a page long.

4
Review is 1 page short or 1 page long, or uses incorrect font or margins.

1
Review is more than 1 page short or long.

# HW# 3 Article Review Assignment

For the article, prepare a critical review which addresses the following:

1. Summarize the article in your own words (main purpose of the research, results, and conclusions). This should take between half a page and a page (maximum).

2. Was the question that the research was trying to answer significant? Why or why not?

3. Was the method used to answer the question seem valid? Why or why not?

4. Were the results what you would have expected, or were they surprising? Why?

5. What additional research related to this topic should be conducted?

6. What were the strengths of the article, and what were its weaknesses?

7. How does the article relate to what we have studied in class?

8. If you could ask the author one question about the article, what would it be?

In answering the questions, I expect you to think critically about the article and provide your own thoughts and opinions, based on what we have learned in class and what you may have learned in other classes. The quality and insightfulness of comments will be considered in grading.

Article review should be 3 to 5 pages (single spaced, 12-point Times Roman font, 1” margins).

Late assignments policy included in the syllabus will be applied. Students are expected to review the late submission policy in advance.

� EMBED MS_ClipArt_Gallery.2 ���

## Civil Engineering homework help

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

Available online 18 April 2021

2019 energy benchmarking data for LEED-certified buildings in
Washington, D.C.: Simulation and reality

Ming Hu
University of Maryland, School of Architecture, Planning, Preservation, USA

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords:
Energy benchmarking
For LEED-Certified buildings
Simulation
Reality

A B S T R A C T

This study aims to understand the actual performance difference between LEED buildings and non-LEED
buildings. Since 2012, the District of Columbia (DC) has amended regulations so that all buildings must
report their building energy use. We have cross-referenced the most recently published data of the 2019 DC
energy benchmarking database with the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED project database to identify DC
properties in both databases that are expected to reduce building operating energy use and greenhouse gas
emissions. We compared LEED office buildings and non-LEED-certified office buildings using their reported
operating source and site energy use intensity (EUI). The results show that LEED office buildings do not perform
better at any of the certified levels. On the contrary, those reported LEED buildings collectively use 17% more
source energy and 13% more site energy than non-LEED buildings. Among the different LEED levels, LEED Silver
appears to perform slightly better than the other LEED levels. Meanwhile only around 33% of qualified LEED
office buildings reported their actual energy use according to the DC regulation. The purpose of this study is not
to criticize the LEED rating system; instead, we want to improve the system in order to meet DC’s carbon
neutrality goal. To this extent, we conclude that the U.S. LEED rating system can benefit from learning from other
green building rating systems that include reporting and verification as prerequisite requirements.

1. Introduction

Commercial buildings are a large energy consumer. In 2012, large
commercial buildings in the United States had more than 25,000 ft2 of
floor space each, accounting for about 69% of total commercial building
energy use [1]. Larger commercial buildings, covering over 200,000 ft2,
only accounted for 1% of total commercial buildings, but they contrib-
uted to 26% of the total commercial building energy consumption [1].
Among commercial buildings, offices accounted for 18% of total floor
space and 20% of overall site energy use, with the latter being the largest
category (for energy-consuming) in commercial buildings [1]. Reducing
office energy use not only has a bigger impact on overall commercial
building energy performance improvement but also can provide some
valuable lessons for other commercial building categories.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), by the U.S.
Green Building Council (USGBC), is the most widely used green building
certification in the United States. Since its establishment in 2000, the
credibility of LEED certification has been debated. Most criticism is
centered around the actual energy performance of LEED-certified
buildings and whether LEED actually implies energy efficiency and

sustainability [2]. Amiril et al. (2019) reviewed 44 peered-reviewed
articles focusing on the energy performance of LEED buildings. Ten
papers concluded that LEED buildings had higher energy efficiency,
eight studies stated the opposite conclusion, and the remaining papers
did not articulate the comparison. However, the consensus is that the
energy efficiency of LEED buildings is questionable, and modifications
to the LEED Energy and Atmosphere category are recommended to
improve actual building performance [2]. In the past several years, the
mid-Atlantic region has remained the “LEED building leader,” which is
perceived as a progressive region leading the efforts to pursue sustain-
able design [3]. The District of Columbia has consistently led the nation
in registering and certifying LEED buildings. In 2018, the city certified
61.74 ft2 of space per resident across 145 building projects, which is
more than 10 times the per capita number for top-ranked states, such as
Illinois [3]. It is necessary to investigate the actual performance of those
LEED buildings in DC.

In 2008, DC passed the Clean and Affordable Energy Act (CAEA),
which requires that all buildings with a gross floor area of 50,000 ft2

(4645 m2) or greater to report their actual building energy and water use
annually. The DC government must also annually benchmark and

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Building Engineering

journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jobe

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102475
Received 20 September 2020; Received in revised form 25 March 2021; Accepted 26 March 2021

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

2

disclose the energy and water efficiency of district government buildings
over 10,000 ft2 (929 m2) [4]. The benchmarking is done according to the
ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager® by the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA), which is an industry-standard free online tool [5]. It
was developed to provide a method for comparing the energy con-
sumption of a commercial building with that of similar activities,
adjusting for size, climate, and operational characters [6,7]. This
method makes it possible to determine the actual LEED building per-
formance by cross-referencing DC energy benchmarking data (from the
DC government website) and LEED project inventory (from the USGBC
website) to understand whether LEED office buildings perform better
than non-LEED buildings.

2. Materials and method

The overall data cleaning and searching process is illustrated in
Fig. 1.

2.1. Energy benchmarking data

Since 2012, the District of Columbia has released benchmarking data
for more than a thousand buildings under the benchmarking law [8]. It
includes all private buildings over 50,000 gross ft2 within the District of
Columbia, including multifamily residences, offices, education build-
ings, mixed-use buildings, hospitals, libraries, hotels, K-12 schools, su-
permarkets, colleges/universities, restaurants, and police stations,
among others. The following data was reported: 1591 buildings in 2013,
1849 buildings in 2014, 2015 buildings in 2016, 1847 buildings in 2017,
2095 buildings in 2018, and 2162 buildings in 2019. For this study, we
use the dataset from 2019 (based on 2018 operations), which has the
highest data reporting compliance: 1343 buildings. Among all buildings
included in the 2019 report, we excluded buildings that were exempt
from 2019’s disclosure, those that currently have data under review, and
those with no report received, which resulted in 1333 buildings. Among
those buildings, the building types included commercial office buildings
(478), K-12 schools (29), and multifamily housing (556); the remaining
buildings cover 35 other building types. The released data includes both
descriptive and energy use information; Table 1 Table 1 lists the specific
information released for each building [9].

The USGBC publishes a database of all LEED-registered buildings
worldwide. When we extracted the inventory from the USGBC website
(May 2020), USGBC had nearly 126,177 buildings; 97,378 in the United
States, with 2917 in Washington, D.C., and none of the DC buildings
were listed as confidential without further identifying information.
Among 2917 buildings, 1530 of those buildings were certified at
different levels, and only 7 buildings were reported to have been certi-
fied before January 1, 2008, the beginning of the year for which DC
energy benchmarking data was mandated.

Another database we used as a baseline comparison was the Com-
mercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) data, which was
published on the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) website.
EIA is the organization responsible for conducting surveys of building
energy use and managing and publishing CBECS data. In 2018, EIA

released the most recent CBECS data, which was based on a 2015 survey.
CBECS provided a snapshot of the U.S. commercial building sector
characteristics and energy performance [10].

2.2. Energy measurement metric: gross EUI

The energy use intensity was chosen as a measuring unit and is
measured by the energy use kWh (kBtu in the U.S.) divided by the total
gross floor area of a building in m2 (ft2 in the U.S.). Regarding individual
buildings’ energy efficiency, both the mean EUI [11] and median EUI
[12] have been used to compare LEED buildings and non-LEED buildings
in previous studies [8]. The EPA has been using the mean EUI as a
benchmark tool to measure the decrease of energy use in U.S. buildings
[13]. However, simply using the reported EUI of individual buildings to
calculate the mean or median EUI can lead to misleading results. This
study adopted a method proposed and verified by Dr. John H. Scofield in
2013 [14]. He demonstrated that using the EUI (mean or median) of an
individual building for calculation of the mean or median EUI of a set of
buildings actually treats small and large buildings equally, despite large
buildings contributing more total energy. This discovery has been
clearly demonstrated in his Chicago LEED building study [15]. He
showed that even when two buildings’ sets have identical numbers of
buildings and an identical total floor area, it is possible for one set of
buildings to use more energy than the other set, despite having a lower
mean or median EUI [16]. Therefore, Scofield proposed a mathemati-
cally consistent and useful generalization of EUI for a set of N buildings,
where the gross EUI (GEUI) is calculated (see the following equation),
which is the mathematical equivalent of the area-weighted mean EUI,
e[16].

e =

Ej

Aj

where

Aj is the total floor area for the building set, and

Ej is the
total energy use for the building set.

GEUI is used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration for the
U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, which has been
used by many researchers to study building energy use and efficiency.
GEUI can be used to compare sets of buildings with different numbers of

Fig. 1. Data-acquiring process.

Table 1
Building properties extracted from the Washington, D.C. public Building
Benchmarking Portal [9].

Property
Description

Energy Use CO2 Emissions

Property name Energy star score Total emissions (GHG)
Address Source EUI Total emissions intensity

(GHG)
Zip code Site EUI
Property type Weather normalized source

EUI
Owner Weather normalized site EUI
Ward Electricity use
Year built Natural gas use
Gross floor area

M. Hu

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

3

buildings and different total floor areas. In addition, source energy is
used in this study, since source energy provides a more accurate mea-
surement of understanding the total energy impact of a building.

2.3. LEED building identification

DC benchmarking data does not include LEED certification infor-
mation to identify the LEED-certified buildings that also reported the
actual building energy use in the DC benchmarking database. We cross-
referenced the 2019 benchmarking database with USGBC’s LEED project
directory, extracted in May 2020, which included projects registered by
December 2019. There are 643 projects with a floor area over 50,000 ft2

(4650 m2) that were certified at levels from Certified to Platinum. The
rating system includes New Construction, Core and Shell, School, BD +
C, and EB O + M [17].

Then, based on the project names and street addresses, we searched
for all of the LEED-certified buildings in the DC benchmarking data file.
This process allowed us to identify 205 office buildings that were
included in both the DC benchmarking database and LEED projects li-
brary. Among the 205 buildings, there are five buildings that share the
same street address, which means that one property corresponds with
two or more different LEED projects at different certification levels. For
example, one LEED project was certified as LEED Silver and another was
certified as LEED Gold. However, in the benchmark report, there is only
one project reported. The reported floor areas listed in the two databases
were not identical; therefore, it was hard to determine which LEED
project was reported in the benchmarking database. Consequently, we
excluded those projects in the analysis. We also matched the gross floor
area in the two databases; not all buildings have a matching reported
floor size. We excluded the projects that have a difference in the re-
ported floor area that is over 10%. There are a couple of buildings that
have been certified twice; for instance, one building was certified as
Silver in 2010 and then certified as Platinum in 2018. In this study, the
higher and more recent certification was used to reflect a recent energy
performance measurement. This resulted in 197 buildings for the anal-
ysis; the breakdown of the 197 office buildings is illustrated in Table 2.

3. Results

In 2019, according to the DC benchmarking database, as mentioned
earlier, 1333 buildings are in compliance with the reporting re-
quirements. Among the 1333 buildings, there is a total of 478 office
buildings, which account for 36% of all buildings in the benchmarking
database. The largest category in the benchmarking database is multi-
family buildings (556); although this study focuses on office buildings,
future studies will look into multifamily housing. The cross-referencing
with the LEED project inventory resulted in the identification of 197
LEED-certified office buildings in both databases. The number of other
LEED-certified building types did not have a sufficient match in the
benchmarking database. The basic statistics for LEED-certified and non-
LEED (other) buildings are summarized in Table 3; the data includes the
building year (median), total floor area, gross site and source EUI, and
CO2 intensities. The value of the relative standard error (RSE) was
extracted from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s website.
According to EIA, the relative standard error is a measure of the

reliability of precision in the survey statistics. The value for the relative
standard error can be used to construct confidence intervals and to
perform hypothesis tests by standard statistical methods [18].

3.1. DC buildings vs. national and regional buildings

It is important to compare the energy use pattern between DC
buildings and national and regional office buildings. Table 4 lists the
number of buildings, total gross floor area, gross site EUI, gross source
EUI, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. The GHG
intensity is calculated using fuel data combined with e-grid information
about the regional electric grid [29]. The national reported median gross
EUI for office buildings was reported by the U.S. ENERGY STAR Port-
folio Manager in 2018; those EUI figures were based on 2018 CBECS
survey data. Office buildings nationwide have a gross site and source
EUI of 52.9 kBtu/ft2 (166.9 kWh/m2) and 116.4 kBtu/ft2 (367.2
kWh/m2), respectively. Comparing these national values, in Washing-
ton, D.C., office buildings use considerably more energy, both site and
source energy.

We then dove deeper to understand which office building group/set
had the highest energy use, and we found two important indicators of
energy performance: building size and building age. Table 5 lists the
properties from several U.S. building sets extracted from the 2018
CBECS survey data. These include all U.S. office buildings (CBECS-Off),
large (>4645 m2 or 50,000 ft2) U S. office buildings (CBECS-larg-Off), all
regional buildings (CBECS-reg), regional office buildings (CBECS-Reg-
Off), and large regional office buildings (CBECS-Reg-larg-Off). Regional
buildings are defined as being in the Mid-Atlantic census region and
climate zones 4a and 4b. The CBECS data shows that office buildings
tend to have higher site and source EUI than other buildings in the Mid-
Atlantic region, at±35.7%. Larger office buildings have a slightly higher
energy intensity compared to smaller ones, at±11.5%. It is important to
note that regional (Mid-Atlantic) office building sets have higher site
and source EUI than those of national building sets. DC office building
sets have higher energy use intensity compared to the national median
but lower energy use intensity than that of regional building sets.

As for the age of buildings, Fig. 2(a) shows that DC LEED office

Table 2
LEED office buildings included in the study.

LEED
Level

Buildings
(N)

Medium Gross Floor
Space

GEUI
(source)

GEUI
(site)

(m2) kWh/m2 kWh/m2

Certified 16 9073 487.1 155.2
Silver 54 21,788 448.6 171
Gold 104 26,219 490.9 178.2
Platinum 24 22,977 469.1 183.9

Table 3
Summary of LEED and non-LEED office buildings in the DC benchmarking
database. Median year of construction, total floor area.

Building
Subset

N Median
Year

Floor
Gross
Area

Gross Site EUI Gross Source
EUI

(m2) kwh/
m2

RES kWh/
m2

RES

DC LEED
Offices

197 1988 25,163 186.4 2.7% 501.3 2.7%

DC non-
LEED
Offices

284 1980 15,147 151.1 2.1% 393.1 2.1%

Table 4
Summary of reported buildings in DC benchmarking database of office buildings
and national office buildings extracted from CBECS 2018 survey data. The gross
mean EUI is calculated using area weighting, and relative standard errors
represent standard deviation.

Building
Type

N Floor
Gross
Area

Building
Age

Gross
Site
EUI

Gross
Source
EUI

CO2
Intensity

(m2) (kWh/
m2)

(kWh/
m2)

DC
Offices

481 19242 1982 184.2 488.9 5.7

National
Offices

1,012,000 1487 1975 166.9 367.2 5.4

M. Hu

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

4

buildings are newer than the average DC office buildings and national
office buildings; 47% of DC LEED buildings were built after 1990 (new
or renovated), whereas nationwide, only 30% of office buildings were
built after 1990. It has been shown in CBECS 2003 and 2012 data that
newer office buildings tend to have higher source EUI than older office
buildings [20]. Scofield also found from the NYC benchmarking report
that older office buildings had lower site EUI than newer office buildings
[Scofield 2013]. Fig. 2(b) demonstrates that DC LEED offices have a
larger building size; in this study, buildings with a floor area over 50,
000 ft2 were defined as larger buildings. Additionally, 95% of DC LEED
office buildings are large buildings, while only 84% of office buildings
nationwide are described as large buildings. Based on 2018 CBECS data,
newer buildings tend to be larger than older buildings [21]. The two
building characteristics when combined, a larger floor space and newer
construction, contribute to the higher EUI of DC LEED office buildings,
both in source and site energy.

3.2. LEED vs. non-LEED

We first looked at 197 office buildings. In general, LEED office
buildings do not exhibit reduced on-site or source energy consumption.
Fig. 3(a) represents a comparison of the distribution of source EUI for
LEED buildings (in green) and non-LEED buildings (in orange). On the X-
axis, the first bin represents the buildings with 0 < EUI≤20kBtu/ft2, and

the last bin corresponds to source EUI≤360kBtu/ft2. Figure 3(a) shows
an area-weighted histogram in which each bar represents the percentage
of the total building gross floor area having site EUI that falls within a
particular bin. For example, the first bin represents a floor area with 0 ≤
EUI ​ ≤ 20kBtu/ft2 while the 20th bin represents the range
380 ≤ EUI ​ ≤ 360kBtu/ft2. The Y-axis indicates the value percent of the
building floor areas that fall into a certain EUI bin. The green bars above
the horizontal line present the area-weighted source EUI of LEED
buildings (n = 197), and the orange bars below the horizontal line are
the area-weighted source EUI of non-LEED buildings (n = 284). The
graph demonstrates that the mean source GEUI for LEED offices is higher
than that of non-LEED office buildings. Next, we further calculated the
area-weighted means, which showed the area-weighted mean of source
GEUI of LEED buildings as 17.13% higher than that of non-LEED office
buildings. In order to verify the statistical significance of the two sets of
different mean EUIs, the standard student t-test with two samples of
equal variance [30] was performed, which produced a t-value of 4.65,
corresponding to a two-sided p-value of 0.0000043. This means that
there is more than a 99.9% chance that this difference is not accidental.
Thus we concluded that in 2019, DC LEED offices, on average, used
17.13% more source energy per unit area than did non-LEED offices.
The same process has been repeated for site energy use, with the results
shown in Fig. 3(b). DC LEED offices, on average, used 13.23% more site
energy per unit area than did DC non-LEED office buildings.

Table 5
Breakdown and characteristics of LEED buildings.

Building Sets N Gross Floor Area (m2) Site GEUI (kwh/m2) Source EUI (kwh/m2)

Building weight Area weight Building weight Area weight

DC-LEED-off 197 25,163 612 671 1686 1804
CBECS-off 1013 1,487,098,961 600 662 1322 1340
CBECS-larg-off 53 794,320 698 702 1782 1800
CBECS-reg 504 1,044,415,975 617 603 1128 1102
CBECS-reg-Off 94 275,457,513 837 883 1751 1767
CBECS-reg-larg-off 56 69,677 933 961 1832 19 1882

Fig. 2. Year of construction and buildings’ size comparison.

Fig. 3. Source and site EUI comparison of DC LEED and non-LEED buildings.

M. Hu

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

5

t-Test was conducted to verify whether there is difference between
LEED building energy use and those of non-LEED building, both site EUI
and source EUI were studied. The results from Table 6 confirmed there is
energy use intensity difference between LEED and Non-LEED. (P <
0.05).

3.3. The performance of different LEED levels for buildings

The 197 LEED office buildings can be broken down into different
certification levels: Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum. The break-
down and characteristics of these LEED buildings are listed in Table 7.

Fig. 4 shows that LEED Gold buildings account for more than 50% of
LEED buildings, followed by LEED Silver.

Fig. 5 shows that when comparing site energy use, LEED buildings do
not perform better than non-LEED buildings, and this is true at all LEED
levels. Compared to non-LEED office buildings, LEED Certified buildings
use 3% more gross site energy, LEED Silver buildings use 13% more,
LEED Gold buildings use 18% more, and LEED Platinum buildings use
22% more. Additionally, in contrast to non-LEED buildings, LEED
Certified buildings use 24% more gross source energy, LEED Silver
buildings use 14%, LEED Gold buildings use 24%, and LEED Platinum
buildings use 19% more. The results for LEED Gold and LEED Silver
buildings are significant, at the 95% confidence level, whereas the LEED
Certified and LEED Platinum results are less so (85% confidence level).

Among the LEED categories, LEED Platinum and LEED Certified per-
formed worse than LEED Silver and LEED Gold. LEED Silver was the best-
performing category among all LEED buildings, for both source and site
EUI. In terms of performance distribution, for gross source energy, LEED
Gold had a much higher concentration in the GEUI range, between 120
and 180, and other LEED categories had similar concentrations in the
GEUI range, between 120 and 220. For gross site energy, LEED Silver
buildings had a slightly higher concentration in the GEUI range, be-
tween 50 and 60, and other LEED buildings had a normal distribution,
between 20 and 80.

4. Discussion

4.1. How this study compares to previous results

There are limited studies on the actual performance of sustainable
buildings, and very few on LEED buildings due to unavailable perfor-
mance data. To the author’s knowledge, there are two studies that are
similar to this project, which can be compared to the results of this
study. Scofield (2013) studied 953 large New York City office buildings
from the 2011 ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Rating database and
found 21 matching LEED buildings. Regarding energy consumption and
greenhouse gas emissions, he concluded that LEED buildings do not
perform better when compared with non-LEED buildings. Moreover, he
found the LEED Gold level outperformed other buildings by 20% while
LEED Silver and LEED Certified office buildings underperformed
compared to other office buildings [22]. Saldanha et al. (2016)
cross-referenced LEED data with a New York City local law (LL84) that
requires both city-owned and private buildings to report their actual
annual energy and water use, and they identified 91 LEED buildings,
including 66 offices and 25 multifamily buildings. The analysis results

confirmed Scofield’s study: they found NYC LEED office buildings per-
formed slightly worse than non-LEED buildings, with an average source
EUI that was about 7% higher. Similarly, LEED multifamily buildings
performed worse, with an approximate average source EUI 30% over
that of non-LEED buildings [23]. Later, in 2018, Scofield compared
Chicago LEED buildings against Chicago benchmarking data, and found
that for offices, K-12 schools, and multifamily buildings, LEED buildings
did not use less source energy than similar non-LEED buildings. On the
contrary, LEED schools used 17% more source energy than did other
non-LEED schools [24]. The findings from our study on the District of
Columbia office building performance are aligned with those of previous
studies. A significant energy performance gap exists for LEED buildings
across different regions and building types. An energy performance gap
is the difference between the project (simulated) energy performance
and the actual performance delivered in operation. This gap has been a
known problem for a while [25]. Cali et al. (2016) studied refurbished
German houses and found that the missed predicted saving varies be-
tween 41% and 117% [26]. In the UK, a reported by the Building Per-
formance Evaluation programme looked at 50 modern and green
buildings and found that non-residential buildings were not meeting
performance expectations. The reported showed supermarkets, offices,
schools and health centers were normally using up to 3.4 times more
energy than they were designed for and produced on average 3.8 times
the predicated carbon emissions [27].

Experts in the building industry often relate this gap to four potential
causes: flaws in the construction caused by builders, overly complicated

Table 6
t-Test results: comparision of energy use tensity between LEED building and
Non-LEED.

Comparison site energy use source energy use

df 474 474
t Stat 4.336410667 4.651497681
P(T ≤ t) one-tail 8.85173E-06 2.14028E-06
t Critical one-tail 1.64807466 1.64807466
P(T ≤ t) two-tail 0.000017703 0.000004281
t Critical two-tail 1.964981363 1.964981363

Table 7
Breakdown of DC LEED building characteristics.

Office
Building
Sets

N Floor Area
(total) ft2

Site EUI
(kBtu/ft2)

Area
weight

Source
EUI
(kBtu/ft2)

Area
weight

Building
weight

Building
weight

LEED
(Cert)

16 2,731,622 48.1 49.2 147.1 154.4

LEED
(Silver)

55 15,215,805 53.7 54.2 148.7 150.7

LEED
(Gold)

101 34,681,887 56.1 56.6 151.2 154.5

LEED
(Plat)

23 5,671,755 52.8 58.3 148.7 149.6

DC- non-
LEED

284 58,357,176 63.7 64 162.5 168.2

Fig. 4. DC LEED building breakdown.

M. Hu

Journal of Building Engineering 42 (2021) 102475

6

energy-saving technologies [],unpredicted occupant behavior [Cali
et al., 2016], and inaccurate energy modeling [28]. Recently, the focus
has been on occupants’ behavior and the reliability of energy modeling.
Studies have been conducted to determine the factors causing the in-
accuracy of the energy modeling. Knowledge of and experience with the
energy model play an important role. It was found that modelers often
underestimate operating hours, which could possibly be due to opti-
mism bias or lack of experience in accounting for uncertainty [U.K
Government]. To date, the large gap between predicted energy saving
and actual performance has not been sufficiently addressed even after
recognition of the issue. There is high potential harm in keeping such an
issued unaddressed for long. If the assumption continues that all LEED
buildings can perform at the level they are initially projected at, this
misperception may lead to LEED buildings actually using more energy
and emitting more carbon.

Unlike the study of NYC LEED buildings, in our DC study, LEED Gold
office buildings do not perform better than non-LEED buildings. Instead,
they have about 24% higher source energy consumption and 18% higher
site energy than those of non-LEED office buildings. LEED-certified
buildings use 24% higher source energy and 3% higher site energy
than those of non-LEED buildings. LEED Silver buildings use 14% more
source energy and 13% more site energy. LEED Platinum buildings use
19% more source energy and 22% m

## North Carolina.docx

1- Jordan Lake

Benefit: Visitors and Recreational.

What used it for: provides a ton of activities.

Note: It is not for flooding or control stormwater.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Beautiful landscaping. Reduces time maintaining your lawn. Protects the environment. A good community space or outdoor amenity.

What used it for: Rain gardens add beauty to your yard while reducing the time and resources you will spend maintaining a lawn. These gardens filter pollutants like bacteria and fertilizer. They also help protect against erosion and flooding by reducing the surge of water that rushes to streams during a storm.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: Reduces the amount of pollution that reaches streams. Lowers heating and cooling costs. Provides wildlife habitat. Improves air quality. A good community space or outdoor amenity. Control stormwater and runoff.

What used it for: Green roofs are used to improve stormwater management, reduce environmental pollutants, lower building energy costs, extend roof lifespan, and improve the aesthetic characteristics of urban spaces.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Wetland services improve the quality of adjacent habitats with their capacity for water control and filtration. By spreading and slowing flood waters, wetlands decrease flooding in adjacent upland areas and downstream areas. Some wetlands can store flood waters and slowly release it to surface and groundwater systems during periods of low flow. Wetlands also act as a filter for nutrients and pollutants with forested wetlands in agricultural drainages having been shown to remove approximately 80% of the phosphorus and 90% of the nitrogen from the water. Wetlands play a vital role in providing abundant food and cover for juvenile and adult finfish and shellfish. They can also protect upland habitats from erosion. Rooted vegetation stabilizes sediment, buffering against erosive forces and improving water clarity for SAV and benthic microalgae.

What used it for: Wetlands perform various functions, many of which are important to coastal North Carolina. The role of wetlands as wildlife habitat has long been recognized. More recently their critical roles in protecting water quality, preventing floods and erosion, and maintaining fish populations have become evident.

5- Forest

Benefit: Recreational.

What used it for: Visitor and activities.

6- Rainwater Recycling/ Harvesting

Benefit: Environmentally Friendly. Reduced Dependency on City Water Supply. Low Maintenance Costs. Reduce stormwater, runoff, and control flood.

What used it for: It reduces the demand on municipal water supplies and thus increases the sustainability of drinking water supplies. Its use may be exempt from restrictions during a drought. It can reduce water bills, meaning the system can partially pay for itself. It can improve the environment by capturing nutrients and other pollutants from rooftop runoff, preventing them from contaminating surface waters. It can contribute valuable plant nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, to garden irrigation water.

Note: Rainwater harvesting is legal in North Carolina with a few regulations.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Offers a nice aesthetic. Good for the environment. Creates less stormwater runoff. Reduces water pollution. Permeable pavement spreads out stormwater, soaks it into the ground, and slows it down.

What used it for: Permeable pavement captures stormwater through voids in the pavement surface and filters water through an underlying aggregate reservoir. The reservoir typically allows the water to infiltrate into the soil subgrade. The reservoir can also be designed to detain and release the water to a surface conveyance system if the underlying soil is not suitable for infiltration.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: A properly functioning Bioretention pond collects and temporarily stores stormwater. Pollutants and sediments are removed as the stormwater filters through the system, keeping them from reaching lakes and streams. An improperly functioning Bioretention pond does not drain properly and can lead to a multitude of issues, including poor filtration, flooding, sinkholes, fines for non-compliance, and/or becoming a mosquito-infested swamp.

What used it for: Bioretention is the use of plants and soils for removal of pollutants from stormwater runoff via adsorption, filtration, sedimentation, volatilization, ion exchange, and biological decomposition. In addition, bioretention provides landscaping and habitat enhancement benefits.

## South Carolina.docx

1- Marion Lake

Benefit: attracting visitors.

What used it for: recreational activities.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: A rain garden is more than your average yard beautification – it provides resilience for an environment struggling with excessive rain and flooding. By definition, a rain garden is a sunken plot of land that allows rainwater from nearby water-resistant surfaces to flow and be naturally filtered and absorbed by native plants.

What used it for: A rain garden is a landscaped depression that allows rainwater runoff from impervious areas; such as rooftops, driveways and compacted lawn areas, the opportunity to infiltrate and be absorbed, reducing stormwater runoff and associated pollution.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: That covering has an array of benefits beyond aesthetics. Green roofs reduce energy costs, especially during the heat of summer. They retain and detain stormwater and increase the longevity of roofs by blocking ultraviolet rays and easing extreme surface temperatures. They also absorb pollutants.

What used it for: green roofing can result in the earning of credits such as: Reduced Site Disturbance. Landscape and Exterior Design To. Reduce Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater Quantity Control. Water Efficient Landscaping. Innovative Wastewater Technologies.

4- Wetland

Benefit: wetlands act as filters to improve water quality by removing sediments and chemicals. Further, wetlands reduce flooding and recharge groundwater.

What used it for: Wetlands, including swamps, marshes, and bogs, are areas of land that are saturated with moisture seasonally or permanently. Believed to be the most diverse ecosystems in the world, wetlands are home to various species of plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. This includes many threatened and endangered species.

5- Forest

Benefit: recreational activities.

What used it for: Visitor.

6- Rainwater Recycling/ Harvesting

Benefit: the community gains lots of benefits such as reduced runoff, water quality protection, and the overall less quantity of water overburdening older, undersized drainage infrastructure.

What used it for: Rain barrels work in concert with nature to collect and filter runoff, mitigate flooding, and minimize pollution while helping to save money and energy too. When rainwater is collected and harnessed on site at the source (where it falls). Rainwater captured in the harvesting system can be reused, such as irrigating plants during a dry spell.

Note: Rainwater harvesting is legal and encouraged.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Reduce and slow stormwater runoff. Replenish groundwater. Reduce flooding. Reduce stormwater pollutants. Reduce land and cost for the development of retention basins. Reduce thermal pollution.

What used it for: Permeable paving involves the use of porous materials so to allow stormwater to infiltrate into the soil where it can be filtered naturally. The surface material itself can be porous such that water can drain across the entire surface. Porous pavements are a stormwater best management practice (BMP) and are being considered for use more and more in South Carolina to handle with stormwater issues, especially in commercial locations.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Receive and hold runoff generated during small to medium sized storms, allowing it to infiltrate into the ground over a one-to-three-day period. Provide some flood storage. Filter, trap, and remove contaminants in stormwater runoff that would otherwise be carried downstream. These pollutants include nutrients, heavy metals, harmful bacteria and pathogens, sediment, oils and grease, and other types of organic material.

What used it for: Bioretention helps to reduce the impact of stormwater runoff in our communities, best management practices like Bioretention cells are used to manage stormwater runoff quantity and quality.

## connecticut.docx

1- Gardner Lake

Benefit: Visitor and activities.

What used it for: It principally provides boating and recreational access to the 528-acre lake Gardner Lake

Note: it was built it for flood but needs to develop to make it works for sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Reduce standing water & opportunities for mosquito breeding. Enhance sidewalk appeal. Reduce potential of home flooding. Protect rivers and streams. Filter runoff pollution.

What used it for? Every time it rains, water runs off impervious surfaces such as roofs, driveways, roads and parking lots, collecting pollutants along the way

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: The EPA recommends green roofs as a way to help control nonpoint source pollution from stormwater runoff. A properly installed green roof will also extend the life expectancy of the underlying roofing materials by protecting them from heat, harmful UV rays, and weather events. Green roofs also lower energy costs by providing thermal insulation, which helps to keep buildings cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. They also help to reduce the heat island effect that occurs in cities during the summer months. Additional benefits of green roofs include aesthetic enhancement, habitat for wildlife, and reduction of interior noise levels.

What used it for? Reduce local flooding. Reduce the need for sewer upgrades by reducing the amount of stormwater entering sanitary sewer lines. Reduce heating and cooling costs. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Improve water quality Create wildlife habitat. Provide “green” public spaces

CT NEMO Program

4- Wetland

Benefit: wetlands are the most biologically productive resource in the world.

What used it for? They provide habitat for fish, wildlife and plants, reduce flooding, and support cultural and recreational activities. Wetlands are commonly identified using familiar terms such as marsh, swamp, bog, bank, or meadow, occurring within or near different types of watercourses.

Barn Island Wildlife Management Area, Stonington, Connecticut

5- Forest

Benefit: Offering visitors activities such as camping, hiking, fishing, and boating, Pachaug State Forest plays a significant part in forging Voluntown’s nature-friendly identity.

What used it for? Activities and visitors.

6- Rainwater Recycling/ Harvesting

Benefit: The process of collecting rainwater at home is absolutely free, and all that’s required is a method to harvest the falling rainwater into a cistern or tank for storage and later use. Storing and collecting rainwater reduces your overall water bill, which is annually paid to the municipal corporations. There is a high dependence on imported water for people residing around societies or apartment communities. The act of collecting rainwater reduces the dependency on imported water, along with the cost. The designing, creating, and installing rainwater collection systems can generate employment opportunities and push future economic growth. During the summer season, the water saved from rainwater collection can be used for critical and emergency situations.

What used it for? The system usually just consisted of an excavated cistern which collected the rain fall where it was used for whatever purposes the individual or tribe might require.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Permeable pavement is designed to allow rain and snowmelt to pass through it, thereby reducing runoff from a site, promoting groundwater recharge, and filtering some stormwater pollutants. Permeable paving materials are alternatives to conventional pavement surfaces.

What used it for? Reducing the amount of imperviousness on the site will have a significant impact on the amount of other storm water management practices required for mitigating development impacts.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Bioretention uses a conditioned planting soil bed and planting materials to filter runoff stored within a shallow depression (Clar et al., 2004). The method combines physical filtering and adsorption with biological processes. These processes are likely to remove sediments and associated pollutants from the water. A bioretention system can include the following components: a pretreatment filter consisting of a grass channel inlet area, a shallow surface water ponding area, a bioretention planting area, a soil zone, an underdrain system, and an overflow outlet structure.

What used it for? Bioretention cells are depressed areas of the landscape, planted with vegetation, that accept and infiltrate stormwater. Generally, the term “bioretention” is used for larger engineered practices.

Bioretention cell for roof runoff, Laurel Hall, UConn campus, Storrs, CT

## Louisiana.docx

Benefit: Recreational activities.

What use it for? Visitor, Activities, and Animals.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Rain gardens can help a great deal with our street flooding. They also help filter out runoff such as oil. They really do help our overburdened stormwater systems.

What use it for? Rain gardens catch stormwater runoff from roofs, sidewalks, parking lots and roads. Rather than rushing off into a storm sewer or a local waterway, the rainwater collects in a rain garden.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: lower energy costs, less frequent roof replacement due to greater durability, reduced stormwater management costs.

What use it for? The primary function of a green roof would be for environmental purposes. One of the main purposes is flood control. The rain falls on the roof and gets absorbed by the soil of the green roof. It prevents the water from becoming storm water, and then having the municipality have to deal with that water with pipes and drains and pumps.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Improved Water Quality. Wetlands can intercept runoff from surfaces prior to reaching open water and remove pollutants through physical, chemical, and biological processes.

What use it for? buffering storm impacts; storing and conveying floodwater; absorbing nutrients, sediment and contaminants; maintaining high biological productivity and biodiversity; and serving as a nursery ground for fish and habitat for wildlife, as well as the base for ecosystem food webs.

5- Forest

Benefit:

What use it for? Visitor and activities.

6- Rainwater Recycling

Benefit: It’s relatively clean. It’s a free source of water. It’s socially acceptable and environmentally responsible. It reduces stormwater runoff from homes and businesses. It helps solve drainage problems on your property while providing you with free water.

What use it for? It can be used as the main source of water or back of up source of water to wells and municipal water. It allows for a system that can be easily retrofitted to an existing structure or built during a new home construction. It allows for a system that can be easily retrofitted to an existing structure or built during a new home construction. It can provide an excellent emergency source of water.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Reduced peak flows to watercourses reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Reduced effects of pollution in runoff on the environment. Can be used in high-density developments with a range of surface finishes that accept surface waters over their area of use. Reduced need for deep excavations for drainage, which can have significant cost benefits.

What use it for? The ordinance is intended to reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate soil subsidence in the city. During heavy rainstorms, the city’s drainage system can become overwhelmed and result in local flooding. Porous surfaces will allow rainwater to soak into the ground where it falls.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Clean runoff water by removing or reducing pollutants and sediments. Manage runoff quantity from 1” or less rain events. Mitigate peak flow from larger storm events and reduce nuisance flooding. Become landscape assets in urban and built environments. Prevent de-watering of small watersheds. Fix past mistakes. Address combined sewage overflow problems.

What use it for? Helps to improve water quality. Reduce Runoff. Mitigate Flooding.

## Mine.docx

1- Rangeley Lake

Benefit: Activities

What use it for? Rangeley Lake State Park sits along the south shoreline of the lake, offering fishing, swimming, hiking, canoeing, kayaking and bird watching. The Park also has numerous camping sites, motorhome sites, a playground and a picnic area.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Rain Gardens have two major environmental benefits. Rain gardens slow and retain runoff, which reduces flooding and erosion associated with peak storm flows. Second, they filter runoff, removing pollutants and improving water quality. In addition, they are attractive additions to the landscape, relatively inexpensive, and easy to install.

What use it for? Rain gardens are attractive and functional landscaped areas that are designed to capture and filter runoff from roofs, driveways, and other hard surfaces. They collect water in bowl-shaped, vegetated areas, and allow it to slowly soak into the ground.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: Green roofs provide a modest stormwater benefit by slowing, retaining, and releasing through absorption and evapotranspiration some of the rain they receive. Often, they are installed for their heating and cooling benefits, which can be significant.

What use it for? Attenuation of stormwater runoff and peak flows, reductions in the heat island effects with significant improvements in building insulation, and a substantial increase in the life expectancy of the base roof material.

4- Wetland

Benefit: wetlands benefit Maine people in countless ways. They help prevent flooding by slowing down and absorbing water which might otherwise end up on our properties, or in our basements. Wetlands gradually release stored water to rivers and streams to maintain flow throughout the summer, and recharge groundwater aquifers so our wells do not go dry.

What use it for? They protect our shorelines from erosion by absorbing the shock of wave action, and preserve water quality by retaining sediment, nutrients and other pollutants.

5- Forest

Benefit: The forest protects the waters of brooks and ponds, cleans the air, limits soil erosion, and locks up carbon.

What use it for? Visitor and Activities.

6- Rainwater Recycling

Benefit: A rain barrel prevents stormwater pollution in several ways. It slows down roof runoff, which protects streams from erosion and reduces flooding. If you are in a combined sewer overflow (CSO) area, it reduces sewage discharges into streams and bays during heavy rains. Rain barrels can provide water for lawns, gardens, and houseplants, and can lower your water bill.

What use it for? A rain barrel is a storage container connected to a gutter or downspout that temporarily stores rainwater for slow release into a lawn or garden. The water can also be used for a garden or house plants through a spigot.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Filtering runoff and keeping water on site maintaining groundwater levels.

What use it for? permeable paver systems allow rainwater to flow between the joints of pavers instead of running directly into storm drains. The base layer of the paver system delays and filters the runoff before it passes into the ground water table or into the storm drain system.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Reducing the potential amount of stormwater.

What use it for? filters and treats moderate amounts of stormwater runoff using conditioned planting soil beds, gravel undertrained beds, and vegetation within shallow depressions.

## Maryland.docx

1- Needwood Lake

Benefit:  Lake Needwood was created to help with flood control.

What use it for? It is also a fabulous recreational lake, offering boating, rowing and canoeing.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Reduced flooding and erosion. Pollution prevention. Groundwater recharge. Enhanced wildlife habitat. Improved aesthetics; and Increased property values.

What use it for? Rain gardens typically are used to reduce residential rooftop runoff or impervious surfaces on residential property.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: As stormwater filters through the soil and is taken in through plant root systems, pollutants are absorbed, reducing the volume of pollutants that enter nearby streams. By doing things like this, the amount of runoff from your property is greatly reduced, which can help to protect your community’s storm drain system.

What use it for? Green roofs capture rainfall, and slow and reduce runoff.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Wetlands provide important socio-economic benefits and ecosystem services such as storing and conveying flood waters, recharging groundwater, improving water quality by filtering and storing nutrients, and providing shoreline protection and critical habitat for a multitude of plant and animal species.

What use it for? Wetlands are important natural resources providing numerous values to society, including fish and wildlife habitat, flood protection, erosion control and water quality preservation. Wetlands comprise a range of environments within interior and coastal regions of Maryland.

Eastern Shore of Maryland Coastal Wetland

5- Forest

Benefit: Utilize mature and dead, dying, and diseased trees. Thin-out overstock stands. Improve and diversify wildlife habitat. Control invasive exotic plants. Effectively correct public safety concerns and issues. Reduce the forest vulnerability to insect attack or wildlife hazards. Improve aesthetic aspects of an era. Improve the proportions of age class and species diversity within stands and management blocks.

What use it for? Maryland’s State Forests offer a number of recreational opportunities.

6- Rainwater Recycling

Benefit: Reduce flooding in your yard or basement. Rain barrels and cisterns collect water that could otherwise contribute to the flooding of your property. The water collected can be used to water plants or can be released slowly, allowing it to sink into the ground. Provide your plants with better water. Unlike treated water, which is “softened” with dissolved minerals, rainwater is naturally soft. The water stored in a rain barrel or cistern is better than municipal water for washing cars and watering indoor or outdoor plants. Save money and water. Instead of water from the tap or faucet, you can use the water you have saved to keep your home landscaping healthy and growing through the summer. You will also reduce your municipal water bill. Water stored in your rain barrel or cistern is water that will not empty into local streams. By decreasing the volume of storm runoff.

What use it for? These practices include rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use a storage device such as a cistern, rain tank, or rain barrel for capturing rainfall for future use. In Maryland, indoor use is typically limited to non-potable water supply such as toilet flushing, cleaning, and laundry washing. The most common outdoor use for rainwater harvesting is for irrigating landscaped areas.

Note: The Federal Government does not have any laws or restrictions regarding rainwater harvesting and even encourage them to do so. Maryland encourages residents to collect rainwater by offering a tax credit or exemption for equipment purchased for rainwater harvesting.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: They can help reduce ponding and flooding, allow water to soak through and replenish drinking water supplies, and prevent pollution from reaching local streams and rivers

What use it for? Permeable pavements reduce pollutant runoff into waterways by allowing the water to move through the pavement so that the stormwater percolates into the ground. Permeable hardscapes help manage stormwater (surface water from heavy rains or snow) and are an alternative to hard surfaces. Materials used as permeable hardscapes allow stormwater to seep into the ground (permeate) rather than pool in low spots or run off into storm drains or local streams.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: to capture stormwater and prevent pollutants in the runoff from negatively impacting local ecosystems. By keeping large amounts of stormwater out of our local waterways, bioretention ponds and similar facilities help reduce the adverse effects of flooding, erosion, and pollution.

What use it for? Bioretention is a technique that utilizes plant material and microbes to temporarily store and treat stormwater before it is discharged or infiltrated. Also referred to as bioretention filters, bioretention cells, or rain gardens, these facilities remove suspended solids, metals, hydrocarbons, and bacteria from stormwater runoff using a combination of absorption, filtration, volatilization, ion exchange, and microbial decomposition. The use of specific plants, trees, and shrubs allows bioretention systems

## Civil Engineering homework help

Write an essay (about 2 pages) to introduce time mean and space mean speed (definition, relationship,

etc.) and explain why space mean speed, not time mean speed, is used for traffic flow analysis. You can

search the articles on the Internet to collect related information (using any format for references you

use). The grading is based on the following rubric (full score is 30 points):

Standard)

(Meets Standard)

Above Average= 4

(Exceeds

Standard)

Exemplary= 5 (Far

Exceeds Standard)

Organization Writing lacks logical

organization. It shows

some coherence but

ideas lack unity.

Serious errors.

Writing is

coherent and

logically

organized. Some

points remain

misplaced and

stray from the

topic. Transitions

evident but not

used throughout

essay.

Writing is

coherent and

logically

organized with

transitions used

between ideas and

paragraphs to

create coherence.

Overall unity of

ideas is present.

Writing shows

high degree of

attention to logic

and reasoning of

points. Unity

conclusion and

stirs thought

regarding the

topic.

Level of

Content

Shows some thinking

and reasoning but

most ideas are

underdeveloped and

unoriginal.

Content indicates

thinking and

reasoning applied

with original

thought on a few

ideas.

Content indicates

original thinking

and develops ideas

with sufficient and

firm evidence.

Content indicates

synthesis of ideas,

in-depth analysis

and evidences

original thought

and support for the

topic.

Development Main points lack

detailed development.

Ideas are vague with

little evidence of

critical thinking.

Main points are

present with

limited detail and

development.

Some critical

thinking is present.

Main points well

developed with

quality supporting

details and

quantity. Critical

thinking is weaved

into points

Main points well

developed with

high quality and

quantity support.

Reveals high

degree of critical

thinking.

Grammar &

Mechanics

Spelling, punctuation,

and grammatical

errors create

distraction, making

fragments, comma

splices, run-ons

evident. Errors are

frequent.

Most spelling,

punctuation, and

grammar correct

progress though

essay. Some errors

remain.

Essay has few

spelling,

punctuation, and

grammatical errors

clearly. Very few

fragments or run-

ons.

Essay is free of

distracting

spelling,

punctuation, and

grammatical

errors; absent of

fragments, comma

splices, and run-

ons.

Style Mostly in elementary

form with little or no

variety in sentence

structure, diction,

Approaches

college level usage

of some variety in

sentence patterns,

Attains college

level style; tone is

appropriate and

rhetorical devices

Shows outstanding

style going beyond

usual college

level; rhetorical

rhetorical devices or

emphasis.

diction, and

rhetorical devices.

used to enhance

content; sentence

variety used

effectively.

devices and tone

used effectively;

creative use of

sentence structure

and coordination

and assignment

requirements;

incorrect margins,

spacing and

indentation; neatness

of essay needs

attention.

Meets format and

assignment

requirements;

generally correct

margins, spacing,

and indentations;

essay is neat but

may have some

assembly errors.

Meets format and

assignment

requirements;

margins, spacing,

and indentations

are correct; essay

is neat and

correctly

assembled.

Meets all formal

and assignment

requirements and

evidences

attention to detail;

all margins,

spacing and

indentations are

correct; essay is

neat and correctly

assembled with

professional look.

## Civil Engineering homework help

Water supply requires enormous amounts of energy to supply water at the right quality, quantity and pressure. “The proposition is that the water industry does not need to pump and desalinate 24/7 if the appropriate (gravity feed) storage is built into the system. Realtime data linked controls would switch the series of pumps on and off as the available power increases and decreases.

Consideration should be given to fresh water, sewage water and desalination systems”

Write an essay to discuss the following question:

Could the pumping and desalination of water be used as a ‘flywheel’ to contribute to the challenge of fluctuating electricity supply from renewable electrical energy supply from wind turbines and solar PV farms? If so, evaluate the extent of the contribution. If not, explain why not.

The research can be in any one country as water pumping is universal however you may wish to choose a country where desalination is also used in the water supply or a group of countries or even the global potential. For example, in some countries, there is one national water organisation, and in others, there are multiple privatised water companies. The significance of this should be assessed.

The essay is an individual essay of six pages, including figures, tables and references section. The recommended font is Times New Roman 11, single-spaced. Harvard references style must be used. There is no maximum limit for word count, but not less than 2000 words.

## Virginia.docx

1- ANNA—LOUISA Lake

Benefit: Visitor and Activities.

What used it for: Recreational.

Note: it does not designed to be control flood and stormwater, it needs to development to be a part of sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Increasing the amount of water that filters into the ground, which recharges local and regional aquifers. Helping protect communities from flooding and drainage problems. Helping protect streams and lakes from pollutants carried by urban stormwater – lawn fertilizers and pesticides, oil and other fluids that leak from cars, and numerous harmful substances that wash off roofs and paved areas. Enhancing the beauty of yards and neighborhoods. Providing valuable habitat for birds, butterflies, and many beneficial insects.

What used it for: A Rain Garden is a shallow landscaped depression that incorporates many pollutant removal mechanisms including temporarily ponding stormwater runoff 6 to 12 inches above a mulch layer that encourages the rainwater to infiltrate into the underlying native soil within 48 hours. Rain gardens are an easy and effective tool that we can use to help reduce stormwater runoff from residential properties. These gardens are strategically placed to intercept pollutant laden stormwater runoff until it can be fully absorbed into the ground.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: Reduced heat island effect, due to the cooling effect of the green roof plants. Reduced stormwater volumes, resulting from the rainwater-retention capacity of the plants and soil. Reduced stormwater flow rates, resulting from the ability of the system to slow the flow of heavy rains through the system. Reduced energy use, due to improved insulating characteristics of the system. New wildlife habitat, primarily for insects and birds. New passive recreational space, accessible to the entire VCU community.

What used it for: A green roof is a roof made up of layers of soil and plants on its surface; like a traditional roof, there’s a waterproofing layer under the dirt and plants. Rainwater that falls on the roof is absorbed by the soil and taken up by the plants. As a result, less rainwater — and accompanying pollutants — run off the roof and into nearby storm drains and streams.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Flood Control: The wetlands work as a natural measure to help slow down the rising water from storms that may cause flooding. This is accomplished by acting as a giant sponge, absorbing and holding water during storms. Erosion Control: Coastal wetlands absorb the erosive energy of waves, thus reducing further erosion. Pollutant Filter: Wetlands also filter pollutants, much like a kidney detoxifies potentially harmful fluids in your body. Pollutants carried by stormwater can be trapped by wetland vegetation. These excess nutrients are used by plants to promote growth. Fish and Wildlife Habitat: Wetlands are resting, nesting, breeding, and spawning areas for many species of fish, shellfish, as well as other wildlife.

What used it for: Wetlands have many chemicals, physical, and biological functions. They benefit entire ecosystems, including resident human populations (Hershner, 1992). Wetland’s trap waterborne sediments and retain nutrients and toxic chemicals by filtering them out of inflowing water and storing or transforming them. Wetlands also can recharge groundwater supplies or serve as points of groundwater discharge to the surface. Coastal-zone and flood-plain wetland mitigate the effects of flooding caused by tides and runoff by reducing flow velocity, storing water temporarily, and releasing it gradually.

5- Forest

Benefit: recreation activities.

What used it for: Visitor.

6- Rainwater Recycling/ Harvesting

Benefit: Every home can have a rain barrel. Rain barrels store rainwater which reduces flooding and pollution. You can use the water for your garden or to wash your car to save on your utility bill. Also, Reduce runoff from the property. Provide non-potable water sources for reuse. Provide additional water storage for slow release to Conservation Landscapes and Rain Gardens.

What used it for: Rainwater Harvesting is a term for the age-old concept of capturing runoff and storing it in a Rain Barrel, cistern, or another container for future use. Rain Barrels and cisterns are similar in function and design, but the cistern is a larger tank than a Rain Barrel. Rainwater that falls on a rooftop is collected and conveyed into an above- or below-ground storage tank for non-potable water uses such as irrigation, exterior washing (e.g., washing cars, building exteriors, etc.), operating water features (ponds and fountains), and possibly some interior reuse options like flushing toilets or laundry (indoor uses may require additional treatment of the water as per local health codes). In many instances, Rainwater Harvesting is combined with Conservation Landscapes, Rain Gardens, or landscaped areas to allow stormwater stored temporarily in the tank to be used to water these practices and infiltrate into the ground.

Note: Rainwater harvesting is the practice of collecting rainwater for reuse. While it is allowed—even encouraged.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: Permeable pavements help reestablish a more natural hydrologic balance and reduce runoff volume by trapping and slowly releasing precipitation into the ground instead of allowing it to flow into storm drains and out to receiving waters as effluent. In addition, Come in more colors and shapes than traditional concrete or asphalt. Can create a longer-lasting surface compared with conventional concrete. Can reduce flooding on your property or the surrounding area.

What used it for: Permeable pavers (sometimes also referred to as permeable interlocking concrete pavement, or PICP) are pavers that provide a stormwater management solution to your property. They work by filtering pollutants, reducing water runoff, and keeping water on site without the need for a retention pond. With permeable pavers, any rain that falls on the patio, walkway, or driveway will seep back into the ground, which also reduces the burden on local storm drains.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Bioretention is a stormwater management technique designed to mimic the way water is filtered through plants and soil in natural environments. Vegetated depressions capture and slow the flow of stormwater, which allows the water to be taken up by plants and seep into the ground. This process helps filter out pollutants before the stormwater is released into waterways. Bioretention areas help control and treat stormwater runoff from small storms.

What used it for: Bioretention areas are shallow landscaped depressions which are typically under drained and rely on engineered soils, enhanced vegetation and filtration to remove pollution and reduce runoff downstream. They are aimed at and treating runoff from frequent rainfall management events.

## Alabama.docx

1- Guntersville Lake

Benefit: Guntersville Lake, which is best known as Lake Guntersville, is located between the cities of Bridgeport and Guntersville. Covering 69,000 acres, it’s Alabama’s largest lake Guntersville Lake, which is best known as Lake Guntersville, is located between the cities of Bridgeport and Guntersville. Covering 69,000 acres, it’s Alabama’s largest lake. From swimming and fishing, to boating and skiing, it offers a great variety of recreational activities.

What used it for? For recreational activities.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rain gardens

Benefit: Rain Garden catch, filter, and hold stormwater. They are simple gardens designed in pocket-like depressions to capture rainwater from your rooftop, driveway, and upland areas. They allow the rainwater to then slowly soak into the ground over a period of a day.

What used it for: Rain gardens are part of stormwater management systems that are both beautiful and functional. Rain gardens are shallow, vegetated landscape depressions that slow water for a short time to provide stormwater infiltration, pollutant filtration, native plant habitat, and effective stormwater treatment for small-scale residential or commercial drainage areas.

3- Green roofs

Benefit: Main benefit that the green roof provides your home is the look as it makes your home more beautiful. Next is it reduces energy costs by reducing tempura tires on the roof, conserving heating and cooling energies. Another benefit of green roofs is that increases your property’s value in urban areas. Lastly, since these are plants, then it is a given that it helps out the environment be less polluted.

What used it for: Green Roofs can be used in many applications. They have been widely used for their stormwater management and energy savings potential, as well as their aesthetic benefits. A green roof is a layer of vegetation planted over a waterproofing system that is installed on top of a flat or slightly-sloped roof. Green roofs are also known as vegetative or eco–roofs.

Downtown Birmingham, AL with Green Roofs
Rendering by: Hawkins Partners, Aerial from Live Local Maps (Now Bing)

4- Wetland

Benefit: boosting coastal resilience, reducing flood risk, stabilizing shorelines, and protecting natural ecosystems.

What used it for? Coastal wetlands provide important habitat for the fish, wildlife and plants that support natural infrastructure and help protect coastal communities from storm flooding and sea-level rise. Wetlands are areas where water covers the soil or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season.

Top Swamp Wetland

5- Forest

Benefit: Visitor.

What used it for: Recreational activities

Conecuh National Forest in southern Alabama

6- Rainwater Recycling/ harvesting

Benefit: collecting roof runoff actually could have some benefits for both your community and the environment. Conventional stormwater practices can carry pollutants great distances, cause flooding and prevent groundwater tables from replenishing. Collecting rainwater reduces runoff from roofs, driveways and other impervious structures.

What used it for: Harvesting rainwater is also useful in drought preparation, water management in flood and erosion-heavy areas and reducing demand on local water systems. Some plants also prefer rainwater because it contains almost no chlorine or other additives often found in supplied water.

Note: There are no current regulations for rainwater harvesting.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: The pavers used in both parking lots are proving to be an exciting product that has been successful in addressing the problem that expanding cities are facing “Storm water can become a major issue for cities as they grow,” the material supplier noted. “Storm drains are only so big, and we continue to build new buildings with new parking lots, but the storm overflow they can cause contributes to the pollution of our water systems, to erosion and can even cause the flooding of buildings.”

What used it for: Permeable ground surface is an alternative to conventional impervious pavement that allows stormwater to drain through the surface and into a stone reservoir, where it infiltrates into the underlying native soil or is temporarily detained. Permeable pavers provide a unique drainage capability and create a visually attractive appearance. Its void area is only 15 percent, yet this small amount still allows water to drain out and drain out very quickly, a key element of pervious pavers’ success in dealing with runoff. Permeable pavers provide a paved surface that mimics nature’s absorption of rainwater and was specifically designed to manage the first flush of a storm, that first one inch of rain.

A significant amount of water in the water cycle is hidden from day-to-day existence in the ground below people’s feet. However, it is only found in usable quantities in certain places underground called aquifers.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Bioretention cells (BRCs) remove pollutants in stormwater runoff through adsorption, filtration, sedimentation, volatilization, ion exchange, and biological decomposition. A BRC is a depression in the landscape that captures and stores runoff for a short time while providing habitat for native vegetation that is both flood and drought tolerant. BRCs are stormwater control measures (SCMs) that are similar to the homeowner practice, rain gardens, with the exception that BRCs have an underlying specialized soil media and are designed to meet the desired stormwater quantity treatment storage volume. Peak runoff rates and runoff volumes can be reduced, and groundwater can be recharged when bioretention is located in an area with the appropriate soil conditions to provide infiltration.

What used it for:

A bioretention area is designed with one of the two basic configurations: (1) with an underdrain connected to a stormwater collection system; or (2) without an underdrain (“no-underdrain”) and infiltration into a permeable soil profile, providing groundwater recharge. The underlying soil is the main factor determining which configuration is used. [2] The no-underdrain design is a better choice when feasible because of aquifer recharge. However, the underdrain design is likely to be more appropriate over much of Alabama because of the occurrence of clayey soils.

## Delaware.docx

1- Newark Lake

Benefit: It is a new lake, having been built in 2006 to hold and supply water to the city.

What used it for? Newark Reservoir is a popular recreational area thanks to its walking trails. One of the trails encircles the entire lake, which is a total of 1.8 kilometers.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rainwater garden

Benefit: Rain gardens slow down and reduce runoff and thus help prevent flooding and erosion. In addition, the garden’s soil and plants filter pollutants in rainwater.

What used it for? Rain gardens can be a great way to manage stormwater. Rain gardens are shallow depressions, planted with perennials and woody plants, which collect water from roofs, driveways, other impervious surfaces, and turf grass.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: Green roofs provide many environmental and social benefits, especially in urban areas where impermeable surfaces and unsightly rooftops dominate.

What used it for? Captures and manages stormwater. Reduces the “heat island effect.” Prevents and reduces air pollution. Extends the life of rooftops. Provides heating and cooling effects for the building.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Slow the flow of runoff. Improve water quality. Control erosion. Provide fish and wildlife habits. Provide recreation. Supply groundwater. Absorb floodwater and reduce flood. Protect the coast from stormwater.

What used it for? used for hunting, trapping, fishing, timber, and livestock grazing. These uses tend to preserve the wetland integrity, although the qualitative nature of wetlands may be modified, especially by forestry practices.

5- Forest

Benefit: visitors and activities.

What used it for? Pure water. Recreation. Scenic beauty. Plant and animal habitat. Sustainable timber and natural gas. Many other uses and values.

State Forest

6- Rainwater recycling

Benefit: Harvesting water involves capturing rainwater, grey-water, and wastewater on your property and recycling it on site, either for irrigation or to recharge groundwater supplies. Implementing this water conservation strategy provides a myriad of environmental benefits.

What used it for? uses of rainwater:

· Hand water your lawn and garden.

· Connect rainwater collection system to irrigation/sprinkler system.

· Refill your fountains and fish ponds.

7- Permeable ground Surface

Benefit: Pollution of surface water. Flooding of surface water and erosion of stream banks. Water table is not adequately recharged. Formation of stagnate water puddles. Heat island effect.

What used it for? Permeable surfaces (also known as porous or pervious surfaces) allow water to percolate into the soil to filter out pollutants and recharge the water table.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Given their ability to reduce surface runoff, infiltration trenches are a very effective Green Technology BMP. However, infiltration trenches can provide minimal benefits in terms of reducing concentrations of pollutants such as nitrate, since they are located below the root zone and surface soil profile, where most filtering occurs in other Green Technology BMPs.

What used it for? Bioretention facilities are the most effective distributed BMP for sites with high pollutant concentrations. As with bioswales and filter strips, they can be easily incorporated into the design of projects with minimal loss of usable ground. Since they simultaneously filter and infiltrate runoff, they are not only very effective in reducing pollutant loads; they can also provide considerable recharge.

## Florida.docx

Benefit: Fishing activity

What used it for? the
lake water in Crescent Lake Fl for fishing.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Rain gardens are an easy way to return water to our aquifer, reduce erosion, and help prevent stormwater runoff

What used it for? Friendly Landscape that absorbs runoff and allows it to filter back into the soil. They recharge the local aquifer by increasing the amount of water that filters into the ground; reduce the amount of urban pollutants – fertilizer, pesticides, car oil, etc. – that get carried away by stormwater runoff and enter nearby surface water bodies; provide habitat for birds, butterflies, and beneficial insects; and improve property value by adding curb appeal to the landscape.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: Reduces stormwater volume (50% to 85%). Improves stormwater quality through load reduction. Saves water by harvesting rain. Reduces heat island effect. Lowers surface temperatures by 40°-50° F. Energy savings can reach 15% 30%. Reduces noise for building occupants. Increases the life of the roof and reduces roof maintenance costs. Contributes to biodiversity and creates habitats for birds and invertebrates. Filters air pollutants and captures airborne particles

What used it for? Green roofs reduce total stormwater runoff volume and peak flows, improve building insulation properties (reducing heat island effects), and extend the expected life of the roof’s base material.

FIU SIPA

4- Wetland

Benefit: Florida wetlands are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world.

What used it for? Wetlands are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and a duration sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils. Soils present in wetlands generally are classified as hydric or alluvial or possess characteristics that are associated with reducing soil conditions.

5- Forest

Benefit:

What used it for? The Apalachicola National Forest is home to some of the most unique animal and plant species in the world. Here, visitors can enjoy safe, family-friendly activities such as fishing, hunting, hiking and trail-riding while surrounded by tranquil, diverse ecosystems.

Apalachicola National Forest

6- Rainwater Recycling

Benefit: Rainwater means that water facilities are under less pressure to supply water to residents, because Florida water bills are high.

What used it for? Collecting and recycling rainwater is an eco-friendly choice that many homeowners are interested in. In states like Florida where water demand can be higher due to hot temperatures, having your own source of renewable rainwater means that water facilities are under less pressure to supply water to residents.

7- Permeable Ground Surface

Benefit: As with green roofs and cisterns, permeable pavers can reduce stress on potable water resources by acting as a component of a treatment train for capture, storage, and reuse of stormwater.

What used it for? for impervious surfaces, minimizing flooding and pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. They can be used for roads, driveways, walkways, patios, etc. and rainwater can be conveyed to exfiltration tanks or cisterns beneath the permeable pavers.

Pervious Pavers Tremron Jacksonville Pavers, Retaining Walls, Fire Pits | Atlanta, Miami, Orlando

Clay Permeable Pavers, Pompano Beach, Lighthouse Point, Coral Springs, FL

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: A bioretention system consists of a soil bed planted with suitable non-invasive (preferably native) vegetation. Stormwater runoff entering the bioretention system is filtered through the soil planting bed before being either conveyed downstream by an underdrain system or infiltrated into the existing subsoil below the soil bed. Vegetation in the soil planting bed provides uptake of pollutants and runoff and helps maintain the pores and associated infiltration rates of the soil in the bed.

What used it for? Bioretention systems are used to remove a wide range of pollutants, such as suspended solids, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and bacteria from stormwater runoff. They can also be used to reduce peak runoff rates and increase stormwater infiltration when designed as a multi-stage, multi-function facility.

## Gorgia.docx

1- Allatoona Lake

Benefit: Visitors and Activities

What used it for? The lake receives heavy use from campers, boaters, skiers and anglers.

Note: It just for Recreational activities. It needs to development to be a part of Sponge city.

2- Rainwater Garden

Benefit: Planting a rain garden filters stormwater runoff through soils and plants thereby reducing pollution while giving you a garden that is easy to maintain and needs little or no watering. Rain gardens typically allow about 30 percent more water to soak into the ground than an equivalent area of lawn.

What used it for? Rain gardens create a more natural flow for stormwater and reduce the amount of stormwater that runs into storm drains. By reducing flows into storm drains, they reduce peak stream flow and water pollution in nearby rivers and streams.

3- Green Roofs

Benefit: The new green infrastructure, primarily the green roof, will reduce GSU’s impact on the summer urban heat island, decrease air pollution levels, and stormwater runoff.

What used it for? This project focuses on preventing all stormwater runoff from the roof of GSU’s Sports Arena from entering the city’s combined sewer system through the use of a green roof, cistern, living wall, and rain garden.

4- Wetland

Benefit: Water quality. Flood control. Fish and Wildlife. Pest control and pollination services.

What used it for? provide a great buffer against flooding and erosion, and help control and disseminate pollutants. The coastal marshlands provide a natural recreation resource which has become vitally linked to the economy of Georgia’s coastal zone and to that of the entire state.

5- Forest

Benefit: Visitor and activities

What used it for? To do the activities.

6- Rainwater Recycling/ Harvesting

Benefit: Conserving potable water and creating a supplemental water supply. Retaining stormwater. Slowing and reducing runoff. Achieving several green building goals.

Rainwater is free. Although its initial equipment installation costs can be significant, long-term costs a r e w o r k a b l e, g i v e n o u r circumstances. • Stored rainwater gives its owner more independence from the effects of irregularities of rain events. • RWH is by nature decentralized and relatively less vulnerable to natural disasters than public water supplies.

What used it for? Rainwater harvesting creates an alternative watering source that can be used any time, even when irrigation is restricted. RWH reduces the volume of stormwater that runs off landscapes into streams, and thereby decreases soil erosion, flooding and water pollution. If captured, rainwater can be used for landscape irrigation.

7- Permeable Ground Surface/Porous

Benefit: Porous materials are designed to allow stormwater to be absorbed by the paving surface and infiltrate into the ground below. Stormwater that runs off of impervious concrete or asphalt can include high levels of pollution from motor oil, gasoline and other contaminants often found on parking lot surface. Porous paving is one way to reduce nonpoint source pollution.

What used it for? Porous surfaces allow water to permeate into the soil rather than wash off the surface. The soil acts as a natural filter, breaking down and removing pathogens and pollutants that may be present in the water as it filters through the soil. Thus, we can keep the groundwater free from contaminants. It also provides a natural source of irrigation to the surrounding soil, alleviating the need for additional water use for irrigating lawns and gardens.

8- Bioretention Facility

Benefit: Applicable to small drainage areas. Effective pollutant removals. Appropriate for small areas with high impervious cover, particularly parking lots. Natural integration into landscaping for urban landscape enhancement. Good retrofit capability. Can be planned as an aesthetic feature and meet local planting requirements

What used it for? Shallow stormwater basin or landscaped area that utilizes engineered soils or native, well-draining soil and vegetation to capture and t

## Civil Engineering homework help

Assignment – Ethics Case 2

DUE ON: Tuesday, March 22
nd

(submitted in Canvas)

with your name at the top

Instructions: Read the attached ethics issue about plagiarism of a geotechnical report

from “A Question of Ethics, a Case Study” published in ASCE News. Write an essay in

narrative form , 1-2 pages long, addressing as a minimum the questions below and

providing your opinion and discussion on the case and decisions.

1) What actions (by the engineer and supervisor PE) are being questioned in this case?
2) In your opinion, was what they did professionally correct? Discuss.
3) Was it ethical? Discuss.
4) What was the determination and action of the ASCE CPC in this case?
5) Have you seen this problem occurring frequently among your peers? If so, in

your opinion, do those who plagiarize report material written by others know that

this action is likely to be in violation of core ethical principles of our profession?

6) What can we learn from this case? Provide your opinion.

\$6&( 1HZV \$SULO

A Question of Ethics

a c a s e s t u d y

This new column—to appear monthly—will examine

an ethics issue reviewed by ASCE’s Com-mittee on

Professional Conduct (CPC). It is written by a

member of ASCE’s legal staff on issues brought to the

attention of ASCE’s attorneys.

SITUATION: In the process of preparing a

geotechnical report for a high-rise apartment

project proposed by a client, an engineer and

his supervisor plagiarized a report prepared by

another engineering firm for a similar project.

The engineer writing the report in question had

obtained a copy of the report prepared by the

other engineering firm from his supervisor,

who furnished it to him in an effort to assist

him in preparing the report.The engineer liked

the style of writing in that report and decided

to use language from it in his own report.This

language, however, did not relate to or affect

the technical conclusions and recommenda-

tions of the report in question.The time frame

for completing the report was very tight, and

the supervisor, who was listed as a coauthor of

the report, approved it after evaluating the

technical issues but without thoroughly

reviewing the background information.

QUESTION: Did the engineer, his supervi-

sor, or both violate ASCE’s Code of Ethics?

According to canon 5(e) of the code,“Engi-

neers shall give proper credit for engineering

work to those to whom credit is due,and

shall recognize the proprietary interests of

others. Whenever possible, they shall name

the per-son or persons who may be

responsible for designs, inventions, writings,

or other accom-plishments.”
Plagiarizing, or publishing someone else’s

written work as if it were one’s own, is a vio-

lation of canon 5(e).This is a serious offense,

equivalent to the theft of someone’s property.

DECISION: In this particular case, the CPC—

the body responsible for investigating ethics

complaints against ASCE members and

recommending sanctions, when appropriate, to

the Board of Direction and the Executive

Committee—determined that both the engineer

who authored the report and his supervisor

were in violation of the Code of Ethics. The

fact that the plagiarized material did not relate

to or affect the technical con-clusions or

recommendations of the member is not

relevant to the issue of whether or not the code

was violated. Neither is the fact that the

engineers had little time in which to meet a

deadline. A person simply must not pass off

another’s work as his or her own.The

engineer who authored the report in ques-tion

stated that he considered the language he

appropriated to be verbiage and not a propri-

etary work product.This does not change the

fact that someone else wrote those words.
Because of the seriousness of this offense,

the possible sanctions included expulsion from

the Society. However, in the course of its

investigation of this matter, the CPC did weigh

many of the supporting facts of this case when

determining what to recommend as sanctions

against the engineers. It considered the fact

that, as mentioned above, the plagiarized

material did not relate to or affect the techni-

cal conclusions or recommendations of the

report. The engineers stated that they liked the

style of writing of the other report and were

attempting to adhere to that style, not copy the

proprietary work of the firm that authored the

report. This lack of intent to commit the act

was an important factor in determining what

sanctions were in order, as was the fact that the

engineers took full responsibility for their

actions and took steps to make amends. The

engineers recognized their mistake and sent a

letter of apology to the authors of the original

report.These facts were important in the CPC’s

decision to rec-ommend not that the members

be expelled

but that their memberships be suspended for

one year. Additionally, the CPC reported this

matter to the members’ state licensing board.
This scenario illustrates very well the type of

problems that can arise from a simple act of

carelessness. Not only did the engineers send a

letter of apology;they also lost their bonuses for

that year. This matter brought embarrassment

both to the engineers and to their firm. Engi-

neers, like all professionals, must exercise great

care in practicing their profession and not let

everyday pressures cause them to cut corners or

be careless.These engineers did not set out to

plagiarize the work of their colleagues, yet the

results of their actions affected not only

themselves but also their firm. This case also

highlights the responsibility of a supervisor.

Although the supervisor did not make the

decision to use the language from the other firm’s

report, he was held accountable for that decision

because he approved the report with-out taking

the time to thoroughly review it.

Members who have an ethics question or

who would like to file a complaint with the

CPC may call ASCE’s ethics hotline at (703)

295-6101 or (800) 548-ASCE (2723), exten-

sion 6101. This line is staffed by ASCE attor-

neys, who can provide advice on how to

handle an ethics issue or file a complaint.

## Civil Engineering homework help

Belbin Team Role
Report for

ROHIT DODDALA

University of Northumbria
KB7036 People in Project Management

Team Role Summary Descriptions

Team Role Contribution Allowable Weaknesses

Plant

Resource

Investigator

Co-ordinator

Shaper

Monitor

Evaluator

Teamworker

Implementer

Completer
Finisher

Specialist

Creative, imaginative, free-thinking.
Generates ideas and solves difficult

problems.

Ignores incidentals. Too
pre-occupied to communicate

effectively.

Outgoing, enthusiastic, communicative.
Explores opportunities and develops

contacts.

Over-optimistic. Loses
interest once initial

enthusiasm has passed.

Mature, confident, identifies talent.
Clarifies goals. Delegates effectively.

Can be seen as manipulative.

work.

Challenging, dynamic, thrives on
pressure. Has the drive and courage to

overcome obstacles.

Prone to provocation. Offends
people’s feelings.

Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees
all options and judges accurately.

Lacks drive and ability to
inspire others. Can be overly

critical.

Co-operative, perceptive and
diplomatic. Listens and averts friction.

Indecisive in crunch
situations. Avoids

confrontation.

Practical, reliable, efficient. Turns ideas
into actions and organizes work that

needs to be done.

Somewhat inflexible. Slow to
respond to new possibilities.

Painstaking, conscientious, anxious.
Searches out errors. Polishes and

perfects.

Inclined to worry unduly.
Reluctant to delegate.

Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated.
Provides knowledge and skills in rare

supply.

Contributes only on a narrow
front. Dwells on technicalities.

ROHIT DODDALA

Team Role Overview

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 3 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

The bar graph in this report shows your Team Roles in order from highest to lowest, using all available
information. The other pages of your report will analyse your Team Role Overview in more detail.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Percentile

Team Role

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

TW SP IMP ME CO CF PL SH RI

Key

TW Teamworker

SP Specialist

IMP Implementer

ME Monitor Evaluator

CO Co-ordinator

CF Completer Finisher

PL Plant

SH Shaper

RI Resource Investigator

The graph above shows your Team Roles in order of preference. Some people have an even spread of
Team Roles whilst others may have one or two very high and very low Team Roles. An individual does
not necessarily show all nine Team Role behaviours.

complete Observer Assessments to provide feedback about the Team Role behaviours they observe in
you. This is useful because Team Role contributions are about the way others see us and work with us,
as well as the way we perceive ourselves.

ROHIT DODDALA

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 4 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

This report shows your percentile scores for each Team Role, according to your Self-Perception
responses. Team Roles are divided by percentile score into Preferred, Manageable and Least
Preferred Roles.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Least Preferred Roles Manageable Roles Preferred Roles Team Roles

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

Plant

Resource

Investigator

Co-ordinator

Shaper

Monitor

Evaluator

Teamworker

Implementer

Completer

Finisher

Specialist

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Please remember that Belbin Team Roles consist of both strengths and associated weaknesses.

ROHIT DODDALA

Team Role Feedback

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 5 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

This report offers guidance and advice on the best way to manage your behaviour at work and make
the most of your Team Role contributions. The applicability of the advice may vary depending on the

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

You appear to have a particularly accommodating disposition, which makes you likely to be a very
pleasant work colleague. Your ability and your desire to adapt and fit in with others around you will
add to your popularity. People will warm to you as someone able to listen to their problems and
able to respond in a fitting manner. You will be most appreciated for your caring nature. A major
contribution you can make is to ensure the atmosphere of the team is good and morale is high. Try
to be proactive, rather than merely reactive, by instigating conversation and asking pertinent
questions. Clients and others with whom you interact are likely to regard you as helpful and
responsive.

Generally speaking, your contribution will be most noticeable and valued when there is a need to
get on with difficult people without causing conflict. As a work colleague or when working for a
manager, you will be appreciated for your co-operative approach. However, avoid making the
mistake of trying to please too many people and so creating false expectations.

As a manager, those who work for you will readily appreciate your considerate nature. However, at
times you will need to make decisions which might be inherently unpopular with certain
employees. Do not shy away from these difficulties and remember that effective management
includes making tough decisions and dealing with difficult situations. If you can bring your
diplomatic skills into effect, you should be able to do what is necessary and take others along with
you.

Your overall operating style should be of the approachable, adaptable individual who is able to
foster a positive atmosphere and is adept at resolving difficult situations with diplomacy.

You show inclinations for learning and gaining in-depth knowledge. When you identify an area of
expertise which is lacking in the team, volunteer yourself to take the training course or read the
book. If you can harness your studious nature in a way which is useful and informative for the rest
of the team, others will begin to rely on you to consolidate their own understanding.

On a final note, you need to take account of the role for which you are least suited. You do not
appear to have the characteristics of someone who develops and can exploit useful contacts
outside the organisation. If you can work in harmony with someone who has these complementary
qualities, your own performance is likely to improve.

ROHIT DODDALA

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 6 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

This report highlights your Team Role strengths and possible weaknesses, based on your views and
those of your Observers, if applicable. The section, ‘Understanding your Contribution’, provides
analysis of your responses to your Self-Perception to enable you to work more effectively.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Strengths

You are likely to:

o be a good listener and have a very empathetic nature: qualities which facilitate the smooth running
of the team.

Possible Weaknesses

You may:

o be uncomfortable when having to deal with conflict.

Looking at the results solely from your self-perception (not taking any observer views into account), you
have highlighted two possible contributions you can make. Below is some advice on how to play to your
strengths further in these areas:

To play your Teamworker role to better effect, volunteer yourself to deal with difficult
situations which require a soothing influence. Use your diplomatic skills to establish how
issues can be resolved and compromises reached.

To play your Specialist role to better effect, make the most of your ability and desire to soak
up new information by seeking training and even setting aside time for self-teaching to keep
current in your subject area. Ensure that you are learning what is most relevant, keeping
your own objectives in line with those of the team.

On a separate note, you need to prioritise the demands of the team and be prepared to be flexible when
needed.

ROHIT DODDALA

Feedback and Development Suggestions

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 7 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

This report is ideal for handing to and discussing with your line manager. It will provide an insight into
your preferred way of working and the environment in which you thrive. Alternatively, this report is also
a useful aid for any manager or recruitment specialist who wants to find out more about the individual
in terms of their preferred working style and environment.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Key points

ROHIT DODDALA may be reticent so allow him time to try to put him at his ease throughout the discussion.
Investigate whether he tends to restrict himself to those within his team or whether he is able to use his
social skills advantageously outside the team.

Work Environment

ROHIT would work best in a role where support and know-how are highly valued. This combination of
Team Roles can be greatly appreciated by customers or clients, since it combines a helpful approach with
experience and knowledge. ROHIT is likely to find a niche providing support in his chosen field of
expertise.

ROHIT DODDALA

Suggested Work Styles

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 8 Report printed on 25-Feb-2022

This report looks at the combination of your top Team Roles and suggests working styles that may be
suitable. Phrases are provided which summarise the relevant working styles.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Team Roles Work Style

1 2 3 4

TW SP

Providing Expertise

“I enjoy sharing my knowledge and
expertise to help others.”

TW IMP

Meeting Requirements

“I make a point of trying to adapt to the
needs of people and the organisation.”

TW ME

Observing

“I am able to give consideration to others’
views whilst remaining impartial.”

SP IMP

Applying Knowledge

“I derive satisfaction when integrating my
knowledge and expertise into our practices

and methods.”

Glossary of Terms

Self-Perception Inventory (SPI)
The Self-Perception Inventory is the questionnaire an individual completes to ascertain his or her Team
Roles. The questionnaire consists of eight sections, with each section containing ten items. The individual
is asked to allocate ten marks per section to those statements which best reflect his or her working styles.

Observer Assessment (OA)
The Observer Assessment is the questionnaire completed by people who know the Self-Perception
candidate well. We recommend that observers are chosen from among those who have worked with the
individual closely and recently and within the same context (e.g. within the same team), since Team Role
behaviours can change over time and in different situations, offering advice on managing this.

Team Role Strength
These are the positive characteristics or behaviours associated with a particular Team Role.

Team Role Weakness
This is the flipside of a strength: negative behaviour which can be displayed as the result of a particular
Team Role contribution. If someone is playing a particular Team Role well and their strengths outweigh
their weaknesses in the role, it is called an “Allowable weakness”. Weaknesses become ‐“non allowable” if
taken to extreme or if the associated Team Role strength is not displayed.

Percentiles
A percentile is a way of measuring your position in relation to others (the rest of the population). If a group
of people take a test and receive scores, these can be distributed from highest to lowest and an
individual’s score can be judged in relation to the scores of others. If a person’s score is in the 80th
percentile, this indicates that 20% of people have scored more highly for this measure.

Percentages
Percentages represent a proportion of the whole. If you take an aptitude test and score 70 marks out of a
possible 100, your score is 70%.

Strong example of a Team Role
A strong example is someone who appears to play a particular Team Role to especially good effect. To
qualify as a strong example of a particular Team Role, someone needs to be in the 80th percentile for that
Team Role according to their Self-Perception. Once observer assessments are added, their feedback is
also taken into account to determine whether or not someone qualifies as a strong example.

Points Dropped
Some items in the Self-Perception Inventory pertain to claims about oneself rather than a valid Team Role
contribution. If you have made more claims than 90% of the population, your Team Role feedback will
take this into consideration.

## Civil Engineering homework help

Midterm Part B – Pavement Design
Pavement Analysis & Design
Due: 03/29/2022 6:30 PM (on Canvas)

Part B of the midterm exam consists of designing a pavement structure for traditional NJ

traffic using the AASHTO ’93 and Mechanistic Empirical Design methods. The design life

of the pavement structure is intended to be 15 years. The general pavement structure

consists of an HMA layer (Layer #1) and an Untreated Granular Base (Layer #2), which

is the typical structure used on NJ Routes 55, 295, and 78. Material properties and

pavement layers are shown in the figure below.

• Traffic: Traffic information can be found in Appendix A. These reports are directly

from NJDOT and you can assume that these traffic counts are current. For all axle

weights, please use the most conservative estimate. Additionally, for the 30+ axle

weights, you should use 32 kips, 36 kips, and 60 kips for single, tandem, and tridem

axles, respectively. The growth rate of traffic is assumed to be 2%.

• AASHTO ’93: Please use a reliability of 95%, standard deviation of 0.30, and ΔPSI

is 2.0. Base drainage is assumed to be 1.0.

• M-E Design: Fatigue cracking equation can be found here or from the Week 6

Lecture Slides. Please assume a tire pressure of 50 psi, Va = 5.0% and Vbe =

12.0%. Poisson’s ratio for the AC, Base, and Subgrade layers are 0.35, 0.40, and

0.45, respectively. Rutting equation is shown below or in the Week 7 Lecture

Slides. Rutting only needs to be considered in the subgrade layer.

𝑁𝑑 = 1.365𝐸 − 9 ∗ (𝜀𝑐)
−4.477

Please determine the layer thickness for the HMA and Base layers. Show all work

for full credit. Provide example calculations for each factor that is calculated. You

can upload a Word Document or PDF to Canvas as your submittal. Good Luck!

APPENDIX A: TRAFFIC INFORMATION FOR NJ

## Civil Engineering homework help

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Environment

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 1 of 6

Assessment Brief Assessment Components 001 and 002

1 Module Key Information

1.1 Module Title

People in Project Management

1.2 Module Code Numbers

KB7030 (Newcastle) and AT7027 (Amsterdam)

1.3 Module Level and Points

Level 7 and 20 points

1.4 Summative Assessment Component(s) and Weighting(s)

▪ Assessment Component 001: Coursework …………………………………………………………. 10% weighting
▪ Assessment Component 002: Coursework …………………………………………………………. 90% weighting

Dr Allan Osborne

Semester 2 2021-22

1.7 Cohorts

Newcastle and Amsterdam students

2 Assessment Submission and Feedback

2.1 Assessment Overview

The module has two components of summative assessment. These include:

▪ Assessment Component 001 is a piece of coursework in the form of a Peer Review (Steps 1 & 2)
▪ Assessment Component 002 is a piece of coursework in the form of an Academic Paper

2.2 Release Date of Assessment Brief

The module leader released the assessment brief to you on the following date and time:

▪ 09:00 (UK time) on Monday 21 February 2022

2.3 Medium Used to Disseminate Assessment Brief

You can find a digital copy of this assessment brief from the Content > Assessment sub-folder in the
Blackboard (Bb) course.

2.4 Date(s) and Time(s) of Submission

You are required to submit these assessment components by no later than the following dates and times:

1. Peer Review Step 1…………………………………………….. 13:00 (UK time) on Monday, 21 March 2022
2. Peer Review Step 2……………………………………….. 13:00 (UK time) on Wednesday, 30 March 2022
3. Academic Paper ………………………………………………………. 13:00 (UK time) on Monday, 9 May 2022

2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark and Feedback

moderated mark and feedback for the Academic Paper by no later than the following dates and times:

1. Peer Review Step 2…………………………………………………. 13:00 (UK time) on Monday, 4 April 2022

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 2 of 6

2. Academic Paper …………………………………………………… 13:00 (UK time) on Thursday, 9 June 2022

2.6 Mechanism for Return of Mark(s) and Feedback

The module leader will use the Turnitin digital submission tool to return your feedback and unconfirmed
internally moderated mark for the Academic Paper. You can find the relevant Bb Assignment and Turnitin
digital submission tools in the Bb course from the Content > Assessment > Submission Tools sub-folder.

3 Assessment Overview

The assessment baseline quotation is: “Leadership in a team setting is much less about command and
control, and more about getting the most out of a diverse and experienced group of individuals” (Ernst &
Young, 2013).

3.1 Belbin Self-Perception Inventory (SPI)

Before writing your Academic Paper, you need to complete a Belbin Self-Perception Inventory (SPI)
questionnaire to ascertain your preferred team role(s) according to Belbin’s team roles theory. The
module leader will invite you to complete a Belbin SPI questionnaire by emailing your Northumbria
University inbox no later than 13:00 (UK time) on Monday, 21 February 2022. You must note the
invitation will come from Admin@Belbin.com and not the module leader. You will need to check your
junk folder if you cannot see the message in your Northumbria University inbox.

You must message the module leader using the Bb Messages tool if you cannot find the module
junk folder. Do not email the module leader; this will slow down the module leader’s response time
(see Module Handbook and Panopto Assignment Briefing video presentation for further information).

3.2 Peer Review

Peer Review has two steps. You can read what these steps are in the following two sub-sections. There
are only two possible marks for Peer Review: 0% or 100%. To gain 100%, you must complete both
steps by the deadlines shown above in Section 2.4. You cannot receive a partial mark by completing
only one of the steps. Neither can you apply for a Short Extension for Assessment Component
001 (Peer Review); this is because the module leader has notified the Student Engagement Team that it
cannot grant you a Short Extension for Assessment Component 001 (Peer Review).

Peer Review Step 1 Submission Requirements

You will submit a digital copy in Microsoft 365 Word format of your draft Academic Paper to a Bb
Assignment digital submission tool called Peer Review Steps 1 & 2 in the Bb course’s Content >
Assessment > Submission Tools sub-folder. You must submit your draft Academic Paper anonymously.
When submitting your digital file, you need to be careful because your first submission attempt is
deemed final; this means you cannot ask the module leader to give you a second opportunity should you
from Section 5.3.

Peer Review Step 2 Submission Requirements

The Bb Assignment digital submission tool will give you access to the Peer Review Step 2 process
immediately after the Peer Review Step 1’s submission deadline has passed. Peer Review Step 2
requires you to provide constructive, supportive feedback using a structured template provided by the
module leader for two students’ draft Academic Papers. You will find the Peer Review Step 2 Structure
Feedback Template from the Content > Assessment sub-folder in the Bb course. You will use the Bb
Assignment digital submission tool called ‘Peer Review Steps 1 & 2’ in the Content > Assessment >
Submission Tools sub-folder in the Bb course to write your reviews using the feedback template as a
guide. You must submit your reviews anonymously. You can find the minimum and maximum word limits
for Peer Review Step 2 below from Section 5.2.

Metaphorically using your Belbin SPI questionnaire as an appraisal instrument, i.e., a conceptual lens
through which you will reflect on your past observations of people and their behaviour while working in
sections together.

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 3 of 6

Task 1 – Belbin’s Team Roles Theory

In this section of your Academic Paper, the module leader requires you to write a clear and coherent
narrative detailing your opinion concerning the validity of your Belbin SPI questionnaire report and
Belbin’s Team Roles Theory. While doing so, you are required to use published papers you have
chosen from primary literature sources in leadership, management, and organizational sciences as the

Task 2 – People and Behaviour Theories

In this section of your Academic Paper, the module leader requires you to write a clear and coherent
academic debate detailing the opposing viewpoints concerning the validity of critical theories
associated with a single ‘People and Behaviour’ domain assigned to you. While doing so, you are
required to use published papers you have chosen from primary literature sources in leadership,
management, and organizational sciences as the theoretical underpinning for your academic debate.

‘People and Behaviour’ Domain

When the module leader posted this assessment brief on the Bb course, he also posted a document titled
‘Assigned People and Behaviour Domains’ in the Bb courses’ Content > Assessment sub-folder.

If you look at this document, you will see the domain the module leader has randomly assigned to you.
You must write your Academic Paper using the people and behaviour domain assigned to you. If you
write your Academic Paper using a different domain, you will not have fully satisfied the assignment’s
requirements for Task 2 for Assessment Component 002. As a result, the module leader will have to

To ascertain the APM’s definition of your allocated domain, you need to review the APM Body of
Knowledge 7th edition. You can access this publication free of charge by joining the APM as a student
member. The APM’s website explains how to become a student member. You should note that the APM
does not expect you to pay an annual membership fee while you are a student. You are classified as a
student when studying this module and your Master’s degree.

You will submit a digital copy in Microsoft 365 Word format of your Academic Paper using the Microsoft
365 Word template provided by the module tutor to a Turnitin digital submission tool called ‘Academic
Paper’ in the Content > Assessment > Submission Tools sub-folder in the Bb course. You can find the
Microsoft 365 Word template from the Bb course’ Content > Assessment sub-folder. You must submit
your first submission attempt is deemed final; this means you cannot ask the module leader to give
you a second opportunity should you inadvertently upload the wrong file. You can find the maximum
word limit for the Academic Paper below from Section 5.3.

4 Referencing Style

must present your bibliographic citations in your text and reference list using the Cite Them Right
method of the Harvard referencing system. Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University
students at https://www.citethemrightonline.com/ You must enter your Northumbria University online user
credentials to access the online guide.

5 Word Limits

5.1 Peer Review Step 1

Your draft Academic Paper for Peer Review Step 1 should have a minimum word count not less than
50% of the maximum word limit for the Academic Paper. It also must not exceed the maximum word

5.2 Peer Review Step 2

You will use a structured template provided by the module leader as a guide when writing the peer
reviews for the two draft Academic Paper assigned to you. Each section included in the Peer Review
Step 2 Structure Feedback Template has a minimum word count of 50 words. There is no maximum
word limit.

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 4 of 6

You are required to declare the word count of your Academic Paper in the relevant section of the
Microsoft 365 Word Template the module leader has given you. The maximum word limit for the
Academic Paper is 3,000 words; this limit excludes the Abstract, which has a separate word limit of
200 words. The Academic Paper word limit includes the following constituents:

▪ The main body of text
▪ In-text citations, e.g., (Smith, 2011) or Smith (2011)
▪ Direct quotations from primary or secondary source materials

You are permitted to exclude the following constituents when calculating the word count of your

▪ Title
▪ Abstract (no more than 200 words)
▪ Keywords (no more than five keywords)
▪ Figures
▪ Tables
▪ Reference list

You are not allowed to include the following constituents when writing your Academic Paper:

▪ Appendices
▪ Bibliography
▪ Endnotes
▪ Footnotes
▪ Glossary of terms

6 Further Information

6.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

On completion of the Coursework, you will be able to:

Knowledge and understanding:

1. Define and evaluate selected key theories and concepts associated with the main characteristics
and processes of teams, the issues facing teams, and the organizational context of teams.

2. Critically appraise selected key theories and techniques associated with the groups and teams in
an organization, organizational structures, and management processes.

Intellectual/professional skills and abilities:

3. Empowered with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to create, participate in, and effectively lead
real and virtual project-orientated teams.

4. Critically review the literature on team dynamics, management, and organizational behaviour and
engage with what others have written through evaluative discourse.

Personal values attributes:

5. Exhibit the professional ethics characteristics of a University postgraduate student.

7 Referral

If the Progression and Awards Board (PAB) decides to give you a referral attempt of the module, the
module leader may ask you to retake the examination at another time. The referral attempt opportunity
will typically occur after the end-of-level Progression and Awards Board (PAB). If you pass the module
following a referral attempt, you will be awarded the module pass mark for level 7 modules, i.e., 50%. If
you become eligible to complete a referral attempt but are subsequently unable to undertake the
opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled sitting; this will
generally entail the suspension of your progression on your programme of study until such time that you
have completed the level and become eligible to proceed. The date and time of the examination for your
referral attempt will usually be confirmed to you by Academic Registry via the University’s website and not

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 5 of 6

8 Assessment Criteria

descriptor as its pedagogic base.

Triple Plus/Delta Retrospective, which includes ‘three positive things you did’ and ‘three things you could
improve’.

Figure 8.1: Module Assessment Criteria Matrix

Dr Allan Osborne | KB7036 and AT7026 People in Project Management Page 6 of 6

9 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has many policies for assessment. The following information, available to you from here,
guides these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies

(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

• 1 Module Key Information
• 1.1 Module Title
• 1.2 Module Code Numbers
• 1.3 Module Level and Points
• 1.4 Summative Assessment Component(s) and Weighting(s)
• 1.7 Cohorts
• 2 Assessment Submission and Feedback
• 2.1 Assessment Overview
• 2.2 Release Date of Assessment Brief
• 2.3 Medium Used to Disseminate Assessment Brief
• 2.4 Date(s) and Time(s) of Submission
• 2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark and Feedback
• 2.6 Mechanism for Return of Mark(s) and Feedback
• 3 Assessment Overview
• 3.1 Belbin Self-Perception Inventory (SPI)
• 3.2 Peer Review
• 3.2.1 Peer Review Step 1 Submission Requirements
• 3.2.2 Peer Review Step 2 Submission Requirements
• 3.3.1 Task 1 – Belbin’s Team Roles Theory
• 3.3.2 Task 2 – People and Behaviour Theories
• 3.3.3 ‘People and Behaviour’ Domain
• 3.3.4 Academic Paper Submission Requirements
• 4 Referencing Style
• 5 Word Limits
• 5.1 Peer Review Step 1
• 5.2 Peer Review Step 2
• 6 Further Information
• 6.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework
• 6.1.1 Knowledge and understanding:
• 6.1.2 Intellectual/professional skills and abilities:
• 6.1.3 Personal values attributes:
• 7 Referral
• 8 Assessment Criteria
• 9 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

## Civil Engineering homework help

Belbin Team Role
Report for

ROHIT DODDALA

University of Northumbria
KB7036 People in Project Management

Team Role Summary Descriptions

Team Role Contribution Allowable Weaknesses

Plant

Resource

Investigator

Co-ordinator

Shaper

Monitor

Evaluator

Teamworker

Implementer

Completer
Finisher

Specialist

Creative, imaginative, free-thinking.
Generates ideas and solves difficult

problems.

Ignores incidentals. Too
pre-occupied to communicate

effectively.

Outgoing, enthusiastic, communicative.
Explores opportunities and develops

contacts.

Over-optimistic. Loses
interest once initial

enthusiasm has passed.

Mature, confident, identifies talent.
Clarifies goals. Delegates effectively.

Can be seen as manipulative.

work.

Challenging, dynamic, thrives on
pressure. Has the drive and courage to

overcome obstacles.

Prone to provocation. Offends
people’s feelings.

Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees
all options and judges accurately.

Lacks drive and ability to
inspire others. Can be overly

critical.

Co-operative, perceptive and
diplomatic. Listens and averts friction.

Indecisive in crunch
situations. Avoids

confrontation.

Practical, reliable, efficient. Turns ideas
into actions and organizes work that

needs to be done.

Somewhat inflexible. Slow to
respond to new possibilities.

Painstaking, conscientious, anxious.
Searches out errors. Polishes and

perfects.

Inclined to worry unduly.
Reluctant to delegate.

Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated.
Provides knowledge and skills in rare

supply.

Contributes only on a narrow
front. Dwells on technicalities.

ROHIT DODDALA

Team Role Overview

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 3 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

The bar graph in this report shows your Team Roles in order from highest to lowest, using all available
information. The other pages of your report will analyse your Team Role Overview in more detail.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

Percentile

Team Role

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

TW IMP PL SH ME SP CO CF RI

Key

TW Teamworker

IMP Implementer

PL Plant

SH Shaper

ME Monitor Evaluator

SP Specialist

CO Co-ordinator

CF Completer Finisher

RI Resource Investigator

The graph above shows your Team Roles in order of preference. Some people have an even spread of
Team Roles whilst others may have one or two very high and very low Team Roles. An individual does
not necessarily show all nine Team Role behaviours.

This graph is a combination of your views and those of your Observers. When we combine all the
information together, we take account of how closely your perception of yourself agrees with others’
views of you. Many factors are taken into account when deriving your final Team Role composition.

ROHIT DODDALA

Analysis of your Team Role Composition

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 4 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report provides an overview of Team Roles as seen by yourself and others, in order from most
prominent (column 1) to least (column 9). Your overall Team Role composition is not simply an
average of each individual line, but a weighted integration of your perceptions and your Observers’
views, which takes many factors into account.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ROHIT DODDALA’s Self-Perception TW SP IMP ME CO CF PL SH RI

Observers:

MOHAN ALA SH ME PL RI TW SP CF IMP CO

Holy Jermy Thadisetti PL SH CF ME TW IMP RI SP CO

Akshitha Bathini IMP SH PL SP CO RI CF ME TW

Sravan Erukala PL TW IMP CO SH CF ME SP RI

Observers’ Overall Views PL SH IMP TW ME SP CO CF RI

Your Overall Team Role Composition TW IMP PL SH ME SP CO CF RI

Your observers reached quite different conclusions to your own in terms of Team Role preferences. There
will inevitably be some compromise, but if you feel strongly that you have strengths which have not yet
been uncovered, it is up to you to declare your preferences in these areas. Alternatively, you may want to
focus on cultivating those Team Role strengths which others see in you.

This comment looks at the consistency between the Observers’ Overall Views and your Self-Perception. It
does not take into account the level of agreement between the Observers themselves.

ROHIT DODDALA

Comparing Self and Observer Perceptions

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 5 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

The bar graph in this report shows how you perceive your Team Role contributions, in comparison to
your Observers’ views. The table below the graph shows the percentile scores for Self-Perception and
Observers.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

Percentile

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
SPI Obs

TW

SPI Obs

IMP

SPI Obs

PL

SPI Obs

SH

SPI Obs

ME

SPI Obs

SP

SPI Obs

CO

SPI Obs

CF

SPI Obs

RI

Team Role

Key Self-Perception (SPI) Observations (Obs)
(Percentile) (Percentile)

TW

IMP

PL

SH

ME

SP

CO

CF

RI

Teamworker 97 47

Implementer 61 57

Plant 23 80

Shaper 21 76

Monitor Evaluator 53 44

Specialist 62 33

Co-ordinator 27 32

Completer Finisher 24 30

Resource Investigator 16 24

ROHIT DODDALA

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 6 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report shows your percentile scores for each Team Role, according to your Self-Perception
responses. Team Roles are divided by percentile score into Preferred, Manageable and Least
Preferred Roles.

This report is based upon your Self-Perception only.

Least Preferred Roles Manageable Roles Preferred Roles Team Roles

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

Plant

Resource

Investigator

Co-ordinator

Shaper

Monitor

Evaluator

Teamworker

Implementer

Completer

Finisher

Specialist

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Please remember that Belbin Team Roles consist of both strengths and associated weaknesses.

ROHIT DODDALA

Team Role Feedback

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 7 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report offers guidance and advice on the best way to manage your behaviour at work and make
the most of your Team Role contributions. The applicability of the advice may vary depending on the

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

You appear to be someone who does the things that need to be done, whether in terms of the
work to be performed or in providing general assistance. The value of this focus is that yours is a
contribution which has the potential of being appreciated everywhere. For example, when you find
yourself engaged in a key project or task, you will be the person who knows how best to cope with
the pressing everyday issues that arise.

However, you may find it more difficult to progress when placed in an upfront role. This will be
especially true where the focus is on selling new lines or ideas to others. For this reason you
should benefit from close association with a prominent manager or colleague with a gift for
proclaiming a message loud and clear. This person might be strong and demanding but can offer
you their forceful voice when you most need it.

The greater your skill in handling the problems that others create in their wake, the more you will
have an indispensable role to perform. Perhaps that is why in your case, who you work with, rather
than precisely what work you perform, is likely to be more vital than for most people. For this
reason, you should choose your job and your team with care. Take full account of who else is there
and make sure that you avoid the company of a colleague with a strong sense of personal territory
who might wish to squeeze you out. You need to feel comfortable if you are to offer your best.

As a manager, you are likely to work best with those who share your work ethic and are able to

Your overall operating style should be of someone who takes a pride in the job, in helping others
and in creating a good atmosphere at work.

You seem to have some sparks of creativity and originality which may need coaxing into the
limelight. When faced with a challenge, take the opportunity to move apart from the team’s
thinking and discussions and allow yourself to approach the problem from a fresh perspective.
When coming up with solutions, allow others to evaluate them. In this way, you can begin to
establish yourself as someone who is capable of original thinking but who is not carried away by
his own ideas.

On a final note, you need to take account of the role for which you are least suited. You do not
appear to have the characteristics of someone who develops and can exploit useful contacts
outside the organisation. If you can work in harmony with someone who has these complementary
qualities, your own performance is likely to improve.

ROHIT DODDALA

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 8 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report highlights your Team Role strengths and possible weaknesses, based on your views and
those of your Observers, if applicable. The section, ‘Understanding your Contribution’, provides
analysis of your responses to your Self-Perception to enable you to work more effectively.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

Strengths

You are likely to:

o use your intuition when working with colleagues and help to defuse friction in the team. It is
important to promote this strength so that others can recognise it more fully.

Possible Weaknesses

You may:

o have a balanced outlook, but have difficulty in finding a perfect role fit owing to a lack of definitive
Team Role preferences.

Looking at the results solely from your self-perception (not taking any observer views into account), you
have highlighted two possible contributions you can make. Below is some advice on how to play to your
strengths further in these areas:

To play your Teamworker role to better effect, volunteer yourself to deal with difficult
situations which require a soothing influence. Use your diplomatic skills to establish how
issues can be resolved and compromises reached.

To play your Specialist role to better effect, make the most of your ability and desire to soak
up new information by seeking training and even setting aside time for self-teaching to keep
current in your subject area. Ensure that you are learning what is most relevant, keeping
your own objectives in line with those of the team.

On a separate note, you need to prioritise the demands of the team and be prepared to be flexible when
needed.

ROHIT DODDALA

Feedback and Development Suggestions

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 9 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report is ideal for handing to and discussing with your line manager. It will provide an insight into
your preferred way of working and the environment in which you thrive. Alternatively, this report is also
a useful aid for any manager or recruitment specialist who wants to find out more about the individual
in terms of their preferred working style and environment.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

Key points

ROHIT DODDALA may be reticent so allow him time to try to put him at his ease throughout the discussion.
Investigate whether he tends to restrict himself to those within his team or whether he is able to use his
social skills advantageously outside the team.

Work Environment

ROHIT is best placed in a job which is already structured. He is likely to be a dependable person who takes
a systematic approach to work. He may need continued encouragement and support and is likely to be
highly capable of taking on more responsibility if situated in a positive team environment.

Others have observed that ROHIT might be best suited to:

o rigorously applying himself to what needs to be done

o advocating a sensible and rational course of action

o a job where looking after others is highly valued

On the other hand, observers did not reach consensus about the kinds of work to which ROHIT is less
suited.

ROHIT DODDALA

Observed Team Role Strengths and Weaknesses

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 10 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

The bar graph in this report shows your Observers’ responses broken down into the strengths and
associated weaknesses for each Team Role. An associated weakness is termed allowable if it
operates alongside the observed strengths of the Team Role.

This report is based on 4 Observer Assessments.

Associated
Weaknesses

Strengths

PL

RI

CO

SH

ME

TW

IMP

CF

SP

ROHIT DODDALA

List of Observer Responses

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 11 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

When observers complete an Observer Assessment, they can tick or double-tick adjectives which they
think apply to you. This report shows the ticks received for each word, in descending order. Words
which denote your associated weaknesses are shown in italics.

This report is based on 4 Observer Assessments.

Please note: if the Observer Assessments were completed in a different language to the one specified for this report, the equivalent
word or phrase is used.

disciplined 6

realistic 5

caring 5

original 4

challenging 4

outspoken 4

efficient 4

confident and relaxed 4

motivated by learning 3

self-reliant 3

encouraging of others 3

diplomatic 3

analytical 3

conscious of priorities 3

free-thinking 3

dedicated to subject 3

corrects errors 3

inventive 2

imaginative 2

tough 2

enterprising 2

hard-driving 2

impartial 2

over-sensitive 2

outgoing 2

perceptive 2

practical 2

logical 2

accurate 2

competitive 2

reliable 2

creative 1

perfectionist 1

over-talkative 1

inflexible 1

confrontational 1

persevering 1

methodical 1

persuasive 1

fussy 1

fearful of conflict 1

indecisive 1

seizes opportunities 0

shrewd 0

territorial 0

studious 0

sceptical 0

restricted in outlook 0

manipulative 0

inconsistent 0

frightened of failure 0

eccentric 0

absent-minded 0

inquisitive 0

meticulous 0

consultative 0

resistant to change 0

reluctant to allocate work 0

over-delegating 0

oblivious 0

impulsive 0

unenthusiastic 0

pushy 0

procrastinating 0

engrossed in own area 0

keen to impart expertise 0

uninvolved with specifics 0

impatient 0

ROHIT DODDALA

Suggested Work Styles

SPI completed on 25-Feb-2022
© BELBIN 2011 Page 12 Report printed on 27-Feb-2022

This report looks at the combination of your top Team Roles and suggests working styles that may be
suitable. Phrases are provided which summarise the relevant working styles.

This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 4 Observer Assessments.

Team Roles Work Style

1 2 3 4

TW IMP

Meeting Requirements

“I make a point of trying to adapt to the
needs of people and the organisation.”

TW PL

Helping Others with Ideas

“I enjoy sharing my ideas for the benefit of
the team.”

TW SH

Negotiating

“I like to find win-win solutions when
agreeing goals and objectives with others.”

IMP PL

Integrating

“My main strength lies in integrating new
ideas into procedures.”

Glossary of Terms

Self-Perception Inventory (SPI)
The Self-Perception Inventory is the questionnaire an individual completes to ascertain his or her Team
Roles. The questionnaire consists of eight sections, with each section containing ten items. The individual
is asked to allocate ten marks per section to those statements which best reflect his or her working styles.

Observer Assessment (OA)
The Observer Assessment is the questionnaire completed by people who know the Self-Perception
candidate well. We recommend that observers are chosen from among those who have worked with the
individual closely and recently and within the same context (e.g. within the same team), since Team Role
behaviours can change over time and in different situations, offering advice on managing this.

Team Role Strength
These are the positive characteristics or behaviours associated with a particular Team Role.

Team Role Weakness
This is the flipside of a strength: negative behaviour which can be displayed as the result of a particular
Team Role contribution. If someone is playing a particular Team Role well and their strengths outweigh
their weaknesses in the role, it is called an “Allowable weakness”. Weaknesses become ‐“non allowable” if
taken to extreme or if the associated Team Role strength is not displayed.

Percentiles
A percentile is a way of measuring your position in relation to others (the rest of the population). If a group
of people take a test and receive scores, these can be distributed from highest to lowest and an
individual’s score can be judged in relation to the scores of others. If a person’s score is in the 80th
percentile, this indicates that 20% of people have scored more highly for this measure.

Percentages
Percentages represent a proportion of the whole. If you take an aptitude test and score 70 marks out of a
possible 100, your score is 70%.

Strong example of a Team Role
A strong example is someone who appears to play a particular Team Role to especially good effect. To
qualify as a strong example of a particular Team Role, someone needs to be in the 80th percentile for that
Team Role according to their Self-Perception. Once observer assessments are added, their feedback is
also taken into account to determine whether or not someone qualifies as a strong example.

Points Dropped
Some items in the Self-Perception Inventory pertain to claims about oneself rather than a valid Team Role
contribution. If you have made more claims than 90% of the population, your Team Role feedback will
take this into consideration.

## Civil Engineering homework help

W15032589

w15032589

BELBIN TEAM THEORY AND REFLECTION AS AN INTERN ENGINEER

Student Number: W15032589, Engineering and Environment Department, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE18ST, UK

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a critical evaluation of the Belbin Team Role Self Perception Inventory assessment in relation to project group dynamics. Belbin team role theory is widely accepted as a management tool to assist in the formation of effective performing nine essential team roles defined in the behavioural clusters. A Belbin Self Perception inventory, combining four project observer assessments, is utilised to test the validity of Belbin team role theory in context with specific project and project team. It draws upon social aspects of team dynamics and how they ultimately relate to the project vision and motivation of team members. A range of theoretical models have been applied throughout and existing literature was made subject to scrutiny as means to support the study. There are numerous team dynamics which can affect the project outcome, however this study proves that each individual dynamic is interrelated, for instance ineffective leadership results in conflict, leading to demotivation, generation the need for a reward and evaluation system.

KEY WORDS: Project team, Dynamics, Leadership, Power, Social influence, Evaluating and rewarding teams.

INTRODUCTION

Professional and Personal development is one of the vital parts about enhancing the abilities and skills of an individual. There are various aspects of a particular individual which one way or to shape the personality of a particular individual. “if we want to progress and succeed at work we need to understand that it is our behaviour that provides the key”, (Belbin, R.M.,2012). “We will be given opportunities by out employer if we can convivence them of our skills and potentials”, (Judge, 2006). “They must believe that we can come up with appropriate behaviour and excel at what we are required to do”, (Judge, 2006). But what does this mean? Surely, we all know how to behave? Our behaviour is defined by what we do, how we react, how we respond in any particular situation. it is essence how we come across to others. it is the basis of how people interact.  Work imposes its own demands and we are not there just to give expression to our own personality. After all, we are well being paid for what we do.“The three key features of team functioning Cohesion, Confrontation and Collaboration”, (KumariS,2016).

“Much research has been undertaken into identifying and defining personality types, personal styles, and behaviour with associated theories and models but none has had more of an impact than Belbin’s team role theory over the last 30 years”, (Bell,2013, p.45). “The effectiveness of a team is described in management literature in terms of two aspects: performance and viability” (Sundstrom, 1990).In this particular report, the focus has been on analysing Belbin team role and dynamics about the operations in a construction team.It is the process of identifying the skills and abilities of an individual as a leader or managing team within a workplace. “There are certain characteristics associated with Belbin team role which one way or the other depicts the behavioural characterises of a particular individual”, (Somerville, J. and Dalziel, S., 1998). This has been described in detail here under.

A BRIEF OF TEAM ROLE

The project that I refer to throughout this study is related to private sector, Krishna Lila Theme park, An initiative of ISKCON Bangalore.and it was a construction project. I was a working as an Intern Engineer which was for a short period of 90 days. I was given responsibility of working with three different departments. Architect, facility department and quantity surveying department. The project is a construction of a theme park and one of the tallest structure in South India.The Krishna Lila Theme Park is a magnificent cultural complex being set up at Vaikuntha Hill, a 28-acre hillock on Kanakapura Road, Bengaluru for the presentation of the message and pastimes from the great epics of India. The project will become yet another important cultural and religious tourism destination in Bengaluru with the characteristics and societal benefits as any other tourism project.

A CRITICAL AND EVALUATIVE REFLECTION REGARDING THE ACCURACY OF YOUR BELBIN SPI REPORT

In order to understand my role in the construction project, a Belbin Team Role Self Perception Report (BTRSPI) was undertaken. It has provided me valuable understanding about my role in construction project environment. It should me my personal strength, weakness and areas of development. The following figure demonstrates my team role from lowest to highest.

Table 1: Team roles in order from highest to lowest

From the Belbin Team Role Self Perception Report, the above graph shows that my key roles are Completer finisher, Plant and Implementer at highest percentile. Therefore, as a complete finisher, “I possess the great capability for follow through and consider every detail of the project”, (Morgan, C. and Neil, P., 2004). “A completer finisher is one who cannot start anything which seems that he will be unable to complete”, (Belbin, R.M., 2012.). “Completer finisher has a great capacity for flow through and attend detail and are unlikely to start anything that they cannot finish”,(Belbin, R.M., 2012.). I am also influenced by inner concern. Basically, I am reticent person in nature and I need some little external motivation in order to act. I like to handle my job myself with least support.

My second preferred role in a construction project plants. It signifies that I am quite innovative in nature.“Plant are those individuals who provide seeds and ideas from which major developments spring”, (Belbin, R.M., 2012). “They are independent, clever and original and may be weak in communication with other people on a different wave length”, (Belbin, R.M., 2012). I can give new ideas for the project improvement. One key weakness I found in myself is, I am quite exposed to be mentally emotional towards criticism. My thoughts might be far-reaching, but it lacks practical construction.

My third important role in the construction project is implementer. Implementer on a wider front is a typically a person whose loyalty and interest lie with the company and who is less concerned with the pursuit of self-interest, however“Implementers may lack spontaneity and shows sing of rigidity”, (Belbin, R.M., 2012.).I prefer to deal with problems methodically and by working harder. I am also loyal and not concerned with by self-desire. Nevertheless, one key weakness of me is I’m somewhat impulsive. Slow to respond to new possibilities.

The three least important roles in a construction project areteam worker, specialist, and coordinator. That means I cannot perform effectively within a team. I am incapableof adjusting with different culture,circumstances and people. I am also shy in nature and less sociable (Tennant, 2001). This characteristic at times hinders me to perform towards mutual objectives. I’m unable to recognise and utilise individual talents inside a group. I also have average technical abilities and specialized knowledge.

It is believed that the perception of team member and their role has a certain influence on the performance of team. Every team member including myself has certain roles. Combining this role has helped me to identify the key positivestrengths and weaknesses in me. The BTRSPI is combined with four observer assessments as being representative of ISKCON construction team. “Belbin theory clusters behaviour in to nine preferred team roles and identifies the strength of these roles by collective observers”.((Belbin, 2017).

Table 2 : Team role contribututions in conparsion to my observor’s view and the table shows percentile scores for Self- Perception and Observers

The Belbin team role report contains a team role over view of assessments, a comparison of self and observer perceptions ( Table 2 ); an analysis of team role composition ( Table 2); a team role preference identifying “ least preferred”, manageable role” and “ preferred roles” ; team role feedback advising on managing behaviour within a team; team role strengths and possible weakness assessments; feedback and development suggestions; and suggested work styles combining behavioural traits of the top three team roles. Combining the response from them has provided the overall team composition of me which is demonstrated below:

Table 3 : Overview of team role as seen by me and my observers.

“The behavioural analysis contained within the report is the basis for the critical self-reflection and self-evaluation of behaviour and team role contribution”,(Watt, A., 2013) with in the ISKCON project.

In accordance Belbin theory with the self-perception evaluation and role preferences within a team , three key roles can be identified which are least preferred roles, manageable roles, and preferred roles. “The preferred roles are regarded as such behaviors which are often and naturally demonstrated by me”, “The manageable roles are those roles, which are not my natural activities, but I can perform them if necessary and can also develop”, Finally, “the least preferred role is those roles which are not commenced by me and are totally my opposite type”, (Earley&Bubb, 2004).

Table 4: Percentile scores of each team role

From the above table 4, it can be observed that my two preferred roles are a team worker and complete finisher. The report is based on self-perception. Therefore, it can be stated that my role is invaluable in those tasks of the construction project which necessitate close concentration and high level of accuracy, such as designing, creating budget, facility managing, etc.

PROJECT TEAM DYNAMICS

“Projects occur on many occasions whether it is in education or in professional life”, (Bortolotti,2006). “Projects come in a range of different shapes and sizes, and can vary from the simple and straight forward to the highly complex”, (Wellington,2012). “Team approaches that can work for a set of people,may not work for others”, (Miriam Schwarz,1999). Unable to identify team dynamics in the project can restrict the team performance and may lead to failure.

“Stage theories, Project development theories and cyclic theories are the three main perspectives of team development”, (Abudi, G., 2010). Tuckman & Jensen (1965) group development model included four stages. They later added the 5th stage. “Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning are the stage group development models developed by Tuckman and Jensen. Our construction project team has also gone through these five phases. These developed modelsexplain out how each member will fit into the group by exposing the strengths and weakness of each group member. This phase is characterized by anxiety and excitement. The next stage is storming which relates to disagreement as the initial politeness disolves: inner group conflicts; resolution of which paves way for norming (Fall & Wejnert,2005). In this phase, the members begin to push against the limitations established in the storming phase.The 3rd phase, Norming where the team members are able to better comprehend each other and start to socialize. They are able to request for assistance freely and give a positive response. Norming leads to next phase performing, where the group members focus on completing the task. Since team members are able to better comprehend each other, they also start to socialize, able to request for assistance freely and give a positive response. After the 4th phase is completed,Adjourning the is the final phase, which allows for the dissolution of the group. I believe that group development plays a vital role for groupefficiency and productivity.

FIG 1.1 Stages of group development

Creating effective team comprise describing clear objectives, dependencies, and responsibilities. During my course of work, I observed that projects got a better outcome when it has informal environment and is inspired by every individual to involve in team discussions, describe apparent goals, concerning the viewpoints of others, reached decisions through consensus, permissible difference and made proper tasks. When teams act cohesively, they are not preoccupied with small arguments. Team dynamics necessitate more commitment. When a team member feels worthy his morale and self-confidence increases. Therefore, the senses more commitment to the project and is probably to contribute more discussions, task achievement, and other project functions. An optimistic team environment basically results in making the members empowered. They become much comfortable to take planned risks and finding creative solutions to complex issues.

Proper team dynamics necessitate a low level of conflict.” Team members who disregard each other tend to concentrate on differences rather than unites”,(Tanapan Lapluea,2015).Different cultural backgrounds and experiences can result in making judgments and jumping into inaccurate assumptions. “Creating an atmosphere where employees can flourish without disagreements involves enhancing the team dynamics so that team members attend to each other, give value to individual knowledge and consider other viewpoints before making a decision”. (Resolving Team Conflict: Building Stronger Teams by Facing Your Differences, 2017). Team creating functions allow team members to understand each other. These enhances communication inside a team. This creates a platform for less team conflicts and more effective performance.Trust is another vital factor for team dynamics. Creation of trust necessitates time. Team members can resist to reveal their drawbacks and hide defects.

A Critical and Evaluative Reflection of Perceived Group/Team Dynamics.

Personally, I have worked within a particular team dynamics within the construction industry for a short period. It was a quite a learning experience for me both for my academics and my professional level together. It has been noted that,In order to ensure proper establishment of one’s own personal depiction is mainly characterised by the manner one gets exposed to the practical oriented learning environment. My association with ISKCON’s Krishna Lila Theme park was one of the key experience of my personal goals.I as an individual was quite appreciative towards making sure that there is a wider range of understanding gained from particular work or profession at large. This aspect can further be justified from the fact that when there is a willpower towards a particular profession, one needs to make sure all might and support need to be attained towards assuring that the individual is focusing on meeting all the requirement of the profession indeed. For me as an individual working in team during my internship gave me a larger exposure to work in teams, as “team members is required to play their roles dynamically in order to supplant the roles and functions of the missing members … this phenomenon can be designated as team dynamics”, (Leung, Chan and Lee, 2003, p84) gave me opportunity to think spontaneously in absence of team members. In this process of working as an intern engineer, I was able to note that my association with the team was a learning experience especially in terms of getting practical experience from a industry oriented practices. There has been a wide range of individualistic approach and leadership scope from the end of an individual indeed. These skills I have further attributed from this particular study can further be linked with the overall results of my Belbin team role altogether. Therefore,it can be understood that in process of working in a team, there is a scope for an individual to get wider understanding of his/her own roles and responsibilities.It must also be mentioned that similar to that of various goals along with team roles associated with a particular work process of the workplace, Belbin team roles are also provided or allotted to an individual on the basis of key skills and abilities especially working in a team. In terms of my association with the construction team for the 90 days in concern, I can be able to determine that there needs to be a wide range of physical and financial attributes that needs to be considered by an individual in the process of working within a particular team altogether. The abilities of an individual with in a team acts as a major role in meeting towards long and short term goals of the company.

Pritchard and Stanton (1999, p652), citing Torrington et al (1985) suggest both task oriented and social/emotional oriented behaviours are needed for a team to be effective, identifying certain behaviours as disruptive demonstrated by shutting others out or blocking which reflects the behaviour.

This attributes of me while working as an intern engineer in ISKCON, within in the team can be compared with Belbin report I have received. There are certain key roles of Belbin that can be linked to my personal skills and abilities as an individual altogether. Some of the key roles as per Belbin results that match me individually comprise of Completer finisher, Plant and implementer. As depicted earlier my association with the team of the ISKCON was mainly comprised of allocating resources for facility managing and delegating roles and responsibilities to the other team members. I must also have mentioned that during the course of my association with the team I was quite efficient in my role of Plant and Implementer as I was quite efficient in terms of understating and identifying the skills and abilities of the team altogether. This further helped me to be extremely efficient in understanding the responsibilities to a considerable extent altogether to both my academics as well as professional carrier. Apart from that my Belbin team role also comprise of a Completer Finisher where I was quite efficient in understanding my key roles and likewise operating in a manner where I could be able to work for the best interest of the overall project altogether. Hence, I can be able to affirm that there are indeed certain Belbin team roles that certainly links with me individually.

CONCLUSION

From the overall analysis, the certain key conclusion can be made with regard to the topic of the study, which will further certainly enable me to make sure that I can present my learning and reflection my experience in a comprehensive manner altogether. In this regard, I must be able to mention that there has been a wide range of studies conducted in terms of how personal and professional development is necessary for the development of an individual indeed. I have widely discussed in this reflection report about I have personally and professionally developed myself when I worked for the construction company. In this regard, for this particular study, I have also mentioned how some of the key Belbin roles suits me with regard to my association with the construction company in this particular study altogether. Hence, I can be able to conclude in this reflection report that Team worker and resource allocator are among the key attributes that influence me on a personal level altogether with regard to the Belbin results obtained at large.

REFERENCES:

Abudi, G., 2010. The Five Stages of Team Development: A Case Study. Retrieved from.

Belbin. (2006). Team Roles in a Nutshell. [Online] Available at: http://www.belbin.com/media/1336/belbin-for-students.pdf [Accessed March 31, 2017].

Belbin, R.M., 2012. Team roles at work. Routledge.

Belbin, R.M. (2015) Belbin Team Role Report for Michael Needham: Northumbria University mathematics and information Sciences.

Blickle, G., Schlegel, A., Fassbender, P. and Klein, U., 2006. Some personality correlates of business white‐collar crime. Applied Psychology55(2), pp.220-233.

Bortolotti, L. and Mameli, M., 2006. Deception in psychology: Moral costs and benefits of unsought self-knowledge. Accountability in research13(3), pp.259-275.

Dulewicz, V., 1995. A validation of Belbin’s team roles from 16PF and OPQ using bosses’ ratings of competence. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology68(2), pp.81-99.

Fall, K.A. and Wejnert, T.J., 2005. Co-leader stages of development: An application of Tuckman and Jensen (1977). The Journal for Specialists in Group Work30(4), pp.309-327.

Gareth Bell, I., 2013. Teamwork makes the team work: An interview with Dr Meredith Belbin. Human Resource Management International Digest21(2), pp.45-47.

Inoue, Y., Funk, D.C., Wann, D.L., Yoshida, M. and Nakazawa, M., 2015. Team identification and postdisaster social well-being: The mediating role of social support. Group dynamics: theory, research, and practice19(1), pp.31-44.

Judge, T.A., LePine, J.A. and Rich, B.L., 2006. Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self-and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology91(4), pp.762-775.

Lapluea, T. (2017) Story Behind Success: Challenges and Issues in Globally Distributed Teams, Academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/208552/Story_Behind_Success_Challenges_and_Issues_in_Globally_Distributed_Teams (Accessed: 5 May 2017).

Leung, S.H., Chan, J.W. and Lee, W.B., 2003. The dynamic team role behavior–the approaches of investigation. Team Performance Management: An International Journal9(3/4), pp.84-90.

Miriam Schwarz, M.P.A., RRA, S.E.L. and John, E.R., 1999. A team approach to quality improvement. Fam PractManag6(4), pp.25-30.

Morgan, C. and Neil, P., 2004. Continuing professional development for teachers: from induction to senior management. Routledge.

Paul, R., 1995. Critical thinking: How to prepare students for a rapidly changing world. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Ponari, M., Trojano, L., Grossi, D. and Conson, M., 2013. “Avoiding or approaching eyes”? Introversion/extraversion affects the gaze-cueing effect. Cognitive processing14(3), pp.293-299.

Prichard, J.S. and Stanton, N.A., 1999. Testing Belbin’s team role theory of effective groups. Journal of Management Development18(8), pp.652-665.

Rajendran, M., 2005. Analysis of team effectiveness in software development teams working on hardware and software environments using Belbin Self-perception Inventory. Journal of Management Development24(8), pp.738-753.

Resolving Team Conflict: Building Stronger Teams by Facing Your Differences (2017) Mindtools.com. Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_79.htm (Accessed: 5 May 2017).

Sundstrom, E., De Meuse, K.P. and Futrell, D., 1990. Work teams: Applications and effectiveness. American psychologist45(2), p.120.

Tuckman, B.W., 1965. Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological bulletin63(6), p.384.

Tuckman, B.W. and Jensen, M.A.C., 1977. Stages of small-group development revisited. Group & Organization Studies2(4), pp.419-427.

Watt, A., 2013. The project life cycle (phases). A. Watt, Project management, pp.1-173.

Wellington, P., 2012. Managing Successful Teams (Vol. 45). Kogan Page Publishers.

## Civil Engineering homework help

1 | P a g e

Def ect w a st e p ro b le m i n t he co nst ruct io n I nd ust ry ! ! !

Collapse of buildings

Source Aljazeera News, 2019

Student Number: W19042969

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE18ST, United

Kingdom

2 | P a g e

onstruction defect can be defined as a fault in design, the worship and material system which leads to project failure.

Collapse of buildings

Source: (Aljazeera News, 2019))

C

Generally, defects occur as a result of failure to follow required guidelines resulting to

financial, property and personal damages as argued by Robson, (2015). Construction defects

are usually hard to identify since only experts can analyze when a procedure is not correctly

followed (Waziri, 2016).

Types of construction defects

Design defects

Errors in designing

Source:(Katume, 2017))

Design defects occurs when engineers and architects make errors when

planning on how facilities are going to be constructed. The most likely losses

errors that might occur includes the water penetration plan, poor draining

(Cogurcu2015).

3 | P a g e

Material defects

Material defects in projects

Source: (Hazem, 2017)

Workmanship

Source:(Levelset,2018)

Material defects occurs when inferiorproducts are

used during the construction. The material used in

construction projects is based on the requirement of

the end products. the higher the quality of the end

product, the higher the material quality that should

be used. The use of inferior products means that the

buildings and infrastructures cannot last for long

period ((Tayeh, et, al, 2017)

The interpretation of designs is important for the safety of the

occupants and users of buildings. Workmanship is a scenario

where construction is not undertaken as per the directions of the

designers. It results from misinterpretation of designs and pans

leasing to poor quality of buildings (Bagdiya&Wadalkar,2015)

4 | P a g e

How defects lead to wastages in the construction industry

Effects of defects in construction

Source:(LMT,2018)

In construction works, defects must be corrected otherwise, they might lead to greater losses in

future. The wastage in defects comes as a result of additional work that needs to be performed to

correct defects that are noted.

Financial wastages

Financially, organizations are forced to use more funds to undertake repairs as a result of additional

work to mend the effects of defects. Since projects are run under strict budgets, there is need for

project managers to ensure that the actual expenses do not exceed the budget. However, it is

difficult for project managers in construction project to ensure that budget is actualized since more

resources will be allocated in order to amend the defects.

Human resource wastage

In terms of human resources, organizations are made to committee more employees for repairs as

opposed to using the employees in undertaking other important stages of the projects. In presence of

defects in construction projects hence means that employees will be used to undertake repeat tasks

rather than undertaking progress tasks and advancing the projects (Dey, et al., 2017).

Time wastage

Construction projects are undertaking in consideration with a time plan. This means that project

managers are required to follow the project plans in order to deliver each milestone at the right

time. However, the presence of defects in the projects is likely to lead to delays in the process of

project management (Gulghane&Khandve, 2015). Since defects have to be solved immediately,

they are realized, time is used when trying to redo the work. This leads to time wastage and project

delay. Milestones cannot be reached at the required time since employees have to concentrate in

amending the defects to reduce risks of losses and accidents upon completion of the project (Tejale,

et al., 2015).

Material wastages

Before the commencement of projects, engineers and designers guide the

project managers in terms the required material when undertaking the

construction works. The control of material used is important as it ensures

that cost is controlled (Arshad, et al., 2017). However, defects call for

unplanned material to be used when redoing the construction work in order

to fix errors that occurred. This hence might lead to demolition of some

parts as the project managers try to fix problems associated with defects.

This results to the excess use of material than the planned for hence leading

to increase in project cost (Udawatta, et al., 2015)

5 | P a g e

Causes of defects in construction industry

Fishbone image of causes of defects in the construction industry

Source:(Ilie&Ciocoiu, 2010)

Generally, the causes of defects can be categorized in to six components as shown in the

above fishbone diagram.

Material

Material challenges that might lead to defects includes poorly stored material. Construction

material needs to be stored in a good manner that will minimize chances of destruction. Such

material includes metal which needs to be stored in places with less moisture to avoid

rusting. Other material such as cements, ballast and stones need to be safely stored in order

to avoid breakages and destruction by water as argued by (Jingmond&Ågren, 2015). The use

of expired material is also a challenge in the construction management and is likely to lead to

defects in the final products. such material includes paints, cements and other manufactured

commodities used in construction work. This is likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

Composition of components used in the building process might lead to defects in case

measurements are not done in the required way. A perfect example is the mixture of ballast,

sand and cements. Failure to ensure that material is well balanced is likely to lead to defects

in the buildings the use of expired material is also a challenge in the construction

management and is likely to lead to defects in the final products. such material includes

paints, cements and other manufactured commodities used in construction work. This is

likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

Measurement

Measurement in the building process is determined by the lay out designs. Workmanship is

very important when it comes to putting the layout design in to actuality. There is need to

ensure that scaling and estimations are done well to reduce chances of defects in size and

length (Choudhry, et al., 2017).

Machine

Machines are likely to lead to defects in case there is power failure. Such incidence might

cause delay and destruction. Human error where employees are required to feed the

machines might lead to the wrong results hence defects in the projects. There is also a risk in

wrong feed rate since construction machines depends on the instruction given by the

Employees

Generally, human aspects in the construction project is important since projects

are realized through the human resource efforts. However, defects might result

from inadequate training of the employees where they take a job without full

knowledge of what is required of them. The risk of human error is also likely to

lead to defects (Gamil& Rahman, 2017).

Environment

Environment in which buildings are established is likely to affect the

construction work.

Subsurface Moisture Incursion might affect the strength of buildings in terms of

its strength. This is likely to lead to defects following cracks as a result of excess

moisture (Ye, et al., 2015). Weaknesses of soil is likely to lead to Foundation

Displacement which might also result to cracks and need to rework. Insufficient

climate control such as the failure to protect building site from excess water from

rain, non-regulated sunshine among other factors might also lead to defects

(Aljassmi, et al., 2016).

6 | P a g e

Methods

Poorly design methods are likely to mislead engineers in their construction works. This hence makes it a risky affair as use of such designs might lead to defects. On the other hand,

project plan that does not in to consideration all activities in to place is likely to lead defects since some activities might be skipped (Asgari&Rahimian, 2017).

The case study of Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse.

ne other greatest disaster ever seen in the construction industry is the collapse of Sampoong Department Store(Fay, 2019). The main cause of the collapse as per the reports by

investigators was because of poor planning, poor material of construction and poor design. This case led to the death of five hundred pole most of them being workers(Fay,

2019).Human ignorance and greed were the major reasons for the errors that occurred during the construction causing massive losses. This shows how failure to consider important

aspects during construction could lead to, massive losses(Fay, 2019).

Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse

Source, Great Disasters

O

From the case study above, it is hence observable that

Financial wastages

Human resource wastage, Time wastage, Material wastages

are experienced since the building caused losses of lives,

time to evacuate the affected and the waste of human

resources who were engaged in building process(Fay, 2019)..

Solutions to the defect wastage problem

Employee training

Through employee training, employees will be able to understand their

roles in the construction. They will also be able to understand the most

important activities and how to undertake them. As a result, there will

be a decline in chances of making errors hence minimizing defects in

construction industry (Hanaysha, 2016).

Employee training

Source: (Andriotis, 2018)

7 | P a g e

Expert consultation

There is need to consult experts in every stage of construction. The project managers should work together with the external experts in order to ensure that all activities are undertaken in

accordance with the plan and quality needed. The experts will help in checking gaps that might lead to defects in constructions (Elziny, et al., 2016).

Proper Environmental analysis

Experts consultation Collapse of buildings

Source: (Reporting, 2019) Source:(Pentago,2018)

Proper project management strategies

Project management process

Source:(Kerzner,2018)

In order to reduce chances of defects caused

by environment, the construction engineers

should study environmental factors such as the

surface level of water, the probability of

having earthquakes among other factors before

settling on the site. This will help to reduce the

probability of occurrence of a defect as a result

of occurrence of an environmental risk (Tixier,

et al., 2016).

Project management process

Source: (Kerzner, 2017)

Proper planning of activities is important in ensuring that there is a

good procedure followed. Through strategic project management, the

project managers are going to ensure that there is no omission of

important activities in construction hence reduce chances of defects in

building (Kerzner, 2017).

8 | P a g e

References

Aljassmi, H., Han, S. and Davis, S., 2016. Analysis of the complex mechanisms of defect generation in construction projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(2), p.04015063.

Aljazeera News. 2019. Four killed in Taiwan building collapse after quake. [Online]. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/02/hotel-collapses-taiwan-major-earthquake-180206171245403.html (Accessed

on 8/4/2020).

Andriotis, N. 2018. 5 Popular Employee Training Methods for Workplace Training. [Online]. Available at: https://elearningindustry.com/how-choose-training-methods-for-employees (Accessed on 8/4/2020).

Arshad, H., Qasim, M., Thaheem, M.J. and Gabriel, H.F., 2017. Quantification of material wastage in construction industry of Pakistan: An analytical relationship between building types and waste generation. Journal

of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2), pp.19-34.

Asgari, Z. and Rahimian, F.P., 2017. Advanced virtual reality applications and intelligent agents for construction process optimisation and defect prevention. Procedia engineering, 196, pp.1130-1137.

Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

Choudhry, R.M., Gabriel, H.F., Khan, M.K. and Azhar, S., 2017. Causes of discrepancies between design and construction in the Pakistan construction industry. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2),

pp.1-18.

Cogurcu, M.T., 2015. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, 15(4).

Dey, S., Manikanda Prabhu, S. and Siva Subramani, G., 2017. Identification and mitigation of factors affecting human resource productivity in construction. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology,

8(1), pp.123-131.

Elziny, A.A., Mohamadien, M.A., Ibrahim, H.M. and Fattah, M.A., 2016. An expert system to manage dispute resolutions in const ruction projects in Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 7(1), pp.57-71.

Gamil, Y. and Rahman, I.A., 2017. Identification of causes and effects of poor communication in construction industry: A theo retical review. Emerging Science Journal, 1(4), pp.239-247.

Gulghane, A.A. and Khandve, P.V., 2015. Management for construction materials and control of construction waste in construction industry: a review. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,

5(4), pp.59-64.

Hanaysha, J., 2016. Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229(298-306), pp.298-306.

Hazem, Z. 2017. Construction defect management – Risk analysis of causes and effects. [Online]. Available at: https://www.planradar.com/construction-defect-management-risk-analysis-and-effects/(Accessed on

8/4/2020)

Ilie, G. and Ciocoiu, C.N., 2010. Application of fishbone diagram to determine the risk of an event with multiple causes. Management research and practice, 2(1), pp.1-20.

Jingmond, M. and Ågren, R., 2015. Unravelling causes of defects in construction. Construction Innovation.

Katume, N. 2017. 3 Ways to avoid Construction Defect Claims. CR. [Online]. Available at: https://constructionreviewonline.com/2017/09/3-ways-to-avoid-construction-defect-claims/(Accessed on 8/4/2020)

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Level set. 2018. Defects in Construction: How to Identify and Avoid Them [Online]. Available at: https://www.levelset.com/blog/construction-defects/ (Accessed on 9/4/2020).

LMT. 2018. Waste of Defects; causes, symptoms, examples and solutions. [Online]. Available at: https://leanmanufacturingtools.org/129/waste-of-defects-causes-symptoms-examples-and-solutions/(Accessed on

8/4/2020).

Pentago, C. 2018. Strategies You Need for Successful Project Management. [Online]. Available at: https://www.business2community.com/strategy/3-strategies-need-successful-project-management-01926965

(Accessed on 8/4/2020).

Reporting MD. 2019.expert consultation importance.[Online]. Available at: https://reportingmd.com/mips-2019-are-you-in-or-out-macra-exemptions-thresholds-and-eligibility/expert-consultation-3/ (Accessed on

8/4/2020).

Robson, P.E.B., 2015. Structural repair of traditional buildings. Routledge.

Smart Bricks. 2018. Construction Defect – Here Is One Ultimate Guide. [Online]. Available at: https://gosmartbricks.com/construction-defect-here-is-one-ultimate-guide/(Accessed on 8/4/2020).

Tayeh, B.A., Al-Hallaq, K., Yusuf, M.O. and Sabha, F.A., 2017. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school buildings in Gaza Strip. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school

buildings in Gaza strip, 5(01).

Tejale, D.S., Khandekar, S.D. and Patil, J.R., 2015. Analysis of construction project cost overrun by statistical method. International Journal, 3(5), pp.349-355.

Tixier, A.J.P., Hallowell, M.R., Rajagopalan, B. and Bowman, D., 2016. Automated content analysis for construction safety: A natural language processing system to extract precursors and outcomes from unstructured

injury reports. Automation in Construction, 62, pp.45-56.

Udawatta, N., Zuo, J., Chiveralls, K. and Zillante, G., 2015. Improving waste management in construction projects: An Australian study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 101, pp.73-83.

Waziri, B.S., 2016. Design and construction defects influencing residential building maintenance in Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 10(3).

Ye, G., Jin, Z., Xia, B. and Skitmore, M., 2015. Analyzing causes for reworks in construction projects in China. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6), p.04014097.

Fay, K. 2019.The Sampoong Department Store Collapse. Great disasters. [Online]. Available at: http://www.greatdisasters.co.uk/the-sampoong-department-store-collapse/ (Accessed on 5/6/2020)

## Civil Engineering homework help

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Environment

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 4

Coursework Specification

1 Module Information
1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery

1.2 Module Code Number KB7039

1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits

1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 02

1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 60%

1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem

1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton

1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2019-20 Semester 2 only

2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students W/c 27th January 2020

2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP

2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students 11:59 pm 12th May 2020

2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP

2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students 9th June 2020

2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to
Students eLP

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 4

3 Assessment Details
3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

What will I be expected to achieve?

Knowledge & Understanding:

MLO1 – Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the work-based practice through the analysis and
evaluation of research-based theory and relevant case studies, by formulating solutions to the effective
and efficient delivery of construction engineering projects.

Intellectual / Professional skills & abilities:

MLO2 – Critically evaluate innovative approaches to product, process and services delivery in
construction engineering through consideration of theory and practice.

Personal Values Attributes:

MLO3 – Formulate strategies for improvement within the global construction engineering industry to
demonstrate cultural, ethical and sustainable awareness.

3.2 Coursework Overview
There are two assessed pieces of work in this module, which are connected and will allow the you to
show a progression of learning within the module. The second component requires the you to consider
existing problems related to waste in the construction industry. Once the you have selected a single
problem and can define the problem, you need to critically analyse the potential solutions formulated from
the module and provide considered solutions to the problem, with clear links between the problem and
the potential solutions.

3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
You will produce an individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding
front page, Content page and Reference List). The illustrated journal needs to include all of the following:

1. Select a construction industry problem related to forms of waste discussed during the module, including a
short description and a statement that clearly and concisely defines the scope of the problem.

2. Justify (through industry and academic literature) why this is a problem, who the problem affects, and the
impact of the problem.

3. Critically analyse possible solutions to the problem from learning during this module AND independent
research.

4. Provide a visual illustration that links the problem to the solutions, i.e. fishbone diagram or another suitable
visual tool.

5. A visual improvement model which summarises HOW the problem can be solved.
6. The illustrated journal should use an effective combination of text AND images to provide an interesting and

visually engaging document. All images should be relevant and of an appropriate size and quality.

The illustrated journal should include cited, good quality academic literature, as well as industry
best practice. The content should be guided by the learning outcomes, the marking criteria and the
learning from this module.

3.4 Expected Size of Submission
An individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding front page,
Content page and Reference List). If more than 6 pages of content are provided, only the first 6 pages will
be marked and assessed.The illustrated journal is to include approximately 50% text (using font size 10)
and approximately 50% images.

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 3 of 4

3.5 Referencing Style

You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system.
An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:

https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

3.6 Assessment Criteria
Quality of presentation (including the ability to generate audience interest) 10%
Depth of analysis of the industry problem 30%
Analysis of possible solutions 40%
Ability to relate the problems to the solutions (visual illustration) 10%
Clarity and relevance of the model. (Visual model to represent solution) 10%

4 Referral

The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards
Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to
undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled
sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your
programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.

5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy

(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy

(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 4 of 4

KB7039 Construction Project Planning and Delivery – Assignment 2 [to be marked out of 100% and converted]
Name ………………………………… Mark:

OUTCOMES I CAN’T BELIEVE
IT!

[ 100%]

WOW! [ 85%] DISTINCTIVE [ 75%] COMMENDABLE [
65%]

PASS [ 55%] FAIL [ 45%] POOR FAIL [ 0%]

Quality of
presentation
(including the ability
to generate
audience interest)
10%

This work is of
outstanding quality
and has surprised
the markers.

Shows deeper learning
than would normally be
expected.

Excellent and very
clear with few
problems.

Very good and
reasonably clear with
some problems.

Quite a few problems
but overall the

Too many problems so
the presentation was
unclear.

Very poor with little
ability to express the
ideas in a clear and
interesting manner.

Depth of analysis of
the industry
problems
30%

A good attempt with
few mistakes – the
student clearly
understands the
problems.

A good attempt with
some mistakes – the
student’s
understanding is
generally good

Some attempt with
some mistakes – the
student’s
understanding is
acceptable.

Little attempt with
many mistakes – the
students show little
understanding.

Very little effort has
gone into this – the
student shows no real
understanding.

Analysis of possible
solutions
40%

The student has an
excellent grasp of
possible solutions.

The student has a
good grasp of possible
solutions although
there are some minor
problems.

The student does not
fully grasp the
solutions but there is
some merit in what is
said.

The student is not able
to analyse solutions
though there is
evidence of a fair
attempt.

The student has little
or no grasp of the
issues.

Ability to relate the
problems to the
solutions (visual)
10%

Solutions are clearly
problems.

Solutions arise from
problems in most
instances although
there is some lack of
clarity.

solutions and problems
but the work lacks
depth.

Evidence of only
surface understanding

Little evidence of ability
to derive the solutions
from the problems.

Clarity and
relevance of the
improvement model
10%

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
excellent with few
problems.

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
good though there are
a few problems.

The clarity of
expression and
cogency of the
argument are generally
acceptable but there is
some confusion.

The work lacks clarity
and cogency – difficult
to follow

The work is confusing
and has little merit.

Feedback – 3 areas of good practice, 3 areas for potential improvement:

• 1 Module Information
• 1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery
• 1.2 Module Code Number KB7039
• 1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits
• 1.4 Module Leader Hazel Ponton
• 1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 02
• 1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 60%
• 1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem
• 1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton
• 1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2019-20 Semester 2 only
• 2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
• 2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students W/c 27th January 2020
• 2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP
• 2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students 11:59 pm 12th May 2020
• 2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP
• 2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students 9th June 2020
• 2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students eLP
• 3 Assessment Details
• 3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework
• 3.2 Coursework Overview
• 3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
• 3.4 Expected Size of Submission
• 3.5 Referencing Style
• 3.6 Assessment Criteria
• 4 Referral
• 5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

## utility and decisions

If we have a utility function that translates from dollars to utility, how do we use it in making a decision? The idea of utility is that it should help us choose among alternatives with uncertain outcomes—that is, alternatives that are risky—by capturing our attitudes toward risk. If I were risk neutral and willing to make decisions based on expected monetary value, my decision trees should use expected money as the criterion for the best alternatives. Utility theory says that I should be using expected utility as the criterion in order to capture what for most of us is risk aversion.

Consider an investment decision. You have three choices: (1) a high-risk investment, (2) a low-risk investment, or (3) keeping your money in the bank without risk. If the market goes “up,” the high-risk investment returns \$1500 but the low-risk investment only returns \$1000. Similarly for the other uncertain outcomes shown in the decision tree below. The market can go up, down, or stay the same. The bank account is unaffected by the market. The corresponding probabilities of each outcome are shown. The expected monetary values (EMV) of the three alternatives are +\$580, -\$200, and \$500, respectively.

 Dollar value Utility \$1500 1.00 1000 0.86 500 0.65 200 0.52 100 0.46 -100 0.33 -1000 0.00

The table on the right-hand side are the utility values you have assessed for yourself. What is your best alternative from an expected utility perspective? Compare this with the best alternative from EMV. Explain the difference, if any.

## Risk transfer

Explain the purpose of reinsurance including, spreading risk, capacity, financial security, and capital management. Explain the difference between reinsurance and retrocession. Discuss alternatives to conventional reinsurance. Limit your answer to one page.

Here you also have an opportunity to earn extra credit. Select whether you want three (3) extra points or six (6) extra points added to your final score. You will receive what you choose.

 Which do you want? ☐ Six points ☐ Three points ☐ None (I refuse to play) But! There is a small catch: if more than 15% of the class (3 people) select six points, then those who do choose six points will get minus 2 points, and those who choose three points will get minus 1 point. Please don’t communicate your choice to others in the class! That would be cheating. Explain your analytical thinking (this accounts for the original 33 points of this problem … the +3 or +6 are in addition). John von Neumann, the father of Game Theory, Utility Theory, and Monte Carlo Simulation Method

Draw on the many things you learned this semester in ENCE 627 to structure your argument.

Among whatever else you include, please cite considerations of …

· Human or psychological factors,

· Probability estimates and calculations,

· Risk and decision analysis, and

· Risk management factors

which form the basis for your thinking and how they influenced each of your decisions.

Be specific. Cite concepts and references as needed to support your argument. Show your calculations.

High Risk

Low Risk

Bank

Up

Down
Same

Up

Down
Same

0.5

0.3

0.2

1500

100

– 1000
1000

200

– 100

0.5

0.3

0.2

500

580

-200

500