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________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HBS Professor Michael Beer and Sunru Yong prepared this case solely as a basis for class discussion and not as an endorsement, a source of
primary data, or an illustration of effective or ineffective management.

This case, though based on real events, is fictionalized, and any resemblance to actual persons or entities is coincidental. There are occasional
references to actual companies in the narration.

Copyright © 2008 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685,
write Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. This publication may not be digitized,
photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School.

M I C H A E L B E E R

S U N R U Y O N G

TerraCog Global Positioning Systems:
Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial

Emma Richardson squinted at the TerraCog GPS (Global Positioning System) prototype in her
hand. She zoomed in until the display showed a clearer satellite photo of the lake 200 feet in front of
her and into which her Labrador had already happily bounded. Most weekends, Richardson made
the hike to the lake to clear her mind and, on occasion, to test new GPS models from her employer,
TerraCog, Inc. Unfortunately, with the “Project Aerial” launch meeting scheduled for the next day, it
was difficult to enjoy this particular hike. Emma wondered how to get all parties to reach an
agreement on the price point for Aerial. TerraCog had started losing share to a competitor, Posthaste,
and it was imperative to get the new product to market.

Arriving at the lake, Richardson gave in to the urge to check her phone and grimaced as she
noticed two new voicemails. The first message was from Allen Roth, the director of design &
development (see Exhibits 1 and 2 for an organizational chart and brief biographies of key
managers):

“Emma, it’s Allen. Listen, Tony and I have been over these cost numbers on Aerial.
We cut all that we could and we ended up with only a 7% or 8% reduction to cost.
Unfortunately, I don’t think this will get us to the price point that Sales is looking for.
But I don’t need to remind you that we gave Sales the features and functionality they
wanted in Aerial, so I’m not going back now to ask my team to do the impossible. We’ll
hash it out tomorrow, but I figured it best you hear it from me.”

The second message was from her boss, Richard Fiero, the company president:

“Emma, I wanted to check on Aerial. I heard grumbling from Ed and the sales team
on Friday. They seemed frustrated with Tony Barren’s production team. Make sure
Production has its act together. Tony should know he’s on thin ice after the recent

2 1 8 4
A P R I L 1 1 , 2 0 0 8

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production fiasco on that sonar project—he’s got to succeed on Aerial. We need to have
Aerial on shelves at the start of Q3. Some board members are worried, so Aerial will be
near the top of the agenda at the board meeting next month.”

Neither message was encouraging. The Aerial meeting the next day, involving the sales, design &
development, and production departments, was now guaranteed to be contentious.

It was March 2008—only two months since Richardson had been promoted to executive vice
president. Fiero had tasked her with moving TerraCog toward greater operational alignment and
increasing cross-departmental cooperation. Richardson had already been tested by both inventory
problems and quality issues, which had led to significant tension between the U.S. headquarters in
Chicago and the production team in Shenzhen, China. Now, disagreement over the proposed price
point for Aerial threatened to derail the launch of the prototype in her hand.

Company and Industry History
TerraCog was a privately held company specializing in high-quality Global Positioning System

(GPS) and fishing sonar equipment. Founded in 1977, TerraCog got its start manufacturing high-end
sonar equipment for serious sport fishermen and boaters. In the late 1990s, the company had
introduced its first GPS products, marketed specifically to hunters, hikers, and campers.

Management believed that it was the company’s skill at translating retailer and user feedback into
exceptional product design and functionality that fueled the growth of its GPS business. Through
attentive channel management and, as Fiero put it, “a deep understanding of what specialty retailers
needed,” TerraCog had developed strong relationships with its key accounts. Fiero also believed that
TerraCog’s grasp of its consumers’ preferences and usage had given it an edge over GPS
manufacturers whose core business was in automotive applications. The firm had built its GPS line
for the serious outdoor enthusiasts’ market, and the products had won plaudits for durability and
value-added features like the integrated compass and barometric altimeter. Moreover, industry
reports indicated that the TerraCog GPS outperformed competing products on navigation.
TerraCog’s proprietary firmware—a custom computer program embedded into hardware that “ran”
functions—optimized the GPS chipset’s Wide Area Augmentation System capability, which provided
more precise navigation.

The company was not always first to market. In fact, TerraCog had found it was free to lag in
technological innovation with little risk because, when the company finally introduced new products,
they surpassed those of competitors in addressing customer needs. Customer word-of-mouth
recommendations had given TerraCog strong momentum with its handheld GPS. In early 2007,
TerraCog prepared to enter new, underserved GPS sub-markets, including cycling and fitness
applications.

“Google Earth™ for your GPS”
At the Summer 2006 Outdoor Retailer Show—the biggest trade show for vendors of outdoor

goods—a competitor, Posthaste, had unveiled a GPS prototype called “BirdsI” that displayed satellite
imagery. The imagery was not live, but rather static satellite photographs that had been “stitched”
into a single view. This was a marked improvement on the simple, vector-based graphics used by the
rest of the industry (see Exhibit 3 for a comparison). This did not impress the TerraCog team. The
imagery was crisp and had a certain visual appeal, but TerraCog’s research showed that BirdsI

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technology did not offer substantive performance improvement over the standard maps in
TerraCog’s GPS system. Furthermore, the TerraCog team was convinced that Posthaste’s receiver
lagged TerraCog’s product in both accuracy and reception quality.

While the TerraCog team dismissed the Posthaste concept, a number of key buyers and product
reviewers found it an exciting innovation. One magazine reviewer observed, “Imagine having
Google Earth™ built into your GPS—it’s much more compelling to look at an actual satellite image
than to have yellow for land, blue blobs for water, and grey squiggles for roads.” Based on the buzz,
TerraCog’s executives debated whether to upgrade to satellite imagery. However, they realized that
adding the feature to the existing GPS platform required upgrades to processor speed and memory,
as well as new firmware. After some deliberation, the company dropped the idea as a non-essential
fad. TerraCog’s management remained confident that the company’s core customers were discerning
purchasers who would value durability and performance over dressed-up graphics.

In October 2006, with much fanfare, Posthaste introduced BirdsI as “the only handheld GPS with
satellite imagery.” BirdsI had an exclusive launch at two major national outdoor retailers, both of
which were key accounts for TerraCog. Within two months, TerraCog’s sales representatives in the
field reported impressive sell-through rates for BirdsI nationwide. While the product’s success
surprised TerraCog, management attributed it to the ebullience of the holiday shopping season. The
TerraCog team was confident that the popularity of BirdsI wouldn’t last.

Project Aerial

However, by spring 2007 TerraCog’s sales reps were noticing increasing customer demand for a
GPS with satellite imagery like BirdsI. Ed Pryor, vice-president of sales, began pressing for a reversal
of the decision not to develop the product. “It’s embarrassing to have no answers for our retailers
when they ask for our version of this,” he said. “Look at it from our perspective. We’ve changed the
compensation plan for the whole Sales team—including me—so we take a real hit if we don’t reach
our sales targets. Customers now want something different, and I can’t tell my reps we have no
plans to develop the product they need to hit those targets.” In response to these repeated requests,
TerraCog’s president, Richard Fiero, changed his mind on satellite imagery, if only to satisfy the
“gadget” appeal of such an innovation. The initiative was dubbed Project Aerial. In order to speed
development and avoid the costs of new moldings and major reconfiguration, the team decided to
redesign within the existing GPS platform.

Shortly after making the decision to proceed with Aerial, Fiero and Pryor met with Allen Roth,
director of design & development. Roth brought his key managers to the meeting: Cory Wu, who
oversaw software and firmware, and Alice Gorga, who managed hardware design.

RICHARD FIERO: Allen, we’re obviously in a hurry to get to market. But we don’t want something
slapped together – let’s make sure we get this product completely right the first time. Our reputation
for quality is paramount.

ALLEN ROTH: Understood. Are we including all the same features that we have in our current
GPS line?

ED PRYOR: Yes. We plan to offer Aerial at approximately a $50 retail premium to the current top-
of-the-line GPS, so it’s important to maintain the same high-end functionality.

ALLEN ROTH: What about speed? Satellite imagery requires a lot of processing power, so without
some serious juicing, Aerial might run slower than you’d like.

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ED PRYOR: I think we’ll be okay there, Allen. Our consumers are tech-savvy—they know there’s an
inherent trade-off to get more sophisticated graphics.

As the meeting ended, Roth indicated that they would have to do some careful planning to keep
costs as low as possible, but he was sure the product design could be completed by year’s end. At
that point, they could hand it off to production to develop detailed cost estimates, which would allow
the sales team, in consultation with finance, to determine pricing and develop a go-to-market plan.
Given the manufacturing lead-time, TerraCog expected to get Aerial to stores by the 2008 holiday
season (see Exhibit 4 for timeline of events).

The product development team members did not greet the Aerial decision with enthusiasm. First,
they felt that a redesign of the total platform—including firmware, external case, internal
components, and TFT (thin-film transistor) display—was feasible if management could extend time
to market by six more months; the resulting product would be superior and the project would be
more stimulating technically to the team members. Second, they had several other ideas for new
products that they believed would position TerraCog to capitalize on growth in cycling and fitness
GPS applications, and Project Aerial was forcing them to put aside these more exciting projects.
Finally, with company co-founder Harold Whistler preparing for retirement, Roth was eager to prove
his readiness to be the next VP of design & development. The Aerial project impeded his building of
a product line he could truly call his own.

Aerial Pre-Launch Meeting

As promised, the design team completed Aerial by the end of 2007. Late in January 2008, the
production team received the design specifications it needed to establish production methods,
conduct a pilot run, and estimate costs. As the new executive vice president, Emma Richardson was
tasked with overseeing the product launch. She scheduled a launch meeting in early March with
sales, production, and design & development.

In the past, Fiero and Whistler had been very involved in new products and tended to make quick
decisions. TerraCog’s growth forced Fiero to take a step back from the launch process, while
Whistler had cut back to part-time hours. There were many more employees involved in Aerial than
in past product launches, and Richardson worried that the size of the group might threaten the focus
and thwart decision making. She needed to finalize decisions on costs, pricing, and initial production
volume.

At the start of the pre-launch meeting on March 7, Richardson looked down the table, seeing Ed
Pryor, Allen Roth, production director Tony Barren, Cory Wu representing software and firmware,
and Alice Gorga representing hardware. Richardson opened the meeting by asking Barren to present
his cost estimates. Barren looked around grimly and did not mince words: “This thing’s expensive to
build. It looks the same, but Aerial’s got higher-end components and it’s more complex to
manufacture.” He gave a high-level overview of product-cost breakdown and concluded by saying,
“I’ll be blunt. You’re going to have to sell this product for a lot more than you thought. If anything,
we have been too aggressive in our cost estimate. We can’t lower it beyond what I’ve presented.”

ED PRYOR: I know you think your estimates are sound, but that isn’t going to help us. With these
numbers, we would have to sell Aerial for $550 to maintain our margin. We’d be two years late to
market with a price point $100 over BirdsI.

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CORY WU: Tony, those cost estimates are surprisingly high. We tweaked the firmware without
overhauling it, so it’s basically the same components. It doesn’t seem justified that the costs should
come out as you say.

ALICE GORGA: I’m not sure, Cory. Those costs look realistic, given how my team upgraded the
hardware. Sales probably just needs to reconsider how to position this thing. I think —

ED PRYOR: Wait, are we here to talk about positioning or pricing? Fiero and I already figured out
how we’ll position the product, so let’s just get the pricing straightened out.

TONY BARREN: Well, we don’t perform miracles. The cost won’t change, and I’m not going to cut
corners in production. I had my head handed to me the last time we had quality issues.

ED PRYOR: Allen, your designers must be able to tweak something, right? Hate to say it, but maybe
you guys need to go back to the drawing board and figure out how to solve this problem.

ALLEN ROTH: Ed, we’re well into a couple of other projects now. Frankly, I don’t think this is
Sales’ call to make. We already put other projects on hold for Aerial, and we’ve given you what you
requested.

The discussion continued, but it became clear the group was at an impasse. Richardson suggested
ending the meeting: “Why don’t we wrap it up for now and meet again next week? In the meantime
Tony and the Design team should look for opportunities to cut these costs.”

As the meeting adjourned, Pryor announced to the room, “If we can’t lower these costs and fix the
finances on Aerial, I can’t sell it. I won’t try.”

Resumption of Aerial Pre-Launch Meeting One Week Later

Roth and Barren had spent much of the intervening week reviewing the cost estimates. When the
team re-gathered on March 14, the participants seated themselves around the conference table (see
Exhibit 5 for a seating chart). Becky Timmons, the CFO, was in attendance. At the last minute,
Harold Whistler also decided to join the meeting.

As Emma Richardson passed out copies of the new cost estimates, she explained that Roth and
Barren had agreed to make minor changes to the Aerial prototype, and that they now felt it could be
produced for approximately 8% less than the prior week’s estimate. On this basis, the Aerial could be
priced at $475, about $100 more than the current full-featured TerraCog GPS.

A long silence followed, then Cory Wu spoke up. “Eight percent—that’s all? I don’t understand it.
I’d like to know where the differences lie between our costs and PostHaste’s on BirdsI. There’s got to
be room for more cuts.”

Barren snorted derisively. “You can’t wish away the costs,” he said. “We’ve cut what we can.
Last time we got pressured into being too aggressive on cost estimates and then we got burned when
the price of plastic went through the roof. I’m not making that mistake again.”

Allen Roth concurred, pointing to the drivers of the cost increase: “Incorporating the satellite
imagery requires five times as much memory as our standard graphics. That increases cost—but if
you cut it, you undermine Aerial’s value proposition. Then we also did some reconfiguration
internally, and that increases the labor required to put one of these together.” He paused, surveying
the frustrated faces around him. “I don’t like the situation any more than the rest of you do, but

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we’ve got to be realistic. Look at the numbers in front of you—there’s nothing we can do to further
reduce costs.”

As everyone scrutinized the new cost estimates, the meeting broke into several conversations. Ed
Pryor and Richardson huddled together, while Allen Roth and Tony Barren carried on a conversation
with Harold Whistler. After several minutes, Richardson realized she needed to get the discussion
back on track. She addressed the entire group, saying, “We have the estimates, so we just have to set
a price that makes sense for the company. What do you think, Ed?”

ED PRYOR: We have to consider the selling price of the Aerial relative to competition. Posthaste is
selling at around $250 to dealers, which means they retail for around $400. Garmin just announced
their satellite-image version, which will hit shelves at somewhere around $395 MSRP. You all are
talking about $475 retail, and that’s too high. We have to be in the ball park with our list price or we’ll
be shut out of the game.

EMMA RICHARDSON: What should list price be?

ED PRYOR: $425 tops—but we should be lower than that if we are going to be aggressive at
recapturing lost share. Let’s not kid ourselves. The way we’re trending, same-store sales will be
down 10% this year. And this is with the GPS handheld market growing.

HAROLD WHISTLER: What if we relax our margin requirements for once?

BECKY TIMMONS: Absolutely not. We’re cutting it close already.

HAROLD WHISTLER: Okay, then how about a redesign? Let’s go to market with what we have,
and I’ll have my team take another look at possible changes that we can incorporate later.

ALLEN ROTH: I’m afraid that’s wishful thinking, Harold. Given the product requirements the sales
team called for, the cost is as low as it will get.

CORY WU: I don’t know about that. The changes we made to meet sales’ requirements were not
enormous. Why would they contribute to such a large increase in projected labor costs?

TONY BARREN: Cory, you and Harold can run the numbers for yourself. Then you’ll see that these
high costs are real.

BECKY TIMMONS: I’d still feel more comfortable if we could price it at $500 retail. With fuel costs
still rising, the cost to get these here from Shenzhen will only increase, and we run the risk of our
margins really getting squeezed.

ED PRYOR: Becky, you don’t understand how competitive this market is! Even at $475, why would
anyone give us shelf space? We are late to market and we’d be pricing at a substantial premium.
And is the product superior enough to justify that premium? I’ve been trying out our prototypes and
I’m concerned about the speed. The update speed is terrible, and switching between functions is
just —

ALLEN ROTH: Come on, don’t start talking speed now. We were clear from the start that we would
trade some speed to get new functionality and features.

ED PRYOR: Well, my sales managers are going to be fuming. Fiero told them Aerial would be
available at $400, and now you are talking about a minimum of $75 more than that. I still want to see
Cory or Harold take a crack at reducing unit cost.

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Emma Richardson took a deep breath. The company needed a “go/no-go” decision on the
existing Aerial, and whether to do so at a competitive price in the hope that costs might be cut in the
future, or at a high price. She wondered fleetingly what the consequences might be if the company
abandoned Aerial altogether. As things stood, the arguments and finger-pointing were bound to
continue, and the group would never come to a decision on its own.

Richardson would have to push them to one.

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Exhibit 1 TerraCog Management Organization Chart, 2008

President
Richard Fiero

CFO
Becky Timmons

VP, Sales
Ed Pryor

VP, Design &
Development

Harold W histler

Executive VP
Emma Richardson

Director,
Production

Tony Barren

Regional Sales
Managers

Director, Design
& Development

Allen Roth

Manager,
Software &

Firmware Design
Cory W u

Manager,
Hardware Design

Alice Gorga

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Exhibit 2 TerraCog Management Bios (in alphabetical order)

Tony Barren, Director of Production—Barren joined TerraCog as Director of Production in 2002
and spends half of his time onsite at the production facility in Shenzhen, China. Prior to TerraCog, he
was the Purchasing Manager for Markham Instruments. Barren graduated with a BS in Electrical
Engineering from Rutgers University.

Richard Fiero, President—President since 1992, Fiero began his career at TerraCog Inc. in sonar
equipment sales in 1985. He has a BS in Business Administration from Notre Dame.

Alice Gorga, Manager, Hardware Design—Gorga joined TerraCog after leaving Apple to move
closer to her family in the Midwest. Gorga graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design with a
degree in Industrial Design.

Ed Pryor, VP of Sales—Pryor started at TerraCog as a National Account Manager in 2000 and
became VP of Sales in 2006. Before joining the company, he was a category manager for camping
gear at REI. Pryor has a BA in History from UCLA.

Allen Roth, Director of Design & Development—Roth joined TerraCog in 2003 after working in
product development at Suunto, Motorola, and Research in Motion. He has a degree in Industrial
Design from Northwestern University and an MBA from USC.

Emma Richardson, Executive Vice President—Richardson was promoted to Executive VP since
January 2008. She began her TerraCog career in 1996 and has worked in both Sales and Production.
She was instrumental in shifting production from Taiwan to Shenzhen, China. Richardson has an
MBA from the University of Michigan.

Becky Timmons, CFO—Timmons was promoted to Controller in late 2007. She has been in the
Accounting department at TerraCog since 1993. Timmons is a CPA and graduated from the
University of Illinois with a degree in Accounting.

Cory Wu, Manager, Software & Firmware Design—Wu has been in software development at
TerraCog since 1998, and he was promoted to Manager in early 2007. He graduated from the
University of Wisconsin with a BS in Computer Science.

Harold Whistler, VP of Design & Development—Whistler was a co-founder of TerraCog in 1977.
His background in engineering and design enabled him to develop much of the company’s key sonar
equipment products in the 1980s. Since 1991, Whistler has served in a supervisory and advisory role
for the Design & Development team.

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Exhibit 3 Comparison Screen Shots

Posthaste BirdsI

TerraCog GPS

Exhibit 4 Timeline of Events

20
06

Q3 Q4

20
07

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

20
08

Q1 Q2 Q4Q3

BirdsI
prototype

introduced at
2006 OR Show

BirdsI holiday
2006 launch

Aerial project
launched

Design and
development

of Aerial

Aerial
completed

and passed to
Production

Planned Aerial
holiday 2008

launch

20
06

Q3 Q4

20
07

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

20
08

Q1 Q2 Q4Q3

BirdsI
prototype

introduced at
2006 OR Show

BirdsI holiday
2006 launch

Aerial project
launched

Design and
development

of Aerial

Aerial
completed

and passed to
Production

Planned Aerial
holiday 2008

launch

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Exhibit 5 Seating Chart at Resumption of Pre-Launch Meeting, March 14, 2008

Harold Whistler
(Vice President,

Design & Development)

Tony Barren
(Director of
Production)

Allen Roth
(Director of Design &

Development)

Cory Wu
(Manager, Software &

Firmware Design)

Absent: Alice Gorga (Manager, Hardware Design)

Becky Timmons
(CFO)

Emma Richardson
(Executive

Vice President)

Ed Pryor
(Vice President

Sales)

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  • Structure Bookmarks
    • TerraCog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial
    • Company and Industry History
    • “Google Earth™ for your GPS”
    • Project Aerial
    • Aerial Pre-Launch Meeting
    • Resumption of Aerial Pre-Launch Meeting One Week Later
    • Exhibit 1 TerraCog Management Organization Chart, 2008
    • Exhibit 2 TerraCog Management Bios (in alphabetical order)
    • Exhibit 3 Comparison Screen Shots
    • Exhibit 4 Timeline of Events
    • Exhibit 5 Seating Chart at Resumption of Pre-Launch Meeting, March 14, 2008

Article

Using a credible source, locate a journal article about budgeting. In the subject line of your post, include the name of the article that you read. Then, in your initial post, provide a link to the article and a summary followed by your reaction to the article. The summary should be approximately 250 words and the reaction should be approximately 150 words. The summary should describe the major points of the article, and the reaction should demonstrate your interpretation of the article and how you can apply that knowledge. Do not choose an article that one of your classmates has already posted. To participate in follow-up discussion, choose one of the articles that a classmate has posted and provide your own reaction to it. 

    • 5

    article

    For this article review, you will locate a peer-reviewed article from a scientific journal in the field of psychology based on information from any of the chapters you have read for Test #1. The article must be based on an original scientific study that contains a clear methods and results section. It should not be a review paper, opinion paper, or article from a magazine. Articles should be recent, published in the last ten years.

    Please provide the following elements in your review:

    1) A paragraph or two summarizing the article including:

    a. the objectives of the study (why did the authors conduct the study and what was their research hypothesis?)

    b. a brief description of the methods used (number of subjects, procedure)

    c. an overview of the results obtained

    2) A paragraph explaining how the authors interpreted the results and what the author(s) concluded from the results.

    3) A paragraph describing your reaction to the study.

    a. Do you have any criticisms or ideas about how the study could have been better?

    b. What does the article contribute to cognitive psychology?

    c. How are the findings relevant to our lives?

    article

    Chapter 1

    Introduction to Cognitive Psychology

    The Complexity of Cognition

    • Cognition involves
    • Perception
    • Paying attention
    • Remembering
    • Distinguishing items in a category
    • Visualizing
    • Understanding and production of language
    • Problem solving
    • Reasoning and decision-making
    • All include “hidden” processes of which we may not be aware

    The Complexity of Cognition

    • Cognitive Psychology
    • The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind
    • Cognition refers to the mental processes, such as perception, attention, and memory, that are what the mind does

    Some Questions to Consider

    • How is cognitive psychology relevant to everyday experience?
    • Are there practical applications of cognitive psychology?
    • How is it possible to study the inner workings of the mind when we can’t really see the “mind” directly?
    • How are models used in cognitive psychology?

    History of Psychology

    • Plato (424 – 327 BC)
    • Greek philosopher who took a rationalist approach to knowledge.
    • Believed that the route to knowledge was through logical analysis, instrospection and contemplation
    • Look up, not out for answers
    • Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    • Plato’s student who took the empirical approach to knowledge.
    • Believed that the truth is uncovered only through experience and by careful observation of the external world
    • Look out, not up for answers

    Plato on left, Aristotle on right

    Psychology in the Middle Ages

    • Body is a machine.
    • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    • Invented analytic geometry.
    • First to contribute to the science of psychology.
    • “I think therefore I am”.
    • Interactive dualism
    • The mind and body are independent but interact through the pineal gland.
    • Body is material (involuntary); mind is immaterial (voluntary)
    • Ideas are innate. Humans are born with instincts.

    History of Psychology

    • Nature vs. Nurture
    • Heredity vs. Environment
    • John Locke (1632-1704)
    • Rejected notion that ideas are innate.
    • Mind is a tabula rasa.
    • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
    • We may not be blank slates but we also do not come into the world fully prepared.

    History of Psychology

    Psychology today is or strives to be a synthesis of the two approaches

    without theories, hypotheses, and ideas – what do we do with our empirical observations (data)?

    conversely, we can’t just rely on inference, conjecture, or what we think about the way things are – we need empirical observations (data)!

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Donders (1868)
    • How long does it take for a person to make a decision?
    • Reaction-time (RT) experiment
    • Measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Donders (1868)
    • Simple RT task:
    • When you see a light appear, press the button.
    • Choice RT task:
    • When you see a light on the left side appear, push the left button.
    • When you see a light on the right side appear, push the right button.
    • Reaction time is how fast the participant pressed the button after the light came on.

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    *

    ● FIGURE 1.2 A modern version of Donders’ (1868) reaction time experiment: (a) the

    simple reaction time task; and (b) the choice reaction time task. In the simple reaction time

    task, the participant pushes the J key when the light goes on. In the choice reaction time

    task, the participant pushes the J key if the left light goes on and the K key if the right light

    goes on. The purpose of Donders’ experiment was to determine

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    *

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Donders (1868)
    • How long does it take to make a decision?
    • Choice RT – Simple RT = Time to make a decision
    • Choice RT = 1/10th sec longer than Simple RT
    • 1/10th sec to make decision
    • Mental responses cannot be measured directly but can be inferred from the participant’s behavior

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Wundt (1897)
    • Founded the first psychology laboratory
    • University of Leipzig, Germany
    • Also did Reaction Time experiments

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Wundt (1897)
    • Approach
      Structuralism: experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations
    • Our experience of things includes it’s color, taste, structure, smell, sound, etc.
    • Sensations combine to tell us what the experience or object is.
    • Method
      Analytic introspection: participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Ebbinghaus (1885/1913)

    How long does it take us to forget something we learn?

    • Read list of nonsense syllables aloud many times to determine number of repetitions necessary to repeat list without errors

    NAD, TOC, RET, CAK, ZIF, etc.

    One list may have 20 of these. One list may have 50 of these.

    Sometimes he recalled them immediately; sometimes after a 1 hour delay. After a delay there always some forgetting.

    • After some time, he tried to relearn the list and found that:
    • Short intervals = fewer repetitions to relearn
    • Learned many different lists at many different retention intervals

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • Ebbinghaus (1885/1913)
    • Savings = (Original time to learn the list) – (Time to relearn the list after a delay)
    • Savings curve shows savings as a function of retention interval

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    *

    FIGURE 1.5 Ebbinghaus’s savings (or

    forgetting) curve. Taking the percent savings as a

    measure of the amount remembered, Ebbinghaus

    plotted this against the time interval between

    initial learning and testing.

    (Source: Based on data from Ebbinghaus, 1885/1913.)

    William James’s Principles of Psychology

    • James was an early American psychologist who taught the first psychology course at Harvard University.
    • His observations were based on the functions of his own mind, not experiments.
    • He considered many topics in cognition, including thinking, consciousness, attention, memory, perception, imagination, and reasoning.
    • Was particularly interested in attention, noting that we are barraged with sensations and experiences all day but not all of them are remembered. Why? We don’t pay attention.

    Criticism of the Study of the Mind

    • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • His contribution was one of the most important ever made to psychology.
    • Not a psychologist but a physiologist.
    • Said of psychology “… it is still open to discussion whether psychology is a natural science, or whether it can be regarded as a science at all.”
    • How can we have a “science” if we are studying something like the “mind”.

    Criticism of the Study of the Mind

    • Pavlov discovered classical conditioning.
    • Pair a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome
    • After many pairings, the “neutral” event now also produces the outcome
    • See this video for an explanation.
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRrBsoU3PVI
    • Showed that we can only study behavior, not mental processes.

    The First Cognitive Psychologists

    • John Watson was very influenced by Pavlov.
    • He noted two problems with Wundt and James’ approaches:
    • Extremely variable results from person to person
    • Results difficult to verify
    • Invisible inner mental processes

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    • Watson proposed a new approach called behaviorism
    • The goal was to eliminate the mind as a topic of study.
    • Instead, study directly observable behavior because that is all we can know for sure.
    • We can never know what another person is thinking unless they tell us, and even then they could be lying.
    • Said psychology has failed to establish itself as a natural science.
    • Believed psychology should be a truly experimental discipline that studied only observable phenomena.
    • Rather than you tell me that you are nervous, I would observe your behavior (finger tapping, nail-biting, sweating, heart rate, etc.).

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    • Watson and Rayner (1920) – “Little Albert” experiment
    • Classical conditioning of fear
    • They hypothesized that if a stimulus that automatically produces a certain emotion such as fear is repeatedly experienced at the same moment as something else, that stimulus will eventually become a conditioned stimulus for the fear.

    Little Albert was a physically and psychologically healthy little boy borrowed from an orphanage at the age of 9 mo.

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    Several items were presented to Little Albert

    white rat, rabbit, dog, fur coat

    mask with and without hair

    He initially had no fear of any of the objects.

    So then they started scaring him after showing him the object

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    • Albert was very afraid of loud noise.
    • Following a loud noise he began to cry.
    • The Rat (neutral stimulus) or other objects was presented to Albert followed by loud noise.
    • After 7 pairings, the rat began to elicit fear and crying.
    • He used this study to show that what was going on in the babys’ mind was irrelevant. You only had to observe behavior.
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI

    =

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    • B.F. Skinner (1940s through 1960s)
    • Interested in determining the relationship between stimuli and response
    • Operant conditioning
    • Shape behavior by rewards or punishments
    • Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to be repeated
    • Behavior that is punished is less likely to be repeated

    The Rise of Behaviorism

    The Reemergence of the Mind in Psychology

    • Tolman (1938) trained rats to find food in a four-armed maze
    • The first time they took a long time to find the food; after several trials they would run directly to the food
    • Two competing interpretations:
    • Behaviorism predicts that the rats learned to “turn right to find food”
    • Tolman believed that the rats had created a “cognitive map” in their mind of the maze and were navigating to a specific arm

    The Reemergence of the Mind in Psychology

    • Tolman (1938)
    • What happens when the rats are placed in a different arm of the maze?
    • The rats didn’t just turn right from where they were.
    • They navigated to the specific arm where they previously found food.
    • Supported Tolman’s interpretation
    • Did not support behaviorism interpretation

    The Reemergence of the Mind in Psychology

    *

    The Decline of Behaviorism

    • A controversy over language acquisition
    • Skinner (1957) – Verbal Behavior
    • Argued children learn language through operant conditioning.
    • Children imitate speech they hear
    • Their mom says “Mama” to them.
    • If the baby repeats it she screams in delight and says “Good boy” or “good girl”.
    • Correct speech is rewarded.

    The Decline of Behaviorism

    • Chomsky (1959)
    • Argued children do not only learn language through imitation and reinforcement
    • Children say things they have never heard and can not be imitating
    • Children say things that are incorrect and have not been rewarded for
    • I runned away (instead of ran).
    • He taked it away from me (instead of he took it away).
    • Language must be determined by inborn biological program

    Studying the Mind

    • So how can we study the unobservable mind?
    • To understand complex cognitive behaviors:
    • Measure observable behavior
    • Make inferences about underlying cognitive activity
    • Consider what this behavior says about how the mind works

    The Cognitive Revolution

    • Shift from behaviorist’s stimulus-response relationships to an approach that attempts to explain behavior in terms of the mind

    A new device was invented…..…..the computer!

    This changed the way people thought about information processing

    people started talking about the mind in computer terms:

    input, encoding information, storing information ~ memory store, & output

    information codes: representing information as symbols

    limitations in processing capacity

    The Cognitive Revolution

    • Early computers (1950s) processed information in stages
    • Information-processing approach
    • A way to study the mind created from insights associated with the digital computer

    The Cognitive Revolution

    • Cherry (1953)
    • “Dichotic” listening
    • Present message A in left ear
    • Present message B in right ear
    • To ensure attention, focus attention on only one message
    • Participants were able to focus only on the message they were focusing attention on.

    The Cognitive Revolution

    The Cognitive Revolution

    • Broadbent (1958)
    • Flow diagram representing what happens as a person directs attention to one stimulus
    • Unattended information does not pass through the filter

    The Cognitive Revolution

    *

    FIGURE 1.9 (a) Flow diagram for an early computer.

    FIGURE 1.9 (b) Flow diagram for Broadbent’s filter model of

    attention. This diagram shows that many messages enter a “filter”

    that selects the message to which the person is attending for

    further processing by a detector and then storage in memory. We

    will describe this diagram more fully in Chapter 4.

    The Cognitive Revolution

    Artificial Intelligence and Information Theory

    • Artificial Intelligence
    • “making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving.” (McCarty et al., 1955)
    • attempts to construct machines that show intelligence
    • revealed that there are many different types of intelligence
    • designed computer chess games that have “intelligence”
    • Newell and Simon created the logic theorist program that could apply rudimentary logic to creating mathematical theorems

    Artificial Intelligence and Information Theory

    Although the mind / computer analogy was beneficial, it soon became clear that computers and humans do not process information the same

    • When it comes to this problem, 123,456,789 X 987,654,321, the computer has the advantage
    • -When it comes to recognizing a familiar face, humans have the advantage

    Modern Research in Cognitive Psychology

    • How research progresses from question to question
    • Start with what is known
    • Ask questions
    • Design experiments
    • Obtain and interpret results
    • Use results as the bases for new research questions and experiments

    The Role of Models in Cognitive Psychology

    • There are two kinds of models to be aware of:

    Structural Models

    Process Models

    Structural Models

    • Representations of a physical structure
    • Mimic the form or appearance of a given object

    Structural Models

    Process Models

    • Represent the processes that are involved in cognitive mechanisms, with boxes usually representing specific processes and arrows indicating connections between processes

    Process Models

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    Chapter 2

    Cognitive Neuroscience

    Some Questions We Will Consider

    • What is cognitive neuroscience, and why is it necessary?
    • How is information transmitted from one place to another in the nervous system?
    • How are things in the environment, such as faces and trees, represented in the brain?
    • What does studying the brain tell us about cognition?

    Cognitive Neuroscience

    • The study of the physiological basis of cognition
    • Involves an understanding of both the nervous system as well as the individual units that comprise that system

    “The brain is the last and greatest biological frontier… the most complex thing we have yet discovered in the universe.”

    James Watson,

    co-discoverer of the structure of DNA

    Cognitive Neuroscience

    Levels of Analysis

    • We do not examine topics of interest from a single perspective, but rather we look at them from multiple angles and different points of view
    • Each “viewpoint” can add small amounts of information which, when considered together, leads to greater understanding

    Building Blocks of the Nervous System

    • Neurons: cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit information in the nervous system
    • Each neuron has a cell body, an axon, and dendrites

    Nerve Nets

    • The interconnections of neurons create a nerve net, which is like a continuous network that is similar to a highway
    • One street connects to another but without stop signs
    • This allows for almost nonstop, continuous communication of signals throughout the network
    • Contradicted by the neuron doctrine
    • Ramon y Cajal
    • Individual nerve cells transmit signals, and are not continuous with other cells

    Nerve Nets

    *

    Building Blocks of the Nervous System

    • Cell body: contains mechanisms to keep cell alive
    • Dendrites: multiple branches reaching from the cell body, which receives information from other neurons
    • Axon: tube filled with fluid that transmits electrical signal to other neurons

    Building Blocks of the Nervous System

    *

    Building Blocks of the Nervous System

    • Sensory Neurons
    • Take info to the brain
    • Motor Neurons
    • Take info away from the brain
    • Interneurons
    • Take info between sensory and motor neurons

    How Neurons Communicate

    • Action potential
    • Neuron receives signal from environment
    • Information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of another neuron
    • Measuring action potentials
    • Microelectrodes pick up electrical signal
    • Placed near axon
    • Active for ~1 second

    How Neurons Communicate

    *

    How Neurons Communicate

    • Measuring action potentials
    • The size is not measured; size remains consistent
    • The rate of firing is measured
    • Low intensities: slow firing
    • High intensities: fast firing

    How Neurons Communicate

    *

    How Neurons Communicate

    • Synapse: space between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another
    • Neuron makes chemicals.
    • Neuron transports chemicals to the synaptic vesicles for storage.
    • Action potential causes release of chemicals.
    • Neurotransmitters attach to receptor sites on postsynaptic membrane.
    • Neurotransmitters split and are destroyed or taken up by membrane.

    How Neurons Communicate

    Representation in the Brain

    • Hubel & Wiesel (1960s)
    • won a Nobel Prize in 1981 for their work on neuronal firing.
    • Feature detectors: neurons that respond best to a specific stimulus
    • In the video presented below, an anesthetized cat is shown features. The clicking sound you hear is the sound of a neuron firing.
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jw6nBWo21Zk

    • The simple neuron fires only when it sees a diagonal line in the exact space and orientation on the screen.
    • The complex neuron fires to the vertical line only as right to left movement is detected, but not when it’s still.
    • Some neurons are sensitive to which direction the line goes in.
    • The hypercomplex cell responds only when the light moves a certain direction and only when it is a dot of light and not a line.

    Representation in the Brain

    Hierarchical Processing

    • When we perceive different objects, we do so in a specific order that moves from lower to higher areas of the brain
    • The ascension from lower to higher areas of the brain corresponds to perceiving objects that move from lower (simple) to higher levels of complexity

    *

    Representation in the Brain

    • Specificity coding: representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus
    • Some people call this the grandmother neuron; it responds when you look at your grandmother
    • Population coding: representation of a particular object by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons
    • Sparse coding: when a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons remaining silent

    Representation in the Brain

    Representation in the Brain

    Representation in the Brain

    Localization of Function

    • Specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain
    • Cognitive functioning breaks down in specific ways when areas of the brain are damaged
    • Cerebral cortex (3-mm thick layer that covers the brain) contains mechanisms responsible for most of our cognitive functions

    Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

    0

    *

    *

    Localization of Function: Perception

    • Primary receiving areas for the senses
    • Occipital lobe: vision
    • Parietal lobe: touch, temperature, pain
    • Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell
    • Coordination of information received from all senses
    • Frontal lobe

    Localization of Function: Language

    • Language production is impaired by damage to Broca’s area
    • Frontal lobe
    • Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wernicke’s area
    • Temporal lobe

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2IiMEbMnPM

    Localization of Function: Language

    Double Dissociation

    • When damage to one part of the brain causes function A to be absent while function B is present, and damage to another area causes function B to be absent while function A is present
    • Allows us to identify functions that are controlled by different parts of the brain

    Organization: Brain Imaging

    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • Powerful magnet runs down the tube alongside of the body
    • Hydrogen atoms are realigned on same axis in pulses
    • As pulse turns off, atoms return to natural alignment and release energy which is recorded by machine
    • Computer processes signal and produces an image
    • Tissues low in water appear lighter in color and tissues higher in water appear darker in color
    • Functional MRI (fMRI)
    • Same as MRI but also tracks blood flow and oxygen levels
    • Provides info over seconds rather than minutes
    • http://screen.yahoo.com/new-york-times/mapping-highways-brain-113257410.html

    Brain Imaging: Evidence for
    Localization of Function

    • Fusiform face area (FFA) responds specifically to faces
    • Found in the temporal lobe
    • Damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces)
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kviA4w4i-VA
    • Parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds specifically to places (indoor/outdoor scenes)
    • Found in the temporal lobe
    • Extrastriate body area (EBA) responds specifically to pictures of bodies and parts of bodies

    Brain Imaging: Evidence for
    Localization of Function

    Distributed Representation in the Brain

    In addition to localization of function, specific functions are processed by many different areas of the brain

    Many different areas may contribute to a function

    May appear to contradict the notion of localization of function, but the two concepts are actually complementary

    Distributed Representation in the Brain

    Neural Networks

    Groups of neurons or structures that are connected together

    • 100 billion neurons in the brain
    • 10-100 trillion synapses
    • In cerebral cortex
    • 10-30 billion neurons
    • Each has 10,000-15,000 connections

    = 1 million billion connections in this area alone

    Can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

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    Chapter 3

    Perception

    Some Questions to Consider

    • Why can two different people experience different perceptions in response to the same stimulus?
    • How does perception depend on a person’s knowledge about characteristics of the environment?
    • How does the brain become tuned to respond best to things likely to appear in the environment?
    • How are perception and memory represented in the brain?

    Perception Is…

    • Experience resulting from stimulation of the senses
    • Basic concepts
    • Perceptions can change based on added information
    • Involves a process similar to reasoning or problem solving
    • Perceptions occur in conjunction with actions

    *

    Perception Is…

    • It is possible that true human perceptual processes are unique to humans
    • Attempts to create artificial forms of perception (machines) have been met with limited success, and each time have had problems that could not be solved

    *

    Why Is It So Difficult to
    Design a Perceiving Machine?

    • Inverse Projection Problem
    • Refers to the task of determining the object responsible for a particular image on the retina
    • Involves starting with the retinal image and then extending outward to the source of that image
    • The brain easily recognizes this as the page of a book, even though it could be many different things.
    • Machines have trouble knowing what it is given the possibilities.

    *

    • Objects can be hidden or blurred
    • People can often identify objects that are obscured and therefore incomplete, or in some cases objects that are blurry
    • The human brain handles this, machines have trouble.
    • Objects look different from different viewpoints
    • Viewpoint invariance
    • The bicycle looks different.
    • Then human brain handles this easily, machines have trouble.

    Why Is It So Difficult to
    Design a Perceiving Machine?

    Approaches to Understand Perception

    • Direct perception theories
    • Bottom-up processing
    • Perception comes from stimuli in the environment
    • Parts are identified and put together, and then recognition occurs
    • Constructive perception theories
    • Top-down processing
    • People actively construct perceptions using information based on expectations

    The Complexity of Perception

    • Bottom-up processing
    • Perception may start with the senses
    • Vision, heating, taste, smell, touch
    • Incoming raw data
    • Energy registering on sensory neurons and receptors
    • Top-down processing
    • Perception may start with the brain
    • Person’s knowledge, experience, expectations

    0

    The Complexity of Perception

    The Complexity of Perception

    *

    Hearing Words in a Sentence

    • When you hear words in a sentence spoken in a foreign language, your ability to pick out or understand certain words based on context demonstrates top-down processing (e.g., listening to a baseball game that is broadcast in Spanish may make it easier to hear players names or certain “baseball-related” words)
    • Speech segmentation
    • The ability to tell when one word ends and another begins

    Experiencing Pain

    • Direct Pathway model
    • An early model that emphasized nociceptors that would send pain messages directly to the brain
    • A bottom-up processing model

    More recent models have found that expectations, attention, and distraction can affect how we experience pain in a “top-down” manner

    Helmholtz’s Theory Of
    Unconscious Inference (~1860)

    • Top-down theory
    • Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment
    • We use our knowledge to inform our perceptions
    • We infer much of what we know about the world
    • Likelihood principle: we perceive the world in the way that is “most likely” based on our past experiences

    Helmholtz’s Theory Of
    Unconscious Inference (~1860)

    Perceptual Organization

    • “Old” view – structuralism
    • Perception involves adding up sensations
    • “New” view – Gestalt psychologists
    • The mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization

    Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

    • Law of good continuation
    • Lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path

    Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

    • Law of pragnanz (simplicity or good figure)
    • Every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible

    Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

    • Law of similarity
    • Similar things appear grouped together

    Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

    Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization

    • Gestalt laws often provide accurate information about properties of the environment
    • Reflect experience
    • Experience is important but does not overcome perceptual principles
    • Gestalt laws are intrinsic

    Physical Regularities

    • There are certain characteristics of the environment that occur frequently
    • There are more vertical and horizontal orientations than angled or oblique
    • Oblique effect
    • People can perceive verticals and horizontals more easily than other orientations
    • Light-from-above assumption
    • Light comes from above
    • Is usually the case in the environment
    • We perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance

    Physical Regularities

    *

    Semantic Regularities

    • The meaning of a given scene is related to what is happening within that scene, and semantic regularities are the characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes.
    • A scene schema is the knowledge of what a given scene ordinarily contains (e.g., if you think of a professor’s office, what would you expect to find/see there?)

    Bayesian Inference

    • Thomas Bayes (1701-1761)
    • One’s estimate of the probability of a given outcome is influenced by two factors:

    The prior probability (our initial belief about the probability of an outcome)

    The likelihood of a given outcome

    • These factors set up an equation, as seen in figure 3.26

    Bayesian Inference

    Neurons and the Environment

    • Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in the environment
    • Neurons become tuned to respond best to what we commonly experience
    • Horizontals and verticals
    • Experience-dependent plasticity
    • The structure of the brain can be influenced by experience
    • The brain is not fixed at birth; experience is very important and changes the brain itself throughout life.
    • Rosenzweig, Bennett, & Diamond (1972)
    • Three groups of 12 rats
    • Standard housed group
    • Impoverished group
    • Enriched group
    • Results for enriched group
    • Cerebral cortex bigger
    • Greater enzyme activity
    • More glial cells
    • Larger neurons and more chemical activity
    • Synapses 50% larger

    Neurons and the Environment

    • London taxi-drivers must show mastery of map of the city.
    • Those who pass the test develop more grey matter in the posterior hippocampus (which is involved in memory).
    • BUT, they struggle more than most drivers to adapt to changes in the road network or to driving in unfamiliar cities.

    Neurons and the Environment

    Movement Facilitates Perception

    • Movement helps us perceive things in our environment more accurately than static, still images
    • For example, a horse in the distance standing still may be more difficult to discern than the horse walking across the field
    • Walking around that same horse to see it from different angles will also facilitate accurate perception

    The Interaction of Perception and Action

    • Our actions within or upon the environment around us involve a constant stream of updating perceptions and recognition of very subtle changes

    Perception and Action: What and Where

    • What stream: identifying an object
    • Where stream: identifying the object’s location

    Perception and Action: What and Where

    *

    article

    Chapter 4

    Attention

    Some Questions to Consider

    • Is it possible to focus attention on just one thing, even when lots of other things are going on at the same time?
    • Under what conditions can we pay attention to more than one thing at a time?
    • What does attention research tell us about the effect of talking on cell phones while driving a car?
    • Is it true that we are not paying attention to a large fraction of the things happening in our environment?

    Attention

    Selective Attention

    • Ability to focus on one message and ignore all others
    • We do not attend to a large fraction of the information in the environment
    • We filter out some information and promote other information for further processing
    • Try this famous test of selective attention:
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo

    Research Method: Dichotic Listening

    • One message is presented to the left ear and another to the right ear
    • Participant “shadows” one message to ensure he is attending to that message
    • Can we completely filter out the message to the unattended ear and attend only to the shadowed message?

    Research Method: Dichotic Listening

    *

    Results of Dichotic Listening

    Models of Selective Attention

    • Where does the attention filter occur?
    • Early in processing
    • Later in processing
    • Early selection model
    • Broadbent’s filter model
    • Intermediate selection model
    • Tresiman’s attenuation theory
    • Late selection model
    • e.g. McKay (1973)

    0

    Broadbent’s Filter Model

    • Early-selection model
    • Message is filtered before incoming information is analyzed for meaning

    *

    Broadbent’s Filter Model

    • Sensory memory
    • Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second
    • Transfers all information to next stage
    • Filter
    • Identifies attended message based on physical characteristics
    • Only attended message is passed on to the next stage, allowing us to ignore unimportant and unnecessary white noise around us.

    Broadbent’s Filter Model

    • Detector
    • Processes all information to determine higher-level characteristics of the message
    • Short-term memory
    • Receives output of detector
    • Holds information for 10-15 seconds and may transfer it to long-term memory

    Broadbent’s Model Could Not Explain

    • In the dichotic listening task, if a person is asked to listen to only what comes in the right ear, they have no trouble ignoring the message coming into the left ear, unless it’s their name.
    • If they hear their name they attend to it even if they didn’t want to.
    • Cocktail party phenomenon
    • Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switch from one ear to another
    • Dear Aunt Jane (Gray & Wedderburn, 1960)

    0

    Treisman’s Attenuation Theory

    • Intermediate-selection model
    • Attended message can be separated from unattended message early in the information-processing system
    • Selection can also occur later

    Treisman’s Attenuation Theory

    • Attenuator
    • Analyzes incoming message in terms of physical characteristics, language, and meaning
    • Attended to message is let through the attenuator at full strength
    • Unattended message is let through at a much weaker strength
    • But it is still let through.

    Treisman’s Attenuation Theory

    • Dictionary unit
    • Contains words, each of which have thresholds for being activated
    • Words that are common or important have low thresholds; even a weak signal can activate that word
    • Uncommon words have high thresholds; signal must be higher (person must be paying more attention) for those words to be heard and remembered.

    Treisman’s Attenuation Theory

    *

    Late Selection Models

    • Selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after information has been analyzed for meaning
    • McKay (1973)
    • In attending ear, participants heard ambiguous sentences
    • “They were throwing stones at the bank.”
    • In unattended ear, participants heard either
    • “river”
    • “money”

    Late Selection Models

    • McKay (1973)
    • In test, participants had to choose which was closest to the meaning of attended to message:
    • They threw stones toward the side of the river yesterday
    • They threw stones at the savings and loan association yesterday
    • The meaning of the biasing word affected participants’ choice
    • Participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words
    • Here is a good video that explains all three types of theories of selective attention:
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QM3FZOR2XdA

    Load Theory of Attention

    • Processing capacity – how much information a person can handle at any given moment
    • Perceptual load – the difficulty of a given task
    • High-load (difficult) tasks use higher amounts of processing capacity
    • Low-load easy) tasks use lower amounts of processing capacity

    The Stroop Test

    • Stroop effect
    • Name of the word interferes with the ability to name the ink color
    • Cannot avoid paying attention to the meanings of the words

    The Stroop Test

    The Stroop Test

    Overt Attention

    • Eye movements, attention, and perception
    • Overt attention involves actively moving our eyes to scan a scene or situation.
    • To do this we make saccadic eye movements
    • Saccades: rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another
    • Periodically we stop on things to see if they are what we are looking for
    • Fixations: short pauses on points of interest
    • Studied by using an eye tracker

    Bottom-up Determinants of Eye Movement

    • Stimulus salience: areas that stand out and capture attention
    • Color, contrast between objects, and movement are all salient and capture our attention
    • The red apple is salient
    • Bottom-up process
    • Depends on characteristics of the stimulus
    • Color and motion are highly salient

    Top-Down Determinants of Eye Movements

    • Scene schema: knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes
    • Help guide fixations from one area of a scene to another
    • People look longer (their attention is captured and they become fixated) when something appears in a scene that is unexpected.
    • A computer printer in a kitchen.
    • Eyes movements are determined by task
    • Eyes movements preceded motor actions by a fraction of a second

    My kids like these scenes from Highlights magazine. Our attention is captured more quickly by the things that obviously don’t belong.

    Top-Down Determinants of Eye Movements

    *

    Covert Attention:
    Attention without Eye Movements

    • Covert attention occurs when we are paying attention to something but not looking at it.
    • A soccer player shooting a penalty kick will look one way but kick the other to trick the goalie to jump the wrong way for a save.
    • Precueing: directing attention without moving the eyes
    • Participants respond faster to a light at an expected location than at an unexpected location
    • Even when eyes kept fixed

    Covert Attention:
    Attention without Eye Movements

    *

    Divided Attention

    • Practice enables people to simultaneously do two things that were difficult at first
    • Schneider and Shiffrin (1977)
    • Divide attention between remembering target and monitoring rapidly presented stimuli
    • Memory set: 1-4 target characters
    • Test frames: could contain random dot patterns, a target, distractors

    Divided Attention

    *

    Divided Attention

    *

    Divided Attention

    • Automatic processing occurs without intention and only uses some of a person’s cognitive resources

    Divided Attention – Distractions
    While Driving

    • 100-car naturalistic driving study
    • Video recorders placed in cars
    • Risk of accident is four times higher when using a cell phone
    • Strayer and Johnston (2001)
    • Simulated driving task
    • Participants on cell phone missed twice as many red lights and took longer to apply the brakes
    • Same result using “hands-free” cell phone

    https://
    www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVql9kZbsd4

    Attention and Visual Perception

    • Inattentional blindness: a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived, even though a person might be looking directly at it

    Attention and Visual Perception

    *

    Object-Based Visual Attention

    • Location-based: moving attention from one place to another
    • Object-based: attention being directed to one place on an object

    Object-Based Visual Attention

    • Egly et al. (1994)
    • Participants saw two side-by-side rectangles, followed by a target cue
    • Reaction time fastest when target appeared where indicated
    • Reaction time was faster when the target appeared in the same rectangle

    Object-Based Visual Attention

    • The enhancing effect of attention spreads throughout the object
    • Attention can be based on the
    • Environment
    • static scenes or scenes with few objects
    • Specific object
    • dynamic events

    Change Detection

    • Change blindness: if shown two versions of a picture, differences between them are not immediately apparent
    • Task to identify differences requires concentrated attention and search

    Change Detection

    Change Detection

    *

    Attention and Experiencing a Coherent World

    • Binding
    • The process by which features such as color, form, motion, and location are combined to create our perception of a coherent object

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    *

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    • Preattentive stage
    • Automatic
    • No effort or attention
    • Unaware of process
    • Object analyzed into features

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    • Treisman and Schmidt (1982)
    • Participants report combination of features from different stimuli
    • Illusory conjunctions occur because features are “free floating”

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    *

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    • Focused attention stage
    • Attention plays key role
    • Features are combined
    • Treisman and Schmidt (1982)
    • Ignore black numbers and focus on objects
    • Participants can correctly pair shapes and colors

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    • R.M.: Patient with Balint’s syndrome
    • Inability to focus attention on individual objects
    • High number of illusory conjunctions reported

    Feature Integration Theory (FIT)

    • Mostly bottom-up processing
    • Top-down processing influences processing when participants are told what they would see
    • Top-down processing combines with feature analysis to help one perceive things accurately

    Physiology of Attention

    • Attention enhances neural responding
    • Attentional processing is distributed across a large number of areas in the brain

    Attention Processing Distributed Across the Cortex

    • Using fMRI to detect cortical activity during a search task
    • Attention to an expected direction of motion caused brain activity to increase in a number of brain areas

    Attention Processing Distributed Across the Cortex

    *

    Attention Processing Distributed Across the Cortex

    *

    article

    Received: 31 March 2016 Revised: 23 May 2017 Accepted: 13 June 2017

    DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22516

    R E V I E W A R T I C L E

    Case conceptualization research in cognitive
    behavior therapy: A state of the science review

    Michael H. Easden1 Nikolaos Kazantzis2

    1Massey University, New Zealand

    2Monash University, Australia

    Correspondence

    MichaelEasden,MasonClinicRegionalForensic

    PsychiatryServices,PrivateBag19986,Avon-

    dale,1746,Auckland.

    Email:Michael.Easden@waitematadhb.govt.nz.

    WethankGregoryMumma,WillemKuyken,

    andCatherineSmithforfeedbackonaprevious

    versionofthismanuscript.

    Objective: Prominent models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)

    assert that case conceptualization is crucial for tailoring interven-

    tions to adequately address the needs of the individual client. We

    aimed to review the research on case conceptualization in CBT.

    Method: We conducted a systematic search of PsychINFO, MED-

    LINE, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, and CINAHL

    databases to February 2016.

    Results: A total of 24 studies that met inclusion criteria were identi-

    fied. It was notable that studies (a) focused on the assessment func-

    tion of case conceptualization, (b) employed diverse methodologies,

    and, overall, (c) there remains a paucity of studies examining the in-

    session process of using case conceptualization or examining rela-

    tions with outcome.

    Conclusion: Results from the existing studies suggest that experi-

    enced therapists can reliably construct some elements of case con-

    ceptualizations, but importance for the efficacy of case conceptual-

    ization in CBT has yet to be demonstrated. Research that involves

    direct observation of therapist competence in case conceptualiza-

    tion as a predictor of CBT outcomes is recommended as a focus for

    future hypothesis testing.

    K E Y W O R D S

    case conceptualization, case formulation, cognitive behavior ther-

    apy, cognitive therapy, review

    There is widespread agreement that case conceptualization is an important and necessary foundation for the com-

    petent practice of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; J. Beck, 2011; Kuyken, Padesky, & Dudley, 2009; Persons, 1989,

    2008). Case conceptualization serves as a framework for drawing together important developmental history with key

    cognitions and behaviors as a basis for developing hypotheses about the etiology and maintenance of the client’s psy-

    chopathology (Eells, Kendjelic, & Lucas, 1998) and treatment targets (Nezu, Nezu, & Lombardo, 2004; Persons, 1989,

    2006). Comprehensive case conceptualization is not intended to capture a client’s entire life, or the “entire person,” but

    to identify psychopathology through the identification of cognitive and behavioral strengths and weaknesses (Bieling

    & Kuyken, 2003; Kuyken et al., 2009). The case conceptualization is also fluid and draws on client information from

    each session and the experiences of the client resulting from the activities between sessions, and it could be based on

    356 c© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jclp J. Clin. Psychol. 2018;74:356–384.

    EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS 357

    any moment that the client interacts with the therapist (e.g., Cronin, Lawrence, Taylor, Norton, & Kazantzis, 2015). In

    this way, the case conceptualization is technically never “complete”; it is an evolving hypothesis that both informs and

    is informed by therapy (Kuyken et al., 2009).

    Prominent models of CBT for different problems and populations emphasize the use of case conceptualization as

    the primary means of ensuring that interventions and strategies are relevant and adapted to the client’s specific cir-

    cumstances (e.g., Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979; Butler, Fennell, & Hackman, 2008; Clark & Beck, 2010; Cooper,

    Fairburn, & Hawker, 2004; Epstein & Baucom, 2002; Rapee, Wignall, Hudson, & Schniering, 2000). Specific practice

    guides focusing on case conceptualization in CBT have also been published (i.e., Kuyken et al., 2009, Persons, 1989,

    2008). However, the empirical basis for the reliability and validity of case conceptualization in CBT remains unclear.

    Previous reviews have critiqued research on the reliability and validity of case conceptualization (Flinn, Braham, & das

    Nair, 2015; Persons & Hong, 2016; Rainforth & Laurenson, 2014). However, these have limitations because of a focus

    on either reliability or validity and/or because they used a nonsystematic approach or examined other therapeutic

    modalities. This is the first systematic review of reliability and validity of case conceptualization in the context of CBT.

    1 DEFINING CASE CONCEPTUALIZATION IN CBT

    1.1 Forms of conceptualization

    The case conceptualization was first outlined as a means for tailoring CBT interventions to meet the specific needs

    of the client (A. T. Beck et al., 1979; J. S. Beck, 1995). A variety of forms and formats of CBT conceptualization exist,

    which can be focused on understanding problematic situations or iterations of a problem situation in which a problem

    isreduced,doesnotrecur,orwhenaclientiseffective.Atthislevel,conceptualizationusuallycentersonidentifyingsit-

    uational antecedents, along with cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral experiences as their consequences

    (Padesky & Mooney, 1990). This “situation”-level conceptualization has been described elsewhere as a CBT equiva-

    lent of “functional analysis” (Haynes & O’Brien, 1990, 2000) and as being similar to the “A-B-C” framework in rational

    emotive behavior therapy (Ellis, 1962, 1991, 1994) and “chain analysis” in dialectical behavior therapy (Linehan, 1980,

    1993; Waltz & Linehan, 1999).

    Another popular approach to conceptualization is “the problem list” (Persons, 1989), which prioritizes centrally

    important client problems and measurable goals for intervention. However, the skilled therapist also works to identify

    key developmental experiences, core beliefs, intermediate beliefs, assumptions, rules, and cross-situational behavioral

    strategies (Young & Beck, 1980). “Overdeveloped” and “underdeveloped” behavioral strategies can also be included in

    the conceptualization to assist the therapist in distinguishing between skill deficits and the role of beliefs in client skill

    repertoires (e.g., a client may have assertiveness skills, but find them difficult to express in certain relationships).

    Some comprehensive conceptualization formats require the therapist to specifically identify key thoughts, emo-

    tions, behaviors, and physiology across multiple problematic situations (e.g., “Cognitive Case Conceptualization Dia-

    gram” in J. Beck, 2011), whereas others incorporate attachment styles and values within attention to relationship his-

    tory together with all the above (e.g., “Cognitive Case Conceptualization with a Relational Focus” in Kazantzis, Dattilio,

    & Dobson, 2017). Thus, the CBT case conceptualization can provide a comprehensive understanding of both etiology

    and maintenance of the client’s problems within a theoretical framework that explains the client’s psychopathology.

    (The term “conceptualization” will be used primarily for present purposes, but it is understood that “formulation” is

    used interchangeably in the literature, e.g., Persons, 2008).

    1.2 Conceptualization as a guide for interventions

    In organizing the client’s “data,” the case conceptualization also serves as a guide for the effective targeting and priori-

    tization of treatment strategies (Eells, 2007; Needleman, 1999; Persons, 2006). For example, a client who had already

    learned perspective taking and how to evaluate situational thoughts during a previous course of CBT for depression

    358 EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS

    might find it useful to focus on identifying and changing “processes in thinking,” such as through experiments that

    involve attentional refocusing on feedback that does not support their negative core belief about themselves (e.g., “I

    am incompetent”). A different client with depression may benefit from a historical evaluation of the same core belief.

    Even though the intervention in these two examples is clearly different, both clients may experience symptom relief

    and benefit in terms of the prevention of depressive relapse. Deciding between each treatment pathway will be guided

    by the client’s presentation (e.g., extent of concurrent negative core beliefs about self, activated schema, competing

    compensatory strategies) and attributes (e.g., cognitive capacity, including executive functions). Thus, the case concep-

    tualization provides the decision-making framework for selecting interventions and then individually tailoring those

    interventions to meet the needs of the client.

    1.3 Relational processes in conceptualization

    Wehavedefined(a)differenttypesofcaseconceptualization,(b)conveyedthatcaseconceptualizationcanbedesigned

    to service initial assessment and therapy, and (c) provided a beginning account of how the effective use of con-

    ceptualization depends to a large extent on therapist skill. A final consideration in this topic is the way in which

    (a) and (b) are achieved within the therapeutic relationship. A comprehensive definition is important at the out-

    set of this review because it presents the context for empirical study into the role of case conceptualization in

    CBT.

    Collaborative empiricism has long been considered central to the therapeutic relationship and therapeutic process

    in CBT (A. T. Beck et al., 1979), often aligned with the process of guided discovery, the naive or curious enquiry, and

    Socratic questioning. These elements of the therapeutic relationship intersect with the therapists’ case conceptualiza-

    tion. That is, collaborative empiricism is the process by which the therapist and client work together toward develop-

    ing and achieving shared goals drawing on each other’s unique knowledge (Dattilio & Hanna, 2012; Kazantzis, Beck,

    Dattilio, Dobosn, & Rapee, 2013). Kuyken et al. (2009) provide the metaphor of the “case conceptualization crucible”

    whereby CBT theory, research, and data from the client’s experience are integrated to promote change. Consequen-

    tially, the different components of the CBT case conceptualization (e.g., thoughts, emotion, behavior, relevant back-

    ground information) provide hypotheses for evaluation through data collection.

    Thus, the case conceptualization forms the basis for a process of empiricism in which the client is a co-

    investigator or self-detective, further testing and refining adaptive behavioral and cognitive skills in collaboration

    with the therapist. This might be achieved, for example, either in vivo or as homework tasks; through behav-

    ioral experiments, reality testing, or simply seeking client feedback; and checking the fit of the data with the

    client’s experience and the evolving case conceptualization (Tee & Kazantzis, 2011). Collaborative empiricism

    requires a focus beyond psychological disorder and conceptualization of problems to encompass skills, strengths,

    and resilience essential to a comprehensive case conceptualization (Kazantzis, Tee, Dattilio, & Dobson, 2013). As a

    result, researchers have used diverse methods to empirically capture and evaluate the reliability and validity of case

    conceptualization.

    In the next section, we present a systematic review of the existing evidence for case conceptualization in CBT. The

    aim was to include empirical studies that provided data on the reliability and/or validity of CBT case conceptualization.

    Giventheabovedefinition, thepresentreviewallowedforthepossibilitythatboththecontentandtheprocessofusing

    case conceptualization could form the focus of empirical study. The specific aim was to clarify the current state of the

    evidence, as well as highlight its strengths and limitations. We examined whether research has (a) correctly used tests

    of reliability to determine whether therapists can, for instance, reliably construct and use case conceptualization, and

    whether reliability requirements have been sufficiently satisfied to (b) determine the validity of case conceptualiza-

    tion, particularly as this related to therapeutic outcomes. Given the interdependence of reliability and validity, it was

    considered most useful to consider both in this review. We will then present a synthesis of the above definition with

    the findings from the review and offer a research agenda.

    EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS 359

    Records identified through database
    searching
    (n = 6612)

    Sc
    re
    en
    in
    g

    In
    cl
    ud
    ed

    E
    lig
    ib
    ili
    ty

    Id
    en
    ti
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    on Additional records identified

    through other sources
    (n = 2)

    Records after duplicates removed
    (n = 6312)

    Records screened
    (n = 6312)

    Records excluded
    (n = 6075)

    Articles assessed for
    eligibility
    (n = 237)

    Articles excluded, with
    reasons:

    • Not data-based / non-
    empirical / non-
    experimental
    (n = 131)

    • Not oriented to
    cognitive-behavioral
    model
    (n = 53)

    • Single N case study
    (n = 26)

    • No reliability or
    validity data (n = 3)

    Studies included in
    systematic review

    (n = 24)

    FIGURE 1 Flow diagram of systematic search

    2 METHOD

    2.1 Search strategy

    Studies examining case conceptualization were identified by (a) searching the PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Psychology

    and Behavioral Science Collection, and CINAHL databases to February 2016 and using the text phrases “case con-

    ceptualization,” “case conceptualisation,” or “case formulation,” and (b) manually searching the reference sections

    of articles identified and included (see Figure 1). The present research adopted a definition of “Cognitive Behav-

    ior Therapy” or “CBT” as reflecting either behaviorally focused or cognitively focused therapies (see discussions

    in Kazantzis, Freeman, & Reinecke, 2010; Mennin, Ellard, Fresco, & Gross, 2013). Studies examining “formulation-

    driven” case conceptualization were included, while the present study did not seek to provide a review on manual-

    ized versus individualized treatment protocols and included studies with a focus on case conceptualization. Studies

    were included in the review if they were (a) published in English, (b) had more than one participant (i.e., case stud-

    ies were excluded unless multiple raters were used to assess the individual case), and (c) specifically targeted some

    aspect of CBT conceptualization and therapeutic intervention (i.e., studies coming from non-CBT orientations were

    excluded).

    360 EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS

    2.2 Data extraction and synthesis

    The diversity of methodologies and reporting parameters identified in selected studies meant that application of sta-

    tistical pooling was limited. The results are therefore presented in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for System-

    atic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and incorporate elements of narrative synthesis. Specifically, the findings

    are charted and summarized where possible by those outlined by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

    Interventions (Higgins & Green, 2011). Of the studies, 50% were double coded by an independent, doctoral-level clini-

    calpsychologistandyieldedhighreliabilityinselectionandextraction(i.e.,98.1%agreement).Anycodingdiscrepancies

    were resolved by discussion. We offer an overview of data able to be synthesized in a systematic manner, followed by

    limited synthesis of data and findings in each subsection, and accompanied by a narrative description of select studies

    sufficient to facilitate an understanding of the frequent idiosyncrasies of each study even within study groupings.

    3 RESULTS

    3.1 Overview of data

    A total of 24 studies were identified for the review. Table 1 provides a summary of key reliability and validity data

    extracted from each study. Table 2 provides additional data on study aims, model integrity, and outcome assessment.

    3.1.1 Reliability

    Over half of all studies (n = 14, 58.3%) aimed to evaluate interclinician reliability in constructing case conceptualiza-
    tions with similar case material. An expert benchmark or criterion conceptualization was frequently adopted (n = 15,
    62.5%), primarily to investigate reliability; but in two studies, the expert conceptualization was used to gauge validity.

    One study (4.2%) reported on test-retest reliability of interpersonal scenarios (i.e., “mini” formulations).

    3.1.2 Validity

    Studies also sought (directly or indirectly) to evaluate case conceptualization in relation to symptom change (n = 16,
    66.7%). Seven of these studies (29.2%) provided some measure of effect size (i.e., r, R2 or Cohen’s d) concerning the

    relationship between aspects of case conceptualizations and patient symptomology, but three of these were small-N

    repeated measures (i.e., close analysis and serial observations of a small number of subjects) and each had disparate

    methods and/or level of focus. Four studies (17%) sought client or therapist feedback on the perceived clinical utility of

    case conceptualizations. Where CBT was delivered, only two studies (8.3%) reported data relevant to integrity checks

    to ensure fidelity to the CBT model and/or the treatment condition.

    3.1.3 Training

    A total of 11 studies (45.8%) carried out their aims in the context of conceptualization training or in the provision of

    prescriptive training as part of the research design. Five studies (20.8%) reported some measure of effect size for sta-

    tistical associations between training / experience and hypothesized quality of written case conceptualization and/or

    ability to identify themes or content based on vignettes.

    3.2 Participant characteristics

    Table 1 includes a breakdown of raters, therapist and clients/vignettes. A total of 501 clients/vignettes formed the

    bases of the total pooled sample. A total pool of 542 therapists and raters were used across studies identified for

    review. However, the therapists often served as raters and vise-versa, as well as different numbers of therapists and

    raters being used for different analyses. As a result, it is less meaningful to provide the number of therapist versus

    raters (i.e., 363 raters and 179 therapists took part across studies).

    EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS 361

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    9
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    1
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    EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS 363

    T
    A
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    1

    (C
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    )

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    )

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    9
    9


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    ta
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    to

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    )


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    0
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    7
    %
    to

    7
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    %


    T
    w
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    =
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    )


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    (n

    =
    9
    ,6
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    %
    ),

    n
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    (n

    =
    9
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    )a
    n
    d
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    n
    =
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    (C
    on
    ti
    nu
    es
    )

    364 EASDEN AND KAZANTZIS

    T
    A
    B
    L
    E
    1

    (C
    o
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    n
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    e
    d
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    (2
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    fa
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    e

    d
    a
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    y
    v
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    a
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    it
    y
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    sy
    m
    p
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    (R

    2
    =
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    to

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    fo
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    fo
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    y

    in
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    b
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    v
    e
    th
    a
    t

    article

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    HBS Professor Michael Beer and writer Rachel Shelton prepared this case solely as a basis for class discussion and not as an endorsement, a
    source of primary data, or an illustration of effective or ineffective management. This case, though based on real events, is fictionalized, and any
    resemblance to actual persons or entities is coincidental. There are occasional references to actual companies in the narration.

    Copyright © 2012 Harvard Business School Publishing. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write
    Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
    in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means——electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
    otherwise——without the permission of Harvard Business Publishing.

    Harvard Business Publishing is an affiliate of Harvard Business School.

    M I C H A E L B E E R

    R A C H E L S H E L T O N

    BoldFlash: Cross-Functional Challenges in the
    Mobile Division

    On January 16, 2012, Dr. Roger Cahill walked into his office in BoldFlash’s Waltham,
    Massachusetts headquarters at 7 a.m., less than a year into his new role as Vice President of the
    company’s Mobile Division. His predecessor’s personal photos and mementos had been packed up
    months ago, but they still sat in a corner, patiently waiting for someone to collect them. Cahill didn’t
    have the heart to move them because Jim Harrison had died unexpectedly after more than a decade
    in the position. Jack Young, the company’s CEO, immediately replaced Harrison with Cahill, a 24-
    year employee and highly respected research scientist who previously had led Research in the
    Consumer Division.

    Cahill had faced a big challenge since assuming his new role. BoldFlash, a producer of flash
    memory components for electronic devices, had fallen behind its competitors on several fronts. It was
    experiencing pressure on both prices and the ability to get new products to market quickly. Shortly
    before Harrison’s death, the Mobile team had developed redundant customized chips for mobile
    phone market customers while completely missing a critical market in storage devices used for
    tablets, thus handing its competitors an advantage in a critical growth market. A brilliant
    entrepreneur whose vision drove the growth of the Mobile Division, Harrison was perceived as an
    autocrat who fostered a compliant culture in which people protected themselves and their territory
    from his strong top-down directives. Cahill wondered if his predecessor’s leadership style
    contributed to the conflicts he was observing. More generally, he had been unsure what to expect
    from the groups in the division——Product Development, Marketing and Sales, and Manufacturing——
    and he did not want to judge based on anything other than personal experience and observation.

    After a few months on the job, Cahill felt that he had sized up the situation. There was a lot of
    unproductive conflict between the functional departments, particularly around the product
    development process. Manufacturing was the dominant function and seemed to be pulling its
    weight, but overall he saw a division that was underperforming and struggled with communication
    and teamwork. The product development process seemed dysfunctional. The division’s quarterly
    product development meeting was also dysfunctional. ‘‘The product development meeting should be
    the primary opportunity to plan the creation of new products. So I was surprised when I found out
    that Jim Harrison usually didn’t attend and instead left leadership of the meeting up to Marketing,’’
    he observed. Cahill had broken with tradition and attended the most recent meeting two months ago.

    4 4 3 8
    M A Y 3 1 , 2 0 1 2

    For the exclusive use of R. Valldas, 2022.

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    ‘‘I did not see the strong leadership that I would expect from a team with this much talent,’’ he
    observed. ‘‘The meeting lasted two days, yet I had a hard time summarizing what we had
    accomplished.’’

    With the next two-day product development meeting coming up in less than a month, Cahill
    wondered what changes he would have to make to the meeting, the organization, and the product
    development process to develop truly innovative, market-leading products that anticipated customer
    needs.

    Company History and the Flash Memory Market

    Two computer science professors founded BoldDisk in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982. Initially,
    it manufactured computer storage media, primarily floppy disks, at a plant in Waltham. The
    company continued to focus on storage devices as technology evolved (with the exception of an ill-
    fated foray into MP3 players in the early 1990s), although its product mix evolved with the market.
    By 2012, the company——now re-named BoldFlash——focused on flash memory and had a significant
    customer base in both OEM (original equipment manufacturer) and direct-to-consumer markets.

    Flash memory is a solid-state drive (SSD) that maintains data storage without moving parts, even
    when disconnected from power. It is commonly used in consumer devices such as digital cameras,
    mobile phones, USB drives, MP3 players, DVD players, GPS systems, tablet computers, and notebook
    computers. Although some flash memory is embedded into the product, consumers can also
    purchase flash memory devices to increase the device’s storage capacity. Industry production is
    spread among a number of manufacturers that run the gamut from small specialty manufacturers to
    global technology powerhouses. Purchasing power is concentrated, with one customer alone
    consuming one-third of the market for the newer, high-density NAND-type flash memory. In 2011,
    smartphones accounted for 40% of the overall market.

    Industry revenues, $20 billion in 2010, were expected to increase to $44 billion by 2014. The sector
    was highly competitive. Although demand was consistently strong and expected to grow 22% in
    2012, margins were constantly squeezed due to pricing pressure (prices were expected to decline 30%
    in 2012) and manufacturers sought to reduce costs wherever possible. This environment led
    BoldFlash to move most of its manufacturing outside the U.S. By 2012 the Mobile Division’s largest
    plant was in Shanghai; its remaining U.S. plant was in Austin, Texas, and it also had a smaller plant
    in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Unlike some of its competitors, BoldFlash operated its own plants; it
    did not subcontract or have any joint venture agreements with competitors. The industry was
    sometimes prone to supply shortages, so fast, flexible manufacturing practices were critical in
    meeting customer demand.

    In 2011, overall revenues at BoldFlash were $3.9B, with approximately half of sales to OEMs and
    half directly to consumers through warehouses, big box retailers, and electronics stores. Mobile
    Division revenues were $1.5B (see Exhibits 1A and 1B for detailed financial statements); smartphone
    manufacturers were its largest customer group. The company focused solely on organic growth and
    had never made an acquisition.

    Competitors and customers respected BoldFlash’s reputation for quality. Consistently headed by a
    PhD-level scientist, the company maintained a strong commitment to ongoing research. It placed a
    premium on intellectual property, and employees receiving patents were richly rewarded and
    recognized. The company held more than 600 patents in the U.S. alone; however, it had not always
    successfully commercialized the technology it developed, and its developments did not always align
    with market needs. Analysts sometimes criticized the firm as doing research for its own sake rather

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    than to improve products or meet new customer needs and faulted a corporate culture that was not
    always focused on results.

    Because of rapid changes in customer preferences, the Mobile Division had to identify customer
    needs and respond more swiftly than in the past with new products that adapted its technology to
    the needs of Marketing and Sales. The number of new products developed by Mobile in the past few
    years had slowed considerably, however, accounting for its lack of growth. Because of cost
    pressures, new products had to be designed with cost of manufacturing in mind, not just technical
    elegance.

    Leadership of BoldFlash Mobile

    Roger Cahill had spent his career working in R&D at Waltham headquarters. He joined in 1984 as
    a co-op student while he completed his degree in Electrical Engineering, and although he left for four
    years in the early 1990s to finish his doctorate in the same field, he rejoined the week after
    graduation. He himself held fifteen patents, the most of anyone in the company at his level.

    Cahill reported to CEO Jack Young (see Exhibits 2A and 2B for organization charts), and everyone
    on the Mobile Division leadership team was a long-term BoldFlash employee. Except for the Vice
    President and plant-based manufacturing employees in China and Canada, most of the rest of
    Mobile’s 650 employees had been based in Austin since 1995, when corporate leadership spun the
    Mobile Division out of the OEM group and moved the plant from Waltham. The central Texas
    location offered lower cost of manufacturing and benefited from proximity to the other high-tech
    firms in the area.

    Because of the tablet miss, Cahill was under pressure from Young to get Mobile back on track
    quickly. Cahill said, ‘‘I’m not a naturally quick decision-maker. I’m a scientist. I like to analyze all the
    options and make sure I’m doing the right thing. But in this case, Jack told me in no uncertain terms
    that ‘time’ was something I didn’t have. So I moved quickly,’’ said Cahill. ‘‘I’m still not sure if what I
    did was right, but I had to do something.’’ Within his first six months in Mobile, he had made several
    big changes.

    Two months into his tenure, Cahill had separated Marketing and Sales, which had previously
    operated together under Director Chip Bryant. ‘‘The two are essentially different functions and were
    separate units in the Consumer Division. Marketing is a strategic function while Sales’ role is to
    knock on doors and sell,’’ Cahill said. As part of this re-organization, Cahill appointed Kavita Patel, a
    colleague from the Consumer division, as Director of Marketing and retained Bryant as head of Sales.

    Another high-profile move was consolidating the division’s non-manufacturing employees by
    relocating all Austin-based corporate staff and the Shanghai-based Director of Manufacturing to
    Waltham headquarters. ‘‘I needed all my leaders in the same time zone,’’ said Cahill. ‘‘I didn’t like
    isolating manufacturing leadership halfway around the world. I’d even move the plants to Waltham
    if that wouldn’t kill my margins.’’ He also decided to hold Manufacturing, not Sales, accountable for
    meeting delivery dates.

    These changes were not without controversy. He lost some key staff members, including the
    incumbent Manufacturing Director, who refused to relocate from his native China; Cahill named
    Kevin Cheng, previously the Shanghai plant manager, to this position.

    Cahill’s reports perceived clear differences between their new boss’s leadership style and that of
    predecessor Jim Harrison. ‘‘Jim could be kind of overpowering, and people became more protective
    and political because they felt intimidated and unable to disagree. But you always knew where he

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    4438 | BoldFlash: Cross-Functional Challenges in the Mobile Division

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    stood.’’ said Karl Melzer, Director of Product Development. ’’Roger, on the other hand, is a great
    guy. He is much more open and generates trust and involvement, but I think he’s a scientist at heart,
    not yet a general manager. I’m not sure why he’s making all these changes.’’ Cahill’s vast technical
    knowledge sometimes overwhelmed his colleagues. Kavita Pavel said, ‘‘When Roger gets rolling,
    watch out. I had a meeting with him to review our 2012 forecasts and he spent the entire hour talking
    about a new design technique that would increase NAND capacity. His expertise is incredible, but it
    didn’t help me with my forecasts.’’

    Mobile Division Units

    Manufacturing

    Each of the division’s three manufacturing plants operated as its own profit center and was
    evaluated on gross margin and manufacturing-specific metrics such as quality, on-time delivery, and
    inventory management. New Manufacturing Director Kevin Cheng, promoted from Shanghai plant
    manager, was an American who joined BoldFlash in 1995 as a quality control engineer after receiving
    a dual graduate degree in business and engineering. ‘‘Like my old boss, I didn’t want to move from
    China and thought about leaving the company,’’ he said, ‘‘but I like working in an environment that
    challenges me intellectually. I don’t always agree with my colleagues, but for the most part I respect
    their intelligence——especially Roger’s.’’

    The managers of the plants in Austin and Ontario were Americans and BoldFlash lifers; the new
    Shanghai plant manager was a native Chinese who had attended a top engineering school in the U.S.
    The three managers were a competitive group and often compared their results during their monthly
    conference calls. Managers at the plant with the lowest margins were subject to sometimes good-
    natured ridicule from their peers, but results were serious business. ‘‘I want to encourage a high-
    performing culture,’’ said Cheng. ‘‘Knowing we’ll be held accountable makes everyone work harder.’’

    Because BoldFlash no longer manufactured anything at corporate headquarters, employees at the
    plants could feel isolated. ‘‘I can’t tell you the last time we saw anyone from corporate up here,’’ said
    the Ontario plant manager. ‘‘The top people in the States don’t ask us for much input. They mainly
    tell us what to make and how much by when.’’ Likewise, Product Development also caused
    headaches for the plant by making frequent special requests to run trials of new products on the
    manufacturing lines. This lowered efficiency and margins and jeopardized delivery dates. ‘‘Product
    Development doesn’t consider the line set-up when they design the new chips, and that leads to costs
    that are wrecking our margins,’’ said the manager of the Austin plant. ‘‘It’s very frustrating. All they
    have to do is ask and we’d tell them exactly what we think and what they should do. But they rarely
    ask. Their actions send us down the wrong track with products that we could have told them cannot
    be manufactured at the cost required to make a profit.’’

    Manufacturing also frequently butted heads with Sales, which they saw as selling products at any
    price they could in order to meet their revenue goals regardless of the impact on margins. Cheng
    recalled when they were trying to rush a chip for a new phone model to the market: ‘‘Sales promised
    one of our best customers a high level of product at a low price in a short timeframe. To avoid
    disappointing the customer, my Ontario plant had to deliver as promised. We lost money on that
    deal. Sales got credit for a fifty-million dollar sale. We were mad and let Sales know about it in no
    uncertain terms.’’

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    Marketing

    The Marketing group’s responsibilities included sales projections, long-range market planning,
    and exploiting new markets. The group’s most important activity was market development——
    identifying and managing the development of new product opportunities. Marketing Specialists
    were currently were working on a dozen new products they were responsible for introducing. They
    found they had to coordinate the activities of the other functions in order to move the product
    development process along. Marketing Specialists were recent graduates of business schools, and
    although they were smart and analytical, they lacked experience in the activities they were trying to
    coordinate. Moreover, the role and authority of Marketing Specialists, who were in effect operating
    as new product development project leaders, had never been clearly defined. Consequently they
    found it difficult to get people in Product Development, Sales, and particularly the manufacturing
    plants to adhere to commitments that the heads of their functional units had made in the quarterly
    product development meetings. There were other problems as well. Patel said ‘‘We’re supposed to
    suggest new products, but PD does that too. We’re supposed to make projections, but so is Sales.
    We’re a new group, but I wish our role had been better defined before we were spun out.’’

    Because new mobile devices were constantly coming to market, each requiring more storage at a
    better price, the flash memory market was highly volatile, which made it difficult to predict long-
    range revenues and profits of new products under development. Revenue and profit projections for
    new products did not always materialize, which reduced the credibility of Marketing Specialists and
    the Marketing Department as a whole. The group sometimes felt that their colleagues failed to
    appreciate the difficulty of their mission and had unreasonable expectations. ‘‘We take a very
    rigorous approach to our projections, but this is not an exact science. There is no ‘right answer’ to the
    equation, and it can be difficult to explain that to an engineer or operations manager,’’ said Patel.

    Other division leaders also struggled to understand Marketing’s mission. Manufacturing’s Kevin
    Cheng said, ‘‘They should be listening to customers instead of writing so many reports——I don’t even
    read them half the time.’’ Karl Melzer, head of Product Development, agreed: ‘‘Last year we
    developed at least 15 product variations and Marketing couldn’t find buyers for the majority of them.
    They just don’t understand the technology and how it can benefit customers.’’

    Sales

    Chip Bryant had spent three years at FlashForce, a larger competitor, before joining BoldFlash in
    1999. Like Marketing, Sales had a substantial number of new employees. Because entry-level sales
    positions in this group were seen as stepping stones to other internal roles and to other technology
    companies, new college graduates actively sought them out. Competition for entry-level roles was
    fierce, and expectations of rapid upward mobility led to high turnover in the group. ‘‘It’s hard to keep
    a cohesive team when your top producers keep leaving because they didn’t get promoted fast
    enough,’’ said Bryant.

    The group developed sales projections for individual customers largely by applying ‘‘educated
    instinct’’ to information it gleaned from existing customers. This approach faced frequent criticism
    from colleagues in other departments, such as this observation by Marketing’s Patel: ‘‘Sales basically
    has tunnel vision. I saw it when I went to our industry’s big trade show last year. Our salespeople
    stayed in our booth, when they could have done some good ‘walking around’ research by visiting
    our competitors. They missed a great opportunity.’’

    Each of BoldFlash’s three manufacturing plants had at least one on-site sales representative to
    facilitate on-time delivery and customer service. However, although Chip Bryant and Kevin Cheng
    were close friends outside of work, that goodwill did not always extend to lower-level staffers. The

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    manager of the Austin plant said, ‘‘Our sales team rarely consults with us before sending out
    proposals, even though we have someone on-site. Even worse, they don’t listen when we try to tell
    them they’re wrong. Last year, I tried to tell Sales there was no way we could make as many chips as
    they had promised in just two weeks. Jim Harrison ordered us to ‘do it anyway,’ so we did. Well, the
    system overload crashed the software that runs the line and we had to shut down for almost a day
    while we waited for someone in engineering to fix it.’’

    This Sales group’s performance metric was very straightforward——revenues. Incentives, not
    offered to all groups, were based on performance against revenue targets.

    Product Development

    This science-oriented department developed advances in technology leading to new products as
    well as extensions to existing product lines. Inside the Mobile Division, they were known as the
    ‘‘geeks.’’ Many were lifelong BoldFlash employees. All had scientific backgrounds, and over two-
    thirds of managerial-level staffers held PhDs. All of the division’s patents came from the Product
    Development team. Led by Dr. Karl Melzer, a native Austrian who joined BoldFlash in 1985 after
    finishing his doctorate, the group tended to keep to itself. ‘‘I’ve been trying to meet with Karl to talk
    about a new product launch, but he’s always off presenting at some conference,’’ said Sales Director
    Bryant. ‘‘I know he’s a legend in the field, but sometimes he stays up in the clouds.’’

    Product Development likewise sometimes experienced trouble communicating with both Sales
    and Marketing about product development initiatives. ‘‘Anytime I ask Chip for anything, he says
    ‘Ask Kavita.’ When I ask Kavita, she tells me to see Chip,’’ said Melzer. ‘‘At this point I have stopped
    asking. I just talk to Kevin Cheng or one of the plant managers and somehow we make it work. Kevin
    can really get things done when he needs to.’’

    Product Development was evaluated on a number of mostly academic criteria, including the
    number of new patents approved, presentations made at industry conferences, and academic papers
    published in peer-reviewed journals. These criteria hailed back to the Jim Harrison days. ‘‘When Jim
    was here, our big successes came from research driven by technological curiosity, not a business
    mandate. He didn’t want us worrying about day-to-day business concerns and always kept them
    away from us so we could focus on our research,’’ said Melzer.

    The Current Product Development Process

    Mobile’s product development process mirrored practices in other BoldFlash divisions whose
    markets did not change quite as rapidly as that of the Mobile Division. On paper, the process
    appeared fairly structured. Four times a year, about 20 division leaders met off-site for two days to
    review financial results, set sales projections, and make plans for new product releases. The head of
    Market Development presided. Attendance had grown to accommodate the next level of managers
    because the heads of functional departments lacked the information they needed on each new
    product development to make decisions.

    With the mandate from his CEO entrenched in his thinking, Cahill felt his presence would be
    critical to improving his division’s results. When he attended his first meeting in November 2011, he
    said little, observing and assessing instead. He later followed up with his four functional leaders and
    was surprised at what he learned. Cahill said, ‘‘It turned out that the meetings were not very
    effective. When a functional department missed its objective with regard to a given product
    development the underlying reasons were never confronted. Participants often met afterwards in
    small groups to talk about problems that had not been resolved. Meeting progress was slowed

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    because people who were up top speed on a given new product development project had to be called
    by phone for the latest information about progress in developing the new product — this despite the
    fact that the meeting had grown to include the next level managers. Karl told me that in 2009 the
    team had a critical discussion centered around the next generation of NAND chips, yet the Product
    Development scientist in charge of that product wasn’t even invited and was actually on vacation
    during the meeting.’’

    The lack of structure around the product development process bothered others on the leadership
    team. ‘‘This process lacks discipline and focus,’’ said Karl Melzer. ‘‘I get very frustrated every time I
    have to sit in one of those meetings when I could be working on my research. I hope that Roger will
    hold us to our goals instead of moving the finish line if we don’t make them.’’ The head of Market
    Development, who chaired the product development meetings, confided to Cahill that he often had
    sleepless nights before meetings because of the difficulties in resolving issues.

    To address some of these concerns, Cahill had decided to chair the next meeting himself.
    However, he was unsure how to balance the need for discipline with maintaining positive
    relationships with his leadership team. ‘‘I guess I should just go in and take control, but I can’t take
    the chance of alienating people,’’ he said. ‘‘I’m still not sure if I’m doing the right thing——I know that
    I’m a competent scientist, but many aspects of leadership are new to me. I’m going on instinct here.’’

    Conclusion

    Cahill looked back at Harrison’s boxes in the corner of his office and wondered what his
    predecessor would have done. ‘‘I put together a great team, so this shouldn’t be happening,’’ he
    thought. ‘‘Why can’t these smart people all work together?’’ The miss in the tablet market had really
    devastated the group. Morale was low, margins were squeezed, and tempers were starting to fray. If
    Cahill’s group didn’t introduce successful new products quickly, the division’s future would be on
    the line. It might not survive its next miss. He wondered whether the changes he had already made
    and his decision to chair the next quarterly product development meeting would solve the
    coordination and collaboration problems undermining the product development process. If not, what
    additional organizational changes would be needed?

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    4438 | BoldFlash: Cross-Functional Challenges in the Mobile Division

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    Exhibit 1A BoldFlash Corporate Operating Results ($ thousands)

    2011 2010 2009 2008 2007

    Income
    Total Sales 3,928,710 3,591,432 3,300,964 2,699,623 2,871,092

    Expenses
    Cost of Goods Sold 2,317,939 1,964,513 1,950,870 1,630,572 1,722,655

    Gross Profit 1,610,771 1,626,919 1,350,094 1,069,051 1,148,437

    SG&A Expense 245,544 222,669 198,058 156,578 175,137
    Research & Development 628,594 628,501 524,853 377,947 367,500
    Amortization/Depreciation 243,580 193,937 234,368 143,080 235,430
    Total Operating Expense 3,435,657 3,009,620 2,908,149 2,308,178 2,500,721

    Operating Income 493,053 581,812 392,815 391,445 370,371

    Interest Income 280 200 170 102 145
    Interest Expense 94 80 65 54 37

    Net Income Before Taxes 493,239 581,932 392,920 391,493 370,479
    Provision for Income Taxes 88,783 87,290 74,655 54,809 62,981
    Net Income 404,456 494,642 318,265 336,684 307,497

    Exhibit 1B BoldFlash Mobile Operating Results ($ thousands)

    2011 2010 2009 2008 2007

    Income
    Total Sales 1,579,000 1,564,000 1,582,000 1,518,000 1,584,000

    Expenses
    Cost of Goods Sold 931,610 855,508 934,962 916,872 950,400
    SG&A 98,688 96,968 94,920 88,044 96,624
    Research & Development 314,297 339,390 304,415 192,753 191,100
    Total Expenses 1,344,594 1,291,866 1,334,297 1,197,669 1,238,124

    Net Incomea 234,406 272,134 247,703 320,331 345,876

    a Amortization, depreciation, interest, and taxes are reported at the corporate level.

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    Exhibit 2A BoldFlash Organization Chart

    Vice President
    Consumer Division

    Vice President
    Mobile Division

    Vice President
    OEM Division

    Vice President
    R&D

    Vice President and
    Chief Financial Officer

    Vice President and
    Chief Operating Officer

    Vice President and
    Chief Administrative Officer

    Vice President
    International

    Vice President
    Marketing and Sales

    President
    and CEO

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    Science and technology in “The perfect day” and “Anthem.”

    “The perfect day” is a story where the author recognizes the future of humanity while the contemporary age is considered the past. The story is written or narrated in the present. In this future society, all human beings look alike with tan skin, black hair, and slanting eyes; however, the author makes an effort to eradicate any signs of genetics. Society is controlled by the Uni, who decide and control every aspect of the world, including how people should mate and handle their daily activities. The “Anthem” by Ayn Rand is a narration by Equality 7-2521 that tells the audience about his life from an underground railroad tunnel. Equality 7-2521 is different compared to the rest of the people. He refers to himself as we instead of I as demanded by the system in the journal. There are also rules for people to follow and guide them in generating a better society. In the story, people are not allowed to venture or speak about the events that happened in the past, demonstrating that the storyline is set in the future. “The Perfect Day” approaches the idea of science through eradication of diseases, better innovations, how the leaders control society through scanners, and reliance on technology, while “Anthem” approaches the idea of science by examining ailment solutions, backward innovations, leaders controlling society by preventing them from having ideas, and absence of technology.

    One of the main ideas from stories is a scientific advancement in the sector of health. Scientific development and advancement have enabled human beings to concur and face many challenges throughout history. In “The perfect day,” science is part of the medical journey of that society. Unlike modern situations, Chip’s society has been able to eradicate diseases. When Li’s parents call Bob to explain the incurables, he states that society knows a lot about medication, unlike in the past. “We didn’t always know as much about medicine and chemistry as today” (Levin, 5). Treatment was also available for individuals to prevent them from falling sick; however, epidemics occur on rare occasions, such as the instance on Mars. In the “Anthem,” science is not advanced, and diseases still haunt individuals who are left to bleed. Equality 7-2521 states that they learn how to bleed people to cure them of sickness (Rand, 4). Society believes that the only way of curing ailments is through blood or bleeding. In this society, when one is identified with a certain ailment, they are left to see it through instead of getting some help. For example, Union 5-3992 suffered from severe seizures, but the rest were not allowed to do anything. On the day before spring break, Union 5-3992 started convulsing, and we left them in the shade to lie in the shade of the Theatre tent and went to finish our work (Rand, 7). Science one of the stories is used to defeat diseases, and in the other story, people are not allowed to discover medication.

    Another significant area of scientific comparison is the innovations occurring in both stories. Throughout time science has been the center of innovation as individuals discover how and why something works. In the “Anthem,” the leaders have prohibited individuals from scientific exploration, with only a few allowed to perform scientific research. Equality 7-2521 wants to join the Home of Scholars because he appreciated science and was born naturally curious and intelligent. The Home of Scholars is where every new invention came from, including making candles from wax and strings or making glass (Rand, 4). In the future of “The Perfect Day,” science is used to control the community and even alter the genetic makeup of the human species through genetic engineering. For example, children had tan skin, black hair, and slanting eyes. The narrator also states that grandparents were also created the same when introducing Papa Jan. All of them had marked similarities such as few centimeters of skin, too light or too dark skin, big ears, and a bent nose (Levin, 7). Science expounds at the innovations displayed in the stories.

    The other essential area of scientific comparison is how leaders use technology to control society. The leaders use power in the stories to control individuals and take away their autonomy and liberties. In “The Perfect Day,” leaders use technology and science to keep people under control by using bands and other methods. Society is raised to understand and believe that Unicomputers belong to the family and that they are supposed to ask for things from the scanners. For instance, during their Unicomp trip, Papa Jan does not allow Chip to use the scanners, and Chip becomes anxious because of that reaction (Levin, 11). In the “Anthem,” leaders create homes where certain individuals must go, which become their workstations. Equality 7-2521 wants to become part of the Home of the scholars, a scientific group but is denied the chance because he is different (Rand, 8). His curious nature prevents him from becoming the thing that he desires the most, a scientist. When he presents his lightbox to the Home of Scholars, they reject his idea claiming that it will ruin the plans of the World Council without whose plans the sun cannot rise (Rand, 25). In the first story, science is used to control the people, while in the second, the absence of scientific knowledge is used to control the citizens.

    The dependency of scientific knowledge and inventions is another apparent area between the two stories. The stories revolve around science on human beings, one in the future and the other in the past. In “The Perfect Day,” society is dependent on computers for everything. Chip goes through a lot of trouble to destroy the room where the piece of blue equipment was kept and controlled by the government. A lady asks him what he has done, and Chip answers that though the machines were to be reprogrammed, they were to end up like before (Levin, 195). The “Anthem” society does not depend on science or its invention, for the only accepted invention is the candle, and the lightbox was rejected. Unanimity 2-9913 argues that it took the council 50 years to get the World Council to approve the candle invention (Rand, 25). One society depends on science which leads to their doom, while the other does not rely on scientific inventions.

    ‘The Perfect Day” and the “Anthem” are science fiction stories where the former focus on the future of humanity while the latter examines the past. In the first story, science is part of society, with computer technology playing a crucial part in society. In the second story, society dreaded and feared technology because the leaders or the World Council have deemed so. In both stories, individuals are not allowed to pursue personal ideas or rights, which is Rand’s story makes them a backward society. However, science has helped eradicate diseases apart from the rare occurrence of pandemics in the future.

    Work Cited

    Levin, Ira. This Perfect Day. Random House, 1970.

    Rand, Ayn. Anthem. NAL, 1999.

    Article

     Compare the social system of the dystopian world in Ayn Rand’s Anthem with the social system in Ira Levin’s This Perfect Day. What sorts of family structures exist in each society? How are people’s mates and sex partners chosen, and how is it decided who is allowed to have children? How do those relationships affect people’s living arrangements? How similar or dissimilar are the social relations in each society to those of mid-century America? How does each novel represent self-chosen, pair-bonded families as a criticism of the social relations of the collectivized society? 

    Article

    Case 5:

    A school at the south of Saudi Arabia has contacted you to consult that they are having children with learning disabilities. They want to help them to control their impulsivity. If Mindfulness training will be an effective one to meet their requirement?

    Alqarni, T. M., & Hammad, M. A. Effects of Mindfulness Training Program on the Impulsivity Among Students with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 11(4), 190. https://doi.org/10.36941/JESR-2021-0088

    a. Can you identify the

    PICO

    Clinical Question

    -P

    -I

    -C

    -O

    Title

    Author and Source

    Source of Evidence

    Level of Evidence

    Design

    Follow up

    Format

    Participants

    Treating clinician (s)

    Procedure

    Summary of Finding

    “Rapid Critical Appraisal” involves three questions used to evaluate the usefulness of the study you are considering:

    Guide

    Comments

    1. Are the results of the study valid?

    Are the research methods rigorous enough to ensure that the results properly represent the truth of the matter?

    · Random assignment to control/ treatment groups?

    · Characteristics of groups?

    · Validity and reliability of outcome measures?

    2. What are the results and are they important?

    · In interventions did it work? Impact on outcomes?

    · Replicability for other clinicians?

    3. Will the results help me care for my patients?

    · Are the subjects and participants in the study similar to your own patients?

    · Do the benefits of the intervention outweigh any risks?

    · How feasible and cost-effective would it be to carry out the same intervention

    · Consider how your patient’s preferences and values fit with this style of intervention

    Article

    PART ONE

    It is a sin to write this. It is a sin to think words no others think and to put them down upon a paper no others are to see. It is base and evil. It is as if we were speaking alone to no ears but our own. And we know well that there is no transgression blacker than to do or think alone. We have broken the laws. The laws say that men may not write unless the Council of Vocations bid them so. May we be forgiven!

    But this is not the only sin upon us. We have committed a greater crime, and for this crime there is no name. What punishment awaits us if it be discovered we know not, for no such crime has come in the memory of men and there are no laws to provide for it.

    It is dark here. The flame of the candle stands still in the air. Nothing moves in this tunnel save our hand on the paper. We are alone here under the earth. It is a fearful word, alone. The laws say that none among men may be alone, ever and at any time, for this is the great transgression and the root of all evil. But we have broken many laws. And now there is nothing here save our one body, and it is strange to see only two legs stretched on the ground, and on the wall before us the shadow of our one head.

    The walls are cracked and water runs upon them in thin threads without sound, black and glistening as blood. We stole the candle from the larder of the Home of the Street Sweepers. We shall be sentenced to ten years in the Palace of Corrective Detention if it be discovered. But this matters not. It matters only that the light is precious and we should not waste it to write when we need it for that work which is our crime. Nothing matters save the work, our secret, our evil, our precious work. Still, we must also write, for—may the Council have mercy upon us!—we wish to speak for once to no ears but our own.

    Our name is Equality 7-2521, as it is written on the iron bracelet which all men wear on their left wrists with their names upon it. We are twenty-one years old. We are six feet tall, and this is a burden, for there are not many men who are six feet tall. Ever have the Teachers and the Leaders pointed to us and frowned and said:

    “There is evil in your bones, Equality 7-2521, for your body has grown beyond the bodies of your brothers.” But we cannot change our bones nor our body.

    We were born with a curse. It has always driven us to thoughts which are forbidden. It has always given us wishes which men may not wish. We know that we are evil, but there is no will in us and no power to resist it. This is our wonder and our secret fear, that we know and do not resist.

    We strive to be like all our brother men, for all men must be alike. Over the portals of the Palace of the World Council, there are words cut in the marble, which we repeat to ourselves whenever we are tempted:

    “WE ARE ONE IN ALL AND ALL IN ONE.
    THERE ARE NO MEN BUT ONLY THE GREAT WE,
    ONE, INDIVISIBLE AND FOREVER.”

    We repeat this to ourselves, but it helps us not.

    These words were cut long ago. There is green mould in the grooves of the letters and yellow streaks on the marble, which come from more years than men could count. And these words are the truth, for they are written on the Palace of the World Council, and the World Council is the body of all truth. Thus has it been ever since the Great Rebirth, and farther back than that no memory can reach.

    But we must never speak of the times before the Great Rebirth, else we are sentenced to three years in the Palace of Corrective Detention. It is only the Old Ones who whisper about it in the evenings, in the Home of the Useless. They whisper many strange things, of the towers which rose to the sky, in those Unmentionable Times, and of the wagons which moved without horses, and of the lights which burned without flame. But those times were evil. And those times passed away, when men saw the Great Truth which is this: that all men are one and that there is no will save the will of all men together.

    All men are good and wise. It is only we, Equality 7-2521, we alone who were born with a curse. For we are not like our brothers. And as we look back upon our life, we see that it has ever been thus and that it has brought us step by step to our last, supreme transgression, our crime of crimes hidden here under the ground.

    We remember the Home of the Infants where we lived till we were five years old, together with all the children of the City who had been born in the same year. The sleeping halls there were white and clean and bare of all things save one hundred beds. We were just like all our brothers then, save for the one transgression: we fought with our brothers. There are few offenses blacker than to fight with our brothers, at any age and for any cause whatsoever. The Council of the Home told us so, and of all the children of that year, we were locked in the cellar most often.

    When we were five years old, we were sent to the Home of the Students, where there are ten wards, for our ten years of learning. Men must learn till they reach their fifteenth year. Then they go to work. In the Home of the Students we arose when the big bell rang in the tower and we went to our beds when it rang again. Before we removed our garments, we stood in the great sleeping hall, and we raised our right arms, and we said all together with the three Teachers at the head:

    “We are nothing. Mankind is all. By the grace of our brothers are we allowed our lives. We exist through, by and for our brothers who are the State. Amen.”

    Then we slept. The sleeping halls were white and clean and bare of all things save one hundred beds.

    We, Equality 7-2521, were not happy in those years in the Home of the Students. It was not that the learning was too hard for us. It was that the learning was too easy. This is a great sin, to be born with a head which is too quick. It is not good to be different from our brothers, but it is evil to be superior to them. The Teachers told us so, and they frowned when they looked upon us.

    So we fought against this curse. We tried to forget our lessons, but we always remembered. We tried not to understand what the Teachers taught, but we always understood it before the Teachers had spoken. We looked upon Union 5-3992, who were a pale boy with only half a brain, and we tried to say and do as they did, that we might be like them, like Union 5-3992, but somehow the Teachers knew that we were not. And we were lashed more often than all the other children.

    The Teachers were just, for they had been appointed by the Councils, and the Councils are the voice of all justice, for they are the voice of all men. And if sometimes, in the secret darkness of our heart, we regret that which befell us on our fifteenth birthday, we know that it was through our own guilt. We had broken a law, for we had not paid heed to the words of our Teachers. The Teachers had said to us all:

    “Dare not choose in your minds the work you would like to do when you leave the Home of the Students. You shall do that which the Council of Vocations shall prescribe for you. For the Council of Vocations knows in its great wisdom where you are needed by your brother men, better than you can know it in your unworthy little minds. And if you are not needed by your brother man, there is no reason for you to burden the earth with your bodies.”

    We knew this well, in the years of our childhood, but our curse broke our will. We were guilty and we confess it here: we were guilty of the great Transgression of Preference. We preferred some work and some lessons to the others. We did not listen well to the history of all the Councils elected since the Great Rebirth. But we loved the Science of Things. We wished to know. We wished to know about all the things which make the earth around us. We asked so many questions that the Teachers forbade it.

    We think that there are mysteries in the sky and under the water and in the plants which grow. But the Council of Scholars has said that there are no mysteries, and the Council of Scholars knows all things. And we learned much from our Teachers. We learned that the earth is flat and that the sun revolves around it, which causes the day and the night. We learned the names of all the winds which blow over the seas and push the sails of our great ships. We learned how to bleed men to cure them of all ailments.

    We loved the Science of Things. And in the darkness, in the secret hour, when we awoke in the night and there were no brothers around us, but only their shapes in the beds and their snores, we closed our eyes, and we held our lips shut, and we stopped our breath, that no shudder might let our brothers see or hear or guess, and we thought that we wished to be sent to the Home of the Scholars when our time would come.

    All the great modern inventions come from the Home of the Scholars, such as the newest one, which was found only a hundred years ago, of how to make candles from wax and string; also, how to make glass, which is put in our windows to protect us from the rain. To find these things, the Scholars must study the earth and learn from the rivers, from the sands, from the winds and the rocks. And if we went to the Home of the Scholars, we could learn from these also. We could ask questions of these, for they do not forbid questions.

    And questions give us no rest. We know not why our curse makes us seek we know not what, ever and ever. But we cannot resist it. It whispers to us that there are great things on this earth of ours, and that we can know them if we try, and that we must know them. We ask, why must we know, but it has no answer to give us. We must know that we may know.

    So we wished to be sent to the Home of the Scholars. We wished it so much that our hands trembled under the blankets in the night, and we bit our arm to stop that other pain which we could not endure. It was evil and we dared not face our brothers in the morning. For men may wish nothing for themselves. And we were punished when the Council of Vocations came to give us our life Mandates which tell those who reach their fifteenth year what their work is to be for the rest of their days.

    The Council of Vocations came on the first day of spring, and they sat in the great hall. And we who were fifteen and all the Teachers came into the great hall. And the Council of Vocations sat on a high dais, and they had but two words to speak to each of the Students. They called the Students’ names, and when the Students stepped before them, one after another, the Council said: “Carpenter” or “Doctor” or “Cook” or “Leader.” Then each Student raised their right arm and said: “The will of our brothers be done.”

    Now if the Council has said “Carpenter” or “Cook,” the Students so assigned go to work and they do not study any further. But if the Council has said “Leader,” then those Students go into the Home of the Leaders, which is the greatest house in the City, for it has three stories. And there they study for many years, so that they may become candidates and be elected to the City Council and the State Council and the World Council—by a free and general vote of all men. But we wished not to be a Leader, even though it is a great honor. We wished to be a Scholar.

    So we awaited our turn in the great hall and then we heard the Council of Vocations call our name: “Equality 7-2521.” We walked to the dais, and our legs did not tremble, and we looked up at the Council. There were five members of the Council, three of the male gender and two of the female. Their hair was white and their faces were cracked as the clay of a dry river bed. They were old. They seemed older than the marble of the Temple of the World Council. They sat before us and they did not move. And we saw no breath to stir the folds of their white togas. But we knew that they were alive, for a finger of the hand of the oldest rose, pointed to us, and fell down again. This was the only thing which moved, for the lips of the oldest did not move as they said: “Street Sweeper.”

    We felt the cords of our neck grow tight as our head rose higher to look upon the faces of the Council, and we were happy. We knew we had been guilty, but now we had a way to atone for it. We would accept our Life Mandate, and we would work for our brothers, gladly and willingly, and we would erase our sin against them, which they did not know, but we knew. So we were happy, and proud of ourselves and of our victory over ourselves. We raised our right arm and we spoke, and our voice was the clearest, the steadiest voice in the hall that day, and we said:

    “The will of our brothers be done.”

    And we looked straight into the eyes of the Council, but their eyes were as cold blue glass buttons.

    So we went into the Home of the Street Sweepers. It is a grey house on a narrow street. There is a sundial in its courtyard, by which the Council of the Home can tell the hours of the day and when to ring the bell. When the bell rings, we all arise from our beds. The sky is green and cold in our windows to the east. The shadow on the sundial marks off a half-hour while we dress and eat our breakfast in the dining hall, where there are five long tables with twenty clay plates and twenty clay cups on each table. Then we go to work in the streets of the City, with our brooms and our rakes. In five hours, when the sun is high, we return to the Home and we eat our midday meal, for which one-half hour is allowed. Then we go to work again. In five hours, the shadows are blue on the pavements, and the sky is blue with a deep brightness which is not bright. We come back to have our dinner, which lasts one hour. Then the bell rings and we walk in a straight column to one of the City Halls, for the Social Meeting. Other columns of men arrive from the Homes of the different Trades. The candles are lit, and the Councils of the different Homes stand in a pulpit, and they speak to us of our duties and of our brother men. Then visiting Leaders mount the pulpit and they read to us the speeches which were made in the City Council that day, for the City Council represents all men and all men must know. Then we sing hymns, the Hymn of Brotherhood, and the Hymn of Equality, and the Hymn of the Collective Spirit. The sky is a soggy purple when we return to the Home. Then the bell rings and we walk in a straight column to the City Theatre for three hours of Social Recreation. There a play is shown upon the stage, with two great choruses from the Home of the Actors, which speak and answer all together, in two great voices. The plays are about toil and how good it is. Then we walk back to the Home in a straight column. The sky is like a black sieve pierced by silver drops that tremble, ready to burst through. The moths beat against the street lanterns. We go to our beds and we sleep, till the bell rings again. The sleeping halls are white and clean and bare of all things save one hundred beds.

    Thus have we lived each day of four years, until two springs ago when our crime happened. Thus must all men live until they are forty. At forty, they are worn out. At forty, they are sent to the Home of the Useless, where the Old Ones live. The Old Ones do not work, for the State takes care of them. They sit in the sun in summer and they sit by the fire in winter. They do not speak often, for they are weary. The Old Ones know that they are soon to die. When a miracle happens and some live to be forty-five, they are the Ancient Ones, and the children stare at them when passing by the Home of the Useless. Such is to be our life, as that of all our brothers and of the brothers who came before us.

    Such would have been our life, had we not committed our crime which changed all things for us. And it was our curse which drove us to our crime. We had been a good Street Sweeper and like all our brother Street Sweepers, save for our cursed wish to know. We looked too long at the stars at night, and at the trees and the earth. And when we cleaned the yard of the Home of the Scholars, we gathered the glass vials, the pieces of metal, the dried bones which they had discarded. We wished to keep these things and to study them, but we had no place to hide them. So we carried them to the City Cesspool. And then we made the discovery.

    It was on a day of the spring before last. We Street Sweepers work in brigades of three, and we were with Union 5-3992, they of the half-brain, and with International 4-8818. Now Union 5-3992 are a sickly lad and sometimes they are stricken with convulsions, when their mouth froths and their eyes turn white. But International 4-8818 are different. They are a tall, strong youth and their eyes are like fireflies, for there is laughter in their eyes. We cannot look upon International 4-8818 and not smile in answer. For this they were not liked in the Home of the Students, as it is not proper to smile without reason. And also they were not liked because they took pieces of coal and they drew pictures upon the walls, and they were pictures which made men laugh. But it is only our brothers in the Home of the Artists who are permitted to draw pictures, so International 4-8818 were sent to the Home of the Street Sweepers, like ourselves.

    International 4-8818 and we are friends. This is an evil thing to say, for it is a transgression, the great Transgression of Preference, to love any among men better than the others, since we must love all men and all men are our friends. So International 4-8818 and we have never spoken of it. But we know. We know, when we look into each other’s eyes. And when we look thus without words, we both know other things also, strange things for which there are no words, and these things frighten us.

    So on that day of the spring before last, Union 5-3992 were stricken with convulsions on the edge of the City, near the City Theatre. We left them to lie in the shade of the Theatre tent and we went with International 4-8818 to finish our work. We came together to the great ravine behind the Theatre. It is empty save for trees and weeds. Beyond the ravine there is a plain, and beyond the plain there lies the Uncharted Forest, about which men must not think.

    We were gathering the papers and the rags which the wind had blown from the Theatre, when we saw an iron bar among the weeds. It was old and rusted by many rains. We pulled with all our strength, but we could not move it. So we called International 4-8818, and together we scraped the earth around the bar. Of a sudden the earth fell in before us, and we saw an old iron grill over a black hole.

    International 4-8818 stepped back. But we pulled at the grill and it gave way. And then we saw iron rings as steps leading down a shaft into a darkness without bottom.

    “We shall go down,” we said to International 4-8818.

    “It is forbidden,” they answered.

    We said: “The Council does not know of this hole, so it cannot be forbidden.”

    And they answered: “Since the Council does not know of this hole, there can be no law permitting to enter it. And everything which is not permitted by law is forbidden.”

    But we said: “We shall go, none the less.”

    They were frightened, but they stood by and watched us go.

    We hung on the iron rings with our hands and our feet. We could see nothing below us. And above us the hole open upon the sky grew smaller and smaller, till it came to be the size of a button. But still we went down. Then our foot touched the ground. We rubbed our eyes, for we could not see. Then our eyes became used to the darkness, but we could not believe what we saw.

    No men known to us could have built this place, nor the men known to our brothers who lived before us, and yet it was built by men. It was a great tunnel. Its walls were hard and smooth to the touch; it felt like stone, but it was not stone. On the ground there were long thin tracks of iron, but it was not iron; it felt smooth and cold as glass. We knelt, and we crawled forward, our hand groping along the iron line to see where it would lead. But there was an unbroken night ahead. Only the iron tracks glowed through it, straight and white, calling us to follow. But we could not follow, for we were losing the puddle of light behind us. So we turned and we crawled back, our hand on the iron line. And our heart beat in our fingertips, without reason. And then we knew.

    We knew suddenly that this place was left from the Unmentionable Times. So it was true, and those Times had been, and all the wonders of those Times. Hundreds upon hundreds of years ago men knew secrets which we have lost. And we thought: “This is a foul place. They are damned who touch the things of the Unmentionable Times.” But our hand which followed the track, as we crawled, clung to the iron as if it would not leave it, as if the skin of our hand were thirsty and begging of the metal some secret fluid beating in its coldness.

    We returned to the earth. International 4-8818 looked upon us and stepped back.

    “Equality 7-2521,” they said, “your face is white.”

    But we could not speak and we stood looking upon them.

    They backed away, as if they dared not touch us. Then they smiled, but it was not a gay smile; it was lost and pleading. But still we could not speak. Then they said:

    “We shall report our find to the City Council and both of us will be rewarded.”

    And then we spoke. Our voice was hard and there was no mercy in our voice. We said:

    “We shall not report our find to the City Council. We shall not report it to any men.”

    They raised their hands to their ears, for never had they heard such words as these.

    “International 4-8818,” we asked, “will you report us to the Council and see us lashed to death before your eyes?”

    They stood straight all of a sudden and they answered: “Rather would we die.”

    “Then,” we said, “keep silent. This place is ours. This place belongs to us, Equality 7-2521, and to no other men on earth. And if ever we surrender it, we shall surrender our life with it also.”

    Then we saw that the eyes of International 4-8818 were full to the lids with tears they dared not drop. They whispered, and their voice trembled, so that their words lost all shape:

    “The will of the Council is above all things, for it is the will of our brothers, which is holy. But if you wish it so, we shall obey you. Rather shall we be evil with you than good with all our brothers. May the Council have mercy upon both our hearts!”

    Then we walked away together and back to the Home of the Street Sweepers. And we walked in silence.

    Thus did it come to pass that each night, when the stars are high and the Street Sweepers sit in the City Theatre, we, Equality 7-2521, steal out and run through the darkness to our place. It is easy to leave the Theatre; when the candles are blown out and the Actors come onto the stage, no eyes can see us as we crawl under our seat and under the cloth of the tent. Later, it is easy to steal through the shadows and fall in line next to International 4-8818, as the column leaves the Theatre. It is dark in the streets and there are no men about, for no men may walk through the City when they have no mission to walk there. Each night, we run to the ravine, and we remove the stones which we have piled upon the iron grill to hide it from the men. Each night, for three hours, we are under the earth, alone.

    We have stolen candles from the Home of the Street Sweepers, we have stolen flints and knives and paper, and we have brought them to this place. We have stolen glass vials and powders and acids from the Home of the Scholars. Now we sit in the tunnel for three hours each night and we study. We melt strange metals, and we mix acids, and we cut open the bodies of the animals which we find in the City Cesspool. We have built an oven of the bricks we gathered in the streets. We burn the wood we find in the ravine. The fire flickers in the oven and blue shadows dance upon the walls, and there is no sound of men to disturb us.

    We have stolen manuscripts. This is a great offense. Manuscripts are precious, for our brothers in the Home of the Clerks spend one year to copy one single script in their clear handwriting. Manuscripts are rare and they are kept in the Home of the Scholars. So we sit under the earth and we read the stolen scripts. Two years have passed since we found this place. And in these two years we have learned more than we had learned in the ten years of the Home of the Students.

    We have learned things which are not in the scripts. We have solved secrets of which the Scholars have no knowledge. We have come to see how great is the unexplored, and many lifetimes will not bring us to the end of our quest. But we wish no end to our quest. We wish nothing, save to be alone and to learn, and to feel as if with each day our sight were growing sharper than the hawk’s and clearer than rock crystal.

    Strange are the ways of evil. We are false in the faces of our brothers. We are defying the will of our Councils. We alone, of the thousands who walk this earth, we alone in this hour are doing a work which has no purpose save that we wish to do it. The evil of our crime is not for the human mind to probe. The nature of our punishment, if it be discovered, is not for the human heart to ponder. Never, not in the memory of the Ancient Ones’ Ancients, never have men done that which we are doing.

    And yet there is no shame in us and no regret. We say to ourselves that we are a wretch and a traitor. But we feel no burden upon our spirit and no fear in our heart. And it seems to us that our spirit is clear as a lake troubled by no eyes save those of the sun. And in our heart—strange are the ways of evil!—in our heart there is the first peace we have known in twenty years.

    PART TWO

    Liberty 5-3000… Liberty five-three thousand … Liberty 5-3000….

    We wish to write this name. We wish to speak it, but we dare not speak it above a whisper. For men are forbidden to take notice of women, and women are forbidden to take notice of men. But we think of one among women, they whose name is Liberty 5-3000, and we think of no others. The women who have been assigned to work the soil live in the Homes of the Peasants beyond the City. Where the City ends there is a great road winding off to the north, and we Street Sweepers must keep this road clean to the first milepost. There is a hedge along the road, and beyond the hedge lie the fields. The fields are black and ploughed, and they lie like a great fan before us, with their furrows gathered in some hand beyond the sky, spreading forth from that hand, opening wide apart as they come toward us, like black pleats that sparkle with thin, green spangles. Women work in the fields, and their white tunics in the wind are like the wings of sea-gulls beating over the black soil.

    And there it was that we saw Liberty 5-3000 walking along the furrows. Their body was straight and thin as a blade of iron. Their eyes were dark and hard and glowing, with no fear in them, no kindness and no guilt. Their hair was golden as the sun; their hair flew in the wind, shining and wild, as if it defied men to restrain it. They threw seeds from their hand as if they deigned to fling a scornful gift, and the earth was a beggar under their feet.

    We stood still; for the first time did we know fear, and then pain. And we stood still that we might not spill this pain more precious than pleasure.

    Then we heard a voice from the others call their name: “Liberty 5-3000,” and they turned and walked back. Thus we learned their name, and we stood watching them go, till their white tunic was lost in the blue mist.

    And the following day, as we came to the northern road, we kept our eyes upon Liberty 5-3000 in the field. And each day thereafter we knew the illness of waiting for our hour on the northern road. And there we looked at Liberty 5-3000 each day. We know not whether they looked at us also, but we think they did. Then one day they came close to the hedge, and suddenly they turned to us. They turned in a whirl and the movement of their body stopped, as if slashed off, as suddenly as it had started. They stood still as a stone, and they looked straight upon us, straight into our eyes. There was no smile on their face, and no welcome. But their face was taut, and their eyes were dark. Then they turned as swiftly, and they walked away from us.

    But the following day, when we came to the road, they smiled. They smiled to us and for us. And we smiled in answer. Their head fell back, and their arms fell, as if their arms and their thin white neck were stricken suddenly with a great lassitude. They were not looking upon us, but upon the sky. Then they glanced at us over their shoulder, as we felt as if a hand had touched our body, slipping softly from our lips to our feet.

    Every morning thereafter, we greeted each other with our eyes. We dared not speak. It is a transgression to speak to men of other Trades, save in groups at the Social Meetings. But once, standing at the hedge, we raised our hand to our forehead and then moved it slowly, palm down, toward Liberty 5-3000. Had the others seen it, they could have guessed nothing, for it looked only as if we were shading our eyes from the sun. But Liberty 5-3000 saw it and understood. They raised their hand to their forehead and moved it as we had. Thus, each day, we greet Liberty 5-3000, and they answer, and no men can suspect.

    We do not wonder at this new sin of ours. It is our second Transgression of Preference, for we do not think of all our brothers, as we must, but only of one, and their name is Liberty 5-3000. We do not know why we think of them. We do not know why, when we think of them, we feel all of a sudden that the earth is good and that it is not a burden to live. We do not think of them as Liberty 5-3000 any longer. We have given them a name in our thoughts. We call them the Golden One. But it is a sin to give men names which distinguish them from other men. Yet we call them the Golden One, for they are not like the others. The Golden One are not like the others.

    And we take no heed of the law which says that men may not think of women, save at the Time of Mating. This is the time each spring when all the men older than twenty and all the women older than eighteen are sent for one night to the City Palace of Mating. And each of the men have one of the women assigned to them by the Council of Eugenics. Children are born each winter, but women never see their children and children never know their parents. Twice have we been sent to the Palace of Mating, but it is an ugly and shameful matter, of which we do not like to think.

    We had broken so many laws, and today we have broken one more. Today, we spoke to the Golden One.

    The other women were far off in the field, when we stopped at the hedge by the side of the road. The Golden One were kneeling alone at the moat which runs through the field. And the drops of water falling from their hands, as they raised the water to their lips, were like sparks of fire in the sun. Then the Golden One saw us, and they did not move, kneeling there, looking at us, and circles of light played upon their white tunic, from the sun on the water of the moat, and one sparkling drop fell from a finger of their hand held as frozen in the air.

    Then the Golden One rose and walked to the hedge, as if they had heard a command in our eyes. The two other Street Sweepers of our brigade were a hundred paces away down the road. And we thought that International 4-8818 would not betray us, and Union 5-3992 would not understand. So we looked straight upon the Golden One, and we saw the shadows of their lashes on their white cheeks and the sparks of sun on their lips. And we said:

    “You are beautiful, Liberty 5-3000.”

    Their face did not move and they did not avert their eyes. Only their eyes grew wider, and there was triumph in their eyes, and it was not triumph over us, but over things we could not guess.

    Then they asked:

    “What is your name?”

    “Equality 7-2521,” we answered.

    “You are not one of our brothers, Equality 7-2521, for

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    Effects of Mindfulness Training
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    Turki M A H D I Alqarni

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    .

    Research Article

    © 2021 Turki Mahdi Alqarni and Mohammad Ahmed Hammad.
    This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons

    Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
    (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)

    Received: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021

    Effects of Mindfulness Training Program on the
    Impulsivity Among Students with Learning Disabilities

    Turki Mahdi Alqarni

    Special Education Department, Najran University,
    King Abdulaziz Road, Najran 66255, Saudi Arabia

    Corresponding Author

    Mohammad Ahmed Hammad

    Special Education Department, Najran University,
    King Abdulaziz Road, Najran 66255, Saudi Arabia

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/jesr-2021-0088

    Abstract

    In recent years, many studies showed positive effects of implementing mindfulness practices according to some
    cognitive and psychical well-being measurements among many participants; especially, adolescents and
    adults. Few studies appeared on the effectiveness of mindfulness practices for students with learning
    disabilities. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training programs on the
    impulsivity levels for participants with learning disabilities in inclusive elementary schools in Saudi Arabia.
    Thirty participating children with learning disabilities were divided randomly into two equivalent groups
    (experimental and control groups). Pre-and post-assessment using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11,
    Patton et al., 1995) were completed before and after the end of mindfulness sessions scheduled for ten weeks.
    Results indicated that the experimental group of children with learning disabilities significantly reduced their
    impulsivity in all impulsivity scale domains on the BIS-11. The authors discussed the impact of mindfulness
    intervention in reducing the impulsive behavior of students with learning disabilities. Finally, implications and
    recommendations were also noted in this study.

    Keywords: mindfulness, impulsivity, students with learning disabilities

    1. Introduction

    Learning disability is one of the most common persuasive disability, affecting 5% of public school
    students (Cortiella & Horowitz, 2014). Although the debate continues around the definition and
    processes for diagnosing learning disabilities, this disability reflects a deficit in one or more related
    cognitive processes such as attention, memory, cognition, reasoning, and oral language (Association,
    2013). Learning disabilities appear in essential academic areas and language skills such as reading,
    writing, arithmetic, and oral expression. Also, learning disabilities may involve a deficit in social skills,
    social interaction, social perception, and understanding other perspectives (Stegemann, 2016).

    In comparison with children without disabilities, children with learning disabilities are likely to

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    encounter many internal problems (anxiety and depression), external problems such as delinquency,
    aggression, impulsivity, and a feeling of loneliness associated with peers (Al-Yagon, 2012). Also, they
    face many challenges in mental health in adulthood (Milligan et al., 2019). This fact was also confirmed
    by many studies that children with learning disabilities exhibit an inability to perceive information,
    have emotional, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, exhibit problems in executive functions and
    memory, and have insufficient attention, which makes them face many difficulties during the
    implementation of the tasks and school assignments (Enoch, 2015; Haydicky et al., 2012; Montague,
    2008).

    Therefore, the impact of learning disability is essential, widespread and has negative
    repercussions in the long term, especially in the learning process and academic performance, and
    therefore educators and specialists should intervene to face these problems before they are
    exacerbated, and ensure healthy well-being is provided to those children (Johnson & Viljoen, 2017;
    Wilson et al., 2009).

    2. Literature Review

    Impulsive behaviors are known as a broad concept which has different meanings, such as acting before
    thinking, poor planning, and giving into cravings (Kirby & Finch, 2010), an inability to delay
    gratification, and poor motivation control (Sariyska et al., 2017), poor judgment and consequences, and
    low levels of patience (Salaria & Singh, 2015). Also, children with impulsive behavior make decisions
    and choose solutions quickly without thinking about the consequences (Al-Dababneh & Al-Zboon,
    2018). Many researchers have linked this impulsivity to risk, poor planning, and quick decision-making
    (Barahmand et al., 2015).

    Impulsivity may also be known as a natural personality (Salaria & Singh, 2015). However, high
    levels of impulsivity relate to many behavioral difficulties in childhood such as aggression, peer
    relationship problems, and disruptive behavior (Barahmand et al., 2015), attention deficit issues, flawed
    thinking, risky actions, and addiction (Crews & Boettiger, 2009; De Wit, 2009), and making decisions
    without considering the consequences, and weakness in problem-solving (Al-Dababneh & Al-Zboon,
    2018; Nkrumah et al., 2015).

    Impulsivity also harms school and academic work, as impulsivity has been associated with many
    reading mistakes (Sariyska et al., 2017). Moreover, recent theoretical studies have indicated that children
    with impulsive behavior have a reading and math deficit and weakness in attention and awareness
    compared to children without impulsivity (reflective children) (Rezaei et al., 2013; Umaru, 2013).
    Additionally, children with impulsive behavior are more likely to provide incorrect solutions during tests
    due to only looking at the first solution (Barahmand et al., 2015). Furthermore, they also fail to perform
    well in school tasks due to their inability to recognize the correctness of responses before choosing the
    appropriate option (Sariyska et al., 2017); for example, impulsive children like selecting the first response
    that comes to their mind without considering the accuracy of responses (Nkrumah et al., 2015). Thus, it
    is essential to explain children’s low academic achievement may not be due to a lack of intellectual
    capabilities (Hall & Theron, 2016). Impulsivity may be one reason for low achievement, both in children
    with and without disabilities, which leads them to guess rather than thinking (Lee & Oak, 2012). The
    teachers also emphasized this as they pointed out that children who are impulsive usually when they
    show impulsive behavior face trouble in thinking before understanding attitudes, and their assignments
    are incomplete with many errors (Nkrumah et al., 2015).

    In regards to the relationship of impulsivity to learning difficulties, there are some children with
    specific learning difficulties (SLD) who may have some traits such as lack of attention, hyperactivity,
    and impulsivity (Association, 2016). Many studies reported that children with SLD have high
    impulsivity levels, especially in severe cases (Barahmand et al., 2015; Donfrancesco et al., 2005; Sariyska
    et al., 2017). According to previous studies, Purvis and Tannock (2000) found that children with
    learning difficulties have levels of high impulsivity, especially among students who exhibit some types
    of dyslexia. Their research also showed that children with ADHD and reading disabilities are too

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    impulsive compared to children with ADHD without reading disabilities which indicates the impact of
    impulsivity and its association with dyslexia. Weed et al. (2011) also found that children with dyslexia
    tended to be faster in their responses and showed the highest level of cognitive impulsivity than other
    groups of children. The results of the study also indicated that children with learning difficulties have
    high levels of impulsivity and lack of premeditation, and lack of excitement and urgency or lack of
    perseverance. Also, other studies were completed related to impulsive behavior among SLD children,
    and indicated they have impairment in motor control, violation of social time rules, distraction
    inhibition (Al-Dababneh & Al-Zboon, 2018; Donfrancesco et al., 2005), and poor organization (Weed
    et al., 2011).

    Mindfulness is a psychological concept associated with positive psychology (Enoch, 2015).
    Krishnakumar and Robinson (2015, p. 579) defined mindfulness as “intentionally focusing attention at
    the present moment, awareness and acceptance of experiences gradually, without making judgments,
    evaluation or actions on experiences, emotions or thoughts with an open mind and motivated reviews.”
    There are two primary dimensions in mindfulness, including awareness of the present moment and
    unevaluated opinions (Enoch, 2015). Thus, through this method’s continuous practice, trainees learn
    to control their attention so their focus is only on the present moment (e.g., breathing) (Tarrasch,
    2018). Furthermore, they focused on the task they are doing without allowing their minds to be
    distracted, providing students with a new perspective that facilitates thinking and learning (Haydicky
    et al., 2012).

    Mindfulness interventions are one of the current beneficial methods, which have begun to appear
    over the last thirty years ago, as there has been an increased interest in the use of mindfulness in clinical
    practices (Franco et al., 2016). Also, many techniques have emerged that were incorporated into
    treatment programs adapted from Buddhism and other eastern meditative practices, which are
    believed to produce significant results in the success of the treatment programs (Schonert-Reichl &
    Lawlor, 2010). For example, Samarghandi et al. (2019) conducted a study focusing on investigating
    mindfulness’s predictive role in externalizing disorders among 250 high school students. The
    externalizing disorders of this study included aggression, inattention, lawlessness and impulsivity, and
    other disorders. Several statistical analyses were used to generate the results, which indicated a
    significant negative relationship between mindfulness and externalizing disorders and that
    mindfulness could have valid prediction for symptoms of externalizing disorders. Finally, they
    suggested that mindfulness training can be used with, and have significant advantages for, attention
    and impulsivity problems of students who are adolescents.

    Additional benefits of mindfulness with high school students were noticed in a study conducted
    by Franco et al. (2016) that implemented a psycho-educative training program based on mindfulness
    to reduce the level of impulsive and aggressive behaviors for a sample of students in high schools. The
    results were statistically significant in terms of analysis in the cognitive and total impulsivity
    dimensions, but medium in other dimensions of impulsivity and aggression. It was noticed that
    mindfulness training allowed students to recognize the first signs of impulsive behaviors by using
    practices and skills developed through mindfulness meditation.

    Many studies support mindfulness to achieve greater relaxation, well-being, and academic
    improvement (Amutio et al., 2015; Choi et al., 2012). Recent findings of neurodevelopment also showed
    that mindfulness and emotional, social, and learning programs are implemented in schools. They have
    contributed to improving the executive functions of children and adolescents in terms of inhibitory
    control and enabled them to manage excessive levels of negative emotions interfering with academic
    performance (Franco et al., 2016; Sanger & Dorjee, 2015).

    Adolescent students generally exhibit undesired behaviors that can hinder their academic
    progress and may have adverse effects on other students’ learning in the classrooms. The most
    challenging behaviors impacting students’ academic and social skills are aggression and impulsivity
    (Samarghandi et al., 2019). There are many effects of mindfulness in minimizing aggression and
    impulsivity for adolescents (Franco et al., 2016; Zare et al., 2016). Mindfulness meditation was beneficial
    in reducing impulsivity or acting without thinking for adolescents. Moreover, mindfulness reduced

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    impulsivity through supporting patients to determine the effectiveness of symptoms when making
    decisions impulsively (Zare et al., 2016). Mindfulness is a skill that helps students keep their attention
    focused on the present moment; therefore, their attention will no longer be concentrated on past or
    future experiences (Franco et al., 2016).

    Several studies with both clinical and non-clinical samples have also demonstrated mindfulness-
    based training programs having many beneficial self-control and emotion management outcomes,
    including anger management (Fix & Fix, 2013). Some studies have also evaluated the effectiveness of
    mindfulness-based training programs and found that they can reduce impulsivity and aggression levels
    of children in school (i Farrés et al., 2019; Lattimore et al., 2011; Oberle et al., 2012). Other studies have
    also indicated a positive association of mindfulness with self-regulation (Leyland et al., 2019; Montague,
    2008) and self-efficacy (Logan & Laursen, 2019), emotional organization (Hülsheger et al., 2013; Roemer
    et al., 2015), sympathy (McConville et al., 2017), improving attention level and self-control (Enoch,
    2015), reducing stress (Lindsay et al., 2018), controlling anger (Gouda et al., 2016). improving quality of
    life and reducing mental health problems such as anxiety and depression (Amutio et al., 2015; Thornton
    et al., 2017).

    Although mindfulness practices may seem to be suitable for adolescents or adults only, many studies
    indicated that young children have benefited from mindfulness training, as it was found that young
    children have the cognitive ability and awareness to engage in mindfulness activities (Enoch, 2015;
    Kaunhoven & Dorjee, 2017; Montague, 2008; Thompson & Gauntlett-Gilbert, 2008). Mindfulness has
    benefited many students with impulsive behaviors in elementary schools. For instance, Tarrasch (2018)
    conducted a qualitative study to investigate the effects of mindfulness practices on the attention of
    students in selected primary schools. Mindfulness training enabled primary school students to react with
    more self-control and less impulsivity; in fact, mindfulness mediation improved selective attention and
    impulsivity of primary school students and may have had critical outcomes for their well-being.

    Indeed, impulsivity and mindfulness are naturally reciprocal (Murphy & MacKillop, 2012).
    Logically, when a person exhibits impulsivity, they are more likely to behave or act without paying
    attention to the future consequences that may negatively impact others. But thinking mindfully about
    the outcomes of such behaviors may reduce the possibility of impulse behaviors in many
    circumstances. Although impulsivity and mindfulness have a typical present-centered concentration,
    their presence is described differently (Lattimore et al., 2011; Peters et al., 2011; Stratton, 2009).
    Mindfulness seems to emphasize the notice of action and experiences without reactive behaviors,
    whereas impulsivity is only focusing on “now” without paying attention to the future or the positive or
    negative consequences of actions (i Farrés et al., 2019; Zare et al., 2016).

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been associated with many beneficial outcomes for
    students with learning disabilities. There are many results of studies indicating the effectiveness of
    mindfulness training for children with learning disabilities, such as (Beauchemin et al., 2008) study
    which indicated that through training 35 children with learning disabilities on mindfulness for five
    weeks, there was a decrease in the level of anxiety, and an improvement in social skills. A study
    conducted by Haydicky et al. (2012) indicated that the level of anxiety in children with learning
    disabilities decreased, and the level of attention improved. The results of a study completed by
    Thornton et al. (2017) also showed the effectiveness of mindfulness training in children with learning
    disabilities in reducing anxiety and aggression, self-control, and school fear.

    Mindfulness training has been used to decrease the impulsivity of students aged adolescents and
    youth frequently in special education. Magaldi and Park-Taylor (2016) carried out a study aimed at
    exploring the advantages of mindfulness practices in special education classrooms. In terms of
    impulsivity, the authors found that being mindful in situations helped students with special needs
    realize the reality of situations accurately and respond positively, reducing impulsive behaviors.
    Additionally, mindfulness provided students with the ability to develop their volitional control instead
    of adhering rigidly and increasing their self-control abilities and decreasing impulsive behaviors.

    The literature indicated that some studies were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of
    mindfulness training in decreasing impulsive behaviors for elementary, middle, and high school

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    students. However, none of the studies examined the impact of mindfulness practices in reducing
    impulsivity levels specifically of students with learning disabilities in elementary schools. The present
    study attempted to fill this gap by implementing mindfulness intervention with elementary school
    students with learning disabilities exhibiting impulsive behaviors. Given the importance of
    mindfulness practices in reducing undesirable behaviors for students with disabilities, the current
    study aimed to reveal the impact of a training program based on mindfulness implemented on
    elementary students with learning disabilities who exhibit high impulsivity levels. Thus, the hypotheses
    were that students with learning disabilities exhibiting impulsive behaviors and participating in a
    training program based on mindfulness would exhibit a significant reduction of their impulsive
    behaviors compared to other students with impulsive behaviors who had not been exposed to
    mindfulness intervention.

    3. Methodology

    3.1 Research Goal

    The current study aimed to investigate whether mindfulness training reduces impulsivity for students
    with learning disabilities through the use of experimental design with two groups.

    3.2 Sample and Data Collection

    The current study has (n=30) students with learning disabilities attending inclusive schools in the
    Najran region for the first academic term 2019/2020. The participants were divided into two groups,
    with 15 students in each group. This study was approved by the department of scientific research ethics
    at Najran University. In the first meeting, all participating children were notified of the study’s goals.
    They were provided a written agreement to have signed by their parents or guardians to approve their
    participation. None of the study participants refused or discontinued participation during the training
    program. Also, the parents were provided with detailed information about the study. All students in
    the two groups were administered the pre-assessment instrument, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-
    11). The experimental group was exposed to the mindfulness intervention; however, the control group
    received no intervention. Once the mindfulness training was finalized for the experimental group,
    students in both experimental and control groups took the post-assessment to measure their impulsive
    behaviors. To ensure the homogeneity and parity between the two groups in terms of impulsivity, one-
    way ANOVA was used to compare the participants’ scores in both groups based on Barratt
    Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) (see table 1).

    Table 1. ANOVA for the differences between groups’ mean scores in the pre-application of Barratt
    Impulsiveness Scale

    Barratt Impulsiveness subscale Sum of Squares Mean Square F. ratio Sig.

    Attentional Impulsiveness Between Groups 0.20 0.20 0.150 0.703
    Within Groups 24.0 1.33
    Total 24.2

    Motor Impulsiveness Between Groups 0.05 0.05 0.037 0.85
    Within Groups 24.5 1.36
    Total 24.5

    Non-Planning Impulsiveness Between Groups 0.45 0.45 0.196 0.663
    Within Groups 41.30 2.29
    Total 41.75

    Total Between Groups 1.25 1.25 1.14 0.711
    Within Groups 159.30 8.85
    Total 160.55

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    3.3 Mindfulness Workshop

    The experimental group participated in a weekly workshop held at 10 am through three sessions for
    ten-weeks. The control group of children did not receive the mindfulness intervention. The
    mindfulness program was provided to the children during the first of the study year by planning
    providers who were competent in applying mindfulness practices. Every session took 60 minutes, and
    the classroom environment was convenient in terms of quietness in resource rooms. Every skill was
    trained individually during the experiment to ensure no interference, among other different skills.
    Every session was followed by the same assignments, including revising homework, presenting and
    practicing a new skill, and providing new homework. The mindfulness training involved various skills
    for the experimental group, including detailed instructions for each skill, training exercises, and role-
    play to provide feedback and supervision. Children participated based on protocols involving three
    specific exercises aiming to raise children’s awareness of physical processes, feelings, and thoughts in
    every session.

    This training program’s adaption was based on multiple principles aiming to transfer the practices
    to exercises, especially during the first session. The training sessions were short, spending between five
    to ten minutes. Next, children were allowed to discuss their challenges, feelings, and discoveries. The
    length of training was increased from session to session during the academic term. At the end of every
    training session, students were gathered to share and discuss their experiences and difficulties and
    receive feedback about their participation. The mindfulness training was initiated based on the
    principles of mindfulness and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 2003)

    The principles of mindfulness are essential and have six crucial elements. (1) Non-judging, which
    means refusing to issue pre-judgment toward a statue or experience, whether it is good or bad, as it
    can be unbeneficial and controlling our minds. (2) Patience means understanding and accepting every
    moment in current life to control our minds. Also, some issues can be unclear, and thus students need
    to be patient. (3) Beginner’s Mind means dealing with recent experiences for the first time, not with
    previous attitudes and thoughts. (4) Trust means trusting current moments instead of focusing on the
    results. This trust will increase the mindful attention on the experiences and current position, and then
    the trainer will grant trust within the experiences and feelings of participants. (5) Acceptance means
    an individual increases self-acceptance and accepting situations. (6) Letting go means reinforcing the
    leaving concept of previous thoughts, feelings, and experiences and let them go away.

    Most of the training sessions were physical and joyful. When children had problems in
    concentration, short games were engaged before continuing in the protocol. This protocol was flexible
    to allow changes based on mood and level of concentration in each session. Practitioners encouraged
    trainees to practice for an extended time, and they record the formal practice with reinforcement in
    each group session. After each exercise, children shared their experiences and feelings. Children were
    also encouraged to practice the training sessions in their homes. Every workshop was initiated with a
    short conversation about the previous session and their training practices at home. Discussions of
    exercises were planned to offer various topics to develop the differed traits [see table 2].

    Table 2. Exercises used and their description

    Description Exercises

    Popping bubbles, smelling the flowers, breathing through the stomach, and counting during the process
    of breathing “inhale and exhale” ten times. The participant should be careful not to be distracted during
    the count because that makes him start again(

    Training for mindful
    breathing

    Reading an appropriate text for the child while lying down on his back with extended arms and legs,
    closed eyes, and systematic breathing. The meditation bubble means each idea enters the bubble, raises,
    and disappears when popping the bubble—practicing yoga.

    Meditation training to
    achieve relaxation.

    Focusing and paying attention to surrounding sounds, mentioning these sounds, and returning to focus
    and listening to new sounds again. Asking participants to imagine animals and imitate their sounds
    during practicing different experiences (such as a snake’s sound in a snake position). Also, asking them
    to run faster for one minute, then stop, freeze, breathe and heart, and then do a mindful walk.

    Training activities for
    mindful listening

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    Description Exercises

    During walking without wearing shoes, meditation and students listen to a text said by the trainer. These
    activities also include a slow, mindful walk with raising each leg and moving them from the ground with
    breathing concentration.

    Activities developing
    rational and mindful
    movement.

    Placing students’ hands at his back and asking his peers to put things and the student guesses the name
    of this thing through touches such as cars, animals, and fruits.

    Activities developing
    mindful attention of
    feelings associated with
    touch

    For example, participants taste various foods (sweet, salty, and sour) Activities for mindful
    taste

    Activity (mind in a glass) Activities for calming the
    mind to be clear and
    more focused

    Imagination a comfortable and secure place with the care of in-depth details. Training for imagination

    Table 3. Session by session content

    Session content Weeks

    Introducing and chatting, mindfulness as to reduce impulsivity. How do we train? 1

    Calm mind, dealing with ideas (yoga) 2

    How to deal with pressures. (for example, negative feelings, physical pain) 3

    Mindfulness for our reaction in stressful situations 4

    Improving the ability to select reactions in stressful situations 5

    Improving the ability for concentration 6

    Developing the growth of ability on concentration 7

    Developing our senses 8

    Practicing mindfulness in our daily life during various situations 9

    Abstract, revision, grow motivation to continue practicing 10

    3.4 Measurements

    Barratt’s Impulsive

    Article

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    What is Evidence-Based Therapy: EBT Interventions Subtitle

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    What is Evidence-Based Process? The EBT Process contains four steps: 1) Formulating the question (PICO) (Diagnosis, prognosis, etiology, harm) 2) Searching for and acquiring evidence from literature 3) Assessing the evidence for methodological validity and analyzing the study results for statistical significance and importance (Rapid critical Appraisal) 4) Applying, where appropriate, the valid study results to the patient

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    Step 1: Formulating the Question Patient, population, or problem Intervention Comparison Outcome

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    Once you have clearly identified the main elements of your question using the PICO framework, it is easy to write your question statement. (Narrow your search with filters). The following table provides some examples. {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} QUESTION TYPE PATIENT PROBLEM OR POPULATION INTERVENTION OR EXPOSURE COMPARISON OR CONTROL EXAMPLE OUTCOMEMEASURES Therapy (Treatment) In patients with OCD is CBT more effective than traditional psychotherapy in decreasing OCD symptoms? Prevention For obese children does the use of community activities compared to educational programs on lifestyle changes reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Diagnosis For psychosis is one type of assessment Another type of assessment more accurate for diagnosis? Prognosis In individual after exposing to traumatic event within the year after the traumatic event what is the relative risk of PTSD? Etiology Do adults who binge drink compared to those who do not binge drink have higher mortality rates?

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    Step 2: Searching For Evidence A search of the relevant literature was conducted including PSYCINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. PubMed (an open access database), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PSYCHINFO (subscription databases) are excellent resources to use when in need of evidence-based literature. All databases use MeSH subject headings as the official terms to describe concepts related in medical articles. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, which are created by the National Library of Medicine, can be thought of as a dictionary or thesaurus which assists in finding and using the correct terms to find the most relevant articles. Identifying MeSH terms can also be a challenge. PubMed includes a searchable database of MeSH terms which allow the user to type in a keyword and see the closest matching MeSH terms.

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    PubMed has designed a search page specifically for clinical queries. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinical/

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    Combing the whole process of search: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pVxRw-y8-M

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    Steps 3 and 4 Steps 3 and 4 of the EBT process will vary depending on the type of information you find in step 2. If you are working with primary studies then you will need to evaluate that study for validity and understand how the results of that study apply to your patient’s particular case. If you have found meta-analyses of primary resources then much of the validation will be provided for you in the analysis. Remember, EBT is a patient-centered process, so you must take into account other factors like patient preference and cost of treatment when determining the options for the patient. Through EBT research you may have found promising options for the patient, but your experience and judgment will be an important part of the process

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    {BC89EF96-8CEA-46FF-86C4-4CE0E7609802} Title 1 Mark for 8 options Author and Source   Design   Follow up   Format   Participants   Treating clinician (s)   Procedure   Summary of Finding 1 Mark 2 marks {BC89EF96-8CEA-46FF-86C4-4CE0E7609802} Clinical Question     -P -I -C -O 1 marks Assignment Grading Criteria Group No: _____ Names – ____________________________________________________________________________________ Background of study PICO

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    Rapid Critical Appraisal {BC89EF96-8CEA-46FF-86C4-4CE0E7609802} Guide Comments Are the results of the study valid? 1mark Are the research methods rigorous enough to ensure that the results properly represent the truth of the matter 1.5marks Characteristics of groups?   .5 3 Marks What are the results .5 Impact on outcomes? 1 Replicability for other clinicians .5 2 marks Are the subjects and participants in the study similar to your own patients? .5 Do the benefits of the intervention outweigh any risks? .5 How feasible and cost effective would it be to carry out the same intervention .5 Consider how your patients preferences and values fit with this style of intervention .5 2marks

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    Practice https://libguides.uams.edu/evidence_based_medicine/acquiring https://apps.lib.umn.edu/instruction/ebp/story_html5.html

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    What is Evidence-Based Therapy: EBT Interventions Uzma Asl. Zaidi Lamia Abdullah 1 2018-10-15T18:16:55Z 2022-03-21T02:10:45Z

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    Green brushed metal presentation (widescreen) 327 822 Microsoft Office PowerPoint شاشة عريضة 142 13 0 0 3 false الخطوط المستخدمة 4 نسق 1 عناوين الشرائح 13 Arial Calibri Georgia Times New Roman Brushed Metal 16×9 What is Evidence-Based Therapy: EBT Interventions What is Evidence-Based Process? Step 1: Formulating the Question Once you have clearly identified the main elements of your question using the PICO framework, it is easy to write your question statement. (Narrow your search with filters). The following table provides some examples. Step 2: Searching For Evidence عرض تقديمي في PowerPoint عرض تقديمي في PowerPoint https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrDIw2vFF4 Combing the whole process of search: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pVxRw-y8-M Steps 3 and 4 عرض تقديمي في PowerPoint Rapid Critical Appraisal Practice false false false 16.0000

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    Article

    Write an essay of 4 to 5 pages, double-spaced (1200 to 1600 words) in length, in standard manuscript form. The essay should have a title, and the pages should be numbered in the upper right-hand corner. All references to the texts should follow the MLA in-text style of citation. Your essay should be argumentative in tenor; that is, it should state a definite thesis about the works in question and endeavor to demonstrate or prove that thesis with evidence drawn from the texts. You may write on one of the suggestions below, or on a topic of your own devising. In any case, be sure that your essay articulates and endeavors to prove a clear thesis. Cite passages from the primary texts whenever possible. The questions or statements following each topic are meant as suggestions to guide your thinking. You do not necessarily have to address each one, nor should you feel yourself limited only to those ideas. The important thing is to write a coherent essay that responds to the topic in a thorough and well thought out manner. Above all, do not treat the topic suggestion as a series of short-answer essay questions.

    1. Compare the social system of the dystopian world in Ayn Rand’s Anthem with the social system in Ira Levin’s This Perfect Day. What sorts of family structures exist in each society? How are people’s mates and sex partners chosen, and how is it decided who is allowed to have children? How do those relationships affect people’s living arrangements? How similar or dissimilar are the social relations in each society to those of mid-century America? How does each novel represent self-chosen, pair-bonded families as a criticism of the social relations of the collectivized society?

    Article


    Kindly read this and respond accordingly

    Mary, a manager at Big Software, Inc, hired Chris to do general clerical work for her. She maintained control over his work, gave him day-to-day instructions regarding his duties, paid him on an hourly basis, and furnished all equipment he needed. Big Software, Inc for tax purposes claimed Chris as an independent contractor. Big was audited by the IRS who took the position that Chris was an employee. Is Chris an independent contractor, why or why not, and what is the effect of a finding of employee or independent contractor as far as the IRS is concerned?

    Article

     

    Goal: Develop a clinical practice question using PICO(T) that focuses on a clinical issue to improve the quality of care.

    Requirements:

    1. As a team, you will identify a clinical problem/opportunity, draft a PICOT question.
    2. Review the literature (using the articles you are reading for your weekly summaries, if possible), make recommendations.

    Submission Instructions:

    • The presentation should be original work and logically organized in current APA style including citation of references.
    • The presentation should be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.
    • Incorporate a minimum of 4 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work. 
      • 8

      Article

      Interview one of your classmates and ask them what they think about the articles they read each week. Were there any recommendations for practice that they thought could be implemented in their clinical practice tomorrow? Next week? Next year? What is their rationale? Do you agree or disagree? 

      Remember to cite your author!

      Citing personal communications in APA Style

      In APA Style, personal communication is any source that is not accessible to your readers. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list.

      Example

      Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2021).

      Submission Instructions:

      Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted, and cited in current APA style with support from at least two academic sources. Your initial post is worth 8 points.

      You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts and supporting your opinion with a reference. Your reply posts are worth 2 points (1 point per response.) 

      Quotes “…” cannot be used at a higher learning level for your assignments, so sentences need to be paraphrased and referenced.

      Acceptable references include scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions), journal articles, and books published in the last five years. No websites to be referenced without prior approval.

      Discussions must be posted in CANVAS to be graded. Uploaded documents will not be accepted.

      Please post your initial response by 11:59 PM ET Thursday, and comment on two posts by 11:59 PM ET Sunday.

        • 8

        Article

        Find and read a nursing scholarly article that relates to your clinical practice and is found in a peer-reviewed journal. Follow the instructions for the format in course textbook and write a 1-page summary.

        The weekly article summary assignment starts from Module 1 through Module 6. Each article summary is due in its following module. For example, Article Summary 1 must be submitted by 11:59 PM ET Sunday in Module 2, and Article Summary 6 must be submitted by 11:59 PM ET Sunday in Module 7.

         

          • 10

          Article

           Work one with attached article

          Read the article “Thinking Like a Nurse: A Research-Based Model of Clinical Judgment in Nursing” by Christine Tanner, which is linked below:

          In at least three pages, answer the following questions

           What do you feel are the greatest influences on clinical judgment?

           Is it experience, knowledge, or a combination of those things?

          . In your opinion, what part does intuition play in clinical judgment? 

           How do you think you’ll be able to develop nursing intuition?

          Additional sources are not required but if they are used, please cite them in APA format.

          Work 2

           

          A 60-year-old male patient is admitted with chest pain to the telemetry unit where you work. While having a bowel movement on the bedside commode, the patient becomes short of breath and diaphoretic. The ECG waveform shows bradycardia.

          What other assessment findings should you anticipate?

           Why does this patient probably have bradycardia?

           Does this dysrhythmia need treatment? 

           Why or why not? 

           What intervention would you implement first?

           What is the drug treatment and dosage of choice for symptomatic bradycardia? 

           How does this drug increase heart rate?

          Please use complete sentences to answer the questions. support your answers by using your textbooks, scholarly journals, and credible Internet sources.

          • 5

          Article

           Instructions: Search online for a nursing research article on a nursing topic that interests you. Write  2 page addressing the following: 
          1. Explain the Nursing Theory represented by the journal article.
          2. Determine if the theory was a grand, middle-range, or situation-specific nursing theory. Discuss. 
          2. Summarize the findings of the article.

           must be written in APA 7th edition format. Use at least 2 references in addition to course textbook, no older than 5 years.  

            • 10

            Article

             

            Find and read a nursing scholarly article that relates to your clinical practice and is found in a peer-reviewed journal. Follow the instructions for the format in course textbook and write a 1-page summary.

            The weekly article summary assignment starts from Module 1 through Module 6. Each article summary is due in its following module. For example, Article Summary 1 must be submitted by 11:59 PM ET Sunday in Module 2, and Article Summary 6 must be submitted by 11:59 PM ET Sunday in Module 7.

            Submission Instructions:

            • Must be a research article.
            • Write a 1-page summary using an outline of the steps of the research process, discuss the study type, purpose, and research question(s).
            • The summary is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.
            • The summary should be formatted per current APA and 1 page in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page.
            • Incorporate a minimum of 2 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work.
              • 8

              Article

              Conduct a search using the CSU Online Library, and locate an article that focuses on cloud computing and a recent trend within the computer industry, such as wearable technology, automated cars, or smart appliances. Your article of choice should be no more than five years old and at least three pages in length. Include the following components in your critique.

              1. Summarize the article. Explain the main points of the article. What is the purpose of the article?

              2. Offer your own opinion. Explain what you think about the article. Describe several points with which you agree or disagree.

              3. Relate the article to the information we studied in this unit and throughout the course, such as Web browsers and the relationship between devices and the Internet.

              4. Explain how cloud computing affects your use of email, software, and hardware applications. Explain the relationship of these components with networks, the Internet, and intranets.

              5. Describe at least one way that cloud computing is changing how you work with the Microsoft Office products we worked with in this course.

              For help finding articles, review 

              Finding Articles:  A Quick Start Guide

              . Your article critique should be a minimum of two pages, not counting title page and references page. Use APA format for your paper, including all references and in-text citations.