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Ancient history homework help

Please write a paper on the topic of persecution of Kirishitans in Japan.

Step 1: Skim through the following article (especially the part with hi-lites) to learn about the missionary works and slavery in Asia. 

Step 2: Research about the relationship between the slavery and Portugal’s maritime expansion in the 15th and 16th century. Learn how Goa and Macau came under their control.

Step 3: Write a paper by articulating on the following points. Please make sure your writing flows as a coherent piece of argument and do not attempt to answer each topic separately.

• Identify the strategy the Portuguese & the Jesuits’ took to expand their influence in Asia. 

• Research and make an educated speculation as to why Tokugawa bakufu eliminated Kirishitans from Japan.

• Discuss what role you think the Kirishitan persecution played in Japan’s history. 

Technical Requirements:

– Your paper’s title is “Contemplation on the Persecution of Christianity in Japan”

– Keep it to 500-600 words total. Use Word for its word count function. 

– Please do not use direct quotations from the article (unless it is just a phrase or two) since it is a short paper. Please refer to facts and ideas from other sources by rephrasing or summarizing them with your own words. Use only the author’s last name and page number to indicate your source. No bibliography needed. 

Example: “In Sugano’s observation, Yoritomo’s relentless attempt to eliminate potential rivals, including his own brothers, contributed to the short span of Minamoto shogun dynasty in the Kamakura period. (Sugano: p134)” “According to a view shared on Wikipedia website, Shimabara was not a Christian uprising but an uprising of starving peasants against a harsh taxation policy.” 

– The paper will be checked for plagiarism through the school’s computer system.

Ancient history homework help

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Chapter Two

Christianity and the Evolving Context of 16th

and 17th Century Japan

The earliest documented conversions to Christianity took place in the period

between the arrival of Francis Xavier (1506-1552CE)307 in 1549 and the last martyrdom of a

Christian missionary in Japan, Mancio Konishi (1600-1644CE) in 1644,308 a period known as

the Kirishitan Century. Traditionally English language scholarship on the period has focused

on southern Japan, especially Kyushu, however Christianity reached every corner of the

country. 309 Japan’s changing socio-political context was the most important factor

influencing, expanding, and restricting both the mission and conversion. The Kirishitan

Century traversed three periods of Japanese history, the end of the Muromachi Period

(Muromachi jidai が 6 , 1336-1573CE), the entirety of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period

307 Biographies include: Coleridge ed., The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier, 2 vols; Xavier,

Epistolae S. Francisci Xaverii aliaque eius scripta: ex integro refecta textibus, introductionibus, notis,
appendicibus auctua; Bartoli and Maffei, The Life of St. Francis Xavier: Apostle of the Indies and Japan; Cieslik,
Furanshisuko Zabieru: kibō no kiseki; Venn, The Missionary Life and Labours of Francis Xavier. Lacouture,
Jesuits: A Multibiography, 100-137.

308 For a brief chronology of the period, see: Kirishitan Bunkwa Kenkyu Kwai (Institute of Early
Japanese Christian Culture) ed., Chronology of Kirishitan (Early Christian Era in Japan).

309 Cieslik and Ōta, Kirishitan, 85-108.

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(Azuchi Momoyama jidai は6 , 1573-1603CE), and the beginning of the Edo

Period (1603-1868CE),310 and consequently, also traversed Japan’s transformation from

medieval (Chūsei ) to early modern (Kinsei ).311 The mission was thereby subjected

to the shifting socio-political situation and governance associated with each period and the

transition between them. Crossing these contexts and time periods the Kirishitan Century

is often divided into two parts, a period of growth (1549-1614CE) and a period of

persecution and hiding which extends from 1614 beyond the end of the Kirishitan Century

until the re-emergence of the Kirishitan in 1865 and the end of persecution in 1873.312

This chapter describes the genesis of the Jesuit missions to Japan and the changing

Japanese political context within which the mission existed. It argues that the mission’s

success or failure was intimately tied to this changing political context. Moreover, the

chapter argues that the eventual turn of those in power against Christianity was the result

of cumulative factors including the Tokugawa bakufu’s consolidation of political power,

trade concerns, fear of colonization, and a series of seemingly random scandals. The chapter

concludes that anti-Kirishitan policy was part of a wider political shift through which the

Tokugawa bakufu, following their Oda and Toyotomi forbearers, attempted to control the

controllable and outlaw the uncontrollable elements of society.

310 Frédéric, “Historical and Artistic Periods,” 336.
311 Hall, Nagahara, and Yamamura, “Introduction,” 11; Ebisawa, Nanban bunka – Nichiō bunka kōshō,

2; Shimizu, Kirishitan kinseishi, 21.
312 Kataoka, Nihon Kirishitan junkyōshi, 3-4. Miyazaki Kentarō provides a similar model. Miyazaki,

Kakure Kirishitan: Orasho, 18-21; Miyazaki, “Roman Catholic Mission in Pre-Modern Japan,” 4-5.

Masahiro Sugano

93

The Arrival of the Jesuits in Japan

The Society of Jesus (Iezusukai ) emerged in what Jonathan Wright

terms a ‘new found frailty in Christendom’313 perhaps better described as a ‘shattering of

Christian unity’314 which followed the Sack of Rome in 1527, growing religious animosity,

the Reformation,315 and wider challenges and changes to traditional European systems of

knowledge. 316 Christianity as experienced by the Jesuit founders was complex, ‘local

environments routinely outflanked or complicated centralizing mandates’ 317 so that it

tolerated and encouraged a range of religious actors, and emphasized various

commitments and elements.318 Religious dissent and criticism were not exclusive to the

growing numbers of rebelling and persecuted Protestants in Europe, although they played

a central role in the creation of a divided Christendom.319 Rather, the Catholic laity also

demanded improvements to the clergy, sermons and other practices.320 Religious upheaval

was only one facet of the early 16th Century European context. Socio-political change was

spurred by Spain’s and Portugal’s emergence as new political, economic and military

powers, the discovery of the Americas which radically expanded the boundaries of the

313 Wright, The Jesuits: Missions, Myths and Histories, 14-15. Christopher Hollis notes that the division

of Christendom was not a new phenomenon, but had been developing long before the Reformation. Hollis, A
History of the Jesuits, 7.

314 Alden, The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, Its Empire, and Beyond 1540-
1750, 3.

315 Wright, The Jesuits, 14-15; Cieslik and Ōta, Kirishitan, 5, 24-27.
316 Foss, The Founding of the Jesuits, 1540, 26-58.
317 Homza, “The religious milieu of the young Ignatius,” 13.
318 Ibid., 13-26.
319 Wright, The Jesuits, 18-19.
320 Homza, “The religious milieu of the young Ignatius,” 13.

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known world, and naval developments which allowed the New and Old worlds to be easily

traversed.321 Globally, Christendom was further threatened by the rise of the Turks, and

associated risks to the sovereignty of Christian lands in the Mediterranean.322 The Church

responded with reforms following the Council of Trent (1545-1563), improvements to her

religious orders, the creation of new orders including the Jesuits,323 and the dispatch of

missionaries around the world.324 The Jesuits’ founding moments took place in Paris on

August 15th, 1534, in the midst of these highly complicated theological and political

situations.325 The Order was officially recognized by the Church in Pope Paul II’s papal bull,

Regimini militantis ecclesiae, in 1540.326 In Europe, the Order evolved to combat heresy,

however, for the early Jesuits and many who followed, it was pilgrimage and the spread of

the faith to distant lands which was of central importance. 327 Although the Jesuits

developed as a unique religious order, they were firmly the product of 16th Century

Catholicism, monastic tradition, and interaction with Europe’s contemporaneous

theological-political context.328

321 Ibid.; Boxer, Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 1415-1825: A Succinct Survey, 1-21; Cieslik

and Ōta, Kirishitan, 28-31.
322 Alden, The Making of an Enterprise, 3; Foss, The Founding of the Jesuits, 3-25.
323 Alden, The Making of an Enterprise, 3; O’Malley, Saints or Devils Incarnate? Studies in Jesuit

History, 71-87.
324 Li, “Jesuit Missionaries and the Transmission of Christianity and European Knowledge in China,”

49.
325 Wright, The Jesuits, 20-25.
326 This was revised in Pope Julius III’s Exposcit debitum (1550). O’Malley, Saints or Devils Incarnate?,

37.
327 Laven, Mission to China: Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Encounter with the East, 5.
328 Neill, A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707, 134; Moran, The Japanese and

the Jesuits, 21; O’Malley, The First Jesuits, 23-50. J. Michelle Molina notes that whilst the Jesuits had monastic
roots, the development of their tradition can also be viewed as a break from these roots. Molina, To Overcome
Oneself: The Jesuit Ethic and Spirit of Global Expansion, 1520-1767, 23-49.

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The Jesuits reached India on May 6th, 1542, 329 following the establishment of

maritime relations with India by Vasco da Gama in 1498, the creation of the “State of India”

in 1505,330 and the establishment of the See of Goa by the Portuguese in 1534.331 In 1557,

Goa became an archbishopric and primatial See of the East Indies acting as the centre of

the Jesuits East Asian Mission, with the diocese of Funai エ 332 in Japan falling under its

remit from 1588.333 Following the Jesuit takeover of the administration of the College of

Goa in 1548, India became the Jesuit seat of learning in Asia.334 From this Indian base the

Jesuits followed the Portuguese throughout Asia, spreading to Malacca, Indochina,

Indonesia, the Maluku Islands and China.335 After capturing Malacca in 1511,336 the first

official Portuguese ambassadors travelled to China in 1517.337 Individual Portuguese traders

reached China as early as 1514, and although this led to successive attempts to open

permanent commercial and ecclesiastical relations with the mainland, these goals were not

achieved until the establishment of Macau 338 in 1557 and the permittance of Michele

329 Neill, A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707, 134; Borges, The Economics of

the Goa Jesuits, 1542-1759: An Explanation of Their Rise and Fall, 17.
330 Boxer, Portuguese India in the Mid-Seventeenth Century, 1.
331 Üçerler, “The Jesuit Enterprise in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Japan,” 42; Boxer, The

Christian Century in Japan, 2-6. On the Jesuits in Goa, see: Matsuda, Ōgon no Goa seisuiki: Ōa no setten o
tazunete, 12-79.

332 Modern day Ōita .
333 Üçerler, “The Jesuit Enterprise in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Japan,” 42.
334 Ibid., 43.
335 Boxer, Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 40-41.
336 Ibid., 14; De Sá de Meneses, The Conquest of Malacca. Sar Desai, “The Portuguese Administration

in Malacca, 1511-1641,” 501-512.
337 Boxer, South China in the Sixteenth Century, xx.
338 Macau eventually served as the centre of the Jesuits’ East Asian mission. Souza, The Survival of

Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754, 24; Brockey, Journey to
the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579-1724, 35-41; Alden, The Making of an Enterprise, 528-551.

Masahiro Sugano

96

Ruggieri (C. Luó Míngjiān 0 , 1543-1607CE) to reside on the mainland in Zhàoqìng

ェ in 1582.339 In comparison to India, Portuguese influence and power were weak in

Indonesia, Indochina and Malacca, and therefore traders and missionaries failed to have a

lasting impact.340 The difficulties faced by the Portuguese in these areas, alongside their

ability to act as middlemen in the facilitation of Sino-Japanese trade, which was officially

prohibited due to Wakō ご (pirate) raids on China, contributed to a Portuguese focus on

Japan.341

Although the Portuguese had met Japanese aboard vessels in Malacca as early as

1511, and had interacted with them elsewhere in Asia,342 interest in and knowledge of

Japan waned as establishing Sino-Portuguese relations took precedence.343 It was not until

the accidental Portuguese “discovery” of Japan in the early 1540s, that interest in the nation

increased.344 Portuguese interest in Japan seems to have been primarily rooted in trade,

339 Gregory, The West and China since 1500, 29-51; Laven, Mission to China, 3-19; Brockey, Journey

to the East, 27-41; Wills, Jr. “Relations with maritime Europeans, 1514-1662,” 336-345.
340 Boxer, Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 40.
341 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 7-8, 91-93.
342 Anesaki, History of Japanese Religion: With Special Reference to the Social and Moral Life of the

Nation, 240-241. During the Muromachi period (Muromachi jidai が 6 , 1336-1573), Japan had re-
established diplomatic relations with China, and established a large network of trade, piracy and overseas
settlements (Nihon machi ) /) or Nihonjin machi ) /) ). Tanaka with Sakai,
“Japan’s Relations with Overseas Countries,” 159-178; Kawazoe and Hurst III, “Japan and East Asia,” 396-446;
Elisonas, “The Inseparable Trinity: Japan’s relations with China and Korea,” 235-330. On Nihonmachi, see:
Adachi, “Emigrants from Japan,” 77-78; Cieslik, Sekai o aruita Kirishitan, 164-166; Tashiro, “Chōsen ni akareta
Nihonjin machi,” 240-259; Matsuda, Ōgon no Goa seisuiki: Ōa no setten o tazunete, 160-222.

343 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 14.
344 Portuguese traders first came to Japan accidentally in or around 1543. Boxer disputes traditional

accounts that suggest that Japan was discovered by Fernão Mendes Pinto (1509-1583) in 1542/1543 arguing
that other Portuguese likely visited before him. Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 14-27; Gonzagowski,
“The Subversion of Empire as Farce in Fernão Mendes Pinto’s Peregrinação,” 31-40; Wiessala, European
Studies in Asia: Contours of a Discipline, 62-63. For Pinto’s account, see: Mendes Pinto, Peregrinaçam de

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and especially in their ability to facilitate and profit from trade between China and Japan.345

Traditionally, the Japanese desire for firearms and European knowledge have been

highlighted as two of the primary factors in the establishment of trade.346 However, whilst

it is true that there was a desire to procure firearms and European knowledge in Japan, to

conclude that this was the sole impetus behind Portuguese-Japanese trade relies on the

Orientalist assumption that the Japanese had little of “worth” to offer their “superior”

European trade partners. Conversely, the Portuguese ability to produce huge profits on the

trade of Japanese precious metals including silver, which at the time accounted for a third

of the world’s production, alongside the Jesuits’ successes, seems to have secured

Portuguese interest in the country.347 This interest was compounded by a strong Japanese

market for luxury goods including silk, deer skins, ivory and sandalwood,348 which would

create a highly profitable trade network for the Portuguese who held the monopoly on

European trade until the early 17th Century.349 Although Jesuit relations with Portuguese

Fernam Mendez Pinto; Mendez Pinto, The Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; Mendes Pinto,
The Travels of Mendes Pinto.

345 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 7-8; Boxer, Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 41.
346 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 28-31.
347 Laver, The Sakoku Edicts and the Politics of Tokugawa Hegemony, 5-6; Flynn and Giràldez, “Born

with a ‘Silver Spoon’: The Origin of World Trade in 1571,” 201-221; Boxer, “The Affair of the ‘Madre de Deus.’
A Chapter in the History of the Portuguese in Japan,” 9-11; Atwell, “International Bullion Flows and the Chinese
Economy circa 1530-1650,” 68-90. Xavier notes the potentially highly valuable trade of precious metals in his
November 5th, 1549 letter to Father Antonio Gomez written in Kagoshima, and encourages Gomez to spread
the word to Portuguese traders in Goa. His letter to Don Pedro de Silva, Commandant of Malacca written on
the same date makes similar comments. Coleridge ed., The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier, vol. 2, 270-
273, 279-281.

348 Laver, The Sakoku Edicts and the Politics of Tokugawa Hegemony, 91-92; Cooper, “The Mechanics
of the Macao-Nagasaki Silk Trade,” 423-433.

349 Boxer, “The Affair of the ‘Madre de Deus.’ A Chapter in the History of the Portuguese in Japan,”
8-10.

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traders were not always harmonious, it was expanding Portuguese trade and not conquest

that made the opening of the mission possible. 350 In fact, the conversion of native

populations existed in a symbiotic relationship with the Portuguese and Spanish systems of

navigation, conquest, colonization, and trade.351

If Portuguese interests in Japan were motivated by trade, the Jesuit mission, at least

initially, was linked to Xavier’s disillusionment with his mission to South East Asia352 and

after meeting his eventual translator, Yajirō ,353 in 1547, his growing hope that the

Japanese could be converted.354 Nevertheless, the possibility of commencing both trade

and mission activities in Japan was directly linked to the division of the East and West Indies

350 Boxer, The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion, 1440-1770, 56. Several sources pertaining to

Portuguese-Japanese trade and relations during the period are included in: Takase, “Kirishitan jidai no Nichipo
gaikō ni okeru Iezusukai senkyōshi,” 51-109.

351 Takase, “A Igreja Cristã (Kirishitan) no Japão e os Poderes Unificadores Japoneses nos Séculos XVI
e XVII – Kirishitan to tōitsu kenryoku (shōzen),” 186.

352 Cary, A History of Christianity in Japan, vol. 1, 18-19.
353 Alternatively spelt , also known as Anjirō , Anger, Angier, Paulo de Santa Fé,

Paul and other variations. Yajirō was Japanese. After murdering a man, he fled Japan, meeting Xavier in
Malacca in 1547. A Shingon Buddhist, he subsequently converted to Christianity. The Jesuits regarded
him as intellectually capable, due to his ability to grasp Christian concepts and learn Portuguese, and therefore
sought to learn about the Japanese religious environment from him, however, he was likely illiterate in
Japanese and uneducated. Scholars have argued that his death on a pirate raid and the use of pirate ships to
transport Xavier’s party to and from Japan, illustrate that Yajirō was a pirate. Elison, Deus Destroyed, 32;
Bartoli and Maffei, The Life of St. Francis Xavier, 299-312; Coleridge ed., The Life and Letters of St. Francis
Xavier, vol. 1, 417-422; Elisonas, “Christianity and the Daimyo,” 307; Xavier, Epistolae S. Francisci Xaverii, vol.
2, no. 79, 71; Cieslik, Sekai o aruita Kirishitan, 10-43; Ebisawa, Kirishitanshi no Kenkyū, 228-252.

354 Cary, A History of Christianity in Japan, vol. 1, 19-27. Yajirō’s conversations with Xavier alongside
reports from Portuguese merchants fomented this hope. In his first letter mentioning Japan written in Cochin
on January 21st, 1548, Xavier notes several times that he has been assured that a mission to Japan would be
more efficacious than his mission to India, and at several points links his hopes to Yajirō. In an account of
Japan drawn from Yajirō’s testimony and dispatched to Loyola, written in Cochin in January 1549, Xavier notes
religious similarities between Japanese religion and Catholicism, which doubtlessly also inspired his hopes of
gaining converts there. Coleridge ed., The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier, vol. 1, 417-421; Coleridge ed.,
The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier, vol. 2, 208-215. See also: Bartoli and Maffei, The Life of St. Francis
Xavier, 299-312; Yamato, “Kirishitan jidai saishoki ni okeru Kirisutokyō to Bukkyō no kōshō,” 109-139.

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between Portugal and Spain.355 In 1493, Pope Alexander VI promulgated the papal bulls

Eximiae devotionis, Inter caetera and Dudum siquidem, collectively known as the Bulls of

Donation or the Alexandrine Bulls, which divided the Indies, and provided Portugal and

Spain with the rights to civil and religious administration over the lands they discovered.356

The nations formalized this agreement a year later with the Treaty of Tordesillas.357 The

merging of the crowns in 1580 complicated the situation, although Spain and Portugal’s

respective colonial empires continued to be governed separately.358 Pope Gregory XIII’s

Supa specula (1576) created a diocese based in Macau that incorporated China and Japan,

and from 1585 to 1600 the Jesuits held exclusive rights to the mission allowing them to gain

a monopoly before other Orders entered the mission field. 359 Franciscans visited

intermittently before 1590, but did not establish a mission. 360 A Dominican came as

ambassador of the Spanish Philippines in 1592, a role which was taken over by the

Franciscans between 1593 and 1597.361 From 1598 to 1640, the Franciscans maintained a

355 Üçerler, “The Jesuit Enterprise in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Japan,” 41.
356 Ibid. For discussion, see: Hoffman, “Diplomacy and the Papal Donation 1493-1585,” 151-183;

Linden, “Alexander VI. And the Demarcation of the Maritime and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal,
1493-1494,” 1-20; Takase, “A Igreja Cristã (Kirishitan) no Japão e os Poderes Unificadores Japoneses nos
Séculos XVI e XVII – Kirishitan to tōitsu kenryoku (shōzen),” 187-188.

357 Üçerler, “The Jesuit Enterprise in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Japan,” 41.
358 Moran, The Japanese and the Jesuits, 46.
359 Miyazaki, “Roman Catholic Mission in Pre-Modern Japan,” 10-11; Wiest, “Learning from the

Missionary Past,” 194.
360 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 160; Elison, Deus Destroyed, 80. Visits in 1582 and 1584 are

explored in: Willeke and Yanagiya, “Saisho no Furanshisuko kaishi no raichō,” 249-271. For an outline of
Franciscan visits between 1582 and 1590, see: Tsuzukibashi, Nihon Furanshisukokaishi nenpyō: hōgo�hōyaku
shiryō ni motozuku shian, 7-8.

361 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 160-171; Tsuzukibashi, Nihon Furanshisukokaishi nenpyō,
9-19.

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presence in Japan,362 the Dominicans and the Augustinians joined the mission field in 1601

and 1602 respectively.363 Despite the presence of other Orders, the Jesuits always remained

the most numerous in the mission field.364

In summation, although the birth of the mission stemmed from a combination of

Xavier’s disillusionment and hope, and was sustained by its success, its formation was

inextricably bound to European politics and the Vatican’s decisions. With the world divided

between Portugal and Spain the mission’s existence was also linked to Portuguese trade.

Ongoing Portuguese and missionary interest in Japan was driven by the Portuguese ability

to make large profits on this trade, their failures elsewhere in East Asia, and the mission’s

successes.

Sengoku Jidai

Richard Storry writes that the Muromachi Period was ‘marred by almost continuous

violence, amounting to full-scale civil war.’ 365 Nevertheless, the weakness of the

Muromachi bakufu が わエ (Muromachi shogunate) stemmed not from an inability to

gain possession of secular authority, but from its difficulty in exercising that authority.366

362 Tsuzukibashi, Nihon Furanshisukokaishi nenpyō, 20-81
363 Wilberforce, Dominican Missions and Martyrs in Japan, 3; Nawata Ward, Women Religious

Leaders in Japan’s Christian Century, 1549-1650, 6.
364 Miyazaki, “Roman Catholic Mission in Pre-Modern Japan,” 10-11.
365 Storry, A History of Modern Japan, 42.
366 Hall, “The Muromachi bakufu,” 175-177.

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The Ōnin War (Ōnin no Ran パ ) which began in 1467 from a succession dispute,367

led to the opening of a period of civil war and uprisings known as Sengoku jidai. The period

ended following successive phases of pacification and unification, under Oda Nobunaga,368

Toyotomi Hideyoshi,369 Tokugawa Ieyasu ニぽくキ (1542-1616CE)370 and their allies.371

Sengoku jidai was marked by a collapsing Japanese political system;372 the country was

ruled by approximately 120 locally autonomous daimyō, the majority of whom had only

recently emerged as political powers, many through gekokujō (the supplanting of

lords by their vassals).373 The bakufu わエ (shogunate) had provided the only effective

system of guaranteeing land rights and adjudicating disputes, but its decline spawned a

system without a superior authority, resulting in constant, widespread conflict between the

daimyō.374 The collapse of traditional authority spurred not only the emergence of and

367 Varley, “Warfare in Japan 1467-1600,” 60; Yamada, Sengoku no Katsuryoku, 18; Berry, Hideyoshi,

16-17.
368 Biographies include: Ōta, The Chronicle of Lord Nobunaga. Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The

Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered; Kanda, Oda Nobunaga; Kaneko, Oda Nobunaga “Tenkabuto”
no jitsuzō; Ikegami, Oda Nobunaga.

369 Biographies include: Berry, Hideyoshi; Turnbull, Toyotomi Hideyoshi; Dening and Dening, The Life
of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; Kuwata, Toyotomi Hideyoshi kenkyū; Kuwata, Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi; Suzuki,
Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

370 Biographies include: Sadler, Shogun: The Life of Tokugawa Ieyasu; Sadler, The Maker of Modern
Japan: The Life of Tokugawa Ieyasu; Totman, Tokugawa Ieyasu: Shogun; Kuwata, Tokugawa Ieyasu; Yamaji,
Tokugawa Ieyasu, 2 vols; Futaki, Tokugawa Ieyasu.

371 Sengoku Jidai’s end date is debated, Yamada Kuniaki notes that some scholars date it to
Nobunaga’s ascension in 1573, whilst others use Nobunaga’s entry into Kyoto in 1568, Hideyoshi’s victory
over the Hōjō Clan (Hōjō shi ) in 1590, or the Siege of Osaka (Ōsaka no Jin ) in 1615. Yamada,
Sengoku no Katsuryoku, 18; Hall, “The Muromachi bakufu,” 225. On the unification of the country see: Asao
and Susser, “The sixteenth-century unification,” 40-95; Hall, Nagahara, and Yamamura, “Introduction,” 7-10.

372 Elison, “Introduction: Japan in the Sixteenth Century,” 1.
373 Berry, Hideyoshi, 26. Yamada, Sengoku no Katsuryoku, 146-148; Matsuoka with Arnesen, “The

Sengoku Daimyo of Western Japan: The Case of Ōuchi,” 64-65; Hall, Nagahara, and Yamamura, “Introduction,”
9. On the daimyō of the period, see: Okuno, Sengoku Daimyō.

374 Hall, “Japan’s Sixteenth-Century Revolution,” 7, 16.

Masahiro Sugano

102

conflict between daimyō, but also the recurring resistance of the peasant classes, their

default on taxes and inter-domainal migration.375 Religious organizations also revolted, and

some held and administered their own provinces and militaries, notably the Jōdo Shinshū

sect Ikkō Ikki .376 The contextual elements associated with Sengoku

Jidai including political insecurity and conflict continued to inform the policy of leaders

during the subsequent periods of pacification and unification until the early Edo period.

Arriving in this context, the Jesuits’ fortunes could change overnight; they required

the protection of the daimyō in order to preach safely, but their progress risked destruction

following the potential capture of provinces by hostile forces or changes in policy at the

whim of their patrons.377 For example, daimyō Ōtomo Sōrin (1530-1587CE)378

baptized in 1578 held power over Bungo , Buzen , Chikuzen , Chikugo ,

Hizen , Higo , parts of Hyūga ) and Iyo , however, less than thirteen weeks

after his baptism the Ōtomo clan (Ōtomo shi ) lost much of their land and power

following defeat to the Shimazu clan (Shimazu shi へ ).379 Similarly, the missionaries

375 Matsuoka with Arnesen, “The Sengoku Daimyo of Western Japan: The Case of Ōuchi,” 71-75; Berry,

Hideyoshi, 23-26. On the peasantry of the era, see: Yamada, Sengoku no Katsuryoku, 210-225.
376 Hall, “Japan’s Sixteenth-Century Revolution,” 11; Richmond Tsang, War and Faith: Ikkō Ikki in late

Muromachi Japan; Matsuo, “Sengokuki Kaga no chiiki kenryoku to Honganji shugoken,” in three parts, 29-39,
41-50, 51-57; Kanda, “Ikkō Ikki to Sōkoku Ikki wa ikani kanren suru ka,” 231-241; Kanda, “Kaga Ikkō Ikki no
hassei,” 1654-1672.

377 Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 42; Elison, Deus Destroyed, 21.
378 Biographies include: Laures, Kirishitan daimyō, 5-25; Takemoto, Ōtomo Sōrin; Toyama, Ōtomo

Sōrin; Hakusui, Ōtomo Sōrin: Kirishitan daimyō; Cieslik, Kirishitan shikō, 76-85; Yūki, Kirishitan ni natta daimyō,
217-226.

379 Elison, Deus Destroyed, 21-25; Elisonas, “Christianity and the Daimyo,” 335-343; Cieslik, Kirishitan
shikō, 76-85.

103

were expelled from Kyoto by Emperor Ōgimachi (1517-1593CE) in 1564, and could

only return after 1569.380 A later example is that of Ōmura Yoshiaki (1568-

1615CE),381 successor to Kirishitan daimyō , Ōmura Sumitada ビ

(1533-1587CE).382 In 1606, Yoshiaki expelled the Jesuits from Ōmura domain (Ōmura han

),383 an area with a large Kirishitan population,384 reverting the domain to Buddhism

due to a dispute over the governance of Nagasaki ぺ.385 Accordingly, in order to address

the high risk, volatile context in which they worked the missionaries required a widespread

base to reduce the risks associated with being attached to a single province or daimyō.386

In 1568, Oda Nobunaga entered Kyoto, leading to the instalment of Ashikaga

Yoshiaki 4 (1537-1597CE) as shogun (shōgun た人).387 The championing of a

pretender by a daimyō was not uncommon during the period.388 Nevertheless, Nobunaga’s

subsequent seizure of political and military power, his defeat of Yoshiaki and his allies, and

his concentration and centralization of political power marked the first steps towards

380 Nosco, “Secrecy and Transmission of Tradition: Issues in the Study of the ‘Underground’

Christians,” 5.
381 For biographical information, see: Yūki, Kirishitan ni natta daimyō, 43-52.
382 For biographical information, see: Yūki, Kirishitan ni natta daimyō, 35-43.
383 Overviews on the Kirishitan Century in Ōmura are included in: Elisonas, “Christianity and the

Daimyo,” 323-331; Cieslik, Kirishitan shikō, 338-345; Yūki, Kirishitan ni natta daimyō, 35-53; Kataoka, Nagasaki
no Kirishitan, 18-22.

384 In 1574, Sumitada had decreed the complete conversion of his vassals and subjects, and the
destruction of Japanese religious institutions. Cabral, “Coppie d’une letter escripte du P. François Gabriel
Superieur de la Compagnie du nom de Iesus au Iappon,” 13-15; Elisonas, “Christianity and the Daimyo,” 327-
328.

385 Elisonas, “Christ

Ancient history homework help

Jeri Oneill


Jeri Oneill

YesterdayFeb 22 at 6:47pm

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Discussion Thread Week 7: Teachers as Leaders

            Good afternoon team, in completing this week’s input, two leadership illustrations were depicted. Initially, the discussion presented a positive example of an influential leader. Then, an example of an influential negative leader was provided.

            Positive leaders seem to embrace lifelong learning but also day-to-day teaching, such as mentoring moments. They are always looking for ways to impart and communicate, to mentor and teach those entrusted to their leadership. They are teachers by nature. This student’s example of a leader who reflected positive influence was this type of person, a natural mentor who started out as a superior and mentor, then a peer and now a life-long friend. She was an expression of French and Ryan’s legitimate and reward power types in my time working under her charge. Legitimate power “is actual authority (or power) an individual holds in a formal organization based on a predetermined hierarchical structure” (Kovach, 2020, p. 5). As the officer in charge (OIC), she prioritized a positive environment conducive to high performance and mission accomplishment. “The intention [in employing French and Raven’s reward power] is to create a positive environment within the workplace that serves to motivate employees” (Kovach, 2020, p. 6). The OIC achieved this through operational envisioning and tactical encouragement. She also equipped her employees with the tools needed to succeed and removed unnecessary barriers blocking their paths.

            Conversely, negative leaders can be barriers in their employee’s paths. Through discouragement and diffused vision, they create an unfavorable environment. When people have negative perceptions about their work and their workspace, their energy and motivation are zapped, potentially impacting their performance. This was an illustration of coercive power which “is the ability to penalize others or remove a positive element” (Kovach, 2020, p. 6). This student’s negative leader example was also legitimate in that he was officially assigned to his position. However, he demonstrated coercive power. He expressed his emotions freely and loudly. His primary emotion was anger; he yelled first and asked questions later. He was heard yelling at employees from one end of the hallway to the other. As a result, interactions with him were avoided or guarded, morale was low and performance suffered.

            Negative power is not leadership. There is amazing power in positive leadership. One of this student’s leadership principles was to take something positive from every experience whether the experience itself was positive or negative. With this principle, aspiring leaders can learn as much from a negative leadership example as a positive one. An important reminder is to not let negative leadership pervade one’s positive leadership endeavors and to lead “heartily, as to the Lord and not to men” (New King James Version, 1982, Colossians 3:23). Have a great week and God bless!

 

References

Kovach, Mary (2020). Leader influence: A research review of French & Raven’s (1959) Power Dynamics. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership (13) 2 , Article 15. Available at:  http://dx.doi.org/10.22543/0733.132.1312

New King James Version (1982). 
https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/New-King-James-Version-NKJV-Bible/



Paolo Santos

11:40amFeb 23 at 11:40am

Manage Discussion Entry

Positive Example

            This author was involved in a mountain biking club whose leaders exercised referent power. The organization held group rides, trail workdays, and races. The organization was a 501(c)(3) and a key advocate for establishing more trails in the state. Leaders have referent power because of who they are and how they lead (Bredfeldt, n.d.). French and Raven (1959) describe this identification as a feeling of oneness of the follower with the leader, a desire for such an identity, and a desire to become more closely associated with the leader. In the case of an attractive group, the follower will have a feeling of membership and a desire to join (French & Raven, 1959). If close association already exists, there will be a desire to maintain the relationship (French & Raven, 1959). Referent power has its basis in my identification with the mountain biking club to encourage outdoor physical activity and trail advocacy.

Negative Example

            In clinical laboratory settings, individuals need many years of experience before they can qualify for and assume leadership roles. Federal guidelines and accreditation agencies require technical competencies from team leaders, supervisors, managers, and directors. These leaders are held accountable to have the necessary knowledge and expertise required within the scope of their role in the laboratory. In this author’s previous workplace, it was typical for employees to put in 15-20 years of technical experience before stepping into their first leadership role.

            The individuals with official leadership roles within the laboratory are exercising legitimate power and expert power. Legitimate power is defined as that power which stems from the leader’s legitimate right to influence the follower and that the follower has an obligation to accept this influence (French and Raven, 1959). The individuals with legitimate power are appointed and entrusted with a role (Bredfeldt, n.d.). Their expert power is the result of years of experience in the industry. Although the technical competencies are well developed in the individuals promoted to leadership positions, leadership competencies may be very minimal or non-existent. A transactional environment was nurtured as people are simply commanded and told what to do. Teaching was not a priority. Information power brought about withholding knowledge. It was believed that not doing so may result in losing some of their power to their subordinates. Bredfeldt (2006) contends that, “Competence without character can lead to bad leadership” (p. 113). There are instances where there is an incompetent leader who has high moral integrity. In this laboratory setting, leadership competencies need more emphasis for the appointed leaders to fulfill their roles effectively.

 

References

Bredfeldt, G. (2006). Great leader, great teacher: Recovering the biblical vision for leadership. Moody Publishing.

Bredfeldt, G. (n.d.). CLED780: Change, power, and conflict in leadership. Week seven, lecture one. The Six Power Bases of Leadership. Liberty University.

French, J. R. P., Jr., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150–167). University of Michigan.

 

Ancient history homework help

Topic: Chalchihuitl, the importance and use of green stone in ancient Mesoamerica

· In the paper students must discuss, in detail, all aspects of the chosen topic such as the history,

origins, recent research, context (environmental, sociopolitical, and cultural) of the subject, as well as

cite any important studies or scholars known to do research on the subject.

· The class project paper must be at least 6-pages long, 12-point font and with 1-inch margins.

Figures and bibliography must be included, but these do not count towards the 6-page requirement.

Please, do not include a title page. For the paper, only read, use, and cite scholarly sources of

information. To cite the books and articles, please use the Chicago style or American Antiquity format of citation

Ancient history homework help

2/27/22, 4:08 PM Chapter 3 Primary Sources – GRLContent

https://colorstate.grlcontent.com/westerncivpremodern/page/chpt3primarysources 1/10

Pr i m a r y R e s o u rce s

C h a p te r 3 Pr i m a r y S o u rce s

( h tt p s : //co l o r s t a te .g r l co n te n t .co m /we s te r n c i v p re m o d e r n /pa g e /p r i m a r y re s o u rce s )

( h tt p s : //co l o r s t a te .g r l co n te n t .co m /we s te r n c i v p re m o d e r n /pa g e /c h p t 3 p r i m a r ys o u rc

e s )

Homer’s Iliad

Iliad VI. 243–497.
Homer, Iliad. William Cowper translation (1791), adapted and modernized by Kristin Heineman

 

[243–254]  But when Hector came to Priam’s palace, built with splendid

porches, and which had in it �fty chambers lined with polished stone built

near one another, where Priam’s sons and their wives rested, and where, on

the other side of the courtyard in twelve magni�cent chambers also lined

with polished marble, the sons-in-law of Priam lay beside his spotless

daughters.  There his mother queen accompanied by Laodice, loveliest of all

her children, went and met Hector.

 

[255–262]  She grasped his hand and said: Why do you leave the dangerous

battle, my son? I fear that the Greeks (hateful name!) are wearing you down

and �ghting around the city, so that you seek, urged by distress, the acropolis,

to lift your hands in prayer to Zeus? But pause awhile until I shall bring you

wine.  First, let us pour rich libation to Zeus and the other gods so that you

may drink and be refreshed. For wine is mighty and renews the strength of

weary man; and weary you must be having long defended your city and your

men.

 

[263–287]  To whom Hector majestically replied: “My dear mother, do not

bring me wine, unless I forget my might. I fear, beside, with unwashed hands

to pour libation of wine to Zeus, nor is it right to pray to the storm-stirring

god when I am spattered with blood and gore.  You, therefore, gather all our

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women, and take burnt offerings to the temple of Athena Pallas, huntress of

the spoil. Select from the attire treasured within thy chamber the most

beautiful robe, the one which you prize most—then spread the gift on Athena

Pallas’ divine lap. Promise you will sacri�ce twelve one-year old heifers,

untouched with puncture of the prod, if she will pity city of Troy, and our

wives and our children, in hopes that she will avert the son of Tydeus from

these sacred towers, that dreadful Chief, terror of our entire host.  Go then,

my mother, seek the hallowed temple of Athena. I, meanwhile, will go see

Paris and call him out, if he is still willing to hear. May the earth yawn and

swallow him whole! He who Zeus had made a curse to Troy, and to Priam and

to his entire house; I think to see him plunged into the house of Hades

forever!  This would cure all my woes.”

 

[288–298]  So he spoke. The Queen, entering her palace, called out to her

maidens. They, throughout Troy, gathered all the women and convened just

as she requested. In the meantime, she went into her incense-fumed

wardrobe where her treasures lay, the works of Sidonian women, who were

brought to Troy by her godlike son Paris, when he crossed the seas with well-

begotten Helen. She chose the most magni�cent and most colorful, vivid as a

star it shone, the loveliest of all in the sky.  Then she went, the Trojan matrons

all following her steps.

 

[299–313]  But when the long procession reached the temple of Athena in

the heights of Troy, the fair Theano Daughter of Cisseus, brave Antenor’s

spouse, opened the doors wide.  She had been, at this time, appointed as

Priestess of Athena.  All with lifted hands in prayer to Athena, they wept

aloud. Beautiful Theano placed the robe on the Goddess’ lap, and to the fair

daughter of Zeus omnipotent her prayer she addressed. Goddess of

Goddesses, our city’s shield, adored Athena, hear! oh! break the lance of

Diomede, and allow him to fall prone in the dust before the Scæan gate. So

that we may offer to you at your shrine, on this day twelve one-year old

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heifers, untouched by yoke or prod, if you will show pity to Troy, and save our

children and our wives. Such prayer the priestess offered, but Athena did not

accept the request.

 

[314–331]  But meanwhile, Hector went to the palace of Alexander, which

himself had built, aided by every illustrious architect in Troy. The chamber

had a wide hall, proud dome, and on the top of the city of Troy Priam’s house

neighbored Hector’s house. There entered Hector, Zeus-beloved, and in his

hand he held a spear sixteen feet in length, its glittering point bound with a

ring of gold.  He found Paris within his chamber, polishing with the most exact

care, his resplendent armor, shield, and his chest plate, while �ngering over

with curious touch and tampering with his bow. Helen of Argos with her

female train sat occupied, assigning each their own task. Hector �xed his eyes

on Paris, rebuked him with his stern look, “Your adventures of the heart are

ill-timed. The people perish at our lofty walls; the �ames of war have

compassed Troy entirely and it is you who has kindled them. Your slackness

shows; you should �ght with anyone who holds back in this hateful war, so

come to battle before the whole city burns.”

 

[332–344]  To which Paris replied, “Graceful as a god since, Hector, you have

charged me with a fault, and not unjustly, I will give you an answer, and give

you special heed. The reason I sit here is because of sorrow, which I wished to

ease, in secret, not displeasure or revenge. I tell you also, that now even my

wife tried to convince me in most soothing terms that I should go to battle,

and I myself am aware that victory often changes sides and that is the course

I prefer. Wait awhile, therefore, until I dress for the �ght, or go �rst, and I will

catch up soon.” He stopped speaking, to whom brave Hector did not reply. 

 

[345–368]  Helen addressed Hector with lenient speech, “My brother! who

in me has found a sister worthy of your hatred , the author of all Troy’s

calamity, oh I wish that the winds, on the day I was born, had swept me out of

sight and whirled me aloft to some inhospitable mountain-top, or plunged me

2/27/22, 4:08 PM Chapter 3 Primary Sources – GRLContent

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in the deep.  I wish that there I had sunk overwhelmed, and all these ills had

never taken place. But since the gods would bring these ills to pass, I should,

at least, have chosen some mate more worthy, one not immune to public

shame! But this man has an unstable mind, and it will always be unstable! 

Someday he shall �nd his just reward. But come in, take this seat, my brother,

for troubles follow you most because of me! The crime, my brother, for which

the gods have fated, both for Paris and my most detested self, will be the

burdens of an endless song!” To which the warlike Hector replied, “Bid me

not, Helen, to a seat, however you wish I may stay, for you won’t persuade me.

The Trojans miss me, and I myself am anxious to return to them.  But urge in

this man to get moving, or just let him urge himself to overtake me while I am

still in town. For I must head home quickly so that I may see my beloved

Andromache and my infant boy, and my domestic servants, since I am

ignorant if ever I will see them again, or if my fate ordains me now to fall by

Grecian hands.”

 

[369–390]  So spoke the dauntless hero, and he left. But he soon reached his

own well-built abode but he did not �nd his fair Andromache inside.  Rather,

she stood lamenting Hector, with the wet nurse who helped her bore her

infant son. He then, not �nding his chaste wife inside, asked her attendants

from the doorway, “Tell me, maidens, where is Andromache the fair? Did she

go see her sisters or one of my brother’s wives?  Or to Athena’s temple,

where the bright-haired matrons of the city gather to appease the awful

Goddess? Tell me true.” To which his household’s servant replied, “Hector, if

truth is your demand, receive this true answer: She did not go to see her

sisters, nor to Athena’s temple, where the bright-haired matrons of the city

gather to appease the awful Goddess; but she went to the tower of Troy, for

she had heard that the Greeks had prevailed, and driven the Trojans to the

walls.  She, therefore, with wild grief, went to the tower with haste, along

with her wet nurse and young child.” So spoke the prudent attendant. 

 

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[391–402]  When Hector heard her words issuing from his door he left the

house with  hasty steps, back through the streets of lofty Troy.  Having

traversed the entire spacious city, he �nally approached The Scæan gate,

through which he leaves the city and passes through the plain.  There, his

noble wife met him.  Andromache the rich-endowed and fair daughter of

Eëtion famed in arms, who lived in Hypoplacian Thebes, Cilicia’s mighty lord. 

It was his daughter whom valiant Hector had wedded and she met him there,

along with her wet nurse, bearing in her arms Scamandrios, his infant darling

boy, beautiful as a star.  Although Hector called Scamandrios, the rest of Troy

called him Astyanax, for that Hector’s arm alone was the defense and

strength of Troy.

 

 [403–426]  The father, silent, eyed his babe, and smiled. Andromache,

meanwhile, stood before him, with tears streaming down her cheeks, grasped

his hand, and said, “Your own great courage will destroy you, my noble

Hector! Neither do you take pity on your helpless infant nor my pitiful self,

whose widowhood is near; for you will fall before long, assailed by the whole

host of Greece. Then let my tomb be my best retreat when you are dead – for

I can expect neither comfort nor joy after your death, only sorrow. I have no

father and no mother.  When Cilicia’s city, Thebes was sacked by Achilles, he

slew my father; but he did not strip him of his reverence, because he

respected him.  He burned my father in his armor on a funeral pyre, and �lled

his tomb, which the nymphs, Zeus’ daughters, had enclosed with elm trees.

 My seven brothers, the glory of our house, all in one day descended to the

house of Hades.   For brave Achilles, while they fed their herds and snowy

�ocks together, slew them all. My mother, Queen of the well-wooded realm

Of Hypoplacian Thebes, was brought among his other spoils.  Achilles sold

her inestimable ransom-price, but by Artemis’ arrow pierced her and she died

at home.

 

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[427–451]  Yet Hector—oh my husband! I in you I �nd parents, brothers, and

all that I have lost. Come! Have compassion on us. Do not go to battle, but

guard this tower, unless you make a widow of me and an orphan of your

young boy. The city walls are easiest of ascent at that �g-tree; station your

troops there, for some prophet told me this.  Each Ajax with Idomeneus of

Crete, the sons of Atreus, and the valiant son of Tydeus, have now three

times assailed the town and tested the wall.”  Great Hector replied, “These

cares, Andromache, which you engage, all touch me as well, but I dread to

incur the scorn of male and female tongues in Troy, if, I should decline the

�ght like a coward.  Nor feel I such a wish. No. I have learned to be

courageous always, in the forefront among the �ghters of Troy to

demonstrate my glorious father’s honor, and also my own. For the day shall

come when sacred Troy, when Priam, and the people of the of his kingdom

shall perish, I am sure. But I weep for no Trojan, not even for Hecuba, nor yet

for Priam, nor for all the brave of my own brothers who shall kiss the dust, or

for you and I, because far greater is the sorrow I would have when the Greeks

take you away crying, and take away your freedom.”

 

[452–477]  Then you shall toil in Argos at the loom for a task-mistress, and

constrained you will draw water from Hypereïa’s fountain or from Messeïs

fountain, her proud command. Some Greek then, seeing your tears, shall say

— “This was the wife of Hector, who excelled all Troy in �ght when Troy was

besieged.” Such they will say to you, and your heart, all the while, will bleed

fresh through want of such a friend to stand between captivity and yourself.

But may I rest beneath my hill of earth or before that day arrive! I would not

live to hear your cries, and see you torn away!” So saying, illustrious Hector

stretched his arms forth to his son, but with a scream, the child fell back into

the bosom of his nurse, afraid of his father’s face, whose bright armor he had

attentively marked and his shaggy crest poking out over his helmet’s height.

His father and his gentle mother laughed and noble Hector lifting from his

head, he placed his dazzling helmet, on the ground, then kissed his boy and

handled him, and thus in earnest prayer the heavenly powers implored,

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“Listen, gods! as you have given to me, so also on my son excelling might

bestow, with chief authority in Troy. And be his record this, in time to come,

when he returns from battle, help my son excel even his father! May every

foe fall under him, and he comes home laden with spoils blood-stained to his

dear mother’s joy!” He said, and gave his infant to the arms of his

Andromache, who she welcomed him into her fragrant bosom, bitter tears

with sweet smiles mingling. 

 

[478-–497]  Hector was moved with pity at this sight, touched her cheek

softly, and said, “Do not mourn too much for me, my beloved Andromache, no

man shall send me to the house of Hades, before my allotted hour, and

nobody lives who can live longer than that date which heaven assigned him,

be he base or brave.  Go then, and occupy yourself with the housework, the

woman’s sphere; practice the distaff, spin and weave, and order your

servants their work.  War belongs to man; to all men; and of all who �rst drew

vital breath in Troy, and most of all to me. He ceased, and he raised his

crested helmet from the ground.  His Andromache, at once obedient, to her

home began to leave, but turned several times as she went and each time she

wept again.  No sooner that she arrived at the palace that her numerous

maidens were found within, she raised a general lamentation, with one voice,

in Hector’s own house, his whole domestic train mourned Hector, yet still

alive; for none the hope conceived of his escape from Greek hands, or to

behold their living master more.

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Ancient history homework help

Text Analysis

Criteria

– create a clear and critical argument:

Concise thesis statement and each paragraph begin with a topic sentence that makes a
claim.

– use evidence effectively to support the argument :

Effective use of evidence from the text that is relevant to the argument

– interpret evidence and demonstrate critical analysis :

demonstrate through interpretation how the argument was supported by the evidence.

Organization of paper :
Content was clearly thought-out and presented in a logical format. Information flowed
well, with clear links between paragraphs and ideas.

Ability to properly locate and cite evidence :
Proper citations of ancient sources and all references to the text are cited

Mechanics of writing :

Submission is grammatically correct with rare misspellings. Use of language is
appropriate for the recommended audience. Avoids personal pronouns and
contractions.

ٍRequirements:
– 3-4 pages of text (i.e. 1,000-1,200 words)
– Double spaced with standard font (Times New Roman, size 12
– Standard margins (1 inch top and bottom, left and right sides)\
– some sort of fancy-schmancy title
– If you use sources other than those assigned for this class in completing this

assignment, you will need to provide a list of those sources (Bibliography) on a
separate page at the end of your paper.

Citation Requirements

You will be expected to use parenthetical citation in your Text Analysis. The purpose of
these citations is to indicate to your readers where you found specific information that
you have included in your paper, whether from the assigned readings or textbook. As
long as you are using those sources, your citation need only include the author’s name
and the section number of text on which the information appears. For example:

According to Plato, Socrates told the jury that he knew he had no wisdom, small or
great, (Plato, 4.1).

The Epic of Gilgamesh “depicts a world ruled by polytheistic gods and their demands of
humanity,” (Margolf and Heineman, Early Near East and Egypt).

The topic for Text Analysis

What glimpses do we get from Homer’s Iliad of the respective roles of men in society?
How do those differ from the roles of women in Greek society? What values would
these poems have taught young children?

Some Rules for Successful Writing Assignments:

1. Spell out time references: “seventh century” instead of “7th century.”
2. Hyphenate time references correctly, according to their use in the sentence: “The Trojan
War is thought to have occurred in the twelfth-century BC.” (adjective). “In the twelfth
century, war was a constant threat to society.” (noun).
3. When using brief quotations, remember to use quotation marks to indicate clearly when
you are reproducing someone else’s words verbatim:
As Spielvogel notes, “Women were citizens who could participate in most religious
cults and festivals,” (Spielvogel, 84).
4. Remember to cite specific material that you paraphrase – the ideas came from someone
else, even if you expressed or summarized in your own words!
5. Avoid slang, jargon and contractions (can’t, don’t, haven’t)
6. Remember to make the subjects and verbs agree in number, as well as nouns and
pronouns: “Scholars could circulate their ideas in print” rather than “A scholar could
circulate their ideas in print.”
7. Avoid run-on sentences, comma splices, and paragraphs that go on for 2-3 pages! (In
other words, think carefully about sentence structure, punctuation and paragraph
organization).
8. Avoid overuse of the passive voice (The cat was chased by the dog) in favor of the active
voice (the dog chased the cat). Active voice is more direct, more vivid and allows you to
use more verbs.
9. Remember to use the past tense where appropriate in writing about the past (which is
often!)

Ancient history homework help

Week two db replies cled 815

Discussion Replies: Vivisection and Child Abuse

To-Do Date: Mar 27 at 11:59pm

Return to 
Discussion Thread: Vivisection and Child Abuse
 from Module 2: Week 2 and reply to 2 of your peers.  

Your replies must affirm demonstrations of accuracy and insight as well as offer critical thought when clarity or correction is needed. In all matters, be encouraging to each other in your replies.

Discussion Assignment Instructions

The student will complete 4 Discussions in this course. The student will post one thread of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned Module: Week. The student must then post 2 replies of at least 200 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week.


Ancient history homework help

CLED 815


Ethics Paper: Proposal Assignment Instructions

Overview

Throughout the class, you will work on an Ethics Paper. This paper will identify an ethical issue and speak to the need for a biblical approach to the selected topic. Throughout the course, three specific assignments will focus on the Ethics Paper:

1. Ethic Paper: Proposal Assignment

2. Ethic Paper: Annotated Bibliography Assignment

3. Ethic Paper: Final Draft Assignment

Instructions

For the Ethic Paper: Proposal Assignment, you will need to address the following areas:

· Specific topic of the paper (your topic must be related to leadership character and ethics)

· A suggested thesis statement for the paper

· At least 10 sources for the paper (in current APA format)

The total assignment should be less than 1.5 pages in length.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Discussion Replies: Confidentiality and Personal Life

To-Do Date: Apr 10 at 11:59pm

Return to 
Discussion Thread: Confidentiality and Personal Life
 from Module 4: Week 4 and reply to 2 of your peers.  

Your replies must affirm demonstrations of accuracy and insight as well as offer critical thought when clarity or correction is needed. In all matters, be encouraging to each other in your replies.


Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Discussion Assignment Instructions

The student will complete 4 Discussions in this course. The student will post one thread of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned Module: Week. The student must then post 2 replies of at least 200 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week.

This course utilizes the Post-First feature in all Discussions. This means you will only be able to read and interact with your classmates’ threads after you have submitted your thread in response to the provided prompt.

Ancient history homework help

(3) Voltaire, Candide.

a. Text. Translation in the pubic domain.

VOLTAIRE

Candide; or Optimism

translated from the German of DoctorRalph

with the additions which were found in the Doctor=s pocket

when he died at Minden[footnoteRef:1] in the Year of our Lord 1759 [1: Candide appeared anonymously through two editions. ADr Ralph@, the imaginary author, evidently died at a battle occuring during the campaign of Westphalia, in the course of which Cunégonde was raped and the castle of Candide=s protector, the Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh, was sacked and destroyed. The Aadditions@ refer to a long passage in chapter 22 added to the second edition and omitted here. ]

[An anonymous translation, edited and adapted by A.C. Kibel]

Chapter 1 – How Candide Was Brought Up in a Magnificent Castle and How He Was Driven Out of It

In the country of Westphalia, in the castle of the most noble Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh, lived a youth whom Nature had endowed with a most sweet disposition. His face was the true index of his mind. He had a solid judgment joined to the most unaffected simplicity; and hence, I presume, he had his name of Candide. The old servants of the house suspected him to have been the son of the Baron’s sister, by a

very good sort of a gentleman of the neighborhood, whom that young lady refused to marry, because he could produce no more than seventy-one quarterings[footnoteRef:2] in his arms; the rest of the genealogical tree belonging to the family having been lost through the injuries of time. [2: A measure of the length of one=s geneological treeBan uninterupted line of aristocratic ancestors, in this case, stretching back more than two thousand years. ]

The Baron was one of the most powerful lords in Westphalia, for his castle had not only a gate, but even windows, and his great hall was hung with tapestry. He used to hunt with his mastiffs and spaniels instead of greyhounds; his groom served him for huntsman; and the parson of the parish officiated as his grand almoner. He was called AMy Lord@ by all his people, who laughed at all his jokes.

My Lady Baroness, who weighed three hundred and fifty pounds, consequently was a person of no small consideration; and then she did the honors of the house with a dignity that commanded universal respect. Her daughter was about seventeen years of age, fresh-colored, comely, plump, and desirable. The Baron’s son, her brother, seemed to be a youth in every respect worthy of the father he sprung from. Pangloss, the tutor, was the oracle of the family, and little Candide listened to his instructions with all the simplicity natural to his age and disposition.

Master Pangloss taught metaphysico-theologico-cosmolooneyology. He could prove to admiration that there is no effect without a cause; and, that in this best of all possible worlds, the Baron’s castle was the most magnificent of all castles, and My Lady the best of all possible baronesses.

AIt is demonstrable,@ said he, Athat things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles. The legs are visibly designed for trousers, accordingly we wear trousers. It is the nature of stones made to be hewn and made into castles, therefore

My Lord has a magnificent castle; for the greatest baron in the province ought to be the best lodged. Pigs were intended to be eaten, therefore we eat pork all the year round: and they, who assert that everything is right, do not express themselves correctly; they should say that everything is best.@

Candide listened attentively and believed implicitly, for he thought Miss Cunégonde excessively handsome, though he never had the courage to tell her so. He concluded that next to the happiness of being Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh, the next was that of being Miss Cunégonde, the next that of seeing her every day, and the last that of hearing the doctrine of Master Pangloss, the greatest philosopher of the whole province, and consequently of the whole world.

One day when Cunégonde went to take a walk in a little neighboring wood which was called a park, she saw, through the bushes, the sage Doctor Pangloss giving a lecture in experimental philosophy to her mother’s chambermaid, a pretty brunette, and very obedient. As Cunégonde had a great disposition for the sciences, she observed with the utmost attention the experiments which were repeated before her eyes; she perfectly well understood the doctor=s sufficient reason and the force of causes and effects. She retired greatly flurried, quite pensive and filled with the desire of knowledge, imagining that she might be a sufficient reason for young Candide, and he for her.

On her way back she happened to meet the young man; she blushed, he blushed also; she wished him a good morning in a faltering tone, he returned the salute, without knowing what he said. The next day, as they were rising from dinner, Cunégonde and Candide slipped behind the screen. The miss dropped her handkerchief, the young man picked it up. She innocently took hold of his hand, and he as innocently kissed hers with a warmth, a sensibility, a grace-all very particular; their lips met; their eyes sparkled; their knees trembled; their hands strayed. The Baron chanced to come by; he beheld the cause and effect, and, without hesitation, saluted Candide with some notable kicks on his backside and drove him out of doors. The lovely Cunégonde fainted away, and, as soon as she came to herself, the Baroness boxed her ears. Thus a general consternation was spread over this most magnificent and most agreeable of all possible castles.

Chapter 2 – What Befell Candide among the Bulgarians

Candide, thus driven out of this terrestrial paradise, rambled a long time without knowing where he went; sometimes he raised his eyes, all bedewed with tears, towards heaven, and sometimes he cast a melancholy look towards the magnificent castle, where dwelt the fairest of young baronesses. He laid himself down to sleep in a furrow, heartbroken, and supperless. The snow fell in great flakes, and, in the morning when he awoke, he was almost frozen to death; however, he made shift to crawl to the next town, which was called Wald-berghoff-trarbkdikdorff, without a penny in his pocket, and half dead with hunger and fatigue. He took up his stand at the door of an inn. He had not been long there before two men dressed in blue[footnoteRef:3] fixed their eyes steadfastly upon him. [3: Candide is about to be recruited into the Prussian army and do his bit in the Seven Years War (1756-63) between the Prussians and the French, a conflict which had the usual effects of warfare upon the countysides of central Europe. The recruiting officers of Frederick the Great wore blue uniforms and were feared in villages everywhere they showed up. As for the remark about Candide=s size: Frederick reputedly tried to have units of his armyBcompanies and regimentsBcomposed of soldiers of roughly the same size in order to produce an impression of uniformity when they were on parade. ]

ALook,@ said one of them to the other, Athere=s a well-made young man of the right size.@ Upon which they came up to Candide and with the greatest civility and politeness invited him to dine with them.

AGentlemen,@ replied Candide, with a most engaging modesty, you do me much honor, but upon my word I have no money.@

AMoney, sir!@ said one of the blues to him, Ayoung persons of your appearance and merit never pay anything; why, are not you five feet five inches high?@

AYes, gentlemen, that is indeed my size,@ replied he, with a low bow.

ACome then, sir, sit down along with us; we will not only pay your reckoning, but will never suffer such a clever young fellow as you to want money. Men were born to assist one another.@

AYou are perfectly right, gentlemen,@ said Candide, Athis is precisely the doctrine of Master

Pangloss; and I am convinced that everything is for the best.@

His generous companions next entreated him to accept of two crowns[footnoteRef:4], which he readily complied with, at the same time offering them his note for the payment, which they refused, and sat down to table. AHave you not a great affection forCA [4: Presumably the fee paid to new recruits in compensation for enlisting. ]

@O yes! I have a great affection for the lovely Cunégonde.@

AMaybe so,@ replied one of the blues, Abut that is not the question! We were going to ask you whether you have a great affection for the King of the Bulgarians@

AFor the King of the Bulgarians?@ said Candide. AOh, Lord! not at all, why I never saw him in my life.@

AIs it possible? Oh, he is a most charming king! Come, we must drink his health.@ AWith all my heart, gentlemen,@ said Candide, and off he tossed his glass.

ABravo!@ cried the blues; Ayou are now the support, the defender, the hero of the Bulgarians; your fortune is made; you are in the high road to glory.@

So saying, they handcuffed him, and carried him away to the regiment. There he was made to wheel about to the right, to the left, to draw his rammer, to return his rammer, to present, to fire, to march, and they gave him thirty blows with a cane; the next day he performed his exercise a little better, and they gave him but twenty; the day following he came off with ten, and was looked upon as a young fellow of surprising genius by all his comrades.

Candide was struck with amazement, and could not for the soul of him conceive how he came to be a hero. One fine spring morning, he took it into his head to take a walk, and he marched straight forward, conceiving it to be a privilege of the human species, as well as of the brute creation, to make use of their legs how and when they pleased. He had not gone above two leagues when he was overtaken by four other heroes, six feet high, who bound him neck and heels, and carried him to a dungeon. A courtmartial sat upon him, and he was asked which he liked better, to run the gauntlet six and thirty times through the whole regiment, or to have his brains blown out with a dozen musket-balls? In vain did he remonstrate to them that the human will is free, and that he chose neither; they obliged him to make a choice, and he determined, in virtue of that divine gift called free will, to run the gauntlet six and thirty times.

He had gone through his discipline twice, and the regiment being composed of 2,000 men, they composed for him exactly 4,000 strokes, which laid bare all his muscles and nerves from the nape of his neck to his stern. As they were preparing to make him set out the third time our young hero, unable to support it any longer, begged as a favor that they would be so obliging as to shoot him through the head; his request being granted, a bandage was tied over his eyes, and he was made to kneel down.

At that very instant, His Bulgarian Majesty happening to pass by made a stop, and inquired into the delinquent’s crime, and being a prince of great penetration, he found, from what he heard of Candide, that he was a young metaphysician, entirely ignorant of the physical world; and therefore, out of his great clemency, he condescended to pardon him, for which his name will be celebrated in every newspaper in every age. A skillful surgeon made a cure of the flagellated Candide in three weeks by means of emollient unguents prescribed by Dioscorides[footnoteRef:5]. His sores were now scabbed over and he was able to march, when the King of the Bulgarians gave battle to the King of the Abares[footnoteRef:6]. [5: A treatise on medical remedies dating from the first centuryBnot exactly the most up-todate in Voltaire=s day. A hit in the spirit of the Enlightenment upon veneration for antiquated texts. ] [6: The Abares, as opponents of the Prussians, represent the French. ]

Chapter 3 – How Candide Escaped from the Bulgarians and What Befell Him Afterward

Never was anything so gallant, so well accoutered, so brilliant, and so finely disposed as the two armies. The trumpets, fifes, oboes, drums, and cannon made such harmony as never was heard in Hell itself. The entertainment began by a discharge of cannon, which, in the twinkling of an eye, laid flat about 6,000 men on each side. The musket bullets swept away, out of the best of all possible worlds, nine or ten thousand scoundrels that were cluttering its surface. The bayonet was next the sufficient reason of the deaths of several thousands. The sum of casualites might amount to thirty thousand souls. Candide trembled like a philosopher, and concealed himself as well as he could during this heroic butchery.

At length, while the two kings were causing Te Deums[footnoteRef:7] to be sung in their camps, Candide took a resolution to go and reason somewhere else upon causes and effects. After passing over heaps of dead or dying men, the first place he came to was a neighboring village, in the Abarian territories, which had been burned to the ground by the Bulgarians, agreeably to the laws of war. Here lay a number of old men covered with wounds, who beheld their wives dying with their throats cut and hugging their children to their breasts, all stained with blood. There several young virgins, whose bodies had been ripped open after they had satisfied the natural necessities of the Bulgarian heroes, breathed their last; while others, half-burned in the flames, begged to be dispatched out of the world. The ground about them was covered with the brains, arms, and legs of the dead. [7: A prayer of thanksgiving for victory, here sung by both sides. ]

Candide made all the haste he could to another village, which belonged to the Bulgarians, and there he found the heroic Abares had enacted the same tragedy. Thence continuing to walk over twitching limbs or through ruined buildings, at length he got beyond the theater of war, with a little food in his backpack and Cunégonde’s image in his heart. When he arrived in Holland his food ran out, but having heard that the inhabitants of that country were all rich and Christians, he was sure that he would be treated by them as he had been at the Baron’s castle before he had been driven thence through the power of Cunégonde’s bright eyes.

He asked charity of several grave-looking people, who one and all answered him that if he continued to follow this trade they would have him sent to the house of correction, where he should be taught to get his bread. He next addressed himself to a person who had just come from haranguing a numerous assembly for a whole hour on the subject of charity. The orator, squinting at him under his broad-brimmed hat, asked him sternly, what brought him thither and whether he was for the good old cause?

ASir,@ said Candide, in a submissive manner, AI conceive there can be no effect without a cause; everything is necessarily concatenated and arranged for the best. It was necessary that I should be banished from the presence of Cunégonde; that I should afterwards run the gauntlet; and it is necessary I should beg my bread, till I am able to get it. All this could not have been otherwise.@

ATell me, friend,@ said the orator, Ado you hold the Pope to be Antichrist?@

ATruly, I never thought about it,@ said Candide, Abut whether he is or not, I am in want of something to eat.@

AYou deserve neither food nor drink,@ replied the orator, Apervert, monster! hence! avoid my sight, never come near me again while you live.@

The orator’s wife happened to put her head out of the window at that instant, and seeing a man who doubted whether the Pope was Antichrist, she discharged upon his head a full pisspot of golden liquid.

Good heavens, to what excess does religious zeal transport womankind!

A man who had never been christened, an honest Anabaptist named Jacques, was witness to the cruel and ignominious treatment showed to one of his brethren, to a rational featherless biped[footnoteRef:8]. Moved with pity he carried him to his house, caused him to be cleaned, gave him meat and drink, and made him a present of two florins, at the same time proposing to instruct him in his own trade of weaving Persian silks, which are fabricated in Holland. [8: Plato=s definition of a human being. ]

Candide, faced with so much goodness, threw himself at his feet, crying, ANow I am convinced that my Master Pangloss told me truth when he said that everything was for the best in this world; for I am infinitely more affected with your extraordinary generosity than with the inhumanity of that gentleman in the black cloak and his wife.@

Chapter 4 – How Candide Found His Old Master Pangloss Again and What Happened to Him

The next day, as Candide was walking out, he met a beggar all covered with scabs, his eyes sunk in his head, the end of his nose eaten off, his mouth drawn on one side, his teeth as black as a cloak, snuffling and coughing most violently, and every time he attempted to spit out dropped a tooth.

Candide, divided between compassion and horror, but giving way to the former, bestowed on this shocking figure the two florins which the honest Anabaptist Jacques, had just before given to him. The specter looked at him very earnestly, shed tears and threw his arms about his neck. Candide started back aghast.

AAlas!@ said the one wretch to the other, Adon’t you know dear Pangloss?@

AWhat do I hear? Is it you, my dear master! you I behold in this piteous plight? What dreadful misfortune has befallen you? What has made you leave the most magnificent and delightful of all castles?

What has become of Miss Cunégonde, the mirror of young ladies, and Nature’s masterpiece?@

AI am dying@ said Pangloss, upon which Candide instantly led him to the Anabaptist’s stable, and procured him something to eat. As soon as Pangloss tasted a morsel, Candide began to repeat his inquiries concerning Cunégonde.

ADead,@ replied the other.

ADead!@ cried Candide, and immediately fainted; his friend restored him by the help of a little bad vinegar, which he found by chance in the stable.

Candide opened his eyes, and again repeated: ADead! is Cunégonde dead? Ah, where is the best of worlds now? But of what illness did she die? Was it of grief on seeing her father kick me out of his magnificent castle?@

ANo,@ replied Pangloss, Aher body was ripped open by the Bulgarian soldiers, after they had raped her as many times as a girl could survive; they knocked out the brains of the Baron, her father, for attempting to defend her; My Lady, her mother, was cut in pieces; my poor pupil was served just in the same manner as his sister[footnoteRef:9]; and as for the castle, they have not left one stone upon another; they have destroyed all the ducks, and sheep, the barns, and the trees; but we have had our satisfaction, for the Abares have done the very same thing in a neighboring barony, which belonged to a Bulgarian lord.@ [9: Voltaire apparently accepted the baseless calumny about Bulgarians common in his day, that they practiced Abuggery@Ba word deriving ultimately from the word Bulgar. ]

At hearing this, Candide fainted away a second time, but, not withstanding, having come to himself again, he said all that it became him to say; he inquired into the cause and effect, as well as into the sufficient reason that had reduced Pangloss to so miserable a condition.

AAlas,@ replied the tutor, Ait was love; love, the comfort of the human species; love, the preserver of the universe; the soul of all sensible beings; love! tender love!@

AAlas,@ cried Candide, AI have had some knowledge of love myself, this sovereign of hearts, this soul of souls. It never caused any more effect on me than one kiss and twenty kicks on the backside. How could this beautiful cause produce in you so hideous an effect?@ Pangloss made answer in these terms:

AO my dear Candide, you must remember Daisy, that pretty wench, who waited on our noble Baroness; in her arms I tasted the pleasures of Paradise, which produced these Hellish torments with which you see me devoured. She was infected with an ailment, and perhaps has since died of it; she received this present of a learned Franciscan, who troubled to derive its source and learned that he was indebted for it to an old countess, who had it of a captain of horse, who had it of a marquise, who had it of a page, the page had it of a Jesuit, who, during his novitiate, had it in a direct line from one of the fellow adventurers of

Christopher Columbus; for my part I shall give it to nobody, I am a dying man.@

AO sage Pangloss,@ cried Candide, Awhat a strange genealogy is this! Is not the devil the root of it?@

ANot at all,@ replied the great man, Ait was a thing unavoidable, a necessary ingredient in the best of worlds; for if Columbus, on an island in America, had not caught this disease, which contaminates the source of generation, frequently impedes propagation itself, and is evidently opposed to the great end of nature, we should have had neither chocolate nor cochineal dyes. We may observe that, even to the present time, in this continent of ours, this malady, like our religious controversies, is peculiar to ourselves, and that the Turks, the Indians, the Persians, the Chinese, the Siamese, and the Japanese are entirely unacquainted with it; but there is a sufficient reason for them to know it in a few centuries. In the meantime, it is making prodigious havoc among us, especially in those armies composed of well disciplined hirelings who determine the fate of nations; for we may safely affirm, that, when an army of thirty thousand men engages another equal in size, there are about twenty thousand infected with syphilis on each side.@

AVery surprising, indeed,@ said Candide, Abut you must get cured.@

ALord help me, how can I?@ said Pangloss. AMy dear friend, I have not a penny in the world; and you cannot be bled or get an enema without money.@

This last speech had its effect on Candide; he flew to the charitable Anabaptist, Jacques; he flung himself at his feet, and gave him so striking a picture of the miserable condition of his friend that the good man without any further hesitation agreed to take Dr. Pangloss into his house, and to pay for his cure. The cure was effected with only the loss of one eye and an ear. As Pangloss wrote a good hand and understood accounts tolerably well, the Anabaptist made him his bookkeeper. At the expiration of two months, being obliged by some mercantile affairs to go to Lisbon he took the two philosophers with him in the same ship; Pangloss, during the course of the voyage, explained to him how everything was so constituted that it could not be better. Jacques did not quite agree with him on this point.

AIn some things,@ he said, Amen must have deviated from their original innocence; for they were not born wolves and yet they worry one another like beasts of prey. God never gave them twenty-four pounders nor bayonets and yet they have made both to destroy one another. To this account I might add not only bankruptcies but also the law, which seizes on the effects of bankrupts to cheat the creditors.@

AAll this was indispensably necessary,@ replied the one-eyed doctor, Afor private misfortunes make for public benefits; so that the more private misfortunes there are, the greater is the general good.@

While he was arguing in this manner, the sky was overcast, the winds blew from the four quarters of the compass, and the ship was assailed by a most terrible tempest, within sight of the port of Lisbon.

Chapter 5 – A Tempest, a Shipwreck, an Earthquake, and What Else Befell Dr. Pangloss, Candide, and Jacques, the Anabaptist

One half of the passengers, weakened and half-dead with the inconceivable anxiety and sickness which the rolling of a vessel at sea occasions through the whole human frame, were lost to all sense of the danger that surrounded them. The others made loud outcries or betook themselves to their prayers; the sails were blown into shreds and the masts were brought by the board. The vessel was a total wreck. Everyone was busily employed, but nobody could be either heard or obeyed. The Anabaptist, being upon deck, lent a helping hand as well as the rest, when a frantic sailor knocked him down speechless; but, not withstanding, with the violence of the blow the tar himself tumbled headfirst overboard and fell upon a piece of the broken mast, which he immediately grasped.

Honest Jacques, forgetting the injury he had so lately received from him, flew to his assistance, and, with great difficulty, hauled him in again, but, not withstanding, in the attempt, was, by a sudden jerk of the ship, thrown overboard himself, in sight of the very fellow whom he had risked his life to save and who took not the least notice of him in this distress. Candide, who beheld all that passed and saw his benefactor one moment rising above water and the next swallowed up by the merciless waves, was preparing to jump after him, but was prevented by the philosopher Pangloss, who demonstrated to him that the roadstead of Lisbon had been made on purpose for the Anabaptist to be drowned there. While he was proving his argument a priori[footnoteRef:10], the ship foundered, and the whole crew perished, except Pangloss, Candide, and the sailor who had been the means of drowning the good Anabaptist. The villain swam ashore; but Pangloss and Candide reached the land upon a plank. [10: An a priori truth is a truth that is not established on the basis of experience but is logically prior to experience, because it is the kind of truth that must be assumed (like rules of logic) if we are to be coherent in speaking about anything at all. Truths arising from experience are termed a posteriori truths. ]

As soon as they had recovered from their surprise and fatigue they walked towards Lisbon; with what little money they had left they thought to save themselves from starving after having escaped drowning.

Scarcely had they ceased to lament the loss of their benefactor and set foot in the city when they perceived that the earth trembled under their feet, and the sea, swelling and foaming in the harbor, began dashing in pieces the vessels that were riding at anchor there. Large sheets of flames and cinders covered the streets and public places; the houses tottered, and were tumbled topsy-turvy even to their foundations, which were themselves destroyed, and thirty thousand inhabitants of both sexes, young and old, were buried beneath the ruins.

The sailor, whistling and swearing, cried, AFBk it, there’s something to be got here.@ AWhat can be the sufficient reason of this phenomenon?@ said Pangloss.

AIt must be the Day of Judgment,@ said Candide.

The sailor, defying death in the pursuit of plunder, rushed into the midst of the ruin, where he found some money, with which he got drunk, and, after he had slept himself sober he purchased the favors of the first good-natured wench that came in his way, amidst the ruins of demolished houses and the groans of half-buried and expiring persons.

Pangloss pulled him by the sleeve. AFriend,@ said he, Athis is not right, you trespass against the universal reason, and have mistaken your time.@

ADeath and God=s wounds!@ answered the other, AI am a sailor and was born at Batavia, and have trampled four times upon the crucifix in as many voyages to Japan; you have come to the wrong person with your universal reason.@

In the meantime, Candide, who had been wounded by some pieces of stone that fell from the houses, lay stretched in the street, almost covered with rubbish.

AFor God’s sake,@ said he to Pangloss, Aget me a little wine and oil! I am dying.@

AThis concussion of the earth is no new thing,@ said Pangloss, Athe city of Lima in South America experienced the same last year; the same cause, the same effects; there is certainly a train of sulphur all the way underground from Lima to Lisbon.@

ANothing is more probable,@ said Candide; Abut for the love of God a little oil and wine.@

AProbable!@ replied the philosopher, AI maintain that the thing is demonstrable.@

Candide fainted away, and Pangloss fetched him some water from a neighboring spring. The next day, in searching among the ruins, they found some food with which they repaired their exhausted strength. After this they assisted the inhabitants in relieving the distressed and wounded. Some, whom they had humanely assisted, gave them as good a dinner as could be expected under such terrible circumstances. The repast, indeed, was mournful, and the company moistened their bread with their tears; but Pangloss endeavored to comfort them under this affliction by affirming that things could not be otherwise that they were.

AAll this,@ he said, Ais for the best end, for if there is a volcano at Lisbon it cannot be elsewhere; and it is impossible but things should be as they are, for everything is for the best.@

By the side of the tutor sat a little man dressed in black, who was one of the familiars[footnoteRef:11] of the Inquisition. This person, provoking him with great politeness, said, APossibly, my good sir, you do not believe in original sin; for, if everything is best, there could have been no such thing as the Fall or punishment of man.@ [11: Undercover agents engaged in ferreting out heretics; Pangloss is the victim of a
spiritual Asting@ operation. ]

Your Excellency will pardon me,@ answered Pangloss, still more politely; Afor the Fall of man and the curse consequent thereupon necessarily entered into the system of the best of worlds.@

AThat is as much as to say, sir,@ rejoined the familiar, Ayou do not believe in free will.@

AYour Excellency will be so good as to excuse me,@ said Pangloss, Afree will is consistent with absolute necessity; for it was necessary we should be free, for in that the willB@

Pangloss was in the midst of his proposition, when the familiar beckoned to his attendant to help him to a glass of port wine.

Chapter 6 – How the Portuguese Made a Superb Auto-Da-Fé to Prevent Any Future Earthquakes, and How

Candide Underwent Public Flagellation

After the earthquake, which had destroyed three-fourths of the city of Lisbon, the sages of that country could think of no means more effectual to preserve the kingdom from utter ruin than to entertain the people with an auto-da-fé[footnoteRef:12], it having been decided by the University of Coimbra, that the burning of a few people alive by a slow fire, and with great ceremony, is an infallible preventive of earthquakes. [12: Literally an Aact of faith@, involving public confession, foregiveness, and often immolation by fire. ]

In consequence thereof they had seized on a Biscayan for marrying his godmother, and on two Portuguese for taking out the bacon of a fried chicken they were eating[footnoteRef:13]; after dinner they came and secured Dr. Pangloss, and his pupil Candide, the one for speaking his mind, and the other for seeming to approve what he had said. They were conducted to separate cool apartments, remote from the glare of the sun. Eight days afterwards they were each dressed in a san-benito, and their heads were adorned with paper miters. The miter and san-benito worn by Candide were painted with flames reversed and with devils that had neither tails nor claws; but Dr. Pangloss’s devils had both tails and claws, and his flames were upright. [13: Removing the bacon raised the suspicion that they were Jews. ]

In these habits they marched in procession and heard a very pathetic sermon, which was followed by an anthem accompanied by bagpipes. Candide was flogged to some tune while the anthem was being sung; the Biscayan and the two men who would not eat bacon were burned, and Pangloss was hanged, which is not a common custom at these solemnities. The same day there was another earthquake, which made most dreadful havoc.

Candid

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Week 3 db cled 815

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Discussion Thread: Time Off and Scholarships


MANAGE DISCUSSION

This is a graded discussion: 75 points possible

due Mar 31

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After reading Shapiro & Stefkovich, post your initial thread by choosing one of the case studies from your reading. Address either Case Study 7.3 or Case Study 9.6. Be intentional to reflect a biblical worldview as you respond to your chosen case study.


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CLED 815


Ethics Paper: Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions

Overview

Throughout the class, you will work on an Ethics Paper. This paper will identify an ethical issue and speak to the need for a biblical approach to the selected topic. Throughout the course, three specific assignments will focus on the Ethics Paper:

1. Ethic Paper: Proposal Assignment

2. Ethic Paper: Annotated Bibliography Assignment

3. Ethic Paper: Final Draft Assignment

Instructions

Compose an Annotated Bibliography of at least 20 works related to the Ethics Paper. These sources must relate to the paper you intend to write. You can still take the paper in a different direction later, but for now, go ahead and research and present a bibliography.

This Annotated Bibliography must begin with an introductory paragraph of 75–125-words explaining the intended focus of the paper. This introductory paragraph must include the thesis statement. This thesis may change for the final paper, but for now, provide an anticipated thesis statement.

Following that paragraph, provide a bibliography of at least 20 related works. Among those 20 works, the bibliography must contain:

· at least five books

· at least five journal or magazine articles; and

· no more than three websites.

For each annotation:

· Include a sentence that introduces/overviews the author of the resource

· Provide a 125–150-word description for each source explaining the general content of the source and

· Provide a 50–75-word explanation of how you anticipate the source relating to or contributing to the research of your topic.

This assignment must be in current APA format.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

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Week db Cled 815

Discussion Thread: Hard Knocks and Handguns



MANAGE DISCUSSION

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due Mar 17

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After reading Shapiro & Stefkovich, post your initial thread and briefly describe your understanding of how we can use multiple paradigms when addressing various ethical dilemmas. Address either Case Study 3.4 or Case Study 3.5. Be intentional to reflect a biblical worldview as you respond to your chosen case study.

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Discussion Thread: Vivisection and Child Abuse



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due Mar 24

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After reading Shapiro & Stefkovich, post your initial thread by choosing one of the case studies from your reading. Address either Case Study 4.2 or Case Study 6.2. Be intentional to reflect a biblical worldview as you respond to your chosen case study.

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Discussion Replies: Time Off and Scholarships

To-Do Date: Apr 3 at 11:59pm

Return to 
Discussion Thread: Time Off and Scholarships
 from Module 3: Week 3 and reply to 2 of your peers.  

Your replies must affirm demonstrations of accuracy and insight as well as offer critical thought when clarity or correction is needed. In all matters, be encouraging to each other in your replies.


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Week one replies cled 815

Discussion Replies: Hard Knocks and Handguns

To-Do Date: Mar 20 at 11:59pm

Return to 
Discussion Thread: Hard Knocks and Handguns
 from Module 1: Week 1 and reply to of your peers.

Your replies must affirm demonstrations of accuracy and insight as well as offer critical thought when clarity or correction is needed. In all matters, be encouraging to each other in your replies.


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SUSAN K. CAHN

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EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 1/31/2022 11:15 PM via
AN: 1428857 ; Susan K Cahn.; Coming On Strong : Gender and Sexuality in Women’s Sport
Account: s7451176

Coming
on Strong

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Coming
on Strong

Gender and Sexuality in

Women’S Sport

Second edition

Susan K. Cahn

University of Illinois Press
Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield

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First Illinois paperback, 2015
© 1994, 2015 by Susan K. Cahn.
Reprinted by arrangement with the author.
Manufactured in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 c p 5 4 3 2 1

∞ This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cahn, Susan K.
Coming on strong : gender and sexuality in women’s sport /
Susan K. Cahn.—Second Edition.
pages cm
First edition title: Coming on strong : gender and sexuality
in twentieth-century women’s sport.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-252-03955-3 (hardcover : acid-free paper) —
isbn 978-0-252-08064-7 (paperback : acid-free paper)
1. Sports for women—History—20th century. 2. Sex discrimination
against women—History—20th century. 3. Gender identity. I. Title.
gv709.c34 2015
796.082—dc23 2014035978

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To my parents,
Gretchen and James Cahn

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vii

Contents

Preface ix
Introduction 1

1. The New Type of Athletic Girl 7
2. Grass-roots Growth and Sexual Sensation in
the Flapper Era 31
3. Games of Strife
The Battle over Women’s Competitive Sport 55
4. Order on the Court
The Campaign to Suppress Women’s Basketball 83
5. “Cinderellas” of Sport
Black Women in Track and Field 110
6. No Freaks, No Amazons, No Boyish Bobs
The All-American Girls Baseball League 140
7. Beauty and the Butch
The “Mannish” Athlete and the Lesbian Threat 164
8. “Play It, Don’t Say It”
Lesbian Identity and Community in Women’s Sport 185
9. Women Competing/Gender Contested 207
10. You’ve Come a Long Way, Maybe
A “Revolution” in Women’s Sport? 246
Epilogue. “Are We There Yet?” The Paradox of Progress 281

Notes 315
Index 389

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ix

preface

As a sports-minded teenager of the 1970s, I marveled at the
courage and skill of the pioneer female athletes of my generation.
Prompted by new federal legislation against sex discrimination
and, more generally, by feminist demands for female access to
traditionally male realms of society, the sports world seemed to
undergo a rapid, almost instant transformation. Within a few
short years, girls’ and women’s athletic leagues, tournaments,
sports camps, and city, state, and national championships sprout-
ed to serve women at the high school, college, and professional
levels. The media took note as well, giving extensive coverage to
such female tennis and gymnastic stars as Billie Jean King, Chris
Evert, Kathy Rigby, and Olga Korbut. As one of the grateful ben-
eficiaries of these changes, I eagerly joined my high school bas-
ketball team and thrilled at my good fortune—the chance to be
involved in what I assumed was the first-ever interscholastic
sporting opportunity for girls.
Delighting as I did in the chance to play in organized competi-
tion, I was not concerned with the blatantly second-class status
of women’s sport in budget matters and the media; it did not
occur to me that it could be otherwise. And though I had ached
to play Little League baseball as a young girl, I never wondered
why baseball remained off limits to girls. My concerns were per-
sonal and immediate, mostly about jump shots and playing time.
I did suffer twinges of embarrassment knowing that I still har-
bored a secret wish to play halfback on my high school football
team. And though I suspected that what made me “right” in
“jock” circles might be making me all “wrong” in the nonathletic
social scene, I assumed these were the private dilemmas of a girl

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x p r e F a C e

born on the cusp of a new era. I had some vague images of
women athletes of the past, like the amazing Babe Didrikson or
the lithe Althea Gibson. But if I thought of them at all, it was as
anomalies of an earlier age—athletes who had miraculously done
it on their own in an age when women didn’t play sports. As far as
I knew, no tradition of women’s competitive sport paved the
way for my pioneering generation.
Years later my training in women’s history and feminist studies
has led me to reconsider those suppositions. I know now that his-
tories get buried. Questions deemed insignificant may be worth
asking. And interpretations oblivious to gender are most likely
misguided and incomplete. As a graduate student I began to won-
der about the tradition of women’s athletics in the United States.
Was it a linear story, a steady climb from exclusion to inclusion?
Or had specific time periods, classes, or cultures supported
women’s athletics before the 1970s? Which women played
sports, and what had doing so meant for them? If women had
participated in the past, why had sports remained such a bastion
of male activity and identity?
This book, which began as my Ph.D. dissertation for the
University of Minnesota, addresses these and other questions
designed to recover, and gain insight from, a history that for the
most part has been ignored by both popular and scholarly writ-
ers. It is not a comprehensive histor y of women’s athletics.
Rather, it is a study of how gender and sexuality have been cul-
turally constructed within and through twentieth-century U.S.
women’s sport. Precisely because women in sport crossed into a
“male” realm, both critics and advocates articulated their beliefs
about femininity, the female body, and the meaning of woman-
hood, leaving a rich body of historical evidence on how common-
sense beliefs about womanhood and manhood are made and
altered over time. By looking at how athletes, educators, sporting
officials, promoters, and journalists have clashed and compro-
mised over gender issues in sport, we can learn something about
how ordinary and influential people create society’s gender and
sexual arrangements, and how their actions are conditioned by
the circumstances and beliefs of their time.

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p r e F a C e xi

As I worked on my dissertation and then this book, several
institutions and many individuals provided financial, intellectu-
al, and personal support. I am grateful to the Graduate School
and the History Department of the University of Minnesota for
assisting me financially at the dissertation level. A University of
Minnesota dissertation fellowship, a dissertation special research
grant, and a grant from the McMillan Travel fund provided ex-
tremely helpful support. Subsequently I have received financial
assistance from a Clemson University Faculty Development
Grant and a Julian Park Publication Fund grant from the State
University of New York at Buffalo.
The financial support I received enabled me to travel in several
regions of the country collecting oral histories from athletes who
competed in high-level competition from as early as the 1930s
and as late as the 1970s. A few of these women had been famous
athletes of their day. The vast majority, however, received little
recognition during their playing days and have received even less
attention from historians or other scholars. I owe them a great
debt for sharing their time, stories, and knowledge with me. They
provided me with a level of detail about women’s athletic partic-
ipation that is unavailable in written sources. More important,
they gave me critical insights into the experience and perspectives
of women athletes, information that transformed my own think-
ing about women’s sport history. I would like to thank them for
their great intellectual contribution to this project and at the
same time acknowledge that their interpretations and mine were
not the same in every instance, and that my own questions and
interests have taken this study in directions that may not reflect
their priorities. I would also like to thank them for their hospital-
ity and for the thoroughly enjoyable experience of getting to meet
them and listen to their life stories, which collectively paved the
way for athletes of my and future generations.
I am also grateful for the generous help of archivists, friends,
colleagues, and editors. As I worked with a variety of historical
collections, I benefitted from the knowledge and assistance of
archivists, especially those at the University of Wisconsin,
Tennessee State University, Smith College, Radcliffe College, and

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xii p r e F a C e

the Chicago Historical Society. My adviser at the University of
Minnesota, Sara Evans, encouraged me throughout and after my
years in graduate school, offering her unwavering support in all
phases of the research and writing of this project. Professors
Mary Jo Maynes and Janet Spector also generously shared their
time and ideas and offered insightful criticisms and challenging
questions as well as personal support along the way. Members of
my dissertation writing group read numerous essays, conference
papers, and chapter drafts from the project’s inception to its
completion. I would like to thank Davida Alperin, Greta Gaard,
Priscilla Pratt, and Diana Swanson for their advice and comrade-
ship. In revising the manuscript for publication, several colleagues
have read chapters and made valuable suggestions. Pamela Mack,
George Chauncey, Jr., Kath Weston, Don Sabo, Wanda Wakefield,
Tamara Thornton, and Liz Kennedy have all given generously of
their time and ideas. Cindy Himes Gissendanner and Mary Jo
Festle, scholars who also study U.S. women’s sport history, have
been especially helpful and gracious in their willingness to share
ideas and sources. Thanks also to Scott Henderson, who provided
invaluable help in the final stages. Finally, I am grateful to Joyce
Seltzer, my editor at The Free Press, who went to bat for this proj-
ect early on and then offered her constant encouragement and
support. Her high standards and excellent advice have made this
a better book.
In addition numerous friends and family members read chap-
ters and/or offered encouragement, helpful criticisms, and laugh-
ter in just the right doses. I owe many thanks to Maureen Hon-
ish, Nan Enstad, Sharon Doherty, Linda Silber, Barbara Appleby,
Betsy Scholl, Robin McDuff, Elizabeth Martín-García, Lotus
Cirilo, Lisa Cahn, Kathleen Duffy, Shelly, Ellen Mamer, my
brothers, Steven and Peter Cahn, and my parents, Gretchen Cahn
and James Cahn. Finally, I would like to thank Birgitte Soland,
who doesn’t even like sports. Her powerful intellect, generous
heart, easy laughter, and abiding love have made this a better
book and enriched my life immeasurably.

In the years since its first publication, there have been many
fine scholars of sport whose work has informed my own. Some of

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p r e F a C e xiii

you are in the footnotes, but there are many others to whom I
also owe a debt of gratitude. In particular, I want to thank Pame-
la Grundy and Jaime Schultz for their critical feedback on my last
chapter. I also want to thank Pippa Holloway and Rita Liberti for
helpful readings and discussions; Hershini Bhana Young for
sharpening my thinking on race and sport; and David Herzberg
and Michael Rembis for many conversations about bodies, fit-
ness, and health as historically situated. Finally, I’d like to thank
my “basketball at the Bob” crew for reminding me that sport is
about enjoyment of many kinds, and Tandy Hamilton for teach-
ing me how much can be observed by looking away from the ball
as well as directly at the action.

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Coming
on Strong

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INTRODUCTION

In the early 1980s a talented young Czech immigrant to the
United States took the women’s tennis world by storm. Martina
Navratilova lost only six matches from 1982 to 1984, and by
1985 had accumulated 8.5 million dollars in winnings, more than
any other player in the sport’s history. 1 The refreshingly candid,
lithe, muscular Navratilova symbolized the advances women had
made in the athletic world and, more broadly, in traditionally
male activities involving money and power. As an outspoken crit-
ic of sexual inequality in sport, she represented both the ongoing
struggte and the impressive gains women had made in more than
a decade of challenges to the historic barriers to women’s partici-
pation in sport.

As Navratilova and other female athletes gained celebrity sta-
tus, many observers heralded their accomplishments as proof that
modern women had finally cast off the physical and psychologi-
cal shackles of past centuries. Yet others looked less favorably on
these developments, perceiving women’s entrance into sport as an
unsettling and unwelcome intrusion into the realm of masculinity.
In the tennis world Navratilova’s mounting victory toll invited
subtle condemnation and not-so-subtle ridicule from tennis
experts, fans, and the press.

Some wondered whether Navratilova even belonged on the
women’s tour anymore, given her apparent invincibility. Noting
her high-tech, precision-oriented training methods, they charac-
terized her as a “bionic sci-fi creation” of her training team-a
kind of unnatural, even monstrous “Amazon” who “has the
women’s game pinned to the mat. ” 2 Rather than bask in hard-
earned glory, therefore, Navratilova felt continually pressed to

1

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2 INTRODUCTION

counter her public image as some kind of hulking predator who
kept “beating up all those innocent girls. ” 3 This image, reflected
in media comments like “She’s simply too good,” placed her at
odds with, and not within, the women’s tennis circuit. 4

By implication these representations also suggested that she
was at odds with her sex; “the bleached blonde Czech bisexual
defector” who “bludgeoned” and “teased” her hopelessly inferi-
or opponents appeared to be something other than a “natural”
female. 5 One of her frustrated “victims” suggested to a reporter
that for Navratilova to play that well, she “must have a chromo-
somic screw loose somewhere.” 6 Navratilova’s stunning accom-
plishments could have been construed as an example of one ath-
lete’s successful attempt to use her natural talents, hard work,
and state-of-the-art training regimen to reach new levels of ath-
letic excellence/ Yet many Americans simply could not separate
the concept of athletic superiority from its cultural affiliation
with masculine sport and the male body. Her startlingly “mascu-
line” accomplishments generated farfetched explanations; con-
temporaries portrayed her as an extraordinary product of sci-
ence, technology, or-worse-chromosomal defect.

Martina Navratilova’s tarnished reputation suggests that even
in this age of apparent progress, the historic association between
athletic prowess and masculinity has endured. Highly skilled
female athletes continue to meet with profound skepticism. At
times, not only their femininity but their biological sex comes
into question. Several enthusiastic young athletes from Lewisville,
Texas, found this out during a girls’ soccer match in the fall of
1990. On watching their daughters’ team go down to defeat, two
irate fathers stomped onto the field and demanded that the
opposing side send its three best players to the bathroom so that
an officially designated parent could verify their sex. These men
could not fathom the fact that girls were capable of such talented
play. After the game one of the aggrieved fathers belligerently
“complimented” the winning team’s nine-year-old star, goalie
Natasha Dennis, by saying “Nice game, boy!” and “Good game,
son.” Nonplussed by the implication that her athletic ability
derived from what might be between her legs, Dennis pluckily

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INTRODUCTION 3

suggested that someone should instead take her accusers “and
check and see if they have anything between their ears. ” 8

Experiences like those of Martina Navratilova and Natasha
Dennis are as old as women’s attempts to break into the male
sporting tradition. Athletics have long been the province of men.
In the Western world, not only have men dominated the playing
fields, but athletic qualities such as aggression, competitiveness,
strength, speed, power, and teamwork have been associated with
masculinity. For many men sport has provided an arena in which
to cultivate masculinity and achieve manhood.

Consequently women’s very participation in sport has posed a
conundrum that Americans have grappled with for more than a
century. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, American
women made determined collective efforts to break down the
barriers to female athletic involvement. They claimed sport as a
right, a joy, and a signal aspect of women’s emancipation. These
attempts elicited both approval and scorn, generating a series of
controversies that spanned the century. The matter went far
beyond the issue of decorum-which kinds of behavior were
deemed appropriate for the female sex. The controversies sur-
rounding female athleticism broached fundamental questions
about the content and definition of American woman- and man-
hood. Would women engaging in a traditionally male activity
become more manlike? What exactly were “manly” and “wom-
anly” qualities, and did they have to be limited to men and
women, respectively? And if athleticism was not essentially mas-
culine, did this mean that all gender differences were mutable and
not ordained by, and permanently ensconced in, nature?

When women athletes insisted on their right to sport, alarmed
and intrigued observers wrestled publicly with these very ques-
tions. In 1912 the Ladies Home Journal published an article
titled “Are Athletics Making Girls Masculine?” Author Dudley
Sargent, prominent physical educator and director of Harvard
University’s Hemenway Gymnasium, wondered along with many
of his contemporaries whether female athleticism would make
women into masculine facsimiles of the “opposite” sex. 9 Or, con-
versely, they worried that women could “feminize” sport, dilut-

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4 INTRODUCTION

ing its masculine content and eroding the boundary between male
and female spheres of activity.

Sargent gave voice to the central, underlying tension in
American women’s sport-the contradictory relationship between
athleticism and womanhood. In subsequent years others exam-
ined the same question, often in a harsher light than the relatively
sympathetic Sargent. Journalists responded to Mildred (“Babe”)
Didrikson Zaharias’s stunning athletic accomplishments of the
1930s through the 1950s by mocking her “mannish” appearance.
They described her face as hawkish and hairy, her body as a
whipcord, and her personality as a “conqueror type” that includ-
ed “an unusual amount of male dominance.” 10 Under the weight
of such allegations, even supporters of women’s sport felt pressed
to concede that some female athletes excelled because of their
genetically constituted “android tendencies.” 11

The apprehensions of skeptics did not go unanswered. Over
the course of the century, advocates of women’s sport developed
numerous and often competing strategies to cope with the disso-
nance between masculine sport and feminine womanhood. The
boldest among them accepted the charge of masculinization but
claimed its positive value. They contended that women’s athleti-
cism would indeed endow women with masculine attributes, but
that these qualities would benefit women as well as men, con-
tributing to female emancipation and eliminating needless sexual
distinctions.

Female physical educators responded more cautiously. Several
generations of professionals sought to protect the reputation and
h~alth of female athletes by devising separate, less physically tax-
ing versions of women’s sport. In effect educators created a
respectable “feminine” brand of athletics designed to maximize
female participation while averting controversy. By contrast, pop-
ular promoters of community and commercial sport attempted to
feminize the athlete more than the activity. They touted the femi-
nine and sexual charms of female competitors, making sporting
events into combination beauty-athletic contests. These and other
sport advocates engaged in protracted battles for the control of
women’s sport, each side promising that under its authority
women’s athletics would gain respect and acceptance.

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INTRODUCTION 5

Individual athletes developed personal strategies to resolve the
tension between their love of sport and the cultural condemna-
tion of “mannish” or “tomboyish” athletes. Some made special
efforts to demonstrate femininity through their dress, demeanor,
and off-field interests. Other, more defiant types refused the com-
promise. With their “tough” manners and aggressive play, they
embraced a style that critics called “mannish” but that they
themselves saw as perfectly consistent with womanhood. Still
others opted for a middle course, claiming allegiance to conven-
tional definitions of femininity while at the same time trying to
stretch their boundaries to include athletic activities.

Ironically, many of the collective and individual strategies ath-
letes and their advocates employed to defuse the tension between
sport and womanhood actually deepened the gender divide in
athletic culture. Efforts to create a separate, distinct women’s
brand of sport effectively defined “feminine” sport as a lesser
version of male sport: less competitive, less demanding, and less
skillful. Commercial promoters were far more willing to com-
mend top-notch athletes for their “masculine” excellence. But by
going’to great lengths to highlight the feminine attractiveness and
sexual charms of female competitors, promoters implied that by
itself, athleticism remained a manly trait, one that must be com-
pensated for by proof of femininity.

=o=
Forced to deal with a constant barrage of criticism from diehard
defenders of a male sporting tradition, generations of twentieth-
century female athletes and their advocates successfully carved a
niche for women in a sporting culture whose deep identification
with masculinity nevertheless remained unyielding. With “real”
sport and “real” athletes defined as masculine, women of this
century have occupied only a marginal space in the sports world
and an even more tenuous position in athletic governance.

Consequently many, perhaps even most, women have until
recently been profoundly alienated from sport, and thus from the
physical competence, confidence, and pleasures that sport makes
available. However, those women who persisted in athletics found
in sport a positive, even life-transforming experience. While dis-

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6 INTRODUCTION

missing, defying, or simply putting up with the societal hostility
toward women athletes, they created a vibrant female sporting
tradition. Generations of women athletes have promoted physical
competence, celebrated the joy of play, developed a deep apprecia-
tion for athletic competition and excellence, and forged loving,
supportive bonds among women in a nontraditional setting.

The persistent but unsteady tension between female athleticism
and male-defined sport forms a central thread in the history of
women’s sport, illuminating not only women’s complicated
standing in the athletic world but the vital interplay between
sport and the surrounding culture. From early-twentieth-century
controversies over the intrepid “athletic girl,” to midcentury
racial politics surrounding African American women track stars,
to more recent legislative struggles over gender equity in school
athletics, women’s athletic history offers a lens through which to
understand both the complicated gender dynamics of sport and
the social experience of women athletes. A century of women’s
efforts to obtain a meaningful place in the sporting world pro-
vides critical insights into the history of gender relations in
American society.

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CHAPTER 1

THE NEW TYPE OF
ATHLETIC GIRL

=o=

In the fall of 1911 Lippincott’s Monthly described the modern
athletic woman: “She loves to walk, to row, to ride, to motor, to
jump and run … as Man walks, jumps, rows, rides, motors, and
runs.” 1 To many early-twentieth-century observers, the female
athlete represented the bold and energetic modern woman,
breaking free from Victorian constraints, and tossing aside old-
fashioned ideas about separate spheres for men and women.
Popular magazines celebrated this transformation, issuing favor-
able notice that the “hardy sun-tanned girl” who spent the sum-
mer in outdoor games was fast replacing her predecessors, the
prototypical “Lydia Languish” and the “soggy matron” of old. 2

With the dawning of the new century, interest in sport had
burgeoned. More and more Americans were participating as
spectators or competitors in football, baseball, track and field,
and a variety of other events. At the same time women were
streaming into education, the paid labor force, and political
reform movements in unprecedented numbers. Women’s social
and political activism sparked a reconsideration of their nature
and place in society, voiced through vigorous debates on a wide
range of issues, from the vote to skirt lengths. Popular interest in
sport and concern over women’s changing status converged in the
growing attention paid to the “athletic girl,” a striking symbol of
modern womanhood.

The female athlete’s entrance into a male-defined sphere made

7

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8 COMING ON STRONG

her not only a popular figure but an ambiguous, potentially dis-
ruptive character as well. Sport had developed as a male preserve,
a domain in which men expressed and cultivated masculinity
through athletic competition. Yet, along with other “New
Women” who demanded access to such traditional male realms
as business and politics, women athletes of the early twentieth
century claimed the right to share in sport. They stood on the
borderline between new feminine ideals and customary notions
of manly sport, symbolizing both the possibilities and the dangers
of the New Woman’s daring disregard for traditional gender
arrangements. 3

The female athlete’s ambiguity created a dilemma for her advo-
cates. Given women’s evident enjoyment of such “masculine”
pursuits, could the “athletic girl” (and thus, the modern woman)
reap the benefits of sport (and modernity) without becoming less
womanly? The Lippincott’s Monthly article was titled “The
Masculinization of Girls.” And while it concluded positively that
“with muscles tense and blood aflame, she plays the manly role,”
women’s assumption of “the manly role” generated deep hostility
and anxiety among those who feared that women’s athletic activ-
ity would damage female reproductive capacity, promote sexual
licentiousness, and blur “natural” gender differences. 4

The perceived “mannishness” of the female athlete complicat-
ed her reception, making the “athletic girl” a cause for concern
as well as celebration. Controversy did not dampen women’s
enthusiasm, but it did lead some advocates of women’s sport to
take a cautious approach, one designed specifically to avert
charges of masculinization. Women physical educators took an
especially prudent stance, articulating a unique philosophy of
women’s athletics that differed substantially from popular ideals
of “manly sport.”

The tension between sport and femininity led, paradoxically,
to educators’ insistence on women’s equal right to sport and on
inherent differences between female and male athletes. Balancing
claims of equality and difference, physical educators articulated a
woman-centered philosophy of sport that proposed “modera-
tion” as the watchword of women’s physical activity. Moderation
provided the critical point of difference between women’s and

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The New Type of Athletic Girl 9

men’s sport, a preventive against the masculine effects of sport. It
was this philosophy, with its calculated effort to resolve the issue
of “mannishness,” which guided the early years of twentieth-cen-
tury women’s athletics.

=o=
Interest in women’s athletics reflected the growing popularity of
sport in industrial America. In a society in which the division
between leisure and labor was increasingly distinct, many
Americans filled their free time with modern exercise regimens
and organized sport. It was in the middle and latter decades of
the nineteenth century

Ancient history homework help

Case Study 7.3 Time Off for Religious Services1

Guam, a U.S. territory, is a small island community with a population of approximately 165,000 people (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014a). Residents comprise a melting pot of ethnicities: Chamorros (the indigenous people of the island), Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Chinese, Palauans, Micronesians (people from the Federated States of Micronesia: Chuuk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae), White Americans (non-Hispanic), African-Americans, Indians, and others. Specifically, the ethnic groups represented on the island, according to the 2000 census, were: Chamorro 37.1%, Filipino 26.3%, other Pacific islander 11.3%, White 6.9%, other Asian 6.3%, other ethnic origin or race 2.3%, mixed 9.8% (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014a). The cultural diversity on the island of Guam is typified by the existence of the various ethnic groups who make up the residents of the island. The nationality of individuals born on Guam is classified as Guamanian (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014b). “Guam’s culture has also been influenced and enriched over the last 50 years by the American, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Micronesian immigrants that have each added their unique cultural contributions” (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014b). The island is also home to both a U.S. Air Force Base and Naval Base, which work in a partnership known as Joint Region Marianas.

Public education on Guam is overseen by the Guam Department of Education, which is a single unified school district for grades Kindergarten through 12 with 26 elementary schools, 8 middle schools, 5 high schools, and an alternative school, serving over 30,000 students (Guam Department of Education, n.d.). Public schools on Guam are patterned after school systems in the continental United States and “the Chinese and Japanese communities each support schools to preserve their respective language and culture” (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014c). The teachers in each of the schools are as diverse as the community residents. Like the community, many of the public school teachers are Chamorro or of Chamorro ancestry and devout Catholics. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2014c), 85% of the community residents are Roman Catholics. In any given week of the year, Catholic rosary services are held in cathedrals, residents’ homes, or both. What follows is a hypothetical case scenario that considers the realities of an island community in which a large number of the population follow the same faith.

On May 30, the day after the Memorial Day weekend and just 2 weeks shy of the end of the school year, teachers and administrators were busily preparing for year-end testing and budget review. At Central Elementary School, teachers had just been notified that one of their recent retiree colleagues, Mrs. Maria Cruz, had passed away over the weekend. A well-liked teacher, Mrs. Cruz had worked at Central Elementary for 30 years. On this Tuesday, Catholic rosary services for Mrs. Cruz were to take place at noon and 6 p.m. at the town cathedral.

Principal Robert Perez circulated a written notice to all teachers regarding the rosary services for Mrs. Cruz. The notice read:

One of our former teachers, Mrs. Maria Cruz, sadly passed away over the weekend. Noon rosary services for Mrs. Cruz will be held at the cathedral. Any teachers wishing to attend the noon rosary service for Maria may do so as long as their classes are covered by other teachers for the time they are away. No official leave form is required to attend the rosary services. Kindly inform my secretary, Ms. Anita Baza, of your intentions and who will be covering your class.

Later that morning, Principal Perez saw first-grade teacher Ms. Rose Torres in the hallway. “Hi Rose! Are you planning to attend the rosary for Maria anytime this week?”

Ms. Torres replied, “Yes, I am. Tina Mafnas (another first-grade teacher) and I are combining our classes and will take turns covering for the hour.”

Principal Perez responded, “Great. As always, you do not have to sign a leave form if you stagger the coverage of your classes. Just be sure the kids are working on the set curriculum for that time period and let my secretary, Ms. Baza, know your schedule.”

On receipt of the notice, fourth-grade teachers Mrs. Sashi Takagumi (a Japanese resident in the community) and Ms. Meifeng Wei (a Chinese resident, originally from Hong Kong) fumed over the notice in the teachers’ lounge. “The fact is that Principal Perez has practiced a no leave deduction policy during our entire 5 years of employment here,” Mrs. Takagumi complained. “Just last week, I wanted to visit the Shinto shrine, and I signed annual leave to do so—in which I returned back to work within one hour.” She continued, “Meifeng, this is really unfair! Maybe I should say that I am going to attend a rosary service next time so that I do not have to sign annual leave.”

“Yeah, but what can we do? We are in the minority when it comes to religious beliefs in this community. And the fact that Principal Perez is a devout Catholic only perpetuates this ‘school culture’ of taking care of your own kind,” retorted Ms. Wei.

“We need to stand up for what is right,” replied Mrs. Takagumi. “We are foolish to let it escalate further. We are no longer new teachers trying to pass our probationary period. We do not need to keep a low tone about this any longer. Either we are allowed the same no leave policy to attend our religious services or else everyone has to sign for annual leave for any kind of absence related to attending a religious event.”

“I see your point, Sashi,” said Ms. Wei. “But the real focus should be on what is the appropriate action to take as professionals. I mean, shouldn’t church and state issues stay out of our public schools? I don’t think that central office, in particular Superintendent Salas, will be happy to know that classes are being combined even if it is only for one hour. And what about the parents of these children in combined classes; what will they think? You know that regardless of what religion these children practice, their parents will be upset over lumping two classes into one huge classroom. It really has become more of a break period than a focus on teaching the curriculum for that hour. It is too difficult to oversee so many students and keep their concentration. By the time the classes combine, which usually means going to the library or study hall room, 30 minutes have gone by,” explains Ms. Wei.

“Yes, I agree with you Meifeng,” Mrs. Takagumi firmly stated. “We need to petition Superintendent Salas to investigate this ‘time off without leave’ practice. The children are the ones at a disadvantage with this practice, not us. We really should focus on doing our best job to educate our students.”

Mrs. Takagumi and Ms. Wei decided to write a formal letter to Superintendent Salas concerning this dilemma. In addition, they planned to attach a petition containing signatures of other teachers from Central Elementary School who were opposed to Principal Perez’s “time off without leave” practice.

Questions for Discussion

Is there a legal issue here? If not, why not? If so, what is it and how would you resolve it? What is the fairest way to handle this situation? The most caring?

Why do you think the “time off without leave” practice has been allowed to go unnoticed for five years? Do you think the “culture” of the community and/or school should determine policy and/or practice? Explain your answer.

Does the ethic of the profession support Principal Perez in carrying out his “time off without leave” practice? Why or why not? How should Superintendent Salas respond to this dilemma, keeping in mind the best interests of the students?

What action would you take as a teacher who does not agree with the practice? Do you think Mrs. Takagumi and Ms. Wei chose an appropriate strategy to address this dilemma? Why or why not? What else could they have done?

How do you think Principal Perez should respond to possible negative reactions from the parents of the children being placed in a so-called break hour period? Do you see an ethical issue here? If so, what is it and how would you resolve it? If not, why not?

Case Study 9.6 A Merit-Based Scholarship

Jessica Walters stared at the two files on her desk. As director of admissions at a small, liberal arts college in the Midwest, she and her staff were faced with tough admissions decisions each day, but this case was the most difficult she had dealt with in her 20-year admissions career, and it was certainly the thorniest she had ever experienced here at Midvale College.

The applications in question were from two top-achieving students competing for a unique scholarship offered to a single high school senior from the town. Each one had attended strong schools, taken challenging courses, led clubs, started organizations, and were in the top 10% of their graduating classes. Despite their similarities, their family situations, their gender, and their racial and ethnic backgrounds were different. The Hispanic male candidate, Juan Hernandez, came from a single-parent home; however, that single parent, a father, was a lawyer. The White female student, Courtney Rolands, came from an intact home, but both parents were in blue-collar hourly wage jobs and neither had attended college.

Academically, while these students were both strong candidates, there was one key difference: their American College Testing (ACT) scores. The Hispanic male student’s score was four points—a substantial difference on the composite ACT scale—below that of the White student. Jessica knew that if she followed the college’s written guidelines for this scholarship, Courtney Rolands, the student with the higher ACT score, would get the award. Jessica reviewed the files again. This time she looked for any other serious differences in the students’ applications. She could not discover any particular challenges that might be considered as a plus factor in the scholarship consideration. The only significant difference was their ACT scores.

This case was exacerbated by the fact that Jessica’s college had been enjoying record enrollment numbers during her tenure. She was a shrewd marketer, and she and her team had been able to attract more and better qualified students. Unfortunately, with increasingly higher ACT scores from their incoming freshmen, more students of color were denied admission. Jennifer’s graduate work had been in the area of standardized test differentials, so she was acutely aware of students of color having admission difficulties. Admittedly, the decline in Hispanic numbers was slight, but some people were starting to notice. Student groups and faculty were beginning to agitate about the declining number of Hispanics admitted to Midvale College, and the president of the college was feeling the heat. The issue was compounded by the fact that the town, like many other towns in the Midwest, had been experiencing a Hispanic population boom.

On the one hand, Jessica could understand their concerns. Enrolling a diverse student body was a compelling issue and important enough to allow colleges to consider race as a plus factor in admissions. However, University of Michigan U.S. Supreme Court cases (Gratz v. Bollinger, 2003; Grutter v. Bollinger, 2003) gave Jessica pause; colleges and universities across the country were re-evaluating their admissions policies to ensure they were legal. These court decisions addressed the use of race in admissions, but much of the discussion surrounding them indicated that minority scholarships and financial aid would be the next targets. In sum, what the decisions said was that race could be a factor in assuring diversity in admissions but that there could not be a quota system to ensure minority representation. The policy needs to be flexible and highly individualized in that a number of factors are considered. The admissions policy in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) was illegal because, among other things, it automatically gave applicants an additional 20 points if they came from underrepresented minority groups.

Midvale College had never used an affirmative action policy in admissions, and the information distributed to the public indicated that the college did not consider race in admissions decisions. In the case of the Midvale scholarship application it did ask for race, but the form clearly indicated it was optional and would have no impact on the scholarship decision. If Jessica started to use that piece of information as part of the scholarship decision process it would feel to her to be unethical, and possibly it might even be illegal. However, Jessica wondered if she could consider race in this situation because it had to do with a scholarship award as opposed to admissions. After all, both students would be admitted to the college.

As she was still considering which student should win the scholarship, the college president contacted her to say that he had just received an angry call from a member of the college’s board. The Hispanic member was outraged at the possibility that a minority student might be passed over for the scholarship due to a lower test score. He pointed out that a minority student had never received this scholarship (in fact, few had ever applied), and this year it was important that someone who was not in the majority should receive it.

The president was tired of all the pressure and effectively told Jessica that she “should” award the minority student the scholarship. As she put down the phone, Jessica knew she had to make the most ethically challenging decision of her career. Traditionally, it had always been the admissions director who made the decision about the scholarship. Should she allow the president and the board member to determine the recipient of the award, or should she make the decision herself?

Questions for Discussion

Which ethical paradigm(s) does the president of Midvale College seem to be most influenced by? Is his directive legal? Is it just?

If we only had the ethic of justice as a paradigm, what decision would Jessica have to make?

How might Jessica use the ethic of care in this case? Is it possible to care for all parties in this case? If so, how? If not, why not?

From a critical perspective, what are the ethical issues in this scenario that relate to social class, racial/ethnic equality, power, and oppression?

Imagine that you are the admissions director. Choose the student you think should win the scholarship competition. Carefully consider which ethical paradigm(s) you are using as you make your decision. Explain.

Ancient history homework help

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The New Frontier

Kennedy versus Nixon

CORE OBJECTIVE

1. Assess President John F. Kennedy’s efforts to contain communism abroad and

pursue civil rights and other social programs at home.

In his 1960 speech accepting the Democratic presidential nomination, John F. Kennedy showcased
the muscular language that would stamp the rest of his campaign and his presidency: “We stand
today on the edge of a New Frontier—the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils—a frontier
of unfulfilled hopes and threats.” Kennedy and his staff fastened upon the frontier metaphor as the
label for their proposed domestic program because they believed that Americans had always been
adventurers, eager to conquer and exploit new frontiers. Kennedy promised that he would get the
country “moving again” and be a more aggressive cold warrior than Eisenhower.

In 1960, the presidential election pitted against each other two candidates—Vice President Richard
M. Nixon and Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy (JFK)—of similar ages and life experiences.
Both were elected to Congress in 1946, both were navy veterans, and both preferred foreign affairs
over domestic issues. In fact, however, they were more different than alike.

As the popular Eisenhower’s partner over successive terms, Nixon was assured the Republican
nomination for president in 1960. A native of California, the ambitious son of a shopkeeper, he had
fought tenaciously to be a success, first as an attorney, then as a congressman. He had come to
Washington eager to reverse the tide of New Deal liberalism. His visibility among Republicans
benefited from his leadership of the anti-Communist hearings in Congress during the McCarthy
hysteria.

All his life, Nixon had had to claw and struggle to the top. Now he had the presidency within his
grasp. But Nixon, graceless, awkward, and stiff, proved to be one of the most complicated and most
interesting political figures in American history.

By 1960, Vice President Nixon had developed the reputation for being a cunning deceiver, the
“Tricky Dick” who concealed his real ideas and bigoted attitudes. Kennedy told an aide that “Nixon
doesn’t know who he is . . . so every time he makes a speech he has to decide which Nixon he is, and
that will be very exhausting.”

The forty-three-year-old Kennedy had not distinguished himself in the House or the Senate, but
he was tall and youthful, handsome and charming, and he had the energy and wit to match his grace
and ambition. He also had a bright, agile mind; a quick wit; a Harvard education; a record of
heroism in the Second World War; a rich and powerful Roman Catholic family; and a beautiful,
accomplished, and young wife, only thirty-two years old.

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In the words of a southern senator, Kennedy fused “the best qualities of Elvis Presley and Franklin
D. Roosevelt”—a combination that played well in the first-ever televised presidential debate. Some
70 million people tuned in and saw an obviously uncomfortable Nixon, still weak from a recent
illness, perspiring heavily and looking pale, haggard, and even sinister before the camera. Kennedy,
on the other hand, appeared tanned and calm, projected a cool poise, and offered crisp answers that
made him seem Nixon’s equal, if not superior, in his fitness for the nation’s highest office.

John Kennedy’s political rise owed much to the effective public relations campaign engineered by
his father, Joseph Kennedy, a self-made tycoon with a genius for promotion. “Can’t you get it into
your head,” the elder Kennedy told John, “that it’s not important what you really are? The only
important thing is what people think you are.” To ensure that people thought well of his son, the
elder Kennedy hired writers to produce his son’s two books, paid a publisher to print them,
purchased thousands of copies to make them “best sellers,” and helped engineer his son’s elections
to the Congress and Senate.

The momentum that Kennedy gained from the first debate with Nixon was not enough to ensure
his victory. The Democratic candidate became a relentless campaigner—traveling 65,000 miles,
visiting twenty-five states, and making over 350 speeches—including an address to Protestant
ministers in Texas in which he neutralized concerns about his being a Roman Catholic by stressing
that the pope in Rome would never “tell the President—should he be a Catholic—how to act.”

THE KENNEDY-NIXON DEBATES Nixon’s decision to debate his less prominent opponent on television
backfired.

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THE ELECTION OF 1960

■ How did the election of 1960 represent a sea change in American presidential politics?
■ What three events shaped the campaign?
■ How did John F. Kennedy win the election in spite of winning fewer states than Richard M.

Nixon?

Kennedy also worked to increase the registration of African American voters across the nation,
and he won the hearts of many black voters by helping to get Martin Luther King Jr. out of a Georgia
jail after being arrested for “trespassing” in an all-white restaurant. “I’ve got a suitcase of votes,”
explained King’s appreciative father, “and I’m going to take them to Mr. Kennedy and dump them in
his lap.” On the Sunday before Election Day, a million leaflets about Kennedy’s enabling King’s
release from prison were distributed in African American churches across the nation.

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A Vigorous New Administration

When the votes were counted, Kennedy and his running mate, the powerful Texas senator Lyndon
B. Johnson, had won the closest presidential election since 1888. The winning margin was only
118,574 votes out of more than 68 million cast. Nixon had carried more states than Kennedy,
sweeping most of the West and holding four of the six southern states that Eisenhower had carried
in 1956. But Kennedy won 70 percent of the black vote, which proved decisive in at least three key
states. Nixon convinced himself that the Democrats had stolen the election through chicanery in
Illinois and Texas. Nursing an inflated sense of grievance, he resolved never again to be outdone by a
rival’s dirty politics.

Kennedy’s New Frontier

John F. Kennedy was the first Roman Catholic elected
president and the youngest man ever elected. His
inauguration ceremony on a cold, clear, blustery January
day set the tone of youthful elegance, charm, and energy that would signify the Kennedy style. In his
inaugural speech, the president quite intentionally spoke as the leader of “a new generation of
Americans,” implying that Eisenhower had come to represent older Americans. Kennedy dazzled
listeners with uplifting words: “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall
pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the
survival and success of liberty. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for
you—ask what you can do for your country.”

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JACK AND JACKIE Young, refined, and fabulous, the Kennedys were instant celebrities. Women teased their hair
into the First Lady’s famous hairdo, while men craved JFK’s effortless cool.

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Kennedy and Civil Rights

Such inspiring language heralded a presidency of fresh promise and new beginnings, an activist
administration committed to bringing together the “best and the brightest” minds in the nation to
fashion a dazzling new era in political achievement. Yet much of the glamour surrounding Kennedy
was cosmetic. Despite his athletic interests and robust appearance, he suffered from serious medical
problems: Addison’s disease (a withering of the adrenal glands), venereal disease, chronic back pain
resulting from a birth defect, and fierce fevers. He took powerful prescription medicines or
injections daily, sometimes hourly, to manage a degenerative bone disease, to deal with anxiety, to
help him sleep, and to control his allergies.

Kennedy and his associates hid his physical ailments—as well as his sexual dalliances in the White
House with a galaxy of women, including actress Marilyn Monroe and Judith Campbell Exner, the
girlfriend of a Chicago mob boss. The handsome president was a compulsive womanizer. When
Kennedy met British prime minister Harold Macmillan, he left him speechless by asking, “I don’t
know about you, Harold, but if I don’t have a woman every three days, I get terrible headaches. How
about you?”

Kennedy had a difficult time launching his New Frontier domestic program. Conservative
southern Democrats joined with Republicans to block his efforts to increase federal aid to education,
provide medical insurance for the aged, and create a cabinet-level department of urban affairs and
housing to address poverty in the inner cities. Legislators did approve the Peace Corps, created in
1961 to recruit idealistic young volunteers who would provide educational and technical service
abroad. The Kennedy administration also persuaded Congress to increase the minimum wage and
pass a Housing Act that earmarked nearly $5 billion for new public-housing projects in poverty-
stricken inner-city areas. And Kennedy won support for an accelerated space program with the
audacious goal of landing astronauts on the moon before the end of the decade.

M VIDEO: JFK and Civil Rights

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Catastrophe in Cuba

The most important development in domestic life during the sixties occurred in civil rights.
Throughout the South, racial segregation remained firmly in place. Signs outside public restrooms
distinguished between “whites” and “colored”; signs in restaurants declared “Colored Not Allowed,”
or “Colored Served Only in Rear.” Stores prohibited African Americans from trying on clothes before
buying them. Witnesses in courtrooms were sworn in with their hands placed on different Bibles,
depending on their race. Despite the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954, many public
schools across the South remained segregated and unequal in quality.

Like Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy celebrated racial equality
but did little to promote it until events forced him to do so. He was reluctant to challenge
conservative southern Democrats on the explosive issue of segregation. His caution reflected his
narrow election margin in 1960. He and his brother Robert (“Bobby”), the attorney general as well
as the president’s closest adviser, had to be forced into actively supporting the civil rights movement.

M VIDEO: JFK and Communism

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Kennedy’s record in foreign relations, as in domestic affairs, was mixed but more spectacularly so.
Although he had told a reporter that he wanted to “break out of the confines of the Cold War,” he
quickly found himself reinforcing its restrictive assumptions. While still a senator, Kennedy had
blasted Eisenhower for not being tough enough with the Soviets and for allowing Fidel Castro and
his Communist followers to take over Cuba in 1959.

Soon after his inauguration, Kennedy learned that a secret CIA operation, approved by
Eisenhower, was training 1,500 anti-Castro Cubans for an invasion of their homeland. U.S. military
leaders assured Kennedy that the invasion plan (“Operation Trinidad”) was feasible; CIA analysts
naively predicted that news of the invasion would inspire anti-Castro Cubans to rebel against their
Communist dictator. In reality, the covert operation had little chance of succeeding. Indeed, it
became one of the rarest of historical events: a total failure.

When the ragtag force, transported on American ships, landed before dawn at the Bay of Pigs on
Cuba’s south shore on April 17, 1961, Castro’s forces were waiting for them. Kennedy panicked when
he realized the operation was failing and refused desperate pleas from the rebels for “promised”
support from U.S. warplanes. General Lyman Lemnitzer, chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that

WALK OF SHAME Captured anti-Castro Cubans at the Bay of Pigs. Why was Kennedy’s involvement at the
Bay of Pigs so disastrous?

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The Vienna Summit

Kennedy’s “pulling out the rug [on the Cuban invaders] was . . . absolutely reprehensible, almost
criminal.” Some 1,200 rebels were captured; the rest were killed. (Kennedy later authorized the
payment of $53 million to ransom the rebels).

The clumsy effort to overthrow the Cuban government was a catastrophe. It humiliated Kennedy
and elevated Castro in the eyes of the world. A New York Times columnist reported that the
Americans involved in the botched invasion “looked like fools to our friends, rascals to our enemies,
and incompetents to the rest.” In Moscow, Nikita Khrushchev asked if Kennedy could “really be that
indecisive?” To his credit, Kennedy admitted that the Bay of Pigs invasion was a “colossal mistake”
and “the worst experience of my life.” While pacing back and forth, he kept muttering to himself,
“How could I have been so stupid?” Kennedy never again trusted his trigger-happy military and
intelligence advisers.

Berlin Wall

Just six weeks after the Bay of Pigs fiasco, Kennedy,
heavily medicated because of chronic back pain, met
Khrushchev at a summit conference in Vienna, Austria.
Khrushchev bullied the young president and threatened to limit American access to Berlin, the
divided city inside Communist East Germany. Kennedy confided to a journalist that the summit
“was awful. Worst thing of my life. He rolled right over me—he thinks I’m a fool—he thinks I’m
weak. . . . He treated me like a little boy.” When asked what he planned to do next, Kennedy replied:
“I have to confront them [the Soviets] someplace to show that we’re tough.” Desperate to show his
mettle, Kennedy responded by calling up Army Reserve and National Guard units to protect West
Berlin. When military advisers told him that he would have to use nuclear weapons to protect Berlin,
Kennedy lost his temper: “God damn it . . . use your head. What we are talking about is seventy
million dead Americans.”

Then, on August 13, 1961, the Soviets stopped all traffic between East and West Berlin and erected
the twenty-seven-mile-long Berlin Wall, made of concrete and topped with barbed wire. For the
United States, the wall became a powerful propaganda weapon. As Kennedy said, “Freedom has
many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put up a wall to keep our
people in.”

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The Cuban Missile Crisis

Green Berets

The Berlin Wall demonstrated the Soviets’ willingness
to challenge American resolve in Europe. Kennedy and
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara responded by

embarking upon the most intensive arms race in history, increasing the number of nuclear missiles
fivefold, adding 300,000 men to the armed forces, and creating the U.S. Special Forces (Green
Berets), an elite group of commandos specializing in guerrilla warfare who could provide a “more
flexible response” than nuclear weapons to “hotspots” around the world and enable the United
States to wage small wars in faraway lands. In contrast to the Eisenhower-Dulles emphasis on
“massive retaliation,” Kennedy sought more flexibility: “We intend to have a wider choice than
humiliation or all-out war.”

Soviet missiles in Cuba

In the fall of 1962, Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviets
posed another challenge to Kennedy, this time only ninety
miles off the Florida coast. To protect Communist Cuba

from another American-backed invasion, Khrushchev approved the secret installation of Soviet
missiles on the island nation. The Soviets felt they were justified in doing so because the United
States had earlier installed missiles with nuclear warheads in Turkey, along the Soviet border.

SEVERED TIES Two West Berliners climb the newly constructed Berlin Wall to communicate with a family
member at an open window.

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On October 16, 1962, photos taken by U.S. spy planes revealed the Soviet missile sites in Cuba.
Although the Soviet actions violated no law or treaty, Kennedy decided that the forty or so missiles
had to be removed. But how? As the air force chief of staff told Kennedy, “You’re in a pretty bad fix,
Mr. President.”

Over the next thirteen days, perhaps the most dangerous two weeks in history, Kennedy and the
National Security Council (NSC) discussed several possible responses, ranging from doing nothing
to invading Cuba. The commander of the marines at one point reminded the group that the missiles
in Cuba were not a true threat. The Soviet Union “has a hell of a lot better way to attack us than to
attack us from Cuba.” Yet the group insisted that the missiles be removed for symbolic reasons.

At that point, the world came closer to a war involving the exchange of nuclear weapons than it
ever has before or since. Kennedy and the NSC discussed in some detail the unthinkable possibility
of a nuclear war, even estimating the damage that atomic bombs might inflict on major cities.
Eventually, however, the group narrowed the options to a choice between a “surgical” air strike on
the missiles and a naval blockade of Cuba. Although the military advisers urged bombing the missile
sites followed by an invasion of the island, Kennedy chose the naval blockade, which was carefully
disguised by calling it a quarantine, since a blockade is technically an act of war.

Naval quarantine of Cuba

On Monday night, October 22, President Kennedy
delivered a solemn speech to the world, announcing that
the U.S. Navy was establishing a naval quarantine of Cuba
to prevent Soviet ships from delivering the goods and weapons that the island nation depended
upon. He urged the Soviets to “move the world back from the abyss of destruction.”

Soviets remove missiles under

nuclear threat

Tensions grew as Khrushchev replied that Soviet ships
would ignore the quarantine. He accused Kennedy of “an
act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a
world nuclear-missile war.” Despite such rhetoric,
however, on Wednesday, October 24, five Soviet ships, presumably with more missiles aboard,
stopped well short of the quarantine line. Two days later, Khrushchev, knowing that the U.S. still
enjoyed a 5 to 1 advantage in nuclear weapons, offered a deal. Neither he nor Kennedy wanted to be
the first president to launch nuclear missiles. The Soviets would remove the missiles in return for a
public pledge by the United States not to invade Cuba—and a secret agreement to remove U.S.
missiles from Turkey. Kennedy agreed. Secretary of State Dean Rusk stressed to a newscaster,
“Remember, when you report this, [say] that eyeball to eyeball, they [the Soviets] blinked first.”

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Controlling Atomic Weapons

In the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis, tensions between the United States and the Soviet
Union subsided, in part because of several symbolic steps: an agreement to sell the Soviet Union
surplus American wheat, the installation of a “hotline” telephone between Washington and Moscow
to provide instant contact between the heads of government, and the removal of aging U.S. missiles
from Turkey, Italy, and Britain.

Test Ban Treaty: Bans testing of

nuclear weapons in the atmosphere

Going to the edge of nuclear war over Soviet missiles in
Cuba led Kennedy and others in the administration to
soften their cold war rhetoric and pursue other ways to
reduce the threat of atomic warfare. As Kennedy told his

advisers at a White House meeting, “It is insane that two men, sitting on opposite sides of the world,
should be able to decide to bring an end to civilization.” In June 1963, the president began
discussions with the Soviets to reduce the risk of nuclear war. “If we cannot end our differences,” he
said, “at least we can help make the world a safe place for diversity.” After two months of difficult
negotiations, those discussions resulted in the Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union and Great
Britain, ratified in September 1963, which banned the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
It was an important move toward improved relations with the Soviet Union. As Kennedy put it,
using an ancient Chinese proverb, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.”

THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Photographs taken from a U.S. surveillance plane on October 14, 1962, revealed
both missile launchers and missile shelters near San Cristóbal, Cuba. What were the implications of this
discovery on America’s international relations?

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Kennedy and Vietnam

M VIDEO: The Vietnam War

Military advisers in Vietnam

As tensions with the Soviet Union eased, a new crisis was
growing in Southeast Asia, where events were moving
toward what would eventually become the greatest

American foreign-policy calamity of the century. The situation in South Vietnam had worsened
under the corrupt leadership of Premier Ngo Dinh Diem and his family. He had backed away from
promised social and economic reforms, and his repressive tactics, directed not only against
Communists but also against the Buddhist majority and other critics, played into the hands of his
enemies.

Kennedy continued to dispatch military “advisers” to South Vietnam in the hope of stabilizing the
situation (they were called advisers to avoid the impression that U.S. troops were doing the fighting).
When he took office, the United States had 900 troops in Vietnam; by the end of 1963, there were
16,000, all of whom were officially classified as advisers rather than combatants. “If I tried to pull
out,” Kennedy explained, “we would have another Joe McCarthy red scare on our hands,” with cold
war hawks accusing him of “losing” Vietnam to communism. “We must be patient, we must persist.”

By 1963, Kennedy was receiving sharply conflicting reports from South Vietnam. U.S. military
analysts expressed confidence in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Journalists, however,
predicted civil turmoil as long as Diem remained in power. By midyear, frequent Buddhist
demonstrations against Diem ignited widespread discontent. The spectacle of Buddhist monks
setting themselves on fire in public squares to protest government tyranny stunned Americans.

United States backs coup in South

Vietnam

By the fall of 1963, the Kennedy administration had
decided that the autocratic Diem was “out of touch with
his people” and had to go. On November 1, U.S.-backed

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Kennedy’s Assassination

army generals seized the South Vietnamese government
but then took a step that Kennedy had neither intended nor expected: they murdered Diem and his
brother.

The rebel generals, however, provided no more political stability than had Diem, and successive
coups set the fragile country spinning from one military leader to another. Thereafter, unstable
South Vietnam essentially became an American colony. The United States put the generals in power,
gave the orders, and provided massive financial support, much of which was diverted into the hands
of corrupt politicians. During that tumultuous fall of 1963, Kennedy seemed to have developed
doubts about the ability of the United States to prop up the South Vietnamese government. When
asked about the South Vietnamese effort to hold off Communist insurgents, he replied: “In the final
analysis it’s their war. They’re the ones who have to win it or lose it. We can help them as advisers
but they have to win it.”

By the fall of 1963, John F. Kennedy had matured a great deal as president. Not only had he come to
understand the urgency and momentum of the civil rights movement, he also had come to see the
cold war as a more complex issue than he had believed during his first year in office. In October
1963, he announced his intention to withdraw U.S. forces from South Vietnam by the end of 1965.

What Kennedy would have done thereafter in Vietnam has remained a matter of endless
discussion, because on November 22, 1963, while riding at noon in an open car through Dallas,
Texas, he was shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald, a twenty-four-year-old ex-marine turned
Communist who worked in the Texas School Book Depository, from which he fired at Kennedy with
a rifle. Kennedy seemed to have had a premonition of his death. “We’re heading into nut country
today,” he warned his wife Jackie that morning. “But Jackie, if somebody wants to shoot me from a
window with a rifle, nobody can stop it, so why worry about it?”

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Debate still swirls about whether Oswald, who had lived in the Soviet Union for a time, acted
alone or was part of a conspiracy to assassinate the president, in part because Oswald did not live
long enough to tell his story. As Oswald was being transported to a court hearing, Jack Ruby, a
Dallas nightclub owner distraught over Kennedy’s death, shot and killed a handcuffed Oswald as a
nationwide television audience watched.

Kennedy’s shocking assassination and his heartrending funeral enshrined the young president in
the public imagination as a martyred leader cut down in the prime of his life. His short-lived but
drama-filled presidency had flamed up and out like a comet hitting the earth’s atmosphere.
Americans wept in the streets, and the world was on edge as the wounded nation welcomed a new
and very different president.

PRESIDENT SHOT DEAD Commuters read the news of President Kennedy’s assassination on November 22,
1963.

Ancient history homework help



Stephanie Attanasio


YesterdayMar 30 at 9:31am

Manage Discussion Entry

There are multiple factors at play in Case Study 7.3, Time Off for Religious Services; however, this Case Study seems to deal most specifically with the ethic of profession. In their book, Ethical Leadership and Decision Making, Shapiro and Stefkovich (2016) suggest educational leaders take the time to develop their own personal codes of ethics and their own professional codes of ethics (p. 23). Life experiences will influence each person’s code of ethics.  

The National Education Association (2020) breaks down the code of ethics for educators into two categories, including a commitment to the student and responsibility to the profession. Ephesians 2:10 says, “For we are God’s handiwork, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do” (New International Version, 1973/2011). There is a strong work ethic associated with biblical teachings.

Humanity does not live in a black and white society, which is why there are arguments and discrepancies about ethical practices. Different people will always handle unique situations in various manners. This author has seen multiple times where senior leadership proposes a staff-wide opportunity for employees to attend a funeral service for another staff member. Personally, she does not see any ethical issues with it, especially when a staff member or retired staff member is close to the school or community. There is time off policies and procedures for relatives and friends; however, in these instances, it seems to be more of a community opportunity for the teachers to come together and show support than a “vacation” or time off for a personal religious experience. When seen in her own real life, this writer has never heard grumbling before from staff remaining on-premises to work while others slip out for an hour to attend part of a funeral service.

One question this author would propose the question, “who makes the decisions about community events and participation?” Is it for the principal to decide or the superintendent?

Also, if the readers are considering this Case Study are evaluating it from a biblical perspective, should Mrs. Takagumi and Ms. Wei approach the principal directly first before going straight to the superintendent? Within the church, Jesus taught his disciples to go directly to their brother or sister in conflict (New International Version, 1973/2011, Matthew 18:25-17). If that does not work, then there are other options; however, most people should begin their conflict resolution by addressing the issue directly with the person responsible.

References

National Education Association. (2020). Code of ethics for educators. https://www.nea.org/resource-library/code-ethics-educators

New International Version. (2011). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians%202%3A10&version=NIV (Original work published 1973).

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education (4th edition). Taylor & Francis.

Read Less



Quintarius Grigsby

TuesdayMar 29 at 2:27pm

Manage Discussion Entry

Case Study 7.3 

While it is constitutionally permissible for public schools to teach about religion, it is unconstitutional for public schools and their employees to observe religious holidays, promote religious belief, or practice religion. However I for one am an advocate for upholding one’s spiritual or religious beliefs as long as it doesn’t become a nuance to those with a respective sphere of networking. My religious affiliation or culture is as a devout follower of the truth (Christ) and one who openly observes the commandments of the Most High (Yahuwah). A conventional devout Christian believer may be displeased with my expression of what I believe to be true spiritually and may form an opinion of opposition against me due the culture I subscribe to. Religion as an institution can be quite stressful because it literally binds men to a particular set of rules instituted by man instead of by God. Suppose there are several separate religious belief systems in one organization, will this not cause confusion if one is held in higher regard than the rest? I propose this would be an immediate long term issue and quite the moral dilemma. As a leader of a given organization or institution how would one go about maintaining the peace concerning religious appropriation? Each religion by definition has its own set of rules and bylaws that are customary to the believers of that said religion. Respect can be given to each religion within an institution as long as the foundation of that particular religion is built upon moral codes and principles of ethics. As followers of Christ we are appointed not to entertain or serve other gods including graven images appointed not by God. This is why Case study 7.3 is so interesting because for those who do not know the Law of the Most High will have trouble managing the intensity of such a religious uprising in a school based system. 

Case study 7.3, Time Off for Religious Services, involves two relatively new teachers who are troubled by the school’s leave policy concerning attendance at religious services. The school principal is confronted with honoring the cultural tradition of the school and its community members and agreeing with the merits of the school’s leave policy. Although this dilemma is set in Guam, a U.S. territory with a predominately Catholic population, we ask our readers to compare and contrast other instances where religious holidays have been integrated into “vacations” when large segments of the school community would otherwise be absent or when students, teachers, or both have been given “opt-outs” to attend religious functions (Shapiro & Stefkovich). Firstly respect needs to be given to the original people of the Island that didn’t subscribe to any other religion except their own and respect must be given to their offspring. The census stated that there is a population of 165,000 people according to Guam Economic Development Authority and out of those 165,000 residents 37.1 are Chamorro (Indigenous to that Island). My question is, who are all these other people and what right do they have to set their religion as the religious superpower of that Island. Both Catholics and Christianity have been forcing their beliefs on other ethnicities and nations for years, even holding their beliefs in high esteem. The colonials occupied territories with military force and after slaying the aboriginal populations they forced their religious preferences on those who remained. Now is this any different in a school system but to a lesser degree. Religion indifference throughout the course of history has been one of the main driving forces of warfare just like in the so-called Middle Eastern societies. 

Here is a statement from the teachers at Central Elementary School: And the fact that Principal Perez is a devout Catholic only perpetuates this ‘school culture’ of taking care of your own kind,” retorted Ms. Wei.

“We need to stand up for what is right,” replied Mrs. Takagumi. “We are foolish to let it escalate further. We are no longer new teachers trying to pass our probationary period. We do not need to keep a low tone about this any longer. Either we are allowed the same no leave policy to attend our religious services or else everyone has to sign for annual leave for any kind of absence related to attending a religious event.” Do you see how the principal’s disdain for his staff members personal beliefs will cause him trouble in the long run. Religious practices should never supersede the true desires of God. Ecclesiastes 12:13-14 says, “Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Traditions mean nothing if you’re not keeping God’s commandments and obeying the laws of nature. John 14:15 says, “If ye love me, keep my commandments.” If Principal Torez who proclaim to be a devout Catholic would have observed the commandments of God rather than the traditions of men He would have known this scripture and applied it: Matthew 7:12, says, “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.” 

Shapiro & Stefkovich (Chapter 1 page 4) gives this quote of an unknown journalist and it states: Given this admittedly bleak picture of life in the not-so-moral America of the 90s, it does not seem hyperbolic to say that we, as educators and administrators in our nation’s schools, may well be part of an ever-dwindling group of citizens who continue to form a bastion against the growing phenomenon of unethical behavior in our country. How then could a program aimed at preparing men and women to serve as administrators in our nation’s educational institutions possibly be considered complete without the inclusion of a course that requires would-be pedagogical leaders to examine both their personal and professional ethics and the impact that their ethical codes will have on their day-to-day administrative decision making?

References 

Shapiro, Joan Poliner. Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas /. London :: Routledge,, 2016. Web.

Ancient history homework help

Case Study 7.3 Time Off for Religious Services1

Guam, a U.S. territory, is a small island community with a population of approximately 165,000 people (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014a). Residents comprise a melting pot of ethnicities: Chamorros (the indigenous people of the island), Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Chinese, Palauans, Micronesians (people from the Federated States of Micronesia: Chuuk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae), White Americans (non-Hispanic), African Americans, Indians, and others. Specifically, the ethnic groups represented on the island, according to the 2000 census, were: Chamorro 37.1%, Filipino 26.3%, other Pacific islander 11.3%, White 6.9%, other Asian 6.3%, other ethnic origin or race 2.3%, mixed 9.8% (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014a). The cultural diversity on the island of Guam is typified by the existence of the various ethnic groups who make up the residents of the island. The nationality of individuals born on Guam is classified as Guamanian (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014b). “Guam’s culture has also been influenced and enriched over the last 50 years by the American, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Micronesian immigrants that have each added their unique cultural contributions” (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014b). The island is also home to both a U.S. Air Force Base and Naval Base, which work in a partnership known as Joint Region Marianas.

Public education in Guam is overseen by the Guam Department of Education, which is a single unified school district for grades Kindergarten through 12 with 26 elementary schools, 8 middle schools, 5 high schools, and an alternative school, serving over 30,000 students (Guam Department of Education, n.d.). Public schools in Guam are patterned after school systems in the continental United States and “the Chinese and Japanese communities each support schools to preserve their respective language and culture” (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2014c). The teachers in each of the schools are as diverse as the community residents. Like the community, many of the public-school teachers are Chamorro or of Chamorro ancestry and devout Catholics. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2014c), 85% of the community residents are Roman Catholics. In any given week of the year, Catholic rosary services are held in cathedrals, residents’ homes, or both. What follows is a hypothetical case scenario that considers the realities of an island community in which many the population follow the same faith.

On May 30, the day after the Memorial Day weekend and just 2 weeks shy of the end of the school year, teachers and administrators were busily preparing for year-end testing and budget review. At Central Elementary School, teachers had just been notified that one of their recent retiree colleagues, Mrs. Maria Cruz, had passed away over the weekend. A well-liked teacher, Mrs. Cruz had worked at Central Elementary for 30 years. On this Tuesday, Catholic rosary services for Mrs. Cruz were to take place at noon and 6 p.m. at the town cathedral.

Principal Robert Perez circulated a written notice to all teachers regarding the rosary services for Mrs. Cruz. The notice read:

One of our former teachers, Mrs. Maria Cruz, sadly passed away over the weekend. Noon rosary services for Mrs. Cruz will be held at the cathedral. Any teachers wishing to attend the noon rosary service for Maria may do so as long as their classes are covered by other teachers for the time they are away. No official leave form is required to attend the rosary services. Kindly inform my secretary, Ms. Anita Baza, of your intentions and who will be covering your class.

Later that morning, Principal Perez saw first-grade teacher Ms. Rose Torres in the hallway. “Hi Rose! Are you planning to attend the rosary for Maria anytime this week?”

Ms. Torres replied, “Yes, I am. Tina Mafnas (another first-grade teacher) and I are combining our classes and will take turns covering for the hour.”

Principal Perez responded, “Great. As always, you do not have to sign a leave form if you stagger the coverage of your classes. Just be sure the kids are working on the set curriculum for that time period and let my secretary, Ms. Baza, know your schedule.”

On receipt of the notice, fourth-grade teachers Mrs. Sashi Takagumi (a Japanese resident in the community) and Ms. Meifeng Wei (a Chinese resident, originally from Hong Kong) fumed over the notice in the teachers’ lounge. “The fact is that Principal Perez has practiced a no leave deduction policy during our entire 5 years of employment here,” Mrs. Takagumi complained. “Just last week, I wanted to visit the Shinto shrine, and I signed annual leave to do so—in which I returned back to work within one hour.” She continued, “Meifeng, this is really unfair! Maybe I should say that I am going to attend a rosary service next time so that I do not have to sign annual leave.”

“Yeah, but what can we do? We are in the minority when it comes to religious beliefs in this community. And the fact that Principal Perez is a devout Catholic only perpetuates this ‘school culture’ of taking care of your own kind,” retorted Ms. Wei.

“We need to stand up for what is right,” replied Mrs. Takagumi. “We are foolish to let it escalate further. We are no longer new teachers trying to pass our probationary period. We do not need to keep a low tone about this any longer. Either we are allowed the same no leave policy to attend our religious services or else everyone has to sign for annual leave for any kind of absence related to attending a religious event.”

“I see your point, Sashi,” said Ms. Wei. “But the real focus should be on what is the appropriate action to take as professionals. I mean, shouldn’t church and state issues stay out of our public schools? I don’t think that central office, in particular Superintendent Salas, will be happy to know that classes are being combined even if it is only for one hour. And what about the parents of these children in combined classes; what will they think? You know that regardless of what religion these children practice, their parents will be upset over lumping two classes into one huge classroom. It really has become more of a break period than a focus on teaching the curriculum for that hour. It is too difficult to oversee so many students and keep their concentration. By the time the classes combine, which usually means going to the library or study hall room, 30 minutes have gone by,” explains Ms. Wei.

“Yes, I agree with you Meifeng,” Mrs. Takagumi firmly stated. “We need to petition Superintendent Salas to investigate this ‘time off without leave’ practice. The children are the ones at a disadvantage with this practice, not us. We really should focus on doing our best job to educate our students.”

Mrs. Takagumi and Ms. Wei decided to write a formal letter to Superintendent Salas concerning this dilemma. In addition, they planned to attach a petition containing signatures of other teachers from Central Elementary School who were opposed to Principal Perez’s “time off without leave” practice.

Questions for Discussion

Is there a legal issue here? If not, why not? If so, what is it and how would you resolve it? What is the fairest way to handle this situation? The most caring?

Why do you think the “time off without leave” practice has been allowed to go unnoticed for five years? Do you think the “culture” of the community and/or school should determine policy and/or practice? Explain your answer.

Does the ethic of the profession support Principal Perez in carrying out his “time off without leave” practice? Why or why not? How should Superintendent Salas respond to this dilemma, keeping in mind the best interests of the students?

What action would you take as a teacher who does not agree with the practice? Do you think Mrs. Takagumi and Ms. Wei chose an appropriate strategy to address this dilemma? Why or why not? What else could they have done?

How do you think Principal Perez should respond to possible negative reactions from the parents of the children being placed in a so-called break hour period? Do you see an ethical issue here? If so, what is it and how would you resolve it? If not, why not?

Case Study 9.6 A Merit-Based Scholarship

Jessica Walters stared at the two files on her desk. As director of admissions at a small, liberal arts college in the Midwest, she and her staff were faced with tough admissions decisions each day, but this case was the most difficult she had dealt with in her 20-year admissions career, and it was certainly the thorniest she had ever experienced here at Midvale College.

The applications in question were from two top-achieving students competing for a unique scholarship offered to a single high school senior from the town. Each one had attended strong schools, taken challenging courses, led clubs, started organizations, and were in the top 10% of their graduating classes. Despite their similarities, their family situations, their gender, and their racial and ethnic backgrounds were different. The Hispanic male candidate, Juan Hernandez, came from a single-parent home; however, that single parent, a father, was a lawyer. The White female student, Courtney Rolands, came from an intact home, but both parents were in blue-collar hourly wage jobs and neither had attended college.

Academically, while these students were both strong candidates, there was one key difference: their American College Testing (ACT) scores. The Hispanic male student’s score was four points—a substantial difference on the composite ACT scale—below that of the White student. Jessica knew that if she followed the college’s written guidelines for this scholarship, Courtney Rolands, the student with the higher ACT score, would get the award. Jessica reviewed the files again. This time she looked for any other serious differences in the students’ applications. She could not discover any particular challenges that might be considered as a plus factor in the scholarship consideration. The only significant difference was their ACT scores.

This case was exacerbated by the fact that Jessica’s college had been enjoying record enrollment numbers during her tenure. She was a shrewd marketer, and she and her team had been able to attract more and better qualified students. Unfortunately, with increasingly higher ACT scores from their incoming freshmen, more students of color were denied admission. Jennifer’s graduate work had been in the area of standardized test differentials, so she was acutely aware of students of color having admission difficulties. Admittedly, the decline in Hispanic numbers was slight, but some people were starting to notice. Student groups and faculty were beginning to agitate about the declining number of Hispanics admitted to Midvale College, and the president of the college was feeling the heat. The issue was compounded by the fact that the town, like many other towns in the Midwest, had been experiencing a Hispanic population boom.

On the one hand, Jessica could understand their concerns. Enrolling a diverse student body was a compelling issue and important enough to allow colleges to consider race as a plus factor in admissions. However, University of Michigan U.S. Supreme Court cases (Gratz v. Bollinger, 2003; Grutter v. Bollinger, 2003) gave Jessica pause; colleges and universities across the country were re-evaluating their admissions policies to ensure they were legal. These court decisions addressed the use of race in admissions, but much of the discussion surrounding them indicated that minority scholarships and financial aid would be the next targets. In sum, what the decisions said was that race could be a factor in assuring diversity in admissions but that there could not be a quota system to ensure minority representation. The policy needs to be flexible and highly individualized in that a number of factors are considered. The admissions policy in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) was illegal because, among other things, it automatically gave applicants an additional 20 points if they came from underrepresented minority groups.

Midvale College had never used an affirmative action policy in admissions, and the information distributed to the public indicated that the college did not consider race in admissions decisions. In the case of the Midvale scholarship application it did ask for race, but the form clearly indicated it was optional and would have no impact on the scholarship decision. If Jessica started to use that piece of information as part of the scholarship decision process it would feel to her to be unethical, and possibly it might even be illegal. However, Jessica wondered if she could consider race in this situation because it had to do with a scholarship award as opposed to admissions. After all, both students would be admitted to the college.

As she was still considering which student should win the scholarship, the college president contacted her to say that he had just received an angry call from a member of the college’s board. The Hispanic member was outraged at the possibility that a minority student might be passed over for the scholarship due to a lower test score. He pointed out that a minority student had never received this scholarship (in fact, few had ever applied), and this year it was important that someone who was not in the majority should receive it.

The president was tired of all the pressure and effectively told Jessica that she “should” award the minority student the scholarship. As she put down the phone, Jessica knew she had to make the most ethically challenging decision of her career. Traditionally, it had always been the admissions director who made the decision about the scholarship. Should she allow the president and the board member to determine the recipient of the award, or should she make the decision herself?

Questions for Discussion

Which ethical paradigm(s) does the president of Midvale College seem to be most influenced by? Is his directive legal? Is it just?

If we only had the ethic of justice as a paradigm, what decision would Jessica have to make?

How might Jessica use the ethic of care in this case? Is it possible to care for all parties in this case? If so, how? If not, why not?

From a critical perspective, what are the ethical issues in this scenario that relate to social class, racial/ethnic equality, power, and oppression?

Imagine that you are the admissions director. Choose the student you think should win the scholarship competition. Carefully consider which ethical paradigm(s) you are using as you make your decision. Explain.

Ancient history homework help

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An Anti-Communist Foreign Policy

A Massive Defense Buildup

M VIDEO: Collapse of the Soviet Union

CORE OBJECTIVE

4. Explain how Reagan’s Soviet strategy helped end the Cold War.

On a flight to Detroit, Michigan, to accept the Republican party’s presidential nomination in the
summer of 1980, Ronald Reagan was asked why he wanted to be president. He answered: “To end
the Cold War.” As president, Reagan systematically promoted what he called his “peace through
strength” strategy. Through a series of bold steps, he would build up U.S. military strength to the
point at which it would overwhelm the Soviet Union, both financially and militarily. At the same
time, Reagan launched a widespread “war of ideas” against communism by charging that the Soviet
Union was “the focus of evil in the modern world.”

What came to be called the Reagan Doctrine revived and expanded the old notion of
“containment” by pledging to combat Soviet adventurism throughout the world, even if it meant
working with brutal dictatorships to do so. Reagan believed that aggressive CIA-led efforts to
stalemate Soviet expansionism would eventually cause the unstable Soviet system to implode “on the
ash heap of history.”

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The arms race and bankrupting the

Soviet Union

Reagan’s conduct of foreign policy reflected his belief that
trouble in the world stemmed mainly from Moscow, the
capital of what he called the “evil empire.” Reagan had

long believed that former Republican presidents Nixon and Ford—following the advice of Henry
Kissinger—had been too soft on the Soviets. Kissinger’s emphasis on détente, he said, had been a
“one-way street” favoring the Soviets.

By contrast, Reagan first wanted to convince the Soviets that they could not win a nuclear war. To
do so, he and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger embarked upon a major buildup of nuclear
and conventional weapons. During Reagan’s two presidential terms, defense spending came to
represent a fourth of all federal government expenditures. Reagan claimed that such military
spending would bankrupt the Soviets by forcing them to spend much more on their own military
budgets.

In 1983, Reagan escalated the nuclear arms race by authorizing the Defense Department to
develop the controversial Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), featuring a complex anti-missile
defense system using satellites with laser weapons to “intercept and destroy” Soviet missiles in
flight. The media, many scientists, and even government officials insisted that such a “Star Wars”
defense system could never be built (Secretary of State George Shultz called it “lunacy”).
Nevertheless, Congress approved the first stage of funding, which in turn forced the Soviets to

STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE President Reagan addresses the nation on March 23, 1983, promoting the
development of a space-age shield to intercept Soviet missiles.

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The Americas

The Iran-Contra Affair

launch an expensive research-and-development effort of their own to keep pace. As a Soviet foreign
minister later admitted, Reagan’s commitment to SDI “made us realize we were in a very dangerous
spot.”

Fighting the Communist threat in

Central America

Reagan’s foremost international concern was Central
America, where he detected the most serious Communist
threat. The tiny nation of El Salvador, caught up since
1980 in a brutal struggle between Communist-supported

revolutionaries and right-wing militants, received U.S. economic and military assistance. Critics
argued that U.S. involvement ensured that the revolutionary forces would gain public support by
capitalizing on “anti-Yankee” sentiment. Supporters countered that allowing a Communist victory in
El Salvador would lead all of Central America into the Communist camp (a new “domino” theory).
By 1984, however, the U.S.-backed government of President José Napoleón Duarte had brought
some stability to El Salvador.

Even more troubling to Reagan was the situation in Nicaragua. The State Department claimed
that the Cuban-sponsored Sandinista socialist government, which had seized power in 1979, was
sending Soviet and Cuban weapons to leftist Salvadoran rebels. In response, the Reagan
administration ordered the CIA to train anti-Communist Nicaraguans, or Contras (short for
counterrevolutionaries), who staged attacks on Sandinista bases from sanctuaries in Honduras.

In supporting these “freedom fighters,” Reagan sought not only to impede the traffic in arms to
Salvadoran rebels but also to replace the Sandinistas with a democratic government in Nicaragua.
Critics accused the Contras of being mostly right-wing fanatics who killed indiscriminately. They
also feared that the United States might eventually commit its own combat forces, leading to a
Vietnam-like intervention. Reagan warned that if the Communists prevailed in Central America,
“our credibility would collapse, our alliances would crumble, and the safety of our homeland would
be jeopardized.”

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During the fall of 1986, Democrats regained control of the Senate. They also increased their already
comfortable margin in the House to 259–176. This meant that Reagan would face an oppositional
Congress during the last two years of his presidency.

What was worse, reports surfaced in late 1986 that the United States had been secretly selling
arms to Iran (which Reagan had called an “outlaw state”) in the hope of securing the release of
American hostages held in Lebanon by extremist groups sympathetic to Iran. Such action
contradicted Reagan’s promise that his administration would never negotiate with terrorists.

At the center of what came to be called the Iran-Contra affair was U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant
colonel Oliver North, a swashbuckling aide to the National Security Council who specialized in
counterterrorism. Working from the basement of the White House, North had been secretly selling
military supplies to Iran and using the proceeds to support the Contra rebels fighting in Nicaragua at
a time when Congress had voted to ban such aid.

IRAN-CONTRA HEARINGS Admiral John Poindexter listens to a question from the investigation committee with
apprehension on July 21, 1987.

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North’s illegal activities, it turned out, had been approved by Reagan’s national security adviser
Robert McFarlane; McFarlane’s successor, Admiral John Poindexter; and CIA director William
Casey. Both Secretary of State George Shultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger criticized
the arms sale to Iran, but their objections were ignored. On three occasions, Shultz threatened to
resign over the “pathetic” scheme. After information about the secret dealings surfaced in the press,
North and others erased incriminating computer files and destroyed documents. McFarlane
attempted suicide, Poindexter resigned, and North was fired.

Under increasing criticism, Reagan appointed a three-member commission, led by former
Republican senator John Tower, to investigate the scandal. The Tower Commission issued a
devastating report early in 1987 that placed much of the responsibility for the bungled Iran-Contra
affair on Reagan’s loose management style.

THE IRAN-CONTRA COVER-UP In Paul Szep’s 1987 cartoon, political figures, including President Ronald
Reagan, Robert McFarlane, Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, and Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini attempt to deflect
blame for the Iran-Contra Affair. On whom did the Tower Commission place the blame after their 1987
investigation, and how were those involved ultimately punished for their actions?

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A Historic Treaty

The investigations led to six indictments in 1988. A Washington jury found Oliver North guilty of
three relatively minor charges but innocent of nine more serious counts, apparently reflecting the
jury’s reasoning that he had acted as an agent of higher-ups. His conviction was later overturned on
appeal. Of those involved in the affair, only John Poindexter received a jail sentence—six months for
obstructing justice and lying to Congress.

The most positive diplomatic achievement at the end of Reagan’s second term was a surprising
arms-reduction agreement with the Soviet government. Under Mikhail Gorbachev, who came to
power in 1985, the Soviets pursued renewed détente with the United States so that they could reduce
military spending related to the Cold War and focus on more pressing problems, especially a
notoriously inefficient economy and a losing war in Afghanistan.

In October 1986, Reagan and Gorbachev met in Reykjavik, Iceland, to discuss ways to reduce the
threat of nuclear war. During ten hours of intense negotiations, Reagan shocked the Soviets by
saying, “It would be fine with me if we eliminated all nuclear weapons.” Equally shocking was
Gorbachev’s reply: “We can do that.” By the end of the meeting, however, the two sides remained so
far apart on the details that they had given up on any agreement.

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MIKHAIL GORBACHEV Serving first as deputy chairman and later as president of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev
took major strides to improve relations with the United States.

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Reagan’s Global Legacy

The logjam in the disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union suddenly broke in 1987, when
Gorbachev announced that he was willing to consider mutually reducing nuclear weaponry. After
nine months of strenuous negotiations, Reagan and Gorbachev met amid much fanfare in
Washington, D.C., on December 9, 1987, and signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
(INF) Treaty, an agreement to eliminate intermediate-range (300- to 3,000-mile) missiles.
Reagan’s steadfast show of strength against the Soviets and a new kind of Soviet leader in Mikhail
Gorbachev combined to produce the most sweeping reduction in nuclear weaponry in history.

The INF treaty marked the first time that the two nations had agreed to destroy a whole class of
weapons systems. Under the terms of the treaty, the United States would destroy 859 missiles, and
the Soviets would eliminate 1,752. Still, the reductions represented only 4 percent of the total
nuclear-missile count on both sides.

Gorbachev’s efforts to liberalize Soviet domestic life and improve East-West relations cheered
Americans. The Soviets suddenly began stressing cooperation with the West in dealing with hot
spots around the world. In the Middle East, they urged the Palestine Liberation Organization,
founded in 1964 to represent the Palestinian people, to recognize Israel’s right to exist and
advocated a greater role for the United Nations in the volatile Persian Gulf. Perhaps the most
dramatic symbol of a thawing Cold War was the phased withdrawal of 115,000 Soviet troops from
Afghanistan, which began in 1988.

Reagan achieved the unthinkable by helping end the Cold War. Although his massive defense
buildup almost bankrupted the United States, it did force the Soviet Union to the bargaining table.
By negotiating the nuclear disarmament treaty and lighting the fuse of democratic freedom in
Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, he set in motion events that would cause the collapse of the Soviet
Union. In June 1987, Reagan visited the huge concrete and barbed wire Berlin Wall and, in a
dramatic speech, called upon the Soviet Union to allow greater freedom within the countries under
its control. “General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet
Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open
this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”

Ancient history homework help

Prompt

Was Greek democracy the first democracy? For this essay you should write about whether democracy in Greece was actually the first Ancient democracy, you should describe Greek democracy as it existed, and think about the process of democracy (rise and fall).

Rubric

please note that the paper should be double spaced and printed in “Times Roman” font at “12 point” size. In addition, the paper should have one-inch margins. Please remember to use page numbers and to give your paper a catchy, imaginative title. And be very, very sure to check spelling and grammar. Papers with misspellings will be penalized.

The paper should be minimum 2 pages in length. You are encouraged to go over the page minimum, but students who fall substantially short of the minimum will be penalized

• First, remember that I will mark you down if the paper contains misspellings, grammatical errors, and any other evidence that you either didn’t proofread or can’t write a complete sentence. Sloppiness will cost you dearly. If you can’t take the time to proofread your paper (or get someone to look it over for you) you can rest assured that your grade will suffer. A paper written the night before will have an excellent chance of earning a “C” or a “D” – if you’re lucky. Don’t disappoint me by handing in shoddy work.

• Second, think about trying to formulate an argument or thesis. A thesis is a summary of your argument in the first paragraph of your paper. This serves as a roadmap for readers, what your major points will be, so the reader can know what to expect while reading your paper.

• Third, you must back up your argument with evidence from the readings. That means that each paragraph should develop an aspect of your argument and then back up your contention with evidence. Whenever possible, you should quote from the sources as well. Each paragraph should have at least one quotation, and several citations.

• Fourth, you must cite the sources you are quoting or drawing from. You are free to cite in whatever format you are comfortable with (MLA, APA, Chicago). Just make sure your citations are clear. DO NOT cite full sources in your paper, instead, abbreviate your citations. If you cite full sources throughout your paper, I will mark you down. After the paper, in a bibliography page, cite the full citation of an source, ex: author name, title of work, (place of publication, publisher, date). If it is an internet source make sure to cite the full hyperlink so I can track it down and look at it myself. Remember, edu and gov hyperlink’s are the most legitimate. Make sure you critically assess any other website before citing it in this paper.

• Fifth, avoid unnecessary spacing to try and artificially lengthen the paper. Do not put extra spaces between the title and the paper or between paragraphs. Also, avoid long quotations. If you have a quotation longer than 4 lines that is fine, but you must single space the quotation into a block quote. This is so that you don’t have a page of quotes and no actual prose. Contact me with questions about this point.

• Sixth, don’t plagiarize. While some history professor somewhere has undoubtedly assigned questions like the ones I have assigned, the evidence with which you will answer the question is unique to this class. So don’t bother looking for someone else’s words in place of your own. Also, remember if you draw anything from someone else’s work, even if its just an idea, you must cite it. Intellectual property is real, and if you violate it you will be punished. Students suspected of plagiarism will be hauled before the appropriate disciplinary body on campus and punished according to the laws of the university. Plagiarism WILL result in a ZERO for the paper, and could result in an F for the class. I am obligated to do this, I don’t like to do it, so don’t force me to!

Ancient history homework help

“The Elements of Early African Civilization”

The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony, 3rd Ed, Molefi Kete Asante

Kemet: The First Major Civilization of Africa

Kemet:

first major civilization of Africa

meaning “land of the Blacks”

later called Egypt by the Greeks

first location where human beings organize themselves as a nation

first towns and villages under the control of a central government emerged in Kemet

Kemetic Phases

Archaic Period (3400-2600 BCE)

Old Kingdom (2685-2200 BCE)

First Intermediate Period (2200-2000 BCE)

Middle Kingdom (2040-1785 BCE)

Second Intermediate Period (1800-1600 BCE)

New Kingdom (1570-1085 BCE)

Resurgent Kingdom (750-590 BCE)

Do you know the meaning of BCE?

before common era

prior to year 1 or year 1 common era

imagine year 1, that is, 2021 years ago

then further subtract 3000 years

The Archaic Period (3400-2600 BCE)

Unification of Kemet

Narmer 3400 BC, also known as Menes

conquered the other kings of the Nile Valley

combined lower and upper Kemet

considered the symbol of god on earth

Nile runs down to the north from the African highlands to the Mediterranean

North icalled lower Kemet

South is Upper Kemet

Unification of Kemet

Narmer 3400 BC

42 ethnic groups or administrative kingships came under his rule

Narmer Per-aa or pharaoh (Hebrew)

an incarnate of god

No king could serve if he did not have the direct link to the supreme deity

All priesthoods recognized the Per-aa as the son of God or sa Ra

Beginnings of International Law in Ancient Kemet

Scholar Jeremy I. Levitt asserts that Ptah-Hotep, the first major philosopher posits the idea of political rules or international law

Challenging the idea international law began with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 between European nations

Eurocentric history omits the importance of African contributions to human civilization

Treaty of Westphalia based on ideas from Africa, specifically Mesopotamia that had rules about interstate interactions, as well as Kemet, Nubia, Mali, Ghana, among other nations

No kingdom, nation, or government has existed as long as Kemet.

Lasted 3,000 compared to the United States which has only existed since 1776

Writing in Early Kemet

Writing dates to Kemet starting around 3400 BCE

executed on any type of surface but primarily on papyrus.

The three primary purposes of writing consist of:

Recording historical events

Communication between the king, priest , and scribes;

Literary and instructional writings

German archeologist, Gunter Dreyer found writing dating back to to 3400 to 3300:

ivory labels found attached to bags of linen and oil in the tomb of King Scorpion I in Egypt

inscriptions found on pottery in a cemetery date

idea of using marking to store and record information occurred in Africa before anywhere else in the world

Writing in Early Kemet

God Tehuti

invented writing and served as “the scribe and historian of the gods”

tracked time

created mathematics, art, and science

ability to convert spoken words into material objects

Writing in Early Kemet

Mdju netjer: “divine words”

Cikam: actual name of Kemetic language

Date back to 3400 to 3300

early stages of cuneiform, wedge writing, in a consistent form goes back to around 2600

true start of a writing system with a combination of representation of vowels and syllables used to express ideas

391 CE

Attempt to erase the language and the spiritual traditions started approximately with the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 1 (379-395)

insisting in the adoption of Christianity

Between 535 and 537 CE, a General Narses raided the Temple of Auset, arrested priests and priestesses and sacred items.

18th linguists start to study the Rosetta Stone

a bilingual text written in Egyptian hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek

Made progress in deciphering Kemetic language

Architecture of Kemet

Saqqara Pyramid

First masonry construction

built by Imhotep for Per-aa Zoser in the 3rd Dynasty, 2630 BCE

Saqqara site featured a step pyramid structure used as a burial chamber, temples, including a funerary temple still standing today

Architecture of Kemet

King Khafra builds sphinx (2558–2532 BCS

Sphinx derives from Greek

Kemetic people refer to the structure as Heru-em-akt

Heru of the Horizon, the Place of Heru, and Ra of Two Horizons.

Hundreds of sphinxes found in 1798

Architecture of Kemet

Specialization

Engineering

Architecture

Mathematics

understood the mechanics of materials, machines, and hydraulics.

Great Pyramid

one of the Seven Wonders of the World

Built by Khufu of the fourth Dynasty around 2560

Construction took 20 years

Two primary theories of how the blocks were set in place

construction of a straight or spiral ramp which was covered with mud and water to facilitate the movement of the blocks

long levers with a short-angled foot were used to move the blocks

Contributions of Ancient Kemet

Professions

Developed a number of professions

Weaving, wood working, shipbuilding, glassmaking, leather work, pottery

Construction of pyramids and other structures:

dams, dikes, canals, pool, fortresses, instruments to build and measure

Math and Science

Physics, chemistry, zoology, geology, medicine, pharmacology, and mathematics

Science of mummification

Surgery

Medicine:

200 diseases

diagnosed and treated

Surgeries conducted

Awareness of blood circulation

Ancient Roots of Modern Philosophy

Kemet provided the foundations of modern philosophy

study of the physical universe

human relationships

spiritual matters

Imhotep

Lived around 2700 BCE

the first philosopher to deal with a wide range of questions dealing with time, physical and mental disease, and immortality.

See page 45 of this reading for more on Kemetic philosophers.

Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science

The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science

https://www.jpanafrican.org/edocs/e-DocAKRLIS.pdf

In this article, Dr. Zulu explains:

“The libraries of Kemet were not only places of archives, sacred words, papyrus manufacturing, and the like, they were also centers of learning, that combined the functions of their libraries and temples into universities. Hence, Kemet became a land of temples, libraries, and universities. As a result, the “temple-library-university” became the key center of ancient Kemetic intellectual and spiritual activity.” (9)

First mathematical and science books emerged in Kemet

Rhind Papyrus: mathematics and science

Ebers Papyrus: medicine

Deities of Ancient Kemet

spiritual beings that controlled or represented aspects of human life

Nun, chaos, a watery substance gave birth to Atum

Atum, represented by an old man, head of a frog, bettle or serpent

Other names for Atum are Ra, Ptah, Amen

God of creation

Created:

Shu, air and Tefnut moisture

Children: Geb the earth and Nut: the sky and created earth beings Ausar, Auset, Seth, and Nebhet.

Video provides an overview of the Legend of Ausar or Osiris: https://www.ted.com/talks/alex_gendler_the_egyptian_myth_of_the_death_of_osiris/transcript?language=en

You can also further explore other deities of the Kemetic Patheon using this link: http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/explore/main.html

What is the process of mummification?

cleaning the body

removal of organs

corpse was dried with natron a form of sodium carbonate

70 days which entailed a complex of ceremonies

Objective: eternal life

person received a massive funeral

a special ritual referred to as “Opening the Mouth” which entailed using special instruments to restore the senses

Food, drink, and other items placed in the burial chamber

Also illustrated on the walls of the chamber and a stele or stone slab noted the person’s name, rank, and good deeds.

Only the king received this type of burial during the Old Kingdom (2685-2200 BCE)

New Kingdom (1570-1085 BCE) this burial extended to royalty and nobles

New research reveals regular Kemetic people also buried in their own tombs

The Afterlife

What were the prevalent ideas about the afterlife for Kemetic people?

possible for individuals with pure souls

soul needed to survive the journey of the underworld where Ausar (Osiris) controlled

heart should be as light as a feather and pure

Maat

Idea of Maat guided humans in the physical realm

Maat symbolized:

order, balance, harmony, justice, truth, righteousness, and reciprocity

People that maintained Maat considered strong

Losing Maat causes weakness

Think about and consider the following:

How would your life change if you actively embodied Maat: order, balance, harmony, justice, truth, righteousness, and reciprocity?

Ancient history homework help

Case Study 3.4 The School of Hard Knocks

Ricky Johnson was known as a school bully. During the school year several students suffered from his aggressive and mean behavior. Ricky was only in the first grade and had already developed a reputation among his peers and the school community.

This particular day, during lunch, Ricky decided he was going to challenge every boy in his class to a physical battle. He proceeded to run over to several of his classmates and punch them in the stomach. Unfortunately for Ricky, Mr. Washington, the school security guard, witnessed his behavior and was able to stop him before he struck another student.

Mr. Washington brought Ricky kicking and screaming to the main office where he was received by the school nurse and guidance counselor. While in the nurse’s office, Ricky continued to scream, stating that Mr. Washington had held him down and allowed another student (John Petterson) to punch him in the stomach. After hearing Ricky’s allegation, the guidance counselor immediately located John and questioned him about the incident. John confirmed Ricky’s claim and stated that Mr. Washington did give him permission to punch Ricky in the stomach while he held him.

In the midst of this incident, Ms. Henry, the school principal, arrived and immediately the guidance counselor and nurse apprised her of the situation. Not wasting a minute, Ms. Henry spoke to all of the parties involved.

Mr. Washington denied the allegations and stated that John did punch Ricky in the stomach, but it was while he was holding Ricky and trying to prevent him from punching another student. Mr. Washington also stated that he has worked in this school district for over 25 years and would never do anything to intentionally harm a student.

Ricky was very adamant about the fact that Mr. Washington had held him and allowed John to punch him in the stomach.

John Petterson confirmed Ricky’s allegation and stated for the second time that Mr. Washington gave him permission to punch Ricky in the stomach while he held him.

Ms. Henry questioned additional student witnesses who were sitting in the area where the alleged incident took place. Each and every witness stated that Mr. Washington held Ricky and gave John permission to punch him in the stomach.

It was extremely difficult for Ms. Henry to imagine that Mr. Washington would ever do anything intentionally to put a child in a harmful situation. She desperately wanted to believe Mr. Washington. Perhaps there was some misunderstanding. However, all the witness statements seemed to support Ricky’s allegations.

Later on in this disturbing day, Ms. Henry received a call from Mr. Green, the Millville District Superintendent. Mr. Green called, off the record, to inquire about the situation with Mr. Washington. Apparently Mr. Green had worked with Mr. Washington for 10 years. He was the security guard in the school where the superintendent began his career as a principal in the district. Mr. Green went on to further explain that something like this could ruin Mr. Washington’s 25-year career and reputation. Mr. Washington had never been involved in this type of incident previously. He was considered to be a pillar of the community. After hearing all the facts of the incident, Mr. Green went on to suggest that perhaps Ms. Henry could reprimand him behind closed doors and have him apologize to the student. After all, said the superintendent, people make mistakes and the student did not sustain any serious injury

Questions for Discussion

From a school administrator’s perspective, does a school employee such as Jenna Smith have the right to disobey school policy if she truly believes students’ lives are at risk?

If Principal Jones were acting from the ethic of care, how would he handle this case? Would Jenna’s honesty matter? Would the fact that Jenna needed the income because of her family situation matter?

From the perspective of the ethic of critique, does it matter that there is a growing momentum in some states to train teachers to use guns in case of school emergencies?

As part of the ethic of the profession, if the teacher was truly thinking of the “best interest” of her students, that is, her ability to protect them if need be, how should this case be handled?

Case Study 3.5 Teacher with a Handgun: The Right to Bear Arms, Protecting Students, and School Policy

Jenna Smith was sitting in the principal’s office shaking, wondering who among her colleagues could have been spying on her and who would have turned her in. She knew some teachers may have disliked her because of her strict conservative values and because she had failed to join the teachers’ union, the only teacher who dared do so in this small rural school district.

The principal, Ben Jones, a young, personable, and ambitious new administrator, walked in and sighed, “You have put me in a position I have never imagined being in this early in my career and have forced me to make perhaps the toughest decision I may ever encounter. I respect and admire what you stand for, Jenna.” He closed the door and continued, “You know you are the most hardworking teacher here, one whom I trust my students to use as a solid role model. You and I share the same traditional set of values. But, you have some explaining to do.”

As a new teacher in the school, Jenna had tried hard to prove herself and worked longer hours than any of her colleagues by arriving well ahead of her official start time and by staying after school daily to create dynamic lessons. Although she was a newer public school teacher, she was also one of the oldest faculty members in the district. She was unable to retire as had most other teachers of her age due to both her lack of years of service and her need for income as the sole provider for her still-young family. She could not afford to do anything wrong to jeopardize her job and consequently felt the pressure daily. She refrained from socializing much, sensing that some teachers found her values odd and didn’t want to include her in their private conversations, but she couldn’t be sure.

Jenna’s beliefs stemmed from a patriotic, conservative background focusing strongly on an individual’s constitutional rights, especially those based on the First and Second Amendments. Jenna’s beliefs also were affected by an incident of spousal abuse that occurred to her several years ago. Following the incident, she had gone to several National Rifle Association (NRA) classes for firearm safety and personal protection. She slowly began buying firearms for home and personal protection and further attained her license to carry firearms, which meant she could carry her handgun with her everywhere she went in public other than in a school, federal building, or courthouse.

Jenna became more politically aware of gun laws as a result and was aware of her state’s law on the prohibition of weapons within a school although she personally felt the law violated her right to bear arms. Further, she questioned its main premise: to keep students safe. Jenna viewed horrific events such as Columbine and Sandy Hook as the very reason that she needed her handgun with her in a school; that is, to protect the students she cared about so much. She was also aware of a number of states that allowed teachers to carry handguns and actually provided training in handgun safety. There had been rumors of such legislation being proposed in her own state, which had had a number of school shootings.

As in any public school in America, practice lock-down drills were now becoming as required as the fire drills of the past. Jenna’s room, as were all in this poorly constructed school, had moveable, cardboard-like walls, a remnant of the open schools of the 1970s. During her first drill, she mentioned jokingly to her new students that a real school intruder could easily punch through the wall, and a boy loudly exclaimed, “The bullets surely could get through faster. Our lockdown drill is such a pitiful joke and a waste of time.” Jenna thought to herself that he was probably correct. No crazed gunperson would be stopped by the nearly broken lock on her door with all its windows and the lack of solid walls. Nevertheless, she followed the rules, as she always did, and held up the properly colored collection of “safety” cards as she had been instructed to do.

At night after the drill, as she was leaving school, Jenna began to feel more and more frightened about her drive home. The community had had home invasions, was not wealthy enough to support its own police force, and with the popularity of hunting, there were certainly enough adults around who owned guns—just not in the schools. Jenna pondered these concerns walking across the poorly lit school parking lot. On the long drive to her isolated new home, she questioned why she would want to risk her personal safety yet again after her survival from the abuse that had left her neck and back permanently injured by not being able to have her handgun with her at all times.

That evening, she read the state’s firearms law yet again, thinking of how vague it was on the issue of school safety zones. She couldn’t understand how she could not, as a trained gun handler with hours of practice, protect both herself and her students by having her small handgun with her at work. She knew she was not the insane shooter of the highly publicized school shootings on the news and she was aware that there was some movement in her state as well as others. After all, she had her FBI, state, and child abuse clearances and was a respected member of society. She then made a decision, a compromise.

Jenna went to work the next day, but instead of having her handgun inside her purse in her classroom, she felt she could lessen her risk by keeping it locked and hidden inside her car. It could not get into the hands of an irate student or a disgruntled employee. In that way, she justified to herself, she could be safe after school no matter where she went and, in the unlikely scenario of a violent incident inside her school, her classroom was only three minutes from her parking spot.

In her chair facing Ben Jones, Jenna pondered who could have possibly known she had a handgun tucked away in her car. She had told no one. Then she remembered one evening she had stayed after school, as usual, and had had a long conversation in the parking lot with a female colleague. Her handgun, which she normally kept well hidden in her car’s glove box, was in the side door panel instead. Jenna kept it there most days for quick access outside of school but put it securely in the hidden glove box every morning on her way to school. Jenna doubted this young female teacher would tattle on her, but there was no other explanation of how she could be sitting in Mr. Jones office waiting for her fate to be known.

Mr. Jones began by saying, “Jenna, you know I agree fully with your right to own and bear firearms, don’t you?” He then asked her if she was aware of the Gun Free Schools Act, part of No Child Left Behind. Jenna nodded politely that she was. Mr. Jones went on to state that he had not yet gone to Superintendent Walters about the matter because he needed to first hear if Jenna really had been keeping her handgun in her car on school property or if this was a one-time event in which she had simply forgotten to leave it at home. He added, “I certainly am not going to call in the police and search your car. Our poor district doesn’t need that kind of headline news

Questions for Discussion

From a school administrator’s perspective, does a school employee such as Jenna Smith have the right to disobey school policy if she truly believes students’ lives are at risk?

If Principal Jones were acting from the ethic of care, how would he handle this case? Would Jenna’s honesty matter? Would the fact that Jenna needed the income because of her family situation matter?

From the perspective of the ethic of critique, does it matter that there is a growing momentum in some states to train teachers to use guns in case of school emergencies?

As part of the ethic of the profession, if the teacher was truly thinking of the “best interest” of her students, that is, her ability to protect them if need be, how should this case be handled?

Ancient history homework help

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A “New Era” of Consumption

M VIDEO: A New Outlook in the Early 20th Century

CORE OBJECTIVE

1. Assess the impact of the consumer culture that emerged in America during the

1920s, and explain the factors that contributed to its growth.

During the twenties, the thriving U.S. economy became the envy of the world. Following the brief
postwar recession in 1920–1921, Americans benefited from the fastest economic growth in history.
Jobs were plentiful, inflation was low, and income rose throughout the decade. The nation’s total
wealth almost doubled between 1920 and 1930, while wage workers enjoyed a whopping 30 percent
increase in income, the sharpest rise in history. By 1929, the United States had the highest standard
of living in the world.

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A Growing Consumer Culture

Construction led the way. By 1921, a building boom was under way that would last the rest of the
decade. At the same time, the remarkable growth of the automotive industry created an immediate
need for roads, highways, service stations, and motels that stimulated other industries such as steel,
concrete, and furniture. Technology also played a key role in the prosperity of the twenties by
enabling mass production through the assembly-line process. New machines (electric motors, steam
turbines, dump trucks, tractors, bulldozers, steam shovels) and more efficient ways of operating
farms, factories, plants, mines, and mills generated dramatic increases in productivity.

In the late nineteenth century, the U.S. economy had been driven by commercial agriculture and
large-scale industrial production—the building of railroads and bridges, the manufacturing of steel,
and the construction of housing and businesses in cities. During the twenties, such industrial
production continued, but the dominant aspect of the economy involved an explosion of new
consumer goods made available through a national marketplace.

M VIDEO: 1920s Consumer Culture

Perhaps the most visible change during the twenties was the emergence of a powerful, urban-
dominated “consumer culture” in which the mass production and consumption of nationally
advertised products came to dictate much of social life and social status. A 1920 newspaper editorial
insisted that the American’s “first importance to his country is no longer that of citizen but that of
consumer. Consumption is a new necessity.” The U.S. economy had entered what many called a

A MODERN HOME This 1925 Westinghouse advertisement urges homemakers to buy its “Cozy Glow, Jr.” heater
and “Sol-Lux Luminaire” lamp, among other electrical appliances that “do anything for you in return.”

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The Rise of Mass Culture

“New Era” in which the consumption of goods became a national obsession. To keep factory
production humming required converting people into carefree shoppers. “People may ruin
themselves by saving instead of spending,” warned one economist.

Rise of mass culture: New emphasis

on spending, advertising, credit, and

conveniences

In the twenties, old virtues such as hard work, plain
living, and frugal money management were challenged by
a new system of values celebrating leisure, self-
expression, and self-indulgence, all achieved through the
purchase of “name-brand” products. “During the war,” a
journalist noted in 1920, “we accustomed ourselves to doing without, to buying carefully, to using
economically. But with the close of the war came reaction. A veritable orgy of extravagant buying is
going on. Reckless spending takes the place of saving, waste replaces conservation.”

To keep people buying, executives focused their resources on two crucial innovations: marketing
and advertising campaigns to increase consumer demand and new ways for buyers to finance
purchases over time (“layaway”) rather than having to pay cash up front. Installment buying
promised instant gratification for consumers (“Buy Now, Pay Later”). Paying with cash and staying
out of debt came to be seen as needlessly “old-fashioned” practices. Consumer debt almost tripled
during the twenties. Mass advertising, first developed in the late nineteenth century, grew into a
huge enterprise driving the mass-production/mass-consumption economy. (Popular new weekday
radio programs, for example, were sponsored by national companies trying to sell laundry detergent
and hand soap—hence the term soap operas.) Because women purchased two thirds of consumer
goods during the twenties, advertisers aimed commercials at them. An ad in Photoplay magazine
targeted the “woman of the house” because “she buys most of the things which go to make the home
happy, healthful, and beautiful. Through her slim, safe fingers goes most of the family money.”

Perhaps no decade in American history witnessed such dramatic changes in everyday life.
Electricity during the twenties was a revolutionary new force. In 1920, only 35 percent of homes had
electricity; by 1930, the number was 68 percent. Similar increases occurred in the number of
households with indoor plumbing, washing machines, and automobiles. Moderately priced creature
comforts and conveniences, such as flush toilets, electric irons and fans, handheld cameras,
wristwatches, cigarette lighters, vacuum cleaners, and linoleum floors, became more widely
available, especially among the rapidly growing urban middle class.

M VIDEO: New Social and Cultural Trends During the 1920s

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CHARLIE CHAPLIN An English-born actor who rose to international fame as the “Tramp,” Chaplin is pictured
above in the 1921 silent film The Kid.

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A Love Affair with Movies

The Radio Craze

Taking to the Air

Mass advertising and marketing campaigns increasingly led to a mass culture: Americans now not
only saw and heard the same advertisements and shopped at the same companies’ stores, but they
also read the same magazines, listened to the same radio programs, and watched the same movies.
Through these media, they could follow the lives and careers of the nation’s first celebrities and
superstars. At the same time, Americans were increasingly on the move: automobiles enabled more
people to travel easily, exposing them to new values and different viewpoints. America in the
twenties, explained the celebrated New York journalist Walter Lippmann, was experiencing “a vast
dissolution of ancient habits” as more and more Americans embraced the New Era’s consumer
culture.

In 1896, a New York City audience viewed the first moving-picture show. By 1924, there were
20,000 movie theaters (the largest of which were called “motion picture palaces”) across the nation,
showing 700 new “silent” films a year that used captions to show the dialogue. By 1930, even most
small towns had theaters, and movies had become the nation’s chief form of mass entertainment.
Movie attendance during the 1920s averaged 80 million people a week, more than half the national
population, and attendance surged even more after 1928, when “talking” movies appeared.
Americans spent ten times as much on movies as they did on tickets to baseball and football games.

Radio broadcasting experienced even more spectacular growth. Between 1922 and 1930, the number
of families owning a radio soared from 60,000 to nearly 14 million. The widespread ownership of
radios changed the patterns of everyday life. At night after dinner, families gathered around the
radio to listen to music, speeches, news broadcasts, weather forecasts, and comedy shows. One ad
claimed that the radio “is your theater, your college, your newspaper, your library.”

Charles Lindbergh’s and Amelia

Earhart’s boost to the new aviation

industry

Advances in transportation were as significant as the
impact of radio and movies. In 1903, Wilbur and Orville
Wright, owners of a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, had
built and flown the first airplane at Kitty Hawk, North
Carolina. The first flight went only a few hundred feet at
34 miles per hour. Airplane technology advanced slowly until the outbreak of war in 1914, after
which Europeans rapidly adapted the airplane as a military weapon. When the United States entered
the war, it had no combat planes—American pilots flew British or French planes. An American
aircraft industry arose during the war but collapsed in the postwar demobilization. Under the Kelly
Act of 1925, however, the federal government began to subsidize the industry through the awarding
of airmail contracts. The Air Commerce Act of 1926 provided federal funds for the advancement of
air transportation and navigation, including the construction of airports.

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The Car Culture

The aviation industry received a huge psychological boost in 1927 when twenty-six-year-old
Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. made the first solo transatlantic flight, traveling from New York City to
Paris in thirty-three and a half hours. The heroic feat, which won him $25,000 and a Congressional
Medal of Honor, was truly dramatic: already exhausted from lack of sleep when he took off,
Lindbergh flew through severe storms as well as blinding fog for part of the way. When he landed in
France, more than 100,000 people greeted him with thunderous cheers, and a New York City parade
celebrating Lindbergh’s accomplishment surpassed even the celebration of the end of the Great War.
Youngsters developed a new dance step in his honor, called the Lindy Hop. Five years after
Lindbergh’s famous flight, New York City celebrated another pioneering aviator—Amelia Earhart,
who became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.

By far the most significant economic and social development of the early twentieth century was the
widespread ownership of automobiles. The first motorcar had been manufactured for sale in 1895,
but the founding of the Ford Motor Company in 1903 revolutionized the infant industry, for Henry

AMELIA EARHART The pioneering aviator would tragically disappear in her 1937 attempt to fly around the world.

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Ford vowed to democratize the automobile. “When I’m through,” he predicted, “everybody will be
able to afford one, and about everyone will have one.”

Ford’s Model T, the celebrated “Tin Lizzie,” cheap and long-lasting, appeared in 1908 at a price of
$850 (about $22,000 at today’s prices). By 1924, Ford’s increasingly efficient production techniques
enabled him to sell the same car for $290 (less than $4,000 today). The Model T changed little from
year to year, and it came in only one color: black. Ford ads assured buyers that they “could have any
color [they] want, as long as it is black.”

In 1916, the total number of cars in the United States passed 1 million; by 1920, more than 8
million were registered, and in 1929 there were more than 23 million. The automobile revolution
benefited from the discovery of vast oil fields in Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, and California. By
1920, the United States was producing two thirds of the world’s oil and gasoline.

Henry Ford and the automotive

revolution

The automobile industry became the leading example of
modern mass-production techniques and efficiency.
Ford’s Highland Park plant outside Detroit increased
output dramatically by creating a moving assembly line

rather than having a crew of workers assemble each car in a fixed position. With conveyors pulling
the parts along feeder lines and the chassis moving steadily down an assembly line, each worker
performed a single particular task, such as installing a fender or a wheel. This system could produce
a new car in ninety-three minutes.

Such efficiency enabled Ford to lower the price of his cars, thereby increasing the number of
people who could afford them. For the workers, however, producing cars this way made for a
monotonous, mind-numbing experience, especially since Ford prohibited them from talking, sitting,
smoking, or singing on the job. But his efficient methods accomplished his goal. During the twenties,
the United States built ten times more automobiles than did all of Europe.

Just as the railroad helped transform the pace and scale of life in the second half of the nineteenth
century, the mass production of automobiles changed social life during the twentieth century.
During the 1920s, Americans literally developed a love affair with cars. In the words of one man,
young people viewed the car as “an incredible engine of escape” from parental control and a safe
place to “take a girl and hold hands, neck, pet, or . . . go the limit.”

Cars helped fuel the economic boom of the 1920s by creating tens of thousands of new jobs and a
huge demand for steel, rubber, leather, oil, and gasoline. The ever-expanding car culture stimulated
road construction (financed in large part by gasoline taxes), sparked a real estate boom in Florida
and California, and dotted the landscape with gasoline stations, traffic lights, billboards, and motor
hotels (“motels”). By 1929, the federal government was constructing 10,000 miles of paved highways
each year.

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Spectator Sports

Mass popularity of baseball, football,

and boxing

The widespread ownership of automobiles as well as
rising incomes changed the way people spent their leisure
time. City dwellers could easily drive into the countryside;
visit friends and relatives; and go to ballparks, stadiums,
or boxing rings to see baseball or football games and prizefights. During the 1920s, Americans fell in
love with mass spectator sports.

Created in the 1870s in rural areas, baseball had, by the 1920s, gone urban and earned its label of
“the national pastime.” With larger-than-life heroes such as New York Yankee stars George Herman
“Babe” Ruth Jr. and Henry Louis “Lou” Gehrig, professional baseball teams attracted huge crowds.

In 1922, the Yankees built a new stadium, called the “house that Ruth built,” and they went on to
win World Series championships in 1923, 1927, and 1928. More than 20 million people attended
professional baseball games in 1927, the year that Ruth, the “Sultan of Swat,” set a record by hitting
sixty home runs and leading the league in most other hitting categories. Because baseball was still a
racially segregated sport, so-called Negro leagues provided leagues for African Americans to play in
and watch.

HIGHLAND PARK PLANT, 1913 The Ford Motor Company led the way in efficient and cost-cutting production
methods. Here, gravity slides and chain conveyors move each automobile down the assembly line. What was it
like to work in one of Ford’s factories?

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Football, especially at the college level, also attracted huge crowds. It, too, benefited from
superstars such as Harold Edward “Red” Grange, the phenomenal running back for the University of
Illinois and the first athlete to appear on the cover of Time magazine. In a 1924 game against the
University of Michigan, the bruising “Galloping Ghost” scored a touchdown each of the first four
times he carried the ball; after Illinois won, students carried Grange on their shoulders for two miles
across the campus. “What a football player,” a sports writer marveled. “He is melody and symphony.
He is crashing sound. He is brute force.” When Grange signed a contract with the Chicago Bears in
1926, he single-handedly made professional football competitive with baseball as a spectator sport.

What Ruth and Grange were to their sports, William Harrison “Jack” Dempsey was to boxing. In
1919, he won the world heavyweight title from Jess Willard, a giant of a man weighing 300 pounds
and standing six and a half feet tall. Dempsey knocked him down seven times in the first round.
After Willard, his face bruised and bloodied, threw in the towel in the fourth round, Dempsey
became a national celebrity and a wealthy man.

Like Babe Ruth, the brawling Dempsey was especially popular with working-class men, for he too
had been born poor and lived for years as a “hobo,” wandering the rails in search of work and
challenging toughs in bars to fight for money. In 1927, when James Joseph “Gene” Tunney defeated
Dempsey, more than 105,000 people attended, including a thousand reporters, ten state governors,

BABE RUTH This star pitcher and outfielder won the hearts of Americans with the Boston Red Sox, New York
Yankees, and finally the Boston Braves. Here, he autographs bats and balls for military training camps.

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and numerous Hollywood celebrities. Some 60 million people listened to the fight over the radio.
Dempsey was more than a champion; he was a hero to millions. A leading sportswriter stressed that
he was “warm and generous, a free spender when he had it and a soft touch for anybody down on his
luck.”

Ancient history homework help

You can pick one and need 400 words

Case Study 10.4 Confidentiality Laws: To Protect or to Betray?

Danielle Schaeffer’s drive to Shady Lane School was a long one, and she used that time to create a mental checklist of what she hoped to accomplish that day. As the school counselor, she worried about one student showing possible signs of drug use, one whose boyfriend punched her in the face this week, and another who would be returning to public school. Shady Lane was a private alternative high school with a vision for providing a therapeutic environment for students who have been removed from the public school setting. Serving approximately 30 students in such an intimate environment allowed Danielle to run group therapy sessions, individual therapy, and crisis intervention. Given the special population of the school, many of her students had disturbing life stories that led to their behavior problems. At times she felt that she could make a positive impact, other times she felt powerless in the face of such profound odds against her students.

On this particular day Danielle’s chief concern was one student in particular, Tyrone. Teachers had been complaining about Tyrone’s behavior more and more at each daily staff meeting; his recent vile use of language, bullying, wandering around the school, and inappropriate flirtation with girls had left teachers frustrated and upset. Principal Snyder’s first question was always the same: “Whose caseload is he on?” Of the two counselors on staff, Tyrone’s behavior was Danielle’s task at hand.

The school year was just over halfway finished, and Danielle finally felt she was making deeper connections with the students. Trust is a difficult thing to gain from students who have been abused in so many ways and seldom praised. She outlined the confidentiality rights to the students often; according to the American Psychological Association, a psychologist’s primary obligation is to maintain the privacy of the client unless there is imminent danger to the client or another individual. In many cases, however, her students had learned to be distrustful of adults. So Danielle felt she was finally getting her job done as students began to open up, and conversations started to begin with, “You’re not going to tell the principal/my parents/anyone this, right?” Now she finally was able to reach students regarding their deeper problems and insecurities, and was even seeing a difference in their coping skills and behavior.

Tyrone was no exception; he had begun to open up to Danielle in the past about how his mother was in jail, his grandmother kicked him out, and how he felt bullied and alone at the group home he lived in. One day he broke down into tears saying, “I never trust my girlfriends, but it’s really that I just need a mom.” So when Tyrone’s behavior went downhill and he wasn’t confiding in Danielle, she had become worried that it was because what he was dealing with was too severe, or illegal, or that he was too ashamed to process his emotions.

Danielle decided to give it one more try and called Tyrone to her room. Tyrone began with his usual detachment and denial, but finally explained that he got a text from a girl who said that she was pregnant. Tyrone questioned whether she was really pregnant and if so, whether it was really his child. This girl had a history of lying and manipulation, so Tyler left her calls and texts unanswered but had been feeling guilty about this and apprehensive about the possibility that he was to be a father. Danielle breathed a sigh of relief; while the possibility of an unwanted pregnancy was not ideal, she could list a thousand more critical issues that would have demanded immediate intervention, so she talked him through it and he left looking more lighthearted than when he came in.

During the faculty meeting that afternoon Danielle was excited to report to the principal that Tyrone’s issue was not a dire problem that required outside intervention, and that he may soon be back to normal. She was shocked, however, by Principal Snyder’s response when she, as a counselor, declined to provide further details citing Tyrone’s right to privacy. Mrs. Snyder, seeing this as a power struggle with a noncompliant employee, became visibly angry during the conversation.

“For safety reasons you are required to inform me of what’s going on in my school! You better be careful keeping such information hidden. Don’t get in trouble for these kids!” Mrs. Snyder exclaimed.

Danielle wondered what could be causing this sudden burst of emotion. Jealousy? Paranoia? Genuine concern? She began to have the sinking feeling that there was no easy way out of this. Telling the principal meant that she would take matters into her own hands and discuss the situation with Tyrone, and Danielle might lose the hard-won trust of not only Tyrone but also all of the students. Not telling the principal, however, considering the aggressive response of Mrs. Snyder could put her job on the line if she continued to withhold information.

As a teacher and a counselor, Danielle was accustomed to making sacrifices for her students; she had always prided herself on doing what was in the best interests of the student, even when administration stood in the way or it seemed an impossible task. Would Danielle be “doing her job” by supporting students or by complying with the principal? The right thing to do, in Danielle’s mind, would be to maintain the privacy of her students. But was it worth the sacrifice?

Questions for Discussion

What rules and laws apply in this situation? In what ways are the laws clear and in what ways are they vague? Under the ethic of justice, would Mrs. Snyder be justified in terminating Danielle’s employment? If so, for what reason? If not, what recourse would Danielle have?

Are at-risk teenagers a special group that should be advocated for? In what ways do they need specialized support? How does a counselor’s role differ from that of a teacher?

What should a student expect in this situation according to the ethic of care?

What factors might be considered under the ethic of critique?

What responsibilities does Danielle have to the students? In what situations would it be in the students’ best interest to break their trust? Who should have the final say in how to determine the proper actions?

Case Study 11.2 All’s Fair in Love and School

Dr. Meena Patel anxiously turned the key in the ignition of her car as she mentally arranged what she was going to say to her school board that evening. She had been principal at Crest Ridge High School for the past 10 years and, before that, had taught tenth-grade social studies for 12 years, specifically United States history, a subject near and dear to her heart. Dr. Patel enjoyed her administrative position immensely because she was able to make a real difference in the lives of students, parents, and faculty. Now, she was starting to have second thoughts.

Over the years, her high school, Crest Ridge, had struggled to meet academic standards and maintain a satisfactory level of educational excellence. The mission of Crest Ridge High School was to “provide students with an excellent education while helping each and every child realize his or her full potential to become a productive and responsible citizen and lifelong learner.” The school, even though located in a small, rural community, had a diverse faculty and staff which paralleled the diversity that existed among the students. Dr. Patel had worked hard to increase the level of teacher quality in the school by reducing the high teacher turnover rate and attracting new high-quality faculty members who were passionate about teaching. As a result, student achievement had improved dramatically.

With both pride and a profound sense of sadness, Dr. Patel reflected back on one of her most impressive hires, now the center of the turmoil she must address that evening. Over the past five years since his hire, David Wilson had gained a reputation among the faculty as a dedicated and well-respected ninth-grade social studies teacher. Beloved by all his students, he was one of the most popular teachers at Crest Ridge. He was known as the teacher who not only challenged and pushed his students academically but also treated them with respect and kindness.

Mr. Wilson had been instrumental in making changes in the curriculum, spearheading the department committee, and taking on various leadership positions within the school. He designed, developed, and piloted an after-school “Literacy for All” program, for which he had recently gained substantial state funding, thus providing desperately needed resources for students in need of extra help with their academic studies. He had also started an intramural basketball program in an effort to provide students with a safe, non-academic activity they could enjoy after school.

As a teacher, Mr. Wilson was approachable—always willing to talk to and listen to his students. Despite his open-door policy with students, he liked to keep his own life private including his personal relationships. All the other teachers knew he was single and were constantly trying to “set him up” with one of their friends or relatives. He always declined, stating he believed that it was important to keep his professional life separate from his personal life. This only strengthened people’s admiration of his dedication to his profession.

The problems began with a single incident several weeks earlier. As usual, Mr. Wilson was at work early and, that day, was getting ready for first period. As he was making a final check of any text messages or voicemails before complying with the mandatory “phones off while teaching” policy, he remembered that he had left copies of the social studies quiz he needed for his third period on the copying machine in the teachers’ lounge. With a few minutes remaining before classes started, he rushed to get the copies as his first few students began trickling into class. In the teachers’ lounge he realized that, in his haste, he had forgotten to turn off his phone. When he reached into his jacket pocket, he discovered that the phone was missing and realized that it must have dropped out of his pocket.

While Mr. Wilson was gone, one of his more outgoing students, Tyler, noticed a cell phone lying on the floor. He picked it up and flipped through it, both out of curiosity and also to determine the owner. Tyler got much more than he expected. Shocked, he discovered several highly compromising pictures of Mr. Wilson and another man kissing. In the most explicit picture they were on the beach, one sitting between the other’s legs, leaning back and tilting his head up to kiss the other one. Both men had their shirts off so it appeared that they may have been completely nude. Tyler was stunned, not believing what he saw. Shock turned to anger and images of betrayal as Tyler thought back to the times Mr. Wilson had volunteered to privately tutor him and his friends and all the time spent in the locker room under Mr. Wilson’s supervision for the after-school basketball program. As more students entered the room, Tyler decided to share his discovery with his classmates. They began passing the cell phone around so that everyone could see the pictures.

As Mr. Wilson walked back to the classroom he noticed quite a bit of commotion the closer he got. The students started whispering when he walked in and, while it seemed odd, he dismissed it as normal teenage drama. He then noticed the furtive glances they were shooting at Tyler and two students who were gathered around his desk. Tyler quickly flipped the cell phone shut as Mr. Wilson approached: “What is going on here? You need to be in your seats so we can start class. Tyler, what is that in your hand?”

Tyler said that he had found this cell phone on the floor. “OK, well, you know cell phones are not allowed in class,” David Wilson calmly replied, hiding his impatience well. “Please put it on my desk.”

Then Tyler said: “I wanted to see who it belonged to, so I opened it up to see. Turns out it’s yours, Mr. Wilson.” At that moment, Mr. Wilson realized that not only was the phone his, but it was obvious by his students’ faces that they had all seen the pictures in his phone. He felt violated, but knew that he had to address the issue immediately.

Deciding that it would be best to be direct and honest with his students, Mr. Wilson took the phone from Tyler and said calmly, “I understand that all of you must be curious about the pictures in my phone but certain items are private and I would like to keep it that way and not discuss my personal life.” He put the phone in his desk drawer and then asked his students to return to their seats, take out their social studies books, and get ready for class to start. He really did not feel comfortable discussing his personal life with his students and hoped that his students would respect his right to privacy.

Despite his efforts to move on and put the incident behind him, the students in his class continued to carry on about the pictures on the cell phone and Mr. Wilson’s sexual orientation. He had a difficult time keeping the students focused on social studies. Throughout the day, Mr. Wilson’s students had become increasingly disruptive and frequently acted out. He finally gave up and called Dr. Patel to his classroom because he could no longer facilitate his lessons. The students had become either uneasy and distracted or angry and belligerent about the cell phone incident. He no longer had control and, as the weeks passed, the situation worsened.

Word of the incident spread quickly around the school and throughout the community. Dr. Patel started receiving phone calls from irate parents. Some reacted to the incident itself and a few went so far as to ask that their child be moved out of Mr. Wilson’s class. The vast majority of complaints, however, came from parents who were truly concerned about their children’s safety. Since the incident, Mr. Wilson had been unable to control discipline in his classes. Moreover, there were frequent disputes among the students in the class, with some who felt betrayed intimidating those who supported Mr. Wilson’s need for privacy and his sexual orientation.

When she was called down to Mr. Wilson’s room, Dr. Patel found a situation more serious than she could ever have imagined. She located a substitute teacher and asked Mr. Wilson to join her in her office. Mr. Wilson explained that he had wanted to keep his personal life private but since the students had seen the picture he had needed to address the issue. He then detailed what was said and the behavior he had had to deal with after he thought that he had taken care of the incident.

Dr. Patel believed that teachers have a right to privacy and should not be punished based on what they do in their personal lives, especially considering nothing illegal had occurred. She also knew that Mr. Wilson had a right not to be discriminated against based on his sexual orientation. Yet this incident had affected Mr. Wilson’s teaching, and the lack of discipline in his classroom was starting to result in safety concerns. She was forced to admit to Mr. Wilson that she had no choice at that point but to put him on leave until the issue could be resolved. Now, with a sad heart, she dreaded the evening’s board meeting.

Questions for Discussion

Did Dr. Patel make the right decision to put Mr. Wilson on leave? Based on the facts, do you think he had completely lost control or that the students were in danger?

As an educational leader, ensuring the safety of the students is important. At what point does a teacher lose his or her right to privacy when it comes to matters of safety?

Analyze this dilemma through the ethical lenses of justice, care, and critique. What decision would be in the best interests of the students?

What should be expected of Dr. Patel through the lens of the ethic of profession?

Discuss the conflicts between personal beliefs and professional ethics in this situation.

Ancient history homework help

Case Study 4.2 Vivisection: A Dilemma for the Undergraduate Classroom

Morgan College is an undergraduate private liberal arts institution that is church affiliated. This college takes great pride in its biology department. Many of its students, both male and female, continue with their further education and enter careers in the health and science fields.

In an introductory biology class, several of the laboratory activities require freshly pithed frogs that students use to perform experiments on the functioning frog heart. Frogs are anesthetized prior to pithing to prevent pain and suffering. Biology students take this activity very seriously; experimental success requires careful dissection to expose the frog heart without damaging the surrounding organs and vessels. The first stage of the pithing process renders the frog brain-dead, and the second stage reduces skeletal muscle reflex activity.

Specifics of the pithing procedure are not described here; many laboratory manuals include a procedure similar to a classic source-book for biology teachers by Morholt, Brandwein, and Alexander (1966). Several additional experiments that require fresh tissue do not necessitate pithing but do require careful dissection to remove tissue from a freshly killed frog (e.g., a sciatic nerve). For these procedures, most students prefer to use a decapitated frog instead of a pithed (brain-dead) frog.

In general, biology teachers and students are finding it increasingly difficult to justify vivisection, particularly in church-affiliated institutions. Consequently, the chair of the biology department, Dr. Hartiz, has decided to not require students to perform or observe the pithing process, but they are encouraged to work through the experimental vivisection procedures with their laboratory group.

Although Dr. Hartiz has made this decision, he has some qualms about the scientific background he is now providing to all of his students. On the one hand, biology students have extensive dissection experience with preserved specimens. On the other hand, the students’ experiences of and responses to the procedure are varied. Some students are not willing to observe vivisection whereas others are willing to observe but not perform vivisection. Only a few students are willing to perform the procedure. These students often indicate that they find the experience to be less traumatic if the frog has been treated with an amphibian anesthetic prior to pithing and vivisection.

Students are not in agreement on the vivisection issue, and experimental groupings are usually sufficiently diverse to provide constructive debate among group members. The following dialogue highlights the issues surrounding “live dissection.” Ahn contemplates a career in medical technology. She refuses to observe the procedure. Rodney plans to major in premed and eventually become a physician. Rodney is willing to perform the procedure and is attempting to convince Ahn that live dissection is necessary.

Ahn: I refuse to hurt that frog!

Rodney: The anesthetic has knocked him out—won’t feel a thing. Besides, pithing renders the frog brain-dead.

Ahn: That is not the issue! What gives us the right to take this frog’s life, and for what purpose?

Rodney: For months I have been dissecting stinky rubbery preserved specimens. I plan to attend medical school, and I’m going to try my hand at this procedure. If I can’t handle it, I better find out now!

Ahn: I’m sure you can handle it … you big brute! What makes our species superior to other species?

Rodney: Think about it, Ahn. I am sure the frog can’t! … Or can he? Do you think that doctors never practice?

Ahn: It is not necessary for this frog to be sacrificed so that you can become a doctor or to find out if you have the stomach for medicine. Besides, no medical procedures should be performed unless the result is expected to extend life.

Rodney: Oh! Well, in that case, I’ll sew him back up!

Ahn: You are hopeless! I’ll be back after the procedure.

Rodney: Why should I share my data with you if you don’t contribute to the activity?

Ahn: Because the teacher said that I may instead use a new computer program that simulates the effects of acetylcholine and adrenaline on the frog heart.

Rodney: Fine for your purposes, but I plan to use this herbal extract as an additional independent variable—find that in your computer simulation!

Ahn: What practical application might your herbal extract have? It is unlikely that you would stumble on some amazing substance by accident!

Rodney: If I did, would this frog’s death be justified?

Ahn: Depends how amazing the substance is … but just experimenting with no practical application in mind is not justified.

Rodney: But that is what basic science is all about.

Ahn: Well, Mr. Serendipitous … you do your thing and I’ll do mine.

Questions for Discussion

Do animals have rights? Do we, as human beings, have a responsibility to species other than ourselves?

What are the pros and cons of pithing frogs? If you were the chair of the biology department, would you permit this procedure? Would your answer be different if the animal were a dog, a cat, a horse? Why or why not? How would you decide where to draw the line?

Pithing frogs is legal and sometimes considered to be a good practice.

Do these things also make it ethical? Why or why not?

If pithing frogs was the only way to improve medical practice and save human lives, would that justify the practice? What if it were not the only way but was clearly the best way, would your answer change? Why or why not?

Case Study 6.2 Parents’ Rights Versus School Imperatives

It was 4 p.m. on Friday afternoon, and Ned Parker was still at his desk. In front of him was the pamphlet distributed by the state’s Division of Youth and Family Services that detailed the school’s role in preventing child abuse. Among other things, the pamphlet was very specific with regard to school officials’ responsibilities. Any school official or teacher who fails to report suspected child abuse, the pamphlet read, could be held criminally liable.

Of course, Ned Parker was well aware of the legal responsibilities of school officials with regard to suspected child abuse cases. Indeed, he had presented in-service training to his teaching staff on just that subject. As principal at Sandalwood Elementary School, Ned had reported dozens of suspected child abuse cases over his eight-year tenure despite the fact that the school was situated in a mostly upper-middle-class community. He understood his responsibilities all too well. Yet, on this particular Friday afternoon, he felt very unsure of himself. Earlier that day, he had witnessed a parent beating his child but was hesitant to report this incident as child abuse.

The child in this case was Robert Buck, a sixth grader who was both small in stature and emotionally immature for his age. He had transferred to Sandalwood earlier in the school year from a district in another state, following the bitter divorce of his parents. Robert’s father, Frank Buck, had been awarded full custody, and the transition was anything but smooth.

Robert was a discipline problem from almost the first day he arrived. He was constantly disrupting his classes, disrespectful to his teachers, and both physically and verbally abusive to his classmates. Needless to say, his academic achievements were few. Robert had been a frequent visitor to Ned Parker’s office and had been rapidly progressing through the various levels of the school discipline policy.

Frank had also been a frequent visitor to the school. He was a rough and relatively uneducated working-class man who had dropped out of high school to marry his pregnant girlfriend. He lived on one of the few streets in the community that had escaped gentrification, a street very close to the school district’s boundary line. However, he was glad to live in this district, hoping that a good education might make up for all the problems in his son’s life. When his marriage went sour, Mr. Buck made every effort to gain full custody of his only child to remove him from what he called the “unhealthy influence of his mother.” In his dealings with Frank, Ned had believed him to be a concerned parent who was doing his best with the child under very difficult circumstances. He had personally come to the school each time there was a problem with his son. His meetings with the principal and each of Robert’s teachers had always been cordial, and he had often expressed support for the school’s efforts toward his son. He regularly attended parent back-to-school nights and was one of the few fathers who was active in the PTA.

It was becoming apparent that Robert was not responding to the typical disciplinary practices of the school. After a series of disruptive behavior reports from teachers, Mr. Parker suggested to Frank that he implement a behavior remediating program suggested by the school psychologist. All indications were that Frank was dutifully following this program.

The final straw came early on Friday when Robert was sent to the principal’s office for what his teacher described as behavior that was out of control. Ned called Frank to inform him of the problem. Angry, Frank said, “This has gone too far. That boy needs to be taught once and for all how to behave.” With that, he abruptly hung up the phone.

Questions for Discussion

Do schools have the right to determine how parents may discipline their children? Do you believe that Mr. Buck’s actions constitute child abuse? Why or why not? How do your state laws define child abuse? Should Mr. Parker report this incident to the authorities? Why or why not? If Ned thought Mr. Buck’s actions were not child abuse, but feared that Mr. Buck was, or could become, more violent at home, should he report the incident to the authorities? Discuss the pros and cons of taking action against an anticipated wrongdoing.

What do you suppose was the purpose of states instituting child abuse laws? Who likely supported or rallied for such laws? Who do these laws benefit? Do you believe that such laws are fair? Why or why not? If there was a class difference between those who fought for the law and those whom the law affected, would that change your opinion of the laws? Why or why not? Should exceptions be made in these types of cases, or should the law be followed literally? Explain your answer. Should professional judgment be a consideration in reporting such incidents? Why or why not? How would this work? Whose professional judgment should be taken into account and why those persons as opposed to others?

What is the most caring solution to this problem? Would it be caring to report Mr. Buck? What solution would be in Robert’s best interests? The best interests of all students?

Some 31 states have passed laws forbidding corporal punishment in schools (Center for Effective Discipline, 2015), and many, if not most, school districts have policies opposing this type of discipline. Discuss the pros and cons of corporal punishment in schools. Is there a difference between corporal punishment in schools and similar types of discipline at home? Explain. Is there a difference between corporal punishment and child abuse? How are they the same? How are they different?

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Daniel Tebo

WednesdayMar 16 at 3:21pm

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Upon choosing Case Study 3.5, this researcher enjoyed exploring the leadership scenarios and ethical paradigms within; especially given his current and ongoing status as a federal law enforcement officer. For those who may be unfamiliar with the provided case study, the summarized version of the scenario is that Jenna, a school educator, decided to break what appeared to be school policy and produce her legally owned and carried personal firearm onto school property (via her locked car positioned within the parking lot). 

The first question is whether Jenna had “the right to disobey school policy” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 48) if she believed the safety of others was at stake. It is important to note, the scenario does not state Jenna broke any legal statutes; for carrying in a locked vehicle onto a school parking lot is often permissible in many (if not all) states. However, policy on the other hand is a different story… it is not law. Policy can often be broken without legal repercussions; therefore, Jenna does have the right to choose if she is going to adhere to school policy. However, as a caveat to that statement, this researcher acknowledges Jenna, a paid employee, likely forfeited her right to carry by agreeing to the policies when hired. This researcher believes Jenna gave up her right to carry but does maintain a conditional choice to honor that policy each day – and if given the right circumstances (the safety of others) could ethically be broken; even though she may face administrative action. She must decide whether her individual choice and action is considering the benefit of the community (John 13:34) in the long run. If she were reckless, her choice could bring more harm than good. She certainly should had considered discussing her thoughts and feelings with her leadership before potentially compromising her role and position. 

This is where the multiple paradigms (ethic of care, critique, and profession) come into view…

This researcher’s discussion so far has mostly dealt with the ethic of care; for this ethic “considers the consequences” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 17) of Jenna’s actions. Jenna needed to weigh these consequences deeply in light of trying to love those around her. She needed to ensure she explored where her loyalty and trusts lie… This researcher argues that is with the safety of her students and co-workers; however, to do that, she compromised her loyalty to her employer and the policies within. On the flip side, the school administrator must examine this situation through the same lens. He must take time to wisely discern (Hosea 14:9) and understand the totality of the circumstances. Did Jenna act with due regard or recklessness? Did she show deception or dishonesty when confronted? What consequences were adopted and, then what consequences will result from any decision he makes? This researcher believes a written reprimand should be issued at minimum; with a maximum of 1-3 days suspension issued. This will establish respect for the policies and ensure others understand the same, while not discrediting Jenna’s heart to care for those around her. 

Next, the ethic of critique. Undoubtably, gun control within and around schools has been a growing topic of debate in modern society. As noted in the discussion questions for the case study, some schools are training staff to carry firearms on their person within schools. This fact and growing discussion must be considered in the handling of the situation. This is why this researcher believes Jenna should have vocalized her concern in staff meetings and board hearings and her leadership must consider the sensitivity of the issue when deciding how to handle/resolve the situation.  Through guided, transparent, and respectable conversation, this researcher believes the topic can be redefined and reframed for enhanced community standards (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 13).

Lastly, the ethic of profession. This paradigm offered by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2016) provides the greatest lens which to view this case study through. Truly, this post could double in length under this microscope alone; however, in an attempt at brevity, this researcher will simply state at this point a clear divergence between Jenna’s personal code of ethic and the agreed upon professional code of ethics has surfaced. The other paradigms further bolster this claim and provide the inner cogs of such. Therefore, the best way to resolve this situation at Jenna’s level would have been to consider the expectations of her employer and the community before compromising her primary role (p. 27). If she had done so, this researcher believes she would have had the conversations this researcher has repeatedly suggested in this post. Instead, she acted on her out, out of policy, and has now put her employer in a situation where they must consider the expectations of the institution and the community; and this is why this researcher believes the written reprimand and/or minimal time suspension should be actualized. From here, the leadership should pursue continued reform and policy resolution to ensure the ethical safeguarding of their faculty and students. 

 

References

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education (4th Edition). Taylor & Francis. 
https://libertyonline.vitalsource.com/books/9781317681106

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). Crossway Bibles.



Daniel York

YesterdayMar 17 at 11:52am

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Ethical Paradigms–Discussion 1.docx


 
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Ethical Paradigms

 

Daniel L. York

Rawlings School of Divinity, Liberty University
CLED 815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Note

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Daniel L. York

Email: 
dyork21@liberty.edu

Ethical Paradigms

            There are at least two ethical dilemmas in the case study “The School of Hard Knocks” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016).  First is the dilemma of how a school effectively disciplines a student bully. The second dilemma involves a teacher, Mr. Washington, who, by all witness accounts, allowed the bully Ricky Johnson to be punched in the stomach by another student.  Multiple ethical paradigms address both issues.

Justice Paradigm

            A justice paradigm if in place in this school would support both those hired to work in the school system and the students. All should be treated with equality, fairness and in a manner which preserves their dignity as well as safety (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). Was corporal punishment (still practiced in 19 states) ever applied to Johnson after he bullied other students? Furthermore, Mr. Washington is entitled to due process as a teacher despite his allowing Johnson to be punched.

Critique Paradigm   

           The ethic of critique would suggest closer scrutinization of Johnson to determine if there are factors in his home environment of suffering or oppression that might account for his need to bully others (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). Similarly, were there anger issues from Washington’s past or flaws in the school’s discipline process that might account for him permitting the student John Patterson to punch Johnson in his stomach? Is it possible that Washington was using a measure of critique by hoping that in Johnson getting punched by another student he might have a better appreciation for the deplorability of his own actions hurting other students (a taste of his own medicine)?            

Care Paradigm

           The ethic of care seems readily apparent in Mr. Green’s push to protect Washington     because of his 25 years of successful service in the school system as well as his reputation as a “pillar of the community” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 44). For a district superintendent to insert himself by suggesting how Ms. Henry, the principal, handle the situation put both at some degree of risk should there be accusations of favoritism or covering up a potentially serious incident.

Profession Paradigm

           The ethic of profession is applicable from the viewpoint that teachers are charged with promoting the success and safety of each student under their watch (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). There is also merit in considering a teacher’s long-standing record of solid performance as Green did towards Washington. 

Biblical Worldview

           The Bible gives Christian educators valuable instruction that weaves together justice, care, critique and certainly the high calling of teaching. In Deuteronomy and Hebrews, God modeled discipline in correcting and punishing the Israelites for their rebellious behavior and He expected parents to discipline their children (HCSB, 2010). Proverbs lists many benefits of discipline. David asked God not to punish him from a state of wrath (Psa. 38:1). Is it possible that Mr. Washington held Johnson and encouraged Patterson to hit him because he was angry with a bully that in his opinion had not received appropriate punishment?

            The Apostle Paul often demonstrated care for those God entrusted to his leadership (HCSB, 2010, 2 Cor. 11:28, 1 The. 2:8). Leaders care for those whom they serve because Jesus modeled such leadership and taught that a good shepherd ensures the safety and wellbeing of his sheep. Green was devoted to taking care of Washington—behavior consistent with a good shepherd.

            Finally, James has much to say about the high standard expected of teachers (HCSB, 2010, Jam. 3:1-2). From a professional vantage, Washington, by allowing Patterson to hit Johnson, put his reputation at risk and modeled poor judgment for one entrusted with protecting the safety of students. Leaders are expected to take charge when conditions dictate the need for action, but they are also charged to display restraint when emotions run high.

 

References:

HCSB. (2010). Holman Bible Publishers.

Shapiro, J. P., Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education.  

(4th ed.). Taylor & Francis.


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Time Off and Scholarships

In this analysis, the case study explored is case 9.6 majoring in A Merit-Based Scholarship. Based on the conceptual knowledge gained through the reading, it is ideal to note that the president of Midvale conforms to the ethical paradigm of the ethic of care. Primarily, it is highlighted that this ethical paradigm is compassion-oriented (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). As a result, it is extensively associated with the processes through which decisions, issues, as well as circumstances enactment can impact or hurting others. With this, the underlying components that drive individuals entail understanding, compassion, and trust. In the case scenario, the president is driven by the understanding that over the years, Hispanics as minority groups have often been overlooked in the provision of scholarships.

Given the application of the ethic of justice as the sole paradigm, this would trigger Jessica to make a choice guided by the extant guidelines, policies, and procedures advocated in the allocation of the scholarship. As such, this would reinforce the confidence in the rule of law to foster fairness, justice, and equity (Wood & Hilton, 2017). The adherence to the set principles would call for the selection of Courtney as she is qualified based on the ACT scores which are higher compared to those Juan. Jessica’s application of the ethic of care would be ideal for understanding diverse sociocultural realities (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). In this context, selecting Juan on the basis that Hispanic groups are often underrepresented is considered compatible. Care to both parties seem complex since the opportunity is only offered to one student, however, this can be attained to some extent since both students will be awarded an opportunity in the college.

Besides, there are ethical concerns of social class, racial equality, power, and oppression highlighted in the case considering that the two students have different backgrounds. Juan affiliates to a race and social class that has continuously been overlooked during the allocation of scholarships. As a result, this has prompted minimal applications since the chances of selection are minimal. On the other hand, Courtney’s race is well represented, and which allows the exertion of power over the minority groups. Moreover, being the admissions director will prompt the application of the ethical paradigm of ethics in the local community (Drobnic et al., 2020). Based on this, the selection would lean towards Juan with the consideration that the Hispanic population has continued to bloom but low trends of selection for scholarships still prevail. As such, valuing the interests of the community will validate the choice and help ease the surging tensions that continue to develop due to the underrepresentation of minority groups.

References

Drobnic, J., Toros, J., & Weis, L. (2020). Ethical paradigms in business and society. Economics. Ecology. Social4(1), 1-14.

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education (4th Ed.). Taylor & Francis.

Wood, J. L., & Hilton, A. A. (2017). Five ethical paradigms for community college leaders: Toward constructing and considering alternative courses of action in ethical decision making. Community College Review40(3), 196-214.

Ancient history homework help

3/31/22, 6:20 PM Chapter 24: The Second World War, 1933–1945

https://ncia.wwnorton.com/ebooks/epub/amerele2v2/EPUB/content/chapter24-01.xhtml 1/13

The Rise of Fascism in Europe

M VIDEO: Hitler and the Nazis

CORE OBJECTIVE

1. Assess how German and Japanese actions led to the outbreak of war in Europe

and in Asia.

In 1917, Woodrow Wilson had led the United States into the Great War in order to make the world
“safe for democracy.” In fact, though, democracy was in retreat after 1919. Soviet communism was
on the march during the twenties and thirties. So, too, was its ideological opponent, fascism, a
radical form of totalitarian government in which a dictator uses propaganda and brute force to seize
control of all aspects of national life—the economy, the armed forces, the legal and educational
systems, and the press.

Fascism in Germany and Italy thrived on a violent ultranationalist patriotism and almost
hysterical emotionalism built upon claims of racial superiority and the simmering resentments that
grew out of defeat in the Great War. At the same time, halfway around the world, the Japanese
government fell under the control of militarist expansionists eager to conquer China and all of south
Asia. Japanese leaders were convinced that they were a “master race” with a “mission” to conquer

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Italy and Germany

and lead a resurgent Asia, just as Hitler claimed that Germany’s “mission” on behalf of the superior
“Aryan” race was to dominate Europe. By 1941, there would be only a dozen or so democratic nations
left on earth.

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The Expanding Axis

In 1922, political journalist Benito Mussolini and his black-shirted supporters had seized control in
Italy, taking advantage of an inept government incapable of dealing with widespread unemployment
and runaway inflation. By 1925, he was wielding dictatorial power as “Il Duce” (the Leader).
Mussolini eliminated all opposition political parties and approved the killing of several political
opponents. “Mussolini Is Always Right,” screamed propaganda posters. Yet there was something
almost comical about the strutting, chest-thumping Mussolini, who claimed, “My animal instincts
are always right.” Italy, after all, was a declining industrial power whose pitiful performance in the
Great War was a national embarrassment.

Germany was another matter, however. There was nothing amusing about Mussolini’s German
counterpart, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, whom Mussolini privately described as “an aggressive
little man . . . probably a liar, and certainly mad.”

Hitler’s remarkable transformation during the 1920s from social misfit to head of the National
Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) party startled the world. Hitler and the Nazis claimed that they
represented a German (“Aryan”) master race whose “purity and strength” were threatened by
liberals, Jews, Communists, homosexuals, and other “inferior” peoples. Hitler promised to make
Germany strong again by uniting all the German-speaking peoples of Europe into a vast empire that
would give fast-growing Germany “living space” to expand, dominate the “lesser” races, and rid the
continent of Jews.

Mussolini seizes power in Italy (1922);

Hitler becomes head of Nazi party in

Germany

Hitler had little patience with conventional political
processes. “Democracy must be destroyed,” he shouted.
To enforce his rise to power, Hitler recruited 2 million
street-brawling thugs (“storm troopers”) to intimidate his
opponents. “We are barbarians!” Hitler shouted. “We
want to be barbarians! It is an honorable title. We shall rejuvenate the world!” Hitler also urged
Germany to defy the restrictions on its armed forces imposed by the hated Treaty of Versailles after
the Great War.

Hitler becomes German chancellor

and creates Nazi police state (1933)

Hitler was appointed chancellor on January 30, 1933,
five weeks before Franklin Roosevelt was first
inaugurated. Like Mussolini, he declared himself absolute
leader, or Führer, banned all political parties except the
Nazis, created a secret police force known as the Gestapo, and stripped people of voting rights.
There would be no more elections, labor unions, or strikes. During the mid-1930s, Hitler’s brutal
Nazi police state cranked up the engines of tyranny and terrorism, propaganda and censorship.
Brown-shirted Nazi storm troopers fanned out across the nation, burning books and persecuting,
imprisoning, and murdering Communists, Jews, and their sympathizers.

FASCIST PROPAGANDA Mussolini’s headquarters in Rome’s Palazzo Braschi, which bore an oversized
reproduction of his leering face and 132 si’s (Italian for “yes”) in 1934.

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As the 1930s unfolded, a catastrophic series of events in Asia and Europe sent the world hurtling
toward disaster. In 1931–1932, some 10,000 Japanese troops had occupied Manchuria, a province in
northeast China blessed with valuable deposits of iron ore and coal. At the time, China was
fragmented by civil war between Communists led by Mao Zedong and Nationalists led by Chiang
Kai-shek. The Japanese took advantage of China’s weakness to proclaim Manchuria’s independence,
renaming it the “Republic of Manchukuo.” This was the first major step in Japan’s eventual effort to
control all of China.

In 1935, Mussolini launched Italy’s reconquest of Ethiopia, a weak nation in eastern Africa that
Italy had controlled until 1896 (Mussolini dismissed it as “a country without a trace of civilization”).
When the League of Nations branded Mussolini as an aggressor and imposed economic sanctions on
Italy, the Italian ruler expressed surprise that European leaders would prefer a “horde of barbarian
Negroes” in Ethiopia over Italy, the “mother of civilization.”

ADOLF HITLER Hitler performs the Nazi salute at a rally. The majestic banners, triumphant music, powerful
oratory, and expansive military parades were both hypnotic and alluring to the public.

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Anschluss and the Munich Pact (1938)

In 1935, Hitler, in flagrant violation of the Versailles Treaty, began rebuilding Germany’s armed
forces. The next year, 1936, he sent 35,000 soldiers into the Rhineland, the demilitarized buffer zone
between France and Germany. In a staged vote, 99 percent of the Germans living in the Rhineland
approved Hitler’s action. The failure of France and Great Britain to counter his bold moves
convinced Hitler that the western democracies were weak and frightened.

The year 1936 also witnessed the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, which began when Spanish
troops loyal to General Francisco Franco, with the support of the Roman Catholic Church, revolted
against the fragile new republican government. Hitler and Mussolini rushed troops (“volunteers”),
warplanes, and massive amounts of military and financial aid to support Franco’s fascist insurgency.

Military buildup begins in Japan

(1934)

While peace in Europe was unraveling, the Japanese
government fell under the control of aggressive
militarists. In 1937, a government official announced that
the “tide ha[d] turned against the liberalism and

democracy that once swept over the nation.”
On July 7, 1937, Japanese and Chinese soldiers clashed at China’s Marco Polo Bridge, west of

Beijing. The incident quickly developed into a full-scale conflict, the Sino-Japanese War. From
Beijing, the Japanese army swept northward toward Nanjing, home of the Nationalist Chinese
government.

In 1937, Japan joined Germany and Italy in establishing the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo “Axis”
alliance. Hitler and Mussolini vowed to create a “new order in Europe” that would end the
domination of Great Britain and France, while the Japanese imperialists pursued their “divine right”
to control all of east Asia by creating what they called the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

Germany annexes Austria (1938) and

takes control of Czechoslovakia (1938–

1939)

Hitler was equally aggressive. In March 1938, he forced
the Anschluss (union) of Austria with Germany. German
armies marched into Austria, followed by Hitler, whose
triumphant return to his homeland delighted pro-German
crowds waving Nazi flags and tossing flowers. When
Mussolini congratulated Hitler for his daring move, the German dictator told his Italian partner that
he would “never forget him for this. Never, never, never—whatever happens.”

A month later, after arresting over 70,000 opponents of the Nazis, German leaders announced
that a remarkable 99.75 percent of Austrian voters had “approved” the German takeover. Again, no
nation stepped up to oppose Hitler’s aggressive actions, and soon the new Nazi government in
Austria began adopting Hitler’s policies of arresting or murdering opponents and imprisoning or
exiling Jews, including the famed psychiatrist Sigmund Freud.

Hitler’s appetite for conquest was voracious. He turned next to the Sudeten territory (or
Sudetenland), a mountainous region in western Czechoslovakia along the German border where
more than 3 million ethnic Germans lived. Paralyzed by fear of another world war, British and
French leaders tried to “appease” Hitler, hoping that if they agreed to his demands for the Sudeten
territory he would stop his aggressions.

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The Conquest of Poland

On September 30, 1938, the British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, the French prime
minister, Édouard Daladier, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and Hitler signed the notorious
Munich Pact, which transferred the Sudetenland to Germany, leading the Czechoslovakian president
to resign in protest.

Chamberlain claimed that the Munich treaty provided “peace for our time. Peace with honor.”
Winston Churchill, a member of the British Parliament who would himself become prime minister
in May 1940, strongly disagreed. In a speech to the House of Commons, Churchill claimed, “England
has been offered a choice between war and shame. She has chosen shame, and will get war.” The
Munich Pact, he predicted, would not end Hitler’s aggression. “This is only the beginning of the
reckoning.”

Churchill was right. Hitler never intended to honor the Munich Pact: “That piece of paper is of no
further significance whatever.” Although Hitler had promised that the Sudetenland would be his last
territorial demand, he violated his pledge in March 1939, when he sent German tanks and soldiers to
conquer the remainder of Czechoslovakia. The European democracies, having shrunk their armies
after the Great War, continued to cower in the face of Hitler’s ruthless behavior and seemingly
unstoppable military forces.

After German troops seized all of Czechoslovakia on March 15, 1939, Hitler called it “the greatest
day of my life.” President Roosevelt was not amused. He decided that Hitler and Mussolini were
“madmen” who “respect force and force alone.” Throughout late 1938 and 1939, he tried to convince
Americans, as well as British and French leaders, that the growing menace of fascism must be
stopped. He also persuaded Congress to increase military spending in anticipation of a possible war.

Later in 1939, the insatiable Hitler turned his sights to Poland, Germany’s eastern neighbor. In part,
he wanted to regain German territory taken to form Poland after the Great War, but he also wanted
to conquer Poland so as to give the German army a clear path to invade the Soviet Union. To ensure
that the Soviets did not interfere with his plans, Hitler camouflaged his intentions on August 23,
1939, when he signed the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact with the Soviet premier, Josef Stalin.

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The Outbreak of War in Europe

The announcement of the treaty stunned a world that had understood fascism and communism to
be eternal enemies. By the terms of the treaty, the two tyrants secretly agreed to divide northern and
eastern Europe between them. Just nine days later, at dawn on September 1, 1939, 1.5 million
German troops invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. Hitler ordered his armies “to kill
without mercy men, women, and children of the Polish race or language.”

This was the final straw for the western democracies. Having allowed Austria and Czechoslovakia
to be conquered by Hitler’s war machine, the leaders of Great Britain and France now did an about-
face. On September 3, 1939, they honored their commitment to defend Poland. Europe, the world’s
smallest continent, was again embroiled in what would soon become another world war. The nations
making up the British Empire and Commonwealth around the world—Canada, India, Australia, New
Zealand—joined the war against Nazi Germany.

Sixteen days after German troops stormed across the Polish border, the Soviet Union invaded
Poland from the east. Pressed from all sides by its old enemies, 700,000 poorly equipped Polish
soldiers (many Poles fought on horseback) surrendered, having suffered 70,000 deaths and many
more wounded.

On October 6, 1939, the Nazis and Soviets divided conquered Poland between them and then set
about systematically destroying it. Hitler’s goal was to obliterate Polish civilization, especially the
Jews, and Germanize the country. For his part, Stalin wanted to recapture Polish territory lost by
Russia during the Great War. Over the next five years, the Nazis and Soviets arrested, deported,
enslaved, or murdered millions of Poles.

In late November 1939, the Soviets invaded neighboring Finland, leading President Roosevelt to
condemn Russia’s “wanton disregard for law.” Outnumbered 5 to 1, Finnish troops held off the
Soviet invaders for three months but were forced to negotiate a surrender in March 1940 that gave
the Soviet Union a tenth of Finland.

JOSEF STALIN The leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin rose to power in the mid-1920s after the death of Vladimir
Lenin.

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After the quick German conquest of Poland, the war on the ground in Europe settled into a three-
month stalemate during early 1940 as Hitler’s generals waited out the winter. Then, in the early
spring, Germany suddenly attacked again. At dawn on April 9, without warning, Nazi armies
invaded Denmark and landed along the Norwegian coast. German paratroopers, the first used in
warfare, seized Norway’s airports. Denmark fell in a day, Norway within a few weeks. On May 10,
German forces invaded the Low Countries—Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands (Holland).
Luxembourg fell the first day, the Netherlands four days later. Belgium lasted until May 28.

A few days later, German tanks roared into northern France. “The fight beginning today,” Hitler
declared, “decides the fate of the German nation for the next thousand years!” Hitler’s brilliant
blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) strategy centered on speed. Fast-moving columns of tanks, motorized
artillery, and truck-borne infantry, all supported by warplanes and paratroopers, moved so quickly
that they paralyzed their stunned opponents.

A British army sent to help the Belgians and the French fled along with French troops toward the
coast, with the Germans in hot pursuit. On May 26, Great Britain organized a desperate weeklong
evacuation of battle-weary British and French soldiers from the beaches at Dunkirk, on the northern
French coast. Despite attacks from German warplanes, some 338,000 soldiers escaped to England
on more than a thousand ships and small boats, barges, and ferries, leaving behind vast stockpiles of
vehicles, weaponry, and ammunition. “Wars are not won by evacuations,” observed Prime Minister
Churchill, “but there was a victory inside this deliverance.”

AGGRESSION IN EUROPE, 1935–1939

WINSTON CHURCHILL The prime minister of Great Britain, Churchill led the nation during the Second World War.

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■ Keeping in mind the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, explain why Hitler began his campaign of
expansion by invading the Rhineland and the Sudetenland.

■ Why did the attack on Poland begin World War II, whereas Hitler’s previous invasions of his
European neighbors did not?

While the miraculous evacuation at Dunkirk was unfolding, German forces decimated the
remaining French armies. The crumbling French war effort prompted Italy’s dictator, Mussolini, to
declare war on France and Great Britain, which he dismissed as “the reactionary democracies of the
West.” Roosevelt characterized Mussolini’s action as a “stab in the back.”

On June 14, 1940, German soldiers marched unopposed through the streets of Paris. Eight days
later, French leaders surrendered. The war was but ten months old, yet Germany ruled most of
Europe. Great Britain now stood alone facing Hitler’s relentless military power. “The war is won,” an

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ecstatic Hitler bragged to Mussolini. “The rest is only a matter of time.” He spoke too soon.

Ancient history homework help

To receive, Cultural Enhancement Activity credit you will:

· Attend an assigned event or lecture. The professor will provide you with Cultural Enhancement Activities opportunities throughout the semester.

· Take notes while you attend the event or lecture; write essential details provided by the speaker and also your observations

· Write a 2–3-page reflection paper on the event or lecture and submit it in the Cultural Enhancement Activities folder on Blackboard by the deadline.  Remember to use the MLA heading for informal writing. The paper must include:

· Summary of the event (2 paragraphs)

· Why is this type of event important? (1-2 paragraphs)

· What impressed you most about this event? (1-2 paragraphs)

Ancient history homework help

Week 2 db CLED 815: Case Study replies



Keithston Ferguson

YesterdayMar 22 at 10:48pm

Manage Discussion Entry

Case Study 4.2 highlights the ethical dilemma of animal rights and explains “Morgan College is an undergraduate private liberal arts institution that is church affiliated” (49).  In reflection, the fact that Morgan College is a “church affiliated” institution is an important factor in this case. Accordingly, the scriptures read: “then God said, let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground” (
Genesis (Links to an external site.)
 
1:26 (Links to an external site.)
).

This means, animals have rights and we as human beings, have a responsibility to species other than ourselves.  Moreover, all life and lifeforms are special and serve a purpose in creation. At the same time, the Biblical worldview holds man (unlike animals and other life forms) was created in the image of God.  Thus contrary, to views consistent with animal rights activists, animals are not equal to nor better than humans. However, the life of animals should not be disregarded or disrespected.  

When it comes to medical science and research, the life of an animal can humanely serve a purpose that benefits the betterment of creation and mankind. For example, in the case of pithing frogs, the pros outweigh the cons. Meaning, although a precious lifeform is taken, the benefits for science and research justify the means for which the life was taken.   

 

For this reason, if the student reader were the chair of the biology department, such procedures would be permitted. Even if the animal were a dog, a cat, a horse, the pros would still outweigh the cons.   Additionally, a legal practice doesn’t necessarily make it ethical. For example, some states (and countries) may legally permit gambling and prostitution. Although entirely different in nature, these activities (like pithing) represent legal practices that some would argue are unethical. 

In closing, 
Pevsner
, (2002), highlights the work of Leonardo da Vinci and explains: “Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology, and art. Leonardo’s pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog).  His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure” (Pevsner 2002).

Even today “We are fascinated by Leonardo today because his curiosity was unparalleled, and the breadth of his accomplishments is inspirational”.  Nonetheless, we can appreciate that he tried to understand seemingly all aspects of the brain from structure to function” (
Pevsner
 2002). 

 


Pevsner

Jonathan
 (2002). Leonardo da Vinci’s contributions to neuroscience. Trends in Neuroscience  Volume 25, Issue 4, 1 April 2002, Pages 217-220,     
https://www-sciencedirect (Links to an external site.)
         com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/science/article/pii/S0166223600021214?via%3Dihub  



Daniel Tebo

SundayMar 20 at 10:23am

Manage Discussion Entry

Upon digging into Case Study 6.2, it is certain Ned (the school principal) is in quite the pickle between Robert (the troubled child) and his disciplinary father, Frank. The ethical dilemma boils down to whether Ned should report Frank’s apparent excessive (and witnessed) use of force on school property to the authorities as suspected child abuse.

To handle this situation with biblical accuracy, this researcher believes there are a few things to consider. First, “do schools have the right to determine how parents may discipline their children?” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 92). Secondly, what are the purpose of the state laws handling child abuse; and lastly, what is the best solution for this problem (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, 92)? 

There is no clear-cut answer to the first question under review. However, when considering the history of educational systems (Anthony & Benson, 2011), one can come to the conclusion that schools have been created to serve as a communal bridge between the family and societal edification. This is where the argument stems; for how extravagant of a bridge should schools be in the lives of children? At what point do parental roles and the focus on the family surrender its authority and purpose to the institution? This researcher believes the topic of discipline should rest in the hands of the familial unit (ESV, 2016, Proverbs 13:24, 19:18, 22:6, 23:13-15, and 29:15,17). Whether they are disciplining in sin or righteousness should be between them and God (ESV, 2016, Psalm 37:8, James 1:19-20, Ephesians 4:26).

However, this conversation should not stop here… The second question under consideration is that of the law and its purpose. This researcher believes the law is a safety net for the parental use of discipline and the school can/should rely upon it in order to backstop their societal role and greater responsibility to the children they serve. Within the State of Ohio, the Ohio Revised Code Section 2919.22 has been passed to safeguard children from endangerment and abuse (ORC, 2022).  Under ORC Section 2151.031, an abused child is defined as one who has evidence of physical or mental injury or death. When such evidence exists, the school and their employees should report the suspected child abuse. Furthermore, the sticky area surfaces from subsection (D); wherein, “the acts of his parent, guardian, or custodian, suffers physical or mental injury that harms or threatens to harm the child’s health or welfare”. It is hard for schools (specifically Ned in this case study) to determine what “threatens to harm”.

This proverbial loose end brings this researcher to the third question, which addresses the best solution for the case at hand. In understanding the biblical mandate, supporting verses, and ongoing role for parental discipline, there is no doubt Frank should discipline Robert. However, how and how much causes pause. Striking him “no fewer than eight times” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 91) causes the Spirit some concern. Given the description of Frank’s conduct leading up to the strikes (verbal statements and physical conduct against Robert), Ned needs to ask if Frank’s anger is bordering/crossing into sin and causing a threat to harm Robert. Ned certainly could call the authorities based on what he has witnessed; however, is it the best biblical response?

This researcher believes a visit to Matthew 18:15-17 should be conducted; for, given Frank and Ned’s apparent positive relationship to date, perhaps a conversation about the events (after the fact) could garner a clearer group resolution to the situation. Frank may have just been heated when he said he would decide what was necessary for his son (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016, p. 91). However, if Frank is not receptive to a de-brief of the events, a follow up interview with Robert should be conducted (in conjunction with the school counselor and nurse) to see if there is evidence of physical or mental harm to Robert; which would then garner a formal report to be made. Conducting this multi-step resolution brings about the opportunity for forgiveness, grace, wisdom, love, and patience to be born. Simply treating the scenario as a black and white, do or do not report, situation does not afford for a biblical response. The fact of the matter is, Christian leadership and its underlying ethical dilemmas and challenges are hard and complex. They must be handled with proper discernment and a thorough go of biblical wisdom. 

 

References

Anthony, M., & Benson, W. S. (2011). Exploring the History and Philosophy of Christian Education: Principles for the 21st Century. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Ohio Revised Code (ORC), 2022, 
https://codes.ohio.gov/ohio-revised-code/section-2919.22 (Links to an external site.)

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education (4th Edition). Taylor & Francis. 
https://libertyonline.vitalsource.com/books/9781317681106

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). Crossway Bibles.

Ancient history homework help

Topic: Chalchihuitl, the importance and use of green stone in ancient Mesoamerica

you must put together a 10-minute video presentation (10 slides) where you teach your fellow classmates about the most relevant information on your topic. The lecture must be based on the most up-to-date scientific information and this information must be properly cited in the lecture itself. The lecture must present, in an organized way, all pertinent information on the chosen topic, its temporal and geographical context, and it must discuss the most current studies or debates on the subject.

Also, students must provide the professor with two questions based on their lecture. These questions may be included in class quizzes and discussions

As a video of a PowerPoint or Keynote presentation that presents a well-organized lecture, with extensive lecture notes for each slide, and a slide listing your references.

Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Book Critique Assignment Instructions

Overview

As part of doctoral-level work, it is important to be able to evaluate resources. This evaluation includes an analysis of the resource within the discipline itself and an analysis of the resource from a biblical worldview perspective. As such, students are asked to demonstrate one’s ability to provide in-depth analysis through the avenue of a book critique.

Instructions

Students will write a 750–1,000-word book critique over the following text:

Caro, Robert A. (1991). The means of ascent: The years of Lyndon B. Johnson II. New York, NY: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0679733713

The assignment must be submitted in current APA formatting and should use the following example as a guide for writing.

Bibliographic Citation

This should be included at the top of the first page prior to beginning the summary section.

Summary

Summarize the themes, concepts, and principles of the book. Do not simply restate the contents of each chapter or section. In the first section, students frequently make the mistake of simply restating the contents of the various chapters they have read; this is not the intent of the Summary Section. In this section, identify the themes, concepts, and principles the author is presenting. Express these items in your own words and support them with parenthetical references where the material may be found in the text. Demonstrate that you have identified the themes, concepts, and or principles by expressing them clearly in your own words.

Note: This should be accomplished in no more than 250 words.

Critique

Critique what you have read. Most students accomplish the second section well, but remember, the instructions require more than simply, “I liked/disliked this text.” State your position on the text and support it well. If you agreed with the reading, say so, and provide support for your position. If you did not agree with the text, state that and support it equally as well. Here is an important aspect to remember: you must not state your position based upon another text. Your critique of a text must stand on the merits of the text alone.

Note: This should be accomplished in no more than 500 words.

Evaluation

Evaluate the book’s value in its larger academic context. Simply state/show if and how the book contributes to the field of church health. If you decide the text is beneficial, then once again, support your statement in tangible ways, and do the same if you take the reverse position,

Note: This should be accomplished in no more than 250 words.

Final notes:

This is an academic assignment. Always use spell check, and proofread your assignments before submitting.

· Use Third Person expression. Do not use First Person.

· Do not exceed the maximum word count for this assignment.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 1 of 2

Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Six Dimensions Assessment Assignment Instructions

Overview

As part of the EdD program, students interact with various resources that help to provide a personal assessment. One of these resources is Henry Cloud’s book, Integrity: The courage to meet the demands of reality. Students are asked to interact with the elements within the resources in an in-depth manner to reflect on the ways in which the student’s life needs to better demonstrate a commitment to living with integrity.

Instructions

Students will produce a 1,800–2,200-word personal assessment using the six essential qualities addressed by Henry Cloud in Integrity: The courage to meet the demands of reality.

The assignment must be outlined as follows:

I. Introduction that established the biblical priority of integrity for the Christian leader/education (150 – 200 words)

II. Six Dimension Personal Assessment (section heading for each one and 250 – 300 words per section)

III. Concluding thoughts that include a short list of action points for personal leadership growth (150 – 200 words)

The assessment should address each of the six character dimensions and identify specific ways that the student’s leadership currently reflects that dimension as well as ways that they could strengthen the practice of leadership as related to that dimension.

Each assessment must be between 250 – 300 words.

Formatting: The assessment must include a cover page with the title of the assignment, your name, class and date in current APA format. This must be written as a paper, not as a list of questions with answers. Make sure to include proper citations if you reference the book.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Ancient history homework help


Keithston Ferguson

1:31pmApr 6 at 1:31pm

Manage Discussion Entry

The text explains, “The ethic of justice, from either a traditional or contemporary perspective, may take into account a wide variety of issues. Viewing ethical dilemmas from this vantage point, one may ask questions related to the rule of law and the more abstract concepts of fairness, equity, and justice (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 12).

 

That stated, If Case 11.4 occurred some 50 (or even 25 years) ago. The mitigating circumstances would have been different. (Notwithstanding cells phones and passwords didn’t exist 50 years ago. However, the right to privacy and public/varying perspective of alternative lifestyles did). 

 

Accordingly, the text explains “in the 21st century, as society becomes even more demographically diverse, educators will, more than ever, need to be able to develop, foster, and lead tolerant and democratic schools” (Shapiro 3).That stated if Mr. Patel was put on paid leave the right decision was made.

It must be considered, this case resulted from Mr. Patel’s negligence. (He was irresponsible because he left his cell phone, unlocked in a classroom accessible to teenagers). Although this was a mistake, it exposed his students to compromising pictures of him and his partner. It’s almost like leaving a lit cigarette unattended around underaged children (or perhaps a loaded handgun.) Although both are legally permissible, if left in the wrong hands, the outcome could be very dangerous.

Additionally based on the facts presented it appears Mr. Patel did indeed lose control of his classroom. However, a distinction should be made between control of the students and control of the student’s opinions about Mr. Patel’s lifestyle. While it is almost impossible to control the opinions of others, it may have been possible for Mr. Patel to regain control of the class if the right steps and help were implemented. For example, corrective disciplinary measures could have been taken against the student/s who opened the phone, sharing its contents, violating Mr. Patel’s privacy.

 

Thus by taking corrective disciplinary actions, the principal may have been able to restore order by dealing with each person in this scenario who errored.

 

Lastly, this case does not appear to be a matter of safety. However, if there were some specific instances in which Mr. Wilson said or did something inappropriate with a student then it should have been reported. However, tutoring a student of the opposite or same-sex isn’t a safety violation by any means.

 

In this case, Mr. Patel did not break any laws. However, he did unwittingly (but negligently) expose his students to compromising his private life. At the same time, his students did willfully and deliberately violate the privacy of their teacher. Therefore, the ethics of justice would hold the sword of justice pointing in two directions, cutting appropriately wherever wrongdoing was done.

 

Stephanie Attanasio


Stephanie Attanasio

7:22amApr 6 at 7:22am

Manage Discussion Entry

Case Study 10.4 evaluates the topic of confidentiality between school counselors and their students and challenges readers to use a multiple paradigm approach to solve this ethical dilemma. Like any person confiding in a psychotherapist, students have the right to confidentiality. Confidentiality is a vital part of psychology’s ethical code (American Psychological Association, 2019). While the trusted relationship between patient and therapist is foundational, in some states, it is acceptable for counselors to inform parents if a child is engaging in “risky activities” (American Psychological Association, 2019).

In Case Study 10.4, Danielle Schaeffer is facing an ethical dilemma. This writer’s first question would be, does the school have any policies regarding this situation? Does the principal have a right to know? Does Schaeffer have the right to protect the student’s privacy? When it comes to working with minors, this writer believes it is always best to start with a legal basis. What is law or school policy? Are there any types of informed consent waivers signed by parents, students, or the school? Next, the writer suggests evaluating the situation through the lens of the ethic of care. Based on the context provided in Case Study 10.4, it sounds like the student is a part of a vulnerable teenage population. Schaeffer has every right to handle this situation and his hard-earned trust with care.

Question number five asks, “In what situations would it be in the students’ best interest to break their trust?” (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016). Again, referring back to the American Psychological Association, the answer is when minors are engaging in risky behaviors. This writer’s next question is: What defines risky behavior? If a student intends to harm themselves or others or someone has abused them, it is right and just for a teacher or therapist to break confidentiality; however, it is not clear if a potential teenage pregnancy is considered risky behavior or not. According to Shapiro and Stefkovich (2016), “a psychologist’s primary obligation is to maintain the privacy of the client unless there is imminent danger to the client or another individual” (p. 180). Schaeffer must now determine if her value of confidentiality is worth fighting for at the risk of her job. From a biblical perspective, there is value in keeping privacy and not slandering or gossiping about anyone else. Psalm 101:5 says, “Whoever slanders their neighbor in secret, I will put to silence; whoever has haughty eyes and a proud heart, I will not tolerate” (New International Version, 1973/2011).

References

American Psychological Association. (2019, October 19). Protecting your privacy: Understanding confidentiality. https://www.apa.org/topics/ethics/confidentiality

New International Version. (2011). Biblia. https://biblia.com/bible/niv2011/psalm/101/5 (Original work published 1973).

Shapiro, J. P., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education (4th edition). Taylor & Francis.

Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Ethics Paper: Final Draft Assignment Instructions

Overview

Throughout the class, you will work on an Ethics Paper. This paper will identify an ethical issue and speak to the need for a biblical approach to the selected topic. Throughout the course, three specific assignments will focus on the Ethics Paper:

1. Ethic Paper: Proposal Assignment

2. Ethic Paper: Annotated Bibliography Assignment

3. Ethic Paper: Final Draft Assignment

Instructions

For the Ethic Paper: Final Draft Assignment, you will submit 3,000-4,000-word research paper on a topic that focuses on Christian leadership ethics. You must demonstrate strong critical reflection on the subject and accurate handling of the biblical text.

· The paper must identify a specific ethical issue that is addressed within the work.

· The paper must be aimed in the direction of producing a biblical theology of the topic chosen.

· You must use at least 20 literature citations within the paper (you must additionally cite at least 2 key biblical texts with accurate exegesis along with applicable principles) and the reference list must include at least 15 sources, including peer reviewed journal articles, scholarly commentaries, and other strong resources. The 15 sources must be in addition to the course textbooks.

· The paper must be 3,000–4,000 words and formatted closely according to current APA format.

· Make sure that your writing demonstrates strong critical reflection on the subject and accurate handling of the biblical text.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Ancient history homework help

CLED 815

Reflection on Course Assignment Instructions

Overview

At the end of the course, it is important to think about the changes, the interactions, readings, presentations, and assignments have had on your development as a student and as a person. This assignment is designed to assist in your overall assessment of the course, and in your overall development as a leader.

Instructions

You will write a 1,000-word reflection essay in current APA format. The essay will answer the question:

“How has this course shaped your thinking in the following areas related to leadership and cultural contextualization:

1) personal and professional integrity,

2) leadership ethics for the Christian leader/educator, and

3) influence of ethics on decision-making?”

Suggested outline of reflection essay:

1. Introduction – 125 words

2. Personal & Professional Integrity – 250 words

3. Leadership Ethics for the Christina Leader/Educator – 250 words

4. Influence of Ethics on Decision-Making – 250 words

5. Conclusion – 125 words

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Ancient history homework help

CLED 780

Management and Leadership Paper Assignment Instructions

Overview

You are to prepare a research paper on the difference between leadership and management and between leaders and managers.

Although leadership and management are essential processes, they are distinct from one another. We learned that both are needed and must function together in any organization that is seeking to implement change. Likewise, when it comes to people, leaders are not the same as managers. They differ in their roles, values, risk tolerance, orientations toward change, and their contributions to the team.

Your paper is to discuss, and where appropriate, illustrate these distinctions. You should also consider how these processes and people interact in the achievement of the organization’s mission.

Finally, you are to personally apply this information in the form of a self-reflective section of your paper written in the first person. Your paper must be 1,250–1,750 words in length, meet APA style standards for professional papers, and include a minimum of 7 scholarly citations.

Instructions

Your paper must include the following headings. Develop appropriate subheadings where needed.

· Defining Leadership and Management

In this section, define and differentiate leadership and management as organizational processes. You are to distinguish between these processes and discuss their relationship to one another. Provide citations to support your assertions.

· Comparing Leaders and Managers

In this section, define and differentiate leaders and managers as from one another with regards to their thinking, roles, values, contributions, and attitude toward risk of both the leader and manager orientations.

· Biblical Examples

In this section, identify biblical examples of leadership and management and leaders and managers. Your examples should be used to illustrate these process and people distinctions and their relationship to one another.

· Personal Application

In this section, apply the concepts of your paper to yourself. This section is to be self-reflective, written in the first person, and consider the following questions.

(1) Do I think and function as more of a manager or leader?

(2) What can I do to grow as a manager?

(3) What can I do to improve as a leader?

Your paper must meet the following standards (see rubric) to an
Advanced
level paper.

· Your paper must be 1,250–1,750 words in length.

· Your paper must meet the current APA style requirements. Your paper must follow the “Professional” style template. This includes the title page, abstract, and reference page. The title page, abstract, and references are not included in the required word count.

· Your paper must include a minimum of 7 scholarly citations. This 7-citation standard does not include course textbooks, the Bible, or Bible commentaries. You may use them in preparing your paper and should cite them appropriately, but they do not count toward your seven citations.

· Your paper must be written in a formal academic style, including when responding to questions related to yourself as the writer. When responding to those questions, you should refer to yourself with phrases like “this writer…” or “this researcher…” or “the author of this paper.” This style may seem odd to you, but that is the accepted style of writing for your dissertation. By getting in that mode for all submissions, you will likely have fewer issues later when you write your prospectus and dissertation. Note that this is an exception to the APA style guide.

· Where expressly stated as an exception, you are to write in the first person.

· Your paper must be well-written, have a logical flow, and demonstrate exceptional care in aligning the submitted work with the assignment instructions.

· Your paper must be free of errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 2 of 2

Ancient history homework help


Leadership

Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?

by 

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Abraham Zaleznik

From the Magazine (January 2004)

Summary.   Reprint: R0401G Managers and leaders are two very different types of people. Managers’ goals arise out of necessities rather than desires; they excel at defusing conflicts between individuals or departments, placating all sides while ensuring that an…more

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The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion—which drive corporate success.

The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly—sometimes before they fully understand a problem’s significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure in order to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.

What is the ideal way to develop leadership? Every society provides its own answer to this question, and each, in groping for answers, defines its deepest concerns about the purposes, distributions, and uses of power. Business has contributed its answer to the leadership question by evolving a new breed called the manager. Simultaneously, business has established a new power ethic that favors collective over individual leadership, the cult of the group over that of personality. While ensuring the competence, control, and the balance of power among groups with the potential for rivalry, managerial leadership unfortunately does not necessarily ensure imagination, creativity, or ethical behavior in guiding the destinies of corporate enterprises.

Leadership inevitably requires using power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people. Power in the hands of an individual entails human risks: first, the risk of equating power with the ability to get immediate results; second, the risk of ignoring the many different ways people can legitimately accumulate power; and third, the risk of losing self-control in the desire for power. The need to hedge these risks accounts in part for the development of collective leadership and the managerial ethic. Consequently, an inherent conservatism dominates the culture of large organizations. In The Second American Revolution, John D. Rockefeller III describes the conservatism of organizations:

“An organization is a system, with a logic of its own, and all the weight of tradition and inertia. The deck is stacked in favor of the tried and proven way of doing things and against the taking of risks and striking out in new directions.”1

Out of this conservatism and inertia, organizations provide succession to power through the development of managers rather than individual leaders. Ironically, this ethic fosters a bureaucratic culture in business, supposedly the last bastion protecting us from the encroachments and controls of bureaucracy in government and education.

Manager vs. Leader Personality

A managerial culture emphasizes rationality and control. Whether his or her energies are directed toward goals, resources, organization structures, or people, a manager is a problem solver. The manager asks: “What problems have to be solved, and what are the best ways to achieve results so that people will continue to contribute to this organization?” From this perspective, leadership is simply a practical effort to direct affairs; and to fulfill his or her task, a manager requires that many people operate efficiently at different levels of status and responsibility. It takes neither genius nor heroism to be a manager, but rather persistence, tough-mindedness, hard work, intelligence, analytical ability, and perhaps most important, tolerance and goodwill.

Another conception of leadership, however, attaches almost mystical beliefs to what a leader is and assumes that only great people are worthy of the drama of power and politics. Here leadership is a psychodrama in which a brilliant, lonely person must gain control of himself or herself as a precondition for controlling others. Such an expectation of leadership contrasts sharply with the mundane, practical, and yet important conception that leadership is really managing work that other people do.

Three questions come to mind. Is this leadership mystique merely a holdover from our childhood—from a sense of dependency and a longing for good and heroic parents? Or is it true that no matter how competent managers are, their leadership stagnates because of their limitations in visualizing purposes and generating value in work? Driven by narrow purposes, without an imaginative capacity and the ability to communicate, do managers then perpetuate group conflicts instead of reforming them into broader desires and goals?

If indeed problems demand greatness, then judging by past performance, the selection and development of leaders leave a great deal to chance. There are no known ways to train “great” leaders. Further, beyond what we leave to chance, there is a deeperin the relationship between the need for competent managers and the longing for great leaders.

What it takes to ensure a supply of people who will assume practical responsibility may inhibit the development of great leaders. On the other hand, the presence of great leaders may undermine the development of managers who typically become very anxious in the relative disorder that leaders seem to generate.

It is easy enough to dismiss the dilemma of training managers, though we may need new leaders or leaders at the expense of managers, by saying that the need is for people who can be both. But just as a managerial culture differs from the entrepreneurial culture that develops when leaders appear in organizations, managers and leaders are very different kinds of people. They differ in motivation, personal history, and in how they think and act.

Attitudes Toward Goals

Managers tend to adopt impersonal, if not passive, attitudes toward goals. Managerial goals arise out of necessities rather than desires and, therefore, are deeply embedded in their organization’s history and culture.

Frederic G. Donner, chairman and chief executive officer of General Motors from 1958 to 1967, expressed this kind of attitude toward goals in defining GM’s position on product development:

“To meet the challenge of the marketplace, we must recognize changes in customer needs and desires far enough ahead to have the right products in the right places at the right time and in the right quantity.

“We must balance trends in preference against the many compromises that are necessary to make a final product that is both reliable and good looking, that performs well and that sells at a competitive price in the necessary volume. We must design not just the cars we would like to build but, more important, the cars that our customers want to buy.”2

Nowhere in this statement is there a notion that consumer tastes and preferences arise in part as a result of what manufacturers do. In reality, through product design, advertising, and promotion, consumers learn to like what they then say they need. Few would argue that people who enjoy taking snapshots need a camera that also develops pictures. But in response to a need for novelty, convenience, and a shorter interval between acting (snapping the picture) and gaining pleasure (seeing the shot), the Polaroid camera succeeded in the marketplace. It is inconceivable that Edwin Land responded to impressions of consumer need. Instead, he translated a technology (polarization of light) into a product, which proliferated and stimulated consumers’ desires.

The example of Polaroid and Land suggests how leaders think about goals. They are active instead of reactive, shaping ideas instead of responding to them. Leaders adopt a personal and active attitude toward goals. The influence a leader exerts in altering moods, evoking images and expectations, and in establishing specific desires and objectives determines the direction a business takes. The net result of this influence changes the way people think about what is desirable, possible, and necessary.

Conceptions of Work

Managers tend to view work as an enabling process involving some combination of people and ideas interacting to establish strategies and make decisions. They help the process along by calculating the interests in opposition, planning when controversial issues should surface, and reducing tensions. In this enabling process, managers’ tactics appear flexible: on one hand, they negotiate and bargain; on the other, they use rewards, punishments, and other forms of coercion.

Alfred P. Sloan’s actions at General Motors illustrate how this process works in situations of conflict. The time was the early 1920s when Ford Motor Company still dominated the automobile industry using, as did General Motors, the conventional water-cooled engine. With the full backing of Pierre du Pont, Charles Kettering dedicated himself to the design of an air-cooled copper engine, which, if successful, would be a great technical and marketing coup for GM. Kettering believed in his product, but the manufacturing division heads opposed the new design on two grounds: first, it was technically unreliable, and second, the corporation was putting all its eggs in one basket by investing in a new product instead of attending to the current marketing situation.

In the summer of 1923, after a series of false starts and after its decision to recall the copper engine Chevrolets from dealers and customers, GM management scrapped the project. When it dawned on Kettering that the company had rejected the engine, he was deeply discouraged and wrote to Sloan that, without the “organized resistance” against the project, it would have succeeded and that, unless the project were saved, he would leave the company.

Alfred Sloan was all too aware that Kettering was unhappy and indeed intended to leave General Motors. Sloan was also aware that, while the manufacturing divisions strongly opposed the new engine, Pierre du Pont supported Kettering. Further, Sloan had himself gone on record in a letter to Kettering less than two years earlier expressing full confidence in him. The problem Sloan had was how to make his decision stick, keep Kettering in the organization (he was much too valuable to lose), avoid alienating du Pont, and encourage the division heads to continue developing product lines using conventional water-cooled engines.

Sloan’s actions in the face of this conflict reveal much about how managers work. First, he tried to reassure Kettering by presenting the problem in a very ambiguous fashion, suggesting that he and the executive committee sided with Kettering, but that it would not be practical to force the divisions to do what they were opposed to. He presented the problem as being a question of the people, not the product. Second, he proposed to reorganize around the problem by consolidating all functions in a new division that would be responsible for the design, production, and marketing of the new engine. This solution appeared as ambiguous as his efforts to placate Kettering. Sloan wrote: “My plan was to create an independent pilot operation under the sole jurisdiction of Mr. Kettering, a kind of copper-cooled car division. Mr. Kettering would designate his own chief engineer and his production staff to solve the technical problems of manufacture.”3

Sloan did not discuss the practical value of this solution, which included saddling an inventor with management responsibility, but in effect, he used this plan to limit his conflict with Pierre du Pont.

Essentially, the managerial solution that Sloan arranged limited the options available to others. The structural solution narrowed choices, even limiting emotional reactions to the point where the key people could do nothing but go along. It allowed Sloan to say in his memorandum to du Pont, “We have discussed the matter with Mr. Kettering at some length this morning, and he agrees with us absolutely on every point we made. He appears to receive the suggestion enthusiastically and has every confidence that it can be put across along these lines.”4

Sloan placated people who opposed his views by developing a structural solution that appeared to give something but in reality only limited options. He could then authorize the car division’s general manager, with whom he basically agreed, to move quickly in designing water-cooled cars for the immediate market demand.

Years later, Sloan wrote, evidently with tongue in cheek, “The copper-cooled car never came up again in a big way. It just died out; I don’t know why.”5

To get people to accept solutions to problems, managers continually need to coordinate and balance opposing views. Interestingly enough, this type of work has much in common with what diplomats and mediators do, with Henry Kissinger apparently an outstanding practitioner. Managers aim to shift balances of power toward solutions acceptable as compromises among conflicting values.

Leaders work in the opposite direction. Where managers act to limit choices, leaders develop fresh approaches to long-standing problems and open issues to new options. To be effective, leaders must project their ideas onto images that excite people and only then develop choices that give those images substance.

John F. Kennedy’s brief presidency shows both the strengths and weaknesses connected with the excitement leaders generate in their work. In his inaugural address he said, “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”

Is the leadership mystique merely a holdover from our childhood—from a sense of dependency and a longing for good and heroic parents?

This much-quoted statement forced people to react beyond immediate concerns and to identify with Kennedy and with important shared ideals. On closer scrutiny, however, the statement is absurd because it promises a position, which, if adopted, as in the Vietnam War, could produce disastrous results. Yet unless expectations are aroused and mobilized, with all the dangers of frustration inherent in heightened desire, new thinking and new choice can never come to light.

Leaders work from high-risk positions; indeed, they are often temperamentally disposed to seek out risk and danger, especially where the chance of opportunity and reward appears promising. From my observations, the reason one individual seeks risks while another approaches problems conservatively depends more on his or her personality and less on conscious choice. For those who become managers, a survival instinct dominates the need for risk, and with that instinct comes an ability to tolerate mundane, practical work. Leaders sometimes react to mundane work as to an affliction.

Relations with Others

Managers prefer to work with people; they avoid solitary activity because it makes them anxious. Several years ago, I directed studies on the psychological aspects of careers. The need to seek out others with whom to work and collaborate seemed to stand out as an important characteristic of managers. When asked, for example, to write imaginative stories in response to a picture showing a single figure (a boy contemplating a violin or a man silhouetted in a state of reflection), managers populated their stories with people. The following is an example of a manager’s imaginative story about the young boy contemplating a violin:

“Mom and Dad insisted that their son take music lessons so that someday he can become a concert musician. His instrument was ordered and had just arrived. The boy is weighing the alternatives of playing football with the other kids or playing with the squeak box. He can’t understand how his parents could think a violin is better than a touchdown.

“After four months of practicing the violin, the boy has had more than enough, Dad is going out of his mind, and Mom is willing to give in reluctantly to their wishes. Football season is now over, but a good third baseman will take the field next spring.”

This story illustrates two themes that clarify managerial attitudes toward human relations. The first, as I have suggested, is to seek out activity with other people (that is, the football team), and the second is to maintain a low level of emotional involvement in those relationships. Low emotional involvement appears in the writer’s use of conventional metaphors, even clichés, and in the depiction of the ready transformation of potential conflict into harmonious decisions. In this case, the boy, Mom, and Dad agree to give up the violin for sports.

These two themes may seem paradoxical, but their coexistence supports what a manager does, including reconciling differences, seeking compromises, and establishing a balance of power. The story further demonstrates that managers may lack empathy, or the capacity to sense intuitively the thoughts and feelings of others. Consider another story written to the same stimulus picture by someone thought of as a leader by his peers:

“This little boy has the appearance of being a sincere artist, one who is deeply affected by the violin, and has an intense desire to master the instrument.

“He seems to have just completed his normal practice session and appears to be somewhat crestfallen at his inability to produce the sounds that he is sure lie within the violin.

“He appears to be in the process of making a vow to himself to expend the necessary time and effort to play this instrument until he satisfies himself that he is able to bring forth the qualities of music that he feels within himself.

“With this type of determination and carry- through, this boy became one of the great violinists of his day.”

Empathy is not simply a matter of paying attention to other people. It is also the capacity to take in emotional signals and make them meaningful in a relationship. People who describe another person as “deeply affected,” with “intense desire,” “crestfallen,” and as one who can “vow to himself” would seem to have an inner perceptiveness that they can use in their relationships with others.

Managers relate to people according to the role they play in a sequence of events or in a decision-making process, while leaders, who are concerned with ideas, relate in more intuitive and empathetic ways. The distinction is simply between a manager’s attention to how things get done and a leader’s to what the events and decisions mean to participants.

In recent years, managers have adopted from game theory the notion that decision-making events can be one of two types: the win-lose situation (or zero-sum game) or the win-win situation in which everybody in the action comes out ahead. Managers strive to convert win-lose into win-win situations as part of the process of reconciling differences among people and maintaining balances of power.

For those who become managers, a survival instinct dominates the need for risk, and with that instinct comes an ability to tolerate mundane, practical work.

As an illustration, take the decision of how to allocate capital resources among operating divisions in a large, decentralized organization. On the surface, the dollars available for distribution are limited at any given time. Presumably, therefore, the more one division gets, the less is available for other divisions.

Managers tend to view this situation (as it affects human relations) as a conversion issue: how to make what seems like a win-lose problem into a win-win problem. From that perspective, several solutions come to mind. First, the manager focuses others’ attention on procedure and not on substance. Here the players become engrossed in the bigger problem of how to make decisions, not what decisions to make. Once committed to the bigger problem, these people have to support the outcome since they were involved in formulating the decision-making rules. Because they believe in the rules they formulated, they will accept present losses, believing that next time they will win.

Second, the manager communicates to subordinates indirectly, using “signals” instead of “messages.” A signal holds a number of implicit positions, while a message clearly states a position. Signals are inconclusive and subject to reinterpretation should people become upset and angry; messages involve the direct consequence that some people will indeed not like what they hear. The nature of messages heightens emotional response and makes managers anxious. With signals, the question of who wins and who loses often becomes obscured.

Third, the manager plays for time. Managers seem to recognize that with the passage of time and the delay of major decisions, compromises emerge that take the sting out of win-lose situations, and the original “game” will be superseded by additional situations. Compromises mean that one may win and lose simultaneously, depending on which of the games one evaluates.

There are undoubtedly many other tactical moves managers use to change human situations from win-lose to win-win. But the point is that such tactics focus on the decision-making process itself, and that process interests managers rather than leaders. Tactical interests involve costs as well as benefits; they make organizations fatter in bureaucratic and political intrigue and leaner in direct, hard activity and warm human relationships. Consequently, one often hears subordinates characterize managers as inscrutable, detached, and manipulative. These adjectives arise from the subordinates’ perception that they are linked together in a process whose purpose is to maintain a controlled as well as rational and equitable structure.

In contrast, one often hears leaders referred to with adjectives rich in emotional content. Leaders attract strong feelings of identity and difference or of love and hate. Human relations in leader-dominated structures often appear turbulent, intense, and at times even disorganized. Such an atmosphere intensifies individual motivation and often produces unanticipated outcomes.

Senses of Self

In The Varieties of Religious Experience, William James describes two basic personality types, “once-born” and “twice-born.” People of the former personality type are those for whom adjustments to life have been straightforward and whose lives have been more or less a peaceful flow since birth. Twice-borns, on the other hand, have not had an easy time of it. Their lives are marked by a continual struggle to attain some sense of order. Unlike once-borns, they cannot take things for granted. According to James, these personalities have equally different worldviews. For a once-born personality, the sense of self as a guide to conduct and attitude derives from a feeling of being at home and in harmony with one’s environment. For a twice-born, the sense of self derives from a feeling of profound separateness.

A sense of belonging or of being separate has a practical significance for the kinds of investments managers and leaders make in their careers. Managers see themselves as conservators and regulators of an existing order of affairs with which they personally identify and from which they gain rewards. A manager’s sense of self-worth is enhanced by perpetuating and strengthening existing institutions: he or she is performing in a role that harmonizes with ideals of duty and responsibility. William James had this harmony in mind—this sense of self as flowing easily to and from the outer world—in defining a once-born personality.

Leaders tend to be twice-born personalities, people who feel separate from their environment. They may work in organizations, but they never belong to them. Their sense of who they are does not depend on memberships, work roles, or other social indicators of identity. And that perception of identity may form the theoretical basis for explaining why certain individuals seek opportunities for change. The methods to bring about change may be technological, political, or ideological, but the object is the same: to profoundly alter human, economic, and political relationships.

In considering the development of leadership, we have to examine two different courses of life history: (1) development through socialization, which prepares the individual to guide institutions and to maintain the existing balance of social relations; and (2) development through personal mastery, which impels an individual to struggle for psychological and social change. Society produces its managerial talent through the first line of development; leaders emerge through the second.

Development of Leadership

Every person’s development begins with family. Each person experiences the traumas associated with separating from his or her parents, as well as the pain that follows such a wrench. In the same vein, all individuals face the difficulties of achieving self-regulation and self-control. But for some, perhaps a majority, the fortunes of childhood provide adequate gratifications and sufficient opportunities to find substitutes for rewards no longer available. Such individuals, the “once-borns,” make moderate identifications with parents and find a harmony between what they expect and what they are able to realize from life.

But suppose the pains of separation are amplified by a combination of parental demands and individual needs to the degree that a sense of isolation, of being special, or of wariness disrupts the bonds that attach children to parents and other authority figures? Given a special aptitude under such conditions, the person becomes deeply involved in his or her inner world at the expense of interest in the outer world. For such a person, self-esteem no longer depends solely on positive attachments and real rewards. A form of self-reliance takes hold along with expectations of performance and achievement, and perhaps even the desire to do great works.

Such self-perceptions can come to nothing if the individual’s talents are negligible. Even with strong talents, there are no guarantees that achievement will follow, let alone that the end result will be for good rather than evil. Other factors enter into development as well. For one, leaders are like artists and other gifted people who often struggle with neuroses; their ability to function varies considerably even over the short run, and some potential leaders lose the struggle altogether. Also, beyond early childhood, the development patterns that affect managers and leaders involve the selective influence of particular people. Managerial personalities form moderate and widely distributed attachments. Leaders, on the other hand, establish, and also break off, intensive one-to-one relationships.

It is a common observation that people with great talents are often indifferent students. No one, for example, could have predicted Einstein’s great achievements on the basis of his mediocre record in school. The reason for mediocrity is obviously not the absence of ability. It may result, instead, from self-absorption and the inability to pay attention to the ordinary tasks at hand. The only sure way an individual can interrupt reverie-like preoccupation and self-absorption is to form a deep attachment to a great teacher or other person who understands and has the ability to communicate with the gifted individual.

Whether gifted individuals find what they need in one-to-one relationships depends on the availability of teachers, possibly parental surrogates, whose strengths lie in cultivating talent. Fortunately, when generations meet and the self-selections occur, we learn more about how to develop leaders and how talented people of different generations influence each other.

While apparently destined for mediocre careers, people who form important one-to-one apprenticeship relationships often are able to accelerate and intensify their development. The psychological readiness of an individual to benefit from such a relationship depends on some experience in life that forces that person to turn inward.

Consider Dwight Eisenhower, whose early career in the army foreshadowed very little about his future development. During World War I, while some of his West Point classmates were already experiencing the war firsthand in France, Eisenhower felt “embedded in the monotony and unsought safety of the Zone of the Interior…that was intolerable punishment.”6

Shortly after World War I, Eisenhower, then a young officer somewhat pessimistic about his career chances, asked for a transfer to Panama to work under General Fox Connor, a senior officer whom he admired. The army turned down his request. This setback was very much on Eisenhower’s mind when Ikey, his first born son, succumbed to influenza. Through some sense of responsibility for its own, the army then transferred Eisenhower to Panama, where he took up his duties under General Connor with the shadow of his lost son very much upon him.

In a relationship with the kind of father he would have wanted to be, Eisenhower reverted to being the son he had lost. And in this highly charged situation, he began to learn from his teacher. General Connor offered, and Eisenhower gladly took, a magnificent tutorial on the military. The effects of this relationship on Eisenhower cannot be measured quantitatively, but in examining his career path from that point, one cannot overestimate its significance.

As Eisenhower wrote later about Connor, “Life with General Connor was a sort of graduate school in military affairs and the humanities, leavened by a man who was experienced in his knowledge of men and their conduct. I can never adequately express my gratitude to this one gentleman…. In a lifetime of association with great and good men, he is the one more or less invisible figure to whom I owe an incalculable debt.”7

Some time after his tour of duty with General Connor, Eisenhower’s breakthrough occurred. He received orders to attend the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, one of the most competitive schools in the army. It was a coveted appointment, and Eisenhower took advantage of the opportunity. Unlike his performance in high school and West Point, his work at the Command School was excellent; he was graduated first in his class.

Psychological biographies of gifted people repeatedly demonstrate the important part a teacher plays in developing an individual. Andrew Carnegie owed much to his senior, Thomas A. Scott. As head of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Scott recognized talent and the desire to learn in the young telegrapher assigned to him. By giving Carnegie increasing responsibility and by providing him with the opportunity to learn through close personal observation, Scott added to Carnegie’s self-confidence and sense of achievement. Because of his own pers

Ancient history homework help

Week one cled 780

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Read: Kotter: Chapters 1 – 2

· Watch: The Essence of LeadershipPage


Watch: The Essence of Leadership

· Watch: Qualities Of LeadershipPage


Watch: Qualities Of Leadership

· Watch: Invictus (2009) – What is your philosophy of leadership?Page


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Discussion Thread: Leaders and Managers


MANAGE DISCUSSION

This is a graded discussion: 50 points possible

due Jan 16

11 unread reply.11 reply.

Dr. Bredfeldt said that leadership involves defining reality, defining a preferred future and creating a strategy to get from current reality to a preferred future. This means change must occur and leaders are people who are able to help individuals and organizations make the required change.

· What do you believe is the best explanation of what makes a leader a leader?

· Identify a person you respect as a leader and discuss with the class the reasons you believe this person is effective as a leader.

· How would you distinguish your selected leader from a manager?

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Discussion Replies: Leaders and Managers

To-Do Date: Jan 23 at 11:59pm

Return to 
Discussion Thread: Leaders and Managers
 from Module 1: Week 1 and reply to 2 of your peers.  

Reply to the thread of at least 2 different peers. In your replies, choose 2 of the following approaches to guide your replies:

1. Reply to someone whose thinking you can add a significant contribution to.

2. Reply to someone who makes a point you do not understand and from whom you would like additional clarification.

3. Reply to someone you disagree with on a point and can challenge in a loving/considerate manner.

4. Reply to someone by making a comparison between your thoughts and his/hers.

5. Reply by asking questions and probe deeper into their ideas and responses.

Ancient history homework help

· Read: Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?

· Read: Management Is (Still) Not LeadershipExternal Url

Read: Management Is (Still) Not Leadership

· Watch: Change Management vs. Change LeadershipPage


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· Watch: Change Management vs. Change Leadership — What’s the Difference?Page


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· Watch: Top 10 Differences Between Managers and LeadersPage


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· Watch: Styles of Strategic LeadershipPage


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Leadership

Management Is (Still) Not Leadership

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John P. Kotter

January 09, 2013

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A few weeks ago, the BBC asked me to come in for a 
radio interview
. They told me they wanted to talk about effective leadership — China had just elevated Xi Jinping to the role of Communist Party leader; General David Petraeus had stepped down from his post at the CIA a few days earlier; the BBC itself was wading through a leadership scandal of its own — but the conversation quickly veered, as these things often do, into a discussion about how individuals can keep large, complex, unwieldy organizations operating reliably and efficiently.

That’s not leadership, I explained. That’s management — and the two are radically different.

In more than four decades of studying businesses and consulting to organizations on how to implement new strategies, I can’t tell you how many times I’ve heard people use the words 
“leadership” and “management”
 synonymously, and it drives me crazy every time.

The interview reminded me once again that the confusion around these two terms is massive, and that misunderstanding gets in the way of any reasonable discussion about how to build a company, position it for success and win in the twenty-first century. The mistakes people make on theare threefold:

Mistake #1: People use the terms “management” and “leadership” interchangeably. This shows that they don’t see the crucial difference between the two and the vital functions that each role plays.

Mistake #2: People use the term “leadership” to refer to the people at the very top of hierarchies. They then call the people in the layers below them in the organization “management.” And then all the rest are workers, specialists, and individual contributors. This is also a mistake and very misleading.

Mistake #3: People often think of “leadership” in terms of personality characteristics, usually as something they call charisma. Since few people have great charisma, this leads logically to the conclusion that few people can provide leadership, which gets us into increasing trouble.

In fact, management is a set of well-known processes, like planning, budgeting, structuring jobs, staffing jobs, measuring performance and problem-solving, which help an organization to predictably do what it knows how to do well. Management helps you to produce products and services as you have promised, of consistent quality, on budget, day after day, week after week. In organizations of any size and complexity, this is an enormously difficult task. We constantly underestimate how complex this task really is, especially if we are not in senior management jobs. So, management is crucial — but it’s not leadership.

Leadership is entirely different. It is associated with taking an organization into the future, finding opportunities that are coming at it faster and faster and successfully exploiting those opportunities. Leadership is about vision, about people buying in, about empowerment and, most of all, about producing useful change. Leadership is not about attributes, it’s about behavior. And in an ever-faster-moving world, leadership is increasingly needed from more and more people, no matter where they are in a hierarchy. The notion that a few extraordinary people at the top can provide all the leadership needed today is ridiculous, and it’s a recipe for failure.

Some people still argue that we must replace management with leadership. This is obviously not so: they serve different, yet essential, functions. We need superb management. And we need more superb leadership. We need to be able to make our complex organizations reliable and efficient. We need them to jump into the future — the right future — at an accelerated pace, no matter the size of the changes required to make that happen.

There are very, very few organizations today that have sufficient leadership. Until we face this issue, understanding exactly what the problem is, we’re never going to solve it. Unless we recognize that we’re not talking about management when we speak of leadership, all we will try to do when we do need more leadership is work harder to manage. At a certain point, we end up with over-managed and under-led organizations, which are increasingly vulnerable in a fast-moving world.

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