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American history homework help

1. Franklin Roosevelt, “First Inaugural Address” (1933)

Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our natural resources.

Hand in hand with this we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and, by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution, endeavor to provide a better use of the land for those best fitted for the land. The task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the values of agricultural products and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that the Federal, State, and local governments act forthwith on the demand that their cost be drastically reduced. It can be helped by the unifying of relief activities which today are often scattered, uneconomical, and unequal. It can be helped by national planning for and supervision of all forms of transportation and of communications and other utilities which have a definitely public character. There are many ways in which it can be helped, but it can never be helped merely by talking about it. We must act and act quickly.

Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order: there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments, so that there will be an end to speculation with other people’s money; and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency.

Source: Franklin Roosevelt, “First Inaugural Address.” March 4, 1933.

2. Franklin Roosevelt, “Statement on Signing the Social Security Act” (1935)

Today a hope of many years’ standing is in large part fulfilled. The civilization of the past hundred years, with its startling industrial changes, has tended more and more to make life insecure. Young people have come to wonder what would be their lot when they came to old age. The man with a job has wondered how long the job would last.

This social security measure gives at least some protection to thirty millions of our citizens who will reap direct benefits through unemployment compensation, through old-age pensions and through increased services for the protection of children and the prevention of ill health.

We can never insure one hundred percent of the population against one hundred percent of the hazards and vicissitudes of life, but we have tried to frame a law which will give some measure of protection to the average citizen and to his family against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age.

This law, too, represents a cornerstone in a structure which is being built but is by no means complete. It is a structure intended to lessen the force of possible future depressions. It will act as a protection to future Administrations against the necessity of going deeply into debt to furnish relief to the needy. The law will flatten out the peaks and valleys of deflation and of inflation. It is, in short, a law that will take care of human needs and at the same time provide for the United States an economic structure of vastly greater soundness.

Source: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Statement on Signing the Social Security Act. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/209017

3. Franklin Roosevelt, “Re-Nomination Acceptance Speech” (1936)

That very word freedom, in itself and of necessity, suggests freedom from some restraining power. In 1776 we sought freedom from the tyranny of a political autocracy—from the eighteenth century royalists who held special privileges from the crown….And so it was to win freedom from the tyranny of political autocracy that the American Revolution was fought. That victory gave the business of governing into the hands of the average man, who won the right with his neighbors to make and order his own destiny through his own Government. Political tyranny was wiped out at Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.

Since that struggle, however, man’s inventive genius released new forces in our land which reordered the lives of our people. The age of machinery, of railroads; of steam and electricity; the telegraph and the radio; mass production, mass distribution….

…[O]ut of this modern civilization economic royalists carved new dynasties…built upon concentration of control over material things. Through new uses of corporations, banks and securities, new machinery of industry and agriculture, of labor and capital—all undreamed of by the fathers—the whole structure of modern life was impressed into this royal service….

…[T]he privileged princes of these new economic dynasties, thirsting for power, reached out for control over Government itself….

A small group had concentrated into their own hands an almost complete control over other people’s property, other people’s money, other people’s labor—other people’s lives….

Against economic tyranny such as this, the American citizen could appeal only to the organized power of Government. The collapse of 1929 showed up the despotism for what it was. The election of 1932 was the people’s mandate to end it. Under that mandate it is being ended.…

Today we stand committed to the proposition that freedom is no half-and-half affair. If the average citizen is guaranteed equal opportunity in the polling place, he must have equal opportunity in the market place.

These economic royalists complain that we seek to overthrow the institutions of America. What they really complain of is that we seek to take away their power. Our allegiance to American institutions requires the overthrow of this kind of power. In vain they seek to hide behind the Flag and the Constitution. In their blindness they forget what the Flag and the Constitution stand for. Now, as always, they stand for democracy, not tyranny; for freedom, not subjection; and against a dictatorship by mob rule and the over-privileged alike.

Source: Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Acceptance Speech for the Re-Nomination for the Presidency,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 27, 1936.

4. Franklin Roosevelt, “Second Inaugural Address” (1937)

Our progress out of the depression is obvious…. By using the new materials of social justice we have undertaken to erect on the old foundations a more enduring structure for the better use of future generations.

…We have always known that heedless self-interest was bad morals; we know now that it is bad economics. …

We are beginning to abandon our tolerance of the abuse of power by those who betray for profit the elementary decencies of life.…

True, we have come far from the days of stagnation and despair. Vitality has been preserved. Courage and confidence have been restored. Mental and moral horizons have been extended.…

But here is the challenge to our democracy: In this nation I see tens of millions of its citizens–a substantial part of its whole population–who at this very moment are denied the greater part of what the very lowest standards of today call the necessities of life.

I see millions of families trying to live on incomes so meager that the pall of family disaster hangs over them day by day.

I see millions whose daily lives in city and on farm continue under conditions labeled indecent by a so-called polite society half a century ago.

I see millions denied education, recreation, and the opportunity to better their lot and the lot of their children.

I see millions lacking the means to buy the products of farm and factory and by their poverty denying work and productiveness to many other millions.

I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished.

It is not in despair that I paint you that picture. I paint it for you in hope–because the Nation, seeing and understanding the injustice in it, proposes to paint it out. We are determined to make every American citizen the subject of his country’s interest and concern; and we will never regard any faithful law-abiding group within our borders as superfluous. The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.…

In our personal ambitions we are individualists. But in our seeking for economic and political progress as a nation, we all go up, or else we all go down, as one people.

Source: Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Second Inaugural Address,” January 20, 1937.

5. Xavier Gonzalez, “Tennessee Valley Authority,” Huntsville, Alabama (1937)

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Source: https://flic.kr/p/pdmPRz

6. Gavin Wright, “Number of Persons Employed by WPA, in 1936-1941”

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Source: Wright, Gavin. “The Political Economy of New Deal Spending: An Econometric Analysis.” The Review of Economics and Statistics  56, no. 1 (1974): 30-38. doi:10.2307/1927524.

7. U.S. Union Membership as a Share of Non-agricultural Employment (1900-2000)

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American history homework help

Omolo Page 2

Music research paper format I need done.

Topic: The effect of commercialism on Hip Hop music

Genre: East Coast Hip Hop from 1980-1990

What to include: How does the repertoire I have chosen relates to issues of race, class, gender, sexuality, or other definers of identity? Bear in mind that while lyrics and performance are important, you must address musical issues as well. Last include example/music list and authors that excelled in east Coast Hip Hop from 1980-1990

Reference please note that you are not limited to below scholarly listed below. This is bare minimum.

Chang, J., & Watkins, S. C. (2007, Nov). IT’S A Hip-Hop World. Foreign Policy, , 58-65. 

https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/magazines/hip-hop-world/docview/224039319/se-2?accountid=4870

Frazier, D. (2008). Cuban Hip-Hop: The Promoted and Commercial Revolution1. Wadabagei : A Journal of the Caribbean and its Diaspora, 11(2), 65-94. 

https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/scholarly-journals/cuban-hip-hop-promoted-commercial-revolution1/docview/200346498/se-2?accountid=4870

Morgan, M., & Bennett, D. (2011). Hip-Hop & the Global Imprint of a Black Cultural Form. Daedalus, 140(2), 176-196. 

https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/scholarly-journals/hip-hop-amp-global-imprint-black-cultural-form/docview/863454024/se-2?accountid=4870

American history homework help

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4A: Completing the Revolution

In some ways, the Civil War completed the American Revolution. The ideals boldly proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence, that “all men are created equal”, were now being somewhat realized. The reality was that at the end of Reconstruction the United States was still, in fact, an “unfinished nation,” and that it will be the Civil Rights era and its accomplishments that completed the revolution.

INSTRUCTIONS

In order to prepare you must complete the following readings:

· Review and identify relevant sections of Chapters 29.

· Review and identify relevant sections of chapters that have been covered throughout the semester.

· Utilize at least one of the linked sources provided in this assignment to support your discussion.

· Identify and incorporate at least one additional outside source to support your discussion. In addition to the textbook, you may use any material outside of the textbook that is recommended in the Additional Reading section at the end of each chapter. You are also encouraged to do your own research and identify relevant sources. Please keep in mind that WIKIPEDIA is not an acceptable reference.

Additional Sources:

· Review the 
PBS Program: The Civil Rights Era link.

· Review the PBS Program: 
Eyes On The Prize (Part 1): Awakenings 1954-1956 America’s Civil Rights Movement.

· Review the PBS Program: 
The History of the Women’s Rights Movement
.

· Review the 
Digital History Site: Native American Voices-Relevant Parts 5 and 6 links.

·
Latino in America-CNN
: CNN’s Soledad O’Brien explores how Latinos are reshaping our communities and culture

·
Latino Americans: PBS Documentary

· CNN special on 
Historic court rulings on Gay Rights Ruling

PREPARE AND SUBMIT:

Write a well-organized essay, a minimum of 700 words (but not limited to), including supporting details from the documents/textbook/other sources in which you analyze and discuss the material that has been assigned by addressing the following question:

Discuss in what ways the United States was an “unfinished nation,” and how the accomplishments of the Civil Rights era completed the process. In your opinion, is the United States currently a “finished nation” or is there still “unfinished business” that needs to be addressed?

American history homework help

www.influencefilmclub.com

FILM SUMMARY

At the time of his passing in 1987, James Baldwin left behind just 30 pages of an unfinished book project
titled “Remember This House.” It was to be a personal account of the rise and fall of fellow civil rights icons
Martin Luther King Jr., Medgar Evers, and Malcolm X, each of whom he had come to know personally before
their assassinations. Picking up where Baldwin left off, director Raoul Peck attempts to weave together these
remaining loose narrative threads using only Baldwin’s words, via startlingly clairvoyant video clips of Baldwin in
interviews or lectures, and earthily interpreted readings of Baldwin’s texts by Samuel L. Jackson. The result is an
interpretive essayistic documentary that surveys how the civil rights movement and America’s failures to wholly
embrace it are still frightenly relevant and continue to shape our current times.

James Baldwin has long been an eloquent voice on race relations and the African-American experience,
appearing in panel discussions alongside his more well-known contemporaries throughout the 1960s while
publishing novels, essays, and scripts for the stage until his death in the 1980s. He also wrote a considerable
amount of film criticism, culling from his memories of watching Doris Day and Gary Cooper or the films of Harry
Belafonte and Sidney Poitier to analyze the inequalities depicted and perpetuated in racial representations on
screen. Pulling from Baldwin’s writings, as well as the clips from the movies he wrote about, Peck gives Baldwin
his big-screen due with crystalline lucidity and a deeply emotional sense of cultural purpose.

I Am Not Your Negro
Discussion Guide
Director: Raoul Peck
Year: 2016
Time: 95 min

You might know this director from:
The Young Karl Marx (2017)
Murder in Pacot (2014)
Assistance mortelle (2013)
Moloch Tropical (2009)
Sometimes in April (2005)
Lumumba (2000)
It’s Not About Love (1998)
Chère Catherine (1997)
Haiti – Silence of the Dogs (1994)
The Man on the Shore (1993)
Lumumba, The Death of a Prophet (1990)

1I Am Not Your NegroDiscussion Guide

FILM THEMES

James Baldwin once stated on national television that he was not a
“nigger,” but in fact, he was a man, and if you thought that he was indeed
a “nigger,” that meant that you needed this hateful term and you needed
to figure out why, as the future of the United States was depending on
this very fact. This core idea of racial inequality haunts the entirety of I
AM NOT YOUR NEGRO.

SOCIAL JUSTICE REMAINS TO BE SEEN
Above all else, I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO is a searing indictment of
America’s failure to rectify its shameful history of racial inequality.
Baldwin’s personal account of the civil rights movement and its trio of
outspoken icons on the vulnerable vanguard reminds us that there is
still much work to be done. As if to hammer home just how little we’ve
moved forward since the violence committed against civil rights activists
throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Peck cuts away from the disturbing
black and white archival footage to recent images of the streets of
Ferguson, Missouri, where riots broke out after the fatal 2014 shooting of
Michael Brown, an African-American man, by a white police officer.

RACIAL REPRESENTATION IN THE MEDIA
Over the course of his lengthy and productive career, Baldwin wrote
a considerable amount of cultural criticism, including many essays on
racial representation in cinema. Peck uses this fact to his advantage
throughout I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO, using film clips and Baldwin’s
impassioned writings, the film manages to show just how subtly racial
inequality was ingrained in films from the birth of the movies onwards,
and how they were perceived differently by black and white audiences all
along the way.

PEOPLE ARE NOT SO DIFFERENT
Midway through I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO, Baldwin is quoted expressing
just how different Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther King Jr.
were, but in writing about their differences he was really attempting to
express just how similar their beliefs and personal struggles actually
were. These three men gave their very lives fighting for the same exact
thing—the basic civil rights of their fellow man, no matter that they each
went about it in their own, if politically contradicting, way.

THE POWER OF WORDS
Author Ta-Nehisi Coates recently posed the question as to whether
or not James Baldwin was the greatest essayist of all time. Some
of his written work undisputedly stands among the great American
publications, and I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO takes pains to lend Baldwin’s
voice enormous gravity, having his written word read aloud by none-
other-than Samuel L. Jackson, while Baldwin himself comes across as
exceptionally eloquent when speaking publicly and on camera. The
film wholly rests upon the power of his words, as the entirety of its
construction is formed from his writings and his on camera appearances.
This is by no means a fault in the film, but its strength.

“People cling
to their hates
so stubbornly
because they
sense once hate
is gone, they will
be forced to deal
with pain.”
– James Baldwin

“A nation that
continues
year after
year to spend
more money
on military
defense than
on programs of
social uplift is
a approaching
spiritual death.”
Martin Luther King, Jr.

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2I Am Not Your NegroDiscussion Guide

FURTHER DISCUSSIONS:

1. How did you first react to the film upon watching it?

2. Were you familiar with James Baldwin’s literary work or civil rights
activism before watching I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO? If so, how?

3. Though I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO takes up the task of adapting
Baldwin’s unfinished work about his fellow civil rights icons, the film
seems to center on Baldwin himself, as if it is a memior. Did this
delicate balance of subject matter work for you?

4. I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO is an unapologetic and direct title. How did

you react when you first heard the film’s title. Why?

5. Many of Baldwin’s written works, overtly explore gay and bisexual
themes, though I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO completely skirts the fact
that Baldwin himself was a homosexual. Did you take issue with this
fact? Why do you think the filmmaker chose to do this?

6. Within the film, Baldwin’s written word is read and embodied by the

actor Samuel L. Jackson, whose interpretation sounds nothing like
Baldwin himself. How did you feel about this juxtaposition?

7. Of the three men—Medgar Evers, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm
X—about whom Baldwin writes, which did you learn about most? Did
you already know a lot about one or more of these men? If so, did
you learn anything new from the film?

8. In comparing archival footage from the 1950s and 1960s with
footage of police violence shot contemporary with the film’s release
some 60 years later, director Raoul Peck seems to argue that the
quality of life for most African Americans has not increased much
since the dawn of the civil rights movement. How do you feel about
this?

9. Structurally, I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO is an essay film, moving
between archival footage, interviews, and readings of Baldwin’s
writings. Since Baldwin is known as one of America’s greatest
essayists, did you feel this was an appropriate cinematic tribute to
him?

10. What was your greatest takeaway from the film?

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NOTES:

3I Am Not Your NegroDiscussion Guide

FILM FACTS:

WAYS TO INFLUENCE

1. Read James Baldwin’s written works, from his monumental essays like “The Fire Next Time,” to his novels “Go
Tell It on the Mountain.”

2. Join a local social justice organization to help build strong, diverse, sustainable communities.

3. Know your civil rights movement history. There are countless fiction films, documentaries, and books on the
subject that are deserving of your attention.

4. Spread the word on Twitter and Facebook. #BeTheChange you want to see in the world. #IAmNotYourNegro
is now available on VOD and Blu-ray/DVD!

www.influencefilmclub.com

• I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO had its world premiere
at the Toronto International Film Festival on
September 10, 2016, winning the People’s
Choice Award. It went on to screen as part of
the New York Film Festival, AFI Fest, the Berlin
International Film Festival, CPH:DOX, and many
other prestigious festivals the world over.

• The film was nominated for an Oscar for
Best Documentary Feature, but lost to Ezra
Edelman’s 8-hour epic “O.J.: Made In America.”
However, I AM NOT YOUR NEGRO was awarded
the Creative Recognition Award by the
International Documentary Association, as well
as the Amnesty International Award from the
Thessaloniki Documentary Film Festival, the
Gilda Vieira de Mello Award from the Human
Rights Watch Film Festival, and the Panorama
Audience Award from the Berlin International
Film Festival.

• The three subjects of Baldwin’s unfinished
work “Remember This House” were civil rights
activists Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, and Martin
Luther King Jr., each of whom was assassinated.
Evers was killed on June 12, 1963 at his home
in Jackson, Mississippi, at age 37. Malcolm was
killed on February 21, 1965 in Manhattan, New
York, at age 39. King was killed on April 4, 1968 in
Memphis, Tennessee, at age 39.

• James Baldwin’s first novel, “Go Tell It on the
Mountain,” was published by Knopf in 1953. In
1998, the Modern Library ranked it 39th on its list
of the 100 best English-language novels of the
20th century.

• Director Raoul Peck was born in Haiti in 1953.
He eventually moved to the Congo and went to
school in the United States, France, and finally,
Germany, where he earned a degree in film in
1988. From March 1996 to September 1997, he
was Haiti’s Minister of Culture.

• Following Baldwin’s death in 1987, the publishing
company McGraw-Hill sued his estate to recover
the $200,000 advance they had paid him for the
unfinished book “Remember This House,” which I
AM NOT YOUR NEGRO is based upon. The lawsuit
was eventually dropped in 1990.

• By the end of its theatrical run, I AM NOT YOUR

NEGRO had become the greatest documentary
box office hit of 2017, netting over $7 million
in ticket sales. Surpassing “Food Inc.,” the film
became the highest-grossing non-fiction release
to date for its distributor Magnolia Pictures.

4I Am Not Your NegroDiscussion Guide

www.influencefilmclub.com

We believe a good documentary
is just the beginning…

Influence Film Club is a not-for-profit dedicated to expanding audiences
for documentary films.

In a world of sound-bites, documentaries provide an opportunity
to think, understand, share, and connect with the world.

They are controversial, divisive, fascinating, unexpected, and
surprising. They can be thrillers, dramas, comedies, romance,
tear-jerkers, and horror films.

Documentaries provide the perfect topic for meaningful
conversations. If you want to talk about the things that matter
with people that matter then pick a film, invite your friends, and
watch & discuss together. It’s as easy as that.

Influence Film Club – We are the conversation after the film.

American history homework help

Alison Book E-book Page 17

Chap 11 Learning and Preparing The 1920s and 1930s

Introduction

The Great War of 1914–1918 forced several nations to reconsider their diplomatic and military traditions. Disgusted and ashamed of the death and destruction of four years of total industrialized warfare, the great powers sought ways to prevent such a war from happening again. The world had changed for the European powers, for Japan, and perhaps most dramatically for the United States. Even though the United States Senate had rejected the Treaty of Versailles and President Woodrow Wilson’s League of Nations, the United States was far from isolationist following the war. Instead of being bound by treaty to a collective security arrangement that might not be in its best interests, the United States pursued diplomatic and military policies that allowed for unilateral action while using multilateral approaches when necessary. Following this trend, the United States would be a leader in the disarmament movement of the 1920s but would also slowly increase its own military capabilities to unprecedented levels.

The war in Europe stretched American military and industrial mobilization to its organizational limits, with less-than-spectacular results. During the 1920s and 1930s, the United States would develop new strategies to improve both systems in case of another conflict. Despite having fought a war for the first time on European soil, the United States continued to see the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as its vast security moat and continued to invest heavily in capital ships. The advent of airplane technology, however, forced the United States to incorporate this power of seemingly unlimited potential into its arsenal and develop doctrine regarding its use in war. Postwar Duties

The sudden end to the war in November 1918 sped up plans for demobilizing the massive force that the United States had built mostly from scratch in 1917. The problem with disbanding such a large army was finding a rate of discharging servicemen that brought the boys home as soon as practicable but did not do undue harm to the American economy or endanger postwar occupation responsibilities. War industries also demobilized and returned to peacetime production. Because industrial mobilization had been so slow and somewhat disorganized, war industries had just approached peak production levels when the war abruptly ended. Thus, vast surpluses of equipment, weapons, ammunition, and other war materiel packed bulging warehouses at the end of the war. The War Department decided to maintain a large amount of this equipment for future use, especially for outfitting the Guard and Reserve. An unintended consequence of maintaining this circa-1918 equipment, however, was that throughout the 1920s and 1930s the military was slow to procure new, more modern weapons and other equipment.

With its demobilized force, the Army still had duties to perform. It continued to patrol the Mexican border and help quell domestic disturbances. In addition to assisting local law enforcement in restoring order in some of the violent race riots, the Army dispersed the controversial Bonus Army in Washington in the summer of 1932. Overriding President Calvin Coolidge’s earlier veto, in May 1924 Congress had passed the World War Adjusted Compensation Act to give veterans of the Great War a one-time bonus payment of up to $500 for domestic service and a maximum of $625 for serving overseas. Each qualified veteran was issued a bonus certificate that could be redeemed upon maturation in 20 years. With over 3.6 million veterans eligible to receive payments, the government had to build a trust fund of over $3.64 billion, over $53 billion in today’s dollars, to cover the disbursement. By 1931, a veteran could borrow against half of the certificate’s value, but with the Great Depression deepening each passing month, more veterans began calling for Congress to authorize early redemption of the full amount of the certificates. Figure 11.1 Members of the Bonus Army on the lawn of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., 1932.

Source: Library of Congress. The American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and other veterans’ groups added their weight to the call for early payment. By June 1932, over 17,000 veterans, their families, and other protesters had descended upon Washington, D.C., making camp in a well-organized ‘Hooverville’ on Anacostia Flats. While the House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing early payment, the Senate on June 17 defeated a similar measure. While the Bonus Army marchers had been mostly peaceful, the atmosphere grew tense. On June 28, Washington, D.C., police attempted to disperse the marchers, who resisted. Police shot several protesters, two of whom, both veterans, later died from their wounds. Based upon FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover’s fear of anarchists believed to have infiltrated the Bonus Army camp, President Herbert Hoover ordered Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur to break up the Bonus Army’s camp. MacArthur himself commanded the force of 600 troops, including a cavalry regiment commanded by Major George Patton, as it moved in on the camp with tear gas and fixed bayonets. Much of the shantytown burned to the ground, and several shoving matches between the regulars and the veterans broke out. One of MacArthur’s aides, Major Dwight Eisenhower, objected to MacArthur participating in breaking up the camp but to no avail. It was a controversial event from which the Army, and MacArthur in particular, took some time to recover. In 1936, Congress passed the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act, which authorized payment of the bonus certificates.

In a more positive development, the Army coordinated the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal work programs to ease the effects of the Great Depression. In 1933, the Army helped run more than 1,000 camps across the United States for over 250,000 young men participating in the CCC. While the Army was lukewarm to performing this duty, thousands of officers gained invaluable organizational and managerial experience in running the camps. Although the CCC did not significantly affect the economic crisis, it did pay thousands of unemployed young men a subsistence wage, complete beneficial public works projects, and give the American people a sense that the federal government was at least trying to alleviate the effects of the Great Depression. Perhaps most significantly, during World War II, men who worked for the CCC were fast-tracked to the rank of corporal and sergeant due to their experience in working with regular and reserve officers in the CCC. The Army of the United States

The American experience in the Great War convinced many in military and political circles that the military establishment needed a significant overhaul. The expansible army concept, dating back to the early nineteenth century, had not worked well in the massive mobilization effort required in 1917. Industrialized warfare required new and improved military organization. In 1920, Congress passed a new National Defense Act that radically altered the organizational structure of the Army and provided for a better-trained and better-prepared military force should war again threaten the United States.

The National Defense Act of 1920 created what it called the Army of the United States, which included a Regular Army of professionals, a civilian-based National Guard, and an Organized Reserve of both officers and enlisted personnel. The new Regular Army had an authorized strength of over 17,000 officers and 280,000 enlisted personnel—although throughout the 1920s and into the early 1930s, lack of a real security threat and then the Great Depression kept the Army at well below its authorized strength. Included in the Army were new air, chemical warfare, and finance branches.

The Army would be administered through a general staff system, much like the one that Pershing had used in commanding the American Expeditionary Force in France. The War Department would be responsible for mobilization and war planning, dividing the responsibilities between the Chief of Staff and the Secretary of War’s office. In 1921, Pershing became Chief of Staff and reorganized the General Staff into specific divisions: G-1 was for personnel; G-2 handled intelligence; G-3 trained troops and conducted operations; and G-4 organized logistics and supply. Pershing also added a War Plans Division to carry out planning functions mandated by the National Defense Act.

The new Army would be spread across nine commands, or corps, each with one regular, two National Guard, and three Reserve divisions. Also, the Army established military departments in Panama, Hawaii, and the Philippines. Because the Army was under strength, many tactical units remained skeletal, while some only existed on paper. With new mobilization plans, however, National Guard and Reserve units could quickly fill out the Army to more than two million men in a matter of just a few months. Thus, while the expansible army concept remained, it was much better organized, trained, and outfitted than it had been in the nineteenth century.

The new National Guard became a vital component of the Army of the United States, one that both addressed defense needs and reassured states that their right to maintain a militia had not been eroded by the 1917 mobilization of state guard units. The National Defense Act authorized a National Guard of over 400,000 troops, but throughout the 1920s the National Guard typically maintained only about 180,000. The massive surplus of materiel after the war made equipping Guard units quite easy. Regular Army officers trained Guard units, including 48 times a year at their respective armories and for two weeks each year in the field. Importantly, the National Defense Act required the Army staff to include Guard and Reserve officers, providing invaluable training and experience as well as input into planning and policies affecting the Guard and Organized Reserve.

The National Guard and regular Army were augmented by the Reserves, also established by the National Defense Act. The Organized Reserve did not experience the postwar prestige that came with Guard service but nonetheless provided continued training and readiness for thousands of men, mostly veterans of the Great War, who already had military training and experience. More successful was the Officers’ Reserve Corps, made up of veteran officers as well as a steady stream of newly commissioned officers. Later, in 1940 and 1941, such a large pool of trained soldiers made mobilization for World War II much more effective and efficient.

While the Military Academy at West Point remained the more elite and prestigious officer commissioning institution for the Army, the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and the Citizens’ Military Training Camp program (CMTC) became the primary training ground for commissioning new officers. The National Defense Act increased the number of ROTC programs at colleges and universities across the United States. Over 325 schools had ROTC programs by 1928, commissioning over 6,000 new second lieutenants annually. The CMTC worked through summer training camps rather than colleges and universities. Completing a four-week summer training camp each year for four years qualified one for commissioning in the Reserves. Over 30,000 participated in this alternative commissioning program. Both the ROTC and CMTC greatly helped the Army maintain its officer needs for the Reserves and the National Guard, as well as for the regular Army.

Professional military education in the Army was reinvigorated to levels not seen since the 1880s. In addition to officer training programs at West Point and in ROTC programs across the United States, over 30 Army schools provided specialized training for most branches of the Army. Primarily directed toward officers, these schools educated not only regular officers but officers from the Reserves and Guard components as well. Like the professional military education schools in Great Britain and Germany, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the Army War College, and the Army Industrial College provided advanced education and training to more senior officers. The purpose of these schools was to produce competent officers who could command at various levels during war rather than to allow for in-depth study of war theory. Career officers in the Army, Guard, and Reserves were among the best-educated and trained in the world.

Perhaps the greatest weakness of the Army of the United States was its lack of interest in armor during the 1920s. Infantry, with its rifles and bayonets, remained the ‘Queen of Battle,’ as it had under Pershing’s command in France during the Great War. Despite the impact of new tank technology, Army strategists saw little use for the vehicles beyond infantry support. As a consequence, the infantry absorbed the Tank Corps after the war. Little valuable research and development funds went toward tank warfare. Only one experimental tank brigade existed during the 1930s, and as World War II approached, the Army had only four mechanized units.

Great Britain and Germany, on the other hand, recognized the tank’s strategic and tactical potential in combat operations. Convinced that armor could operate as mechanized units on a battlefield and break through enemy lines, British military leaders gave armor a role independent of infantry support. Germany pioneered tank tactics by concentrating large but fast armor units to achieve a sort of ‘shock and awe’ impact on the enemy. Ideas and techniques developed in concert with the Soviet Red Army in the 1920s during the so-called ‘Black Reichswehr’ period gave both the Germans and Soviets a distinct edge in armor doctrine and practice. While the British, Germans, and Soviets developed new, faster, and more lethal tanks and other armored vehicles during the 1920s and 1930s, the United States did comparatively little. Equally, the financial strictures of the 1930s imposed severe interruptions for developments in all Western armies, while political interference in the Soviet Union mostly killed innovation there in the same period. Doctrine for Airpower

The rapid advancement of aviation technology during and after the Great War challenged airpower advocates and detractors alike. The Army’s traditional role as land force and the Navy’s time-honored function as ocean fleet did not allow for the smooth integration of aircraft into their strategic or operational thinking. Airpower enthusiasts went so far as to suggest that armies would be obsolete, as aircraft alone could bring an industrialized nation-state to its knees through strategic bombing. The main disagreements centered on how airpower should be used.

Among these enthusiasts were British General Sir Hugh Trenchard, Italian Air Chief Guilio Douhet, and American Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. Trenchard had been instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force as an independent service and served as the first Chief of the Air Staff in 1917. Douhet wrote extensively on the use of airpower and theorized that bombers targeting civilian populations, in addition to industrial targets, could force such political chaos in a country to make its government come to terms. Wars would be shorter and ultimately less destructive, which was precisely the remedy that war-weary people sought after the seemingly endless slaughter of the Great War. Critics, however, rightly questioned the ethics of bombing civilians.

General Mitchell enthusiastically shared these ideas. Typical of bureaucratic organizations the Army and Navy resisted radical change and instead promoted a more conservative doctrine that aircraft could be useful in supporting air and naval operations through missions involving the pursuit of enemy aircraft, bombardment of enemy positions, attack on enemy forces in battle, observation of enemy troop movements, and artillery support. There was no concept of joint Army and Navy air operations and only minimal thought given to how airpower could be used to repel a seaborne invasion of the United States. Mitchell, on the other hand, radically suggested that airpower alone could not only defend the United States but win future wars in which land and sea forces would be obsolete.

Like Trenchard, Mitchell wanted an independent air force that would train, maintain, and operate all American military air assets, and more controversially overtake the Navy’s fleet as America’s first line of defense. To Mitchell, spending more money building battleships took funding away from building his independent air force. To gain support for his radical ideas, Mitchell boldly dared the Navy to allow Army aircraft to attack a battleship. Mitchell hoped to prove once and for all that battleships were devastatingly vulnerable in the new age of air. The Navy had already conducted staged-air attacks against mothballed vessels in 1920 and 1921, but eagerly accepted Mitchell’s challenge. Off the Virginia Capes in 1921, Mitchell got his chance as the Army and Navy agreed to a demonstration as part of a more substantial joint exercise. Using a stationary, unmanned German battleship, the Ostfriesland, as his target, Mitchell organized a squadron of Army bombers from Langley Field to ‘attack’ the battleship. The Navy had set strict rules to guide the experiment. Only one bomb could be dropped at a time. After each bomb drop, investigators would board the ship to examine the damage, if any. Mitchell probably never had any intention of following these rules. Dropping over sixty 2,000-pound bombs at the anchored vessel, the Army bombers scored 16 direct hits, none of which were strictly observed by the Navy board of investigators according to the predetermined rules. Mitchell sank the battleship, but he and the Navy disagreed on the meaning of the result. Mitchell claimed his point proven—battleships were vulnerable to air attack. The Navy rightly claimed that Mitchell’s test had been in a controlled environment. The weather was perfect, the ship at anchor, and no anti-aircraft fire dissuaded the attacking bombers. For the Navy, Mitchell had just proven how difficult it would be for aircraft to successfully attack a battleship, much less a fleet of warships.

Mitchell was a maverick who enjoyed talking to the press. When the War Department and Navy Department would not yield to what seemed to him overwhelming evidence of air superiority, he went to the public to plead his case. In an attempt to at least quiet the outspoken aviator, the War Department transferred Mitchell to San Antonio, Texas, in 1925, demoting him from his wartime rank of brigadier general to colonel, an act many considered a punishment for Mitchell’s increasingly outspoken support of airpower. He had already flirted with insubordination against his superiors, but in September 1925, he crossed it for good. On the morning of September 3, the Navy airship Shenandoah crashed during a storm in Ohio, adding to a string of recent air accidents. Fourteen crewmen were killed. Outraged at what he considered needless loss of life, Mitchell spoke to the press, going so far as to claim the Army and Navy were incompetent, even criminally negligent. The Army charged Mitchell with insubordination. His court-martial was a public sensation. Convicted, Mitchell resigned his commission in the hope of being able to promote airpower unhindered by a military chain of command. Figure 11.2 General Billy Mitchell at his court-martial, 1925.

Source: United States Air Force. Mitchell’s was not a voice in the wilderness, just too radical a one. Many in the Army and Navy, as well as in Congress, recognized the importance of airpower to future conflict. Still, Congress and a special investigating board appointed by President Calvin Coolidge rejected the idea of an independent air force. Whatever air development would come would be done under the current military structure.

Unconnected to Mitchell’s pleas for an independent air arm, Congress did create the Army Air Corps in 1926, with an authorized strength of over 17,000 officers and men and 1,800 aircraft. Congress also instituted a five-year expansion and modernization program for the Air Corps. This program paid reliable dividends, for, throughout the 1930s, Army aircraft improved in both type and efficiency; and by the beginning of World War II, the United States indeed had one of the best air forces in the world. Moreover, by creating an Army Air Corps, Congress had removed the stigma of air service in the Army and helped establish a culture open to sound strategic and tactical ideas. By the late 1930s, the Army Air Corps Tactical School thrived at Maxwell Field in Alabama, training a generation of tactical and strategic air thinkers that would have much success in World War II and beyond. It is intriguing that the Army ultimately advocated airpower but did not exercise similar enthusiasm for armor.

Naval aviation did not experience the Army’s internal and public travails in seeking a mission for airpower. The Naval Air Service had been created in 1917 and understandably blossomed during the war to over 50,000 officers and men with over 2,000 land- and sea-based aircraft. After the war, the Navy issued a doctrinal statement that called for a Naval Air Service capable of accompanying and protecting the fleet wherever it might be in the world.

Mitchell’s highly publicized sinking of the Ostfriesland inspired and even converted some senior naval officers, such as Admirals William Fullam and William S. Sims, to the notion that maritime airpower had a role in fleet operations. Sims had already studied what might happen if two fleets of equal strength in capital ships faced each other, with one side having more aircraft carriers than the other. He concluded that the superiority lay with the fleet that had more aircraft carriers. Air superiority at sea would expose the enemy’s fleet to massive air assault and battleship bombardment, the combination of which would be decisive. At a public demonstration of military aircraft in San Diego, Fullam noted how easily ships in San Diego Bay could have been destroyed. With the strong support of the Navy’s Chief of Aeronautics, Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, the Navy built its first carrier, the Langley, from a converted collier. The carriers Lexington and Saratoga were both converted heavy cruisers.

The Navy wholeheartedly embraced airpower as a complement to fleet operations. Congress increased budgets for naval aviation, adding more planes to the fleet. New carriers were built. At the Naval Academy at Annapolis, students received aeronautical instruction, including flight and navigation training, and air service billets grew to equal the importance of sea duty. Naval aviators even became celebrities. It had been a Navy pilot—Lieutenant Commander A. C. Read, flying a Curtis airplane—who made the first transatlantic flight (Newfoundland to the Azores to Portugal) in 1919. The polar explorer Commander Richard E. Byrd flew over the North Pole in 1926 and over the South Pole in 1928. Navy flyers routinely won the air races and competitions that were so popular across the United States in the 1920s. First Line of Defense: the Fleet

The Navy remained the first line of defense for the continental United States. The notion of a navy second to none, heralded by the Navy Act of 1916, remained in place after the war. The Naval Act of 1919 was intended to continue the building program of the prewar 1916 act. But in the postwar disarmament environment, both the United States and Great Britain, the world’s leading naval power, considered the financial cost of expanding their navies and agreed in principle to some sort of naval limitation to avoid setting off another arms race.

Moreover, some naval strategists began to question the Mahanian focus on the battleship fleet as the primary means of naval maneuver. The devastating use of submarines by Germany and the advent of military aviation during the war could indeed ultimately make battleships obsolete, as Mitchell believed he had demonstrated. As had been the case in the past, however, overcoming traditional doctrine with new technology proved extremely difficult.

With the American and British fleets still building new ships, and Japan solidifying its position as a naval power in the western Pacific, representatives from the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal met in Washington in late 1921 to discuss the concept of limiting naval arms and maintaining the balance of power in Asia and the Pacific. It is worth noting that the idea of scrapping American battleships already under construction and limiting future building came from the State Department, not the Navy Department. Nonetheless, the idea of arms reduction struck a popular chord in the postwar world.

Three agreements came from the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922. First, Great Britain, the United States, Japan, France, and Italy agreed to a naval limitation treaty based upon a tonnage ratio of 5:5:3:1.7:1.7, respectively, for battleships and, interestingly, aircraft carriers. The so-called Five-Power Treaty also called for a ten-year moratorium on building battleships and cruisers. The agreement recognized that Great Britain and the United States had more extensive geographic and economic security interests and that Japan had significant regional security interests, though Japan protested its relegation as a second-rate power in the agreement. Great Britain, the United States, France, and Japan also signed the Four-Power Treaty that called for a conference of the signatories to settle any disputes over possessions in the Far East. Finally, the Nine-Power Treaty obligated each signatory to respect the Open Door policy in China, in what turned out to be a vain attempt to recognize the territorial integrity and sovereignty of China.

The United States Navy came out of the Washington Naval Conference in comparative shipshape, considering the age of the British fleet and the relatively small size of the Japanese Imperial Navy. To meet the stipulations of the treaty, the Navy had to scrap 15 old battleships, most of which would have been decommissioned regardless of the agreement. Additionally, two new ships and several in various stages of construction had to be dismantled, many of which might not have otherwise seen the sea because of congressional budget cuts. The primary purpose of the accord was to prevent the United States, Great Britain, and Japan from having the overall naval strength to conduct offensive operations in the Pacific. The treaties served an entirely preventive purpose. The Washington Naval Conference had a Wilsonian aspect, as the United States used a multilateral agreement to collectively prevent another world war—or at least a fight in the Pacific, a prospect that many post-Great War strategists feared.

The U.S. Navy in the 1920s, then, was built around the Five-Power Treaty and, in fact, was under the strength allowed in the agreement by as much as 35 percent. The money saved from the treaty limitations, however, allowed the Navy to significantly improve the quality of its fleet at the expense of quantity. In 1933, the Navy boasted only 100 ships and submarines, crewed by 90,000 officers and men.

A 1927 conference at Geneva to further limit cruisers and place limitations on destroyers and submarines came and went without an agreement. In 1930, however, such restrictions were agreed upon at the London Naval Conference. In addition to placing new limitations on cruisers, destroyers, and submarines, the London agreement extended the ten-year capital shipbuilding moratorium to 1936. If any of the signatories believed its security under threat from another nation, however, it could suspend its part of the agreement and add more ships. But if one of the signatories pulled out or broke the deal and built more ships or increased tonnage, the rest of the signatories could do likewise. If one country suspended or broke the agreement, then the whole thing was off.

All of the signatories assuredly violated the spirit of the naval accords, but Japan openly broke the treaties in the early 1930s when it began expanding its sphere of influence in Asia and the Pacific. After 1933, the Washington and London agreements were indeed finished. President Franklin Roosevelt, who had served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the Great War, began building a stronger navy as soon as he took office in 1933. As part of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, Roosevelt ordered over $200 million spent on building 32 ships through 1936. In 1934, Congress passed the Vinson-Trammell Act, which authorized the replacement of older vessels, including one carrier, two cruisers, 14 destroyers, and six submarines in 1935 alone, followed by similar replacements through 1942. It is essential to understand, however, that these increases in naval shipbuilding would only bring the U.S. Navy up to its treaty limits, even though the treaties had largely ceased to exist. And with the lead time required to build a capital ship, few of these vessels would actually join the fleet before the early 1940s. The Marine Corps and the Development of Amphibious Warfare

Despite its expansive role in France as part of the American Expeditionary Force during the Great War, the Marine Corps radically demobilized after the conflict and continued to fine-tune its mission. Intervention operations and occupation duties in Nicaragua, Hispaniola, and China and developing an amphibious warfare doctrine kept the active but still small Marine Corps quite busy during the 1920s and 1930s.

In 1926, the Marines landed in Nicaragua to end political chaos there and did not withdraw until 1933. Disputes between the Nicaraguan Liberal and Conservative politicos over election results in 1924 and 1925 erupted in violence that approached civil war. Throughout 1926, the American legation in Nicaragua used Marine shore parties to protect American lives and property. By late 1926, however, Liberal forces had killed an American citizen and sacked some American-owned warehouses. The Coolidge administration supported the Conservative government that had been elected previously, and in early 1927 the president decided to intervene in Nicaragua. By February, the 5th Marine Regiment was onshore, supported by a six-plane observation squadron. With one battalion defending Managua against Liberal forces, smaller units occupied strategic towns along the railroad from Managua to the coast. Figure 11.3 United States Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino, 1932.

Source: United States Department of Defense. Coolidge sent former Secretary of War Henry Stimson to work out an agreement between the Conservatives and Liberals. With Marine units strategically placed to prevent the two armies from taking advantage of the temporary ceasefire, Stimson brought the two parties together in the so-called Peace of Tipitapa. New elections would be held in 1928, and both armies would disband and be replaced by a new national Nicaraguan army. The 11th Marine Regiment arrived to help implement the peace accord.

Some Liberal bands held out, including one led by Augusto César Sandino, who had refused to sign the Peace of Tipitapa. The Marines were caught in an impossible situation. They had to simultaneously disarm rebel bands, build a new Nicaraguan army, and pacify large regions of the countryside. Sandino presented the most troubling problem. Marine Brigadier General Logan Feland sent a force of over 200 Marines deep into territory controlled by Sandino to bring him in, by force if necessary. Sandino, however, hit first in an attempt to surprise the Marines and their Nicaraguan Guardia allies. Fighting in the predawn darkness, the Marines recovered quickly and repulsed several assaults by Sandino’s force of over 600 men. With daylight came help from above, as the Marine observation planes strafed and even dive-bombed Sandino’s positions. This may have been the first use of dive-bombing techniques in military aviation history. Sandino suffered heavy losses, with perhaps as many as

American history homework help

Course Project Milestone 3: Final Paper

Due Saturday by 11:59pm Points 150 Submitting a file upload

File Types doc, docx, and pdf Available Jan 31 at 12am – Apr 23 at 11:59pm 3 months

Start Assignment

Directions

In this assignment, you will submit your final paper. Your final paper must be 5–7 pages of text, plus a

title page and APA-formatted reference page. You may include properly cited graphics, such as

pictures, maps, and graphs if you like. You must use and cite at least 5 scholarly sources; Wikipedia,

encyclopedias, and websites that are intended for a general audience are not scholarly sources. You

may supplement the 5 scholarly sources with news articles.

For the Course Project, write about a historical event between 1865 and the present day from the

perspective of a historical figure who participated in the event. Here are some examples:

The March on Washington from the perspective of Martin Luther King, Jr.

September 11th 2001 from the perspective of George W. Bush

The attack on Pearl Harbor from the perspective of Franklin D. Roosevelt

The ratification of the 19th Amendment from the perspective of Alice Paul

The Cuban Missile Crisis from the perspective of John F. Kennedy

You will need to research not only the event, but also the historical figure, and write the paper “in

character.” Your final paper must be 5–7 pages of text, plus a title page and APA-formatted reference

page. You must include properly cited graphics, such as pictures, maps, and graphs if you like. You

must use and cite at least 5 scholarly sources; Wikipedia, encyclopedias, and websites that are

intended for a general audience are not scholarly sources. You may supplement (not replace) the 5

scholarly sources with news articles. Be sure to check out the New York Times and other newspaper

databases included in the FSCJ library catalog.

Submission

4/19/22, 9:27 PM
Page 1 of 4

Milestone 3: Final Paper Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

50 pts

This assignment requires a file upload submission (https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-

10663-421254353) . After you have reviewed the assignment instructions and rubric, as applicable,

complete your submission by selecting the Submit Assignment button next to the assignment title.

Grading

This paper is worth 150 points towards your grade and will be graded using the Final Paper Rubric.

Content 50 to >45.0 pts

Exemplary

All required

elements are fully

addressed, easily

identified, and

integrated into

the assignment

at the highest

level. All key facts

are clearly

identified and

completely

addresses.

Where

applicable,

outside sources

are used in

addition to the

course readings

in a highly

effective way.

45 to >40.0 pts

Meets

Expectations

All required

elements are

addressed and

identified.

Several key facts

are identified

and completely

addressed.

Where

applicable,

outside sources

are effectively

used in addition

to the course

readings.

40 to >35.0 pts

Developing

Required

elements are

addressed, but

further

elaboration is

needed. A few

key facts are

identified and

addressed.

Outside sources

are used in

addition to the

course readings,

but are

ineffective or not

appropriate.

35 to >30.0 pts

Novice

Few of the

required

elements are

addressed. Little

or no elaboration

present. Key

facts are NOT

identified or

addressed. No

effort is made to

include sources

outside the

course readings

where applicable.

30 to >0 pts

Not

Acceptable

Assignment

not

submitted,

submitted

late OR

contains

plagiarized

content.

Critical

Thinking
35 to >32.0 pts

Exemplary

Assignment

demonstrates

highest level of

critical thinking.

32 to >28.0 pts

Meets

Expectations

Assignment

demonstrates

good critical

28 to >25.0 pts

Developing

Assignment

demonstrates

some degree of

critical thinking

25 to >21.0 pts

Novice

Assignment

demonstrates

almost no

degree of critical

21 to >0 pts

Not

Acceptable

Assignment

not

submitted,

4/19/22, 9:27 PM
Page 2 of 4

35 pts

35 pts

30 pts

Integration of

multiple ideas

and/or

philosophies is at

the highest level.

Analysis and

solutions are

anchored in a

solid and

sophisticated

premise using

facts, not

opinions.

thinking and

integration of

multiple ideas

and/or

philosophies.

Analysis and

solutions are

anchored in solid

premise using

facts, not

opinions.

and integration

of ideas and/or

philosophies.

Analysis and

solutions uses

facts in some

places, but other

portions use

opinion.

thinking or

integration of

ideas and/or

philosophies.

Analysis and

solutions are

incomplete,

missing or

based on

opinion.

submitted

late OR

contains

plagiarized

content.

Quality of

Work
35 to >32.0 pts

Exemplary

The quality of

writing is

exceptional with

no spelling,

grammar, or

mechanical

errors; the work

is very well-

organized, well-

developed and

sequential; ideas

are linked with

smooth and

effective

transitions.

32 to >28.0 pts

Meets

Expectations

The quality of

writing is very

good with minor

spelling,

grammar, or

mechanical

errors that do not

interfere with

comprehension;

the work is well-

organized,

developed and

mostly

sequential; ideas

are linked

effectively.

28 to >25.0 pts

Developing

The quality of

writing is good

with minor

spelling,

grammar, or

mechanical

errors that usually

do not interfere

with

comprehension;

the work is

mostly organized,

developed and

sequential; ideas

are adequately

linked.

25 to >21.0 pts

Novice

The quality of

writing is

unacceptable. A

number of

spelling,

grammar, or

mechanical

errors

significantly

interfere with

comprehension.

the work is not

organized or

developed; ideas

are presented

randomly.

21 to >0 pts

Not

Acceptable

Assignment

not

submitted,

submitted

late OR

contains

plagiarized

content.

References

&

Citations

30 to >26.0 pts

Exemplary

All resources

included are

impeccably cited

within the

assignment itself

and on a

Reference page

at the end of the

assignment.

There are no

26 to >24.0 pts

Meets

Expectations

All resources

included are

cited within the

assignment itself

and on a

Reference page

at the end of the

assignment. One

or two minor

24 to >21.0 pts

Developing

Most resources

included are cited

within the

assignment itself

and on a

Reference page

at the end of the

assignment.

Multiple minor or

one or more

21 to >18.0 pts

Novice

Few of

resources are

correctly cited

within the

assignment

and/or on a

Reference List

in at the end of

the assignment.

18 to >0 pts

Not

Acceptable

Assignment

not

submitted,

submitted

late OR

contains

plagiarized

content.

4/19/22, 9:27 PM
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Total Points: 150

errors in

formatting.

errors in

formatting exist.

major errors in

formatting exist.

4/19/22, 9:27 PM
Page 4 of 4

American history homework help


Writing Assignment 2 – Historic Markers

Peruse this StoryMap of significant student Civil Rights sites in Nashville: http://arcg.is/2sj0yEz

Pick a location on the map and use the specifications below to write a historic maker panel.

Text Specifications:
The preferred length of the text is 350 characters and spaces. The absolute maximum is 480 characters and spaces. Historic markers cost $2,500 and are cast in bronze – grammatical and spelling errors are not easily fixed.

More information on Tennessee Historic Markers can be found at: https://www.nashville.gov/departments/historic-preservation/programs/historical-markers

These locations already have some information on them. However, there may or may not be enough for a historic marker, or there may be too much. Your job is to condense or expand, using the sources provided at the end of the listing, your chosen site.

This is a deceptively simple assignment. The maximum character limit (not word) is 480, which means that EVERY WORD must be perfect. Your essays will then be turned into the creators of the StoryMap to add to it, should you discover new information.

American history homework help

1. Review the photoessay entitled “Hidden in Plain Sight: The Ghosts of Segregation” published by the New York Times. The link is posted below. If you do not have access to it because of the NYT paywall, you can set up a free NYT account using your ISU email account.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/30/travel/ghosts-of-segregation.html (Links to an external site.)

2. Consider the question posed by photographer Richard Frishman’s in the photoessay: “Does such erasure remedy the inequalities and relieve the suffering caused by systemic racism? Or does it facilitate denial and obfuscation?”

3. Write an essay that responds to Frishman’s question above, discussing both South Africa and the United States. More simply, Frishman is asking the following questions: What do we lose and gain if we highlight the histories of segregation in the U.S. and South Africa? What do we lose and gain if we erase or ignore those histories?

Essay Expectations:

1. The essay should be at least 4 pages long, double spaced 12 font.

2. The essay should discuss both the U.S. and South Africa when responding to the prompt.

3. The essay should include at least 3 direct quotes from class material. You do not need to do research beyond what has been covered in class. Anything we’ve read, watched, or analyzed that is posted in our class Canvas site is fair game.

4, You do not need to provide a works cited page. Because all the quotes/references you include are coming from course material, you just need to provide enough identifiable information that I can track back to the specific source- so, for a direct quote from a reading, include author name and page number; for a video, include title of video; for a PowerPoint identify the quote as being from Arrington PowerPoint and provide a title or subject so I know which PP it came from; for a picture, describe the picture you are referencing, etc.

American history homework help


Note submission 7

#5: Making a Mass Movement

After the dead of Emmett Till. Her open a funeral and said “ I want the world to see what they did to my boy” no one went to the trial for this murder because in Mississippi white were not arrested for murder.

JET Magazine

She gave the photo to the Jet Magazine; she wants her son back. The two white men who killed was arrested. It was a first time since the reconstruction. The jury find them no guilty.

Montgomery

It was the capital of Alabama. The Churcher was the best protection for black people. “Center of religion”. Black minister was leader in black Community, they were higher respected.

Abernathy and Shuttlesworth were the minister of the 2 big churches in the town.

Nixon was the head of the BSCP.

Robinson was lading a movement to get black people right. Black customer was segregate by the bus company.

Rosa Parks and Highlander school.

She joined the NWACP and was the smarter person in the group. They minimized her job but she helped NWAACP to run.

The Highlander school was a school to learn how to be organized.

Parks was arrested on 12/1/55. Because she did not let a white person to set on the bus. She spent a night in jail but a white couple pay for her to get out.

Robinson tried to make called to Black people to stay off the busses, Also Nixon used his resources to help her.

Monday

No black people were on the buses. As the day went on people realize that they have power. Due to the united.

Martin Luther King Jr

He came at Montgomery as a minister. He was deeply expired by Gandhi.

Montgomery Improvement Associations

King was the head of the MIA. Black people tried to used the carpool but it did not work. The longer the boycott goes on the worst white people were mad. The state said that black people was trying to destroy the busses company.

OFF to jail

Rustin arrives, encourages Gandhi tactics

Black church was boomed, also king’s house. Many people come to his house after the boomed and said that the want revenge. He went to his house and see that his wife and kids were okay. He came out and said to the crew to do not used weapon and guns. Asked people to be used nonviolence.

11/56 Gayle V. Browder

The supreme court said that Montgomery violence the 14th Amendment. Rules was only enforced by the Government in Montgomery. Parks face such a threat and she moved and did not come back to Montgomery.

SCLC 1957

King and others black ministers create the SCLC. He was convicted that minister were able to keep nonviolence. They started to create a campaign but the white supremacy politics said no.

Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine 1957

Bates was the leader of the NAACP. The Little Rock agreed to change. First of all, the first year their involved the small group of Black people, those kids became the little rock nine.

Faubus was the Government Arkansas, he was concerned about the election coming. He sent soldier to keep nine kids out of their high school. The Soviet Union show to the world how black people were treated in the US.

Eisenhower called the gov that they have to remove the national guard. Faubus went to the television and said that he releases those kids because of the President, and said after that white people are going to kick them out.

The day after the national guard left, the crew of white people came out trying to kick those kids out.

Eisenhower sent the US army to Little Rock he federalizes the national guard of the state.

In the place where integration was happening, white people were moved to the city to the southern.

Nation of Islam

Elijah Muhammad was the leader of the religion movement. He’s thought was different as Islam around the world. He said that God made people black, he said white people was create by Yakut. White people were the devil of the nation.

Malcom X

“X” was the symbol of their none ancestral

He was born in 1946, raised in Detroit. He’s father died on the road road track. He moved Detroit to Boston. He was a terrible human being. He went to Massachusetts prison were he find the nation of Islam.

He felt that the nation of Islam helped him to became a new person. In the prison he wrote a letter to the nation and Elijah wrote back.

He gets out 1952 to joined Muhammad and become the spoken men to the nation Islam. He well against policy brutality. He called king a fool who being inducted by the Christianity. He said also that people should fight back when someone hit you.



#6: The Path to Freedom

I) Sitting Down and Standing Up

Sit-Ins and SNCC

James Lawson

SCLC was trying to train black people college student and sometimes white college too, on the theory and the practice of non-violence. King believes that non- violence was essential for minority group. He tried to teach everybody that love is the most powerful weapon in the world.

Woolworths

It was the biggest drugs store chain in America. It’s where people get there prescriptions that general merchandise sold a little to some grocery items and in every Woolworths they had a lunch counter. It was a national drugstore chain but in the Woolworths location existed in the south was only whites.

The Greensboro Sit-Ins

David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair and Joseph McNeil went to the Woolworths lunch counter and sat down. The manager came out around and told the poor young man to leave or he going to call the police and have them arrested. One of them stood up said to the manager “ we’ll leave sir” but you must understand we will back here tomorrow and the day after until any American get service at this lunch counter. When they went back on the second day 13 students on the third day there were more than 25 by the five there were more than 200 students taking part in the Greensboro cities. After the month of February went on the sit-ins spread to 30 different cities In the south. Young people city after city mobilizes often when old people told them that’s a bad idea and they did it.

Diana Nash and the Nashville Sit-Ins

The sit-ins in Nashville were led by an amazing young woman name Diana Nash. He was from the North, Detroit. She went to integrated schools in Michigan. She mobilized students at fist and they started a sit-in compaign of their own. What made this remarkable was several things, first she organized the first civil right march with them the local people. The march was to confront the mayor of the city. They used songs to organized their protests. Finally she confronted by herself the mayor of Nashville on the steps of city hall.

Boycotts and pickets

In the north black people organized boycott of their local Woolworths. Adam Clayton Powell interviewed by a reporter if he really supported the idea that all black people should stay out of the Woolworths. And he said every American interested in democracy should stay out. Of those Thirty sit-ins in the month of February every one of those cities there were white people who came to joined the protests.

Victory

Most of the cities ended with victory that black people can then sit at the lunch counter. The business changed their policy or the local gov change the law. In some of the cities the protesters were arrested effectively. Mississippi did not have protest. Students were driving this incredible change in the south.

John Lewis and SNCC “student non-violence coordinating committee

SNAK “student non-violence civil right group”

Student decided to from their own group. SNCC was formed at a conference in mid-April 1960. They said they were willing to rick their freedom, safety and life for freedom. They want to put their non- violence in the face of the racist. The group was interracial in the beginning and led loose system of leadership by john Lewis, he was a veteran of the Nashville campaign which had been led by Diana Nash.

The election of 1960

Black voters were waiting to see which candidate would give them some sort of indication that they would be better than the other guy. Under FDR true black people who could vote had started voting majority Democratic but then they started to shift back to the Republicans under Eisenhower. Kennedy said if he become president, he would show more leadership on civil right. And the weeks before the election black voters broke towards Kennedy and won against Nixon. Nixon got 35% of the black vote. He was the last republican to get more than 13% of the black vote. Kennedy wanted not to fix the issues but to stop the protest.

Core: The freedom Rides

The core decided to launch the freedom rides in 1961 just as Kennedy began his first term as president.

The supreme court said interstate travel cannot be segregated. But the southern states and localities are still trying to enforce their local law. Rock hill the northern South Carolina their John Lewis was attacked and beaten. Before the get to Alabama every bus stop freedom Rides would get off the bus and go used facilities together.

Bombed in Anniston

When they got town Anniston there was a mob waiting for the freedom Rides. When the bus stops, the mob started to chased them down the road. Somebody threw a bomb onto the bus setting on fire.

Attacked in Birmingham

There was another mob waiting for them at the bus station. Birmingham’s chief of police had arraigned with the Ku Klux Klan. The mob beat people with baseball bats bicycle chain.

The law Appears in Montgomery

The mob chased the freedom rides from the bus station to a Baptist church in Montgomery. They took refuge inside the church. The Soviet Union like these images of what’s happening in the US they said look the real face of America. Kennedy sent federal marshals to Alabama and convinces Alabama to protect the freedom Rides.

Sold out in Jackson

They got the bus station in Jackson and the Mississippi police were waiting for them. There was non-violence. Kennedy sell out the freedom Rides. Core who organized the freedom Rides brought lawyers to defend the freedom Rides to Mississippi trial.

Suffering for freedom

SNCC threw themselves in to try to continue the freedom rides. They announced that they going to send volunteers to Jackson, to try to board the bus and ride as the supreme said they had the rights to do. More then 300 people were jail in Jackson Mississippi.

Enforcing the law

Kennedy started enforcing the law, by 1962 you can board the bus anywhere in the country and ride anywhere, sitting whenever seat you wanted.

Robert Williams and Black Power

Monroe, NC

He lived in Monroe North Carolina, he was a veteran, when he return to Monroe he was determined to try to change his own town. The NAACP had collapsed and William decided to revive it. he organized the branch of the NAACP in Monroe. He recruited people who did not scare easily men and women. People who work with him armed themselves. When the KKK came to shut their home, members William’s group shot back scare them off. He did not believe in violence but in self-defense. A group of freedom rides came in Monroe to carry out non-violence protests. They wanted to show to William that nonviolence can work but automatically their were attacked by a mob. When he left NY he found out that he was wanted the FBI for kidnapping the white couple. He made his way to Cuba.

Radio free Dixie

Cuba was led by Fidel Castro. William took refuge in Cuba, from there he broadcast a radio program in to the American south. It was a radio call free Dixie. He urged black southerners to arm themselves, to defend themselves.

SNCC and Voter Registration

SNCC was working on voter registration projects in all southern states, until their decided to stop working in Mississippi after Herbert lee was murdered in Mississippi in 1961. He was working with snick to register black Mississippians and murdered in broad daylight by a member of the Mississippi legislature. A white member of the state gov shot Herbert lee in the head in the middle of the street. And then was acquitted by the all-white jury. The law was not working for all black people in Mississippi.

Albany 1961-1962

Black resident in the town on gorgia made a movement, they state protesting against segregation and disfranchisement. They reached out to the SNCC. All the majority of black people were mobilized.

Laurie Pritchett was the sheriff of the small town. He studied the tactic and strategy movement.

He read every public that King made. So, when the movement came out to his town he can defied, The plan was to overhand the jail. When he arrests people instead of put them in the jail, he used many buses and put them inside and sent them around the town. He used his police to do not be in the Tv camera.

The protest drags on for months, when king come in town, he joined the movement and got arrested. But Pritchett pay his bill bail.

Birmingham – Project “C “confrontation”

All tree groups coordinate to work together. “SNCC, COR, SCLC”

Connor, shift of police has a terrible reputation of brutality. They have also the KKK with them. They knew the mob will come the Birmingham; he tries to copy Pritchett.

James Bevel and Diane Nesh

She thought that children should be in the protest. She bushing her husband to do it. they urged students to skip classes and joint the movement. Bevel said to children that they have to remain non-violence. They went to park to protest. People who really pissed off Connor was the kids. The police tried to clean the part they used the fire hose and dogs.

Kennedy called the leader of Birmingham and give a threat. It was to deal with the group if not he going to pull up the army.

Victory May 7

They announced the deal, the city agreed to integrate everything school, buses and all business.

Business started to hide black people; it was a biggest victory. More than thousand protests in the country said no more Birmingham.

Coming around 63

JFK point out the 1963, it was one hundred years since civil right bellow to anyone.

He said he is going said the civil right act to the congress. Same night when Kennedy gave his speech. Medgar Evers was assassinated in Mississippi; he was the leader of NAACP. He was the lawyer who helps James Meredith to integrate the law school. “ole Miss”

The university of Alabama was the last state to integrate. The department of justice said to Wallace if he does not integrate the university he is going to be arrested.

II) Victory may come later

To past the bill they need 51 votes. They need 67 senates to vote and have a vote. The Filibuster was a tour for the white supremacy during the vote.

The big six try to organized the march on Washington. All the civil right work together and coordinate the March. On August 1963, every business was close. TH garden of the national mall was attacked by a quarter of million of people. 23% of people were white. No women were allowed to give speech.

King speech was about how the nation has to threat black people. The signification of “I Have A Dream”

Was the integration and equality. They were non-violence during the March. He said of worth “we show our best face to the world.

Questioning non-violence

Birmingham 9/15/63

After the march, the church were kids organized the mob. A terrorist boomed the church. 4 little girls dead.

JFK Assassinated 11/22/63

JFK was assassinated in Dallas at point that the civil rights was growing up. His was replace by Johnson his vice president senate from Texas. The vast majority of the country was devasted.

Malcom X gave a speech after his dead interpreted that Kennedy got what was coming through.

Muhammad forbite Malcom X to speech in public. Elijah becomes jealous, he questions Malcom loyalties. When Malcom knew that Muhammed had sex with women who was working in the organization, he was disgusting.

In march 1964

Malcom left the nation of Islam, but still Muslim. But Muhammad was furious about it.

He wants to Saudi-Arabia and there he prays with white people. He realized on this trip that white people are not devil. But many people in America did devil things. When he returned to the US he want to work with King. He changes his name to Malcom with the X.

Bob Moses and Freedom Summer

SCNN announced the campaign name freedom summer in Mississippi by Moses. The idea was to let some brave white people to protest. The plan was to recruit people to the north especially white people. Thousand people volunteers, the majority of people come from the college.

The volunteers went to training for freedom.

SCNN try to told them that Mississippi is scaring. They told them that they can be arrested or killed. None of the volunteer quick. Third of the volunteer were women. The project was to work in small team, spread across the state. The role was to register people to vote. Summer school to black kids who attend the worst school called freedom school and investigate crime. They were living with black family. 3 of them were missing Chaney a black Mississippian, Goodman and Schwerner white from the north.

Civil Rights act

The law was signed by John in the begin of July, the law had Forth separate important part.

· School

As a black family all that you have to do is too send a letter to the court justice.

· Business

Everything opens to the public, theater, restaurant, hotels. They cannot discriminate base of Race, Religion, National Origin

· Staff that the Gov does

Public Park, public pool, community center. The south violates public pool

Title VII (employment)

In employment, employer cannot discriminate base on Race, sex, religion, national origin. It was a grant victory woman.

The law creates the EENOC

In august the body of 3 men was found. The police called the Klan and put then in the mob. They gave their live for the Civil rights.

Thousand of them was arrested and couple were murdered. The 3 men become the freedom summer of murder.

Selman 1964

The 3 biggest announced to work together again. They protest in Selma outside the court house. During the march Jimmie Lee Jackson was killed by the police.

Malcom in Selma

Malcom said he is here to urged the white of Selma. He’s was telling people to listen to King because if they don’t listen to him to going to have to deal with him. Malcom said if the right to vote is not gotten, the way that king wants to get it, some other faction will come along but one way or another it will be gotten.

Assassinated 2/21/65

Malcom left back to Harlem and was promptly assassinated. People said from the beginning that they believed the gov was involved in his death. Many weird things that allowed them to believe was that it was later revealed in that crowded ballroom were armed federal agents. Malcom become more important to the movement in death. His autobiography was a huge hit for young people in the movement. The gov was never alarmed about him than when he was killed.

Selma to Montgomery

SNCC announced plans for march, from the town of Selma to the state capital of Montgomery. The plan was to carry jimmy lee Jackson’s corpse and deposit he dead body on steps of gov Wallace’s mansion. They alabama would not give them permission to walk down a highway. SNCC announced they going to march anyway even without legal permission to do.

March 7

Several hundred people SNCC volumteers and local people marched through the down of Selma headed for the bridge that leads out of town. In others side if the bridge Alabama state tropers who had been sent by Governor Wallace, simple instructions was to do not let them leave Selma. The troopers attacked the groups, 60 people were hospitalized they were beaten so badly. It was again international news.

March 9 king returns

King was there leading the marches. They were more of them than two days earlier and it was the same pattern they would through the down to the Edmund Pettus bridges and the state troopers was waiting for them. When they approached the state trooper’s kind said to one of the troopers can we kneel down and pray and they did it. when they come back across the bridge, SNCC openly called what king had done a silent. SNCC said to reporters King sold us out . they didn’t even know that king had arranged this ahead of time.

James Reeb Killed 3/9

A group of white teenagers came from behind and clubbed him in the back of the head and killed him.

March 15

Johnson said that he was going to send a voting Rights Act to Congress. A powerful law that would finally make real the spirit of the fifteenth Amendment. Couple day later the Alabama courts finally lifted their injuction and they have now had legal permission to walk down a road. They left Selma on March 20 crossing the Edmund Pettus bridge and not getting clubbed by the state troopers.

Five day March

It was a five day walk to Montgomery, along the way the marchers were carrying American flags, and the president just used the slogan of the movement and they felt like they are about to finally win. They set up car pool to bring people back to Selma and one of the people driving participants back with a white housewife named Viola Liuzzo.

Viola Liuzzo

She was one of those people with seen bloody Sunday on her tv screen. She’d seen people’s skulls cracked by nights days and she said to her husband I have got to helps. She got their big old car and drove to Alabama. She was driving civil rights marchers back to the town of Selma. She gave her lives for the voting rights Act.

The voting Rights Act, 8/6/65

When the civil rights Act enforced the Fourteenth Amendment, the voting Rights Act would enforce the 15th Amendment. The voting Rights Act first outlawed the remaining disfranchisement Schemes. The most provision of the voting rights Act was to allowed black people in the south to request that the federal gov come to their county and register them to vote. That was more important than any other facet of the law because it means that in Alabama or Mississippi or anywhere else black people can could turn to federal gov and said we need help, and the justice department would send federal official who then would register black people to vote.

The pole indicates not everybody were happy with the pace change. They asked Americans right after the voting rights Act passed. 40% of Americans were saying that a hundred years since the end of slavery was too fast. Only 13% think that it not fast enough. Black people felt like it was not fast enough.

Five days after the voting rights act August 1965

In the city of Los Angeles Black people had been moving. Outside the south black people were kept in certain neighborhoods withing each big city. In Los Angeles, that neighborhood was Watts they were 98% black. They are in the same sort of economic state as the country in the Great depression. in watts the unemployment rate was close to 30%. They were always suffering from inadequate health care facilities, inferior public education system and high rate of crime. On the night of August 11th, the police were harassing black driver, they pulled him over and his mother actually came around and yelling on the police. A crowd gathered and started yelling of the police. That night black people attacked and smashed the windows of those store and took merchandise inside. The national guard had to be called in. they were 34 for dead more or the thousand injured more than 4 thousand people arrested, thousands of buildings destroyed. The total of damage was 40 million dollars.

Progresse and unsolved problems

People star to question the country and it institution

I. The rise of black power

The march against fear

1965-1966.

1966 Stokely Carmichael (SNCC: student Nonviolent coordinating committee ) and Floyd Mckissick (CORE)

Both elected new leader

Core since 1960 always been interracial form in ww2 inspired by Ghandi,

Both group kick out their white members because

1. black wanted to win their freedom by their own and didn’t want it to look like white people were doing

2. Blacks people didn’t like the fact that white people couldn’t be just ally and wanted to run the movement too

June 1966: The March Against fear

James Meredith (integrated the UNI of Mississippi) was local hero and wanted to show to other blacks people there was nothing to be afraid of and decide to walk from Memphis to the state of mississippi but unfortunately was shot and survived but the klansmen who shot him was congratulated, photographed and even aquitted on trial

despite the voting Rights Act

The march continue

A movement dividing

The deacons for defense

SNCC, CORE and SCLC all announce they will continue the march were Meredith was shot.

It »s was clear that the movement was divided and S.Carmicheal insisted on bringing a new brigade called the Deacons of Defense ( an armed group of Louisiana) that believed in self defence and not calling for violence

Mississippi start to get more interest in SCNN new leader Stokely Carmichael

A report ask to M.L.KING about non violence and he plain like he always

But S.CarMicheal did not agree and explain that it’s mean to racist that can attack and I won’t do a thing

They continue marching and the police of Mississippi start arresting them for whatever reason and S.CarMicheal was one of them

When he got back was so mad saying it’s 27 time being arrested and they had to take over and start saying « BLACK POWER »

BLACK POWER became the new slogan but white people even ally became nervous about it

Black Power didn’t mean less power for White people or reverse racism

Unraveling

Rejecting alliance with white people

Calling for self defense
Floyd McKIssick head of CORE say that 1966 was the year were they won’t be called negros but black people and in fact did happen

CarMicheal insisted on the fact that black people had fight for their own

Chicago campaign 1966

King brought SCLC to Chicago and see if their method work in a Northern urban community but black people wasn’t has receptive has in the south like Alabama

And white people there were very hostile and even attack King directly with a brick screaming « we want king »

There were more hatred in Chicago then in the south

The summer of 1966 40 cities were burning

King became a big critic on the economic system and the government became more alarm by him

1966: The case of Richard and Mildred LOVING

American history homework help

1

HIST

Lecture-Based Essay–Immigrants

What and How: Watch the lecture and take good notes. 

OPTIONAL: If you want to, you can submit your notes from the entire lecture in the format you’re accustomed to, by email. If you submit your notes, you can add a few bonus points to your Essay score. 

REQUIRED: It is mandatory to submit a typed, proofread essay, assessing the major similarities and differences between various immigrant groups’ struggles for civil rights in this period and those of African Americans and women in the same time period (up to the 1920s).

Your essay should include a clear sense of the full scope of the Lecture, including each Key Term from the Lecture in the essay.  

The essay must be a minimum of 650 words, and should not be longer than 1300 words.


You should NOT consult any outside sources—just use the lecture.  If you include material that you Googled, you’ll earn a 0.

Find the video links below.


#11: Immigrants and Nativism

Part 1 (:17):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXYw6mU5wFI

Part 2 (:10):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvg2MYE79Zs

Part 3 (:14):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e37X5D4bol0

Part 4 (:07):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kv4Nqck6-JM

Part 5 (:06):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajQHFxPFOAg

Part 6 (:21):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acLI3-2GaME

Part 7 (:19):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6wdDjhwhxU

Part 8 (:09):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ozuffy5-Pg

Part 9 (:21):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SO5Jhx_liaw

Part 10 (:18):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-KDoz7MReU

Part 11 (:14):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4hJBLkIAjs

Part 12 (:13):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HXFbBzwZo0

Part 13:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRzpG3fb_6s

American history homework help

1

HIST

Lecture-Based Essay–Native Americans

What and How: Watch the lecture and take good notes. 

OPTIONAL: If you want to, you can submit your notes from the entire lecture in the format you’re accustomed to, by email. If you submit your notes, you can add a few bonus points to your Essay score. 

REQUIRED: It is mandatory to submit a typed, proofread essay, assessing the major similarities and differences between the Native struggle for civil rights in this period and those of African Americans and women in the same time period (up to the 1930s).

Your essay should include a clear sense of the full scope of the Lecture, including each Key Term from the Lecture in the essay.  

The essay must be a minimum of 600 words, and should not be longer than 1200 words.


You should NOT consult any outside sources—just use the lecture.  If you include material that you Googled, you’ll earn a 0.

Find the video links below.

#12: Conquest and Civilization

Part 0 (:08):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5iNvf7gYaX8

Part 1 (:07):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xn9gLXqE9uw

Part 2:
https://youtu.be/tfd-WX5doAY

Part 3 (:14):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZi_2j0nvxg

Part 4 (:14):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlmgKwYT6g4

Part 5 (:14):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Od1kh6f0wSA

Part 6:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhCWhh7uVjo

Part 7:
http://youtu.be/OcEInGX_Mtg

Part 8:
http://youtu.be/xGUNmwjdhEg

Part 9 (:09):
http://youtu.be/zO-HYaMOLqc

Part 10 (:09):
http://youtu.be/ZhRUTN3w9dA

American history homework help

Assignment 1A: Case Study

Slavery vs. Indentured Servitude

· Explain how and why slavery developed in the American colonies.

· Describe in what ways the practice of slavery was different between each colonial region in British North America. (The question being asked is how and why slavery was developed in those 13 Colonies and why were the slaves replaced the indentured servants. Then, define how the slaves and indentured servants differ?)

· Analyze the differences between slaves and indentured servants.

REQUIRED: Make sure to incorporate two scholarly source dated from 2018-2022.

Writing Requirements (APA format) and:

· Length: 1-2 pages (not including title page or references page)

· Use standard essay writing process by including an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

· 1-inch margins

· Double spaced

· 12-point Times New Roman font

· Title page

· References page (minimum of 1 scholarly source)

· No abstract is required

· In-text citations that correspond with your end references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 1B: The Cost of Expansion

For the initial post, pick two (2) of the following settlements:

· Southern colonies

· Chesapeake colonies

· Middle colonies

· New England colonies

Then, address the following for your selections:

· Compare and contrast the settlement patterns.

· What forces and ideas shaped their origin?

· Examine the influence of religion for those settlements (e.g., Puritanism, Quakers, and the Anglican Church).

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

·

Assignment 2A: The American Revolution

For the initial post, pick two (2) of the leading causes of the American Revolution.

· The Proclamation Act of 1763

· The Navigation Acts

· The Stamp Act

· The Declaratory Act

· The Townsend Act

· The Boston Massacre

· The Coercive Acts

Then, address the following for your selections:

· Analyze the cause and effect of two acts passed by the British Parliament on British North America. Which of your two selections do you consider the most significant and why?

· Examine and explain the significance of the Declaration of Independence to the development of the American Revolution.

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 2B: Confederation and Constitution

· Pick two (2) issues of the Articles of Confederation (https://www.archives.gov/milestone-documents/list) and describe the main problems that the United States was faced with under the Federation government.

· Analyze two major debates (see textbook Section 7.4) by which the Constitution was created in the summer of 1787.

Then, address one (1) of the following to your initial post:

· Discuss the ratification process of the Constitution of 1787.

· How did ratification lead to the formation of America’s first two political parties, the Federalists and Anti-Federalist?

· What were the major differences between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist, and who were the best-known members of each party?

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 3A: Manifest Destiny and the Mexican War of 1846

For the initial post, pick two (2) of the following historical events:

· The Lewis and Clark Expedition

· The Missouri Compromise

· Independence of Texas

· Mexican War of 1846-1848

· The California Gold Rush

Then, address the following for your selections:

· Which of your two selections do you consider most impactful on Westward Expansion during 1800-1848? Explain why.

· Analyze the effects of the ideology of Manifest Destiny on the two historical events that you chose from the list.

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 3B: Case Study

Pick one (1) of the following topics. Then, address the corresponding questions/prompts for your selected topic. Use at least one (1) documented example of the corresponding primary source in your writing.

Option 1: The American System, Transportation, and Communication
Read the following primary source:

· Link (website): 
Of Debates in Congress (Clay’s Debate of the American System in 1832) (Links to an external site.)
 (Click on “Next Image” to see all pages of the debate: pp.258-262.)

Then, address the following:

· Describe the idea of Henry Clay’s “American System.”

· Based on Clay’s economic vision of America, analyze how the American System would build the American market and economy?

· Analyze the role of mechanization and communication in the American System.

Option 2: The Indian Removal Act of 1830
Read the following primary source:

· Link (website): 
Transcript of President Andrew Jackson’s Message to Congress ‘On Indian Removal’ (1830) (Links to an external site.)

Then, address the following:

· Evaluate the rationale that President Jackson used in the removal of the Native Americans from east of the Mississippi River. Did the removal have the intended impact?

· Identify the responsibilities given to the President under the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

· Compare Jackson’s actions toward Native Americans in the context of his First Inaugural Address with the path of events during the Trail of Tears.

· Determine if the removal of the Native Americans from east of the Mississippi River violate the principles found in the Declaration of Independence?

Option 3: The Abolitionist Movement
Read the following primary source:

· Link (website): 
Declaration of Sentiments of American Anti-Slavery Society (1833) (Links to an external site.)
 (Click on arrows to view all images of the document. Click on plus and minus signs to enlarge or reduce size of images.)

Then, address the following:

· Assess if abolitionists were responsible reformers or irresponsible agitators?

· Explain how abolitionists upheld the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of antislavery and abolitionist thought.

· Assess the effect of the Gag Rule on the Abolitionist Movement.

· Analyze how the women’s rights movement would gain momentum from the antislavery movement.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)

· 1-inch margins

· Double spaced

· 12-point Times New Roman font

· Title page

· References page

· In-text citations that correspond with your end references

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 2 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 4A: Stepping Stones to the Civil War

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, pick three (3) of the leading causes of the American Civil War:

· The Compromise of 1850

· The Fugitive Slave Law 1850

· Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852

· The Kansas Nebraska Act 1854

· The Dred Scott Case of 1857

· The Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858

Then, address one (1) of the following for your selections:

· Based on the historical facts given in this module, assess if the American Civil War was inevitable.

· Analyze if the United States Supreme Court can settle legal and moral issues through judiciary review. In your response, provide a documented example of a modern parallel of a legal or moral issue settled by the United States Supreme Court.

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 4B: Reconstruction and the Compromise of 1877

For the initial post, craft a response comparing the three (3) Reconstruction plans:

· Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (10% Plan) – Lincoln

· Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan

· Congressional Reconstruction Plan (Congress)

Then, address one (1) of the following for your selections:

· Analyze if the South should have been treated as a defeated nation or as rebellious states.

· Explain how the American culture and society changed in the North versus the South during Reconstruction.

· Analyze the impact of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction on African-Americans.

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 5A: Case Study

Pick one (1) of the following topics. Then, address the corresponding questions/prompts for your selected topic. Use at least one (1) documented example of the corresponding primary source in your writing.

Option 1: Big Business (Monopolies) and Exploitation of Workers
View the following resource:

· Link (video): 
The Progressive Era (Links to an external site.)
 (27:30)

Browse and read one (1) of the following:

· Link (article): 
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (Links to an external site.)

· Link (library article): 
The Pullman Strike (Links to an external site.)

Then, address the following:

· Explain if big business leaders were “captains of industry,” “shrewd businessmen,” or “robber barons.”

· Based on one of the resources noted for this option, assess American working conditions and exploitation of workers in the Age of Industry.

· Analyze the role that government played in reforming American working conditions.

· Explain the benefits of the Federal Government regulations of monopolies.

· Analyze which progressive presidents attained economic justice and reform for workers.

Option 2: Who is A Progressive?
Review the following site:

· Link (website): 
Presidential Election of 1912: A Resource Guide (Links to an external site.)

Then, address the following:

· According to Roosevelt, what are the characteristics of a progressive?

· Explain and give examples of the characteristics of “anti-progressives.”

· Trace what types of activities “anti-progressives” engaged in?

· Analyze the goals of progressivism.

· Explain what areas of society progressives addressed?

· Analyze the progressive achievements Roosevelt highlights in his speech?

Option 3: World War I
Review the following resources:

· Link (video): 
A War to End All Wars: Part 2 (Links to an external site.)
 (6:56)

· Link (library article): 
The Treaty of Versailles and the Rise of Nazism (Links to an external site.)

Then, address the following:

· Trace the origins of World War I, and assess if the world war was inevitable in 1914?

· Explain if it was possible for the United States to maintain neutrality in World War I. If yes, explain how. If no, explain why not.

· Analyze if the United States should have entered World War I to make the world safe for democracy.

· Analyze if the Treaty of Versailles was a fair and effective settlement for lasting world peace.

· Explain if the United States Senate should have approved of the Treaty of Versailles.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 3-4 pages (not including title page or references page)

· 1-inch margins

· Double spaced

· 12-point Times New Roman font

· Title page

· References page

· In-text citations that correspond with your end references

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 2 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 5B: Industrialization, Imperialism, and America’s Entry Into WWI

For the initial post, pick two (2) of the following categories representing minority groups during 1880-1914:

· Women’s rights activists

· African Americans

· Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe

· Child workers

· Great Plain Indians

Then, address the following for your selections:

· Explain the socio-economic status and challenges of your minority groups at the turn of the century.

· How did the Industrial Revolution affect your chosen minority groups?

· Analyze how the Progressives brought reform to your selected minority groups. Do you find that the Progressives were successful in making government responsive and improve the conditions of your chosen minority group?

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 6A: The New Deal

For the initial post, pick two (2) of the following (any program and/or act of the New Deal):

Programs

Acts

Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)

Public Works Administration (PWA)

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Farm Security Administration (FSA)

Emergency Banking Relief Act

Economy Act

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

Tennessee Valley Authority Act (TVA)

National Employment System Act (Wagner-Peyser Act)

Home Owners Loan Act

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIA)

Glass-Steagall Act (Banking Act)

Securities & Exchange Act

Emergency Relief Appropriation Act

Resettlement Administration (RA)

Rural Electrification Administration (REA)

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

Social Security Act

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

Reflecting over the weekly reading and lesson video The New Deal Coalition (also linked in the Required Resources), address the following for your selections:

· Consider workers, immigrants, and African Americans. Explain how minorities were represented by the New Deal.

· Analyze to what extent you think that the New Deal effectively ended the Great Depression and restored the economy.

· Link (video): 
A New Deal: Part 5 (Links to an external site.)
 (7:20)

· Link (website): 
New Deal Programs: Selected Library of Congress Resources: Introduction (Links to an external site.)
 (Read this introduction before exploring the other links in this discussion.)

· Link (website): 
New Deal Programs: Selected Library of Congress Resources (Links to an external site.)
 (Explore the links under Sections and Topic for specific New Deal Programs.)

· Link (website): 
New Deal Programs: Selected Library of Congress Resources: Digitized Materials (Links to an external site.)
 (Explore the links for primary sources including audio recordings, written narratives, photographs, posters, and music.)

· Link (website): 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal (Links to an external site.)
 (Review the documents and interviews on this site.)

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 6B: World War II

For the initial post, consider three (3) of the following events:

· Treaty of Versailles

· Rise of fascism, militarism and imperialism

· Failure of the League of Nations

· Hitler and the Nazi Party

· The Lend Lease Act

· Japanese expansion and the bombing of Pearl Harbor

Based on your three selections, choose two (2) of the following and craft a response for your selections:

· Assess if the United States foreign policy during the 1930s helped to promote World War II. Could the United States have prevented the outbreak of World War II? If so, how? If not, why not?

· Explain if the United States, despite neutrality, aided the Allies against the Axis powers.

· Analyze if the use of atomic (nuclear) weapons to defeat enemies in war is a setback for democracy (President Truman’s decision to drop the atom bomb on Japan).

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 7A: American Foreign Policy during the Cold War

Initial Post Instructions
Pick three (3)
 of the following American Foreign policies:

· Marshall Plan

· Berlin Airlift

· Containment

· Anti-Communist Freedom Fighters

· Vietnam (conflict) War

· Détente’

· SALT I & SALT II

· Camp David Accords

· Strategic Defense Initiative (nicknamed “Star Wars”)

Then, address the following for your selections:

· Explain how each of your choices was an effective policy to thwart international communist expansion.

· Based on your selections, analyze if the United States should have feared international communist subversion during the Cold War era (1945-1991).

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 scholarly source dated from 2018-2022

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 7B: journal Entry

For this activity, reflect on the course content and address the following:

· Identify and elaborate on one or two lessons you have learned from our study of United States history that affect you today in your daily life and/or work.

· Provide advice to the next group of students who will be taking this course.

· How has this course affected you today in your daily life and/or work?

· What should incoming students be aware of regarding this class?

· What strategies did you use that they may find useful?

· What advice can you provide to help them earn an A?

Writing Requirements

· Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page)

· 1-inch margins

· Double spaced

· 12-point Times New Roman font

· Title page


REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 citation from book : Title: U.S. History

Publisher: OpenStax

Publication Date: 2014

APA Citation:

OpenStax. (2019). U.S. history. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from 
https://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@6.18:gMXC1GEM@7/Introduction

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

Assignment 8A: America and Terrorism in the 21st Century

Initial Post Instructions
Consider a few terrorist activities since the 1980s until today. Here is a starting point:

· 1983: United States Embassy in Beirut and Kuwait is bombed

· 1988: Osama bin Laden re-organizes Al Qaeda in Pakistan to carry out attacks

· 1993: World Trade Center Bombing (first time)

· 1995: Oklahoma City Bombing

· 1998: United Stated Embassy bombings Nairobi and Sar Es Salaam

· 2001: 9/11 Bombing of the World Trade Centers

· 2001: Bio Terrorism begins (anthrax letters and Bill Gates’s warnings on bio terrorism)

· 2013: Boston Marathon Bombings

· 2018: Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting

Then, address three (3) of the following and craft a response, as a whole, for your selections:

· Explain if you think that global terrorism can be stopped.

· Analyze the responsibility of the United States today to be the world’s “policeman.”

· Assess if peace and stability in the Middle East are vital to U.S. economy and national security.

· If the United States withdrew its troops from the Middle East tomorrow, would the terrorist threat end. Why or why not?

· Assess if the use of military force is the only way to prevent terrorism. Are there other possible alternatives? Which strategy is best and why?

· REQUIRED: Minimum of 1 citation from book :

· REQUIRED: APA format for in-text citations and list of references

· NO PLAGARISM PLEASE THIS WILL BE GRADED BY TURN IT IN (do not use direct quotations)

American history homework help

Would you have supported  the “Revolution of 1800”” and in what ways was it  a revolution?  

 

Your answer must be at least 500 words.


American history homework help

Materials created by the National Archives and Records Administration are in the public domain.Materials created by the National Archives and Records Administration are in the public domain.

Analyze a Written Document

Meet the document.
Type (check all that apply):
❑ Letter ❑ Speech ❑ Patent ❑ Telegram ❑ Court document
❑ Chart ❑ Newspaper ❑ Advertisement ❑ Press Release ❑ Memorandum
❑ Report ❑ Email ❑ Identification document ❑ Presidential document
❑ Congressional document ❑ Other

Describe it as if you were explaining to someone who can’t see it.
Think about: Is it handwritten or typed? Is it all by the same person? Are there stamps or other marks? What else do you see on it?

Observe its parts.
Who wrote it?

Who read/received it?

When is it from?

Where is it from?

Try to make sense of it.
What is it talking about?

Write one sentence summarizing this document.

Why did the author write it?

Quote evidence from the document that tells you this.

What was happening at the time in history this document was created?

Use it as historical evidence.
What did you find out from this document that you might not learn anywhere else?

What other documents or historical evidence are you going to use to help you understand this
event or topic?

American history homework help

Compare and contrast the political divisions of the 1790’s  to the current political divisions in 2022.    Identify two similarities and two differences. What party would you have been a part of in the 1790s? Explain the reasons why you made that choice.

 

Your answer must be at least 500 words


American history homework help

Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, Volume 11, Issue 3

DOI 10.1215/15476715-2687664 © 2014 by Labor and Working-Class History Association

37

Title VII in Economic-Historical Perspective

Gavin Wright

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 fully deserves its status as a watershed achievement
in American political and social history, and Title VII merits full marks as a land-
mark in national economic history. Enforcement of Title VII generated major eco-
nomic gains for African Americans, advances that for the most part have been sus-
tained over time. In drawing lessons from this historical record, however, it must be
recognized that the successes reflected a specific set of channels in a particular his-
torical context. The primary driving forces were grass-roots mobilization for racial
justice and pressure from all three branches of the federal government. Most of the
gains were realized in the South, reflecting the low starting point in that region’s
transition from decades of Jim Crow segregation as well as the organizational cohe-
sion descended from the civil rights movement. It is far from clear that the same or
similar approaches can be effective in confronting racial and class inequalities in the
twenty-first century.

The role of political mobilization was important from the beginning. Early
drafts of the Kennedy administration’s civil rights bill did not even include a fair
employment section, perhaps because the issue was already being addressed by the
President’s Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity (overseeing compliance
by federal contractors under John F. Kennedy’s 1961 executive order) and by voluntary
efforts under the Plans for Progress program launched in the same year. This omis-
sion was reversed in response to vigorous lobbying by several groups allied in the civil
rights coalition. These advocates well understood that progress under existing pro-
grams was painfully slow at best. Although the resulting act prohibited employment
discrimination on the basis of race or color (as well as religion, sex, and national ori-
gin), many contemporary observers expected little of significance from Title VII. Not
only did the text contain glaring loopholes (such as protection for “bona fide” seniority
or merit systems), but the newly created Equal Employment Opportunity Commis-
sion (EEOC) had limited powers of enforcement. Because the EEOC could neither
issue “cease-and-desist” orders nor initiate lawsuits, it was described by discrimination

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expert Michael Sovern in 1966 as a “poor, enfeebled thing . . . [with] the power to con-
ciliate but not to compel.”1

Nonetheless, passage of Title VII had a galvanizing effect on black job seek-
ers. Emboldened by a sense of legal standing (as well as strength in numbers), black
men and women began to apply for jobs in the southern textiles industry from which
they had long been excluded. The EEOC actively encouraged this assertiveness.
Although textile firms initially resisted and dragged their feet, within a few years
they came to see the advantages of an expanded labor supply. The New York Times
reported in 1969: “Virtually all of the large [textile] companies have begun to preach
a doctrine of equal, color-blind employment.”2

Outside of textiles, progress was slower and more litigious, as workers invoked
Title VII to challenge segregated “lines of progression.” In the higher paying paper
industry, many applications for job transfers were filed almost immediately after the
act came into effect on July 2, 1965. When the transfers were not approved, workers
sued, supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) Legal Defense Fund. In a landmark 1968 case, the US Justice Department
sued Crown-Zellerbach, a major paper employer based in Bogalusa, Louisiana, along
with its leading union. The outcome was a court determination that even a super-
ficially neutral seniority system could be illegal if it hindered rectification of long-
standing barriers to black advancement opportunities. This decision led in turn to the
Jackson Memorandum of 1968, negotiated by the Office of Federal Contract Compli-
ance, in which International Paper and its southern unions accepted the principle that
blacks could advance to their “rightful place” on the companywide seniority ladder.3

Another landmark decision was Griggs v. Duke Power (1971), which estab-
lished the “disparate impact” test for discrimination in promotion criteria. On March
1, 1966, fourteen janitors from the all-black Labor Department at Duke Power’s Dan
River plant signed a letter of complaint about the absence of promotion opportuni-
ties. The letter requested “promotion [for janitors] when vacancies occur” into any of
four specified job classifications. The instigator, a former tobacco sharecropper named
Willie Boyd, had been active in the NAACP for years and closely followed passage
of Title VII. The company informed the men that standards were being raised and
that they were welcome to take the test required for promotion. The group then for-
warded their complaint to the EEOC, which tried to resolve the matter through con-
ciliation. When this effort also proved fruitless, the workers turned to the NAACP
Legal Defense Fund, which assisted them in filing suit on September 9, 1966. After
setbacks in appeals courts, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously — five years after
the initial complaint — that tests having a disparate impact on minorities could be

1. Timothy J. Minchin and John A. Salmond, After the Dream: Black and White Southerners since 1965
(Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2011), 75.

2. Roy Reed, “Industry in South Was Negro Labor,” New York Times, May 19, 1969.
3. Timothy J. Minchin, The Color of Work: The Struggle for Civil Rights in the Southern Paper Industry,

1945–1980 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001).

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W r i g h t / T i t l e V I I i n E c o n o m i c – H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e           39

invalid regardless of intent, unless shown to be demonstrable measures of job perfor-
mance. As a result of the decision, the high school graduates in Duke’s Labor Depart-
ment were promoted, and education and testing requirements were waived for the
others. Willie Boyd ultimately became the first black supervisor over white men at
the Dan River plant.4

More fundamentally, Griggs and related rulings gave new credibility to EEOC
guidelines and impelled a much more thoroughgoing change than firms had antici-
pated. Veteran labor lawyer and legal scholar Alfred W. Blumrosen writes: “Griggs
infused Title VII with extraordinary power. . . . Without Griggs, the statute might
have warranted little more than a text note in law case courts.” Citations to the case in
federal courts rose steadily through the 1970s, reaching a peak in 1980 before declin-
ing in the next decade. The Griggs principle went well beyond what could have been
predicted in 1964, but as Blumrosen concludes: “There was no ‘plain meaning’ to
Title VII.”5 It acquired specific meaning only through the ongoing efforts of work-
ers, activists, and lawyers, supported by the courts. Congress added to the impact by
passing the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, finally giving litigation
power to the EEOC and extending Title VII coverage to state and local governments.

Did this extended struggle to make Title VII operational have any signifi-
cant effect in the real world? Emphatically yes. Figure 1 displays the black share of
white-collar and blue-collar occupations by region, as compiled from EEO-1 reports
from large employers. The picture clearly shows a sharp upward surge in black occu-
pational status after 1965, in all regions but especially in the South. Prior to the act,
black occupational shares were increasing slowly in the North and West (from 1950
and perhaps earlier, according to US Census Bureau figures) but stagnant or declin-
ing within the South. Thus the strong positive growth in southern states after 1965
seems clearly attributable to Title VII.

Most early gains were in southern blue-collar occupations. The South was a
tempting target for Title VII, because discrimination was perpetuated there through
explicit segregation systems. Most of these were dismantled between 1965 and 1980,
with significant benefits for black southerners. James Heckman and his collaborators
show that relative black income gains during this era were overwhelmingly southern,
reflecting primarily a shift from “laborer” into higher-paying “operative” and “crafts-
man” positions.6 Advances were not limited to the South, but elsewhere progress
slowed to a crawl after 1980, roughly coincident with the drastic cutbacks in funding

4. Robert Samuel Smith, Labor and Civil Rights: Griggs versus Duke Power and the Struggle for Equal
Employment Opportunity (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008).

5. Alfred W. Blumrosen, “The Legacy of Griggs: Social Progress and Subjective Judgments,” Chicago-
Kent Law Review 63 (1987): 1–3; and Modern Law: The Law Transmission System and Equal Employment
Opportunity (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), 337.

6. Richard J. Butler, James Heckman, and Brook Payner, “The Impact of the Economy and the State
on the Economic Status of Blacks,” in Markets in History, ed. David Galenson (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1989); and John J. Donohue III and James Heckman, “Continuous versus Episodic Change:
The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks,” Journal of Economic Literature 29
(1991): 1603–43.

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and staffing at the EEOC and the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
at that time.

What is perhaps most surprising is that growth in the black share of
white-collar employment continued long after the post-1980 political transition, but
almost exclusively in the South. We do not yet know all of the reasons for this pattern,
but the list of likely contributing factors includes long-term gains in black educational
attainment, economic growth in southern cities with large black populations and
political representation, “networks effects” associated with historically black southern
communities, and the impact of black representation in corporate management on
recruitment and retention of new black employees.7 We can say with more confidence
that these gains were not driven by increasingly forceful applications of Title VII to
private employers in the South, because, with rare though important exceptions (such
as Texaco and Coca-Cola), racial employment discrimination cases sharply declined
relative to other types of employment issues as of the 1980s.8

7. Zoë Cullen and I are currently engaged in a study addressing this question, drawing on EEOC data.
8. John J. Donohue III and Peter Siegleman, “The Changing Nature of Employment Litigation,”

Stanford Law Review 43 (1991): 983–1083; and “The Evolution of Employment Discrimination Law in the
1990s,” in Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research, ed. Laura Beth Nielsen and Robert L. Nelson
(Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer 2005).

Figure 1. Black share of white-collar and blue-collar occupations, south and elsewhere, 1966–2009.
Source: EEOC EEO-1 reports. Observations for 1966–70 are taken from the annual EEOC publication
Job Patterns for Minorities and Women in Private Industry. Blue-collar occupations include both
operative and skilled crafts, excluding laborer and service jobs.

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W r i g h t / T i t l e V I I i n E c o n o m i c – H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e           41

What then are we to make of the legacy and current status of Title VII in
light of this brief historical survey? The legislation was clearly prompted by the race
issue, and in this realm, it has been a great success, generating lasting gains for Afri-
can Americans through major reductions in racial exclusions and inequities, with few
signs of significant inefficiencies in the process. But even during the era of its great-
est achievements, and certainly since then, Title VII has been soaked in paradox: it
prohibits discrimination on the basis of race or color, yet progress has not come pri-
marily from ignoring race but by taking race systematically into account. Title VII’s
main accomplishments have occurred in a region where racial consciousness remains
strong. The uneasy partnership between universalist rhetoric and race-conscious
mobilization has been historically productive, but it is difficult to see this same for-
mula as the major vehicle in current and future struggles against economic inequal-
ity. Racial prejudice and subtler forms of discrimination no doubt continue, but they
have been overwhelmed by structural changes in the US labor market that could not
have been foreseen in 1964.

The principles of Title VII are still important and should clearly be retained.
They were effectively extended to women in the original legislation and by subse-
quent court ruling to sexual harassment. Later legislation extended protected status
to age, pregnancy, and disabilities, and we may soon see a further extension to sexual
orientation. Individuals in all of these categories deserve protection against discrim-
ination in employment and on the job. But with a majority of the labor force now
in protected status, Title VII can hardly serve as the basis for the racial, ethnic, and
gender- based coalition that our times require. Antidiscrimination laws will not raise
the living standards or life prospects of large numbers of low-income Americans, as
they did during the civil rights era.

It should not be discouraging to acknowledge that reform strategies that were
effective in one historical era do not carry over readily to another time. We can still
look to history for inspiration. In building coalitions across racial, ethnic, and gen-
der lines, we can hardly do better than to draw upon the inclusive values of the civil
rights movement.

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American history homework help

Research Paper

The core assignment of this course is a documented research paper (1500-2000 words in length, approx. 6-8 pages double-spaced, 12-point font).

· The paper should support a thesis statement with information gained from research or investigation.

· The paper will not be just a report presenting information but will be a paper that carefully examines and presents your own historical interpretation of the topic you have chosen and your interpretation of the information you have gathered.

· The paper may include consideration of problems and solutions, definition of key terms, or may refute arguments against your thesis statement.

It will be important to choose a topic of interest to you.

· Approach this assignment with an open and skeptical mind, then form an opinion based on what you have discovered.

· You must suspend beliefs while you are investigating and let the discoveries shape your opinion. (This is a thesis-finding approach.)

· Once you have found your thesis, write the paper to support it.

You will use some of the following critical thinking skills in this process:

1. Choosing an appropriate topic, limiting the topic.

2. Gathering information, summarizing sources.

3. Analyzing and evaluating sources.

4. Defining key terms.

5. Synthesizing information, comparing and contrasting sources.

6. Testing a thesis, making a historical argument, using refutation.

7. Amassing support for a position.

8. Documenting sources.

Because this may be a longer paper than you have written before and a complex process is involved, it is recommended that you complete this paper using the following steps:

1. Choose a topic related to chapters covered in The American Yawp, (Chapters 16-30) that you would truly like to explore and that you are willing to spend some time on. Your chosen topic should be focused. Pose a question that you really want to answer. You may want to begin with more than one topic in mind.

2. Do some preliminary reading on the topic(s). You may begin with the textbook, then further explore the information available. Refine your topic. Summarize your topic, your interest in the topic, the questions you want to answer, and a hypothesis you want to test.

3. Gather information from a variety of sources. Use a minimum of four sources for your paper, and at least one must be a primary source.

. Primary sources are contemporary to the times under investigation.

. An example of a secondary source is our textbook, though the textbook also contains excerpts of primary sources, which you may use as a source in your paper.

· Outline the results of your research and the plan for your paper (you are not required to submit the outline).

· Write the final draft and be sure to include a Works Cited List, and use the correct 
MLA documentation style
.

Grade Rubric

INTRODUCTION & THESIS: Includes a clear thesis statement, an assertion or position. The topic is original and manageable in a short research paper. /15

FOCUS AND DEVELOPMENT: Body of the essay focuses on this thesis and develops it fully, recognizing the complexity of issues and refuting arguments in opposition to the thesis. /20

SUPPORT AND SYNTHESIS: Uses sufficient and relevant evidence to support the thesis (and primary points), including facts, inferences, and judgments. Quotes, summarizes, and paraphrases accurately and effectively–appropriately introducing and explaining each quote. /25

RESOURCES: Shows a clear understanding of the sources; has evaluated each source and used it appropriately. Uses a wide variety of sources reflecting significant research. /10

CONVENTIONS: Uses MLA format correctly; includes internal citations and a Works Cited list; is free of errors. /15

CORRECTNESS AND STYLE: Introduces the topic in an interesting way; shows critical thinking and depth of understanding; uses appropriate tone; shows sophistication in language usage and sentence structure. /15

TOTAL: /100

American history homework help

Textbook –

http://www.americanyawp.com

Journal #1

In this first journal activity, you may write about any topic(s) of your choice, but it is best to use the textbook to study.

· For this activity, topics should address content covered in Chapters 16 – 23 in the textbook. 

. It is expected that, at a minimum, you are reading the assigned textbook chapters.

. You are encouraged to read collateral historical writings on topics covered in the textbook.

· This activity will consist of 10 separate journal entries; you will have a total of 20 entries by the end of the course.

· Each separate entry should: 

. Be titled as Entry 1, Entry 2, Entry 3, etc.

. Contain a minimum of 120 words.

. Consist of a summary, paraphrase, and synthesis of material you are reading/studying in this course.

. Be written in your own words – do not quote the work of others verbatim.

. Discuss the subject matter that you are studying – do not simply agree/disagree.

· Your study involves, first and foremost, learning the nation’s past; doing so requires a review of previously published studies, so you are encouraged to conduct research using outside resources, but be sure to draft your journal entries in your own words. 

. Direct quotations should not be used; citations are not necessary.

. Do not copy/paste information from any source.

. No citations

Journal #2

In this second journal activity, you may write about any topic(s) of your choice, but it is best to use the textbook to study.

· For this activity, topics should address content covered in Chapters 24 – 30 in the textbook. 

. It is expected that, at a minimum, you are reading the assigned textbook chapters.

. You are encouraged to read collateral historical writings on topics covered in the textbook.

· This activity will consist of 10 separate journal entries; you will have a total of 20 entries by the end of the course.

· Each separate entry should: 

. Be titled as Entry 1, Entry 2, Entry 3, etc.

. Contain a minimum of 120 words.

. Consist of a summary, paraphrase, synthesis of material you are reading/studying in this course.

. Be written in your own words – do not quote the work of others verbatim.

. Discuss the subject matter that you are studying – do not simply agree/disagree.

· Your study involves, first and foremost, learning the nation’s past; doing so requires a review of previously published studies, so you are encouraged to conduct research using outside resources, but be sure to draft your journal entries in your own words. 

. Direct quotations should not be used; citations are not necessary.

. Do not copy/paste information from any source.

. No citations

Grading Criteria for Journals:

You will make two separate journal submissions during this course. Each submission will be worth 50 points.

· Each submission will consist of 10 separate journal entries.

· Save the file containing your first set of 10 entries in .rtf (rich text format) or as a .doc (word doc), and name the file Journal #1.

· For clarity and ease, please title your entries as Entry 1, Entry 2, Entry 3, etc.

· Each separate journal entry should be a minimum of 120 words in length.

· Each entry should pertain to United States History after 1877.

· Each entry should be written in your own words.

· Submission of only half the required length/number of journals will earn half of the available points.

To gain a better understanding of journal entry expectations, please review the sample entry below:

Entry 1

What was the Declaration of Independence all about? It was written by Thomas Jefferson but was probably not signed on July 4th, 1776. It was written after hostilities had broken out. Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill had taken place a year earlier. Why so late? The reason might be that the colonies were not yet united in their response to Britain. Many did not want to leave the empire only a few years earlier they had boasted about. Also, taking on the powerful British empire with trained troops seemed almost impossible. Several of the condemnations in the declaration were not true, and they were addressed to King George III rather than Parliament, which had the real power. It is quite possible that the colonial leadership did not want to attack a representative institution even though it was hardly representative of the people of Britain. Still, the declaration won widespread approval and helped to unite the colonists. 

Note: You will notice that this entry is greater than 120 words in length.

· Keep in mind that 120 words is the minimum length.

· There are no “right or wrong” answers, and it is not required that your instructor “agree” with your entry.

· You will be graded on how your entry demonstrates that you have read and thought about the material.

· You are encouraged to use the journal entries as study aids for the exams.

American history homework help

Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, Volume 11, Issue 3

DOI 10.1215/15476715-2687682 © 2014 by Labor and Working-Class History Association

19

The Civil Rights Act of 1964:
The Difference a Law Can Make

Nancy MacLean

What difference can a reform make? That’s a timely question in the United States
today. Many previous victories of progressive social movements now face mortal threat
from determined opponents, among them the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the
right of workers to organize collectively, to select just two. The fiftieth anniversary of
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 offers historians an opportunity to remind the public of
how a legislative milestone, even one containing many compromises, improved the
quality of life for millions of ordinary Americans and ennobled our culture. Rather
than minimize the significance of the law, as some are wont to do, scholars should
highlight the vast advances it enabled — while also drawing attention to the obstacles
that kept it from achieving its full promise.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is one of the premier legislative victories of
American social movements; it also illuminates how a historic reform can advance
activism and alter movement strategy. The product of long struggle by African
Americans and progressive white allies, particularly Jewish activists, the bill addressed
many areas of public life. It sought to end segregation and discrimination in are-
nas including workplaces, courts, polls, government agencies, municipal facilities,
schools, and public accommodations such as restaurants, motels, and transportation.
The Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decisions had no bite, for exam-
ple, until the civil rights act added teeth. Its Title VI, which enabled the withdrawal
of federal funds from districts that continued to discriminate, sparked the first school
desegregation efforts that went beyond tokenism.

But the section of the act that prohibited discrimination on the job — Title
VII — had the most far-reaching and enduring impact. Civil rights activists had made
fair employment legislation their top legislative priority for two decades after Con-
gress, cowed by an alliance of southern segregationists and northern business interests,
failed to continue the World War II Fair Employment Practices Committee won by
labor leader A. Philip Randolph’s March on Washington movement. The combined
power of these potent enemies of labor rights and racial reform defeated dozens of

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postwar efforts to prevent employment discrimination and made Title VII the most
hotly contested element of this hard-won act. It passed only after a historic 534-hour
filibuster.

Today few remember what a radical achievement this was. Indeed, without
Lyndon Johnson’s singular legislative genius, it would not have passed. The act ele-
vated human rights above property rights in America for the first time since eman-
cipation ended slavery without compensation to those who owned and traded men,
women, and children. Property rights had trumped all other claims from the defeat
of Reconstruction through the New Deal, owing to the Supreme Court’s interpre-
tation of the Fourteenth Amendment to protect corporate personhood rather than
actual African American persons. Where discrimination was concerned, property
owners continued to reign all powerful in national law until 1964. Corporations and
other employers were free to refuse to consider African Americans, Jews, Latinos,
Asian Americans, and women of all backgrounds for any or all jobs.

The extent of the change can be gauged by the vitriol of the act’s opponents.
The southern segregationists and right-wing business interests who were joining
together in the nascent conservative movement fought hard to defend, as some put it,
“the precious right to discriminate.” They were losing a power they had long taken
for granted as vouchsafed to them by the “original intent” of the Constitution. Out-
raged, many came together in a quest to take over the party of Lincoln and remake
it in their image. In the wake of the passage of the civil rights act, they rallied to the
1964 presidential candidacy of Arizona Republican US Senator Barry Goldwater,
the anti-union, free-market apostle who said in explanation of his vote against the
legislation, “Our right of property is perhaps our most sacred right.”1

Much to the horror of such opponents, the civil rights act heralded a new
America. The federal government now affirmed a commitment to end discrimi-
nation and provided tools for aggrieved citizens to secure equal opportunity. They
could file complaints with the new Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
(EEOC) and sue employers for violating their right to fair treatment. The movement
organizations that fought for the reform’s passage helped them to do so. The legend-
ary labor secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peo-
ple (NAACP), Herbert Hill, reminded the organization’s branches that “Title VII is
not self-enforcing,” as he traveled the country to teach black workers about this new
resource and how they could use it to fight discrimination.

Public officials were wholly unprepared for the number of complaints workers
filed: some nine thousand in the EEOC’s first year, which climbed to seventy-seven
thousand by 1975. “It was difficult to do anything before the Civil Rights Bill was
passed,” explained a North Carolina worker; “there wasn’t anything to do, you were
scared to talk.” But with it, he and other workers filed not just complaints but ulti-

1. For a fuller account of all the processes described here and the sources for quotations in the text, see
Nancy MacLean, Freedom Is Not Enough: The Opening of the American Work place (Cambridge, MA: Har-
vard University Press, 2006).

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M a c L e a n / T h e C i v i l R i g h t s A c t o f 19 6 4 : T h e D i f f e r e n c e a L a w C a n M a k e           21

mately class-action lawsuits — another new departure from the old legal regime,
which empowered collective action in the courts as never before. Between 1965 and
1971, more than twelve hundred such lawsuits were filed against what one attorney
called “labor apartheid.” When they won costly back-pay settlements, corporations
began adopting more proactive efforts at inclusion. The new climate created by pas-
sage of the act also gave a boost to the decades-old effort to end discrimination by fed-
eral contractors, which led to potent and effective affirmative action remedies. These
combined measures enabled black workers to gain access to once-closed employment
and promotion as never before, even in some industries as recalcitrant as southern
textiles, long lily-white.

As it enabled victims of racial and religious discrimination to challenge
wrongdoing, Title VII of the act also empowered American women as nothing had
since 1920, when they won the right to vote after more than seventy years of strug-
gle. Contemporary women activists were most focused on workplace matters, and
Title VII provided them with an unprecedented lever for change. They used it with
an alacrity and ingenuity that took all observers by surprise. The prospect of equal
employment — and the EEOC’s initial reluctance to act on sex discrimination — gave
rise in 1966 to the largest and most lasting organization of the new women’s move-
ment, the National Organization for Women (NOW). Over the next few years
its members lobbied government, sued in court, and organized at the grass roots
throughout the country to win fair treatment for women in every line of work from
the skilled trades to the professions. They pried open door after door long slammed
in women’s faces — among them, tenured faculty positions in the nation’s colleges and
universities. Led by African American visionaries such as Pauli Murray and Eleanor
Holmes Norton, feminists increasingly allied with civil rights groups in legal coali-
tions to end racial and gender discrimination. They also broadened understanding
of the nature of discrimination, as evidenced by the Supreme Court’s recognition of
sexual harassment as illegal employment discrimination in 1985.

The civil rights act also encouraged Mexican American activists to rethink
their strategies of empowerment. “Whether Mexicans are whites or people of color,”
the veteran activist Bert Corona observed near the time of its passage, “has been a
thorny issue for years.” The issue was above all a political one: whether to form coa-
litions with African Americans, in particular, on the basis of nonwhite identity or
pursue advancement through assimilation and respectability, as white immigrants
from Europe had. The legal construction of race prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964
encouraged Mexican Americans to lay claim to whiteness in order to have any hope
of escaping discrimination. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had effectively
made Mexicans in US territory “white” by recognizing them as citizens at a time
when naturalization law made whiteness a prerequisite of citizenship. As a result, for
more than a century, Mexican Americans’ main line of defense against being subject
to the same abysmal treatment as African Americans was to hold the US government
accountable for treating them as “white,” sometimes with backing from the Mexican

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government. As long as discrimination against minorities was legal, this leverage was
their only hope of protection. By providing better tools to battle discrimination, the
1964 act enabled Mexican Americans to pursue a strategy that was also more likely
to lead to cooperation with other minorities. Changing the legal ground on which
Mexican American and African American political activists encountered one another
created new possibilities for national and local alliances to advance progressive poli-
tics more generally.

These wide-ranging efforts, in turn, enabled others. The rights struggles of
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) Americans and of peo-
ple with disabilities built on the groundwork laid by the civil rights act, as activists
in these causes emulated the arguments and tactics of African Americans, Mexican
Americans, and women of all groups. The passage of the 1990 Americans with Dis-
abilities Act, the opening of the military to lesbians and gay men, and the prospect of
marriage equality all would have been unthinkable without the passage of the civil
rights act and the transformation in culture it expressed and furthered.

It is a truism among political scientists and legal scholars that reforms have
about a fifteen-year window to do their work before their opponents find ways to
circumvent them. That was true — with uncanny precision — of the civil rights act.
Advocates of equal employment made significant headway right through the 1970s,
when both racial and sex segregation on the job broke down as never before, but
the effort ground to a crawl after the election of Ronald Reagan to the presidency in
1980. Reagan was a movement conservative who first came to national attention for
the powerful 1964 speech he gave in support of Barry Goldwater, the only Republi-
can senator to have voted against the civil rights act and the spokesman for the effort
to drive moderates from the GOP. Once in office Reagan’s people set about systemat-
ically undermining the fight against discrimination, from underfunding the agencies
charged with ending it, to appointing leaders hostile to their missions, to backing and
even soliciting “reverse discrimination” lawsuits designed to roll back previous legal
victories. After 1980, nearly all studies find a cessation of black advances in particular.

The tougher atmosphere for equal employment advocates after 1980 was
not simply due to conservative opposition, even as that should never be understated
because it was continuous and increasingly powerful over time. One challenge was
that Title VII’s supports and companion measures weakened gravely over the years.
The law was never envisioned as a panacea; most activists saw it as part of a larger
toolkit to create greater fairness in American life. The labor movement, the nation’s
prime force for economic justice, was at its peak strength during the fight for the civil
rights act, in which it played an indispensable role. Since then, however, its members
have seen their power chipped away by economic change, fierce employer opposition,
weak leadership, waning liberal commitment to trade unions, and the effective loss
of the right to strike. The mass membership advocacy groups that helped win and
enforce the act in its first decade — preeminently the NAACP, the American Jew-
ish Committee, and NOW — are also weaker and less attentive to workplace and

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working- class issues.2 So, too, are the liberal religious bodies that proved so pivotal in
lobbying for the civil rights act and helping to create a far-reaching values-based con-
sensus against discrimination.3

The economy itself was also a big challenge: after the mid-1970s, it altered in
ways that were only barely visible in 1964. Then, manufacturing still dominated the
economy. In unionized sectors such as auto, steel, and meatpacking, workers with
a high school education or less might find jobs that paid living wages and provided
health care and pensions. Some activists, particularly labor activists, understood in the
1960s the threat that “automation” posed to the unskilled; leaders such as A. Philip
Randolph enlisted it in their case for the complementary remedy of full-employment
legislation. However, no one could foresee how radically the prospects for all workers
have worsened as corporations shifted production overseas and the low-wage service
industry has come to generate most new job openings. So, too, contingent work has
spread, as employers have shirked the kinds of defined-benefit pensions and health-
care commitments that were common in the civil rights era. The race to the bot-
tom in private employment, in turn, is affecting the public sector, long the beacon of
black advance, as politicians decry the “advantages” government workers now have,
by default, and seek to cut their jobs and benefits.

These changes in political economy — economic restructuring in a context
of weakening working-class power and conservative ascendency— confront today’s
activists with trials more daunting than those of fifty years ago. America’s surging
inequality, unmatched in the industrialized world, is surely the biggest issue. How to
make work pay and create more economic security for all? How to address the large
numbers exiled from a shrinking labor force and consigned, in effect, to incarcera-
tion? How to provide young people from impoverished communities with the quality
of education they need for today’s world? How to reduce the stranglehold the wealth-
iest 1 percent now have on our democracy, a grip that has rendered it dysfunctional?
The answers are not obvious, given the balance of class power in American life today.

So, in the end, how should we assess Title VII and the larger Civil Rights Act
of 1964? Some observers will point to how the legislation fell short: the limitations
put in to win passage; the groups to whom it offered no protection, such as domes-
tic workers, those in small workplaces, and undocumented workers; its incomplete
fulfillment of its core promise of an end to discrimination; its weakening applica-
tion over time; and its incapacity to address today’s most profound political-economic
challenges.

This is where a historical perspective has so much to contribute, because all
of this can be true enough — and yet, the overall achievement still formidable. Those

2. See, for example, Dara Strolovitch, Affirmative Advocacy: Race, Class, and Gender in Interest Group
Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).

3. See James Findlay, Church People in the Struggle: The National Council of Churches and the Black
Freedom Movement, 1950–1970 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), and Robert Wuthnow, The
Restructuring of American Religion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

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who designed the US Constitution put powerful roadblocks in the way of significant
reform that might challenge property rights, among them states’ rights and the over-
representation of rural interests in the Senate and the Electoral College. Politicians
later added still more obstacles, such as the filibuster and seniority as a basis for com-
mittee chairmanships. Recall, too, that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed before the
Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended the racial dictatorship that passed for democracy in
the states of the former Confederacy.

Given all this, the audacity and accomplishment of the activists who won this
landmark law and enhanced its capacity through their creative application of it are
what stand out the most to me. They opened the nation’s workplaces to all as never
before. In the process, they created a national consensus that employment discrimi-
nation is wrong — a consensus now so powerful that even the most right-wing aspi-
rants for office dare not openly advocate it as so many did, routinely, fifty years ago.
However much remains to be done, those are transformations to be savored. In this
era of pervasive cynicism, citizens need to know what a difference a hard-won reform
can make.

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American history homework help

1

Identify interviewee, her demographic information (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size).

Christina Richards is a retired African-American athlete born in Havana, Florida, in 1972. She had a taste in sports, primarily athletics which she began in the 6th grade before pushing it further after joining Northside High School. They lived in a two-bedroom house before moving to a three-bedroom home after her dad joined the police department.

Christina grew up in the Tallahassee Metro area alongside her older brother and younger sister. Her mum used to work at a local restaurant in Havana, while her dad was one of the few Americans working as a cop at the Havana Police Department. Before becoming a sheriff, his father was a basketball coach at a community club in Havana. Being of the black race and the female sex, participating in sports was challenging. This was because of the 19th and 20th-century sports rules, which prohibited women from sports before the laws were amended. Discrimination because of her black race also held her from assessing different areas in sports, making it hard for her to live the life of an athlete.

She was a 4 * 100 meters relay athlete who participated and competed in different places, including the 1991 event held at Havana. Christina, who is now approximately 49, stopped participating in athletics after turning because health issues. She started having a kneel problem after winning her very first silver medal at the United States Outdoor Track and Field Championships held in California in 1995.

American history homework help

When to Cite

You DO need to cite:

When using someone else’s exact words

When using someone else’s data (statistics, etc.)

When using someone else’s figures (tables, graphs, images)

When stating someone’s unique idea

You DON’T need to cite:

Your own unique ideas

Common knowledge

Common Knowledge vs.
Unique Ideas

Don’t need to cite:

Ideas widely believed to be true.

Folklore, stories, songs, or saying without an author but commonly known.

Quotations widely known and used.

Information shared by most scholars in your discipline.

When in Doubt…CITE!

In-text citations never seemed simpler

To signify the use of an outside source, use a superscript Arabic number.

The superscript number will follow the punctuation.1

The notes for the citation will be included on a separate page at the end of the paper.

More formatting

The text will be double-spaced throughout (including block quotes), prior to the notes page.

Margins should be set at 1” top, bottom and sides.

Endnotes

Warning: This is where Chicago gets kind of tricky.

Center title “Notes” at the top of the page of endnotes.

Number the citations in the order they appear in the text.

Endnotes: Books

6

Book:

1.Author’s first and last name, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page number.

6. Virginia Woolf, A Room of One’s Own (New York: Mariner Books, 2005), 204.

Edited Book:

7. Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.

Endnotes: Periodicals

Article in Journal:

1. Author’s name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume#, Issue # (Year): Page numbers.

16. Jonathan Zimmerman, “Ethnicity and the History Wars in the1920s,” Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101.

Article in Online Journal:

16. Eugene F. Provenzo Jr., “Time Exposure,” Educational Studies34, no. 2 (2003): 266, http://search.epnet.com.

Endnotes: Newspapers and Magazines

8

Newspaper:

2. Linda Greenhouse, “Across the Border, Over the Line,” The New York Times, April 8, 2010. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/08/across-the-border-over-the-line/?hp

Magazine:

14. Sarah Kliff, “Stupak won’t seek Reelection,” Newsweek, April 6, 2010, 55.

Endnotes: Website

Website:

1. First name Last name, “Web Page,” Website, Sponsor of Website, full URL.

5. Bob Smith, “How to Write a Chicago Endnote,” YayChicago.com, Chicago Helpers, http://www.yaychicago.com/endnotes.

Endnotes Oddities

Unlike MLA and APA citation pages, the first line of a citation is indented, followed by left-aligned lines.

You only write out the full endnote the first time. All consequent endnotes are abbreviated.

Abbreviated endnotes

Author’s Last Name, Shortened Version of Title (in either quotes or italics, depending), and Page Number.

Wilson, “Antarctica,” 6.

Jones, Swimming Lessons, 17.

Use the word “Ibid” if you have to consecutive endnotes using the same source, and give the page.

Ibid, 7.

If you are using the same page as the previous endnote, just write “Ibid.”

And now for something completely different: Bibliography

Some instructors will ask for a bibliography as well as endnotes.

A bibliography will come after the page(s) of endnotes.

It will be an alphabetical listing of all of the works you consulted in researching for your paper, including the ones you did not cite.

Bibliography: Books

Notice: In the bibliography, the first line will be left-aligned and the consecutive lines will be spaced over to the right (as displayed above).

Book:

Last Name, First Name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One’s Own. New York: Mariner Books, 2005.

Edited Book:

Poston, Ted. A First Draft of History. Edited by Kathleen A. Hauke. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Bibliography: Periodicals

Article in Journal:

Zimmerman, Jonathan. “Ethnicity and the History Wars in the 1920s.”Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 92- 111.

Article in Online Journal:

Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr. “Time Exposure.” Educational Studies 34, no. 2 (2003): 266-67. http://search.epnet.com.

Bibliography: Newspapers and Magazines

Newspaper:

Greenhouse, Linda. “Across the Border, Over the Line,” The New York Times, April 8, 2010. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/08/across-the- border-over-the-line/?hp

Magazine:

Kliff, Sarah. “Stupak won’t seek Reelection.” Newsweek, April 6, 2010, 55.

Bibliography: Website

Website:

Bob Smith. “How to Write a Chicago Endnote.” YayChicago.com. Chicago Helpers. http://www.yaychicago.com/endnotes.

You do not need to include the date accessed, unless the document is time-sensitive. If so, but it after the URL:

www.time.com/today (accessed May 1, 2010).

Chicago
by Katherine Wertz, Writing Consultant
&
Michael frizell, director, Writing Center

Don’t be intimidated by the 956 page book

Some rules of thumb

Avoid long quotes. Your long history and leadership paper are about your writing, not some other author’s.

Avoid excessive quotes. If you have more than one or two per page, the reader will suspect you are “padding” your paper.

You will probably need at least 2-3 footnotes/endnotes per page. If you don’t, you’ve probably missed something.

For each footnote/endnote ask yourself, does this give the reader enough to find your source?

Questions?

American history homework help

Read “
The ‘Omaha Platform” of the People’s Party (1892)
” and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

·  According to the platform, what are the major issues facing the nation?

·  How do the Populists propose to use the power of the government to correct these problems? 

· What proposals in the platform eventually became a reality?

Read “
James D. Phelan, ‘Why the Chinese Should Be Excluded’ (1901)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· According to the Mayor of San Francisco, what was the state of affairs in California prior to the exclusion of immigrants from China? 

· How does the Mayor justify extending the exclusion of immigrants from China?

· How does the Mayor characterize “the Chinese?” 

· Why do you suppose the original Exclusion Act had a ten-year limit? 

· Does the language in this document resonate with contemporary attitudes toward immigrants? Why or why not?

Read 
 “Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. DuBois on Black Progress (1895, 1903)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· According to Washington, how should African Americans respond to systemic racial discrimination?

· What does Washington mean when he says that “the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremest folly?” 

· What does DuBois think of Washington’s plan to uplift African Americans?

· What, according to DuBois, has been the result of following Washington’s advice?

Read
 “Huey P. Long, “Every Man a King” and “Share our Wealth” (1934)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· What were the most radical aspects of Long’s plan? 

· Did any of his ideas become reality?

· Upon whose law did Long base his ideas? 

· What did Long predict would be the consequences if the nation failed to adopt a program such as his?

Read the 
“Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion: 

· Just as the American Declaration of Independence listed grievances against the King of England, what grievances does this document list against the French? 

· How did the Japanese occupation of Vietnam complicate Vietnamese attitudes toward the French?

· Why do the Vietnamese anticipate a favorable reaction from the international community, in particular the United States, toward their declaration of independence? 

· Why do you suppose the Truman Administration was not supportive of this declaration?

Read 
“NSC-68 (1950)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· According to the document, what factors have altered the heretofore “historic distribution of power?” 

· What major issues does the United States face at this point in the Cold War?

· What course(s) of action for the United States does this document recommend? 

· How does this document represent the militarization of the policy of containment?

Read the 
“National Organization for Women, ‘Statement of Purpose’ (1966)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· According to the authors of the document—what justifications have been used to prevent women from enjoying equal opportunities and freedom of choice?

· What accounts for the disparity in earning power of women compared to men? 

· What areas of the professions are most glaringly dominated by men? 

· What is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and why is it important to women?

· What specific recommendations does NOW present that will “enable women to enjoy true equality of opportunity and responsibility in society, without conflict with their responsibilities as mothers and homemakers?” 

· What do the authors mean by calling for a “new image of women?”

Read 
“Bill Clinton on Free Trade and Financial Deregulation (1993-2000)”
 and using a minimum of 200 words (not including quotations) respond to the following questions. Make sure to reference specific passages from the document and/or textbook to support your discussion:

· According to Clinton, what will be the benefits of NAFTA and the projected dismantling of “trade barriers?” 

· What contradictions are apparent in his argument for embracing the global economy? 

· What is the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act designed to do?

· Who advocated deregulating the derivatives market, and what do these entities represent? 

· In the longer run, did NAFTA along with the deregulation of financial markets produce the benefits that Clinton envisioned? Why or why not?

American history homework help

United States History Survey

Winter Quarter, 2022

Like the first exam, this is a 200 point test; I will divide your score by two to convert your grade to the 100 point scale.

However, the rest of the format is different from the first exam. There are five mandatory essays, each worth 40 points. Simply complete each essay. While there is no minimum or maximum length for an essay,
each one will probably take you between one and two pages.

The books and classes to consult for these questions are

Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World. This work takes advantage of recently re-discovered archives of the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam to describe the multi-cultural foundations of the future city of New York.

Philbrick Nathaniel. Mayflower: Voyage, Community and War. New York, New York: Penguin Press, 2020 Revised Edition. Philbrick’s theme is the gradual souring of the relationship between Indigenous Americans and the Plymouth Colony. He is particularly challenging to the myth that a lasting harmony between the two groups may be symbolized by the first Thanksgiving.

McLoughlin, William G. Rhode Island: A History. New York, New York: WW Norton, 1986. The major themes of American history as measured through the experience of one small state.

Heffner, Richard D. and Alexander, editors. A Documentary History of the United States. Penguin USA, 2013 edition. This is a collection of important speeches, laws and pamphlets from American life since the establishment of the Republic in 1776.


Exam Questions

1. There are three major colonies to consider in this part of the course: Dutch New Netherland, Plymouth and Rhode Island. Compare the policies of the three regarding religious toleration and freedom of speech.

2. Explain how the alliance between the Plymouth settlers and the Pokanokets was formed. How was it in the self-interest of each partner in the alliance? How did the alliance eventually collapse? Discuss the rival visions of Josiah Winslow and Benjamin Church for replacing the failed alliance. Why is Philbrick so disappointed in Winslow’s vision?

3. McLoughlin believes that Anne Hutchinson and the settlement she helped to found in Rhode Island had a theological outlook that produced good business entrepreneurship and initiative. How so? Does this mean that Rhode Island rivalled New York State as a founding place for American business?

4. Describe the visions of Adrian van Der Donck and Peter Stuyvesant for New Netherland. Why does Shorto believe that each figure was essential for the colony’s success, despite their sharp differences? How did the combination of the two show the complexity of early modern Dutch culture in its religious, political and intellectual aspects?

5. Considering the foreign policy documents of Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Heffner we see that each believed his policies in the colonial past of America. How well did each of these two really know that history? And then consider the debate between Andrew Carnegie and Walt Whitman about the arts: would that have been possible without the New Netherland legacy?

UCORE-1440-05

Inquiry Seminar in the Humanities

Fr. Thomas Murphy, S.J., Department of History.

Winter Quarter, 2015

Discussion Topics for Class of Monday, February 9, 2015.

Ward, “Prologue: The River Road,” pp. 1-12.

pp. 1-3, in 1934, FDR resents lobbying for his eventual burial at the Washington National Cathedral and lays down instructions for his burial to actually take place at his estate “Springwood” in Hyde Park, New York along the Hudson River Valley; pp. 3-11, description of his actual funeral there after his death in office in April, 1945; pp. 11-12, author Ward’s conviction that while FDR’s personality is very much a riddle, the place to begin a search for understanding him is this very Hyde Park that meant so much to him.

Ward, Chapter One, “Mr. James,” pp. 13-60.

pp. 13-16, description of how FDR’s father, James Roosevelt, known as “Mr. James” to his servants, purchased and remodeled the estate at Hyde Park along with his first wife Rebecca in 1867 following the burning down of their earlier Hudson Valley estate, Mount Hope; pp. 16-21, author Ward summarizes the family history of Mr. James’ branch of the Roosevelts, describing their comparatively late arrival in the Hudson Valley in 1818, their family wealth rooted in Manhattan real estate, dry goods and West Indian sugar, their long record of intermarriage with highborn colonial families of both Dutch and English origin, the life of the Federalist and Revolutionary War era ancestor Isaac Roosevelt the Patriot, their comfort in genteel Knickerbocker society, their lack of comfort with the boisterous character of post-revolutionary NYC, the younger, reclusive Isaac the doctor and his marriage into the Yankee whaling and clipper ship dynasty the Aspinwalls’, whose ties to the Howland family introduces Mayflower ancestry into FDR’s genealogy; pp. 21-23, early life of Mr. James (whose father was Isaac the doctor), including his education as the tolerant Collegiate School in Poughkeepsie, New York, the strict Yankee Hyde School in the Berkshires of western Massachusetts, and the practical, reform oriented Union College in Schnectady, New York., his grand tour of the Middle East and Europe with its alleged brief flirtation with Garibaldi’s Italian freedom fighters, his time at Harvard Law School and his early business and legal ventures; pp. 33-37, Mr. James’ first marriage to Rebecca Howland, his association with the American minister to Great Britain and future President James Buchanan, the birth of FDR’s much older half brother “Rosie” Roosevelt, Mr. James hard-to-document and elusive role in the Civil War and its comparison with the record of TR, Senior; pp.37-42, Mr. James’s second grand tour of Europe, right after the Civil War, shows how the family was capable of being cosmopolitan and parochial at one and the same time, as well as revealing Mr. James strong desire to imitate the lifestyle and values of the English country aristocracy; p 42-49, the family’s period in residence in Dresden, Germany, with its friendship between Mr. James and Civil War general and defeated Democratic presidential nominee George B. McClellan, gives author Ward an opening to discuss Mr. James’ switch from Whig to Democrat, which might have taken place when his friend Buchanan ran for President in 1856 and which reveals Mr. James’ preference for political moderation; pp. 49-54, Mr. James returns to NY State and shows an English preference for the countryside, regarding NYC as a necessary evil for his business ties but Springwood at Hyde Park as home; pp. 54-57, business investments , touring Europe with the energetic TR clan, illness and death of first wife Rebecca; pp. 57-60, Mr. James’ failed courtship of Bamie Roosevelt, the sister of future President TR, Jr. nonetheless leads to Mittie Roosevelt, Bamie’s mother, introducing Mr. James to his future second wife and FDR’s own mother, Sara Delano, at Mittie’s NYC townhouse.

Ward, Chapter Two, “Algonac,” pp. 61-108.

pp. 61-62, introduction of Sara as regal, reserved and substantive, traits she demonstrated in a newsreel made of her in Paris during her son’s Presidency; pp. 62-63, Sara visits Hyde Park soon after meeting Mr. James, chaperoned by the women of the TR Roosevelt family; pp. 63-65, Mr. James overcomes objections about the age difference between him and Sara., who is the same age as his son, and persuades her demanding father Warren Delano II to let them marry in 1880; pp. 65-67, summary of Delano family history going back to Plymouth Rock, where French Huguenot Philippe de la Noye married an English Pilgrim in the 1630’s, with the clan eventually settling in Fairhaven, Massachusetts (near whaling port of New Bedford); pp. 67-70, when Warren II expressed an interest in a maritime career his father, Warren I, discouraged actually going to sea and pushed the business side of things, leading the son into the China trade; pp. 70-78, Warren II’s complicity in the opium trade, which his descendants became very secretive about; pp. 78-81, Warren II marries Catherine Robbins Lyman of the intellectually but not economically rich Lyman family of Northampton, Massachusetts, friend of John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster and Ralph Waldo Emerson and first takes her to China, then to the Hudson Valley upon their return; pp. 82-83, Warren II hires architect Andrew Jackson Downing to design the new Delano family estate at Algonac, pursuing that architect’s ideal of “accessible perfect seclusion” and revealing a Delano desire to seal things off from the world when possible; pp. 83-85, Delano children are brought up never to complain, never discuss bad news, never demonstrate fear or alarm even when feeling those emotions, and to keep meticulous records of the family history (for after all, as Delanos they were by nature important); pp. 85-87, the xenophobia and intense clannishness on display at Fairhaven, where Warren I is in residence at the ancestral home; pp. 87-90, the economic depression of the late 1850’s nearly costs Warren II his fortune (endangering even his ownership of Algonac) and forces him to return to China without his family in 1860; pp. 92-94, after he recovers some fortune Warren II send for the family and Sara spends three years of her childhood in China, but within a family enclave for the most part; pp. 94-97, after a period in Fairhaven Sara is sent to Europe and has long stays in Dresden and Paris; pp. 97-102, life back at Algonac from 1870, where Sara demonstrates an intense desire to please her father; pp. 102-104, Sara’s failed relationship with Stanford White leaves her an unusually old unmarried woman by the standards of her time, and reveals that she has inherited both her mother’s desire to please and her father’s fiercely independent will, leaving her conflicted about her future; pp. 104-105, her ultimate marriage to Mr. James may have reflected her seeing some traits of her father in him, and also meant that she would continue to reside in the Hudson Valley; pp. 105-108, in any case their early marriage showed that emotionally Sara remained very much a Delano (she would later insist that FDR was much more a Delano than a Roosevelt) and Mr. James found himself very much subsumed into the Delano clan, although we don’t really know his reaction to that fact.

American history homework help

Writing Assignment 1: Primary Source AnalysisBottom of Form

Pick a primary source document from the modules we have already covered and answer the questions from the documents in an essay format

American history homework help

The Isis (Yssis) Papers
The Keys To The Colors

Frances Cress Welsing, M.D.

Third World Press, Chicago

Third World Press, Chicago

© 1991 by Frances Cress We1sing

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be r~produced or.
transmitted in any form or by any means, e1ectromc or mechamcal,
including photocopying, recording, or by any i~o~ation sto~age
and retrieval system, without prior written permtsston except m.
the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and rev1ews.
Inquires should be addressed to Third World Press, P.O. Box 19730,

Chicago, IL 60619.

Printed in the United States of America

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 20 19 18 17 16 15 14

ISBN: 0-88378-104-2 (paper)

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number:
90-71890 r~

I

L

Dedication

This work is dedicated to the victims of the global system of white
supremacy (racism), all non-white people worldwide, past and present,
who have resolved to end this great travesty and bring justice, then peace
to planet Earth.

“If you do not understand White Supremacy (Racism)- what it is, and
how it works -everything else that you understand, will only confuse
you.”
-Neely Fuller, Jr. (1971).

The United Independent Compensatory Code/System/Concept

No persons who classify themselves as white living in the area of the
world referred to as the United States of America (or for that matter, in
any other area of the world) should presume to tell any Black person (or
other non-white person) what racism is or is not, until they have read J
completely Kennvth O’Reilley’s Racial Matters: The FBI’s Secret File
onBlackAmerica,l960-19n.

No Black person living in the area of the world referred to as the United
States of America should discourse on racism or deny the conspiratorial
dimensions of the local and global system of racism until he/she has read
Racial Matters completely.

All non-white people (black, brown, red and yellow) should read and
discuss the implications of the book, Racial Matters; the implications for
themselves as individuals and the implications for their collective should
be discussed in depth. Then, all non-white people should view the
docudrama videotape, The Wannsee Conference (which can be rented),
to observe exactly how a white supremacy government calmly sits and
plans the destruction of a people that it classifies as non-white. The
W annsee Conference took place in Germany, in 1941, to fmalize the plans

for the destruction of 11,000,000 Semites (non-whites) of the Jewish
religion. The German white supremacists succeeded in killing six million.

After the above steps have been taken, all non-white people worldwide
should read Neely Fuller’s work, The United Jndependenr Compensatory C 0 NTENTS
Code/System/Concept: a text book/workbook for thought, speech and/or

action for victims of racism (white supremacy).

Frances Cress Welsing Preface …………………………………………………………………………….. i

Washington, D.C.
August, 1989 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… ix

1 The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation and Racism
(White Supremacy) …………………………………………………………… 1

2 The Origin of Alienation, Anxiety and Narcissism ……………….. 17

3 Unified Field Theory Psychiatry …………………………………………. 39

4 Learning to Look at Symbols ……………………………………………… 53

5 The Symbolism of Christ, the Cross, the Crucifix,
the Communion and Christian Holidays ………………………………. 61

6 The Politics Behind Black Male Passivity, Effeminization,
Bisexuality and Homosexuality ………………………………………….. 81

7 What Freud was Really Talking About … the Concept
of “Penis Envy” ………………………………………………………………… 93

8 Guns as Symbols ………………………………………………………………. 103

9 The Mother Pucker and the Original Mother Fucker …………….. 119

10 Ball Games as Symbols: The War of the Balls ……………………… l31

11 The Symbolism of Smoking Objects …………………………………… 145

12 Black Fear and the Failure of Black Analytical
(Ideological) Commibllent ………•……………..•………….•.•………….• 153

13 The Concept and the Color of God and Black
Mental Health …………………………………………………………………… 163

14 The Symbolism and Meaning ofRape …………………………………. l75

15 The Symbolism, Logic and Meaning of”Justifiable
Homicide” in the 1980s ……………………………………………………… l83

16 Paper Money and Gold as Symbols …………………………………….. 193

17 The Symbolism of Boxing and BlackLeather ………………………. 209

18 The Cress Theory of the Holocaust ……………………………………… 219

19 The Neurochemical Basis for Evil ………………………………………. 231

20 Black Children and the Process of lnferiorization ………………… 239

21 Racism and Black Child and Youth Inferiorization ………………. 251

22 Black Child-Parents: the New Factor in Black Genocide ……… 259

23 The Crises in Black Male/Black Female Relationships:
Is it a False Problem’? ………………………………………………………… 275

24 Black Women Moving Towards the 21st Century ………………… 283

25 The White Supremacy System, the White Supremacy
Mind-Set and the AIDS Holocaust ……………………………………… 291

Preface

We now are nearing the final decade of the 20th century. The great
Mrican in America, the sociologist-historian W.E.B DuBois, identified
the problem of this century as the “problem of the color-line” (Souls of
BlackFolk,l903). Thus, it is fortunate that in thefmal decade of the 20th
century a basis for the solution to the problem of the color-line has been
produced. This basis rests in an adequate analysis of the nature of the
color-line- the exact nature of local and global racism. Ultimately, the
conscious decision by people of color worldwide (the overwhelming
majority of the world’s population) to base their behavior in relationships
on an exact analysis and defmition of racism as white supremacy will
change its appearance and activity on planet Earth. Just as the problem
of the color-line (racism) has controlled events in the 20th century (and
prior centuries), the solution to the problem will regulate events in the 21st
century and beyond as we enter the era of justice.

Recently, there has been an unraveling and an analysis of the core issue
of the first global power system of mass oppression – the power system
of racism (white supremacy). Once the collective victim understands this
fundamental issue, the ultimate organizing of all of the appropriate
behaviors necessary to neutralize the great injustice of the white
supremacy power system will be only a matter of time. The length of time
required to neutralize global white supremacy will be inversely propor-
tional to 1) the level of understanding of the phenomenon; plus 2) the
evolution of self- and group-respect, the will, determination and discipline
to practice the appropriate counter-racist behaviors- on the part of the
non-white victims of white supremacy. Thus, the 21st century, and indeed
the end of the 20th century, will be a time perhaps of great devastation.
But, undoubtedly, it will be a time of great change. And the most critical
factor in that change of circumstances will be non-white people’s ever-

The Isis Papers

increasing understanding of the behavioral phenomenon of white
supremacy as a global, terroristic power system.

However, it must be understood that high levels of self-respect, will
and determination, without an adequate understanding, analysis and
definition of racism as the oppressing power system, will not be sufficient
to bring the long-sought goal of neutralizing that injustice and establishing
justice and peace for all people. Therefore, it is critical to have a
comprehensive analysis and defmition of the opposing force. As a Black
behavioral scientist and practicing general and child psychiatrist, my
current functional defmition of racism (white supremacy) is as follows: ,.,
the local and global power system struciiiredantfmalntain~d by pers;;;; ..
who classify themselves as white, whether consciously or subconsciously
determined; this system consists of patterns of perception, logic. symbol
formation. thought, speech, action and emotional response. as conducted
simultaneously in all areas of people activity (economics. education,
entertainment,labor, law, politics, religion, sex and war). The ultimate
purpose of the system is to prevent white genetic annihilation on Earth –
a planet in which the overwhelming majority of people are classified as
non-white (black, brown, red and yellow) by white-skinned people. All of
the non-white people are genetically dominant (in terms of skin colora-
tion) compared to the genetically recessive white-skinned people.

When this defmition of racism as a strategy for white genetic survival
is mastered, one can understand precisely not only the present global
power fonnations and realignments (i.e., U.S.A./U.S.S.R. linkage and
European unification), but also all present urban (non-white) center
epidemics. I am speaking of the concurrent urban crises of drug use, drug
addiction, drug-related murder, teenage pregnancy, infant mortality,
Black academic under-achievement, Black teenage unemployment,
Black adult male unemployment, Black male incarceration, single parent
(female-headed) households, chronic welfare dependency, poverty, AIDS
and homelessness. (See Diagram 1.) These very disturbing individual-
and group-destructive pathological forms of behavior are the direct and
indirect by-products of a behavioral power system fundamentally struc-
tured for white genetic survival, locally and globally.

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The Isis Papers

White supremacy domination and oppression of all non-white people
is essential for global white genetic survival. The prevention of white
genetic annihilation is pursued through all means, including chemical and
biological warfare. Today, the white genetic survival imperative, instead
of using chemicals in gas chambers, is using chemicals on the streets –
crack, crank, cocaine, ecstasy, PCP, heroin and methadon (all”designer
chemicals”). Ultimately, these chemicals are produced by whites and
made available to urban Blacks, particularly Black males -upon whom
the future of Black people is dependent. The core dynamic of white
genetic survival eventually leads whites to a major act of genocide
(destruction of the genes of non-white people), or toward genocidal
imperatives. Such a genocide occurred in Nazi Germany (1933-1945},
wherein the Semite and gypsy populations were classified as non-white

and therefore were destroyed.
The reason that the Black male (as recently symbolized by Willie

Horton) is and always has been central to the issue of white supremacy is
clarified by the definition of racism as white genetic survival. In the
collective white pysche, Black males represent the greatest threat to white
genetic survival because only males (of any color) can impose sexual
intercourse, and Black males have the greatest genetic potential (of all
non-white males) to cause white genetic annihilation. Thus, Black males
must be attacked and destroyed in a power system designed to assure white
genetic survival. In the white supremacy mind-set, consciously or sub-
consciously, Black males must be destroyed in significant numbers -just
as they were in earlier days when there was widespread open lynching
and castration of Black males, or during the Tuskegee Syphilis Study from
1932 to 1972 when a large number of Black males were used and

destroyed by whites.
Today we are witnessing a more subtle systemic approach to white

genetic survival. The destruction of Black males now is indirect, so that
the Black male victims themselves can be led to participate in – and then
be blamed for- their own mass deaths. However, through close examina-
tion and an understanding of the ultimate objective of white supremacy
as collective white genetic survival, the steps to massive Black male death

iv

Preface

can be charted. The chain of events begins with the denial of full scale
employment and advancement to Black males so that they cannot ade-
quately support themselves, their wives and their children. In tum, large
numbers of Black male children grow up without their fathers’ guidance.
This leads to frustration, depression and failure in school. Once this
atmosphere is established, drugs are placed deliberately in the Black
community. The drugs are then used to “street-treat” Black male frustra-
tion and depression. The high prices for which drugs are sold provide the
Black male population with the illusion that finally they are beginning to
make some money and to share in the “American dream.” Guns are then
placed at the disposal of the same Black male persons, supposedly to aid
them in enforcing payment for drug sales. More important, the strategy
is for Black males to kill and destroy one another and then carry the blame.
(It must be realized that no Black males manufacture the chemicals for
drug use, nor do any Black males manufacture guns.)

The same power system of racism has so ingrained a negative image
and connotation of Blackness in general (i.e., Black Monday, blackmail,
black sheep, black day), and of the Black male in particular, that for Black
males to slaughter one another in the streets daily means next to nothing;
indeed, it is treated as desirable and acceptable. “Good riddance of bad
rubbish.” This is in stark contrast to the urgency, alarm and concern that
is generated in the same society when only 25 young white males commit
suicide in the course of a 24-month period.

Failing to comprehend the environmental context of the white
supremacy system and its ultimate goal of white genetic survival, Black
people also fail to grasp the deeper sense of what actually is occurring in
front of our eyes. We do not realize that the massive deaths of Black males
constitute the genocide of Black people (as it takes Black males to make
Black babies and ensure future Black generations).

The destruction of Black males for the purpose of white genetic
survival is the reason behind the ever-increasing disparity between the

\
number of Black females entering and graduating from high schools and
institutions of higher education compared to the far lesser number of
Black males. This becomes an additional facet of Black genocide. Fur-

v

The Isis Papers

thermore, white genetic survival is the dynamic behind the high incarcera-
tion rate of Black males in the U.S., which is second only to that of South
Africa. The high rate of Black male incarceration contributes in genocidal
fashion to the prevention of Black births and the Black male-supported
development of all Black children, particularly boys.

The genocide of non-whites must be understood as a necessary tactic
of a people (white) that is a minority of the world’s population and that,
because it lacks the genetic capacity to produce significant levels of
melanin, is genetically recessive in terms of skin coloration, compared to
the black, brown, red and yellow world majority. Thus, the global white
minority must act genocidally against people of color for the purpose of
white genetic survival. This is the “kill or be killed” mentality. This is
the reason that persons who classified themselves as “white” behaved
genocidally towards Semites in the holocaust in Nazi Germany and
Europe (1933-1945). (fhe word Semite is from the Latin preftx, semi
meaning “half’ – half Black and half white, and that means mulatto
(non-white). This is also the reason that persons who classified them-
selves as “white” behaved (and still behave) genocidally towards the
indigenous inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere who were classified
as red (non-white).

Only the willingness of non-white peoples worldwide to recognize,
analyze, understand and discuss openly the genocidal dynamic will bring
this injustice to an end. Most important, Black males must help one
another to understand that they are being led by the dynamic of white
supremacy to inflict extreme damage upon themselves, one another and
ultimately the Black race. Black males must understand that, contrary to
what is said, the war being conducted in urban centers is not against drugs
but against Black males- for the purpose of white genetic survival. Drugs
are used simply as the means to achieve that end. That is why drugs are
plentiful, while Black males are dying in ever-increasing numbers! (The
recent proposal to treat drug addicts at military bases is only the ftrst stage
towards a more formal concentration camp placement, more formal than
the ghetto.)

vi

Preface

Mastering the above definition of racism as a strategy for neutralizing
white supremacy will permit one to decode accurately the symbolism in
the new Madonna video “Like a Prayer,” designed consciously and/or
subconsciously by whites to massage, stimulate and enhance further the
collective instinct for white genetic survival. The same could be said
about the recent films Betrayal and Mississippi Burning. Furthermore,
such an understanding will help clarify the persistent and even violent
behaviors on the part of persons associated with the so-called “right to life
movement,” which seeks to prevent abortions, especially amongst whites.
Recognizing racism as the struggle for white genetic survival helps one
to understand what is happening in South Africa; what is euphemistically
referred to as “apartheid” is only the tactics and strategies of the minority
white population, numbering only four million persons, attempting to
survive genetically while surrounded by a majority lllack population of
26 to 30 million. This is a microcosm of what is happening on the entire
planet.

Finally, the time has come for unveiling the true nature of white
supreq1acy (racism). For this reason, I have entitled this work, The Isis
(YSSIS) Papers: The Keys to the Colors. Isis was the most important
goddess of ancient Africa (specifically, Egypt). She was the sister/wife
of the most important Egyptian god, Osiris (“Lord of the perfect Black”),
and the mother of Horus. In the astral interpretation of the Egyptian gods,
Isis was equated with the dog star Sirius (Sothis). According to the ancient
African story, after the murder and dismemberment of Osiris by his evil
brother Set (Seth), Isis discovered the crime, recovered the pieces of the
body of Osiris, and put them together again, restoring his existence and
his power. According to legend, Isis admired truth and justice and made
justice stronger than gold and silver.

In the present era, truth and justice have been crushed by the global
power system of white supremacy, making the existence of peace on the
planet impossible under this reign of terror. The attempt in this work to
reveal some aspects of the in-depth truth about the white supremacy power
system for the ultimate purpose of establishing justice and peace in the
world is in the tradition of the great African goddess, Isis.

vii

The Isis Papers

I hope that with this knowledge the world’s non-white people (black,
brown, red and yellow) will work more effectively to neutralize this global
and most monstrous form of injustice and chaos. Any person not inter-
ested in a definition, analysis and deeper understanding of worldwide
white supremacy must have an interest (conscious or subconsciou’l) in
maintaining the same.

The subtitle of this work, The Keys to the Colors, came from a statement
made to me by a patient in a Washington, D.C. public mental health clinic
in the late 1960s. The patient was a tall, thin, middle-aged, Black-skinned
man who, in a somewhat confused manner, talked earnestly to me about
the problems he had experienced in his life. He said, “Doctor, if we could
just find the keys to the colors!” And be repeated it slowly. It was a
statement I never have been able to forget. This work is a portion of my
response.

Frances Cress Welsing, M.D.
Washington, D.C.
1989

viii

Introduction

The Isis (YSSIS) Papers: The Keys to the Colors is a collection of
essays I have written over the past 18 years, following the presentation
and publication of my first work, The Cress Theory of Color-Confronta-
tion and Racism (White Supremacy). That first paper was a theoretical
statement, a psychogenetic theory and world outlook on the origin and
meaning of the global white supremacy system. The theory summarizes
and clarifies our experience as Black (non-white) people on a planet
presently dominated by people who classify themselves as “white” and
who are a minority of the world’s people.

The Cress Theory was based upon the insightful work of Neely Fuller
Jr., author of The United Independent Compensatory Code/System/Con-
cept- a textbook/workbook for thought, speech and/or action for victims
of racism (white supremacy). Fuller, the founder of the racism/counter·
racism concept, was the very first victim of racism to understand it as a
global system of organized behavior (thought, speech and action) for
white supremacy domination in all areas of people activity (economics,
education, entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex and war). In
other words, he recognized that all activity and behavior encompassed by
the white supremacy system had and has its origin in the dynamic of
racism. Additionally, Fuller understood that racism contained the seeds
and origin of counter-racism, the behavior dynamic of liberation for the
non-white victims of white supremacy. His work led me to question the
necessity of the global white collective to evolve such a system of unjust
behavior. The result was The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation and
Racism (White Supremacy). (Cress is my maiden name.)

This thesis provided me with a “unified field theory” approach and
understanding, in the Einsteinian sense, to all behavioral phenomena
manifested with high frequency in the local and global system of racism.

ix

The Isis Papers

The great physicist, Albert Einstein, in The Meaning of Relativity (1922)
had the following to say about the “unified field.”

The object of all sciences, whether natural sciences or psychology, is
to co-ordinate our experiences and to bring them into a logical system
-the only justification for our concepts and system of concepts is that
they serve to represent the complex of our experiences; beyond this

they have no legitimacy.

The Cress Theory pennitted me to see and understand many forms of
activity (on the part of whites and their non-white victims) that have been
either ignored or taken for granted. These behaviors, which can be viewed
as symbolic of the fundamental objective of white genetic survival, are
found in the social reflection of the white supremacy power system – the
white supremacy culture. Together, the system and culture of white
supremacy produce the phenomenon of racism. Thus, throughout this
book, the terms system and culture, in reference to white supremacy, are

used interchangeably.
This deep investigation and understanding is essential if Black and

other non-white peoples are to succeed in playing the “black side of the
chess board” (defense-offense) in contrast to the “white side of the chess
board” (offense-defense) in the planetary game of chess (white
supremacy) being played out between white and non-white. Currently,
the players on the black side of the chess board are in a continuous state
of checkmate (a losing streak that is centuries long). This has happened
because of our failure to understand the game. Heretofore, non-white

people have not decoded white genetic survival.
After presenting The Cress Theory, my brain-computer was flooded

with new understandings specifically related to the global white
supremacy system. Many things that I – as most people – viewed as
commonplace, I began to see in a different light. It was as though an
enormous window was opened in a room that had been without sunlight.
I recognized many of the items I saw anew as symbols in the white
supremacy system. Perhaps because I am a general and child psychiatrist
with considerable experience in interpreting the symbolic play of children

X

Introduction

and the symbols in the dreams of children and adults, I was sensitive to
the symbols in the behavior system of white supremacy once it had been
defined and decoded.

Though symbols are usually visual entities, they also take the form of
speech, or can be found in activities- such as games. Symbols are specific
to people and their experiences, their evolved cultures and circumstances.
As such, symbols are the entities that carry highly compacted messages
pertaining to the origin, identity and survival of individuals and collective
peoples.

In the form of visual entities, patterns of speech and/or activity,
symbols contain complex messages distilled from the conscious levels of
the brain-computer. These messages have been reduced to their essence
in the subconscious functioning; there, these highly coded messages are
stored and continuously referred to for existence and survival. Once a
symbol evolves in a person’s subconscious, that person uses the symbol
with high frequency and has little or no necessary conscious under-
standing of its meaning.

A shared symbol speaks volumes, although contained in a relatively
small visual or auditory package. A symbol speaks loudly, or even shouts
its meaning without, uttering a sound. Symbols communicate from one
person’s subconscious to the subconscious of another who shares the same
identity and survival necessity. Such communication transpires at sub-
conscious levels when the conscious levels of brain-computer functioning
cannot bear to address certain issues. White supremacy is a topic that few
can or dare discuss in depth at the conscious level of brain-computer
functioning. Few dare to probe or research white supremacy as this could
lead to the dismantling of the system. Therefore, it is not surprising that
there are many symbols in the system of white supremacy that reveal its
roots in the struggle for white genetic survival.

In the white supremacy system (often referred to as Western culture or
civilization), there is little conscious focusing on symbols, their formation,
use and interpretation. To the contrary, non-white peoples in their original
cultures tend to focus on symbols and dream interpretation as essential
aspects of their lives (i.e., African cultural objects referred to as African

xi

The Isis Papers

art, the Egyptian [African] systems of hieroglyphs and the symbols and
interpretation of dreams in Biblical stories). Therefore, as an African, it
is difficult for me to explain the ability to see and understand symbols;
however, I am aware of making a certain shift to a lower frequency of
brain-computer functioning (away from that frequency required for ordi-
nary, day to day, conscious functioning) in order to see and interpret
symbols. But I must repeat that my ability to explain a process for sym~l
interpretation is derived from my ongoing search for a firm understand~g
of the overall context in which these symbols evolved – the white

supremacy system/culture.
Perhaps there will be persons, Black as well as white, who fail to

appreciate the language of symbols. There will be those “:ho demea~ the
attempt to decode symbols and ridicule their value and my mterpr~tauons.
Also, there will be those who seek to identify and to decode symbols but
fail. Nevertheless, I am presenting certain symbolic aspects of the white
supremacy system/culture in an effort to increase our understanding of
racism and thereby assist in bringing justice to the world.

An examination of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.
and recognition of it as a symbol of white power- specifically, white male
power (thus, a gigantic white penis or phallic symbol) – may ~si~t o~e
who has difficulty understanding symbols. The law that no buildmg m
the District of Columbia can be taller than the white phallus-shaped
Washington Monument (which, by the way, looks like a robed Ku Klux
Klan) is not coincidental. The underlying meaning of the monument and
law is that there can be no challenge to white power. It is not without
significance that the Washington Monument, as a phallic symbol, towers
over a predominantly Black population in the capital city of the most
powerful government in the global white supremacy system.

If this is not sufficient, those who fail to understand the symbol should
go to the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Was~n~ton, D.C.
and view the painting (specifically commissioned for that buildmg) by the
artist Robert Motherwell entitled “Reconciliation Elegy.” This work is a
continuation of Motherwell’s earlier series of paintings, “Elegy to the
Spanish Republic.” The entire “Elegy” series consists of massive black

xii

Introduction

forms, some round or oval, some massive and vertical, positioned next to
one another. All of the forms are black against a white background. In
the book, Reconciliation Elegy, Motherwell states:

White has always conveyed to me the radiance of life, so that if one-
though this is too literal – if one takes the Elegies as a metaphor for
‘life and death,’ then obviously a sense of life as freedom and of death
as the terminal vivifier, can be an endless obsession and
preoccupation. In a curious way in the Reconciliation Elegy my black
forms, the life-death forms, are becoming personages, instead of black
stones … the black and white are beginning to merge …. Death has been
a continual living presence to me.

The word elegy means a poem of lament or praise for the dead. The
massive black oval and vertical forms, symbolic forms representing death,
obsessively painted throughout the entire “Elegy” series were immedi-
ately seen by my eyes (the eyes of a Black person) as the imposing
genitalia (testicles and phallus) of the Black male, dominating a white
background (symbolic of the global white collective). While referring to
the round objects he has painted as “stones,” Motherwell seemed unaware
that the word “stone” is an ancient term for testicles. However, in his own
description Motherwell speaks of the black and white painting as a
“metaphor for life and death” (white as life and black as death)_ Certainly
he is not thinking consciously of his paintings of Black male genitalia as
symbols of white death through white genetic annihilation (caused by
Black male genitalia and Black genetic material). But symbols do not
arise from conscious

American history homework help

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In essay format

1. You will need to have at least 500 words in this post plus full references.

2 Also 2 peer responses of substantial historical discussion and content of a peer’s letter

with at least 150 words each.

3. You must reference using one of the three formats and following your major’s designated

style: MLA, APA, CS, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual, and the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). YOU

MUST CITE YOUR SOURCES! (See syllabus for links to the Style websites to learn how to cite

and references)

The initial post with well-referenced facts is due by Friday, 11:55 p.m. ET and 2 peer

responses are due by Sunday, 11:55 p.m. ET. Do not research on the Internet.

First, read the following articles before answering week 8’s Final Discussion:

(1.) From Juneteenth to the Tulsa massacre: What isn’t taught in classrooms has a profound

impact. Educators said the history of systemic racism in this country and the contributions of

Black people have been erased. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/juneteenth-tulsa-

massacre-what-isn-t-taught-classrooms-has-profound-n1231442

(2.) Racism in America: Resources to Help You Understand America’s Long History of Injustice

& Equality. https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/06/08/understanding-racism-

inequality-america/?arc404=true

(3.) Reparations for Slavery. https://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?

id=cqresrre2019082300

2/21/22, 10:55 AM Final Exam -Essay – HIST222 B002 Winter 2022

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Class, a new movement has started since the early 2000s, where some political groups are

trying to remove American history from our children’s school curriculum and

textbooks, specifically slave history. These groups also do not want to cover segregation, civil

rights and more. By removing the history that we have just covered in these last eight weeks,

the African American communities are denied their connections to American History and so

are others who would like to learn more about the history of slavery and racial inequality in

America. Recently, African Americans have created movements such as “Black Lives Matter”

to counteract these other groups, have begun to celebrate Juneteenth as “Independence Day”

or “Liberation Day” for African-Americans and have pushed to renew the reparations’

discussion. Many tie slave history to the development of segregation and racism that has

spread throughout our country. A historical trauma has affected generations of African-

Americans because of what their ancestors had to endure just to survive in this country. This

distrust has developed towards different groups, agencies, and organizations. For those who

are not affected, trying to understand what it means to be an African-American in the United

States showcases the need for this history to be taught in all schools and to every American.

Your final discussion is to prepare a speech that would explain to all of America why African

American History from after Reconstruction to the present should be taught.

Explain why every American should know African American history. You will be expected to

use specific facts, events and people that you have learned from this course.

These facts, events, and people must come from your required work this term and from

research in the library or from the course bibliography.

You will, as usual, respond to at least two students. Respond as many times as you want and I

will grade your two best responses.

Do not forget to read the lesson for this week.

Please remember that as this replaces your final exam, you must clearly demonstrate what

you have learned from all the required work starting with Week 2 and ending with Week 7. I

want to see the breath of your knowledge gained in this class. Your grade will primarily be

based on that. You must have at least three posts. Use them to further demonstrate how

much you have learned from the required material and your research.

Remember that this Discussion is worth 10 percent of your grade.

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American history homework help

History 167cb
Capitalism and Class

Instructor: Nelson Lichtenstein

Five Page Paper Due February 28, 2022

Write a five-page paper seeking to answer the following questions.

1.To what degree did the emergence of a large union movement in the middle decades
of the 20th century advance the civil rights and general economic well-being of
African-Americans and Latina/os during those same decades. To what extent did these
new unions and the new laws that helped sustain them prove problematic for the civil
rights movement; and conversely, to what degree did the emergence of a powerful
“rights consciousness” in the 1960s and afterward diminish the appeal of trade unionism
and collective bargaining? Consider the nature of the Wagner-era labor law and also
that of the civil rights laws enacted in the 1960s.

Create an argument and back it up with examples from the readings and the lectures.
Use more than one source from the various assigned readings. The paper is due on
Gauchospace at 11 p.m. on February 25. Double space and put footnotes at the bottom
of the paper.

A successful essay demonstrates an understanding of the arguments put forward by the
author of the books and essays you have read and chosen to cite. But avoid long
quotations and instead use example and narrative, mainly in your own words, to explain
the meaning of the historians or historical figures you have read. And of course, if you
think the authors or sources disagree on some points, tell us that as well. Indeed,
understanding such conflicts of interpretation should make for a very good essay.

Do not use social science notation! Instead use the kind of footnotes or endnotes that
the author of State of the Union deploys.

American history homework help

KINES 370: WOMEN IN 20th CENTURY SPORT

California State University, East Bay, Department of Kinesiology

SPRING 2022

Instructor: Dr. Aaron L. Miller

Office: PE 103

Office Hours (via ZOOM): Thursdays, 3-5pm

Aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu

A NOTE ON THIS SYLLABUS

This syllabus is your Bible for this course. Print it out (in color if possible, since the Course Schedule has been color-coded to aid your learning), carry it the bag that you use for your studies, and consult it every time you engage the course. Your grade depends directly on your ability to follow this syllabus. If you have a question about the syllabus, of if something confuses you, it is your responsibility to let the instructor know ASAP, preferably in the first week of class.

A NOTE ON CLASS MEETINGS/OFFICE HOURS

Although this is an online class that is delivered asynchronously, and all of the course materials are accessible via Blackboard, there are two opportunities to engage with fellow students and ask the instructor questions via virtual means. The first is a weekly, and recommended – not required – ZOOM meeting for students to ask general questions and discuss course materials, either as a large class or if numbers require it, breakout rooms and smaller groups. The second is office hours, where you can ask more personal questions in a private ZOOM “breakout room”. See above for dates and times.

INSTITUTIONAL MISSIONS

University Mission Statement: California State East Bay welcomes and supports a diverse student body with academically rich, culturally relevant learning experiences that prepare students to apply their education to meaningful lifework, and to be socially responsible contributors to society.

College of Education and Allied Studies Mission Statement: To prepare collaborative leaders, committed to social justice and democracy, who will influence a highly technological and diverse world

Department of Kinesiology Mission Statement: To prepare graduates who are knowledgeable, professional, and take a multidisciplinary approach to promoting physical activity.

COURSE SUMMARY

This course will examine the experience of girls and women in 20th century sport from a social, cultural and historical perspective, with an emphasis on the constructs of gender, race, and sexuality, and how these constructs mediate the female sport experience. Women’s sport provides us with a lens to explore a range of issues including religion, social and economic structures, gender, race, and ideas concerning the body. Course materials will include a combination of award-winning scholarship and popular sources to examine the historical and current status of women in sport and factors that influence their participation. The main text, which will be supplemented by the instructor with other readings and multimedia resources, all of which will be uploaded to the course Blackboard page, is Susan Cahn, 2015. Coming on Strong, Univ. of Illinois Press, and may be available online through the university library. Following are some questions that this course will raise: Are sports a realm for men only, or can participate just as freely? Do sports reinforce or break down gender stereotypes? Is there social value in financially supporting women’s (professional) sports? How do we in contemporary society treat women athletes, and what does that treatment say about our values? How is gender differentiation constructed through sport and the culture of sport? Why was Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 a landmark piece of federal legislation, and what have been its consequences for females? What are the employment trends over the past twenty-five years in women’s intercollegiate coaching and athletic administrations? What sociocultural sources of sexism exist in American society? Why does sex-testing reinforce patriarchal relations?

COURSE OBJECTIVES

After completing this course, students will be able to:

– critically analyze sport as one of America’s most pervasive cultural institutions, particularly cases and incidents from sports history that illustrate how our ideas/practices regarding physical activity and physical education are socially constructed.

– trace the historical development of women’s involvement in sport, and be able to articulate reasons why and how sport/physical activity/notions of women’s bodies have changed/stayed the same throughout history.

– analyze the social, cultural and ideological issues with which female sport participants are confronted, and how women have shaped their identities through sports participation;

– identify how dominant norms have prohibited full participation by females in sport;

– identify the ways in which women resist the gendered status quo via their sport experiences; and

– present information effectively and clearly in written format.

COURSE EXPECTATATIONS FOR STUDENTS

There is a textbook for this course Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

This course is taught completely online and is delivered asynchronously, which means the onus will be upon the online learner to apprise himself/herself of the assignments due, read the syllabus clearly to understand how they should be done in order to receive a good grade, and then take it upon himself/herself to finish these assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner. The instructor is always available via email, office hours, or by appointment to answer questions; however, please note that due to the instructor’s heavy teaching load at CSUEB and another university, he has limited his ability to give individualized feedback. I am available via email, office hours, and/or by appointment to answer questions and address concerns, but please write in full sentences and be patient in receiving a reply. I will do my best to respond to your messages within one week. Due to my heavy teaching load (six classes each term) at two universities, it is not always possible to reply more quickly than that. Feedback on assignments may be given in aggregate, rather than personalized. If you’re interested in learning more about the reasons why I must have such a heavy teaching load, please see https://www.forbes.com/sites/noodleeducation/2015/05/28/more-than-half-of-college-faculty-are-adjuncts-should-you-care/#3ff512ec1600 or http://pullias.usc.edu/delphi/. If you find this problematic, please write a letter expressing your views to the university president, your state representative, or the state governor, and talk to taxpayers about the importance of properly funding public higher education.


How to do well in this course

Read the syllabus very closely. Use a calendar to enter due dates, or set reminders with your phone/computer. Do the assigned readings, “attend” our Blackboard (BB) site regularly, and contribute thoughtfully to share your views and illuminate the understandings of others via the Discussion Board (DB). Take it upon yourself to finish all assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner, and show your willingness to help others in your DB posts. When you read and take notes, focus on incorporating the material into your daily worldview. On the DB, do more than memorize and regurgitate “facts”. Be actively engaged and critically evaluate the class materials. What is the author saying? How does he/she support the argument being made? Try to compare and contrast the readings with your own experiences. Do your experiences reflect what the researchers, documentaries, and authors claim in the course materials? Why or why not?

Many CSUEB students write very well, and are able dexterously weave knowledge of course materials into essays. Some, however, write rather shallow posts that miss the nuanced perspectives of the course materials and demonstrate very little effort in consuming the course materials and thinking about it critically. While I am certain that you are all very busy with other classes and other (family/work) commitments, if you want to do well in this course (e.g. receive an A or B), it is not enough to simply do the work. Rather, it is extremely important to keep up with the readings, especially as it is an online course, and read each one twice. It is my experience as an instructor of online education that these courses actually require more student effort than in-person courses, since students have less guidance on a routine basis than you would if you saw the instructor in person routinely. Therefore, I recommend setting aside a specific block of time each week for each online class you take, just as you would set it aside for an in person class. It will help to schedule this time directly into your diary, just as you would with an in-person class.

STUDY SKILLS

There are a number of readings in this course. You will want to read each reading in your desired format (online using Adobe or another format or printing out the readings), as long at this format allows you to easily take plenty of time with the material, write notes, make comments in the text, write down/type out things you do not understand as you are reading, etc. These readings will form the basis for our online discussions and quizzes throughout the quarter – so take them seriously – be sure to spend plenty of time reading them very closely!

Please read every assigned course material very carefully. Reading these materials will constitute the vast majority of your time in this class (probably 3-6 hours per week). If you do not carefully read everything, this fact will soon make itself apparent in your weekly posts, exams, etc.

Log on often! A common question with an online class is, “How many times should I log on to the Bb course site?” I don’t have a standard answer for that, because some of it depends on your schedule, how you take material in, etc. But my general advice is don’t let this class get away from you! An online course is “out of sight” and can be easily forgotten. I suggest you write down/input into your calendar all due dates and times for this course. Remember, too, that any 4-unit college course could take up to 12 hours/week by the time you complete readings and other assignments. If you can’t or simply don’t want to post to the Discussion Board every week for the entire quarter, then please drop this course and give your spot to someone on the wait list!


►NOTHING HURTS YOUR SCORE MORE THAN MISSING ASSIGNMENTS, NOTHING!!

PLEASE check your horizon email account often, since several times throughout the quarter I will use this pathway to communicate with you, either individually or an email to the entire class.

NETIQUETTE GUIDELINES

“Netiquette” is online communication etiquette. Our online classroom is an academic environment, where we can safely share our points of view, expressed with respect for others. Here are some basic guidelines that all participants should follow:

Express your opinions politely, even if you disagree with someone. Be open and willing to accept others points of view.

Course discussions and other shared content is private and copyright protected. Do not disseminate this content outside of the online classroom unless granted permission by the author(s).

Do not use “texting” abbreviations when communicating in the online classroom. Be professional. Use concise, well-constructed language. Follow the rules of spelling and grammar.

Avoid sarcasm and humor as these can be easily misinterpreted, especially by individuals of different cultures than your own.

Do not send messages that you write when you are angry or upset. Reread every post before you send it!

Do not use all capital letters as it is considered SHOUTING.

Sign every post you make so others can replay to you directly.

Construct your messages in a text editor and transfer them to the LMS after proofing them for Netiquette.

* Follow your instructors specific requirements or rubric for course communication.

INTERACTING WITH PEERS AND INSTRUCTOR RESPECTIVELY

Success in this course is contingent upon all students remaining open, being willing to fully engage in discussions, and opening oneself up to the challenge of existing beliefs, understandings and conceptualizations. Much learning comes from sharing perspectives with others, so there will be group work. If you don’t understand what someone is saying, respectfully ask them to clarify. Consider why your classmates may agree or disagree with the course materials. Be empathetic. Making connections among your experiences, your classmates’ experiences, and the course materials will help make this course more useful to your education, and possibly to your life. Last but not least, draw connections among different readings, in order to enhance your understanding of the broader fields of sports humanities and social science (of which this course is a part). As your instructor, I respectfully ask that you show tolerance of and respect for each other in all your interactions. If you do, you will find that these are virtuous characteristics that allow for deep critical thinking, and by extension, individual as well as societal growth. The University is committed to maintaining a safe and healthy living and learning environment for students, faculty, and staff. Each member of the campus community should choose behaviors that contribute toward this end. Please read the following for details: http://www.csueastbay.edu/studentconduct/student-conduct.html

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

There are various assignments that you must complete to pass this class. All are important to stimulate your learning , specifically your reading comprehension skills, oral presentation skills, interview skills, and ability to demonstrate critical reflection.

A) Exams

B) Oral presentation assignment, to be done in an assigned group on a special topic of your choosing.

C) Blackboard Discussion Board Posts

D) Online participation

A. Exams:

a. Exams: There are 2 difficult exams in this course (midterm and final). Both will be timed and will include highly specific true/false and multiple-choice questions. You can prepare for these exams by reading/watching all required course materials very closely and taking notes of the readings as you read. Then, revisit your notes before the exam to refresh your memory. There may not be enough time for you to consult the textbook/course materials during the exam, so make sure you are prepared ahead of time. As John Wooden famously said, “failure to prepare is preparing to fail”. See relevant dates under Course Schedule.

a. Students must take the exams on the day they are scheduled. The only exceptions will be:

1. Personal illness or injury, which can be documented by the appropriate authority (e.g. Medical Doctor).

2. Death or serious illness to a member of the student’s immediate family which can be documented by an appropriate person.

B. Oral History Research Paper

a. The major research and writing assignment is a 1250 – 1650 word independent oral history research paper (approx 10 pp.), double-spaced, Times New Roman 12 point font, 0.5” margins on all sides of the page.

b. In order to receive a high score, you must do in-person interviews with someone who has direct experience and knowledge of women’s sports in an era of the 20th century other than the current age. (i.e. please do not interview someone about the 2000s!)

c. This assignment will be scaffolded, so that you can hand it in at intervals and stay engaged with the course as you go.

d. Interview an individual (family member or close family friend) who is at least one generation older than you.

e. From the information obtained through this “oral history,” place the individual’s life – and their physical activity/physical education/sport experiences – in socio-historical context.

f. Your job is to explain what their leisure/physical education/sport experiences of your interviewee looked like, and why their experiences looked the way they did in relation to the surrounding culture and the historical moment. In other words, to explain how the person’s athletic or physical activity experiences were shaped or influenced by a) their identity (class, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, physical disability), and b) the time period/place they lived, as well as how a) and b) relate to each other.

g. To help guide you, you can directly answer the questions:

i. How did the time period shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

ii. How did the person’s identity shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

iii. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences shape the person’s identity?

iv. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences, as well as the leisure/physical education/sport experiences of their peers, shape the time period?

h. It is NOT necessary that the person have been an athlete.

i. All essays must:

i. Identify/introduce interviewee;

ii. Summarize the interview;

iii. Include citations of secondary (academic) sources related to the historical moment and place in which the interviewee lived;

iv. Include a bibliography, introductory paragraph, thesis statement, and body paragraphs;

v. Paper length is 1250 – 1650 words. Endnotes are in addition to this word requirement. In other words, I expect that the TEXT of the paper (final draft) will be a minimum of 1250 words / maximum of 1650 words. No exceptions to this word requirement – failure to follow the word min/max will result in a significantly lower grade.

vi. To support your interview and contextualize the experiences of your interviewee, please find high-quality historical research and scholarly sources and reference them in your paper. By high-quality research and scholarly sources, I mean you must use evidence from at least three of the following categories:

1) Any carefully observed direct observation of sports

2) Any interviews or conversations with sporting people (this could be contemporary people, to offer contrast with your interviewee)

3) Any literature (short stories, novels), television shows, or films about sports in historical or contemporary society

4) High-quality survey data regarding attitudes and behavior regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

5) High-quality statistics (demographic, economic, etc.) regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

6) Any research done by scholars of sport.

Note: Your sources may include no more than one source from the list of OPTIONAL readings listed in this syllabus.

Note: Please email me if you are unable to determine the quality of the publication or data).

Questions to keep in mind while you write:

1) What is the argument I am making about my interviewee?

2) How do I support it?

3) How can I strengthen it?

4) How does this argument relate to our course textbook?

5) How should I cite references properly?

6) How can I polish my paper before submitting it?

7) Can I ask a friend/family member/loved-one-that-is-not-a-dog-or-cat to review it for me before submitting?

8) Can I express myself in English writing without concern (i.e. do I worry that a native English speaker may not understand what I am trying to say)? If not, can I consult a native English speaker for assistance?

Please type your papers using a word processor unless you have immaculate handwriting. Never plagiarize, ghostwrite, or dry lab. (Consult a dictionary if you do not know what these words mean). Finally, it should go without saying, but please do not hand in a first draft. I take off points for typos and grammatical mistakes, since they indicate carelessness and a lack of attention to detail. Students will receive a high grade if they communicate their thoughts effectively, and that requires understanding and properly using the written (i.e. not spoken) English language.

C. Blackboard Discussion Posts and Responses:

a. Weekly readings and the summary reports (which you will post on the Discussion Board, and then respond to two other students’ posts) you write about them will help you develop your reading comprehension and writing skills. For each chapter that you read in this course, you must complete a discussion board post. Completing a topic discussion board means completion of an introductory post and making two responses post to another student’s post. Extra credit may be given to students who respond to more than one other student’s post, especially if it is clear that the student has found a way to respectfully and civilly correct another student’s mistakes. Remember: we are a learning community!

i. Spend time writing both posts, making sure they are well thought out, thorough, organized, well written, etc. Some students prefer to draw up an outline before they begin writing. Others like to heavily revise and proofread after a rough draft. Either is fine, but please do one or the other, or both.

ii. Try to connect what you are saying directly to a specific reading (pg. number is great to have!) or topic content posted by the professor. The posts will constitute the best piece of evidence I have with regard to how much effort you are putting into the course, how much learning is taking place, and how you are able to articulate your ideas…so make these posts great!

D. Online Participation

You are expected to be an active participant in this course, which includes in-person attendance as well as participation on Blackboard. “Active” online means checking in regularly, asking the instructor for clarification when necessary, completing all Blackboard assignments on time, participating in forums, showing respect for your peers and instructor at all times, and providing thoughtful observations about course materials in your tests and essays.

GRADES

POINT ALLOCATION FOR ASSIGNMENTS

Grades will be determined by calculating the accumulated points from the essay, exams, and assignments.
Please note that simply meeting the requirements for the assignments does not guarantee an “A.” Work that is excellent or outstanding merits that grade.
The total points will be calculated and the grades will be assigned accordingly:

FINAL GRADES WILL BE ASSIGNED AS FOLLOWS:

Grade

%

A

94-100

A-

90-93.99

B+

86-89.99

B

83-85.99

B-

80-82.99

C+

76-79.99

C

73-75.99

C-

70-72.99

D+

66-69.99

D

60-65.99

F

Below 60

There are 400 possible points:

Active participation, including Blackboard discussion board posts and responses

100 + possible extra credit

Oral History Research Paper

150 (5 submissions x 30 points)

Midterm Exam 75

Final Exam 75

Total Possible Points Total: 400

OVERALL GRADING POLICY

Your grade is based on your ability to follow the guidelines set forth in this syllabus. Handing assignments in on time is the first and perhaps most important requirement. If you do so, you will likely do very well in the class. This class is not graded on a curve. Any one can receive a good grade, but to do so you need to demonstrate your understanding of ALL of the course materials, participate regularly, actively and respectfully in the discussion forums, and produce high-quality and original written work of your own.

A special note about INCOMPLETES: In accordance with University policy, I’ll only grant an incomplete for an unforeseen incident that comes up in your life (documentation may be required). I will not grant an incomplete simply because you didn’t take this course seriously enough and thus didn’t make time for it – and thus wish to “take an incomplete” and finish the coursework later.

GENERAL STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE EXAMS

Exams will be a combination of true-false, multiple choice, short answer, and essay. Some of the questions may be rather specific, so make sure you read each required article carefully. Exams may be given online.

GENERAL STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE ESSAYS

Grades for writing assignments will be determined by considering structure, content, flow and writing quality, which I measure based on your usage of proper grammar, spelling accuracy, sentence and paragraph construction, punctuation, and the presentation of citations in a consistent style of your choice.

PARTICULAR STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE ESSAYS AND EXAMS

10-9: answered question completely and in a clear and articulate manner; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

8: answered question with minor issues in clarity or logical structure of essay; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

7: answered question, but not completely. Often key concepts need to be clearly explained and explicitly tied back to answering the question. Relevant materials were either incomplete or not entirely accurate. Author’s arguments were not represented with a high level of accuracy.

6: answered question only partially. Relevant materials were incomplete or inaccurate; Author’s arguments were incomplete or inaccurate; or a list of facts were given without explaining their significance in answering the question

5-0: Did not answer question. either another question was addressed, or the attempt to address the specific question was not supported by relevant and accurate information

COURSE SCHEDULE

REQUIRED TEXTBOOK

Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

***Note: Dates and materials listed below are subject to change at the instructor’s discretion. Often schedules change to allow for further class discussion where necessary and/or desirable, or to accommodate new, timely, and relevant current affairs. Coming to class (or checking in online if this is an online class) regularly is your best bet to know where we are.

BLUE HIGHLIGHTING = ORAL HISTORY ASSIGNMENT DUE DATES

YELLOW HIGHLIGHTING = EXAM

GREEN HIGHLIGHTING = VIDEO/FILM

Wk

Dates

Topic

Readings

1

1/18-1/23

1a. Introduction to class

1. Read the Syllabus carefully

2

1/24-1/30

1b. Introduction to course content

1. Cahn, Introduction, pp. 1-6

3

1/31-2/6

The New Type of Athletic Girl

Cahn. Chapter 1, pp. 7-30

Video: Oldest Women’s Basketball Film Footage 1904 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy6zRKIGQ3Y

DUE: Sunday 2/6 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #1: identify interviewee, include a paragraph (150-200 words) that details demographic information about your subject (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size, etc). Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.

4

2/7-2/13

Grassroots Growth and Sexual Sensation in the Flapper Era

Cahn, Chapter 2, pp.31-54

Video: Flappers – the Roaring Twenties

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3svvCj4yhYc

5

2/14-2/20

Games of Strife – the battle over women’s competitive sport

Cahn, Chapter 3, pp. 55-82

DUE: Sunday 2/20 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #2: working annotated bibliography of at least four (4) academic/scholarly (i.e. not journalism) sources, which you believe will help to contextualize your subject’s experiences. Please provide a short – 2-3 sentences – annotation for each source, regarding how you see each source connected to your subject. You can find the sources through the library. These must be sources that are NOT listed in this syllabus. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu

6

2/21-2/27

Order on the Court – the Campaign to suppress women’s basketball

Cahn, Chapter 4, pp. 83-109

7

2/28-3/6

“Cinderellas” of Sport; Black Women in Track and field

Cahn, Chapter 5, pp. 110-139


Midterm Quiz – will cover Weeks 2 –7 Take online 3/6 anytime before 11:59pm

8

3/7-3/13

No Freaks, No Amazons, No Boyish Bobs: The All-American Girls Baseball League

Cahn, Chapter 6, pp. 140-163

Film “A League of their Own” (1 DVD copy on reserve at library (DVD 101))

DUE: Sunday 3/13 by 11:59pm– Oral history paper Submission #3: interview summary. I expect to see each question you asked and a summary of the answers you received. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.

9

3/14-3/20

Beauty and the Butch: The Mannish Athlete and the Lesbian Threat

Cahn, Chapter 7, pp. 164-184

10

American history homework help

2

Retrieved from: Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L., Sayeed Khan, M., & Ahmed Haamed Mahmoud Sayed Ahmed Abdelwa Al Shibini, M. (2018). Contemporary scenario of Muslin women and sport in the United Arab Emirates: Pathways to the vision 2021. Olimpianos – Journal Of Olympic Studies2(2), 449-474. https://doi.org/10.30937/2526-6314.v2n2.id56

According to Mataruna-Dos-Santos et al. (2018), Male athletes dominate the sports world, and they rarely compete against female counterparts. Women’s participation in sports has become a major focus of development in the sporting world. When it comes to both professional and recreational sports, the UAE government goes out of its way to encourage the participation of women. Women in many Emirati homes are being encouraged to seek a career in athletics. While competing in major competitions like the Olympic Games, women athletes are defying prejudices.

Retrieved from: Ünsal, E., Kaptanoğlu, S., & Kabasakal, H. (2021). The Turkish Super League meets its first female club president. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies11(2), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1108/eemcs-10-2020-0375

According to Ünsal et al. (2021), women are gaining recognition since the 20th century especially in the sport industry. The recognition of women in sport has been sported ion Turkey especially in football that remain a national sport. During the 2019-2020 season is when the first female became a football club president which was never usual. Football sport has been a male dominated sport but women are finding their way into the sport and performing very well making it significant to offer them support.

Retrieved from: Taylor, K., Linden, A., & Antunovic, D. (2019). “From Beach Nymph to Gridiron Amazon”: Media Coverage of Women in American Football, 1934–1979. Communication & Sport9(3), 458-475. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479519871961

The authors Taylor et al. (2019), stated that the American football has been a sport that is associated with boys and men for years and the women have been participating in the sport for a period of about 100 years. In the 20th century is the period where media coverage on women playing the American football started and this brought into light the aspect of women in sport. The media coverage resulted to more women feminist sports studies literature and the government focused in demonstrating women athleticism.

Retrieved from: Osborne, C., & Skillen, F. (2020). Women in sports history: the more things change, the more they stay the same?. Sport In History40(4), 411-433. https://doi.org/10.1080/17460263.2020.1835707

According to the research, there is a tremendous progress about the increasing number of women in sports and this is well demonstrated in the community. The article expresses about the reality in the UK where in the past 10 years, women in sport are in an upward growth and this is much promising about the recognition of the women in sport. The acceptance and support of women in sports is a good empowerment that makes them also showcase their talents and capabilities and promote equity in the society.

References

Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L., Sayeed Khan, M., & Ahmed Haamed Mahmoud Sayed Ahmed Abdelwa Al Shibini, M. (2018). Contemporary scenario of Muslin women and sport in the United Arab Emirates: Pathways to the vision 2021. Olimpianos – Journal Of Olympic Studies2(2), 449-474. https://doi.org/10.30937/2526-6314.v2n2.id56

Osborne, C., & Skillen, F. (2020). Women in sports history: the more things change, the more they stay the same?. Sport In History40(4), 411-433. https://doi.org/10.1080/17460263.2020.1835707

Taylor, K., Linden, A., & Antunovic, D. (2019). “From Beach Nymph to Gridiron Amazon”: Media Coverage of Women in American Football, 1934–1979. Communication & Sport9(3), 458-475. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479519871961

Ünsal, E., Kaptanoğlu, S., & Kabasakal, H. (2021). The Turkish Super League meets its first female club president. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies11(2), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1108/eemcs-10-2020-0375

American history homework help

1 “The White Man’s Burden (Apologies to Rudyard Kipling)” Judge, April 1, 1899.

United States History 2620 images
1. The White Man’s Burden.1

2

00_HEW_21612_Text.indd 2 6/12/18 5:35 PM

American history homework help

· 3-4 Double spaced pages

· 1” margins all around

· 12-point font

· Name and page number are the ONLY outside information on each page (You should NOT create a cover page or provide extra information such as the date, course name, professor name, etc.)

 

Gradable Item

Attempted

Competent

Mastered

Points Possible

Paper introduction

The introduction gives the name and author of the book and some general information about the topic.

1

1.5

2

2

Content

The content adequately describes the main topics of the book.

Material is organized and easy to follow.

The reader can easily understand the main focus of the book.

1

2

3

4

Paper conclusion

The conclusion summarizes the information given in the report and provides a final insight about the book (or a recommendation for others who might read it)

1

1.5

2

2

Formatting (see above)

NA

NA

1

1

Spellchecked & proofed

NA

NA

1

1

Total Points Possible

10

American history homework help

SUSAN K. CAHN

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EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 1/31/2022 11:15 PM via
AN: 1428857 ; Susan K Cahn.; Coming On Strong : Gender and Sexuality in Women’s Sport
Account: s7451176

Coming
on Strong

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Coming
on Strong

Gender and Sexuality in

Women’S Sport

Second edition

Susan K. Cahn

University of Illinois Press
Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield

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First Illinois paperback, 2015
© 1994, 2015 by Susan K. Cahn.
Reprinted by arrangement with the author.
Manufactured in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 c p 5 4 3 2 1

∞ This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cahn, Susan K.
Coming on strong : gender and sexuality in women’s sport /
Susan K. Cahn.—Second Edition.
pages cm
First edition title: Coming on strong : gender and sexuality
in twentieth-century women’s sport.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-252-03955-3 (hardcover : acid-free paper) —
isbn 978-0-252-08064-7 (paperback : acid-free paper)
1. Sports for women—History—20th century. 2. Sex discrimination
against women—History—20th century. 3. Gender identity. I. Title.
gv709.c34 2015
796.082—dc23 2014035978

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To my parents,
Gretchen and James Cahn

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vii

Contents

Preface ix
Introduction 1

1. The New Type of Athletic Girl 7
2. Grass-roots Growth and Sexual Sensation in
the Flapper Era 31
3. Games of Strife
The Battle over Women’s Competitive Sport 55
4. Order on the Court
The Campaign to Suppress Women’s Basketball 83
5. “Cinderellas” of Sport
Black Women in Track and Field 110
6. No Freaks, No Amazons, No Boyish Bobs
The All-American Girls Baseball League 140
7. Beauty and the Butch
The “Mannish” Athlete and the Lesbian Threat 164
8. “Play It, Don’t Say It”
Lesbian Identity and Community in Women’s Sport 185
9. Women Competing/Gender Contested 207
10. You’ve Come a Long Way, Maybe
A “Revolution” in Women’s Sport? 246
Epilogue. “Are We There Yet?” The Paradox of Progress 281

Notes 315
Index 389

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ix

preface

As a sports-minded teenager of the 1970s, I marveled at the
courage and skill of the pioneer female athletes of my generation.
Prompted by new federal legislation against sex discrimination
and, more generally, by feminist demands for female access to
traditionally male realms of society, the sports world seemed to
undergo a rapid, almost instant transformation. Within a few
short years, girls’ and women’s athletic leagues, tournaments,
sports camps, and city, state, and national championships sprout-
ed to serve women at the high school, college, and professional
levels. The media took note as well, giving extensive coverage to
such female tennis and gymnastic stars as Billie Jean King, Chris
Evert, Kathy Rigby, and Olga Korbut. As one of the grateful ben-
eficiaries of these changes, I eagerly joined my high school bas-
ketball team and thrilled at my good fortune—the chance to be
involved in what I assumed was the first-ever interscholastic
sporting opportunity for girls.
Delighting as I did in the chance to play in organized competi-
tion, I was not concerned with the blatantly second-class status
of women’s sport in budget matters and the media; it did not
occur to me that it could be otherwise. And though I had ached
to play Little League baseball as a young girl, I never wondered
why baseball remained off limits to girls. My concerns were per-
sonal and immediate, mostly about jump shots and playing time.
I did suffer twinges of embarrassment knowing that I still har-
bored a secret wish to play halfback on my high school football
team. And though I suspected that what made me “right” in
“jock” circles might be making me all “wrong” in the nonathletic
social scene, I assumed these were the private dilemmas of a girl

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x p r e F a C e

born on the cusp of a new era. I had some vague images of
women athletes of the past, like the amazing Babe Didrikson or
the lithe Althea Gibson. But if I thought of them at all, it was as
anomalies of an earlier age—athletes who had miraculously done
it on their own in an age when women didn’t play sports. As far as
I knew, no tradition of women’s competitive sport paved the
way for my pioneering generation.
Years later my training in women’s history and feminist studies
has led me to reconsider those suppositions. I know now that his-
tories get buried. Questions deemed insignificant may be worth
asking. And interpretations oblivious to gender are most likely
misguided and incomplete. As a graduate student I began to won-
der about the tradition of women’s athletics in the United States.
Was it a linear story, a steady climb from exclusion to inclusion?
Or had specific time periods, classes, or cultures supported
women’s athletics before the 1970s? Which women played
sports, and what had doing so meant for them? If women had
participated in the past, why had sports remained such a bastion
of male activity and identity?
This book, which began as my Ph.D. dissertation for the
University of Minnesota, addresses these and other questions
designed to recover, and gain insight from, a history that for the
most part has been ignored by both popular and scholarly writ-
ers. It is not a comprehensive histor y of women’s athletics.
Rather, it is a study of how gender and sexuality have been cul-
turally constructed within and through twentieth-century U.S.
women’s sport. Precisely because women in sport crossed into a
“male” realm, both critics and advocates articulated their beliefs
about femininity, the female body, and the meaning of woman-
hood, leaving a rich body of historical evidence on how common-
sense beliefs about womanhood and manhood are made and
altered over time. By looking at how athletes, educators, sporting
officials, promoters, and journalists have clashed and compro-
mised over gender issues in sport, we can learn something about
how ordinary and influential people create society’s gender and
sexual arrangements, and how their actions are conditioned by
the circumstances and beliefs of their time.

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p r e F a C e xi

As I worked on my dissertation and then this book, several
institutions and many individuals provided financial, intellectu-
al, and personal support. I am grateful to the Graduate School
and the History Department of the University of Minnesota for
assisting me financially at the dissertation level. A University of
Minnesota dissertation fellowship, a dissertation special research
grant, and a grant from the McMillan Travel fund provided ex-
tremely helpful support. Subsequently I have received financial
assistance from a Clemson University Faculty Development
Grant and a Julian Park Publication Fund grant from the State
University of New York at Buffalo.
The financial support I received enabled me to travel in several
regions of the country collecting oral histories from athletes who
competed in high-level competition from as early as the 1930s
and as late as the 1970s. A few of these women had been famous
athletes of their day. The vast majority, however, received little
recognition during their playing days and have received even less
attention from historians or other scholars. I owe them a great
debt for sharing their time, stories, and knowledge with me. They
provided me with a level of detail about women’s athletic partic-
ipation that is unavailable in written sources. More important,
they gave me critical insights into the experience and perspectives
of women athletes, information that transformed my own think-
ing about women’s sport history. I would like to thank them for
their great intellectual contribution to this project and at the
same time acknowledge that their interpretations and mine were
not the same in every instance, and that my own questions and
interests have taken this study in directions that may not reflect
their priorities. I would also like to thank them for their hospital-
ity and for the thoroughly enjoyable experience of getting to meet
them and listen to their life stories, which collectively paved the
way for athletes of my and future generations.
I am also grateful for the generous help of archivists, friends,
colleagues, and editors. As I worked with a variety of historical
collections, I benefitted from the knowledge and assistance of
archivists, especially those at the University of Wisconsin,
Tennessee State University, Smith College, Radcliffe College, and

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xii p r e F a C e

the Chicago Historical Society. My adviser at the University of
Minnesota, Sara Evans, encouraged me throughout and after my
years in graduate school, offering her unwavering support in all
phases of the research and writing of this project. Professors
Mary Jo Maynes and Janet Spector also generously shared their
time and ideas and offered insightful criticisms and challenging
questions as well as personal support along the way. Members of
my dissertation writing group read numerous essays, conference
papers, and chapter drafts from the project’s inception to its
completion. I would like to thank Davida Alperin, Greta Gaard,
Priscilla Pratt, and Diana Swanson for their advice and comrade-
ship. In revising the manuscript for publication, several colleagues
have read chapters and made valuable suggestions. Pamela Mack,
George Chauncey, Jr., Kath Weston, Don Sabo, Wanda Wakefield,
Tamara Thornton, and Liz Kennedy have all given generously of
their time and ideas. Cindy Himes Gissendanner and Mary Jo
Festle, scholars who also study U.S. women’s sport history, have
been especially helpful and gracious in their willingness to share
ideas and sources. Thanks also to Scott Henderson, who provided
invaluable help in the final stages. Finally, I am grateful to Joyce
Seltzer, my editor at The Free Press, who went to bat for this proj-
ect early on and then offered her constant encouragement and
support. Her high standards and excellent advice have made this
a better book.
In addition numerous friends and family members read chap-
ters and/or offered encouragement, helpful criticisms, and laugh-
ter in just the right doses. I owe many thanks to Maureen Hon-
ish, Nan Enstad, Sharon Doherty, Linda Silber, Barbara Appleby,
Betsy Scholl, Robin McDuff, Elizabeth Martín-García, Lotus
Cirilo, Lisa Cahn, Kathleen Duffy, Shelly, Ellen Mamer, my
brothers, Steven and Peter Cahn, and my parents, Gretchen Cahn
and James Cahn. Finally, I would like to thank Birgitte Soland,
who doesn’t even like sports. Her powerful intellect, generous
heart, easy laughter, and abiding love have made this a better
book and enriched my life immeasurably.

In the years since its first publication, there have been many
fine scholars of sport whose work has informed my own. Some of

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p r e F a C e xiii

you are in the footnotes, but there are many others to whom I
also owe a debt of gratitude. In particular, I want to thank Pame-
la Grundy and Jaime Schultz for their critical feedback on my last
chapter. I also want to thank Pippa Holloway and Rita Liberti for
helpful readings and discussions; Hershini Bhana Young for
sharpening my thinking on race and sport; and David Herzberg
and Michael Rembis for many conversations about bodies, fit-
ness, and health as historically situated. Finally, I’d like to thank
my “basketball at the Bob” crew for reminding me that sport is
about enjoyment of many kinds, and Tandy Hamilton for teach-
ing me how much can be observed by looking away from the ball
as well as directly at the action.

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Coming
on Strong

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INTRODUCTION

In the early 1980s a talented young Czech immigrant to the
United States took the women’s tennis world by storm. Martina
Navratilova lost only six matches from 1982 to 1984, and by
1985 had accumulated 8.5 million dollars in winnings, more than
any other player in the sport’s history. 1 The refreshingly candid,
lithe, muscular Navratilova symbolized the advances women had
made in the athletic world and, more broadly, in traditionally
male activities involving money and power. As an outspoken crit-
ic of sexual inequality in sport, she represented both the ongoing
struggte and the impressive gains women had made in more than
a decade of challenges to the historic barriers to women’s partici-
pation in sport.

As Navratilova and other female athletes gained celebrity sta-
tus, many observers heralded their accomplishments as proof that
modern women had finally cast off the physical and psychologi-
cal shackles of past centuries. Yet others looked less favorably on
these developments, perceiving women’s entrance into sport as an
unsettling and unwelcome intrusion into the realm of masculinity.
In the tennis world Navratilova’s mounting victory toll invited
subtle condemnation and not-so-subtle ridicule from tennis
experts, fans, and the press.

Some wondered whether Navratilova even belonged on the
women’s tour anymore, given her apparent invincibility. Noting
her high-tech, precision-oriented training methods, they charac-
terized her as a “bionic sci-fi creation” of her training team-a
kind of unnatural, even monstrous “Amazon” who “has the
women’s game pinned to the mat. ” 2 Rather than bask in hard-
earned glory, therefore, Navratilova felt continually pressed to

1

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2 INTRODUCTION

counter her public image as some kind of hulking predator who
kept “beating up all those innocent girls. ” 3 This image, reflected
in media comments like “She’s simply too good,” placed her at
odds with, and not within, the women’s tennis circuit. 4

By implication these representations also suggested that she
was at odds with her sex; “the bleached blonde Czech bisexual
defector” who “bludgeoned” and “teased” her hopelessly inferi-
or opponents appeared to be something other than a “natural”
female. 5 One of her frustrated “victims” suggested to a reporter
that for Navratilova to play that well, she “must have a chromo-
somic screw loose somewhere.” 6 Navratilova’s stunning accom-
plishments could have been construed as an example of one ath-
lete’s successful attempt to use her natural talents, hard work,
and state-of-the-art training regimen to reach new levels of ath-
letic excellence/ Yet many Americans simply could not separate
the concept of athletic superiority from its cultural affiliation
with masculine sport and the male body. Her startlingly “mascu-
line” accomplishments generated farfetched explanations; con-
temporaries portrayed her as an extraordinary product of sci-
ence, technology, or-worse-chromosomal defect.

Martina Navratilova’s tarnished reputation suggests that even
in this age of apparent progress, the historic association between
athletic prowess and masculinity has endured. Highly skilled
female athletes continue to meet with profound skepticism. At
times, not only their femininity but their biological sex comes
into question. Several enthusiastic young athletes from Lewisville,
Texas, found this out during a girls’ soccer match in the fall of
1990. On watching their daughters’ team go down to defeat, two
irate fathers stomped onto the field and demanded that the
opposing side send its three best players to the bathroom so that
an officially designated parent could verify their sex. These men
could not fathom the fact that girls were capable of such talented
play. After the game one of the aggrieved fathers belligerently
“complimented” the winning team’s nine-year-old star, goalie
Natasha Dennis, by saying “Nice game, boy!” and “Good game,
son.” Nonplussed by the implication that her athletic ability
derived from what might be between her legs, Dennis pluckily

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INTRODUCTION 3

suggested that someone should instead take her accusers “and
check and see if they have anything between their ears. ” 8

Experiences like those of Martina Navratilova and Natasha
Dennis are as old as women’s attempts to break into the male
sporting tradition. Athletics have long been the province of men.
In the Western world, not only have men dominated the playing
fields, but athletic qualities such as aggression, competitiveness,
strength, speed, power, and teamwork have been associated with
masculinity. For many men sport has provided an arena in which
to cultivate masculinity and achieve manhood.

Consequently women’s very participation in sport has posed a
conundrum that Americans have grappled with for more than a
century. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, American
women made determined collective efforts to break down the
barriers to female athletic involvement. They claimed sport as a
right, a joy, and a signal aspect of women’s emancipation. These
attempts elicited both approval and scorn, generating a series of
controversies that spanned the century. The matter went far
beyond the issue of decorum-which kinds of behavior were
deemed appropriate for the female sex. The controversies sur-
rounding female athleticism broached fundamental questions
about the content and definition of American woman- and man-
hood. Would women engaging in a traditionally male activity
become more manlike? What exactly were “manly” and “wom-
anly” qualities, and did they have to be limited to men and
women, respectively? And if athleticism was not essentially mas-
culine, did this mean that all gender differences were mutable and
not ordained by, and permanently ensconced in, nature?

When women athletes insisted on their right to sport, alarmed
and intrigued observers wrestled publicly with these very ques-
tions. In 1912 the Ladies Home Journal published an article
titled “Are Athletics Making Girls Masculine?” Author Dudley
Sargent, prominent physical educator and director of Harvard
University’s Hemenway Gymnasium, wondered along with many
of his contemporaries whether female athleticism would make
women into masculine facsimiles of the “opposite” sex. 9 Or, con-
versely, they worried that women could “feminize” sport, dilut-

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4 INTRODUCTION

ing its masculine content and eroding the boundary between male
and female spheres of activity.

Sargent gave voice to the central, underlying tension in
American women’s sport-the contradictory relationship between
athleticism and womanhood. In subsequent years others exam-
ined the same question, often in a harsher light than the relatively
sympathetic Sargent. Journalists responded to Mildred (“Babe”)
Didrikson Zaharias’s stunning athletic accomplishments of the
1930s through the 1950s by mocking her “mannish” appearance.
They described her face as hawkish and hairy, her body as a
whipcord, and her personality as a “conqueror type” that includ-
ed “an unusual amount of male dominance.” 10 Under the weight
of such allegations, even supporters of women’s sport felt pressed
to concede that some female athletes excelled because of their
genetically constituted “android tendencies.” 11

The apprehensions of skeptics did not go unanswered. Over
the course of the century, advocates of women’s sport developed
numerous and often competing strategies to cope with the disso-
nance between masculine sport and feminine womanhood. The
boldest among them accepted the charge of masculinization but
claimed its positive value. They contended that women’s athleti-
cism would indeed endow women with masculine attributes, but
that these qualities would benefit women as well as men, con-
tributing to female emancipation and eliminating needless sexual
distinctions.

Female physical educators responded more cautiously. Several
generations of professionals sought to protect the reputation and
h~alth of female athletes by devising separate, less physically tax-
ing versions of women’s sport. In effect educators created a
respectable “feminine” brand of athletics designed to maximize
female participation while averting controversy. By contrast, pop-
ular promoters of community and commercial sport attempted to
feminize the athlete more than the activity. They touted the femi-
nine and sexual charms of female competitors, making sporting
events into combination beauty-athletic contests. These and other
sport advocates engaged in protracted battles for the control of
women’s sport, each side promising that under its authority
women’s athletics would gain respect and acceptance.

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INTRODUCTION 5

Individual athletes developed personal strategies to resolve the
tension between their love of sport and the cultural condemna-
tion of “mannish” or “tomboyish” athletes. Some made special
efforts to demonstrate femininity through their dress, demeanor,
and off-field interests. Other, more defiant types refused the com-
promise. With their “tough” manners and aggressive play, they
embraced a style that critics called “mannish” but that they
themselves saw as perfectly consistent with womanhood. Still
others opted for a middle course, claiming allegiance to conven-
tional definitions of femininity while at the same time trying to
stretch their boundaries to include athletic activities.

Ironically, many of the collective and individual strategies ath-
letes and their advocates employed to defuse the tension between
sport and womanhood actually deepened the gender divide in
athletic culture. Efforts to create a separate, distinct women’s
brand of sport effectively defined “feminine” sport as a lesser
version of male sport: less competitive, less demanding, and less
skillful. Commercial promoters were far more willing to com-
mend top-notch athletes for their “masculine” excellence. But by
going’to great lengths to highlight the feminine attractiveness and
sexual charms of female competitors, promoters implied that by
itself, athleticism remained a manly trait, one that must be com-
pensated for by proof of femininity.

=o=
Forced to deal with a constant barrage of criticism from diehard
defenders of a male sporting tradition, generations of twentieth-
century female athletes and their advocates successfully carved a
niche for women in a sporting culture whose deep identification
with masculinity nevertheless remained unyielding. With “real”
sport and “real” athletes defined as masculine, women of this
century have occupied only a marginal space in the sports world
and an even more tenuous position in athletic governance.

Consequently many, perhaps even most, women have until
recently been profoundly alienated from sport, and thus from the
physical competence, confidence, and pleasures that sport makes
available. However, those women who persisted in athletics found
in sport a positive, even life-transforming experience. While dis-

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6 INTRODUCTION

missing, defying, or simply putting up with the societal hostility
toward women athletes, they created a vibrant female sporting
tradition. Generations of women athletes have promoted physical
competence, celebrated the joy of play, developed a deep apprecia-
tion for athletic competition and excellence, and forged loving,
supportive bonds among women in a nontraditional setting.

The persistent but unsteady tension between female athleticism
and male-defined sport forms a central thread in the history of
women’s sport, illuminating not only women’s complicated
standing in the athletic world but the vital interplay between
sport and the surrounding culture. From early-twentieth-century
controversies over the intrepid “athletic girl,” to midcentury
racial politics surrounding African American women track stars,
to more recent legislative struggles over gender equity in school
athletics, women’s athletic history offers a lens through which to
understand both the complicated gender dynamics of sport and
the social experience of women athletes. A century of women’s
efforts to obtain a meaningful place in the sporting world pro-
vides critical insights into the history of gender relations in
American society.

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CHAPTER 1

THE NEW TYPE OF
ATHLETIC GIRL

=o=

In the fall of 1911 Lippincott’s Monthly described the modern
athletic woman: “She loves to walk, to row, to ride, to motor, to
jump and run … as Man walks, jumps, rows, rides, motors, and
runs.” 1 To many early-twentieth-century observers, the female
athlete represented the bold and energetic modern woman,
breaking free from Victorian constraints, and tossing aside old-
fashioned ideas about separate spheres for men and women.
Popular magazines celebrated this transformation, issuing favor-
able notice that the “hardy sun-tanned girl” who spent the sum-
mer in outdoor games was fast replacing her predecessors, the
prototypical “Lydia Languish” and the “soggy matron” of old. 2

With the dawning of the new century, interest in sport had
burgeoned. More and more Americans were participating as
spectators or competitors in football, baseball, track and field,
and a variety of other events. At the same time women were
streaming into education, the paid labor force, and political
reform movements in unprecedented numbers. Women’s social
and political activism sparked a reconsideration of their nature
and place in society, voiced through vigorous debates on a wide
range of issues, from the vote to skirt lengths. Popular interest in
sport and concern over women’s changing status converged in the
growing attention paid to the “athletic girl,” a striking symbol of
modern womanhood.

The female athlete’s entrance into a male-defined sphere made

7

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8 COMING ON STRONG

her not only a popular figure but an ambiguous, potentially dis-
ruptive character as well. Sport had developed as a male preserve,
a domain in which men expressed and cultivated masculinity
through athletic competition. Yet, along with other “New
Women” who demanded access to such traditional male realms
as business and politics, women athletes of the early twentieth
century claimed the right to share in sport. They stood on the
borderline between new feminine ideals and customary notions
of manly sport, symbolizing both the possibilities and the dangers
of the New Woman’s daring disregard for traditional gender
arrangements. 3

The female athlete’s ambiguity created a dilemma for her advo-
cates. Given women’s evident enjoyment of such “masculine”
pursuits, could the “athletic girl” (and thus, the modern woman)
reap the benefits of sport (and modernity) without becoming less
womanly? The Lippincott’s Monthly article was titled “The
Masculinization of Girls.” And while it concluded positively that
“with muscles tense and blood aflame, she plays the manly role,”
women’s assumption of “the manly role” generated deep hostility
and anxiety among those who feared that women’s athletic activ-
ity would damage female reproductive capacity, promote sexual
licentiousness, and blur “natural” gender differences. 4

The perceived “mannishness” of the female athlete complicat-
ed her reception, making the “athletic girl” a cause for concern
as well as celebration. Controversy did not dampen women’s
enthusiasm, but it did lead some advocates of women’s sport to
take a cautious approach, one designed specifically to avert
charges of masculinization. Women physical educators took an
especially prudent stance, articulating a unique philosophy of
women’s athletics that differed substantially from popular ideals
of “manly sport.”

The tension between sport and femininity led, paradoxically,
to educators’ insistence on women’s equal right to sport and on
inherent differences between female and male athletes. Balancing
claims of equality and difference, physical educators articulated a
woman-centered philosophy of sport that proposed “modera-
tion” as the watchword of women’s physical activity. Moderation
provided the critical point of difference between women’s and

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The New Type of Athletic Girl 9

men’s sport, a preventive against the masculine effects of sport. It
was this philosophy, with its calculated effort to resolve the issue
of “mannishness,” which guided the early years of twentieth-cen-
tury women’s athletics.

=o=
Interest in women’s athletics reflected the growing popularity of
sport in industrial America. In a society in which the division
between leisure and labor was increasingly distinct, many
Americans filled their free time with modern exercise regimens
and organized sport. It was in the middle and latter decades of
the nineteenth century

American history homework help

Course Project Milestone 1: Outline

Due Feb 20 by 11:59pm Points 50 Submitting a file upload

File Types doc, docx, and pdf

Available Jan 31 at 12am – Feb 20 at 11:59pm 21 days

This assignment was locked Feb 20 at 11:59pm.

Directions

Make sure to read the entire assignment below before you begin the work necessary

for Milestone 1.

For Milestone 1, you will need to write one paragraph stating your topic for the

project. Make sure to state the event you are writing about as well as the historical

figure whose point of view you will be writing from. Include your preliminary thesis

statement in this paragraph as well. Then, provide a preliminary outline for your

project. The outline should be as detailed as possible so your instructor can see

what you intend to do and offer suggestions.

For the Course Project, you will write about a historical event between 1865 and the

present day from the perspective of a historical figure who participated in the event.

Here are some examples: You may NOT use one of these examples…

The March on Washington from the perspective of Martin Luther King, Jr.

September 11th 2001 from the perspective of George W. Bush

The attack on Pearl Harbor from the perspective of Franklin D. Roosevelt

The ratification of the 19th Amendment from the perspective of Alice Paul

The Cuban Missile Crisis from the perspective of John F. Kennedy

2/22/22, 11:05 PM
Page 1 of 4

Milestone 1: Outline Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

The Cuban Missile Crisis from the perspective of John F. Kennedy

You will need to research not only the event, but also the historical figure, and write

the paper “in character.” Your final paper must be 5–7 pages of text, plus a title page

and APA-formatted reference page. You must include properly cited graphics, such as

pictures, maps, and graphs if you like. You must use and cite at least 5 scholarly

sources; Wikipedia, encyclopedias, and websites that are intended for a general

audience are not scholarly sources. You may supplement (not replace) the 5 scholarly

sources with news articles. Be sure to check out the New York Times and other

newspaper databases included in the FSCJ library catalog.

Submission

This assignment requires a file upload submission

(https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-10663-421254353) . After you have

reviewed the assignment instructions and rubric, as applicable, complete your

submission by selecting the Submit Assignment button next to the assignment title.

Grading

This outline is worth 50 points towards your grade and will be graded using the

Outline Rubric.

Formatting 5 pts

Exemplary

The outline

employs the

4.5 pts

Meets

Expectations

The outline

4 pts

Developing

The outline

shows the

3.5 pts

Beginning

The outline

resembles

0 pts

Not

Acceptable

The outline

2/22/22, 11:05 PM
Page 2 of 4

5 pts

20 pts

correct

format, and

proper use

of symbols,

and

indentations

are evident.

shows the

correct

format,

though a few

proper

symbols and

indentations

may be

misplaced or

inconsistent.

correct

format,

though

many proper

symbols and

indentations

may be

misplaced

or

inconsistent.

the correct

format, but

proper

symbols

and

indentations

are not

used.

has serious

errors and

does not

use the

correct

format.

Content 20 pts

Exemplary

The outline

contains

very

precise,

detailed

information

that is

essential to

the topic, in

addition to

including

specific

anecdotes

and

quotations

which are

attributed

to sources

with proper

APA

citations.

18 pts

Meets

Expectations

The outline

contains

sufficient

information

of the topic

which is

attributed to

sources with

proper APA

citations

though one

or two errors

may appear.

16 pts

Developing

The outline

contains

information

on the topic

which is

attributed

to sources

with APA

citations

though

more than

two errors

may

appear.

14 pts

Beginning

The outline

includes

information

related to

the topic,

but does

not

elaborate

or expand

upon

essential

information

which is

attributed

the sources

but does

not use

proper APA

citations.

0 pts

Not

Acceptable

The outline

includes

insufficient

and/or

inappropriate

information

and does not

include any

attribution to

sources in

APA format

or otherwise.

Grammar 5 pts

Exemplary

The outline

4.5 pts

Meets

Expectations

4 pts

Developing

The outline

3.5 pts

Beginning

The outline

0 pts

Not

Acceptable

2/22/22, 11:05 PM
Page 3 of 4

Total Points: 50

5 pts

20 pts

exhibits

excellent

use of

spelling,

punctuation,

grammar,

and format.

The outline

exhibits good

use of

spelling,

punctuation,

grammar, and

format, but

has a few

mistakes.

exhibits fair

use of

spelling,

punctuation,

grammar,

and format,

but has

multiple

mistakes.

exhibits an

undeveloped

use of

spelling,

punctuation,

grammar,

and format.

There are

many errors.

The outline

has serious

errors in

spelling,

punctuation,

grammar,

and format.

Thesis 20 pts

Exemplary

Thesis is

clear and

proposes an

arguable

point which

people

could

reasonably

agree or

disagree; it

takes a

stand.

18 pts

Meets

Expectations

Thesis is

clear and

proposes an

arguable

point, but it

does not take

a clear stand.

16 pts

Developing

Thesis is

somewhat

clear and

does not

fully

propose an

arguable

point.

14 pts

Beginning

Thesis is not

clear and

lacks

organization

of an

arguable

point and a

clear stand

for or

against.

0 pts

Not

Acceptable

The thesis

is absent

from the

outline.

2/22/22, 11:05 PM
Page 4 of 4

American history homework help

2. Bank run at New York’s American Union Bank during The Great Depression.2

2 Photo courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives Identifier 12573155.

3

00_HEW_21612_Text.indd 3 6/12/18 5:36 PM

American history homework help

1

The Healers by Ayi Kwei Armah

Ayi Kwei Armah published the book “The Healers” in 1978. The setting of the story is

taken place in Africa. During this time, the British took over different kingdoms. The British

took over the “kingdom of Ashanti” in the nineteenth century, in Astana country. Astana country

is now known as Ghana (Armah 12). The main character of this story is Densu. Densu is twenty

years old and growing into a young mature adult of his community. He is unsure about what he

wants to do with his life. Densu is a powerful young man, but he does not want to fight back the

disadvantages he faces. The author Ayi Kwei Armah’s primary purpose in writing “The Healers,”

is to grab the reader’s attention by illustrating that Africans should unite. There are two elements

of the story that could have welded to the destruction or survival of Africa, which are disunity

and greed. However, conflict was occurring between Africans or in the kingdom of Ashanti. For

example, the King and chiefs of the kingdom oversee orchestrating this vice (Mtshali 25). In

addition, to their lust, for food to fill their stomachs, a thirst for a drink to quench their thirst, and

a desire for clothes made of silk to sit on. The chiefs and kings plotted the disunity of the African

continent. The tides changed when those who had taken the oath by God’s sword, sworn to serve,

and protect became the oppressed and the subject of their dominance. Greed was another element

in this story between the leaders. According to the author, Africa’s failure and destruction were

due to the desire for power and the leaders’ lack of knowledge. As portrayed in the book “The

Healers,” contemporary African society suffers from a lack of unity due to poor leadership. More

than that, the desire for power and a better life by supporting the British colonial rulers played a

decisive role in the destruction of the African community and continent. Some of the leaders on

the African continent saw as the primary reason the continent came to its knees to the colonialists

(Correa 145). Some Africans tempted to fight fellow African members to get food, drinks, and

clothes by the leaders due to internal conflict among Africans. However, like plots to overthrow

2

the throne or to undermine the war strategy, as by the queen mother, the famous quote of divide

and rule became helpful in colonizers. Africans chose to destroy themselves due to their disunity.

Ababio’s greed for power led him to frame his godson, Densu, the orphan. Densu was framed for

murder by Ababio so that he, Ababio, could ascend with ease to the throne at Esuano.

Correspondingly, the queen mother undermined the war strategies of Asamoa Nkwanta when she

fought against the colonists in Kumase. According to the author, the queen mother fears that

should the mighty warrior Asamoa Nkwanta win the war, he will return and contest for the

throne at Kumase. Queen mother cited that a king’s wisdom lies in his knowledge of how to

remain King (Armah 33). Then, she thinks it would be better to yield a little to the whites than to

lose all power to the whites general. In this statement, the representation of the African leaders is

naive and unknowledgeable. Instead of abandoning their people and bending to the colonial’s

promises for a better life, they should have unified their subjects and fought off the white man

from their continent. Africans tend to be naive and poorly informed about their origins as well.

As the author explains, the Africans did not understand their roots, which blinded them from the

fact that they were all Africans and should be fighting for a common goal instead of fighting

amongst themselves. This vice resulted in the Asantes seeing themselves as distinct and different

from the Akims, Fantes, Ekuapems, Dahomey, Hausas, Ada, Ga, Aneho, Kru, Temne, Mande,

Sussu, and many other communities (Mtshali 28). Due to their confusion about their origins,

incompetence to reason and comprehend, and inability to identify their common enemy, the

Africans fought against one another. They drifted apart, allowing the white man to conquer them

easily. Despite the lack of unity, a group of people called the healers whose primary mission was

to unify the African continent. Even though African kings, queens, and chiefs oppressed the

Africans, the healers never lost hope to unite the people. The more challenging things got, the

more resolute they became (Correa 147). In the healers’ view, the individuality and scattering of

3

the Africans were only a temporary phase in the indigenous affairs of men, and it would soon

pass, thus achieving their long-term objective and goal. The path towards achieving this

objective was perilous and engulfed in thickets and thorns. Consequently, the Asante kings sent

soldiers to hunt down and kill the healers, and then, soldiers blamed them. Though Armah wrote

the book to strive for the unification of Africa, he is not blind to criticize, understand and despise

some of the traditions accepted in Africa and despise his own culture. He ascribes these practices

and acts to selfishness, ignorance, and a lack of power (Lindfors 39). When we look at the

author’s presentations and ideologies, we see a lot of parallels between present-day Africa and

the past. For example, people can think about how Africans worked to unite and see how many

people were spiritually or physically killed due to separation. In that regard, Kwame

Nkrumah and Patrice Lumumba come to mind. After publishing ‘Two Thousand Seasons’ and

‘The Healers, he fell from grace. These people fought for the unification of the African continent,

but they have quickly gone down the drain for some reason or another. However, the struggle for

unity in Africa is far from over. Suppose the results are not realized now, just like the healers.

For example, Damfo knew at some point the fruits of their work would be discovered, even if it

was centuries later. According to the author, all man matters are about self-interest and

competition. Rather than helping dying people or children, a television crew prefers to fight and

struggle to tell their story (Horne 65). According to Armah, one day, Africans will wake up and

discover their origin, hold hands together, and spirits of dead souls will awaken and heal Africa’s

wound together.

Overall, “Healers” is an excellent book for the readers to learn more about their African

ancestors. I suggest, for the readers that wants to know more about African American history,

they should read the “Healers.” It shows a great example of how Africans are trying to promote

4

unity. Another example, from today young black men are killing each other during the 21st

century. This a great book to read to get the understanding about our history!

5

Reference

Armah, Ayi K. The Healers: A Novel. Popenguine, Senegal: Per Ankh, 2012. Print.

American history homework help

3. Soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division escort the Little Rock Nine students into
the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, AR.3

3 Courtesy of the United States Army.

4

00_HEW_21612_Text.indd 4 6/12/18 5:36 PM

American history homework help

·
Assignment: Identify Moral and Ethical Duties

 

Top of Form

 Bottom of Form

This week, you will assume the role of an intern with the Sunstate County Sheriff’s Office. You have been assigned to patrol with Senior Officer Miller. You are patrolling the Pine Manor area, home to minorities and illegal immigrants. Recently, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers began to investigate crimes involving illegal immigrants in the Pine Manor area.

While driving on Main Street, Officer Miller recognizes a Hispanic male walking on the pedestrian walkway. He stops the patrol vehicle and talks to the man: “Hi Juan, haven’t you forgotten to make your payment this week? Remember Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers are in the area.” The Hispanic man takes several hundred-dollar bills out of his wallet and hands the money to Officer Miller.

You ask Officer Miller about the purpose of the payment. Officer Miller states, “It is an agreement. Either the illegal immigrants pay me, or I will notify ICE about their whereabouts”.

You continue to patrol the neighborhood, and Officer Miller stops another Hispanic male walking on the street. He also asks him about his weekly payment. Jose responds that he does not have any money, and he had sent this week’s paycheck to Mexico for his family. Officer Miller exits the vehicle and arrests Jose Martinez.

On the transport to the jail, Jose asks for the charges, and Officer Miller stated that he would be arrested for possession of marijuana. Jose answered, “I do not possess or use drugs.” Officer Miller grabs an evidence bag with a green leafy substance from underneath the driver’s seat and shows it to Jose, “Here is the evidence.”

Officer Miller arrives at the jail and then books Jose Martinez for the false charges.

Assess the scenario, and then address the following:

· Identify the ethical issues associated with the officer’s behavior.

· Offer some alternatives to this behavior in your discussion.

· Explain what your ethical obligation is in this scenario.

· Determine the consequences of the officer’s behavior.

Length: 4-6 pages, excluding the title and reference pages

References: Include a minimum of 5 scholarly references.

The completed assignment should address all the assignment requirements, exhibit evidence of concept knowledge, and demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the content presented in the course. The writing should integrate scholarly resources, reflect academic expectations, and current APA standards, and adhere to the Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

American history homework help

THIS WILL BE A TWO HUNDRED POINT EXAM, THE SCORE WILL BE DIVIDED BY TWO FOR THE EXAM GRADE.

PART ONE; MANDATORY ESSAY FOR ALL. (100 POINTS).

Historians devote much time to understanding why Al Smith failed to get elected the first Irish Catholic President and why JFK succeeded. One possible explanation is that Smith did not adapt enough to American culture while JFK did. Explore this claim Smith was a New Netherlander; did he adapt himself to that? Did JFK adapt himself to Yankeedom? Finally, how did the two candidates differ in the way they lived their religion?

PART TWO: CHOOSE ONE OUT OF THESE TWO FOR 100 POINTS).

1. Explain how President Andrew Johnson and his Secretary of State, William Henry Seward, felt conflicted between British and Irish concerns when confronted with the Fenian raids from the United States into Canada. By the 1920’s, this conflict diminished. Explain why.

2. Take the four major concepts of the Catholic Devotional Revolution—Authority, Sin, Ritual and the Miraculous—and explain why the Irish interpretation of these values disconcerted American Protestants, especially New England Puritans, of the nineteenth century.

American history homework help

DIRECTIONS FOR EACH ONE Make sure to reference specific passages from the document to support your discussion:

Discussion 1

Read

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/16-capital-and-labor/the-omaha-platform-of-the-peoples-party-1892/

answer this

· Identify a specific challenge from within the platform. How did the People’s Party intend to fix it? 200 words

· And this Who was the platform’s intended audience? Who did the message appeal to? (no word count necessary just answer)

Discussion 2

Read

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/19-american-empire/james-d-phelan-why-the-chinese-should-be-excluded-1901/

answer this in 200 words

· What key reasons did Phelan identify as to why the Chinese should continue to be excluded from immigrating to the US? How does relate to the nativist argument as discussed by the text?

Also answer this – no word count necessary

· In what ways did racial perceptions contribute to the nativist argument?

Discussion 3

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/20-the-progressive-era/booker-t-washington-w-e-b-dubois-on-black-progress-1895-1903/

answer in 200 words

· What did Washington mean by “cast down your bucket? in regards to race relations?

Answer this as well, no necessary word count

· What were the key reasons why Washington argues that  African-Americans should give up political power, insistence on civil rights, and higher education?

Discussion 4

Read this

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/23-the-great-depression/huey-p-long-every-man-a-king-and-share-our-wealth-1934/

Answer in 200 words

· What does Long advocate for and why?

Also Answer this- no necessary word count

· Why were Long’s ideas significant for the time? How do they relate to the challenges of the Great Depression?

·

Discussion 5

Read

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/24-world-war-ii/declaration-of-independence-of-the-democratic-republic-of-vietnam-1945/

Answer in 200 words

· What were the key reasons why Minh declared independence from France after WW2?

Answer this as well no necessary word count

· Do you think the experience of Vietnam under French colonial rule fueled a rejection of capitalism and the embracing of communism? Why or why not?

Discussion 6

Read

http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/25-the-cold-war/nsc-68-1950/

Answer in 200 words

· According to the document, military power was to be used to not just defeat aggressors, but to proactively create US-friendly environments. What specific threats were outlined by the document and how does this relate to the containment policy?

Also answer this- no necessary word count

· In what ways did the cold war “change” how the US military was used from the pre-WW2 era to today?

American history homework help

Once you have read the text and watched the videos in this module which is mandatory and part of your essay grade, please answer the following question with a 500 word essay (if you want a B or an A on the essay it is best to write closer to 1000 words):  

Explain the beginnings of American Football.  Where did the idea of football come from?  How did football come to America?  What is “football fightum?”  Which colleges were first involved in the creation of football?  Who is Walter Camp and how did he change the game of football? Who is Walter Heffeifinger?  What is he known for?  How rough was the game of football in the beginnings? 

When writing your essay (it should be in essay form not bullets), please provide evidence from “The Story of Football” text and the videos.  Outside sources are not needed or encouraged for this essay.  Any type of paraphrasing must be cited.  You may use MLA or CMS for your references and citations.  Whatever you do, do not copy and paste anything from the internet or from someone else’s paper.  This will result in a failing grade and reporting the incident to Student Affairs for academic dishonesty.  For all the essays, we will be using Turnitin antiplagiarism software.  You will be given an originality score for each easy.  If the score is over 10% there is a problem.  Good luck with the essay!  I’m ready to get moving towards the NFL!      

American history homework help

PROMPT FOR SEVEN PAGE ESSAY: seven pages, double spaced. Please place your name at the top of the first page so as to assist me in identifying you as author. Use the university’s standards for style in writing the paper. Footnotes need only consist of page numbers in Woodard. If you use another source, however, you will need to give a full citation in the footnotes.

DIRECTIONS:

Many movements in US History provide a contradiction: on the one hand extension of liberty, on the other a promotion of a form of repression. This applies to people sometimes as well.

With this in mind, choose ONE of the following three movement/counter-movements for analysis:

When the commerce promoted by religious toleration stimulated the slave trade as well;

When freedom for the immigrant caused less freedom for the formerly enslaved;

When freedom for people in the countryside clashed with freedom for those in the cities

For each of these, try to explain why the first effect caused the second effect. Use the class texts of Shorto, Philbrick McLaughlin or Dolan, plus your class notes, for evidence.

Then, for the second part of the paper, choose ONE character of your choice from the Shorto, Philbrick, McLoughlin or Dolan books. The person you pick should be someone whose promotion of freedom in one area was accompanied by their standing for oppression in another. Analyze why the individual was contradictory in these regards.

Feel free to consult me during the preparation of this paper.

Required books:

1) Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World. This work takes advantage of recently re-discovered archives of the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam to describe the multi-cultural foundations of the future city of New York.

2) Philbrick Nathaniel. Mayflower: Voyage, Community and War. New York, New York: Penguin Press, 2020 Revised Edition. Philbrick’s theme is the gradual souring of the relationship between Indigenous Americans and the Plymouth Colony. He is particularly challenging to the myth that a lasting harmony between the two groups may be symbolized by the first Thanksgiving.

3) McLoughlin, William G. Rhode Island: A History. New York, New York: WW Norton, 1986. The major themes of American history as measured through the experience of one small state.

4) Dolan, Jay P. The Irish Americans: A History. New York, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008. This book concludes the quarter with a balance to the thesis of Woodard that begins the quarter. Dolan disagrees with Woodard’s assertion that post-colonial immigrant groups did not change America’s dominant cultures, and he uses the example of Irish Americans to prove his argument

American history homework help

rite an essay on ONE of the following prompts: 

From their foundation as colonies in the 17th cenutry, the Northern and Southern states developed different social, political, and religious institutions.  Describes these differences and explain how can we account for them. 

The American Revolution resulted in the establishment of an independent United States.  How radical was the Revolution? In other words, did the Revolution protect existing liberties or did it establish new ones? 

Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamliton had very different ideas about the future of the United States.  They differed in their views of political power, the interpretation and how to interpret the Constitution.  Contrast their views and explain whether the United States developed along a “Jeffersonian” model or a “Hamiltonian” model. 

Grading Rubic:

Category

Excellent

Good

Fair

Poor

Argument (25%)

Does your paper have a clear, singular, specific argument that answers the question?  Do you avoid “related” but not “relevant” information? 

Is your opinion clearly stated and defended in the paper? 

 

 

 

Organization (25%)

Does your paper include an introduction with a clear thesis statement, a logical structure and use clear topic sentences and transitions? Is there a conclusion that ties up loose ends and revisits your thesis? Is each paragraph at least five sentences in length? 

 

 

 

Evidence (25%)

Do you use relevant evidence to defend your argument? Did you include concrete details from the lecture videos or assigned readings? Did you analyze the evidence in a way that supports your thesis? Are you interacting with ALL of othe assigned material through quoting and analysis? 

DO NOT CONSULT SOURCES OTHER THAN OUR CLASS LECTURES OR OTHER ASSIGNED MATERIAL. 

 

 

 

Mechanics (25%)

Is your prose efficient, crisp and polished, free of excessive passive voice or distracting spelling or grammatical errors? Is your paper double spaced? Do you have both a title and a heading? 

 

 

American history homework help

Research Paper Help

5 pages

· What were the causes of the Great Depression

DO NOT JUST REARRANGE THE WORDS IN ANY ARTICLE OR SITE TEACHER WILL KNOW. DO NOT JUST USE THESE SITES AND CHANGE THINGS

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/great_depression.asp

https://www.britannica.com/story/causes-of-the-great-depression

Research Paper Organization

The research paper should not provide a narrative history of the event. It must be an argumentative paper; you will answer a posed research question (the thesis) and present an introduction/the thesis, context surrounding the thesis, a clear argument, and a conclusion.

You will be graded upon the following aspects within the “research paper” rubric:

· The presentation of a clear introduction and a thesis that “answers” the above research questions. The thesis should be the last sentence of the introductory paragraph

· At least 2-3 paragraphs that provide historical context to “set the stage” for the argument

· The presence of at least 3 support paragraphs that present a claim. The first sentence of each paragraph should “relate” to the thesis to prove it to be true. Each paragraph requires evidence from sources with citations

· Sources should not be mentioned or directly quoted within the text. A citation suffices. All sources should thus be “paraphrased” in order to support the claims made and the thesis statements

· Citations need to be present and in either footnotes, endnotes, or in-text with “Author-Page” formatting. A bibliography must be present

· Proper grammar, spelling, and a professional tone (no mentions of yourself, opinions, or casual phrasing should be present, as this is an expository essay)

· Usage of scholarly sources (not wikipedia or sources found through casual google searches)

American history homework help

Research Paper Help

5 pages

· What were the causes of the Vietnam War?

Research Paper Organization

The research paper should not provide a narrative history of the event. It must be an argumentative paper; you will answer a posed research question (the thesis) and present an introduction/the thesis, context surrounding the thesis, a clear argument, and a conclusion.

You will be graded upon the following aspects within the “research paper” rubric:

· The presentation of a clear introduction and a thesis that “answers” the above research questions. The thesis should be the last sentence of the introductory paragraph

· At least 2-3 paragraphs that provide historical context to “set the stage” for the argument

· The presence of at least 3 support paragraphs that present a claim. The first sentence of each paragraph should “relate” to the thesis to prove it to be true. Each paragraph requires evidence from sources with citations

· Sources should not be mentioned or directly quoted within the text. A citation suffices. All sources should thus be “paraphrased” in order to support the claims made and the thesis statements

· Citations need to be present and in either footnotes, endnotes, or in-text with “Author-Page” formatting. A bibliography must be present

· Proper grammar, spelling, and a professional tone (no mentions of yourself, opinions, or casual phrasing should be present, as this is an expository essay)

· Usage of scholarly sources (not wikipedia or sources found through casual google searches)

American history homework help

You must pick one (1) of the essay questions below for your final exam. You should prepare this essay throughout the course of the semester utilizing your weekly studies to add to your understanding of your chosen question.

Your essay should be at least 1000 words in length and no more than 1200.  It should be typed in 12-point font with standard margins. 

Should you include any material directly from ANY source (textbook, lecture notes, Internet sites) you MUST put it in quotation marks and provide a complete footnote reference.  I strongly encourage you to limit your use of quotations unless they are particularly appropriate for a point YOU are trying to make.  This essay should be in your words, not someone else’s.

A. America as A World Power: America’s role in the world and the nature of its foreign policy changed drastically throughout the twentieth century. For most of the 1900s the U.S. remained isolated from world affairs but at the beginning of the 20th century. Please describe the keys reasons for and goals of this transformation.

            Events/topics:

1. Impulse to imperialism in 1880s and forward

1. Spanish American War

1. World War I

1. World War II

1. The Cold War as the core of American foreign policy including Truman Doctrine, containment, expansion of federal government and nuclear proliferation

1. Korean and Vietnamese Wars

1. America’s current role as a world leader

A. The Role of Government in the Lives of Americans: In the late 1800s state and federal government played a limited role in the daily lives of Americans, especially those Americans at the bottom of the social ladder.  Please describe the transformation of the role of the federal government and the debates that have accompanied those changes

             Events/topics:

2. Late 1800s industrialization and urbanization

2. The Populist and Progressive Movements

2. The Great Depression and the 2 New Deals

2. Impact of World War II on American society

2. The Cold War’s impact on life in America (anti-communism, threat of nuclear war, civil rights)

2. Lyndon B. Johnson’s War on Poverty

2. The debate over welfare

2. The political battle over the size of the federal government (Republican and Democratic positions and ideas)

A. American Civil Rights: Despite the foundation of America on the concept of equality, our history has been filled with ongoing battles over what equality and civil rights truly mean. Please trace the ongoing battles for equality among at least three (3) groups in American history.

1. This should stretch back to 1860s and should include groups such as African-Americans, women, the poor and working classes, immigrant groups, as well as others should you so choose (LGBT, Native American, Latino, etc…) 

1. Please make sure to include specific events, laws, groups/organizations and individuals that have played a significant role in these changes. 

1. I need to see that you understand the roles that social movements play in American society and the role that state and federal governments play in this process. 

1. I would also like to have a sense of your opinion on the changes that have occurred and whether they are helping America to fulfill the meaning of the concept of equality or whether they fall far short.

American history homework help

Journal1 (TOTAL 1200 WORDS – 10 ENTRIES 120 WORDS EACH) NEED TWO OF THESE FOR 2 DIFFERENT STUDENTS

Do 10 separate journal entries use chapters 1-8 from this textbook. Write on anything you want as long as its 120 words

· Each entry should pertain to United States History prior to 1877.

http://www.americanyawp.com/

Journal 2 – (TOTAL 1200 WORDS – 10 ENTRIES 120 WORDS EACH) NEED TWO OF THESE FOR 2 DIFFERENT STUDENTS

Do 10 separate journal entries use chapters 9-15 from this textbook. Write on anything you want as long as its 120 words

http://www.americanyawp.com/

American history homework help

T H E F R E E D O M C H A R T E R
ADOPTED A T THE C O N G R ESS OF THE PEOPLE A T
KLIPTOWN, JO H A N N ESBU RG , ON JUN E 25 AND 26, 1955.

\ ^ E , the People o f South A fric a , declare for all our country and the world to know:

that South A fric a belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no govern­
ment can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people;

that our people have been robbed of their birthright to land, liberty and peace by a
form o f government founded on injustice and inequality;

that our country will never be prosperous or free until all our people live in brother­
hood, enjoying equal rights and opportunities; CcvJU^Oo. { fH)

that only a dem ocratic state, based on the will of all the people, can secure to all
fat “A ^ their birthright without distinction o f colour, race, sex or belief;

And therefore we, the People o f South A fric a , black and white together — equals, country­
men and brothers — adopt this Freedom C h a rte r. A nd we pledge ourselves to strive
together sparing neither strength nor courage, until the dem ocratic changes here set
out have been won.

THE PEOPLE SHALL GOVERN 1

Every man and woman shall have the right to vote for and to stand as a candidate for all bodies which make laws; C k .All people shall be entitled to take part in i the administration of the country CU ^ . The rights of the people shall be ̂ he .same, regardless of race, colour or s e x ; (JX) >•All bodies of minority rule, advisory boards, councils and authorities shall be re­placed by democratic organs of self-govern­ment.
ALL NATIONAL GROUPS SHALL HAVE EQUAL

RIGHTS I .

There shall be equal status in the bodies of state, in the courts and in the schools for all national groups and races.All people shall have equal right to use their own languages, and to develop their own folk culture and customs;All national groups shall be protected by law against insults to their race and nation­al pride;The preaching and practice of national, race or colour discrimination and contempt shall be a punishable crime;All apartheid laws and practices shall be set aside.
THE PEOPLE SHALL SHARE IN THE COUNTRY’S

WEALTH !

The national wealth of our country, the heritage of all South Africans, shall be re­stored to the people;The mineral wealth beneath the soil, the Banks and monopoly industry shall be trans­ferred to the ownership of the people as a whole;All other industry and trade shall be con­trolled to assist the well-being of the people;

All people shall have equal rights to trade where they choose, to manufacture and to enter all trades, crafts and professions.
THE LAND SHALL BE SHARED A M O N G THOSE

W H O WORK IT!

Restriction of land ownership on a racial basis shall be ended, and all the land re- ̂ . divided amongst those who work it, to ban- – i vj ish famine and land hunger;The state shall help the peasants with im­plements, seed, tractors and dams to save the soil and assist the tillers;Freedom of movement shall be guaranteed to all who work on the land; (ixkctt. ‘a\IJ All shall have the right to occupy land wherever they choose; ^ )People shall not be robbed of their cattle, and forced labour and farm prisons shall be abolished.
ALL SHALL BE EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW I

No one shall be imprisoned, deported or restricted without a fair trial;No one shall be condemned by the order of any Government official; 6U r ^ •The courts shall be representative of all the people;
Imprisonment shall be only for serious crimes against the people, and shall aim at re-education, not vengeance;The police force and army shall be open to all on an equal basis and shall be the help­ers and protectors of the people;All laws which discriminate on grounds of race, colour or belief shall be repealed. CiJk. \ i 2

ALL SHALL ENJOY EQUAL HUMAN RIGHTS I

The law shall guarantee to all their right to speak, to organise, to meet together, to publish, to preach, to worship and to educate their children; „ –
(W 2 o *

The privacy of the house from police raids shall be protected by la w ; 6lA \ H / All shall be free to travel without restric­tion from countryside to town, from prov­in c e to province, and from South Africa
I abroad;
1 Pass laws, permits and all other laws re­str ic tin g these freedoms shall be abolished.

THERE SHALL BE WORK AND SECURITY !

All who work shall be free to form trade unions, to elect their officers and to make^. wage agreements with their employers;The state shall recognise the right and duty of all to work, and to draw full unem­ployment benefits; (\)Men and women of all races shall receive equal pay for equal work; fc)There shall be a forty-hour working week, a national minimum wage, paid annual leave, and sick leave for all workers, and ma­ternity leave on full pay for all working
mothers; Q # *Miners, domestic workers, farm workers and civil servants shall have the same rights as all others who work;Child labour, compound labour, the tot system and contract labpur shall be abolish­ed.
THE DOORS OF LEARNING AND OF CULTURE

SHALL BE OPENED !

The government shall discover, develop and encourage national talent for the en- hancement of our cultural life;
jP ? All the cultural treasures of mankind, V m sh all be open to all, by free exchange of books, ideas and contact with other lands;The aim of education shall be to teach the youth to love their people and their culture, to honour human brotherhood, liberty and

peace; 3Sfi(a)Education shall be free, compulsory, uni- y«> /jg^VersaL and equal for all children; 31 (0 * (\) 3. , Higher education and technical training shall be opened to all by means of state allowances and scholarships awarded on the basis of merit; Slb/O Adult illiteracy shall be ended by a mass state education plan;

Teachers shall have all the rights of other
citizens *The colour bar in cultural life, in sport and in education shall be abolished, fl*
THERE SHALL BE HOUSES, SECURITY AND

CO MFORT!

All people shall have the right to live where they choose, to be decently housed, and to bring up their families in comfort Q g
and security;Unused housing space shall be made avail­
able to the people;Rent and prices shall be lowered, food plentiful and no one shall go hungry;A preventive health scheme shall be run |
by the state;Free medical care and hospitalisation ) shall be provided for all, with special care | for mothers and young children;Slums shall be demolished, and new sub- . urbs built where all have transport, roads, lighting, playing fields, creches and social
centres;The aged, the orphans, the disabled and the sick shall be cared for by the state;Rest, leisure and recreation shall be the
right of all;Fenced locations and ghettoes shall be abolished and laws which break up families shall be repealed.
THERE SHALL BE PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP !

South Africa shall be a fully independent state, which respects the rights and sover­eignty of all nations;South Africa shall strive to maintain world peace and the settlement of all inter­national disputes by negotiation — not w ar;Peace and friendship amongst all our people shall be secured by upholding the equal rights, opportunities and status of all;The people of the protectorates — Basuto­land, Bechuanaland and Swaziland — shall be free to decide for themselves their own fu­ture;The rights of all the peoples of Africa to independence and self-government shall be recognised and shall be the basis of close co­operation.
# *

Let all who love their people and their country now say, as we say here: ” T H E S E F R EE D O M S
W E W IL L F IG H T F O R , SID E BY SID E, T H R O U G H O U T O U R LIV ES , U N TIL W E H A V E

W O N O U R L IB E R T Y .”

Issued by the Congress of the People, Box 11045, Joh’burg, and printed by Pacific Press (P ty.) Ltd., Jeppe.

Collection Number: AD1137

FEDERATION OF SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN 1954-1963

PUBLISHER:
Publisher:- Historical Papers Research Archive

Location:- Johannesburg

©2013

LEGAL NOTICES:

Copyright Notice: All materials on the Historical Papers website are protected by South African copyright law and
may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed, or otherwise published in any format, without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner.

Disclaimer and Terms of Use: Provided that you maintain all copyright and other notices contained therein, you
may download material (one machine readable copy and one print copy per page) for your personal and/or
educational non-commercial use only.

People using these records relating to the archives of Historical Papers, The Library, University of the Witwatersrand,

Johannesburg, are reminded that such records sometimes contain material which is uncorroborated, inaccurate,
distorted or untrue. While these digital records are true facsimiles of paper documents and the information contained

herein is obtained from sources believed to be accurate and reliable, Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand

has not independently verified their content. Consequently, the University is not responsible for any errors or

omissions and excludes any and all liability for any errors in or omissions from the information on the website or any

related information on third party websites accessible from this website.

This document is part of a collection held at the Historical Papers Research Archive at The University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

American history homework help

Movie choices for History 202 Movie Paper

“Good Morning, Vietnam” (1987)

“All Quiet on the Western Front” (1930)

“The Grapes of Wrath” (1940)

“Tora, Tora, Tora” (1970)

“Schindler’s List” (1993)

“Saving Private Ryan” (1998)

“The Longest Day” (1962)

“Pearl Harbor” (2001)

“Judgment at Nuremburg” (1961)

“Letters from Iwo Jima” (2006)

“Thirteen Days” (2000)

“All the President’s Men” (1976)

“Hidden Figures” (2016)

“1917” (2019)

“Dunkirk” (2017)

“We Were Soldiers” (2002)

“Selma” (2014)

“The Big Short” (2015)

“Midnight in Paris” (2011)

“Apollo 13” (1995)

“Platoon” (1986)

“To Kill a Mockingbird” (1962)

“The Great Debaters” (2007)

“Born on the 4th of July” (1989)

“Milk” (2008)

“Mississippi Burning” (1988)

“Midway” (2019)

“The Right Stuff” (1983)

“Quiz Show” (1994)

“Gangs of New York” (2002)

“How the West Was Won” (1962)

“The Color Purple” (1985)

“Bugsy” (1991)

“Newsies” (1992)

“M.A.S.H.” (1970)

American history homework help

Running head: WOMEN IN SPORTS 1

WOMEN IN SPORTS 2

Introduction

A retired African American athlete from Havana, Florida, Christina Richards is profiled in this article. Christina Richards was born and raised in Havana, Florida. Participating in athletics was difficult since she was of the black race and of the feminine sex. This was due to the sporting restrictions in effect during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which prevented women from participating in sports until the laws were changed (V & A, 2019). Discrimination against her because of her black race also prevented her from evaluating many areas of sports, making it difficult for her to live the life of an athlete. She participated in and competed in a number of various events before her health difficulties prevented her from continuing to participate. There are a variety of issues that women encounter in the sports sector, such as discrimination based on gender, as well as what is being implemented by the government and athletes to address these challenges (Elfman, 2020). Women in sports and the challenges they experience.

Outline

Significant barriers that women athletes face in the sports industry

· The biggest difficulty that female athletes must overcome is the widespread notion that males are superior athletes than women, and as a result, women are discriminated against in the sports industry.

· In the sports sector, there is discrimination based on race, with black women being denied the same possibilities as other women.

A look at the efforts made by different governments to encourage women to participate in sports

· Different governments are empowering women, offering opportunities, and facilitating their achievements at the local, regional, and international levels in the athletics business.

· The governments are establishing legislation in place to protect women’s rights and to encourage their inventiveness in athletics, with the goal of contributing to the growth of their respective societies.

Media coverage of female athletes

· There is still a long way to go in the press coverage of female athletes compared to that of male athletes.

The implementation of measures to ensure equality in athletics is necessary

· Women must be appreciated for their ability, talent, and distinctive point of view rather than their gender.

· An industry-wide winning culture must be fostered in order to be able to recognize what is working well and identify problems and obstacles early on, allowing the industry to take necessary action to improve performance.

Working bibliography

Retrieved from: Ahmad, N., Thorpe, H., Richards, J., & Marfell, A. (2020). Building cultural diversity in sport: a critical dialogue with Muslim women and sports facilitators. International Journal Of Sport Policy And Politics, 12(4), 637-653. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2020.1827006

Muslim women’s involvement in sporting activities is investigated by Ahmad et al. (2020) based on focus groups with thirty eight Muslim females and fourteen sports instructors. The study found that Muslim women and sports organizations are often at odds on the goals, constraints, and tactics for making sport more culturally diverse. These requirements must be completed if women are to be able to participate in sports on an equal footing with men.

Retrieved from: Sainz-de-Baranda, C., Adá-Lameiras, A., & Blanco-Ruiz, M. (2020). Gender Differences in Sports News Coverage on Twitter. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(14), 5199. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145199

According to Sainz-de-Baranda et al. (2020), gender stereotypes affect how boys and girls view themselves and the media’s handling of sports stars differently is a major element in the preservation of sports stereotypes. The study seeks to examine if new media platforms like Twitter perpetuate gendered prejudices in sports reporting. The results showed that although Spanish women’s athletes have enjoyed an uptick in international success in recent years, it is apparent that they are ignored in the media. Apart from football, female athletes attract more media attention based on the sport they play than on their achievements.

Retrieved from; Hartzell, A., & Dixon, M. (2019). A Holistic Perspective on Women’s Career Pathways in Athletics Administration. Journal Of Sport Management, 33(2), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0127

Research conducted by Hartzell, A., and Dixon, M. (2019) show that despite recent advancements, women are still underrepresented in sport leadership positions around the world. According to the study, sport organizations can reap the various and positive rewards of a much more diversified workforce which focuses on successful career advancement techniques that assist women achieve the heights for which they aspire within sport.

Retrieved from: Hussain, U., & Cunningham, G. (2020). ‘These are “our” sports’: Kabaddi and Kho-Kho women athletes from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport, 56(7), 1051-1069. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220968111

According to the authors Hussain, U. and Cunningham, G. (2020), Men are more likely to participate in sports and physical activities than women. This is especially true for individuals from marginalized groups. The research examines Pakistani women from the province of Punjab who have been marginalized due to their socioeconomic status. The report’s findings suggested that participants felt confined by Pakistani culture’s and the West’s athletic paradigm’s systemic macho dominant culture.

References

Ahmad, N., Thorpe, H., Richards, J., & Marfell, A. (2020). Building cultural diversity in sport: a critical dialogue with Muslim women and sports facilitators. International Journal Of Sport Policy And Politics, 12(4), 637-653. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2020.1827006

Elfman, L. (2020). Champion equity for women in sports. College Athletics And The Law, 17(7), 12-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/catl.30791

Hartzell, A., & Dixon, M. (2019). A Holistic Perspective on Women’s Career Pathways in Athletics Administration. Journal Of Sport Management, 33(2), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0127

Hussain, U., & Cunningham, G. (2020). ‘These are “our” sports’: Kabaddi and Kho-Kho women athletes from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport, 56(7), 1051-1069. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220968111

Sainz-de-Baranda, C., Adá-Lameiras, A., & Blanco-Ruiz, M. (2020). Gender Differences in Sports News Coverage on Twitter. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(14), 5199. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145199

V, D., & A, N. (2019). A Study on Indian Women Participating in Sports. International Journal Of Research In Arts And Science, 5(Special Issue), 47-56. https://doi.org/10.9756/bp2019.1001/06

American history homework help

After reading the 3 primary sources posted in Week 13 materials, answer the following questions:

1. Based on these sources, what do you see as some of the “breaking points” in terms of the shift away from strictly non-violent methods of resistance in the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement? Your answer should be 3-4 sentences long. Though you do not need to provide any direct quotes, your answer should make reference to the material so that I know what your ideas are based on. Worth 5 points.

2. Do you sense that the authors are violent and are excited about launching violent campaigns against their oppressors, or is this more about being less willing to absorb the violence they encounter? Do you think all three authors share the same vision as they advocate for a move away from strictly non-violent protest? Your answer should be 4-5 sentences long and needs to provide at least one direct quote from the assigned material. The quote does NOT count towards your 4-5 sentences. Worth 10 points.

3. What are YOUR thoughts about the shift away from strictly non-violent protest strategies? Do you think the authors here make a case for this shift? Do you think they are trying to justify something that is immoral/unethical/wrong? Your answer should be 4-5 sentences long and needs to provide at least one direct quote from the assigned material. The quote does NOT count towards your 4-5 sentences. Worth 10 points.

American history homework help

Andersonville

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 1

Civil War America

Gary W. Gallagher, editor

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 2

Andersonville

The Last Depot

William Marvel

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 3

© 1994 The University of North Carolina Press

All rights reserved

Manufactured in the United States of America

The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production

Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Marvel, William.

Andersonville : the last depot / by William Marvel.

p. cm.—(Civil War America)

Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.

ISBN 0-8078-2152-7 (cloth : alk. paper)

1. Andersonville Prison. 2. United States—History—Civil War,

1861–1865—Prisoners and prisons, Confederate. 3. Prisoners

of war—Confederate States of America. 4. Prisoners of war—

United States—History—19th century. I. Title. II. Series.

E612.A5M44 1994 93-40101

973.7’71—dc20

CIP

99 98 97 96 6 5 4 3

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 4

To
HARVEY KNIGHT
of Atmore, Alabama,
1947–1992,
the quintessential
army buddy

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 5

Contents

Preface

1

I Find Me in a Gloomy Wood

2

All Hope Abandon

3

Then Spoke the Thunder

4

A Deep and Muddy River

5

But Yet the Will Roll’d Onward

6

Each in His Narrow Cell Forever Laid

7

April Is the Cruelest Month

Notes

Bibliography

Sources and Acknowledgments

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 6

Preface

Some 41,000 men shuffled into the prison stockade at Anderson Station, Georgia, between February of 1864

and April of 1865. Of these, perhaps 26,000 lived long enough to reach home. Theirs was undoubtedly the

most unpleasant experience of the Civil War, but, almost without exception, those who wrote about

Andersonville appear to have exaggerated their tribulations at that place. Some did so deliberately, for polit-

ical reasons or simply because accounts of prison misery sold well in the postwar North. Others forgot per-

sonal acts of kindness, regurgitating tales of horrible cruelties that they never witnessed because, as one of

them reasoned, they must have been true. In many cases they based their anecdotes on testimony from the

trial of Henry Wirz, the transcript of which runs heavy with some of the most absurd hearsay that any amer-

ican judge ever permitted to stand.

Literary demands may have driven former prisoners to enliven their recollections with grisly imaginings or

borrowings, if only to avoid infecting their readers with the sheer tedium of Andersonville. Memories of their

helplessness at the hands of their captors and crystallized suspicions that their deprivation was an act of con-

scious design may also have provoked a certain license with the truth. These men did not, however, have to

embellish their accounts to produce a picture of immense suffering: the prison and the circumstances provid-

ed that without any infusion of malice.

Much effort has been expended by various partisans to prove that Southern spite against prisoners or Northern

intransigence on the exchange question was responsible for this tragedy. Surviving documents seem to dis-

credit any accusation of deliberate deprivation, unless one takes the position that the Richmond government

should have devoted a greater proportion of its dwindling resources to its prisoners than to its own army, but

thorough examination of the exchange question would require the better part of a book. This will not be that

book. Clearly the breakdown of prisoner exchange was responsible for the lengthy imprisonments that

allowed vitamin deficiency to kill and cripple so many, but the real cause of that breakdown is less certain.

It was the Federal government that suspended the exchange cartel, first in response to disagreement over num-

bers and then in protest of the Confederate refusal to repatriate black soldiers. At one point it appeared that

the two sides might work that out, except perhaps for those prisoners who were recognized as former slaves,

but the Federal government insisted on absolute equality for all black prisoners: it could do no less without

appearing to foresake them. Conversely, as hungry for manpower as it was, the Confederacy could not com-

ply without renouncing the very reason for its existence. Northern stubbornness on that point puzzled equal-

ly resolute Southerners, leading them to suspect that this was merely an excuse for keeping the large prepon-

derance of prisoners held in Union prisons. In the summer of 1864 Ulysses Grant let it slip that there was at

least a grain of truth to that argument: as hard as it was on those in Southern prisons, he contended, it would

be kinder to those still in the ranks if each side kept what prisoners it had, since that would end the war soon-

er.

As important as the exchange question was to the prisoners, the finer points of the debate do not bear partic-

ularly on what actually happened at Andersonville. It may not even be possible to determine whether the issue

of black soldiers was a pretense, or whether the more pragmatic motive evolved during the cartel’s suspen-

sion, since intentions varied widely among those who held power. Grant’s implied policy of attrition was just

as legitimate as the administration’s stated motive was high-minded: if it was adherence to such a policy that

led to the deaths of thousands who might otherwise have lived, it probably saved even more lives that might

have been lost, North and South, by prolongation of the conflict.

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 7

That would have been a tough bill of goods to sell in 1865, had Grant’s reasoning been public knowledge.

Even the principle of equal treatment for black prisoners held little sway with many in the North: Lincoln’s

own secretary of the navy privately denounced the obstinacy over former slaves. The inhabitants of

Andersonville felt particularly bitter on that account. Prison officials played the card for all it was worth,

prompting great numbers of prisoners to express contempt for the Lincoln administration, which they felt had

abandoned them for the “confiscated contrabands.”

Back home, many of the prisoners’ families shared that sentiment. It therefore behooved the victors to estab-

lish that enemy malevolence had caused it all rather than a matter of lofty principle or a conscious practical

policy of the victims’ own government. That aim proved consistent with the politics of the bloody shirt, and

military justice provided the requisite scapegoat. With that pronouncement one frail Swiss immigrant went to

the gallows and Andersonville came to signify all that was evil in the hated Confederacy.

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 8

Andersonville

Only the winners decide what were war crimes.
—Garry Wills

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 9

1 —

I Find Me in a Gloomy Wood

As on any other day, the world spent Tuesday, November 24, 1863, spinning the thread of tomorrow’s events

from the flax of yesterday’s. In Moscow a former political prisoner struggled to document the horrors of his

experience; from Copenhagen a new Danish king evoked the wrath of the growing Prussian empire when he

cast a covetous eye on two German duchies; at the mouth of the Seine a young artist who would help change

the complexion of painting sketched the rugged coast of his native Normandy; off Japan a British frigate

avenged the execution of a countryman with a surprise bombardment of the city of Kagoshima; in the wind-

whipped autumn chill that reminded him of his Norwegian homeland, a laboring man in Winchester,

Wisconsin,

learned that his name—Knud Hanson—had been drawn that very day from a tumbler full of such names, and

now he would have to fight in the war that raged across the American continent. 1

That same evening George Templeton Strong attended a lecture by Henry Ward Beecher at the Academy of

Music in New York. The address benefited the U.S. Sanitary Commission, to which Strong belonged. When

the Reverend Beecher ran out of words—a rare enough event in itself—he and the more prominent members

of his audience adjourned to the home of the Sanitary Commission’s president. Beecher’s sister, the author of

Uncle Tom’s Cabin, offered her presence at this soirée, impressing Mr. Strong as a ‘’very bright and agree-
able” lady. 2

In the wee hours of November 24 an Iowa farmboy, George Shearer, clambered down the bank of the

Tennessee River under the eerie glow of a full moon and joined his comrades in the flat bottom of a square-

ended pontoon boat. With surprisingly little noise beyond the dull clunking of poles and an occasional cough

or sneeze, Shearer’s and many other boats glided across the shimmering water to a dark, indefinite shore, the

passengers touched by the beauty and romance of the occasion in spite of their nervous anticipation. When

the blunt prows grounded just below the mouth of East Chickamauga Creek, there came a hollow thudding

of feet, like so many kettle drummers practicing the long roll, as the companies scrambled ashore and formed

ranks in their azure, moon-painted overcoats. They marched to a stubbly cornfield in the shadow of a hill,

where officers whispered that they might rest for a couple of hours. Their lines melted to the ground just

behind the supine silhouette of the 5th Iowa Infantry, at the center of which lay Corporal John Whitten, clutch-

ing the furled red, white, and blue banner of the Hawkeye State. Shearer and Whitten curled on the cold earth

and tried to sleep, for they had been awake all night now, but the thought of what was to come must have

troubled their repose. 3

Beyond the hill that hid the Iowans sat the extreme right flank of Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee. Six

miles to the southwest, on the far side of Chattanooga, another Federal force waited to throw itself against

Bragg’s left, on Lookout Mountain, and in the morning they would all move forward to settle accounts for

the Union army’s humiliation at Chickamauga nine weeks before. The work would take two days; when it

was over, George Shearer would lie in a field hospital with a bandage bound around the trough a bullet had

plowed through his scalp, while John Whitten would no longer own either his flag or his liberty. 4

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 10

Two hundred fifty miles south of Chattanooga, the citizens of Sumter County, Georgia, still reveled in the

news of Chickamauga; not since Chancellorsville had such a victory swelled Southern hopes. Thirty months

of war had begun to wear on the population. Prices seemed out of control, and some items could not be had

at any price. Eggs, corn, and wheat flour periodically disappeared from village markets as farmers speculat-

ed in more profitable crops. The Sumter Republican, of Americus, joked about the wasteful habit of eating
three meals a day, and praised the patriotic farmer who turned his cotton fields over to corn. A year earlier

Sumter County farmers had tried to force the price of corn up by cutting production. They had had some suc-

cess in their conspiratorial venture, so the 1863 crop had been a little more plentiful, but discontent still sim-

mered in southwest Georgia’s piney woods. The farmers made plans to organize anew, and the Republican ,
which had just raised its subscription rate again, complained of hearing disloyal sentiments muttered on the

dusty streets of Americus. 5

One of the muttering men may have been Ambrose Spencer. Though he had been South many years now,

Spencer was a genuine Yankee, born and bred in upstate New York. Always on the lookout for the main

chance, he had come to Georgia hoping to join the planter aristocracy—perhaps as a means of restoring the

dwindling dignity of the family name. His grandfather and namesake had been a prominent jurist, and his

father had served as secretary of both the War and Treasury departments under John Tyler, but his brother had

been hanged in the wake of the infamous Somerset mutiny and his father had resigned from the cabinet, never
to hold public office again. 6

Spencer had not done well in his Georgia enterprises, and his wife, a Sussex-born immigrant, owned the prop-

erty on which they lived. At the outbreak of war he tried for a direct commission in the Provisional Army, but

failing that he attempted to raise an artillery company. The Confederate War Department declined to accept

his battery without muster rolls naming the scores of recruits he claimed to have enlisted, refusing him a com-

mission even when he implied imaginary service in the Mexican War, and for a time the disappointed Spencer

acted like a man who wished to retire from society: he put his wife’s Starkeville Road home on the market,

and when a Macon cleric bought that house Spencer moved his family out to a two-hundred-acre plantation

he had convinced Mrs. Spencer to buy southwest of Americus. Through the Christmas season of 1862 the

rebuffed patriot advertised that he wanted everyone who had borrowed books from him to return them. This

November of 1863, however, he came out of his exile long enough to cast about, without success, for some

sort of government sinecure that might support him better than the plantation did. 7

November 24 found Shepherd Pryor, another Sumter County resident, in Richmond’s Chimborazo Hospital.

A bushy-bearded captain of the 12th Georgia Infantry, Pryor nursed an ugly purple scar on his right leg, six

inches above the knee. He had been in the war from the start, and had won his brigade commander’s praise

at Gettysburg, but during the Bristoe campaign a piece of shell had laid him low as he led his skirmish line

forward somewhere beyond Warrenton. Captain Pryor wanted to go home now, but his wound was nearly

healed and he might soon have to return to duty: remembering that Georgia’s civil officers were exempt from

military service, he decided to run for sheriff of Sumter County. Deputy Sheriff William Wesley Turner and

one other candidate, a speculator, had already announced for the seat in July, and the election was only a few

weeks away, but Pryor wrote to his Sumter County friends in the 10th Georgia Infantry Battalion and Cutts’s

Artillery Battalion, asking for their support. As a battle-scarred veteran he had good reason to suppose that he

could beat two men who had spent the war at home. 8

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 11

Shepherd Pryor had sustained his wound in the last real offensive that Robert E. Lee’s army ever undertook.

The contending armies in Virginia sat much farther south now, along the Rapidan River, and now it was the

Yankees who proposed taking the initiative. Ira Pettit, a twenty-two-year-old farm lad from western New

York, passed November 24 resting in camp at Paoli Mills with his company of the 11th U.S. Infantry. Pettit,

too, had fought at Gettysburg, though on the opposite end of the line from Captain Pryor, and his regiment

had taken a fearful pounding. In a couple of days these Regulars would march south, for the Culpeper Ford

of the Rapidan, bound for a place called Mine Run. 9

At Morton’s Ford, on the same river, Colonel Edward O’Neal waited for the long blue columns with which

Ira Pettit would march. At forty-five, O’Neal commanded the brigade that included his own 26th Alabama:

he had led that brigade since the spring, through Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, in the same division as

Shepherd Pryor, but when this Thanksgiving offensive was over he would be displaced by a junior officer pro-

moted over his head. Thus robbed of his general’s stars, the proud Irishman would raise such a stink as to get

himself and his regiment transferred elsewhere, but for now he rode conscientiously up and down his reach

of the river, occasionally peering into the mists with his binoculars. 10

That same day Hiram Jepperson, another Gettysburg veteran, walked a beat along a prison stockade on the

mile-long spit of sand where the Potomac River emptied into Chesapeake Bay. Clam flats bordered either side

of Point Lookout military prison, adding their saline pungency to the crowded peninsula where some eight

thousand Confederates lived in drafty tents inside the pale; other prisoners, who had taken the oath of alle-

giance to the United States, populated a separate camp nearby. Jepperson’s 5th New Hampshire was one of

three Granite State regiments that had just arrived to guard these Southrons. It was a monotonous duty

patrolling the prison, but presumably it was preferable to the bloody career the regiment had followed since

Hiram joined it in August of 1862: he had seen four major battles in his first ten months of service. Still, he

did not seem inclined to go home if he could, for there was little left for him there. The illegitimate son of a

Lisbon farmgirl, Hiram had lived most of his life with neighbors, as a hired hand, especially after his moth-

er married. His grandfather acted as his guardian, but the only time he seems to have exercised that office was

when he signed a waiver for the boy to enlist. Swearing to the minimum age of eighteen years (he was only

sixteen, and at five-foot-two he had a few inches yet to grow), Hiram scratched his laborious mark on an

enlistment certificate and turned his back, apparently forever, on the Connecticut River valley. One more bat-

tle still lay ahead of him this November 24, but as he paced his beat he was probably more interested in the

meal his company would enjoy for Thanksgiving, two days away. 11

At that very moment another New Hampshire youth trod Morris Island, a similarly sandy outcrop about five

hundred miles down the coast, at the entrance to Charleston harbor. Aaron Elliott plodded up and down and

back and forth in the shadow of the abandoned Confederate bastion known as Battery Wagner, while his non-

commissioned officers tried to imbue a new influx of recruits and substitutes with some basic notions of

close-order drill. Each company of the 7th New Hampshire had drawn its share of 268 “fresh fish,” some of

whom were a rough-looking lot. The new men nearly outnumbered the old. Siege guns hammering at the city

and at Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie outplayed the beat of the drums, and the slippery sand threw even the

most willing feet astray. Sergeants cursed, privates chuckled, and officers shook their heads.

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 12

More than two years before, on his sixteenth birthday, Aaron Elliott had left his Goffstown home for the abut-

ting town of Manchester, where he enlisted in the regiment with which he now served. His father not only

allowed him to go, but permitted his older brother Warren to join him when the 7th left the state. That

deprived Mr. Elliott of his only two farmhands: of his other four children, two were too young to be of any

help and the other two lived in the private, tragic world of deaf-mutes. For months Warren and Aaron supple-

mented their family’s income with their army pay, but that source had been cut in half since July, when Warren

was killed in the ill-fated assault on Battery Wagner.

At last the drill sergeants gave up for the day. Recruits and veterans alike found cool spots to sit, for even late

November can be uncomfortably warm on the sea islands, and there they contemplated their empty pockets

and the crates of canned chicken the sutlers had stocked for the holiday. The native Yankee that he was, Aaron

Elliott would probably not go into debt for delicacies, so there would be no sutler’s wares for him. 12

While Elliott lounged on the Carolina sand, Thomas Genzardi writhed on his cot in a Richmond prison hos-

pital along the James River, not far from Captain Pryor’s ward. His intestines seemed alternately to twist and

explode within him, curling him up like a caterpillar, and whatever nourishment he took soon came surging

back up. The roving ward surgeon diagnosed it as cholera morbus, but by November 24 Genzardi had lain in

the hospital twelve days and it was beginning to look as though he might pull through; he had begun to absorb

at least some of the liquids the nurses fed him, and the doctor saw that as a good sign. Another week would

say for certain whether he would live.

In the past two years Genzardi had nearly completed a broad circuit of the United States. His real name was

Salvador Ginsardi, and he had been born in Boston in 1843, shortly after his family arrived from Italy. By

1850 his mother was dead, and his father supported him by playing a flute in a Charlestown band, but music

made for a precarious living. Pedro Ginsardi eventually took his son to New York, and there they finally part-

ed, but not before Anglicizing their names slightly: in August of 1861 Pedro enlisted in the 12th U.S. Infantry

band as Peter Genzardi, leaving Salvador to drift into the American West as Thomas Genzardi. The son also

played an instrument, but the frontier saw little call for orchestral woodwinds, and late in the autumn of 1862

the unemployed musician enlisted as a private in the 8th Kansas Infantry, at Fort Leaven-worth.

Genzardi’s company had served on detached duty at Fort Kearny, Nebraska, but more recently it had been

fighting Confederate guerrillas. Three months after he enlisted, “Thomas” boarded a steamboat with four

companies of the 8th Kansas, and in the spring the reunited regiment joined William Rosecrans’s army in

Tennessee. With that army the

Kansans marched into northern Georgia, and there, on September 19, Peter Genzardi’s only child saw his first

and last battle. Early that afternoon his brigade swept across the Lafayette Road and past a log schoolhouse,

where several Georgia regiments battered the point of the Federal spearhead and drove it back, pinching off

a couple of dozen of the foremost Yankees as prisoners. Thomas Genzardi huddled among those two dozen,

and that is what had brought him to Richmond. A prisoner exchange and another hundred miles would have

taken him to Washington, closing the missing length of his loop around the contiguous states. 13

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 13

In the woods less than a mile north of the spot where Thomas Genzardi became a prisoner, the same

Confederate onslaught nearly encircled a fought-out brigade in John Palmer’s division. One by one the Union

regiments ran out of ammunition and withdrew, until the 84th Illinois stood alone against a relentless tide of

grey uniforms that washed inexorably around its right flank. At last the Illinois colonel pulled his regiment

back, leaving behind his dead and a few of his wounded. One of those unfortunate few, a loquacious former

gardener named Thomas Herburt, had fallen behind when a bullet clipped his right leg. The onrushing

Confederates bounded over him, ignoring him for the present, but later the provost guards came along to gath-

er him up. Confederate surgeons tried to save his leg, but infection set in after they transported him to

Richmond. By November 24 he had begun to suffer great pain in the wound, but prison doctors were too over-

worked and their hospitals were too crowded for timely treatment. New patients could only be admitted as

others died or were discharged, and not until December 20 would a bed open up in Hospital 21: a surgeon

would put Mr. Herburt on his table while the steward wiped off the saw, and when the leg was gone they

would carry him to a cot in the teeming wards, where he would spend the next seven weeks regaling his

annoyed fellow prisoners with endless renditions of his last battle. The hooknosed Canadian never seemed to

shut up, and the other patients might have wished for the return of Patrick Delany, the burly, bullying Irishman

whose discharge from the hospital had made room for Herburt. 14

Elsewhere in that same hospital lay a young German who had just arrived in America, only to be swept up by

scavenging substitute brokers who dubbed him George Albert, enrolled him in the 52nd New York, and

promptly relieved him of most of his substantial bounty. Barely two months had passed since he donned his

uniform, but he had been six weeks a prisoner already. He fell ill early and often, and whenever he saw the

doctors he tried to tell them his real name, which was something like Albrecht but which the attendants took

down as Allbeck or Ilbeck. On the morning of November 24 he complained of loose bowels. 15

Genzardi, Herburt, Delany, and “Albert” typified the nine thousand Union prisoners within musket shot of the

Confederate capitol building, most of whom occupied the sprawling camp on Belle Isle, in the middle of the

James River. This hostile multitude worried Richmond authorities in more ways than one. Not only did they

offer great danger if Yankee cavalry should raid the city, they were literally eating up tons of food in a com-

munity that had little to spare, diminishing civilian supplies and driving up prices. Of late the meat and bread

rations had periodically failed to arrive in time to give the prisoners their daily allotment, and the command-

ers of the various prison buildings blanched at the prospect of hungry captives going on a rampage, especial-

ly when guards were so few. Heretofore the Richmond prisons had been relieved now and then by wholesale

exchanges, where soldiers in blue or grey returned to their respective lines in an even trade, private for pri-

vate and captain for captain. Thanks at least partly to the complicating factor of black men wearing Federal

uniforms, the exchange system had broken down in the past few weeks, and that meant the Richmond dun-

geons would only continue to swell. Settling in along the Rapidan after his autumn feints at the enemy, Robert

E. Lee suggested to the Richmond authorities that it was high time to start looking for another place to house

their reluctant guests. 16

Andersonville -The Last Depot Page 14

Secretary of War James Seddon agreed, but suitable buildings were hard to come by. Owners of warehouses

and factories hesitated to sell or lease their property, probably because their neighbors would surely protest,

and Seddon had had no better luck looking for a more rural equivalent of Belle Isle in the Yadkin and Roanoke

rivers. As a temporary expedient he had moved four thousand of Richmond’s thirteen thousand prisoners to

Danville in mid-November, but the people of Danville would not leave their complaints unvoiced for long.

The solution that finally occurred to the secretary was a stockade prison in some isolated but productive

region, somewhere near a railroad, and preferably in a warmer climate: in their flimsy tents the Belle Isle pris-

oners were already suffering terribly from the cold Tidewater nights. On November 24 Seddon detailed these

general criteria in a note to Brigadier General John Winder, his chief prison keeper, sending the message down

to the general’s office by the hand of a War Department clerk. 17

John Henry Winder was not the sort of fellow any child might have been glad to have for a grandfather. At

sixty-three he was a dour, crusty old man. He raked his thinning white hair forward like a Roman senator, and

affected those preposterous throat whiskers that cranky old men of his generation so often wore, shaving his

face well below the jawline but allowing the rest of his beard to creep over his standing collar like chest hair

gone wild: perhaps men of his disposition dared allow no barber near their gullets with a razor. Winder had

worn a uniform all but seventeen years of his life—for forty-two of them the blue flannel of the U.S. Army.

They had not been especially happy years, either. He had known too much of death, and too little of success.

As the son of a Baltimore general blamed for allowing the British to burn Washington in 1814, he had suf-

fered a good many unfriendly jokes in his career. Most of Winder’s service had been in the Commissary or

Quartermaster departments, where his accounts occasionally brought him to grief and where the monotony

offered him no oppor

American history homework help

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Later Industrialization – 1

Later Industrialization

Developing to Developed: The New Corporate Economy

The previous lectures considered early industrialization from the late 1700s to the mid-1800s –
the steam engine, coal, iron, and textiles.

This lecture considers later industrialization from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s – oil, steel,
chemicals, and electricity.

Here’s a broad perspective, using the United States as an example: The United States was

• an underdeveloped economy in the early 1700s

• a developing economy in the early 1800s (early industrialization)

• a developed economy in the early 1900s (later industrialization). As a developed economy,
the United States became a leading industrial world power.

Several other countries also became developed economies during later industrialization.

• These include Great Britain and Germany which, like the United States, had begun
industrialization earlier.

• Another country was Japan, the first non-western country to industrialize. Japan
industrialized fairly quickly starting in the late 1800s and, as a result, was an emerging
power in east Asia and the Pacific when World War I began in 1914.

• One country which did not industrialize in this period was China. China had a powerful
empire back when early industrialization began in Great Britain in the late 1700s. But
because China did not industrialize from the late 1700s through the early 1900s, China
began a long process of decline, leading to the collapse of the Chinese empire in 1911.

o As a result, unlike Japan, China was not an emerging power when World War I began.

o China remained an underdeveloped country through most of the 20th century. Though it
began industrialization in the second half of the 20th century and started to emerge as a
world power in the early 21st century.

As we discuss the details of later industrialization below, we’ll use examples from the United
States. But keep in mind that other countries were also going through later industrialization
from the late 1800 through the mid-1900s – most notably Great Britain, Germany, and Japan.

A main feature of later industrialization was the emergence of corporations in industries like
steel, oil, chemicals, and electricity – i.e., the emergence of a new corporate economy.

The “emergence of a new corporate economy” means that in the late 1800s the size of business
began to get much bigger, leading to large corporations with significant economic power and
wealth. Consider the following:

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• In early industrialization, the average textile mill employed about 25 people and was
located in one place, what today we would call a “small business.”

• In the late 1800s, corporations were much bigger. They employed hundreds of people.

o The railroads led the way in developing a new corporate economy. Entrepreneurs like
Cornelius Vanderbilt combined separate railroad companies into larger railroad
corporations.

o Click here for railroads built in the 1850s and compare that with railroads built in the
1870s and 1880s here.

• Corporations employed more people because they combined numerous factories, railroads,
pipelines, or refineries into the same business.

o For example, John Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Corporation owned oil fields in Pennsylvania,
Ohio, and after 1900, Oklahoma and Texas. The Corporation also owned oil refineries. It
owned railroads linking the oil fields to the oil refineries. And it owned the marketing,
distribution, and selling of the oil by-product, kerosene.

o We’ll talk more about Standard Oil below, but this sketch highlights how a large
corporation like Standard Oil was very different from a textile mill in early industrialization
which was located in one place and employed about 25 people.

• In the 1890s, there was a series of mergers, meaning separate companies in the same
business merging to create a larger corporation. Over 5,000 companies merged into about
320 corporations in this period.

o Sometimes mergers were called “Trusts” because they combined previously separate
companies under one Board of Trustees. These trusts usually controlled more than 50% of
the market in their industry and often used the word “American” in their name as a
marketing strategy.

o Examples include the following corporations: American Locomotive, American Window &
Glass, American Tobacco, American Hide & Leather, and American Ice (before electricity in
homes, people owned “ice boxes” to preserve food).

o If you pay attention to economic news today, sometimes you might hear discussions of
mergers, such as separate telecommunication companies or separate pharmaceutical
companies merging. There was a series of these types of mergers in the 1890s.

Here is a key point: These corporations and trusts were private property. They were owned by
private individuals. Be clear on this point.

• A socialist would say that the government should take over and own these corporations.
That’s what socialism means – government controlling the production, distribution, and
consumption of goods and services.

• The United States did not have a socialist system. Socialism requires a lot of government
power and the U.S. Constitution limits the powers of government. One way the Constitution
limits government is by protecting private property. Thus the U.S. economy was based on
private ownership. Companies, corporations, and trusts were private property.

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Energy Transition (again)

Energy is key to economic development. Creating efficient energy enables a society to produce
valuable goods and services. Remember a society has to produce value before it can consume
value. Societies which create and use efficient energy experience economic progress. They go
from underdeveloped to developing, or developing to developed.

Later industrialization included an energy transition from coal to oil.

• As noted in a previous lecture, an energy transition does not mean the older form of energy
stops being used. It continues to be used as both older and newer forms of energy coexist
to provide society’s energy needs. So coal remained an important source of energy,
especially since the steam engine (powered by coal) remained the main engine powering
the railroad locomotives into the 20th century.

o Eventually, the steam engine was replaced by the internal combustion engine in some
cases and electricity in other cases. But that happened at different points in the 20th
century depending on the type of transportation or manufacturing involved. Steamships,
for example, remained major forms of oceanic travel even after automobiles were being
manufactured with internal combustion engines.

• Also recall that energy transitions are long and complex, usually occurring over significant
time. If and when millions of people discover better energy efficiencies at lower cost, then
the older form of energy is gradually used less and the newer form is gradually used more.
So it is not like oil replaced coal at any one point in time. Rather, oil was gradually used
more and coal gradually used less over time. But even today, coal continues to provide a
needed source of energy for human life across the globe, though it is certainly less central
than it used to be.

• Oil began to emerge in the late 1800s as a new source of energy. Its original purpose was to
provide light before electricity was common in homes, though refined oil would become
increasingly important as the fuel powering the internal combustion engine.

Let’s discuss oil, specifically the fossil fuel oil known as petroleum.

We often use the phrase “fossil fuel” without thinking about its meaning. A fossil fuel is a
substance naturally made in the earth over millions of years. A fossil is the petrified remains of
prehistoric organisms. Over time, geological pressure transforms fossils into substances such as
petroleum.

For almost all of human history, the petrified remains of prehistoric organisms known as
petroleum sat in the ground. It was of little value to humans because it was of little use. That’s
not to say humans were unaware of it. Oil often bubbled up to the surface and people from
ancient Mesopotamians to Seneca Indians had collected bubbled up oil to help with ailments
like stiff joints or as an insect repellent. This limited use, though, meant the vast amounts of
underground petroleum remained of little value, until later industrialization.

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In the mid-1800s, chemists began to find a large-scale use for petroleum. Chemists discovered
how to refine fossil fuel oil into kerosene. To refine means to heat petroleum in complex ways
to create a related, though chemically distinct substance called kerosene. Kerosene was useful
and thus valuable because, if refined well, it was a chemically stable substance which people
could burn in kerosene lamps to light their homes. Even by 1900 almost no one – no matter
how wealthy – had electricity in their homes. To have light, one needed candles or kerosene
lamps.

Think about how this process highlights the incredible creativity of the human mind.

• The petrified fossils of prehistoric organisms known as petroleum sat in the earth as a
relatively useless substance for millions of years – useless and thus valueless.

• Then because of the creativity of the human mind – the development of chemical
engineering knowledge – humans discovered how to make great use of underground
petroleum to improve their lives. They refined it into kerosene to light their homes.

• This creativity meant that petroleum became of great use and thus of great value.

• Chemical engineering helped create great value – a new multi-billion dollar industry, the oil
industry, which began drilling for underground petroleum. Think about that: Billions of
dollars of wealth were created by the ingenuity of the human mind, taking a mostly useless
substance and turning it into a valuable substance. This led to great power and wealth for
those who led the industry. Knowledge created great wealth.

Creative Destruction (again)

With this background, let’s return to our theme of Creative Destruction.

Recall our example of creative destruction in early industrialization. The development of new
technology in the production of cotton textiles created a lot of new jobs and wealth. At the
same time, the new technology destroyed a lot of old jobs in the wool industry.

A similar process of creative destruction happened because of the petroleum business.

Before chemists found a use for petroleum in the mid-1800s, petroleum mostly sat in the
ground – of little value because of little use. There was, however, a kind of oil that people could
burn in lamps to light their homes – whale oil.

Before the mid-1800s there was a large whale hunting industry. This industry was the topic of a
famous novel, Herman Melville’s Moby Dick (1851). Whale hunters went out to see for months
at a time on whale hunting ships. The goal was to kill whales for their whale blubber which
could be burned down into whale oil. People could buy and burn whale oil in lamps to light
their homes.

• But the whale hunting industry had low productivity.

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• Hunting whales was time consuming, taking months of dangerous labor to produce
moderate quantities of whale oil.

• Low productivity usually means high prices. The price of whale oil was high – in today’s
money about $70/gallon. That was too expensive for the average American to buy.

• Whale oil was thus a luxury item for the wealthy (similar to cell phones in the 1980s).

When chemists discovered how to refine fossilized petroleum into kerosene in the mid-1800s,
they began a process that put the whale hunting industry out of business. By the 1860s, many
companies emerged that refined petroleum into kerosene which consumers bought to burn in
kerosene lamps for light. John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Corporation (1870) became the
biggest, often by buying rival companies and making them part of Standard Oil. Rockefeller’s
corporation massively increased productivity which led to lower prices.

• In the 1870s, the price of kerosene was about 60 cents/gallon. That was much cheaper than
$70/gallon for whale oil.

• By 1900, kerosene was even cheaper – about 8 cents/gallon.

• Oil to light one’s home went from a very expensive luxury item for the wealthy to an
inexpensive mass consumer item which most Americans could afford.

In terms of Creative Destruction:

• The “creative” part is this: New chemistry knowledge and refining technology created a new
oil industry with lots of new jobs making a new consumer product (kerosene). The new jobs
were in oil drilling, oil refining, oil shipping, kerosene distribution and marketing.

• The “destructive” part is this: The new knowledge and technology destroyed an entire
industry and its thousands of jobs – whale hunting.

• Remember, the “creative” part cannot happen without the “destruction” part. It is not
possible to create new technologies which help the economy grow without destroying
some existing jobs and industries.

• Economic progress is multi-dimensional.

o The economic growth of creative destruction benefits all of society over time – over the
course of a generation or more.

o In the short term, however, the situation is more complex. Inventors and investors in the
new technology make money. They create new jobs which benefit many. Consumers also
benefit by new products often at cheaper prices. But this process destroys many existing
jobs and businesses, meaning it results in economic hardship for some.

o Remember, the creative part of “creative destruction” – economic growth – cannot
happen without the destruction part.

Other Corporations

In addition to Standard Oil, other corporations in later industrialization included Westinghouse
(electricity), Dow Chemical, Swift Meat Packing, and Andrew Carnegie’s U.S. Steel Corporation.

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Let’s briefly discuss steel.

Like the oil industry, the steel industry was based on a natural substance from the earth – iron
ore. And like the oil industry, the steel industry required chemical engineering knowledge,
which showed the incredible creativity of the human mind.

• The industry converted iron into steel by heating iron while purifying it, creating a
chemically altered substance called steel.

• Steel was lighter, stronger, and more flexible than iron.

• The unique qualities of steel led to economic developments such as: stronger steel railroad
tracks replacing the old iron tracks of early industrialization.

• Steel also allowed for the construction of high-rise buildings (iron was too heavy and weak
to construct tall buildings). And steel allowed for the beginning of subways by 1900 (again,
iron was too heavy and weak for subways). It’s thus no coincidence that modern cities
emerged as steel productivity increased during later industrialization.

Because steel was so important for later industrialization, its production was a major source of
wealth. And the United States began to produce steel on a massive scale. The leader was
Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish immigrant from a poor background who, after years of working in
various jobs, eventually made a fortune in steel production.

Carnegie opened his steel corporation – Thomson Steel Works – in 1875.

• Before this, the U.S. had low productivity in steel. The nation produced 19,000 tons of steel
per year. Low productivity means a high price – $56/ton.

• Because Carnegie’s company expanded quickly, the U.S. massively increased steel
productivity. By 1900 the country produced more than 10 million tons of steel per year.
Higher productivity means a lower price – $11/ton.

• With increased productivity and a lower price, Carnegie made a fortune. In 1901, he sold his
company to J.P. Morgan for over one billion dollars. Morgan renamed the company, U.S.
Steel.

By leading the world in oil and steel production, then, the United States became a developed
economy during later industrialization – from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s. New
corporations in oil and steel as well as in electricity and chemicals transformed the American
economy into a new corporate economy. These new corporations created great value,
massively increasing productivity and decreasing prices for various goods and services.

Who Benefits?

Let’s end this lecture the same way we ended last lecture – by asking, Who Benefits? We’ll
again answer this question by considering how the economic progress of creative destruction is
multi-dimensional.

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We know by now that over time – across generations – creative destruction increases the
standard of living for entire societies. We made this point in the last lecture. The countries
which went through later industrialization were significantly wealthier by the early decades of
the 20th century – the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan. In contrast, China
which did not industrialize was significantly less wealthy. Remember, as these industrialized
countries were increasing in wealth and power, the Chinese empire was collapsing in 1911.

Many also benefited immediately – within one generation – from creative destruction of later
industrialization. Those who helped invent new technology in the oil, steel, chemical, and
electricity industries certainly benefitted. They made a lot of money. They also created new
jobs. And consumers benefitted by new consumer products, often at cheaper prices. Indeed, in
the early decades of the 20th century, more and more people began to get electricity in their
home –a huge benefit.

But we also know that there was destruction. Those whose jobs and businesses were destroyed
in later industrialization certainly did not benefit. Rather, they experienced economic hardship.

So we know that creative destruction is multi-dimensional because it creates new technologies,
industries, and wealth while simultaneously destroying some existing jobs and businesses. But
we also said that creative destruction can be multi-dimensional even when we just look at the
new jobs it creates – jobs in the new industries of later industrialization such as oil drilling, steel
manufacturing, and chemical plants.

Many industrial workers in these new jobs in this period formed labor unions and joined new
political parties. The German Social Democratic Party, for example, was formed in 1875. What’s
interesting about this party – called the SPD – is that many of its intellectual leaders were
revolutionary socialists.

Many SPD intellectuals called for the revolutionary overthrow of the “industrial capitalist”
system. Yet many working members of the SPD were not actually revolutionaries. They focused
instead on more practical goals – better pay, shorter hours, and better working conditions. The
reason for this difference between the revolutionary vision of some SPD intellectuals and the
practical goals of many SPD workers concerned the standard of living in the years of later
industrialization.

Recall how we said that many workers in early industrialization – coal miners, textile weavers –
may not have experienced an increase in their standard of living in the first half of the 1800s.
But by the end of the 1800s, after later industrialization was well underway, many industrial
workers were experiencing an increased standard of living. That’s not to say they didn’t still
work long hours. And their standard of living was still really low from our perspective today. But
it is their perspective that matters. And the standard of living for many industrial workers was
better by 1900 than it was in 1850. As a result, many members of the SPD were not thinking

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about the revolutionary overthrow of the economic system. Instead, they were thinking of
further improving their conditions within the economic system.

This was also true of a lot of the industrial workers in the United States. In 1906, the sociologist
Werner Sombart published a book called Why is there no Socialism in the United States?

• Sombart’s title was a bit misleading. There was labor violence in the United States during
the economic depressions of the mid-1870s and mid-1890s. And there was a socialist party
in the United States. Its candidate, Eugene Debs, received almost a million votes in the 1912
presidential election.

• Yet Sombart was still largely accurate. Each of the two depressions was over within a couple
years and neither reversed the long-term economic trend of an average standard of living
better than earlier generations. The socialist movement was thus not a mainstream
movement with broad support in the U.S. It received significantly less support both before
and after 1912.

Sombart explained that socialism lacked broad support in the United States because the
standard of living for many industrial workers was increasing over the decades of later
industrialization. Rather than join a revolutionary socialist political party, many American
workers joined labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor formed in 1886. This
union – the AFL – did not call for the revolutionary overthrow of the economic system. Instead,
it sought the same thing many workers in Germany sought – improved conditions within the
economic system which seemed to be offering a higher standard of living than previous
generations enjoyed.

American history homework help

Essay Mechanics Initials

Do I have a Title page?

(Example provided on the APA Cheat Sheet and Sample

Essay)

Is my essay double spaced?

Is my essay in Times New Roman 12-point font?

(This form is in Times New Roman 12-point font)

Does my essay have one-inch margins top/bottom and

left/right?

(About the length of your thumb to the first knuckle)

Are my paragraphs indented by ½ inch?

No extra spaces between the paragraphs!

Are my paragraphs approximately 6-8 sentences in length?

Is my essay written in the past tense?

(Avoid the passive voice)

Have I avoided self-conscious discussion?

(Do not parade around in your mental underwear. Avoid

phrases such as: I will demonstrate that, or now we see)

Have I avoided the use of first person?

(Do not use ‘I.’)

Have I spelled out small numbers?

Have I used capitalizations appropriately?

Have I avoided asking my reader questions?

(Just tell your reader what you want them to know)

Do I have a Reference page?

(Example provided on the APA Cheat Sheet and Sample

Essay)

Reference page: Are my references in alphabetical order?

Are the second lines of each reference indented by ½ inch?

Reference page: Have I included the specific information

required for each reference entry and provided it in the

appropriate format?

(Online sources such as Bibme.com can be very helpful

regarding how to format for other types of sources)

Do I have one quote from the required source?

Do I have one quote from an academic secondary source?

Do my quotes serve as evidence for the point I am trying to

make?

Look for descriptive words. Do not quote facts or statistics.

In my essay, have a cited my quotes at the end of my

sentence before the period using in-text parenthetical citation

format?

Example: Print book (Author, Year, Page #).

Is my essay 1,100 words / 3 pages?

(+Title page / + Reference page)

Have I checked my Originality Report?

Essay Mechanics Initials

If similarities were found on my Originality Report, have I

assessed the content for plagiarism and if necessary, made

appropriate changes?

Have I considered uploading my essay to NetTutor for

additional review?

Essay Content Initials

Do I have an introduction?

Does my introduction provide some basic background

information specific to the assigned topic?

Does my introduction clearly state the two assigned sub-

topics that I will discuss in the body of my essay (thesis

statement)?

Is the content of my essay specific to the assigned topics?

Do my sub-topic discussions have specific details?

Have I evenly divided my writing space between the sub-

topics?

Have I evaluated my essay content to verify the information

is specifically related to the assigned topic?

Have I verified my historical context? Is the information

included in my essay specific to the time frame assigned?

Is my essay written with lean, logical, and precise prose?

(Avoid cuteness, clichés, common, or crass language)

Do I have a conclusion?

Does my conclusion summarize my essay?

(New information should never be present in a conclusion)

American history homework help

Write 5 paragraphs that describes your impression of the relationship between Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass.  A paragraph is at minimum 3 to 4 sentences. All paragraphs should be indented. One paragraph must describe each man. acceptable format, ex: word, pdf.  Use your own words and do not use any outside sources. Spelling, grammar, and punctuation will count. Failure to follow these instructions will result in a failing grade of 0/F.

American history homework help

HISTORY OF MUSIC

HISTORY OF MUSIC

Giulia Seabra

MUS305

Southern States University

01/29/22

Introduction

Different scholars have described the 20th century as the age of diversity in the musical field. With the advancement in technology, the world has embraced modern technology in most activities. Technology has significantly impacted business functionality in different industries (Arcos, 2018). Most businesses have shifted their activities to the digital scope due to increased use of the internet and modern technology over the years. The music industry is one of the sectors that has benefited from rapid technological advancements (Arcos, 2018). This paper will focus on digital streaming software advancement and its impact on the music industry.

Digital Streaming Software

Streaming media is explained as multimedia consumed and delivered directly from the source in a continuous manner. Such media has no intermediate storage in any elements of the network. Live streaming is defined as the delivery of accurate time content during media production. The music industry has embraced digital streaming software for ease of broadcasting. This technology was one of the most considerable technological advances in the music industry. Digital streaming has become the most commonly used means of music delivery to listeners.

Digital streaming software works by breaking down audio data packets and then interpreting them to play on the user’s device. Streaming is different from regular broadcast or recording as it allows users to listen to music continuously, thus making the experience enjoyable (Arcos, 2018). In the past, digital streaming was not a common practice. Songwriters and artists recorded their songs in studios and sold the recorded music to listeners. People could only access the music they wanted by purchasing CDs, cassettes, or DVDs. With the evolution of technology, people could download music from some digital platforms and store it on flash disks and memory cards. However, the current technological advances allow people to stream music live from different digital platforms. Some of the most common apps for streaming worldwide include Spotify, YouTube, boom play, and Netflix (Arcos, 2018).

Change in the Music Industry

The use of digital streaming software positively impacts the music industry. Streaming has provided the industry with a service it never had before. Streaming has helped sell out music in different ways.

1. Users do not have to wait for ages for the file to download through digital streaming. Digital streaming has helped reduce the time to download an entire music file (Simon, 2019). It has made it easier for users to get exactly the music they want without taking much time.

2. Digital streaming lures more listeners as it does not require large device space. Listeners only need to download streaming platforms to get the streaming services (Simon, 2019). Most streaming data is temporary thus does not use up much space. During streaming, the information is not stored in the device. It is only available during the session and is wiped out once the user logs out of the platform.

3. Digital streaming allows users to choose the music to watch and listen to. Streaming lets the user interact with the file (Simon, 2019). This is because the app used gives a wide array of options to choose from. Through such diversity in streaming platforms, users interact with different music genres, hence exploring new music.

From the discussion above, streaming has helped the music industry improve its diversity in content creation. Music producers and artists can view the feedback from users and analyze the type of music that best fits their target audience. Digital streaming has made it easy for artists to range their abilities and skills in the industry (Lozic, 2019). This has helped find loopholes hence working on better music. Digital streaming platforms rate music from different artists based on feedback, most viewed, and bestselling music. This gives the artists a glimpse of what areas to focus on to make their careers profitable. Digital streaming has also made it easier to access music from any location at any time of the day (Lozic, 2019). In the past, music could only be accessed by purchasing recorded files. If the recorded files were not in music shops in one location, it was hard for people to get music. Currently, people can stream music despite their location or time differences. This has aided artists in increasing their music sales to such digital streaming platforms.

Digital streaming has altered how people consume music globally. This has positively impacted the American market. Since digital streaming has made it easy to listen to music without limitations, most people have resorted to digital streaming. One-third of American citizens listen to music through digital streaming platforms (Lozic, 2019). Digital streaming platforms can be accessed at a monthly fee. These platforms ensure that the rates are affordable to lure more users. This, in turn, increases revenue thus economic growth. The high returns from digital streaming also result in development of the music industry.

References

Arcos, L. C. (2018). The blockchain technology on the music industry. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management15(3), 439-443.

Lozic, J. (2019). Digitalization creates a new paradigm of the global music industry: The traditional music industry is under pressure of the streaming platforms. Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings, 179-190.

Simon, J. P. (2019). New players in the music industry: lifeboats or killer whales? The role of streaming platforms. Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance.

American history homework help

15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights (1870)

To former abolitionists and to the Radical Republicans in Congress who fashioned Reconstruction after the Civil War, the 15th amendment, enacted in 1870, appeared to signify the fulfillment of all promises to African Americans. Set free by the 13th amendment, with citizenship guaranteed by the 14th amendment, black males were given the vote by the 15th amendment. From that point on, the freedmen were generally expected to fend for themselves. In retrospect, it can be seen that the 15th amendment was in reality only the beginning of a struggle for equality that would continue for more than a century before African Americans could begin to participate fully in American public and civic life.

African Americans exercised the franchise and held office in many Southern states through the 1880s, but in the early 1890s, steps were taken to ensure subsequent “white supremacy.” Literacy tests for the vote, “grandfather clauses” excluding from the franchise all whose ancestors had not voted in the 1860s, and other devices to disenfranchise African Americans were written into the constitutions of former Confederate states. Social and economic segregation were added to black America’s loss of political power. In 1896 the Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson legalized “separate but equal” facilities for the races. For more than 50 years, the overwhelming majority of African American citizens were reduced to second-class citizenship under the “Jim Crow” segregation system. During that time, African Americans sought to secure their rights and improve their position through organizations such as National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Urban League and through the individual efforts of reformers like Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and A. Philip Randolph.

The most direct attack on the problem of African American disfranchisement came in 1965. Prompted by reports of continuing discriminatory voting practices in many Southern states, President Lyndon B. Johnson, himself a southerner, urged Congress on March 15, 1965, to pass legislation “which will make it impossible to thwart the 15th amendment.” He reminded Congress that “we cannot have government for all the people until we first make certain it is government of and by all the people.” The Voting Rights Act of 1965, extended in 1970, 1975, and 1982, abolished all remaining deterrents to exercising the franchise and authorized Federal supervision of voter registration where necessary.



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American history homework help

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Response Paper #3: Industrialization

Remember the recommendations for completing response papers:

1. Read each step of the assignment carefully and be sure to complete the bullet points for each step.

2. Complete each bullet point with detailed explanations. Don’t just list information quickly. Show
your mind working by providing explanations which prove you studied and understood the details
of the lectures.

3. Don’t copy my sentences. Don’t use my sentences with just a few word changes. Write your own
sentences. You may use words, phrases, and concepts from the lectures. But the sentences should
be your own. That means your sentences should clearly be distinct from mine – in order to show
your mind working.

4. Re-read your writing before submitting your work. Look for mistakes and unclear sentences to fix.
The more time you invest in your writing, the more your writing will express your intelligence.

Here’s the assignment for Response Paper #3:

Write an essay completing the four steps below. Make sure your essay is based exclusively on studying
the assigned lectures on Blackboard in the “Industrialization” folder. Do not use the Internet or other
sources.

1) Write a paragraph on industrialization which explains

• what makes the standard of living go up

• why some societies are underdeveloped and others are developed

• how a society produces value

• what the “self-sustaining growth of capitalism” means

2) Write a paragraph discussing energy transitions. Be sure to

• identify three energy transition in the history of industrialization, including dates

• explain what an energy transition is

• explain why energy transitions are important

3) Imagine I have an uncle who earned a good salary working for a camera company. But then my uncle

lost his job about ten years ago. He was laid off. Write a paragraph

• explaining how my uncle losing his job could be related to economic progress

• discussing three other examples in the history of industrialization in which job loss is related to
economic progress, including dates

• explaining why economic progress is multi-dimensional

4) Imagine Ms. Martinez is running for the presidency. Her campaign slogan is “Everyone Wins.” Her

main point is that she has “a plan to create jobs which will benefit everyone.” She gives some details
about “investing” money in “new technology,” “green energy,” and “artificial intelligence.” Based on
studying the lectures, write a paragraph explaining

• whether you find her main point persuasive

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• why you do or do not find her main point persuasive. Your answer should show what you have
learned from studying the assigned lectures. This is not about whether you like Ms. Martinez’s main
point, but why you do or do not find it persuasive based on studying the assigned lectures.

American history homework help

1

Identify interviewee, her demographic information (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size).

Christina Richards is a retired African-American athlete born in Havana, Florida, in 1972. She had a taste in sports, primarily athletics which she began in the 6th grade before pushing it further after joining Northside High School. They lived in a two-bedroom house before moving to a three-bedroom home after her dad joined the police department.

Christina grew up in the Tallahassee Metro area alongside her older brother and younger sister. Her mum used to work at a local restaurant in Havana, while her dad was one of the few Americans working as a cop at the Havana Police Department. Before becoming a sheriff, his father was a basketball coach at a community club in Havana. Being of the black race and the female sex, participating in sports was challenging. This was because of the 19th and 20th-century sports rules, which prohibited women from sports before the laws were amended. Discrimination because of her black race also held her from assessing different areas in sports, making it hard for her to live the life of an athlete.

She was a 4 * 100 meters relay athlete who participated and competed in different places, including the 1991 event held at Havana. Christina, who is now approximately 49, stopped participating in athletics after turning because health issues. She started having a kneel problem after winning her very first silver medal at the United States Outdoor Track and Field Championships held in California in 1995.

American history homework help

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Early Industrialization
part 2

Multi-Dimensional Progress

In previous lectures, we noted the following points:

• New technologies increase productivity.

• Increased productivity increases value – as productivity goes up, value goes up (meaning
wealth goes up).

• Some of the newly created wealth gets reinvested in newer technology and the cycle starts
over – the self-sustaining growth of capitalism.

Make sure you grasp these points. Remember the two shirt companies. The company with
greater productivity (one employee per twenty shirts produced: 1:20) is more valuable than the
company with lower productivity (one employee per three shirts produced: 1:3).

The new technology of the steam engine was key in early industrialization because it was a
new, more efficient way of producing energy. The technology of this new energy increased
productivity, which increased value.

• The steam engine increased productivity in making goods such as textiles and iron;

• and it increased productivity in providing services such as transportation on steamboats and
steam locomotives (railroads).

Recall our point that a society has to produce value before it can consume value. As a society
uses technology to increase productivity and thus to produce more value in goods and services,
that society can consume more valuable goods and services – their standard of living goes up.
This is economic progress.

But progress is often not one-dimensional, especially when measured within one generation.
Certain forms of progress do not benefit everyone. Within the time frame of one generation –
about 20 years – progress is often multi-dimensional, meaning some benefit more than others,
and some feel disadvantaged by the progress in question.

The picture might look different, however, if we change the time frame and consider what
progress looks like across two, three, or more generations.

Let’s dig deeper into this multi-dimensional process of economic progress.

Creative Destruction

In 1992, I was part of study abroad program in Europe. I attended various classes at different
universities in several European countries. I did some research in some archives. And I met
students from other parts of the world. I, of course, brought a camera with me. And I took all

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kinds of pictures. When I returned home, I dropped my film off at the nearest drug store and
waited several days for the pictures to be developed. I still have some of those pictures.

The camera I brought with me was a popular brand name camera – Kodak. In the 1990s, the
Kodak company employed about 150,000 people worldwide. The company’s stock was close to
$100 per share and the company was worth over $30 billion. Kodak was the fifth most valuable
brand in the world.

In 2012, Kodak declared bankruptcy. Its stock was removed from the New York Stock Exchange.
What happened?

Since its creation in the 1880s, the Kodak company made cameras. For over 120 years, people
bought a lot of Kodak cameras. Then the smartphone was invented in the early 21st century.
Smartphones had built-in digital cameras.

What’s the point? New technology often destroys jobs. Thousands of Kodak employees lost
their jobs because of smart phones. Investors in Kodak lost a lot of money.

Before early industrialization there was a wool industry in England. Sheep farmers raised sheep
in order to shear the sheep for their wool. The farmers then sold the wool to merchants who
employed hand weavers and spinners to turn the wool into clothes. These hand weavers and
spinners did not work under one roof like a factory, but worked out of their homes. They were
dispersed throughout local communities. As a result, the process of distributing the wool to the
weavers and spinners, and then collecting the cloth products they made, was time consuming –
i.e., productivity in the wool business was low and the resulting price of the finished product
was relatively high.

Then the new technology of the steam engine powering textile machines increased productivity
in making a new consumer product – cotton textiles.

• Often new technology increasing productivity leads to cheaper prices.

• The cotton textiles were cheaper than the hand-spun wool products.

• Over time consumers bought more cotton textiles and the wool industry suffered. Many
merchants in the wool industry lost business; many hand weaver and spinners lost their
jobs, and many wool famers lost money.

The term “creative destruction” describes this process of new technology destroying jobs while
creating new industries.

• The “creative” part is this: New technologies increasing productivity in making new
consumer products create a lot of new jobs. The new jobs included more miners in the iron
and coal industries, workers making the steam engine and steam locomotives as well as
machine tool mechanics servicing the engines, and workers in more textile mills. (We’ll
return to these new jobs of early industrialization at the end of this lecture.)

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• The “destructive” part is this: New technologies destroy some existing jobs, such as weavers
and spinners in the wool industry, and lead to bankruptcies such as the merchants who
depended on buying and distributing wool products.

• The key to this economic process – the self-sustaining growth of capitalism – is that the
“creative” part cannot happen without the “destruction” part. It is not possible to create
new technologies which help the economy grow without destroying some existing jobs and
industries.

Let’s further explore the economic progress of creative destruction by asking “who benefits”
from this process.

Who Benefits?

Over time – across generations – the economic growth of creative destruction increases the
standard of living for entire societies.

• For example, the process of creative destruction has been going on for a long time in
developed societies like Great Britain, the United States, and Germany. It has increased the
wealth of these societies.

• As a result, the average standard of living for the poor in a developed society is higher than
the average standard of living for the poor in a developing society.

• In fact, the average standard of living for the poor in a developed society is often higher
than the standard of living for the majority in an underdeveloped society.

Each of us likely has deceased family members whom we never met, but who lost their job
generations ago because of creative destruction. We have benefited greatly by the economic
growth that has occurred between then and now. We enjoy a much higher standard of living –
i.e., we are able to consume more valuable goods and services because society can produce
more valuable goods and services.

So when we think about who benefits from creative destruction, we can say that across
generations society in general benefits.

If we shorten our time framework, we can say that many also benefit immediately – within one
generation – from the economic growth of creative destruction. Those who help invent new
technology certainly benefit. They make a lot of money. They tend to create new jobs, which
means people working in those new jobs may also benefit – see the end of the lecture on this
point. Consumers also benefit by new consumer products, often at cheaper prices.

• In thinking about consumers and prices, consider smartphones again.

• Though we might complain about the price of smartphones, think instead about the price of
computing power.

• Smartphones have thousands of times more computing power than computers costing
$2,500 when I was in high school. The cost of computing power has decreased dramatically.

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So in addition to society as a whole benefiting across generations from creative destruction,
many also benefit within one generation from the creative part of a growing economy. But
others do not benefit in the short term. Those whose jobs and businesses are destroyed by the
destructive part of creative destruction certainly do not benefit in the short term.

A particularly hard fact to accept is that this immediate destruction cannot be avoided if there
is to be economic growth. Remember, that’s key – the creative part cannot happen without the
destructive part. An economy that is not creating and destroying jobs at the same time is an
economy which is not growing. The “destruction” side of the equation indicates that economic
growth is multi-dimensional. Economic progress benefits consumers and those involved in new
technologies while at the same time causing economic pain to those in jobs and businesses
destroyed in the process.

In fact, economic growth is multi-dimensional even if we focus just on the new jobs created by
creative destruction. Let’s return to early industrialization and think about the news jobs
created in this early period of the industrial revolution. The new jobs varied greatly. Some were
decent jobs with decent pay. Others were not. Consider the examples below. They highlight the
multi-dimensional nature of the new jobs created by early industrialization.

• Being the captain of a steamboat or engineer of a steam locomotive was a decent job.
These new forms of transportation led to the creation of new towns and cities along
transportation routes such as the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The new towns and cities
accommodated travelers with lodging and food. Owning a new lodging establishment or
restaurant could also be a decent new job.

• The steamboats, steam locomotive, and textile mills all required steam engines and other
machines to operate them. Being a machine tool mechanic – servicing and fixing these
machines – could also be a decent job.

• But other new jobs, especially for unskilled labor, were much less desirous. Men working in
coal mines faced long hours and extremely unhealthy working conditions. Many young
women and children worked in textile mills which included low wages and few safety
protections. Some experienced serious injuries, such as the loss of limb, and many were
way overworked resulting in various physical hardships.

• We should note here that children had worked throughout human history. Child labor was
not invented by industrialization. Untold numbers of children had long faced intense rural
poverty accompanied by long hours of agricultural labor. This was the norm for
underdeveloped societies across the world. Still, though, the textile mills of early
industrialization presented new types of drudgery and danger for the children working in
them.

In looking at these new jobs created by early industrialization, we conclude the following:
Creative destruction is not only multi-dimensional because it creates new technologies,
industries, and wealth while destroying some existing jobs and businesses. It is also multi-
dimensional because the new jobs it creates include more desirous (skilled) and less desirous
(unskilled) jobs.

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Let’s think this through a bit more before we end this lecture.

In 1800, when early industrialization was just beginning, over 90% of world’s population lived in
the most extreme form of poverty. And 99% lived in what today we would consider poverty.

• Remember, that’s why Adam Smith published his book, An Inquiry into the Nature and
Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).

• Smith tried to explain the causes of wealth. It was wealth – what economists call wealth
creation – that is abnormal in human history. It has to be explained.

• Smith did not try to explain the causes of poverty because poverty did not have to be
explained. Poverty was simply the normal condition of human beings in human history.

What this means is that the difficult and dangerous jobs created by early industrialization – coal
miners, textile workers – were filled by people leaving rural poverty and moving to emerging
towns and cities. There is debate among historians whether these types of workers saw any
increase in their standard of living in first half of 1800s. It’s not clear that they did. They worked
long hours, with little safety, at low pay.

The story changes when we look at the second half of the 1800s – later industrialization – which
we’ll discuss in the next lecture. Later industrialization increased the standard of living for many
industrial workers and created a new middle class of professional employees.

American history homework help

The Journal of Private Fraser

As zero hour approached I glanced around looking for signs to charge. The signal came like a
bolt from the blue. Right on the second the barrage opened with a roar that seemed to split
the heavens. Looking along the right, about forty yards away, I caught the first glimpse of a
khaki-clad figure climbing over the parapet. It was the start of the first wave, the 27th
Battalion. More Winnipeg men followed. Then glancing back over the parados I saw Sgt.
Teddy Torrens rise up from a shell hole and wave his platoon forward. So quick, however,
were the men of the 31stl on the heels of the 27th that when I turned my head, those of my
platoon beside Sgt. Hunter were actually up and over the parapet with a good five to ten
yards start ahead of me. In a hurry to overtake them and carry the line as even as possible, I
was up and over in a trice, running into shell holes, down and up for about twenty yards, until I
found that if I continued this procedure and rate, loaded up as I was, I would be exhausted
before I could get to grips with Fritz.

…I expected and almost felt being shot in the stomach All around our men were falling, their
rifles loosening from their grasp. The wounded, writhing in their agonies, struggled and
toppled into shell holes for safety from rifle and machine-gun fire, though in my path the latter
must have been negligible, for a slow or even quick traverse would have brought us down
before we reached many yards into No Man’s Land. Rifle fire, however, was taking its toll, and
on my front and flanks, soldier after soldier was tumbling to disablement or death, and I
expected my turn every moment. The transition from life to death was terribly swift.

…Halfway across the first wave seemed to melt and we were in front, heading for Fritz, who
was firing wildly and frantically, and scared beyond measure as we bore down upon him.
Their faces seemed peculiarly foreign to me. Their trench was full and firing strong and as the
remnants of us were nearing bombing reach, we almost, as one man, dropped into shell
holes, a move wisely done and swiftly executed. Further progress and it is more than likely
that we would have stepped into a volley of grenades. At this time, I had the shell hole to
myself and took cover behind the left front edge, which was higher than any other part of the
lip, and I could see without being seen from the immediate front, the flanks to the Hun line
and the left rear right back to our trench. I was hardly down, when a man around the forty
mark, medium-sized, well built, with a heavy sandy moustache, of Scandinavian appearance,
came up on my left and stopped not a yard away. He seemed to be non-plussed as if
wondering what came over those who were ahead of him a moment ago, as it suddenly
dawned upon him that he was the nearest moving soldier to Fritz. I will never forget the look
of bewilderment which came over his face, but it quickly changed to puzzled thought, as if
wondering what to do next, when a rifle bullet caused him to shudder as if he had received an
electric shock. In a flash another must have tore into his vitals for he winced with the shock,
then his eyes opened wide and a terrified look of despair and helplessness crept over his
features, his eyes rolled, and with a heart-rending shriek as he realized his end had come, he
fell forward flat on his face, stone dead, almost on top of me.

…It all happened in a twinkling, his death practically instantaneous, but that fatal moment, the
wincing, the hopeless, piteous look, were indelibly printed on my mind forever. were
collapsing right and left and not a single one got as far forward as the remnants our own.
At this lime a strange incident happened; a German, without weapons and equipment,
climbed over the parapet on my right and ran into No Man’s Land, shrieking and waving his
arms, apparently stark, staring mad. He ran about twenty-five yards, wheeled round in a circle
several times, the circles narrowing each time, then flopped dead. It was a weird and uncanny
spectacle and I was held spellbound, watching his cantrips. I do not think any of our men shot
him when he was in the open. He seemed to be in his death throes when he clambered over
the parapet and reeled into No Man’s Land. Thrilling sights passed before my eyes, during
what must have been seconds though they could easily have been construed into hours, so
great was the tension, and so miraculous was it that I and a few others in this vicinity escaped
destruction. now and then a side glance at my sandy-moustached comrade, lying dead
beside me, his mess tin shining and scintillating on his back, a strange and curious sight
appeared. Away to my left rear, a huge gray object reared itself into view, and slowly, very
slowly, it crawled along like a gigantic toad, feeling its way across the shell-stricken field. It
was a tank, the “Creme de Menthe,” the latest invention of destruction and the first of its kind
to be employed in the Great War. I watched it coming towards our direction. How painfully
slow it travelled. Down and up the shell holes it clambered, a weird, ungainly monster, moving
relentlessly forward. Suddenly men from the ground looked up, rose as if from the dead, and
running from the flanks to behind it, followed in the rear as if to be in on the kill. The last I saw
of it, it was wending its way to the Sugar Refinery. It crossed Fritz’s trenches, a few yards
from me, with hardly a jolt.

A German with ruddy face, clean shaven and intelligent looking, was lying on his back on the
firing step, minus equipment, as if he had been placed there. At first I wondered what
happened to him for he appeared unmarked. His feet, however, were torn to shreds. He had a
pleasant countenance and looked as if he was smiling in death. It was from that I took the Iron
Cross ribbon. A typical Hun, big, fat with a double chin, was sitting on the parapet in the south
corner of the bay, his stomach so protruding over his thighs that very little of the latter could
be seen, stone dead, and not a mark to be seen. There was no shell hole near him, so I
conjecture he must have died of fright and not concussion. In the other corner of the bay,
reclining back against the parapet, lay a young German, a bullet wound in the head, his face
ashen white and with a look as if he sickened to death. How deadly the sprays of metal had
done their work, how effective our sniping had been, was plainly discernible. In every bay lay
dead and dying Germans, lying in grotesque shapes, and some huddled on the top of each
other. Most of them had fearful wounds and the whole line resembled a shambles.

Source: Reginald H. Roy, ed., The Journal of Private Fraser, 1914-1918, Canadian
Expeditionary Force (Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Press, 1985) [Copy-permitted].
Modern History Sourcebook

American history homework help

National Climate & Environment Education Health Innovations Investigations National Security Obituaries Science

A Rhodes Scholar barista
and the fight to unionize

Starbucks

Months after getting a job at a Starbucks in BuAalo, 24-year-old Jaz Brisack started asking other baristas how they
felt about unionizing. (Libby March for The Washington Post)

By Greg JaAe

Today at 6:00 a.m. EST

BUFFALO — The omicron variant was racing through the Starbucks on
Elmwood Avenue so fast that by early January one-third of the store’s 30-
person workforce was sick or isolating at home.

The worried, angry and exhausted workers who remained had asked Starbucks
for KN95 masks, better protocols to inform them when co-workers tested
positive for the coronavirus, and the right to deny service to customers who
refused to comply with their county’s mask mandate.

Their concerns were no different from those of many of the other 383,000
Starbucks employees stuck laboring through the latest wave of the pandemic.
The Elmwood baristas, though, believed that they had leverage that others
lacked.

Three weeks earlier, they had voted to become the first unionized Starbucks in
the country, an improbable victory that overcame stiff resistance from the
coffee giant and caught the attention of baristas in Boston, Chicago, Knoxville,
Seattle and Baltimore, who were requesting their own votes, just like the one in
Buffalo. Congratulations were pouring in from the likes of Sen. Bernie Sanders,
Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and former labor secretary Robert Reich, who
called their win “a watershed for the biggest coffee seller in the world” and “a
small step on the long trail toward rebalancing such power in America.”

With the virus tearing through their workforce, the baristas were ready to make
their demands. Michelle Eisen, an 11-year veteran of the company, called their
requests the “bare minimum” Starbucks could do to keep them safe. Starbucks
executives countered that the measures in place at their store and all of the
others in the massive chain exceeded the recommendations of the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. They weren’t going to treat Elmwood
differently.

So on a Wednesday morning in early January, just hours after another worker
from the store fell ill, the Elmwood baristas decided to go on strike. There were
a few whispered conversations as the baristas checked to make sure everyone
was on board. A 24-year-old barista named Jaz Brisack, who had been off that
morning, rushed in to pick up a shift so that she could walk out with her co-
workers.

A little before 8:30 a.m., they strode quietly past the store’s glass pastry case,
boxes of vanilla bean powder and an industrial-size ice machine to the storage
room where an unsuspecting manager was working.

“Are you all okay?” she asked.

“We’re really not,” Eisen replied.

The baristas were taking off their green aprons. Eisen was listing the names of
the workers from the store who had recently fallen ill and laying out the
reasoning behind the walkout.

“Is there anything I can do?” the manager asked.

“It’s really not on you,” Eisen replied. “We had a conversation with corporate
yesterday. These things could’ve been resolved, and they said that this was
‘adequate,’ and it’s not.” She turned to leave, and the other workers, who were
putting on their hats, coats, scarves and backpacks, followed her. A pop song
was playing on the coffee shop’s sound system.

“Please clock out!” the manager called out to them as if it were just another day
at work.

“No, let’s go! Don’t clock out,” Eisen told the baristas who didn’t break stride as
they stepped onto the sidewalk, where they would eventually start a picket line
and learn just how much they would be able to shift the balance of power inside
one of America’s largest corporations.

***

A big reason baristas were standing outside on that frigid Buffalo morning was
because a year earlier, Brisack, fresh off a Rhodes Scholarship, had walked into
the Elmwood Starbucks and applied for a job.

For the next eight months, she learned to froth lattes and blend Frappuccinos.
She rose before sunrise to help open her store and picked up shifts at other
Buffalo Starbucks where she met other baristas who told her about their lives,
frustrations and concerns with the company. And she waited.

Brisack had been working toward this moment since she was a home-schooled
teenager in Alcoa, Tenn., and read a speech delivered by the legendary
American socialist Eugene Debs that hit her with the power of a revelation.

“While there is a lower class, I am in it, and while there is a criminal element, I
am of it, and while there is a soul in prison, I am not free,” Debs told a jury that
was about to convict him of inciting resistance to the draft during World War I.

“It was so radical,” Brisack said. “So, in your face.”

Debs’s words sparked an obsession with the great labor battles of the early
1900s — violent tales of avarice, betrayal and sacrifice — and propelled her to a
full scholarship at the University of Mississippi, a part-time job on a failed
campaign to unionize a Nissan plant and, finally, a Rhodes Scholarship. She
was the first woman in University of Mississippi history to win the coveted
prize.

The summer before Brisack left for Britain, Richard Bensinger, a lead organizer
on the Nissan campaign, invited her to come to Buffalo, where he was working
on several campaigns, including one to organize a small, locally owned coffee
chain.

Brisack raced unhappily through her Rhodes in a year — instead of the normal
two — and returned to Buffalo, where she landed the Starbucks job.

“Just because you’re working there doesn’t mean I’m going to try to organize
it,” Bensinger recalled telling her. Taking on Starbucks was a massive project
that could quickly consume the resources of the tiny Upstate New York union
office where the 71-year-old organizer was working.

By late July, Brisack felt she had proved herself a reliable worker. A labor
shortage was putting pressure on baristas across Buffalo. “It’s now or never,”
she recalled thinking. She invited a friend from her store over to crochet. A bag
of yarn sat on the table. Brisack mixed some Old-Fashioneds.

Before they started, she told her friend, Cassie Fleischer, 25, that she had a
question that she had been wanting to ask her: one that could put their jobs at
risk and, for the moment, had to remain secret. Brisack tapped her finger
nervously against her glass. She could feel her heart beating in her chest.

“How do you feel about organizing a union at Starbucks?” she asked. She had
picked Fleischer for this first conversation because she knew she could trust
her and because she had noticed that her friend had shared messages on
Facebook about the impossibility of surviving on the minimum wage.

“Is that even possible?” Fleischer replied. “Starbucks is so huge.”

Brisack began speaking of the need for better pay, more generous benefits,
more consistent scheduling and a fairer promotion system. Fleischer, who had
been with Starbucks for almost five years, felt a bit ambushed and confused.

“So, do you want to learn how to crochet?” she finally interrupted.

Fleischer had barely made it home that evening when her phone pinged with a
500-word text message.

“Thank you so much for the crochet lesson and your patience with me!” Brisack
wrote. “I think unionizing will mean that we will have our own voice and real
power. … Right now, Starbucks has all the power and ultimately is supposed to
hold themselves accountable. If we had a union, we would be able to hold them
accountable and they would have to recognize us as equals.”

In the days that followed, Brisack began contacting other baristas at her store
and the 19 other Buffalo Starbucks. Secrecy was paramount. In 2019, Starbucks
had fired two Philadelphia baristas who were trying to unionize their stores,
killing the effort before it had even started and drawing a rebuke from a
National Labor Relations Board judge who ruled the company had violated the
workers’ rights.

Brisack focused her initial search on baristas who had championed liberal
causes on a group chat that Starbucks’s Buffalo employees used to promote
events or find fill-ins when they couldn’t work their normal shifts.

“Just wanted to see if you’re available to meet up soon to talk about activism in
Buffalo,” she wrote to a barista who earlier in the year had organized a
demonstration against sexual assault at a local college. One of the five
protesters there was Brisack.

A few days later, Brisack and another early union supporter raced out to a
nightclub to track down two baristas who moonlighted as drag queen
performers. She finally caught up with them around 3 a.m., pitched them on
the union and then dashed home to grab some food before starting her 5 a.m.
shift.

Often one pro-union barista led Brisack to others. Most of the people with
whom she met were in their mid-20s; many were the first in their families to
attend college and were saddled with five- and six-figure student loan debts.
Some had parents who had struggled with addiction or had served time in
prison.

Brisack introduced as many as she could to Bensinger. She wanted to show the
baristas that she had a real union backing her, and she wanted to convince
Bensinger that they could win.

Among the last people Brisack contacted was Eisen, the 11-year Starbucks
veteran from her Elmwood store. Brisack didn’t know Eisen well; they typically
worked different days. And Eisen’s long history with the company suggested
that she might not support the big changes that a union could bring.

But the pandemic had changed Eisen’s view of Starbucks, which had thrived by
selling normalcy. Even if the world was upside down, Eisen’s regulars could
still count on their caramel macchiato.

Eisen’s life, though, felt anything but normal. She also worked as a stage
manager for a local theater and depended on Starbucks for health insurance.
When the pandemic struck, her theater shut down and Starbucks became her
full-time job. She was making a little less than $16 an hour, $1 an hour more
than the minimum wage for New York state fast-food workers and barely
enough to pay her bills. The stress of it all had taken a toll on her mental
health.

Brisack took her to meet Bensinger. At 38, Eisen was older than most of the
other baristas, even-keeled and smart. Younger workers often turned to her for
career and life advice. Bensinger quickly pegged her as just the sort of person
the union needed to take a high-profile leadership role once the campaign
launched.

“How public are you willing to be?” he asked Eisen.

“As public as you need me to be,” she replied.

In late August, 49 baristas from across Buffalo sent a letter to Starbucks’s chief
executive in Seattle informing him that they were seeking to form a union. To
petition the NLRB for a vote, a store needed at least 30 percent of the workers
to sign union cards. The union decided to start by requesting votes at three
Buffalo-area Starbucks where a large majority of baristas had signed cards,
knowing that a strong anti-union campaign from Starbucks would persuade
some of the early signers to change sides.

Among the most pro-union stores was Elmwood.

***

After her initial awkward conversation with Brisack, Fleischer had tried to
forget about the union drive. She waited four days before she responded to
Brisack’s long text, writing back that making demands of the company felt
disloyal and “wrong.” Three weeks later when the campaign went public, she
declined to sign a union card.

To Fleischer, it seemed as if everyone had a hidden agenda. She had trained
Brisack to be a barista and recalled her during those early days as earnest,
eager to learn and prone to apologizing far too much. Fleischer hadn’t been
able to find her new friend on Facebook, so she had googled her and discovered
that Brisack had won a prestigious scholarship in Britain. Fleischer had never
heard of the Rhodes scholarship, but her mother was familiar with it. “Oh, my
God, your friend is smart as s—,” Fleischer’s mother had said.

Fleischer had initially assumed that Brisack was working as a barista because
she needed a break. Now she wondered whether Brisack had been part of some
“secret plot” to unionize the coffee giant.

Starbucks also seemed to be less than truthful. It flooded the Buffalo market —
and Fleischer’s Elmwood store — with “support managers” from around the
country who worked alongside the baristas. The company said the
multimillion-dollar campaign was designed to fix a market in crisis: stores that
were understaffed, dirty and struggling with insect infestations. But it seemed
to Fleischer that the “support managers” were also there to intimidate and spy
on union supporters.

Every few weeks, the company summoned Fleischer and the other Buffalo
baristas to mandatory meetings designed to undermine support for the union.
The presentations warned that Workers United — the larger union with which
the baristas were hoping to affiliate — was losing members and raising its dues,
which the company said could cost baristas as much as $600 a year. “I need
that $600,” Fleischer said she thought. “That’s a month’s rent.”

Sometimes she surprised herself with her long-suppressed grievances and her
assertiveness. In one meeting she told Rossann Williams, who oversees all of
Starbucks’s North American stores, that the company’s approach to taking time
off for mental health, which required baristas to find someone to cover missed
shifts, was “unacceptable.”

“I can’t believe I said that,” she told Brisack after the meeting.

“But it is unacceptable,” Brisack replied. “And that’s why you need to be on our
store’s bargaining committee when we win.”

In November, just days before the ballots were mailed to the baristas, Fleischer
filed into a hotel ballroom in downtown Buffalo for an hour-long address from
Howard Schultz, the company’s founder. Schultz agreed to go to Buffalo after
learning that Kevin Johnson, the company’s chief executive, hadn’t visited the
city. Schultz’s trip was a sign of how badly some top executives and board
members inside Starbucks wanted to stop the union drive. They worried that a
successful organizing campaign could depress Starbucks’s stock price, that the
union would make it harder to fire malingering employees or hurt relations
between workers and their managers.

Schultz seemed to view the union campaign as a personal affront. He had
stepped down as chief executive in 2018, but Starbucks was still very much the
company that he had built over 30 years.

Clad in a gray cardigan and khakis, Schultz gazed out at hundreds of 20-
somethings arrayed around him in the hotel ballroom. “I don’t want to give a
speech. I don’t have any notes,” he told them. “I just want to speak from the
heart about what I believe this company is about and what we’ve tried to do
over these many years in building a different kind of company.”

Soon Schultz was speaking about his father who returned home from World
War II and worked a series of “really tough, blue-collar jobs” in Brooklyn
before he suffered an injury at work that left him “bitter and angry” and his
family dependent on charity to survive. “I experienced at the age of seven the
imprinting shame, the vulnerability, the embarrassment of a family that was
really destitute,” Schultz said.

His goal at Starbucks, he continued, had been to “build the kind of company
my father never got a chance to work for.”

!

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my father never got a chance to work for.”

As he was speaking, Fleischer was remembering her own struggles. She
thought about her single mother, who had worked a $7.25-an-hour job at
Wegmans and depended on federal aid to feed Fleischer and her brother. She
thought about the Christmas when she was 8 and overheard her mother saying
that they were on the verge of losing their house. She thought about how hard
she worked to earn a bachelor’s degree in social work and how, despite all that
hard work, she still carried $25,000 in student loan debt and qualified for
Medicaid.

She had been poor her entire life, and it had never been a source of “shame” or
embarrassment for her.

A few yards away, Schultz was talking about the “expensive” benefits he had
provided to even his part-time baristas: a company health plan, a stock option
program, free online college through Arizona State University, online mental
health counseling. “Who forced us to do it? Who pushed us to do it? No one,”
he repeated again and again and again.

Fleischer felt as if she was being “scolded by a parent” for her ingratitude. She
started googling Schultz and found an article that said that he was worth more
than $4 billion and no longer felt grateful at all. Now she was annoyed.

“If you have $4 billion, you should absolutely be providing these benefits to
us,” she recalled thinking.

As soon as Schultz had finished speaking, a woman in a black leather jacket
jumped up from her seat and strode toward him. “I am an organizing member
of Starbucks Workers United, and I am a barista,” she shouted as she held aloft
a copy of the union’s “fair elections principles,” which asked the coffee giant to
give union backers equal time to make their case, and which the company had
declined to endorse.

A Starbucks executive in a $500 down vest stepped in front of the young
woman, blocking her path to the company founder. “Howard Schultz, please, if
you care!” she yelled.

But Schultz had already slipped out the ballroom’s back door.

Four days later, Fleischer asked Eisen to meet to discuss the union. Her biggest
worry was the extra $600 a year in union dues. Eisen assured her that any new
contract would have to boost pay to cover the extra dues expense or it would be
rejected by the union.

Fleischer said she hoped that she might someday be able to sit on her store’s
bargaining committee, where she could press Starbucks executives to improve
barista training and change the sick leave policy that she had complained was
“unacceptable.” Later that afternoon, she texted Eisen that she was going to
vote for the union.

“I AM really passionate about this job and company, and I want my voice to be
heard,” she wrote. “I don’t know how else to make that happen. But if/WHEN
we unionize, I want to be part of the change that comes from it.”

***

Brisack, Eisen and Fleischer locked arms, their eyes fixed on a live video of a
NLRB lawyer who was counting the votes to determine whether their Starbucks
on Elmwood Avenue would become the company’s first unionized U.S. store.

More than four months had passed since Brisack and Fleischer’s first
conversation about the possibility of organizing a union. The lawyer slit open
the first envelope. To win, the union needed at least 14 of the 27 employees on
the store’s rolls to vote yes. Surrounding the three Elmwood baristas were
several dozen Starbucks employees from across Buffalo.

The first seven votes were all “yeses.”

“Landslide!” one barista called out.

“Where’s Rossann?” yelled another, a reference to the head of Starbucks’s
North America operations who had spent long stretches of the campaign in
their Buffalo stores and had repeatedly urged the baristas to oppose the union.

Five consecutive no votes followed. “What’s happening?” Brisack whispered to
Eisen who shut her eyes and squeezed Brisack’s left hand tight. Soon they were
up to 13 “yes” votes. They needed just one more to go their way, and they would
officially be a union. The NLRB lawyer opened the next ballot.

“Yes,” he read.

Brisack, Fleischer and Eisen clutched each other in a group hug, and Eisen
started to cry. “Elmwood! Elmwood! Elmwood!” the baristas around them
chanted.

The NLRB lawyer counted the votes at two more Buffalo Starbucks. One voted
narrowly against joining the union, and a third store’s results remained
inconclusive because of objections to some ballots that several weeks later were
decided in the union’s favor.

“We’re incredibly excited to announce that we have won the first unionized
Starbucks in U.S. history,” Eisen told a dozen reporters who had gathered at
the union’s office in a converted factory where Buffalo laborers once
manufactured World War II-era warplanes.

The reporters asked essentially the same question: What exactly did the
baristas want from Starbucks? More affordable health insurance? More
predictable hours? Better pay? “A new employee who starts today makes 63
cents less an hour than I do after 11 years,” Eisen said. “So, is that an issue?
Sure.”

The reality, though, was that Eisen, Brisack and Fleischer wanted something
bigger. In the first hours following the union’s victory, Eisen didn’t feel joy or
relief. Rather, she felt “resentment and anger” at how hard Starbucks had
fought to prevent their store and others from unionizing. The company had
postponed the balloting for months with unsuccessful legal challenges and
targeted pro-union baristas for the smallest slip-ups, such as minor dress-code
infractions or accidental swearing. In the case of the store where votes were
still in dispute, the union charged that Starbucks had attempted to dilute
support by more than doubling the staff.

Eisen told the reporters that she wanted the company to stop fighting, sit down
with them and “negotiate the best contract that the service industry has ever
seen.”

Brisack stepped forward. “We’ve said from Day One that all we had to do was
win one store,” she added. And now that they had won it, the Elmwood baristas
expected Starbucks to recognize their new power.

***

Three weeks later, the Elmwood baristas went on strike. The day before they
walked out, Brisack, Eisen and Fleischer took part in an emergency meeting
with three Starbucks executives and a company lawyer to discuss the omicron
outbreak that had sidelined 10 Elmwood staffers.

The sides talked in circles for nearly three hours. The baristas asked Starbucks
to close their store for five days to stem the outbreak and give people time to
return from isolation. When that request was rejected, they pushed for more
robust protective equipment, such as KN95 masks. The Starbucks executives
responded that they were “very confident” in their safety protocols and that
there were enough healthy baristas at Elmwood to “meet the needs of the
business.”

The next morning, around 5:45, a worker, who had gone to the emergency
room just days earlier for a non-covid illness, told Eisen that he was too weak
to finish his shift. He had come in, he said, only because he didn’t want to let
down his co-workers when they were already missing so many people. Eisen
drove him home and returned to the store.

“I’m about to walk out of this place,” one of the baristas complained to her.

“Let’s do it,” Eisen replied. “This is ridiculous.”

She quickly got assurances from the union that it would cover their lost pay
and that Starbucks couldn’t fire them for striking. Then she quietly consulted
with the other baristas — starting with Fleischer.

“Are you sure this is the move?” Fleischer asked nervously. “Is now the time?

“If we’re not going to walk out over our health and well-being, then there’s not
anything worth walking out for,” Eisen said. Brisack woke to a series of texts
about the walkout from Fleischer and raced down to the store to join them.

Soon they were all standing on the sidewalk and Eisen was texting the rest of
the workers to let them know what had happened. The store, staffed by a
manager and a shift supervisor, remained open for about 45 more minutes
until the overwhelmed shift supervisor uttered an agreed-upon safe word —
“Oklahoma” — and the manager locked the doors. The store stayed closed for
two days before Starbucks reopened it with a mix of Elmwood workers who
chose not to strike and other Starbucks personnel.

Brisack, Fleischer and Eisen spent the five days after the walkout on the
sidewalk picketing alongside their co-workers.

Inside the store, a few of their overworked and frustrated colleagues struggled
to serve the store’s customers. Fleischer tried not to make eye contact with
them through the windows. To Fleischer, it was “kind of baffling” that the
company hadn’t given them anything. Even their relatively small request that
Starbucks pay their out-of-pocket costs on coronavirus tests was denied. “I was
expecting them to do or say something,” she said.

She didn’t regret backing the union, which had given her a sense of mission
and purpose. But she was starting to doubt that they would even be able to
negotiate a pay raise big enough to offset their union dues. And she worried
that it would be awkward when she and her fellow strikers eventually returned
to work.

On Day 4 of their frigid, five-day protest, Fleischer worked up the courage to
ask Brisack a question that had been weighing on her for months.

“Did you plan on all this happening when you started at Starbucks, or was it
just a coincidence?” she asked.

Brisack replied that she hadn’t known whether it would be possible to unionize
the coffee giant when she took the job at the Elmwood store. “I’d try to organize
any place I worked, but this wasn’t a grand scheme,” she said. Without the
union and, even more important, the support of other Buffalo baristas, there
would have been no union drive.

Another barista standing nearby weighed in: “Are you like a union vigilante?
Are you just going to leave and go to some other coffee shop now?”

Brisack believed that the labor movement was the only v

American history homework help

·
Develop the topic into a well-organized essay, following the guidelines below. Correct spelling and grammar will be considered during grading. Part of your grade will depend upon including the required block quotes.  Be sure to answer all parts of the question.

· Finally, DO NOT copy material from another source and paste it into this essay response box, representing it as your own work. Doing this will get you a grade of 0, and it is not difficult for instructors to detect.

The Autobiography of Ben Franklin

Relying primarily on material from the The Autobiography of Ben Franklin, thoroughly answer the following questions:




https://www.thefederalistpapers.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/The-Autobiography-of-Benjamin-Franklin-.pdf (Links to an external site.)

 

 

 

Section 1 (25 points): Describe how Benjamin Franklin established the public library in Philadelphia. What was the effect of this library on Franklin and on his community?

Section 2 (50 points): Explain Franklin’s quest for moral perfection. What process did he use? How successful was he? Which virtues did he find the most challenging to maintain? What was meant by his saying, “a speckled ax is best?”

Section 3 (25 points): Was Franklin a religious man? Why, or why not? Provide specific evidence to support your conclusions.

*****Include at least three direct, block quotes from the Autobiography to support your position.  Be sure to put your citation for these quotations in parentheses and in all caps. For example, your citation might look like this:

“She assisted me cheerfully in my business, . . . .” (FRANKLIN, P. 119) or, if there is no page number, (FRANKLIN, Chapter 6).

***THERE WILL BE A 30 POINT DEDUCTION (10 PER BLOCK) FOR  FAILING TO PROVIDE A QUOTE SUPPORTING YOUR THESES***

American history homework help

KINES 370: WOMEN IN 20th CENTURY SPORT

California State University, East Bay, Department of Kinesiology

SPRING 2022

Instructor: Dr. Aaron L. Miller

Office: PE 103

Office Hours (via ZOOM): Thursdays, 3-5pm

Aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu

A NOTE ON THIS SYLLABUS

This syllabus is your Bible for this course. Print it out (in color if possible, since the Course Schedule has been color-coded to aid your learning), carry it the bag that you use for your studies, and consult it every time you engage the course. Your grade depends directly on your ability to follow this syllabus. If you have a question about the syllabus, of if something confuses you, it is your responsibility to let the instructor know ASAP, preferably in the first week of class.

A NOTE ON CLASS MEETINGS/OFFICE HOURS

Although this is an online class that is delivered asynchronously, and all of the course materials are accessible via Blackboard, there are two opportunities to engage with fellow students and ask the instructor questions via virtual means. The first is a weekly, and recommended – not required – ZOOM meeting for students to ask general questions and discuss course materials, either as a large class or if numbers require it, breakout rooms and smaller groups. The second is office hours, where you can ask more personal questions in a private ZOOM “breakout room”. See above for dates and times.

INSTITUTIONAL MISSIONS

University Mission Statement: California State East Bay welcomes and supports a diverse student body with academically rich, culturally relevant learning experiences that prepare students to apply their education to meaningful lifework, and to be socially responsible contributors to society.

College of Education and Allied Studies Mission Statement: To prepare collaborative leaders, committed to social justice and democracy, who will influence a highly technological and diverse world

Department of Kinesiology Mission Statement: To prepare graduates who are knowledgeable, professional, and take a multidisciplinary approach to promoting physical activity.

COURSE SUMMARY

This course will examine the experience of girls and women in 20th century sport from a social, cultural and historical perspective, with an emphasis on the constructs of gender, race, and sexuality, and how these constructs mediate the female sport experience. Women’s sport provides us with a lens to explore a range of issues including religion, social and economic structures, gender, race, and ideas concerning the body. Course materials will include a combination of award-winning scholarship and popular sources to examine the historical and current status of women in sport and factors that influence their participation. The main text, which will be supplemented by the instructor with other readings and multimedia resources, all of which will be uploaded to the course Blackboard page, is Susan Cahn, 2015. Coming on Strong, Univ. of Illinois Press, and may be available online through the university library. Following are some questions that this course will raise: Are sports a realm for men only, or can participate just as freely? Do sports reinforce or break down gender stereotypes? Is there social value in financially supporting women’s (professional) sports? How do we in contemporary society treat women athletes, and what does that treatment say about our values? How is gender differentiation constructed through sport and the culture of sport? Why was Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 a landmark piece of federal legislation, and what have been its consequences for females? What are the employment trends over the past twenty-five years in women’s intercollegiate coaching and athletic administrations? What sociocultural sources of sexism exist in American society? Why does sex-testing reinforce patriarchal relations?

COURSE OBJECTIVES

After completing this course, students will be able to:

– critically analyze sport as one of America’s most pervasive cultural institutions, particularly cases and incidents from sports history that illustrate how our ideas/practices regarding physical activity and physical education are socially constructed.

– trace the historical development of women’s involvement in sport, and be able to articulate reasons why and how sport/physical activity/notions of women’s bodies have changed/stayed the same throughout history.

– analyze the social, cultural and ideological issues with which female sport participants are confronted, and how women have shaped their identities through sports participation;

– identify how dominant norms have prohibited full participation by females in sport;

– identify the ways in which women resist the gendered status quo via their sport experiences; and

– present information effectively and clearly in written format.

COURSE EXPECTATATIONS FOR STUDENTS

There is a textbook for this course Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

This course is taught completely online and is delivered asynchronously, which means the onus will be upon the online learner to apprise himself/herself of the assignments due, read the syllabus clearly to understand how they should be done in order to receive a good grade, and then take it upon himself/herself to finish these assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner. The instructor is always available via email, office hours, or by appointment to answer questions; however, please note that due to the instructor’s heavy teaching load at CSUEB and another university, he has limited his ability to give individualized feedback. I am available via email, office hours, and/or by appointment to answer questions and address concerns, but please write in full sentences and be patient in receiving a reply. I will do my best to respond to your messages within one week. Due to my heavy teaching load (six classes each term) at two universities, it is not always possible to reply more quickly than that. Feedback on assignments may be given in aggregate, rather than personalized. If you’re interested in learning more about the reasons why I must have such a heavy teaching load, please see https://www.forbes.com/sites/noodleeducation/2015/05/28/more-than-half-of-college-faculty-are-adjuncts-should-you-care/#3ff512ec1600 or http://pullias.usc.edu/delphi/. If you find this problematic, please write a letter expressing your views to the university president, your state representative, or the state governor, and talk to taxpayers about the importance of properly funding public higher education.


How to do well in this course

Read the syllabus very closely. Use a calendar to enter due dates, or set reminders with your phone/computer. Do the assigned readings, “attend” our Blackboard (BB) site regularly, and contribute thoughtfully to share your views and illuminate the understandings of others via the Discussion Board (DB). Take it upon yourself to finish all assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner, and show your willingness to help others in your DB posts. When you read and take notes, focus on incorporating the material into your daily worldview. On the DB, do more than memorize and regurgitate “facts”. Be actively engaged and critically evaluate the class materials. What is the author saying? How does he/she support the argument being made? Try to compare and contrast the readings with your own experiences. Do your experiences reflect what the researchers, documentaries, and authors claim in the course materials? Why or why not?

Many CSUEB students write very well, and are able dexterously weave knowledge of course materials into essays. Some, however, write rather shallow posts that miss the nuanced perspectives of the course materials and demonstrate very little effort in consuming the course materials and thinking about it critically. While I am certain that you are all very busy with other classes and other (family/work) commitments, if you want to do well in this course (e.g. receive an A or B), it is not enough to simply do the work. Rather, it is extremely important to keep up with the readings, especially as it is an online course, and read each one twice. It is my experience as an instructor of online education that these courses actually require more student effort than in-person courses, since students have less guidance on a routine basis than you would if you saw the instructor in person routinely. Therefore, I recommend setting aside a specific block of time each week for each online class you take, just as you would set it aside for an in person class. It will help to schedule this time directly into your diary, just as you would with an in-person class.

STUDY SKILLS

There are a number of readings in this course. You will want to read each reading in your desired format (online using Adobe or another format or printing out the readings), as long at this format allows you to easily take plenty of time with the material, write notes, make comments in the text, write down/type out things you do not understand as you are reading, etc. These readings will form the basis for our online discussions and quizzes throughout the quarter – so take them seriously – be sure to spend plenty of time reading them very closely!

Please read every assigned course material very carefully. Reading these materials will constitute the vast majority of your time in this class (probably 3-6 hours per week). If you do not carefully read everything, this fact will soon make itself apparent in your weekly posts, exams, etc.

Log on often! A common question with an online class is, “How many times should I log on to the Bb course site?” I don’t have a standard answer for that, because some of it depends on your schedule, how you take material in, etc. But my general advice is don’t let this class get away from you! An online course is “out of sight” and can be easily forgotten. I suggest you write down/input into your calendar all due dates and times for this course. Remember, too, that any 4-unit college course could take up to 12 hours/week by the time you complete readings and other assignments. If you can’t or simply don’t want to post to the Discussion Board every week for the entire quarter, then please drop this course and give your spot to someone on the wait list!


►NOTHING HURTS YOUR SCORE MORE THAN MISSING ASSIGNMENTS, NOTHING!!

PLEASE check your horizon email account often, since several times throughout the quarter I will use this pathway to communicate with you, either individually or an email to the entire class.

NETIQUETTE GUIDELINES

“Netiquette” is online communication etiquette. Our online classroom is an academic environment, where we can safely share our points of view, expressed with respect for others. Here are some basic guidelines that all participants should follow:

Express your opinions politely, even if you disagree with someone. Be open and willing to accept others points of view.

Course discussions and other shared content is private and copyright protected. Do not disseminate this content outside of the online classroom unless granted permission by the author(s).

Do not use “texting” abbreviations when communicating in the online classroom. Be professional. Use concise, well-constructed language. Follow the rules of spelling and grammar.

Avoid sarcasm and humor as these can be easily misinterpreted, especially by individuals of different cultures than your own.

Do not send messages that you write when you are angry or upset. Reread every post before you send it!

Do not use all capital letters as it is considered SHOUTING.

Sign every post you make so others can replay to you directly.

Construct your messages in a text editor and transfer them to the LMS after proofing them for Netiquette.

* Follow your instructors specific requirements or rubric for course communication.

INTERACTING WITH PEERS AND INSTRUCTOR RESPECTIVELY

Success in this course is contingent upon all students remaining open, being willing to fully engage in discussions, and opening oneself up to the challenge of existing beliefs, understandings and conceptualizations. Much learning comes from sharing perspectives with others, so there will be group work. If you don’t understand what someone is saying, respectfully ask them to clarify. Consider why your classmates may agree or disagree with the course materials. Be empathetic. Making connections among your experiences, your classmates’ experiences, and the course materials will help make this course more useful to your education, and possibly to your life. Last but not least, draw connections among different readings, in order to enhance your understanding of the broader fields of sports humanities and social science (of which this course is a part). As your instructor, I respectfully ask that you show tolerance of and respect for each other in all your interactions. If you do, you will find that these are virtuous characteristics that allow for deep critical thinking, and by extension, individual as well as societal growth. The University is committed to maintaining a safe and healthy living and learning environment for students, faculty, and staff. Each member of the campus community should choose behaviors that contribute toward this end. Please read the following for details: http://www.csueastbay.edu/studentconduct/student-conduct.html

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

There are various assignments that you must complete to pass this class. All are important to stimulate your learning , specifically your reading comprehension skills, oral presentation skills, interview skills, and ability to demonstrate critical reflection.

A) Exams

B) Oral presentation assignment, to be done in an assigned group on a special topic of your choosing.

C) Blackboard Discussion Board Posts

D) Online participation

A. Exams:

a. Exams: There are 2 difficult exams in this course (midterm and final). Both will be timed and will include highly specific true/false and multiple-choice questions. You can prepare for these exams by reading/watching all required course materials very closely and taking notes of the readings as you read. Then, revisit your notes before the exam to refresh your memory. There may not be enough time for you to consult the textbook/course materials during the exam, so make sure you are prepared ahead of time. As John Wooden famously said, “failure to prepare is preparing to fail”. See relevant dates under Course Schedule.

a. Students must take the exams on the day they are scheduled. The only exceptions will be:

1. Personal illness or injury, which can be documented by the appropriate authority (e.g. Medical Doctor).

2. Death or serious illness to a member of the student’s immediate family which can be documented by an appropriate person.

B. Oral History Research Paper

a. The major research and writing assignment is a 1250 – 1650 word independent oral history research paper (approx 10 pp.), double-spaced, Times New Roman 12 point font, 0.5” margins on all sides of the page.

b. In order to receive a high score, you must do in-person interviews with someone who has direct experience and knowledge of women’s sports in an era of the 20th century other than the current age. (i.e. please do not interview someone about the 2000s!)

c. This assignment will be scaffolded, so that you can hand it in at intervals and stay engaged with the course as you go.

d. Interview an individual (family member or close family friend) who is at least one generation older than you.

e. From the information obtained through this “oral history,” place the individual’s life – and their physical activity/physical education/sport experiences – in socio-historical context.

f. Your job is to explain what their leisure/physical education/sport experiences of your interviewee looked like, and why their experiences looked the way they did in relation to the surrounding culture and the historical moment. In other words, to explain how the person’s athletic or physical activity experiences were shaped or influenced by a) their identity (class, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, physical disability), and b) the time period/place they lived, as well as how a) and b) relate to each other.

g. To help guide you, you can directly answer the questions:

i. How did the time period shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

ii. How did the person’s identity shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

iii. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences shape the person’s identity?

iv. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences, as well as the leisure/physical education/sport experiences of their peers, shape the time period?

h. It is NOT necessary that the person have been an athlete.

i. All essays must:

i. Identify/introduce interviewee;

ii. Summarize the interview;

iii. Include citations of secondary (academic) sources related to the historical moment and place in which the interviewee lived;

iv. Include a bibliography, introductory paragraph, thesis statement, and body paragraphs;

v. Paper length is 1250 – 1650 words. Endnotes are in addition to this word requirement. In other words, I expect that the TEXT of the paper (final draft) will be a minimum of 1250 words / maximum of 1650 words. No exceptions to this word requirement – failure to follow the word min/max will result in a significantly lower grade.

vi. To support your interview and contextualize the experiences of your interviewee, please find high-quality historical research and scholarly sources and reference them in your paper. By high-quality research and scholarly sources, I mean you must use evidence from at least three of the following categories:

1) Any carefully observed direct observation of sports

2) Any interviews or conversations with sporting people (this could be contemporary people, to offer contrast with your interviewee)

3) Any literature (short stories, novels), television shows, or films about sports in historical or contemporary society

4) High-quality survey data regarding attitudes and behavior regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

5) High-quality statistics (demographic, economic, etc.) regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

6) Any research done by scholars of sport.

Note: Your sources may include no more than one source from the list of OPTIONAL readings listed in this syllabus.

Note: Please email me if you are unable to determine the quality of the publication or data).

Questions to keep in mind while you write:

1) What is the argument I am making about my interviewee?

2) How do I support it?

3) How can I strengthen it?

4) How does this argument relate to our course textbook?

5) How should I cite references properly?

6) How can I polish my paper before submitting it?

7) Can I ask a friend/family member/loved-one-that-is-not-a-dog-or-cat to review it for me before submitting?

8) Can I express myself in English writing without concern (i.e. do I worry that a native English speaker may not understand what I am trying to say)? If not, can I consult a native English speaker for assistance?

Please type your papers using a word processor unless you have immaculate handwriting. Never plagiarize, ghostwrite, or dry lab. (Consult a dictionary if you do not know what these words mean). Finally, it should go without saying, but please do not hand in a first draft. I take off points for typos and grammatical mistakes, since they indicate carelessness and a lack of attention to detail. Students will receive a high grade if they communicate their thoughts effectively, and that requires understanding and properly using the written (i.e. not spoken) English language.

C. Blackboard Discussion Posts and Responses:

a. Weekly readings and the summary reports (which you will post on the Discussion Board, and then respond to two other students’ posts) you write about them will help you develop your reading comprehension and writing skills. For each chapter that you read in this course, you must complete a discussion board post. Completing a topic discussion board means completion of an introductory post and making two responses post to another student’s post. Extra credit may be given to students who respond to more than one other student’s post, especially if it is clear that the student has found a way to respectfully and civilly correct another student’s mistakes. Remember: we are a learning community!

i. Spend time writing both posts, making sure they are well thought out, thorough, organized, well written, etc. Some students prefer to draw up an outline before they begin writing. Others like to heavily revise and proofread after a rough draft. Either is fine, but please do one or the other, or both.

ii. Try to connect what you are saying directly to a specific reading (pg. number is great to have!) or topic content posted by the professor. The posts will constitute the best piece of evidence I have with regard to how much effort you are putting into the course, how much learning is taking place, and how you are able to articulate your ideas…so make these posts great!

iii. Note: The reason why I do not provide specific questions for these posts is because we are focusing primarily on one book for this asynchronous class, and so these posts are my indication of how much you are understanding the material therein. The best way to write the posts is to take notes while you read, and then organize those notes into a summary of what you have read. I am afraid that if I asked specific questions about each chapter, it will actually limit how much critical thinking you would do in this process. If you have further questions, please let me know. 

D. Online Participation

You are expected to be an active participant in this course, which includes in-person attendance as well as participation on Blackboard. “Active” online means checking in regularly, asking the instructor for clarification when necessary, completing all Blackboard assignments on time, participating in forums, showing respect for your peers and instructor at all times, and providing thoughtful observations about course materials in your tests and essays.

GRADES

POINT ALLOCATION FOR ASSIGNMENTS

Grades will be determined by calculating the accumulated points from the essay, exams, and assignments.
Please note that simply meeting the requirements for the assignments does not guarantee an “A.” Work that is excellent or outstanding merits that grade.
The total points will be calculated and the grades will be assigned accordingly:

FINAL GRADES WILL BE ASSIGNED AS FOLLOWS:

Grade

%

A

94-100

A-

90-93.99

B+

86-89.99

B

83-85.99

B-

80-82.99

C+

76-79.99

C

73-75.99

C-

70-72.99

D+

66-69.99

D

60-65.99

F

Below 60

There are 400 possible points:

Active participation, including Blackboard discussion board posts and responses

100 + possible extra credit

Oral History Research Paper

150 (5 submissions x 30 points)

Midterm Exam 75

Final Exam 75

Total Possible Points Total: 400

OVERALL GRADING POLICY

Your grade is based on your ability to follow the guidelines set forth in this syllabus. Handing assignments in on time is the first and perhaps most important requirement. If you do so, you will likely do very well in the class. This class is not graded on a curve. Any one can receive a good grade, but to do so you need to demonstrate your understanding of ALL of the course materials, participate regularly, actively and respectfully in the discussion forums, and produce high-quality and original written work of your own.

A special note about INCOMPLETES: In accordance with University policy, I’ll only grant an incomplete for an unforeseen incident that comes up in your life (documentation may be required). I will not grant an incomplete simply because you didn’t take this course seriously enough and thus didn’t make time for it – and thus wish to “take an incomplete” and finish the coursework later.

GENERAL STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE EXAMS

Exams will be a combination of true-false, multiple choice, short answer, and essay. Some of the questions may be rather specific, so make sure you read each required article carefully. Exams may be given online.

GENERAL STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE ESSAYS

Grades for writing assignments will be determined by considering structure, content, flow and writing quality, which I measure based on your usage of proper grammar, spelling accuracy, sentence and paragraph construction, punctuation, and the presentation of citations in a consistent style of your choice.

PARTICULAR STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE ESSAYS AND EXAMS

10-9: answered question completely and in a clear and articulate manner; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

8: answered question with minor issues in clarity or logical structure of essay; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

7: answered question, but not completely. Often key concepts need to be clearly explained and explicitly tied back to answering the question. Relevant materials were either incomplete or not entirely accurate. Author’s arguments were not represented with a high level of accuracy.

6: answered question only partially. Relevant materials were incomplete or inaccurate; Author’s arguments were incomplete or inaccurate; or a list of facts were given without explaining their significance in answering the question

5-0: Did not answer question. either another question was addressed, or the attempt to address the specific question was not supported by relevant and accurate information

COURSE SCHEDULE

REQUIRED TEXTBOOK

Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

***Note: Dates and materials listed below are subject to change at the instructor’s discretion. Often schedules change to allow for further class discussion where necessary and/or desirable, or to accommodate new, timely, and relevant current affairs. Coming to class (or checking in online if this is an online class) regularly is your best bet to know where we are.

BLUE HIGHLIGHTING = ORAL HISTORY ASSIGNMENT DUE DATES

YELLOW HIGHLIGHTING = EXAM

GREEN HIGHLIGHTING = VIDEO/FILM

Wk

Dates

Topic

Readings

1

1/18-1/23

1a. Introduction to class

1. Read the Syllabus carefully

2

1/24-1/30

1b. Introduction to course content

1. Cahn, Introduction, pp. 1-6

3

1/31-2/6

The New Type of Athletic Girl

Cahn. Chapter 1, pp. 7-30

Video: Oldest Women’s Basketball Film Footage 1904 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy6zRKIGQ3Y

DUE: Sunday 2/6 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #1: identify interviewee, include a paragraph (150-200 words) that details demographic information about your subject (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size, etc). Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.

4

2/7-2/13

Grassroots Growth and Sexual Sensation in the Flapper Era

Cahn, Chapter 2, pp.31-54

Video: Flappers – the Roaring Twenties

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3svvCj4yhYc

5

2/14-2/20

Games of Strife – the battle over women’s competitive sport

Cahn, Chapter 3, pp. 55-82

DUE: Sunday 2/20 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #2: working annotated bibliography of at least four (4) academic/scholarly (i.e. not journalism) sources, which you believe will help to contextualize your subject’s experiences. Please provide a short – 2-3 sentences – annotation for each source, regarding how you see each source connected to your subject. You can find the sources through the library. These must be sources that are NOT listed in this syllabus. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu

6

2/21-2/27

Order on the Court – the Campaign to suppress women’s basketball

Cahn, Chapter 4, pp. 83-109

7

2/28-3/6

“Cinderellas” of Sport; Black Women in Track and field

Cahn, Chapter 5, pp. 110-139


Midterm Quiz – will cover Weeks 2 –7 Take online 3/6 anytime before 11:59pm

8

3/7-3/13

No Freaks, No Amazons, No Boyish Bobs: The All-American Girls Baseball League

Cahn, Chapter 6, pp. 140-163

Film “A League of their Own” (1 DVD copy on reserve at

American history homework help

Movie Paper Assignment Information

Students will complete a “Movie Reaction Essay” during the semester. For the paper, the student will:

View a movie from the list distributed by the instructor in D2L depicting events during the scope of the course, then write a 4-5 page paper analyzing the movie as history by addressing the following points:

1. Briefly describe the plot of the movie in 2-2½ pages;

2. Determine whether the movie portrayed the events depicted accurately or not, making sure to give examples of which parts of the movie were accurate and which parts of the movie were not accurate (there are many sites on the Internet that review the historical accuracy of movies, so consult one or more of them for this section of the paper);

3. Determine if and where the director of the movie took “poetic license” with the facts to make the movie more interesting or exciting;

4. Brainstorm where you think the authors/director of the movie obtained the information on which the movie is based; and

5. Explain how you think the movie can be used to teach or enhance the learning of history. 

For the assignment, prepare a paper that is well-written and answers all parts of the assignment. A cover page is needed; put your name, cite the movie viewed, including the title of the movie, the director, and the year of release on the cover page and in the Works Cited page. You should have at least one (1) in-text citation of a reference or references for any works you consulted writing the paper. You should have a “Works Cited” page (a separate page) with at least one reference other than the citation for the movie from which you obtained your information. Make sure the margins are 1” all around and that you include page numbers. The student will be allowed to resubmit the paper once for a better grade. 

Upload the paper to Dropbox in D2L. Submission deadline for the paper is April 15, 2022.

Once the professor posts the list of approved movies on D2L, students may propose other full length movies depicting events or people who lived during the time period for the assignment, but the proposal must be made at least 2 weeks before the due date to give the instructor the opportunity to view the movie to determine whether or not the movie may be used for the assignment.

American history homework help

· Introduction

1. Generally includes some background information

2. Introduces the sub-topics that will be discussed in your essay

3. Thesis statement

· Main heading / idea of paragraph #1

1. Supporting detail 1

2. Supporting detail 2

3. Supporting detail 3

· Main heading / idea of paragraph #2

1. Supporting detail 1

2. Supporting detail 2

3. Supporting detail 3

· Main heading / idea of paragraph #3

1. Supporting detail 1

2. Supporting detail 2

3. Supporting detail 3

· Conclusion

1. Summarizes your essay

American history homework help

American History 104



Writing Assignment 2

Topic: Describe the development of the cold war from the end of WWII up to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.  (Do not include anything about the Cuban Missile Crisis or any cold war events after that time.)

Here are the requirements:

Cover page with title and name

A minimum of 800 words of text (not including cover page, or reference page) 

In-text citations or footnotes 

1 primary source used and cited in text

Reference page

ALSO FOLLOW WRITING GUIDELINES IN SYLLABUS!!

· Use 1″ margins on all sides.

· Use only 12pt type in a standard font.

· Always double-space (except in block quotations of 4 or more lines).

· Do not leave blank spaces between paragraphs.

· Indent every paragraph.

· Avoid very long (1 page) and very short (1-2 sentence) paragraphs.

· Avoid slang expressions (e.g., ‘back in the day’).

· Introduce all direct quotations:  (ex. Thomas Jefferson, when third president of the United States, said:)  or (John Smith, in his book World at War, wrote:)

· All book titles must be underlined or italicized (not both – be consistent).

· Correct all common spelling and typographical

·

·

·

·

· You must use one primary source as a reference for each writing assignment.  Indicate which is your primary resource on the reference page.  There are no requirements regarding secondary sources.  (If you look to the left you will see a tab explaining the differences between primary and secondary sources.)

· Formatting is required to follow the Chicago Manual of Style and Usage, which is online.  Look it up and use it!

·

·

·

·

American

H

istory

104

Writing

Assignment

2

Topic:

Describe

the

development

of

the

cold

war

from

the

end

of

WWII

up

to

the

Cuban

Missile

Crisis

in

1962.

(Do

not

include

anything

about

the

Cuban

Missile

Crisis

or

any

cold

war

events

after

that

time.)

Here

are

the

requirements:

Cover

page

with

title

and

na

me

A

minimum

of

800

words

of

text

(not

including

cover

page,

or

reference

page)

In

text

citations

or

footnotes

1

primary

source

used

and

cited

in

text

Reference

page

ALSO

FOLLOW

WRITING

GUIDELINES

IN

SYLLABUS!!

·

Use

1

margins

on

all

sides.

·

Use

only

12pt

type

in

a

standard

font.

·

Always

double

space

(except

in

block

quotations

of

4

or

more

lines).

·

Do

not

leave

blank

spaces

between

paragraphs.

·

Indent

every

paragraph.

·

Avoid

very

long

(1

page)

and

very

short

(1

2

sentence)

paragraphs.

·

Avoid

slang

expressions

(e.g.,

‘back

in

the

day’).

·

Introduce

all

direct

quotations:

(ex.

Thomas

Jefferson,

when

third

president

of

the

United

States,

said:)

or

(John

Smith,

in

his

book

Wo

rld

at

War,

wrote:)

American History 104

Writing Assignment 2

Topic: Describe the development of the cold war from the end of WWII

up to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. (Do not include anything

about the Cuban Missile Crisis or any cold war events after that time.)

Here are the requirements:

Cover page with title and name

A minimum of 800 words of text (not including cover page, or

reference page)

In-text citations or footnotes

1 primary source used and cited in text

Reference page

ALSO FOLLOW WRITING GUIDELINES IN SYLLABUS!!

 Use 1″ margins on all sides.

 Use only 12pt type in a standard font.

 Always double-space (except in block quotations of 4 or more

lines).

 Do not leave blank spaces between paragraphs.

 Indent every paragraph.

 Avoid very long (1 page) and very short (1-2 sentence) paragraphs.

 Avoid slang expressions (e.g., ‘back in the day’).

 Introduce all direct quotations: (ex. Thomas Jefferson, when third

president of the United States, said:) or (John Smith, in his book

World at War, wrote:)

American history homework help

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Early Industrialization (1) – 1

Early Industrialization
part 1

First Country in History

Americans industrialized their economy in the 1800s by learning and applying the self-
sustaining growth of capitalism.

Great Britain, though, was the first country to industrialize beginning in the late 1700s. This
means the British were the first to create the self-sustaining growth of capitalism. No other
country in history had previously understood and applied technology to increase productivity to
create wealth the way Great Britain began to do in the late 1700s. More wealth meant a higher
standard of living – economic progress.

Textiles – the weaving of fabric, often to make clothes – was the first business to industrialize.
This business was often called “cotton manufacture” because it manufactured cotton textiles.
The key technology in early industrialization was James Watt’s Steam Engine (1769).

Energy & Energy Transitions

Let’s pause here to make sure we understand the importance of the steam engine.

Energy is key to economic development. Creating efficient energy enables a society to produce
valuable goods and services. Remember, a society has to produce value before it can consume
value. Societies which create and use efficient energy experience progress. They go from
underdeveloped to developing, or developing to developed.

The steam engine was a more efficient way of producing energy. It represented an energy
transition from wood to coal – it burned coal to create energy. An energy transition means a
society goes from depending on one kind of energy to increasingly using another, more efficient
energy. The following points help us understand what an energy transition is:

• Energy transitions are long, usually occurring over significant time. The steam engine was
developed over the course of about a century. Early versions appeared around 1700 and
inventors continued to improve the technology over time. James Watt continued to
improve his 1769 version, which is why you might see different dates for his steam engine.

• An energy transition does not mean that the older form of energy stops being used
completely, especially not in just a generation or two. Rather, a transition means as
technology helps create a more efficient way of producing energy, the new form of energy
is gradually used more and the older form of energy is gradually used less. The older form,
though, continues to be used for a long time, as both newer and older forms of energy
coexist to provide society’s energy needs.

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Early Industrialization (1) – 2

• Energy transitions are complex. They involve how tens or hundreds of millions of people
throughout society produce and use energy. Transitions thus occur gradually. Some in
society begin to try newer forms of energy while still using older forms. If the newer forms
work – provide more efficient energy at lower costs – then more will begin trying the newer
form of energy over time.

• Energy transitions are a bottom-up process. This means that successful transitions are
usually not simply the result of new laws passed by government (top-down). Rather,
successful transitions are usually the result of millions of people experimenting with what
kinds of energy provide efficiency and at what cost (bottom-up). Finding this better
efficiency at lower cost is a process of discovery. It cannot simply be commanded.

• Keep the above points in mind when we discuss other energy transitions in later lectures,
such as the transition from coal to oil in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This transition was
important, but even to this day the older form of energy – coal – continues to be used to
produce electricity; just less coal is used because of energy transitions.

• Today the United States is undergoing an energy transition from oil to natural gas. The
increasing use of natural gas is a major reason our CO₂ emissions have decreased since the
turn of the 21st century.

So the energy transition from wood to coal began around 1700 and increased with James
Watt’s Steam Engine in 1769. The steam engine powered textile machines like Edmund
Cartwright’s Power Loom (1785) to massively increase productivity in textile manufacturing.

Yet the steam engine not only increased productivity in manufacturing – producing more in less
time – but also increased productivity in transportation – faster transportation. Steam-powered
ships (steamboats) and steam-powered locomotives (railroads) emerged in the 1800s.

Second Country in History

The United States was the second country to industrialize beginning in the early 1800s. It was
the second country to apply technology to increase productivity to create wealth – the self-
sustaining growth of capitalism.

As in Great Britain, the technology of the steam engine was key. Americans used the steam
engine to increase productivity in textile manufacturing and in transportation, both of which led
to a boom in the iron and coal industries.

• Let’s repeat that. Try to visualize how new technology creates a web of economic
development.

• As the new technology of the steam engine increased productivity in manufacturing and
transportation, it increased economic development in other industries such as iron and
coal. This idea of new technology creating a web of economic development is repeated in
later industrialization and in post-industrial society, which we’ll discuss in later lectures.

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Early Industrialization (1) – 3

• Below are examples of this web of economic development in early industrialization, from
text manufacturing and transportation, to the iron and coal industries.

Textile Manufacturing:

• In 1813, Boston merchants established the Boston Manufacturing Company. They built a
factory in Waltham, Massachusetts which used the technology of steam-powered
machinery to increase productivity in textile manufacturing.

• Within fifteen years, hundreds of textile mills spread throughout the Northeast.

• Emerging with the textile industry was the machine-tool industry. Machine-tool workers
built the textile factories and “serviced” them by fixing the machinery when it broke down.

Transportation:

• Increased productivity in transportation – faster transportation – began when the inventor
Robert Fulton introduced the commercial steamboat to navigate up the Hudson River in
1807. The use of the steamboat quickly spread to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to ship
goods across large parts of the United States. See maps of these rivers here and here.

o The rivers were natural waterways. Americans also built canals for steamboat shipping.
The Erie Canal was finished in 1825, and connected Albany to Buffalo. See the Erie Canal
here.

o Since Albany was connected to New York City via the Hudson River, and Buffalo was tied
to the Great Lakes and the Old Northwest, the Erie Canal linked the east and the emerging
mid-west. See those links here. By 1840, Americans had built more than 3,000 miles of
canals.

• Increased productivity in transportation continued with the building of railroads for steam-
powered locomotives.

o By the 1830s, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) stretched seventy-three miles west
of Baltimore and the Charleston Railroad went over one hundred miles west of
Charleston, S.C.

o By the 1840s, Boston had three railroads connecting it to western Massachusetts and the
nation had more than 3,000 miles of railroad tracks.

o By the 1850s, the nation had more than 30,000 miles of track, connecting Philadelphia to
Pittsburgh, New York City to Chicago. See maps here and here.

Iron & Coal Industries – The Web of Economic Development

• The steam engine and the railroads were made of iron. So the iron industry – mining and
refining iron – expanded dramatically to provide enough iron to make the engines and the
railroad tracks.

• The coal industry also expanded dramatically since it was the natural resource the steam
engine burned to create energy.

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Early Industrialization (1) – 4

This web of economic development all stemmed from the new technology of an energy
transition – the Steam Engine (wood to coal). The steam engine increased productivity in
manufacturing and transportation, and led to a boom in the iron and coal industries.

Great Britain and the United States led the way in this economic development of early
industrialization. These two countries went from underdeveloped to developing economies. But
as we’ll see in the next lecture, this process of economic development was not just one
dimensional. It included what economists call “creative destruction.”

American history homework help

2. Bank run at New York’s American Union Bank during The Great Depression.2

2 Photo courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives Identifier 12573155.

3

00_HEW_21612_Text.indd 3 6/12/18 5:36 PM

American history homework help

Name: ___________________________________ Date: ___________


The Three Close Reads Worksheet

Directions: Before you read, look at the “Pay Attention to” and “Questions” columns. Write your answers in the third column.

Article/Chapter Title: _______________________________________________________________

Article/Chapter Author: _____________________________________________________________

Overall question or idea to think about as you read:

Read 1: Capturing Gist

This reading is more of a skim—it should help you get the general idea of the reading.

Pay attention to…

Questions

Your answers

Title and headings

What is this article/Chapter going to be about?

Images, image captions, graphs, tables

How do these add to your idea of what the article/Chapter is going to be about?

Read 2: Key Ideas – Factual

In this read, you will pay attention to the information that most helps you understand the article.

Pay attention to…

Questions

Your answers

Vocabulary

Are there words you don’t know or recognize? Underline or write down each of the words.

Then use the dictionary to look up 3-5 of them.

Major Claim


What is the main idea of this article? This could be a thesis statement or the primary focus of the article.

Analysis and Evidence

What evidence does the author use that supports or extends the main idea? Provide 2-3 examples.

Read 3: Thinking Bigger

The third reading is really about understanding how the article relates to the unit driving question or other questions and ideas from the course.

Pay attention to…

Questions

Your answers

Support

What from this chapter confirmed what you already knew about the unit driving question, or the question or idea you thought about as you read?

Extend

In what ways did this Chapter deepen your thinking about the unit driving question, or the question or idea you thought about as you read?

This article added to my understanding of … by…

Challenge

How did this Chapter change or challenge your thinking the unit driving question, or the question or idea you thought about as you read?

At first, I thought… now, I think…, or, My thinking on… changed when…

American history homework help

WRITING ASSIGNMENT # 2A: American Imperialism

In the late nineteenth century, the United States showed a heightened interest in establishing an overseas empire. The example of European nations and Japan, which were seizing colonies in Asia and Africa, stimulated this expansionism. As a result, America’s territorial boundaries will extend beyond its borders, and its territory will include colonial possessions.

INSTRUCTIONS:

In order to prepare you must complete the following readings:

· Review and identify the sections of Chapter 21 that address the topics that are relevant to this essay.

· Read the linked articles and use at least one of them for your essay to support your discussion:

·

1.
Henry Cabot Lodge
on expansionism

2.
New York Herald Tribune
on the War and yellow press

3.
De Lôme Letter
transcript

4.
Platt Amendment 1903
transcript

· Identify and incorporate at least one additional outside source to support your discussion. In addition to the textbook, you may use any material outside of the textbook that is recommended in the Additional Reading section at the end of each chapter. You are also encouraged to do your own research and identify relevant sources. Please keep in mind that WIKIPEDIA is not an acceptable reference.

PREPARE AND SUBMIT:

Write a well-organized essay, a minimum of 700 words (but not limited to), including supporting details from the documents/textbook/other sources, in which you analyze the assigned readings and address the following question:

Discuss the economic, strategic, and ideological factors that contributed to American interest in overseas expansion in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and how the U. S. achieved this expansion. As part of your analysis and discussion identify the arguments of both critics and supporters of imperialism, evaluating, and explaining who had the strongest arguments.

Reminders

· Use Microsoft WORD to write the essays. The acceptable submission file types are .doc, .docx, and .rtf.

· Prepare the assignment as a Word Document, double-spaced, and using a standard font of 12 points.

· Paragraphs in an essay are not numbered. Any questions that are associated with an assigned reading are there to serve as a guide for your discussion.

· Your discussion should incorporate all of the information from the documents and or textbook, and outside sources as one essay.

· Students are required to research and incorporate into their discussions additional sources that relate to the content. Recommendations can be found at the end of the textbook chapter in Additional Reading.

· All statements must be supported and all sources must be identified and cited, and included in your reference list. This also applies to the textbook. Failure to do so constitutes Plagiarism, and the college has strict policies and penalties for failure to comply. Under the Resources,  you will find links to sites that review how to format a paper or essay. I recommend that students use APA or Chicago Style to format their essay. Students should ask their instructor which format style they prefer you to use.

· Proofread your work. Make sure that you have looked for all of the spelling and grammatical errors and corrected them, and that you have organized your work into coherent paragraphs.

American history homework help

1

Discussion Board

Name

Course

Institution

Date

Topic 2. The outbreak of the Great Depression which crippled the nation and in many ways brought it to the brink of collapse

Which of these three historical processes do you believe was the most important for the development of modern America as we know it today?

When teaching about American history it is crucial to note that The United States is considered a global economic powerhouse due to its various abilities. For example, the country was able to significantly raise its economic and political influence after the second world war, unlike other European powers. This new rise of the United States of America shaped the global political and economic status quo that is still felt today. When we talk about the United States of America as an economic and political powerhouse, we also have to look back past the first and second world wars. Other events such as the civil war led to a changed perception towards the rebuilding of the country. after the civil war, the country embarked on a serious campaign to rebuild its abilities and strengths through the great reconstruction. This period can be considered the initial initiation of America as a global economic and major political player. However, most of the country’s current influences in the local and global sphere were heavily redefined after the first world war. In the mid-1930s, Europe and the United States of America experienced what is termed as the great depression. This was a period of significant economic collapse in most major European powers, including Britain, Germany, France, and the United States of America. These countries experienced challenging situations that affected their ability to continue harnessing production factors, leading to massive job losses and financial breakdowns. From the period of the great depression, the United States of America began to consider its future abilities in global governance seriously. By enacting critical practices such as protectionist policies, the after math of the great depression is considered one of the significant moments of reckoning in American history.

After the great depression had hit the United States of America and other European countries, there was adopted protectionist policies. According to Constitution Rights Foundation (2017), the period preceding the great depression stands out as when the country began to implement certain policies that we continue to enjoy today. These implementations were after some of the failures of the previous governments in preventing the economy from facing a period of gigantic economic fallouts and fumbles. For instance, one of the major causes of the depression in the country was the reliance and usage of standard gold. This process meant that the country’s legal tender had no significant value compared with other economies. For example, when arguing on some of the major implications of the country’s financial stability, it was difficult to distinguish a significant difference between America and a country say Britain. this aspect meant that when the British economy fell, the American one was also on the brink of collapse. To counter this problem, president Franklyn Roosevelt believed that liberalization of the economy was the only best way. This process meant that it was critical to protect the country’s industrial capability to strengthen the dollar. Through adopting protectionist policies, the country saw a significant increase in the employment rate. This was because more industries saw the need to absorb the citizens. Secondly, the protectionist policies meant that the country would also be self-reliant and be distinguished from other European players like Britain. The protection of the American citizens ensured that industries could supply materials to other countries. for instance, it was through these policies that the country was able to rise significantly during the ensuing second world war. The United States of America played a significant role in supplying weapons and other materials to the different fronts giving the country an upper hand over its European counterparts. This upper hand is what came to shape the country’s strength after the great war up to the present day.

References

Constitution Rights Foundation (2017). What caused the great depression and why did recovery take so long? https://www.crf-usa.org/images/t2t/pdf/GreatDepressionandRecovery.pdf

American history homework help

cffAPTER 9

Building Connnunities in the World
War II and Postwar Era

During the post-World War II era, Puerto Ricans and ethnic Mexicans conrinued thtir
community building efforts and sought to claim recognition and Juli rights in U.S.
society. Latinalo activism surged as veterans felt entitled to demand full demw,tii
and citizenship rights at home efter fighting for .freedom abroad. Returning Gls joinicl
civil rights activists to press for educational, legal, and voting reforms that would remove
the barriers that made Latinas and Latinos second-class citizens. Latinas addressed

th
e

issues _confronting their children, communities, and neighborhoods in public, ~oc<l, ,nd
organized ways. Youth continued to assert their oum identities and increasingly

tht
U

own definitions of citizenship and belonging, fonning their oum groups during
th
o

. Y’.t the patriotism of the war era and the domestic cold war that emerged i_•.
th

era.

R
immediate aftermath of World War II chanaed the context of Latina/o actwis_~~

ampant antic · 0
1

t of1.c1aP

h
ommunism squelched the radical activism of 19 3 Os, as governmen ~· 1•1i-

soug t to weed out “com . II :I d me po i ciansfianned th munists and “communist sympathizers,” an as so ·atiotl•
e flames offiear h I’ •1 b associ Hearinas and t . l I ur mg accusations of disloyalty and gut t Y I t their

0
na s were held T, h d thers os

jobs. Labor unio d · eac ers, government employees, an ° ‘d red too ns an commu ‘t . . . b const e
“leftist.

11
Some Lat’

1
ni Y organizations purged mem ers the pres·

ina o groups b d to
sures of the times t ,r, were conservative while others succutn e

• . 0 COl!Jorm politicall .
1

• Still, by invoking t . . y d equabfY,
Latinos and Latinas hi ~~-r:tism and American ideals of democracy an 011erseas
when democracy had n tgb ig ted the contradictions o+fi.,ahting for democrac)’ ral cottl’

. 0 een fully h ·
1 0 Seve if’ 11 munity organizations d ac ieved at home in the United States, / re oft . gra ually b . t [ibera r

met with official intran . ecame radicalized as their initial efforts a post1J/a

P
. sigence and . fi es on . ns

uerto Rican and Me • racist opposition This chanter ocus fi .,Jat
10

fi h
. xican Ame • · r ‘d h oUr•

or t e social movements oif th ncan community activism, which lat t e
e 1960s and 1970s.

276

r
NG COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR ERA 13lJ!LDI

277

cVMENTS
~E9—– . .
1 bans, Puerto Ricans, and Mexican Arnericans, the years after W odd

for Cu bri·dged long-established communities with
1
·nc d . .

II rease migration War h 1950s. In Document 1, Afro-Cuban Melb Al d h
·n t e . . . . a vara o s ares Jurt gfl tions with historian Nancy Raquel Mirabal in a

1995
• .

re ec y k c· , Interview.
h” do describes New or Ity s Pan-Latino cornrnunities and relations
iJvara white Cubans and Afro-Cubans, hinting at shifts Wrought b th b tween d . d . y e
e Revolution an mcrease migration. In Document 2 p t Ri Cuban . . , . . , uer o can
. . n Virgm1a Sanchez Korrol Writes autobiographically about grow· h1stona Sh d . Ing

. the South Bronx . e epicts the strengths of the Puerto Rican
up

10

unity prior to W odd War II, the irnpact of the massive postwar migra-
‘°:”‘and how both rnorivated her to becorne an early chronicler of the
‘°~unity’s history. Documents 3 and 4 highlight the contradictions that co . . d
Mexican American veterans experience . Document 3, a 1949 New York
Times article, reveals the refusal of a Texas funeral parlor to provide services
for a Mexican American veteran and the intervention of then-Senator
Lyndon Johnson to secure his burial with full military honors in Arlington
National Cemetery. The photograph in Document 4 depicts an American
GI Forum float in a Veterans Day parade in Dodge City, Kansas. Demon-
strating veterans’ pride, the American GI Forum promoted education and
equal educational opportunity, as part of the broader activism to assure full
citizenship. Document 5, a 1951 Los Angeles Times article, reveals the domes-
tic cold war context and language that set the stage for public debates and
activism. Here, opponents equate public housing with “socialism.”
Document 6 is an excerpt from Puerto Rican scholar Andres Torres’ mem-
oir. Depicting a scene on a New York City subway in 1960, he reveals both
the challenges his deaf family confronted and the pride with which they
challenged bias individually as incidents arose and collectively through a
“UUnunity group. In Document 7, Puerto Rican activist Antonia Pantoja
~escnbes the founding of ASPIRA in 1961 as her most important contnbu-
tion ASP · 1 . rk

· IRA promotes education and equal educationa opportumty, 1 e the L . . h 1 •unencan GI Forum, indicating the importance t at postwar groups Paced on d . . ..
e ucational issues and activism.

I.
40

-Cuban Melba Alvarado Describes Relations between
s· ‘White Cubans and Afro-Cubans, 1940s to 1961
IOcq · h I [l
9
]4o came, 1 lived in Manhattan in 113th and Fifth Avenue until t e eary

~\>enu~ a
nd th

en, We moved to the Bronx because we bought a house on Prospect ••,

~~&o kc·
illinte . 30–31 1995 New Yor 1ty. l’VJ.ew With Melba Alvarado by Nancy Raquel Miraba1,July ‘ ‘

278 P
ROBLEMS IN L MAJOR

ATINA/0 HISTORY

Am rican Cuban Club] is, this 1 b [Inter- e · All . h where the c u · ce environment. the [B] hind this ouse . . t was a very m ,, h l
. . . e full of jasnunes, 1 11 “town houses w ere a ot

avenue was all trees 1 t of houses that they ca pretty houses and after
houses, there werhe al.~e lived. They had somhe ve~ were being torn down,

f H brew and t e 1 of the ouse f S
o e d to change. Some f h using and a lot o axons they starte d h type o o . .
the war the projects an ot er d t ansform into a H1spamc and then there were . hb h od and it starte to r

d from the ne1g or o
move . · particularly neighborhood…. there were already H1span1cs_, …

Wh I Came to the Bronx, Th e were still a lot of other ffi li~oow. cr
Cubans … but . . . not as many 1 H ‘ nic the ones that have come more . ‘ almost complete y ispa ‘ nationalities but now it s 1 f 1 r

. d Am . peop e o co o .. .. “d
are Hisparucs an encan . That’s what there was. Over own-

There were a lot of Puerto Ricans. .c. t to 102nd and Madison
f S · d I 01ten wen town ” there were a lot o paruar . s. . . . Gali . tarted this was further

, . h 1 b R rt no Casa oa, s ‘
where the Sparus c u ‘ epe o h h al s been more of a Puerto
down. Over here towards the Bronx, t ere as way

Rican environment…. . · Ii d [T]here
yes that was the neighborhood where a lot of Hlsparucs ve · · · · L

‘1 t of Cubans in the Lenox Avenue neighborhood …. [T]here was a
were a o • · , h h and
Milagrosa Church, 114th and Seventh. That was th~ ;11spamcs urc ,
they gave the mass of each of the Hispanic countnes patron samts .. • • And
there were a lot of Cubans, . . . and a lot of Cubans of color too. . . . .

The white Cuban lived in the upper part of Manhattan ….
I don’t know what to tell you about the separation [ of white Cubans and

Cubans of color], it’s that I had some very sad experiences those years, for
example in the beginning of the 60s. When I came to this country, there
was a woman named Julia Martinez, who was of color, who started to orga-
nize the mass of charity with other Cubans. And at the time, when I came to
this country, they gave the mass in La Milagrosa, in 114th Street and Seventh
Avenue. Back then I remember that it was an enormous hierarchy because a
person of color who was a great musician, Alberto Socarras, played the flute
and then the mass did not start until the Cuban consul, Quezada, arrived with
his feathered hat a.nd then mass started …. Everyone went to the masses. But
they were organized by a woman of color and a group that she had, and I also
helped her. And then it turned out that with time and the like, well it turned
out that this woman moved to Cuba and a woman who worked in the church
said to me, “Melba you have to become in charge of the masses.” I was always
in charge of the masses. And at that time, well, then the Cubans started to
come migrating, and the propaganda started that the real life of charity was
on 156th [Street] in La Esperanza church. And the whites began masses on
156th [Street] in La Esperanza church and then the blacks over there on
114th and Seventh Avenue. And it became divided. The priests became very
upset because it had already become divided and it stopped being the masses
that they were before ….

This thing came about around [nineteen]-sixty or sixty-one, in the time of
the revolution, when the migration started to come.

I

BUILDiNG COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR ERA 279

2. Puerto Rican Historian Virginia Sanchez Korrol
Recalls Her “Intellectual Journey,” 1940s to 1971

The sixth-floor, walkup apartment in the South Bronx represented the c;:enter of
my universe. On that warm, spring-like day the world was close to war, but this
factor had a minimum effect on the sweetness of life at that very moment. Fol-
lowing the customary morning routine, a breakfast of buttered bread and warm
milk laced with coffee, I sat beside my mother on the red, crushed velvet sofa set
opposite tall twin windows that overlooked the neighboring tenement rooftops.
The scarlet cushion fabric rubbed against the backs of my legs, making me itch
and I gently shuilled my calves from side to side. “lQue dice, Marni? lQue
dice?” I repeated with four-year-old persistence …. A slight hesitation, then con-
centrating on the page before her, [my mother] slowly related the comic strip
antics of Archie and Veronica, and then Dagwood and Blondie. Gradually,
index finger pointing the way, she reached my favorite-Little Lulu. She read
in measured, heavily accented English, pronouncing each syllable as surely her
third grade teacher in Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, had taught her to do.

If mother and I fully comprehended the funnies’ alien words, harsh-sounding
linguistic obstacles that conveyed a popular pastime in American culture, I cannot
remember for sure. But what was clearly evident was that the cultural lessons I was
determined to unlock in that foreign tongue held not an inkling of my own peo-
ple’s proud heritage. It would distance me for a long time from developing an
appreciation for the connections between ancestral women on distant shores and
those who, like me, would reach maturity in diaspora.

With time and a zealous Catholic school education, I became proficient in the
English language. The written word flooded into my home via magazines, news-
papers, and the treasured comic books my father salvaged while cleaning out the
trains that came into Pennsylvania Station. Before my tenth birthday, small sister in
tow, I would barge into the local public library hauling off every book within the
limits of my restricted children’s card. And while I reveled in this newly discovered
world of words and wisdom, heroic adventures, time travel, distressed damsels, and
foreign lands, not one book ever told me about me.

It was precisely because experiences like mine were common among the
children of the pioneer migrant generation of Puerto Ricans who came to live
in New York City during the twenties and thirties that heritage and education
Were of prime concern in pre-W odd War II communities ….

• . . At the age of seven I was enrolled in the local parochial school. . . . Private
schooling was made possible through my mother’s sacrifices; her careful squirreling
away of nickels and dimes made me feel guilty when I did not perform well.
Beyond the protection of the home and familiar barrio streets, my initial encoun-
ters with ethnic diversity and multiculturalism happened in this school and opened
new horizons. Before I realized it, I was “being raised” Irish Catholic!

–~rom Memories and Migrations: Mapping Boric~a and Ch(cana Histories . . CoRyright ~008 by the Board of
rustees of the University of Illinois. Used with perrruss10n of the Uruversity of Illinms Press.

l
I

j!

I

280 MAJ OR P R O BLEM S IN LATINA /O HI STORY

It happened almost automatically when you attended St. Anselm’s Roman
Catholic School in the South Bronx, at the dawning of the great population shifts
from Puerto Rico to New York City .. .. St. Anselm’s . . ·. boasted a _predominantly
Irish American student population, a smaller concentratlon of Italian Americans
and an even less significant smattering of Puerto Ricans. Nurturing Irish antece~
dents and catering to a more established immigrant community, the school culti-
vated close ties to the old country and culture through its many activities ….

. . . [T]he children the nuns taught ensured cultural and spiritual bonds between
Ireland and America for decades to come …. I admired the tenacity of a people who
so fiercely resisted acculturation. Engaged in the national business of Americaniza-
tion, replete with civic duties, English-language dominance, democratic values, and
worthy founding fathers , these teachers still remembered how to infuse pride in the
“Old World” heritage. And so at some level I must have internalized the notion
that you didn’t have to give up one identity in order to assume another-that both
strands could coexist without conflict. That understanding, however, would not
manifest itself until I was much older.

Contradictions abounded for me and other Puerto Rican youngsters caught in an
assimilationist one-way street. For the teachers and admirristrators, many of whom had
not encountered a cohort of non-English-speaking youngsters in the classroom since
the great immigrations of the early twentieth century, Puerto Rican children were
virtually invisible; their rich multicultural and multiracial history, language, life-cycle
commemorations, ritual kinships, and affirming institutions were inconsequential.
Hundreds of Puerto Rican children became casualties of an Americanizing cultural
onslaught that, coupled with intense wartime patriotism, absorbed them into a
national ideal that promoted equality yet maintained a colonial stranglehold on
Puerto Rico and sanctioned ethno-racial divisions on its own shores. Throughout
those formative years I finnly embraced the American dream even as a nagging inner
voice vacillated between my public and private beings …. For most of my generation
who experienced this painful dilemma, survival would rest on selective adaptation; the
ability to pick and choose cultural elements from both cultures, blending “American”
and Puerto Rican ways of being into something unique called U.S . Puerto Rican,
Boricua, or Nuyorican. But it was, nevertheless, a rough job for a kid . . ..

In spite of the dedication of a few Puerto Rican professionals, by the time I
entered high school in the mid-fifties, stereotypical attitudes and distortions about
Puerto Ricans had increased. Almost from the first discemable Puerto Rican
presence in the United States, articles reeked with negative portrayals of our
communities.. . . Throughout the forties and fifties, the media referred to the
group as the “Puerto Rican problem.” . ..

[N]egative and controversial writings titillated a reading public eager to believe the
worst about the group . For young Puerto Ricans grappling with identity and self-
worth, one of the most damaging was Oscar Lewis’s l..,a Vida . I borrowed a copy
from the library and felt its portrayal of Puerto Ricans, especially women, was insulting.
Touted as an objective anthropological study, it overgeneralized both the island and
diasporic realities from the experiences of one poor extended family engaged in prosti-
tution …. Despite claims of impartial scholarship, Lewis studied a small sample and used
a San Juan ghetto, the city’s unofficial red-light district, as a representative site . . . .

BUILDING COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR ERA 281

Without doubt, such pervasive negativity affected the schooling of young
Puerto Ricans . . ..

. . . Absence from the curriculum, historical invisibility, negative stereotypes,
and low teacher expectations meant that if I wanted to continue my education,
to strive for that elusive American dream, I had to fight for it every step of the
way . … I confronted the senior guidance counselors on the day before gradua-
tion …. Preferring to comment on my “poor choice” of lipstick color, the coun-
selors condescendingly informed me about the existence of a free city university
system with a campus right there in . . . Brooklyn.. . . Left to research college
admissions on my own, . . . I nonetheless became the first in the family to
attend .. .. By the time I earned the baccalaureate degree, a mere 1 percent of
the graduating classes of the entire CUNY system were Puerto Rican.

My first impression of Brooklyn College, nestled in what seemed to me a
bucolic oasis that defied its urban location, was everything I could hope for . …
Nonetheless, obstacles appeared at every turn. My bosses in the factory where I
worked as a bookkeeper would have preferred that I dedicate all my time to
their business, and “What are you going to college for? You’ll only get married
anyway” became a constant refrain. Few of my neighborhood friends were in
school, so there was no one who could understand what I was doing. In time,
I became socially and intellectually distant from family and_ friends as I struggled
to open unknown paths for myself. . ..

. . . I soon discovered the hallowed halls were neither immune from the
ethno-racial prejudice of the period nor eager to question social science
dogma. In retrospect, I found it difficult to reconcile a nurturing home, the
hub of an extended family, and community with social science rhetoric that
frequently reinforced a notion of Puerto Rican downward mobility. The per-
vasive invisibility of anything Latino silently echoed its very absence through-
out my education. I was drawn to piecing together evidence to counteract
negative Puerto Rican images in the literature ….

[In 1971] I sought admission to graduate studies in the History Department
at the State University of New York at Stony Brook with a well-defined agenda
in mind: to tell the story of the New York Puerto Rican community from my
parents’ pioneering generation to the present, to set straight the historical record,
and to ensure that Puerto Ricans would forever find themselves in the national
narrative …. And so began my intellectual journey into the study of Puerto
Ricans, Latin Americans, and U.S. Latinos ….

3. Mexican-American GI Denied Burial in Texas, 1949
WASHINGTON, Jan. 12-A soldier’s funeral and burial were arranged today
by the Government of the United States for Felix Longoria, late private, Infantry,
Anny of the United States, who died in action on Luzon in the Philippines.

–F;om_ the New York Times, January 13, 1949 © 1949 The New York Times . All rights reseived . l!se~ by
p Illl.!ssion and protected by he Copyright Laws of the United States. The pnntmg, copymg, red1stnbu-
tion, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission 1s prohibited.

I

I

,j

l I
282 MAJOR PROBLEMS IN LATINA / O HISTORY

He will receive full military honors, in Arlington National Cemetery, where
lie some of the more illustrious dead … •

Private Longoria’s widow, Beatrice, and such ofh~s friends_as live in his little
town of Three Rivers, Tex., had reported some difficulty m having funeral
services there for him.

Dr. Hector P. Garcia informed Senator Lyndon D. Johnson of Texas, in
fact, that the manager of the one undertaking parlor in T_hree Rivers had refused
the use of his facilities with the explanation: “Other white people object to the
use of the funeral home by people of Mexican origin.”

Dr. Garcia is president of a veterans’ organization known as the American GI
Forum.

“In our estimation,” he telegraphed to Senator Johnson, “this action in
Three Rivers is in direct contradiction of those same principles for which this
American soldier made the supreme sacrifice in giving his life for his country
and for the same people who now deny him the last funeral rites deserving of
any American hero regardless of his origin.”

Mr. Johnson telephoned to old friends in South Texas and, he said, found
that the case in its substance had been correctly reported. As a member of the
Senate Armed Services Committee he got in touch with the high military
authorities and made arrangements for a different sort of burial.

He sent then to Dr. Garcia a telegram of his own, which said in part:
“I deeply regret to learn that the prejudice of some individuals extends even

beyond this life.
“I have no authority over civilian funeral homes, nor does the Federal

Government.”
“However, I have today made arrangements to have Felix Longoria

reburied with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery here at
Washington where the honored dead of our nation’s wars rest. Or, if his family
prefers to have his body interred nearer his home, he can be reburied at Fort
Sam Houston National Military Cemetery at San Antonio (Tex.). There will
be no cost.”

Mr. Johnson then asked Private Longoria’s widow to indicate her preference
“before his body is unloaded from an Army transport at San Francisco on Jan . 13.”

Mrs. Beatrice Longoria, in a telegram to the Senator, then closed these exchanges.
“Hun:1-bly grateful,” she said, “for your kindness in my hour of humiliation

and. suffenng. Gladly accept your offer for reburial of my husband at Arlington
National Cemetery. Please arrange for direct shipment to Washington . Forever
grateful for your kindness.” …

_Private Longo~a was born on April 19, 1919. He began active military
service on the anmversary of an old armistice, Nov. 11, 1944. He fell less
than a year later-on June 16 1945 in the last mo th f · · h phiJi· · es . . ‘ , n s o action m t e ppm ·
This 1s all that could be learned from the w D d il ble
h

ar epartment recor s ava a
ere.

“I am _sorry,” Mr. Johnson said, “about the funeral home at Three Rivers.
But there 1s, after all, a fine national funeral h h h ·
sort, out at Arlington.” ome, t oug of a rather different

BUILDING COMMUNITI A
ES IN THE WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR ER

4. Photo of American GI Forum Float at a Veterans Day
Parade in Dodge City, Kansas, 1950s

‘”if
… ~~ “‘

An American GI Forum float at a Veterans Day parade in Dodge City, Kansas. The AGIF
motto, “Education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody’s business,” indicates
the emphasis the Forum has always placed on learning as a means to social betterment.
From the group’s early days, local chapters organized back-to-school drives, attendance
campaigns, and scholarship programs, while the national worked through legal channels
for equal educational opportunity.
SOURCE: Dr. Hecror P. Carda Papers; Special Collectio11s and Arc/1ii1es, Bell Library, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi.

Reprinted in Henry A. J. Ramos, The American G.l. Forum: In Pursuit ef the Dream, 1948–1983 (Houston:
Arte Piblico Press, 1998), p. 33.

283

284 MAJOR PROBLEMS IN LATINA/O HISTOR y

5. Opponents of Public Housing Decry “Socialism”
in Los Angeles, 1951

The label of Socialism was applied repeatedly to proposed F d · fc e eral H .
proJects or Los Angeles yesterday as scores of persons appeared b fc ousing
C il al fi

e ore the C
ounc to appe rom decisions of the City Planning Comnu· · ity · fc h ss1on appr .

sites or t e government-subsidized building programs. OVJ.ng
Nine sites involving 10,000 units to cost $100,000,000 were in th

· Th C il h b · e proceed-mgs. e ounc c am ers were packed as the heanngs went into th ·
d d h

. 1 . 1 . b d 1 eir second
ay an t e city egis ative o y he d one of its first all-day session ·

h
. s m recent

years, opmg to reach an end of the protests.
Particularly vigorous in presenting their case were residents and busm· e

fr
. . ssmen

om the Rose Hill area where 2000 umts, some of them to be incorporated ·
13-story buildings, are scheduled to be erected in what is now a single-fa~n
residence zone. y

“There are many ways that we can handle the housing job and do better
through private enterprise-ways far superior to this proposed socialized co~cen-
tration camp,” said one speaker for the Rose Hill delegation. The Rose Hill
group even embellished their presentation with a series of stereoptican slides,
showing homes which would be demolished if the housing site were approved.

The presentation brought from Councilman Ed Davenport, admitted propo-
nent of the housing projects, the statement that “this is the most forceful and con-
vincing presentation I have listened to in my six years of sitting of the City Council.”

Byron Jones, director of the Montecito Hills Improvement Association, was
particularly eloquent upon the charge of Socialism.

He said in part:
“The real issue that should govern our decision is the issue between private

enterprise and Socialism … in summation, the questions are, ‘Shall we light the
match that spreads the conflagration which will destroy private homes and pri-
vate enterprise in our city? Shall you gentlemen be the guards at the gate who tear it
down to permit the entry of a Trojan horse which will destroy our American
ideal of American privately owned homes?'” .. .

H. J. F. Hanemann, a civil engineer, . .. labeled the Rose Hill project as
“contrary to the city’s master plan of zoning and a movement which would per-
petuate Socialism in Los Angeles.” . . .

6. Puerto Rican Scholar, Andres Torres, Reflects on Being
“A Hearing Son,” 1960

“STEP LIVELY, STEP LIVELY.” The conductor’s command came sharply ove~
the loudspeaker as they jumped aboard. Life had taught them to regar

· ht
“Housing Project Socialistic, Opponents Tell Councilmen,” Los Angeles Times, June 23, 1951. Copyng
© 1951. Los Angeles Times. Reprinted with Pennission .
An~res ! 0 rres, Signing in Puerto Rican: A Hearing Son and His Deef Family (Washington, DC: Gallaudet
Uruversity Press, 2009), pp. 1-5 .

BUILDING COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR ERA 285

punctuality as a vital habit. Too often they had been overlooked or left behind,
so they were al~eady poised at the doors as the subway slowed to a halt. My
parents were gom~ downtown to the Friday meeting of the Puerto Rican Soci-
ety for the Catholic D ea£ Together with their friends Isaura and Oliverio, they
were riding the A train to the meeting hall, located in the central office of the
New York City Archdiocese, near St. Patrick’s Cathedral. I was with them as
usual. The year was 1960.

Pop worked as a stock clerk in the garment center where his weekdays were
spent packing men’s shirts into cardboard boxes. His hands were callused from
the daily handling of those boxes, and the years of lifting and lugging molded his
body into an athletic frame. He arrived home gritty and tired, but on those
Friday evenings of the Deaf Society, of which Pop was president, he was a trans-
formed man. In his grey suit and blue tie, his face sweetly scented with his favor-
ite lotion, he could have passed for someone well beyond his true station in life.
As president of an organization, he might as well dress up for the role ….

The five of us worked our way through the busy car and in the far comer
Mom and Isaura, dressed up and perfumed, found seats. They fit snuggly in a dou-
ble seat, while I grabbed an empty spot some distance from them …. Fortunately, I
had already convinced my parents that a twelve-year-old boy didn’t need to be
making a fashion statement for these meetings. With my blue striped polo shirt,
unadorned cotton slacks and Converse sneakers, I was good to go. Pop and
Oliverio stood nearby, holding onto a silver pole where there were already two
men. As the train pulled out of the station Pop and Oliverio faced each other.

“Do you think there’ll be many people tonight?” Oliverio wondered, in signs.
“Maybe twenty-five to thirty. It will be a good crowd,” Pop responded

with his hands.
Signing on a subway that alternates between a stop-and-go crawl and a

bouncing sprint is not the easiest thing to do. Elbows and knees were in constant
motion, as the men braced themselves against the gleaming silver pole. Each
would’ve been grateful for the use of a third arm.

“We have a lot of business to discuss: the credit union and planning for the
dinner, and Monsignor Lynch wants to talk to us. Then we will have the movie.
I hope we do not waste time on silly arguments.” Pop liked to run the meetings
efficiently and leave time for socializing.

They kept the signs to themselves, trying to conceal the conversation like
poker players sheltering their hands . Pop didn’t like to verbalize loudly or put
his gestures on display, as did other deaf people I knew. Nevertheless, the other
two men at the pole were startled; they weren’t sure what to do. I had seen this
before and I knew what they were thinking: Is it wrong to look? Or do you just
pretend they’re not there?

These two just stayed where they were, fidgeting and looking away. Pop
had been through this often and he didn’t care. He wasn ‘ t going to be a z~mbie
on the subway. On he went, signing with Oliverio, discreetly, but _witho~t
shame. Next to me Mom and Isaura were gossiping too, chismeando with their
hands. As soon as we’d jumped aboard they’d gone strai?ht fo~ the comer seats,
to avoid the view of other passengers . They conversed with their hands down on

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286 MAJOR PROBLEMS IN LATJNA/0 J–IJSTOR Y

their laps, making only the s~btlest of facial movements. I was accustomed to this
scene: watching my parents sign m the subway, and watchmg the hearing people

Pop and Oliverio continued, as did Mom and Isaura, oblivious to the atten-watch them.
tion gathering about them. By now the other passengers, not iust the two men at
the silver pole, noticed the deaf people talking. Then, toward the center of the

car a group of young kids had noticed: ‘ “Hey, look over there,” one of them said. “Look over there at the deaf and

dumb people!” Then came the bulging eyes and giggles.
“Oh yeah, look.” Another chimed in, pointing at my parents.
A third one let out, “Hey I can do that, can’t you?”
They threw their hands about, competing for the loudest laughs. Any exag-

gerated movement would do: fingers in acrobatic maneuvers, clownish faces,
grunting noises. Standing and sitting, they were bunched together and making
like they were trading signs. They pretended it was an inside joke, but they
must’ve known my parents could see what was going on .

… The train raced downtown as the show continued. And in the audi-
ence I saw a variety of reactions: embarrassment, pity, and fear . I perceived
varieties of anger as well. There was anger directed at the troublemakers.
And there was another anger reserved for my parents, for starting the whole

mess in the first place.
Up to now, I was a

American history homework help

DS 408: Project Proposal Report
Simulating Ridesharing Apps (Supply & Demand)

Executive Summary

Ridesharing apps have grown exponentially in the last 15 years, even dominating over
traditional taxi markets. One major issue with these apps that can create detractors is long
waiting times. This is a problem we personally experienced when using these platforms.
Waiting times can lead to a drop in revenue, consumer satisfaction and user retention. Since
there are multiple causes behind them and we don’t have access to their backend, we’ve
decided to simulate them and see if we can make improvements or resolve bottlenecks.

We are setting up a simulation model that matches supply & demand (i.e. drivers & riders)
based on an approximate location, combined with open-source traffic data from a ridesharing
giant. Our goal is to identify the bottleneck and implement a continuous solution that will
create a better user experience for both the rider and the driver. We can use Excel to collect,
organize and process data and SIGMA to design a model with varying parameters.

If successful, we can attempt to generalize and extrapolate our supply & demand matching
algorithm to other use cases, and possibly sharing it in the open-source community.

How Ridesharing Operates

When a rider submits a request, it’s submitted in the back-end and a matchmaking process
begins between all currently active drivers within a reasonable distance. All active drivers will
receive a notification and have the option to accept or deny (or ignore) the request. To make
things more complicated, riders can choose between different driver options; carpooling,
single car, luxury cars, large vans, EV’s or even cars with disability provisions. So these types
of drivers, along with who’s currently on the road, will create a supply distribution that we’ll
need to simulate in SIGMA. Once en route, it may be possible for the driver to accept another
rider, and may make one or more stops before reaching the final destination.

Our Simulation Approach

We will start with the basic model of accepting a request from a driver and matching it with
the current supply of drivers. Once we set this up, we can add more factors, such as different
driver options, roadblocks or traffic jams, surge pricing and disruptions caused by events.

We will assess where drivers are affected by high demand, and where consumers run the
problem of not having a driver. The main objective is to identify the factors which cause
extended wait times.

Parameters:

Distance
Availability
Type of vehicle
Traffic jams
Surge pricing

1. Using Excel

We will use the Uber Movement portal to obtain open-source traffic data in CSV format, which
can be imported and organized into Excel. We can also use Excel to create random
distributions for the riders’ demand and drivers’ supply. This will help us determine best and
worst case scenarios, as well as peak times and bottlenecks which cause long wait times.

2. Using Sigma

We will use SIGMA to create queues of riders and drivers, and matching them based on the
driver’s distance, time of day, and availability. We will run simulations for varying demographic
areas, from dense metropolitan to rural areas, and analyze their associated wait times.

Motivations & Goals

We decided that ridesharing apps are a good simulation candidate for two reasons:

1. Ridesharing technology has been developed in the SF Bay Area. Prominent companies
such as Uber and Lyft have already optimized their technology, but their process remains
hidden from the public (much like Google’s PageRank or Facebook’s News Feed). These
algorithms are part of valuable IP, and are highly complex and coveted. So while we have
access to the front-end of Uber, the back-end structure remains unknown. Our goal is to
simulate the basic process of connecting supply and demand, based on drivers and riders’
location. We won’t be as successful as big tech companies, who have millions of dollars to
hire the best engineering talent in the world, but we hope it may provide insight into a service
that we frequently use and the crucial decisions one must take to make the system work.

2. Despite the “black box” paradigm, we can still collect large amounts of data from Uber
Movement to simulate how their process might work. Uber Movement is an online portal,
where anyone can collect data on travel times, travel speeds and mobility heatmaps. Data is
available for San Francisco, allowing us to locally optimize the solution. Data can be exported
in CSV format and is available under a Creative Commons license, allowing permission of
use for academic research. We can also reason from first principles and compare how well
our model runs vs. Uber or Lyft, and tweak our model along the way.

In short: we want to simulate a technology that’s popular in our area and we use frequently or
have used in the past, but whose inner workings remain a mystery to the public. We hope
that simulating ridesharing provides insight into the crucial parameters that make the system
work, allowing us to “look behind the curtain”.

Potential Benefits

If we are successful, we might be able to generalize and extrapolate our supply & demand
matching algorithm to other use cases. We could release our model to an open-source
community, so other people can use our simulation as a starting point for their own model.
Depending on the capabilities of SIGMA, we might even find a way to optimize local traffic,
based on our model and the Uber Movement data.

Building the model will also teach us which parameters are crucial to develop a successful
simulation, and provide insight into the engineering decisions that companies must make to
create a good product. These insights will prove invaluable when we apply for the job market.

Qualifications

Brent is interested in automation, machine learning, mobile technology and finance.
Ridesharing apps combine these technologies to provide a service to society. Furthermore,
he wants to improve his data analysis skills and understand which factors play a decisive role
in deploying simulation models and in designing complex systems with many moving parts.

Zain is interested in information technology, automation, and supply chain. Ridesharing
platforms elicit different combinations of these. My goal is to provide a better quality service to
the good of consumers with the publication of this model. More importantly my intent is to
attain as well as showcase my analysis skills with this given project.

Elfy is interested in the social impact of ridesharing. Taxis have dramatically reduced in
popularity and there’s a large number of young adults that have begun to reconsider their
intent of learning to drive. There are social, financial, and environmental issues to consider
with regards to ridesharing applications, aside from just the practical use after a party or
visiting local places with limited parking.

Group 3: Members

Brent Van Kersavond
Elfy Arrizon
Zain Mirza

American history homework help

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Four Versions of Progress
part 3

Radical Liberalism & Radical Communitarianism

The third and fourth Enlightenment ways of thinking about society and politics are radical
liberalism and radical communitarianism. Each of these ways of thinking also promoted their
own versions of progress.

• The Englishman Thomas Paine is a radical liberal. He wrote Common Sense (1776) and
Rights of Man (1791-92).

• The Swiss born Jean Jacques Rousseau is a radical communitarian. He wrote The Social
Contract (1762).

Let’s begin discussing these two ways of thinking with the following quotes.

• Paine wrote: “We have it in our power to begin the world over again.”

• Rousseau wrote: “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

Both of these quotes call for liberation.

Let’s look at Paine first. To say that humans “have it in our power to begin the world over
again” means we can liberate ourselves from history; we can free ourselves from the culture,
laws, institutions, and practices we inherited from previous generations; we can begin “over
again” and remake society from scratch. As Paine declared “The birthday of a new world is at
hand.”

Now Rousseau: When he said that humans are “born free” but are now “in chains,” he used the
term “chains” as a metaphor (not a literal reference to the worldwide practice of slavery). His
logic resembled Paine’s. Rousseau’s “chains” refer to the laws and institutions, culture and
norms which exist now because earlier generations created them. Rousseau wants freedom
from these things, liberation from what history has passed down to us. He wants his generation
to remake society.

Paine and Rousseau disagree on a lot. But Paine’s radical liberalism and Rousseau’s radical
communitarianism both view progress as liberation from history, transforming society by
abolishing the politics, culture, religion, and social relations we inherited from previous
generations. Paine and Rousseau both aspire to radically remake society.

Contrast this emphasis on liberation with the emphasis on restraint which we saw in
conservative liberalism and classical liberalism.

• Recall how conservative liberals and classical liberals share a skeptical view of human
nature. They think human passions can easily get of control and create disorder and

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violence. They emphasize the need to restrain and civilize the passions through social and
cultural institutions like the family, law, culture, religion, schools, etc.

• Radical liberals and radical communitarians share a more optimistic view of human nature.
They believe human reason can effectively control the passions. They thus think it is
possible to use reason to remake society – overthrowing existing social and cultural
institutions, and creating new ones, without the passions causing chaos and violence (or
justifying violence in the name of liberation).

With this foundation in mind, let’s further explore Paine’s radical liberalism and Rousseau’s
radical communitarianism in the context of the French Revolution.

The Old Regime & the Outbreak of the French Revolution

The French Revolution began in 1789. To discuss its development, we need to understand
French society before the Revolution, what’s called Old Regime France. Old Regime society
rested on two ideas: 1) hierarchy based on birth and 2) privilege. Let’s look at each.

Hierarchy based on birth means a person was born into a certain status and remained in that
status for life.

• If one were born into a noble family one kept that high noble status for life. If one were
born into a peasant family, one kept that low peasant status for life. The system did not
encourage individuals to use their talents to rise from one class to another (social mobility).

• The hierarchy of statuses in France went like this:

o the King was at the top

o beneath him was the first estate – the clergy

o then the second estate – the nobility

o beneath them was the third estate – the commoners. These included professionals
(lawyers, doctors, intellectuals), merchants, then skilled tradesman (artisans), and at the
bottom unskilled workers and peasants.

This hierarchy of statuses involved privilege. Privilege means special legal rights based on birth
status. It is the opposite of equal rights and equality before the law. Here are examples of
privilege in Old Regime France:

• The first two estates – clergy and nobility – had the privilege of not paying most taxes. They
didn’t pay salt or wine taxes, for example. Most nobles also didn’t pay land taxes, even
though they owned most of the land. It was the opposite of our system today when the
wealthier one is the more one pays in taxes.

• Guilds and monopolies had their own privileges. These privileges included some
commoners. For example, only members of the glassmaker guild had the special legal right
to make stained glass. Only certain merchant companies had the special legal right to trade
goods like fish or sugar (monopolies).

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• 80% of the population were peasants. Most lived on land owned by nobles. The peasants
owed dues to the nobility: dues to grind grain in the noble’s mill, dues to bake bread in
noble’s ovens, dues to press grapes in the noble’s wine press. The peasants also paid most
of the royal taxes.

One can obviously see the injustice of this Old Regime system of privilege and hierarchy based
on birth. But French society had functioned like this for centuries. Indeed, privilege and
hierarchy characterized many pre-modern societies around the world. In many cultures on
different continents, hierarchy was seen as natural.

During the 18th century, though, Enlightenment authors increasingly criticized privilege. French
writers like Voltaire and Diderot criticized the Catholic clergy in France who were privileged
members of the first estate. The French writer Beaumarchais criticized noble privileges in his
play, The Marriage of Figaro (1778). Figaro was a servant who constantly outsmarted his
master. He also voiced anger at the privileges of hierarchy based on birth.

As Enlightenment authors criticized privilege – special legal rights based on birth status – they
promoted dislike of the Old Regime system. This dislike of the Old Regime became more
intense in late 1780s when a series of events helped spark revolution. Let’s look at three of
these events: bankruptcy, food shortages, and economic hardship.

• Bankruptcy: France was ruled by an absolutist King, Louis XVI. He embodied the French
state. But in 1788 King Louis went bankrupt. The French state not only lacked money, but
struggled to convince investors to lend it money. As the situation worsened, it became
obvious the King and his advisors had no plan to solve the financial crisis. They began to
lose credibility.

• Food shortages: 1785, 1786, and 1788 included terrible harvests, resulting in food
shortages. Shortages lead to high prices – inflation. The price of food shot up, especially for
bread which was crucial for the working classes. The food shortages and price spikes led to
social unrest and protests.

• Economic hardship: French textile business faced increasing competition from imported
English and Indian textiles. The imported textiles were often cheaper. This led to
bankruptcies of textile and merchant businesses in France. Unemployment for weavers and
dyers spread, especially in northern France. With the price of bread rising, grain riots broke
out.

The bad harvests and business bankruptcies fueled anger. What’s crucial about these events is
this: French elites failed to respond to the economic hardships felt by many. Societies can often
withstand a crisis when the public has confidence in its leaders – when the public perceives its
leaders as having the understanding and ability to address the crisis. In the late 1780s, though,
French leaders appeared to be failing.

• In spring 1789, King Louis called representatives of the three estates to meet in the Estates
General.

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• The Estates General was based on privilege. Each estate – clergy, nobility, and commoners –
had one collective vote, even though the commoners outnumbered the other two estates.

• The commoners’ representatives quickly lost confidence in the Estates General and broke
from it. These representatives created a new institution called the National Assembly. They
claimed that they – not the King or the first two estates – represented the French people.
The Revolution had begun.

The French Revolution, 1789: Radical Liberal Progress

As 1789 unfolded, two types of events characterize the French Revolution:

1. Radical liberal ideas: a declaration of rights to end the long history of privilege.

2. Social disorder: the unleashing of terrifying violence.

Let’s look at radical liberal ideas first. In August 1789, the National Assembly published the
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

The French Declaration resembles Thomas Paine’s radical liberalism. Remember, Paine said
humans “have it in our power to begin the world over again.” To begin the world over means
liberating ourselves from history – freeing ourselves from the institutions, culture, and laws
made by previous generations – and radically remaking society. Let’s explore this idea.

The radical liberal Paine views human beings as born free and remaining free.

• This means that each individual has no inherent obligations.

• Each person might choose obligations – choose to develop relationships and attachments
which include obligations. But these are matters of choice, for Paine.

• Radical liberalism views humans as born free and remaining free to choose which
obligations to have – obligations to people, institutions, and cultural norms, etc.

• Paine calls this freedom “natural rights.” But unlike classical liberals who combine natural
rights with restraining human passions, the radical liberal Paine combines natural rights
with liberation – born free and remaining free – not restraint.

• Paine’s combining natural rights with liberation – freedom from the institutions, laws, and
culture made by previous generations – reflects his optimistic view of human nature. He
thinks it is possible for humans to use their reason to remake society – overthrowing
existing institutions and laws – without their passions getting out of control and causing
chaos and violence (or justifying the violence in the name of liberation).

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen (1789) expresses the radical liberal idea
of being born and remaining free. It declares, “Men are born and remain free.” It described this
freedom as natural rights, “the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man.”

Be sure to follow the logic of radical liberalism.

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• If we are born and remain free, and only have obligations we choose, then we are free or
liberated from history – liberated from the institutions, laws, and culture of previous
generations.

• This sound abstract, but think it through: Everything which existed when we were born –
the laws, the political and religious institutions, the social relations and culture – all of these
things represent the choices of previous generations. They represent the obligations which
previous generations chose.

• The radical liberal idea “to begin the world over again” means individuals are free from
these inherited obligations, free from these inherited institutions, free to remake society.

Radical liberalism thus presents the constant remaking of society as the key to progress.
Progress requires freeing each generation from the laws, institutions, and practices of the past.
Each generation can then choose new obligations in hopes of creating a new and better future.

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen expresses the radical liberal idea of
progress to promote the remaking of Old Regime society. By declaring that “Men are born and
remain free,” the document promises freedom from the obligations of previous generations,
freedom from the social hierarchy of privilege, from the system of special legal rights based on
birth status.

We have now discussed the first type of event that unfolded in 1789, radical liberal ideas which
influenced the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Before we continue to
discuss the second type of event, social disorder and violence, let’s pause to do some
comparing.

Comparing Radical Liberalism & Conservative Liberalism

Let’s compare the radicalism liberalism of Thomas Paine with the conservative liberalism of
Edmund Burke.

Let’s start with the idea of obligations.

• Paine’s radical liberalism sees individuals as born free and remaining free, meaning the
individual has no inherent obligations, but only the obligations s/he chooses.

• Burke’s conservative liberalism says individuals do have inherent obligations. The individual
is not “born free,” but is born into a set of relationships called the family. An individual is
born with the unchosen obligation of being a son or daughter, the unchosen obligation of
being a brother or sister, the unchosen obligation of being a niece or nephew, etc.

Consider how this different view of obligations – born free or born into obligations – includes
different views of human nature and different views of progress.

• Paine’s radical liberalism has an optimistic view of human nature. Paine thinks human
reason can control human passions; each human can make free and rational choices about

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obligations. This optimism about human nature leads to the radical liberal understanding of
progress.

o Follow the logic of radical liberal progress: since humans have the rational ability to
choose their own obligations, they can liberate themselves from the obligations of
previous generations – the laws, institutions, and practices of the past – and remake
society as they wish. This constant remaking of society by each generation is the radical
liberal understanding of progress.

• Burke’s conservative liberalism has a skeptical view of human nature. Burke thinks human
passions easily get out of control; the passions are often not controlled by reason but only
restrained by a web of unchosen obligations – the family we are born into; the laws,
institutions, and culture which already existed when we were born. This skepticism about
human nature leads to the conservative liberal understanding of progress.

o Follow the logic of conservative liberal progress: the web of human obligations evolves
over time because each generation builds on and develops what already works from
previous generations. This building on and developing inherited laws and institutions –
not liberating ourselves from them – is the conservative liberal understanding of slow
and gradual progress. Attempts at quick, radical change – attempts at liberation from
inherited institutions and practices – will likely unleash the passions and lead to social
disorder, decay, and even violence. Attempts of liberation, in other words, will lead to
regress, the opposite of progress.

These two versions of progress include one more point of comparison – the role of politics in
progress.

• Paine’s radical liberal progress is often the result of direct political action. Because progress
comes from each generation freeing themselves from the past and remaking society, the
politics and political activities of each generation play a central role in promoting progress.
Political leaders and government can lead and direct radical liberal progress.

• Burke’s conservative liberal progress is not the result of direct political action. Progress is
not led by politicians promising quick changes. It is not directed by government. Rather,
progress evolves like genetic traits in populations, with successive generations building on
and developing the working institutions and practices inherited from the past.

Now that we’ve compared the conservative liberal and radical liberal understandings of
progress, let’s return to the second type of event which unfolded in the French Revolution in
1789: social disorder and violence.

The French Revolution, 1789: Social Disorder and Violence

In July 1789, there were unprecedented riots and looting in Paris. Mobs began challenging the
basis of law and order by openly confronting the French military in the streets. On July 14,
events escalated on the east side of Paris where a mob stormed a famous prison called the
Bastille.

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• Ironically, the Bastille was mostly empty. It was old and only had a handful of prisoners left.
But it was a long-standing symbol of royal authority, with high, thick walls defended by
royal troops. After intense street battles with guns, cannon, and fire, an urban mob
captured the Bastille and took its governor hostage. The rioters marched the governor
through the streets of Paris before chopping off his head. They then parading his severed
head on a pike through the streets in celebration.

• In the summer 1789, such displays of rage occurred not only in cities like Paris, but also in
the French countryside. Rural peasants (not always the poorest peasants) engaged in riots
and massacres. They burned mansions of the nobility and attacked members of noble
families. These attacks included all kinds of assaults as well as murder. This rural mob
violence was called the Great Fear, and it spread intense anxiety about who the next victims
would be and the seeming inability of the French government to maintain order.

These intense displays of rage – urban and rural mob violence – happened the same summer as
the creation of the National Assembly.

• Recall we said above that when the Estates General met in June 1789, representatives of
the third estate – the Commoners – broke away from the Estates General and created their
own institution called the National Assembly. They were professionals like lawyers, doctors,
and intellectuals.

• They declared that the National Assembly represented the French people. It was the
National Assembly which issued the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
(1789) declaring the radical liberal idea that “Men are born and remain free.”

So now we come to a crucial question. We said that two types of events characterized the
French Revolution in 1789:

• 1. Radical liberal ideas: a declaration of rights to end the long history of privilege

• 2. Social disorder: the unleashing of terrifying violence.

So the crucial question is this. When we look at these two types of events, what do we see?

• Is France on the verge of creating a new enlightened society based on radical liberal ideas?

• Or is France on the edge of falling into chaos, and unleashing a mad and violent terror?

One British writer clearly thought France was creating a new enlightened society based on
radical liberal ideas. This writer was enthusiastic about the violent storming of the Bastille. He
declared, “How much the greatest event it is that ever happened in the world!”

• The radical liberal Thomas Paine agreed with this writer’s assessment. He insisted France
was undergoing radical liberal progress, creating a new enlightened society.

• The conservative liberal Edmund Burke disagreed. He thought France was on the edge of
madness.

Let’s look more closely at Burke’s and Paine’s reactions.

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• Burke was troubled by the violence in France. “Parisian ferocity has broken out in a
shocking manner,” he wrote. He thought the violence might be exposing the character of
the Revolution itself: “if it should be character rather than accident, then the people are not
fit for liberty.”

• Paine accused Burke of simply not understanding. Paine said he could not “account for Mr.
Burke’s astonishment; but certain it is, he does not understand the French Revolution.”

Burke’s and Paine’s reactions reflected their different ways of thinking and thus their different
understandings of progress.

Paine’s radical liberalism defined progress as each generation liberating itself from history; each
generation liberating itself from the obligations of previous generations – from inherited laws,
institutions, and practices – and remaking society as it wishes. That’s why Paine said, “We have
it in our power to begin the world over again.”

• Paine saw the French Revolution as advancing this kind of radical liberal progress. Referring
to the events in France, he proclaimed, “the new order of things has naturally followed the
new order of thoughts.”

• More broadly, Paine thought the French Revolution was part of an international movement
for radical liberal progress. He interpreted the American Revolution as part of this
movement. He also viewed rebellions in Belgium and the Netherlands in the 1780s as
advancing radical liberal progress. As he declared, “It is an age of revolutions in which
everything may be looked for” – i.e., everything is possible.

• This sense of boundless possibilities to remake societies permeated Paine’s writings. He
described “the present Governments of Europe [as] a scene of iniquity and oppression.” He
thought these governments needed to be overthrown. “Mr. Burke and some others” may
think the French Revolution “has gone too far,” he said, but that only means “it has gone
too far for them.” Indeed, Paine proclaimed that “nothing of reform on the political world
ought to be held improbably” – i.e., nothing ought to be considered impossible.

• Some Enlightenment intellectuals agreed with Paine. They described “the glorious example
given in France to encourage other nations to assert the unalienable rights of Mankind, and
thereby . . . to make the world free and happy.”

Burke doubted whether events in France represented progress. Burke’s conservative liberalism
defined progress as the gradual evolution of society across generations; each generation
inheriting the complex web of attachments of previous generations – their laws, institutions,
and practices – and building on and developing those inheritances in ways that restrain human
passions. Progress for Burke is a slow and gradual process, not a quick and radical uprising.

• Burke saw the French Revolution as undermining the possibility of progress, breaking the
gradual evolution across generations with radical promises that unleashed dark human
passions.

• In October 1789, a French mob attacked the royal palace at Versailles, about twelve miles
outside of Paris. The mob killed royal guardsmen and threatened the Queen. Burke was

This content is protected, and may not be shared, uploaded, or distributed. Four Versions part 3 – 9

criticized for defending the Queen and being out of touch with the working classes and
poor.

• But Burke saw it differently. He believed humans were naturally sensitive to displays or
spectacles of violence. As he explains, “we are so made as to be affected at such spectacles
with melancholy.” But he thought intellectuals like Paine who excused or defended violence
in the name of liberation were desensitizing people to bloodshed. This desensitizing meant
losing a basic sense of right and wrong. As Burke explains: “Such must be the consequence
of losing, in the splendor of these triumphs of the rights of men, all natural sense of wrong
and right.”

• So Burke viewed the Revolution as undermining the possibility of progress because it was
destroying the basic sensitivities – basic social attachments – which hold a people together.
And once this happens, he warned – once humans are desensitized to violence – the human
passions are let lose in dangerous ways. As Burke explains, “the elements which compose
human society seem all to be dissolved, and a world of monsters to be produced in the
place of it.”

The “elements” which compose human society – the attachments and obligations that evolve
across generations – were central to Burke’s conservative liberal understanding of progress. For
Paine, those same elements – those inherited attachments and obligations – were obstacles to
his radical liberal understanding of progress. Inherited ways of doing things were not to be built
upon and developed, for Paine, but to be rejected and thrown away.

American history homework help

HIS 200 Project 1 Guidelines and Rubric

Overview
History is for human self-knowledge . . . the only clue to what man can do is what man has done. The value of history, then, is that it teaches us what man has

done and thus what man is.
—R. G. Collingwood

Historical awareness informs various aspects of our lives. We live in a time of rapid change, and we often think more about the future than the past. However,
studying history can help us better understand our own lives in the context of the places we live and society in general. In America, specifically, the government is
informed by its citizens. If the ideals of society shift, that shift will eventually move throughout the different levels of government, effecting widespread change.

For the projects in this course, you will select a historical event that has impacted American society in some way. You may select an event that was discussed in
the course, or you may select your own event, with instructor approval. You may consider using the event you chose to work on in your Perspectives in History
class, if that event is something you wish to investigate further through this assessment.

In Project 1, you will develop a plan for an essay on this historical event. The plan will include a brief description of the selected historical event and the resources
you will use in your research. In addition, you will identify an audience for your essay and decide how to communicate your information to this audience. In
Project 2, you will write an essay analyzing the historical event you selected, examining its impact on society as well as its impact on you personally.

Project 1 addresses the following course outcomes:

 Select appropriate and relevant primary and secondary sources in investigating foundational historic events
 Communicate effectively to specific audiences in examining fundamental aspects of human history
 Apply key approaches to studying history in addressing critical questions related to historical narratives and perspectives

Prompt
Your writing plan should answer the following prompt: Select a historical event that has impacted American society. Develop a plan for writing your essay,
describing the historical event, selecting appropriate resources for your research, and identifying an audience for your essay. The purpose of this writing plan is to
provide you with a way to gather your thoughts and begin thinking about how to support your thesis statement. The following critical elements will be assessed
in a 1- to 2-page word processing document.

1

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

I. Describe the historical event that you selected. Why is this event significant?

II. Describe at least two secondary sources that you could use to research your historical event. Your sources must be relevant to your event and must be of
an appropriate academic nature. In your description, consider questions such as: What are the similarities and differences in the content of your sources?
What makes these sources appropriate and relevant for investigating your event? What was your thought process when you were searching for sources?
How did you make choices?

III. Describe at least two primary sources that you could use to research your historical event. Your sources must be relevant to your event and must be of
an appropriate academic nature. In your description, consider questions such as: How do these sources relate to your secondary sources? What do they
add to your understanding of the event? What makes them appropriate and relevant for investigating your event?

IV. Based on your review of primary and secondary sources, develop a research question related to the historical event you selected. In other words, what
would you like to know more about?

V. Identify an audience that would be interested in your historical event and research question. For example, who would benefit most from hearing your
message?

VI. Describe how and why you can tailor your message to your audience, providing specific examples. For example, will your audience understand historical
terminology and principles associated with your event, or will you need to explain these? How will you communicate effectively with your audience?

Project 1 Rubric
Guidelines for Submission: Your writing plan should adhere to the following formatting requirements: 1–2 pages, double-spaced, using 12-point Times New
Roman font and one-inch margins.

Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (85%) Needs Improvement (55%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Historical Event Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
description is exceptionally
clear and contextualized

Describes selected historical
event and its significance

Describes selected historical
event and its significance, but
with gaps in detail or clarity

Does not describe selected
historical event and its
significance

15.8

2

Secondary Sources Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
description of resources
demonstrates strong
understanding of information
needed to investigate
foundational historic events

Describes at least two relevant
and appropriate secondary
sources that could be used to
research the historical event

Describes at least two
secondary sources that could
be used to research the
historical event, but with gaps
in appropriateness, relevance,
or detail

Does not describe at least two
secondary sources that could
be used to research the
historical event

15.8

Primary Sources Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
description of resources
demonstrates strong
understanding of information
needed to investigate
foundational historic events

Describes at least two relevant
and appropriate primary
sources that could be used to
research the historical event

Describes at least two primary
sources that could be used to
research the historical event,
but with gaps in
appropriateness, relevance, or
detail

Does not describe at least two
primary sources that could be
used to research the historical
event

15.8

Research Question Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
response demonstrates insight
into connection between
research and question

Develops research question
related to the selected
historical event based on
review of primary and
secondary sources

Develops research question
related to the selected
historical event, but question is
not based on review of
primary and secondary sources

Does not develop research
question related to the
selected historical event

15.8

Audience Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
identification of audience
demonstrates insight into
event and question

Identifies an audience that
would be interested in event
and research question

Identifies an audience that
would be interested in event
and research question, but
audience is not appropriate for
event and question

Does not identify an audience
that would be interested in
event and research question

15.8

Message Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
response demonstrates
sophisticated understanding of
how to effectively
communicate with specific
audience

Describes how and why
message can be tailored to
audience, providing specific
examples

Describes how and why
message can be tailored to
audience, but with gaps in
examples

Does not describe how and
why message can be tailored
to audience

15.8

Articulation of
Response

Submission is free of errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, and
organization and is presented
in a professional and easy-to-
read format

Submission has no major
errors related to citations,
grammar, spelling, syntax, or
organization

Submission has major errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or
organization that negatively
impact readability and
articulation of main ideas

Submission has critical errors
related to citations, grammar,
spelling, syntax, or
organization that prevent
understanding of ideas

5.2

Total 100%

3

  • HIS 200 Project 1 Guidelines and Rubric
    • Overview
    • Prompt
    • Project 1 Rubric

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American history homework help

Charles W. Chesnutt

The Wife of His Youth
in

The Wife of His Youth
And Other Stories of the Color Line

1899

originally published in Atlantic Monthly, July 1898

*

I

M R. RYDER was going to give a ball. There were several reasons why this was an opportune time for such an event. Mr. Ryder might aptly be called the dean of the Blue Veins. The original Blue Veins
were a little society of colored persons organized in a certain Northern city shortly after the war. Its

purpose was to establish and maintain correct social standards among a people whose social condition

presented almost unlimited room for improvement. By accident, combined perhaps with some natural

affinity, the society consisted of individuals who were, generally speaking, more white than black.

Some envious outsider made the suggestion that no one was eligible for membership who was not

white enough to show blue veins. The suggestion was readily adopted by those who were not of the

favored few, and since that time the society, though possessing a longer and more pretentious name,

had been known far and wide as the “Blue Vein Society,” and its members as the “Blue Veins.”

The Blue Veins did not allow that any such requirement existed for admission to their circle, but,

on the contrary, declared that character and culture were the only things considered; and that if most of

their members were light-colored, it was because such persons, as a rule, had had better opportunities

to qualify themselves for membership. Opinions differed, too, as to the usefulness of the society. There

were those who had been known to assail it violently as a glaring example of the very prejudice from

which the colored race had suffered most; and later, when such critics had succeeded in getting on the

inside, they had been heard to maintain with zeal and earnestness that the society was a life-boat, an

anchor, a bulwark and a shield,  a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night, to guide their people

*Presented by the National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, NC. 2005.

through the social wilderness. Another alleged prerequisite for Blue Vein membership was that of free

birth; and while there was really no such requirement, it is doubtless true that very few of the members

would have been unable to meet it if there had been. If there were one or two of the older members

who had come up from the South and from slavery, their history presented enough romantic

circumstances to rob their servile origin of its grosser aspects.

While there were no such tests of eligibility, it is true that the Blue Veins had their notions on these

subjects, and that not all of them were equally liberal in regard to the things they collectively

disclaimed. Mr. Ryder was one of the most conservative. Though he had not been among the founders

of the society, but had come in some years later, his genius for social leadership was such that he had

speedily become its recognized adviser and head, the custodian of its standards, and the preserver of its

traditions. He shaped its social policy, was active in providing for its entertainment, and when the

interest fell off, as it sometimes did, he fanned the embers until they burst again into a cheerful flame.

There were still other reasons for his popularity. While he was not as white as some of the Blue

Veins, his appearance was such as to confer distinction upon them. His features were of a refined type,

his hair was almost straight; he was always neatly dressed; his manners were irreproachable, and his

morals above suspicion. He had come to Groveland a young man, and obtaining employment in the

office of a railroad company as messenger had in time worked himself up to the position of stationery

clerk, having charge of the distribution of the office supplies for the whole company. Although the lack

of early training had hindered the orderly development of a naturally fine mind, it had not prevented

him from doing a great deal of reading or from forming decidedly literary tastes. Poetry was his

passion. He could repeat whole pages of the great English poets; and if his pronunciation was

sometimes faulty, his eye, his voice, his gestures, would respond to the changing sentiment with a

precision that revealed a poetic soul and disarm criticism. He was economical, and had saved money;

he owned and occupied a very comfortable house on a respectable street. His residence was

handsomely furnished, containing among other things a good library, especially rich in poetry, a piano,

and some choice engravings. He generally shared his house with some young couple, who looked after

his wants and were company for him; for Mr. Ryder was a single man. In the early days of his

connection with the Blue Veins he had been regarded as quite a catch, and young ladies and their

mothers had manœuvred with much ingenuity to capture him. Not, however, until Mrs. Molly Dixon

visited Groveland had any woman ever made him wish to change his condition to that of a married

man.

Mrs. Dixon had come to Groveland from Washington in the spring, and before the summer was

over she had won Mr. Ryder’s heart. She possessed many attractive qualities. She was much younger

2

than he; in fact, he was old enough to have been her father, though no one knew exactly how old he

was. She was whiter than he, and better educated. She had moved in the best colored society of the

country, at Washington, and had taught in the schools of that city. Such a superior person had been

eagerly welcomed to the Blue Vein Society, and had taken a leading part in its activities. Mr. Ryder

had at first been attracted by her charms of person, for she was very good looking and not over twenty-

five; then by her refined manners and the vivacity of her wit. Her husband had been a government

clerk, and at his death had left a considerable life insurance. She was visiting friends in Groveland,

and, finding the town and the people to her liking, had prolonged her stay indefinitely. She had not

seemed displeased at Mr. Ryder’s attentions, but on the contrary had given him every proper

encouragement; indeed, a younger and less cautious man would long since have spoken. But he had

made up his mind, and had only to determine the time when he would ask her to be his wife. He

decided to give a ball in her honor, and at some time during the evening of the ball to offer her his

heart and hand. He had no special fears about the outcome, but, with a little touch of romance, he

wanted the surroundings to be in harmony with his own feelings when he should have received the

answer he expected.

Mr. Ryder resolved that this ball should mark an epoch in the social history of Groveland. He

knew, of course,  no one could know better,  the entertainments that had taken place in past years,

and what must be done to surpass them. His ball must be worthy of the lady in whose honor it was to

be given, and must, by the quality of its guests, set an example for the future. He had observed of late a

growing liberality, almost a laxity, in social matters, even among members of his own set, and had

several times been forced to meet in a social way persons whose complexions and callings in life were

hardly up to the standard which he considered proper for the society to maintain. He had a theory of his

own.

“I have no race prejudice,” he would say, “but we people of mixed blood are ground between the

upper and the nether millstone. Our fate lies between absorption by the white race and extinction in the

black. The one doesn’t want us yet, but may take us in time. The other would welcome us, but it would

be for us a backward step. ‘With malice towards none, with charity for all,’ we must do the best we can

for ourselves and those who are to follow us. Self-preservation is the first law of nature.”

His ball would serve by its exclusiveness to counteract leveling tendencies, and his marriage with

Mrs. Dixon would help to further the upward process of absorption he had been wishing and waiting

for.

3

II

T he ball was to take place on Friday night. The house had been put in order, the carpets covered with canvas, the halls and stairs decorated with palms and potted plants; and in the afternoon Mr.
Ryder sat on his front porch, which the shade of a vine running up over a wire netting made a cool and

pleasant lounging place. He expected to respond to the toast “The Ladies” at the supper, and from a

volume of Tennyson  his favorite poet  was fortifying himself with apt quotations. The volume

was open at “A Dream of Fair Women.” His eyes fell on these lines, and he read them aloud to judge

better of their effect:

“At length I saw a lady within call,
Stiller than chisell’d marble, standing there;
A daughter of the gods, divinely tall,
And most divinely fair.”

He marked the verse, and turning the page read the stanza beginning, 

“O sweet pale Margaret,
O rare pale Margaret.”

He weighed the passage a moment, and decided that it would not do. Mrs. Dixon was the palest lady he

expected at the ball, and she was of a rather ruddy complexion, and of lively disposition and buxom

build. So he ran over the leaves until his eye rested on the description of Queen Guinevere: 

“She seem’d a part of joyous Spring:
A gown of grass-green silk she wore,
Buckled with golden clasps before;
A light-green tuft of plumes she bore
Closed in a golden ring.
. . . . . .

“She look’d so lovely, as she sway’d
The rein with dainty finger-tips,
A man had given all other bliss,
And all his worldly worth for this,
To waste his whole heart in one kiss
Upon her perfect lips.”

As Mr. Ryder murmured these words audibly, with an appreciative thrill, he heard the latch of his

gate click, and a light footfall sounding on the steps. He turned his head, and saw a woman standing

before his door.

She was a little woman, not five feet tall, and proportioned to her height. Although she stood erect,

and looked around her with very bright and restless eyes, she seemed quite old; for her face was

4

crossed and recrossed with a hundred wrinkles, and around the edges of her bonnet could be seen

protruding here and there a tuft of short gray wool. She wore a blue calico gown of ancient cut, a little

red shawl fastened around her shoulders with an old-fashioned brass brooch, and a large bonnet

profusely ornamented with faded red and yellow artificial flowers. And she was very black,  so

black that her toothless gums, revealed when she opened her mouth to speak, were not red, but blue.

She looked like a bit of the old plantation life, summoned up from the past by the wave of a magician’s

wand, as the poet’s fancy had called into being the gracious shapes of which Mr. Ryder had just been

reading.

He rose from his chair and came over to where she stood.

“Good-afternoon, madam,” he said.

“Good-evenin’, suh,” she answered, ducking suddenly with a quaint curtsy. Her voice was shrill

and piping, but softened somewhat by age. “Is dis yere whar Mistuh Ryduh lib, suh?” she asked,

looking around her doubtfully, and glancing into the open windows, through which some of the

preparations for the evening were visible.

“Yes,” he replied, with an air of kindly patronage, unconsciously flattered by her manner, “I am

Mr. Ryder. Did you want to see me?”

“Yas, suh, ef I ain’t ‘sturbin’ of you too much.”

“Not at all. Have a seat over here behind the vine, where it is cool. What can I do for you?”

“‘Scuse me, suh,” she continued, when she had sat down on the edge of a chair, “‘scuse me, suh,

I’s lookin’ for my husban’. I heerd you wuz a big man an’ had libbed heah a long time, an’ I ‘lowed

you wouldn’t min’ ef I’d come roun’ an’ ax you ef you’d eber heerd of a merlatter man by de name er

Sam Taylor ‘quirin’ roun’ in de chu’ches ermongs’ de people fer his wife ‘Liza Jane?”

Mr. Ryder seemed to think for a moment.

“There used to be many such cases right after the war,” he said, “but it has been so long that I have

forgotten them. There are very few now. But tell me your story, and it may refresh my memory.”

She sat back farther in her chair so as to be more comfortable, and folded her withered hands in her

lap.

“My name’s ‘Liza,” she began, “‘Liza Jane. W’en I wuz young I us’ter b’long ter Marse Bob Smif,

down in ole Missoura. I wuz bawn down dere. W’en I wuz a gal I wuz married ter a man named Jim.

But Jim died, an’ after dat I married a merlatter man named Sam Taylor. Sam wuz free-bawn, but his

mammy and daddy died, an’ de w’ite folks ‘prenticed him ter my marster fer ter work fer ‘im ‘tel he

5

wuz growed up. Sam worked in de fiel’, an’ I wuz de cook. One day Ma’y Ann, ole miss’s maid, came

rushin’ out ter de kitchen, an’ says she, ‘‘Liza Jane, ole marse gwine sell yo’ Sam down de ribber.’

“‘Go way f’m yere,’ says I; ‘my husban’’s free!’

“‘Don’ make no diff’ence. I heerd ole marse tell ole miss he wuz gwine take yo’ Sam ‘way wid ‘im

ter-morrow, fer he needed money, an’ he knowed whar he could git a t’ousan’ dollars fer Sam an’ no

questions axed.’

“W’en Sam come home f’m de fiel’ dat night, I tole him ‘bout ole marse gwine steal ‘im, an’ Sam

run erway. His time wuz mos’ up, an’ he swo’ dat w’en he wuz twenty-one he would come back an’

he’p me run erway, er else save up de money ter buy my freedom. An’ I know he’d ‘a’ done it, fer he

thought a heap er me, Sam did. But w’en he come back he didn’ fin’ me, fer I wuzn’ dere. Ole marse

had heerd dat I warned Sam, so he had me whip’ an’ sol’ down de ribber.

“Den de wah broke out, an’ w’en it wuz ober de cullud folks wuz scattered. I went back ter de ole

home; but Sam wuzn’ dere, an’ I couldn’ l’arn nuffin’ ‘bout ‘im. But I knowed he’d be’n dere to look

fer me an’ hadn’ foun’ me, an’ had gone erway ter hunt fer me.

“I’s be’n lookin’ fer ‘im eber sence,” she added simply, as though twenty-five years were but a

couple of weeks, “an’ I knows he’s be’n lookin’ fer me. Fer he sot a heap er sto’ by me, Sam did, an’ I

know he’s be’n huntin’ fer me all dese years,‘less’n he’s be’n sick er sump’n, so he couldn’ work, er

out’n his head, so he couldn’ ‘member his promise. I went back down de ribber, fer I ‘lowed he’d gone

down dere lookin’ fer me. I’s be’n ter Noo Orleens, an’ Atlanty, an’ Charleston, an’ Richmon’; an’

w’en I’d be’n all ober de Souf I come ter de Norf. Fer I knows I’ll fin’ ‘im some er dese days,” she

added softly, “er he’ll fin’ me, an’ den we’ll bofe be as happy in freedom as we wuz in de ole days

befo’ de wah.” A smile stole over her withered countenance as she paused a moment, and her bright

eyes softened into a far-away look.

This was the substance of the old woman’s story. She had wandered a little here and there. Mr.

Ryder was looking at her curiously when she finished.

“How have you lived all these years?” he asked.

“Cookin’, suh. I’s a good cook. Does you know anybody w’at needs a good cook, suh? I’s stoppin’

wid a cullud fam’ly roun’ de corner yonder ‘tel I kin git a place.”

“Do you really expect to find your husband? He may be dead long ago.”

She shook her head emphatically. “Oh no, he ain’ dead. De signs an’ de tokens tells me. I dremp

three nights runnin’ on’y dis las’ week dat I foun’ him.”

6

“He may have married another woman. Your slave marriage would not have prevented him, for

you never lived with him after the war, and without that your marriage doesn’t count.”

“Wouldn’ make no diff’ence wid Sam. He wouldn’ marry no yuther ‘ooman ‘tel he foun’ out ‘bout

me. I knows it,” she added.

“Sump’n’s be’n tellin’ me all dese years dat I’s gwine fin’ Sam ‘fo’ I dies.”

“Perhaps he’s outgrown you, and climbed up in the world where he wouldn’t care to have you find

him.”

“No, indeed, suh,” she replied, “Sam ain’ dat kin’ er man. He wuz good ter me, Sam wuz, but he

wuzn’ much good ter nobody e’se, fer he wuz one er de triflin’es’ han’s on de plantation. I ‘spec’s ter

haf ter suppo’t ‘im w’en I fin’ ‘im, fer he nebber would work ‘less’n he had ter. But den he wuz free,

an’ he didn’ git no pay fer his work, an’ I don’ blame ‘im much. Mebbe he’s done better sence he run

erway, but I ain’ ‘spectin’ much.”

“You may have passed him on the street a hundred times during the twenty-five years, and not

have known him; time works great changes.”

She smiled incredulously. “I’d know ‘im ‘mongs’ a hund’ed men. Fer dey wuzn’ no yuther

merlatter man like my man Sam, an’ I couldn’ be mistook. I’s toted his picture roun’ wid me twenty-

five years.”

“May I see it?” asked Mr. Ryder. “It might help me to remember whether I have seen the original.”

As she drew a small parcel from her bosom; he saw that it was fastened to a string that went around

her neck. Removing several wrappers, she brought to light an old-fashioned daguerreotype in a black

case. He looked long and intently at the portrait. It was faded with time, but the features were still

distinct, and it was easy to see what manner of man it had represented.

He closed the case, and with a slow movement handed it back to her.

“I don’t know of any man in town who goes by that name,” he said, “nor have I heard of any one

making such inquiries. But if you will leave me your address, I will give the matter some attention, and

if I find out anything I will let you know.”

She gave him the number of a house in the neighborhood, and went away, after thanking him

warmly.

He wrote the address on the fly-leaf of the volume of Tennyson, and, when she had gone, rose to

his feet and stood looking after her curiously. As she walked down the street with mincing step, he saw

several persons whom she passed turn and look back at her with a smile of kindly amusement. When

she had turned the corner, he went upstairs to his bedroom, and stood for a long time before the mirror

of his dressing-case, gazing thoughtfully at the reflection of his own face.

7

III

A t eight o’clock the ballroom was a blaze of light and the guests had begun to assemble; for there was a literary programme and some routine business of the society to be gone through with
before the dancing. A black servant in evening dress waited at the door and directed the guests to the

dressing-rooms.

The occasion was long memorable among the colored people of the city; not alone for the dress

and display, but for the high average of intelligence and culture that distinguished the gathering as a

whole. There were a number of school-teachers, several young doctors, three or four lawyers, some

professional singers, an editor, a lieutenant in the United States army spending his furlough in the city,

and others in various polite callings; these were colored, though most of them would not have attracted

even a casual glance because of any marked difference from white people. Most of the ladies were in

evening costume, and dress coats and dancing pumps were the rule among the men. A band of string

music, stationed in an alcove behind a row of palms, played popular airs while the guests were

gathering.

The dancing began at half past nine. At eleven o’clock supper was served. Mr. Ryder had left the

ballroom some little time before the intermission, but reappeared at the supper-table. The spread was

worthy of the occasion, and the guests did full justice to it. When the coffee had been served, the toast-

master, Mr. Solomon Sadler, rapped for order. He made a brief introductory speech, complimenting

host and guests, and then presented in their order the toasts of the evening. They were responded to

with a very fair display of after-dinner wit.

“The last toast,” said the toast-master, when he reached the end of the list, “is one which must

appeal to us all. There is no one of us of the sterner sex who is not at some time dependent upon

woman,  in infancy for protection, in manhood for companionship, in old age for care and

comforting. Our good host has been trying to live alone, but the fair faces I see around me to-night

prove that he too is largely dependent upon the gentler sex for most that makes life worth living,  the

society and love of friends,  and rumor is at fault if he does not soon yield entire subjection to one of

them. Mr. Ryder will now respond to the toast,  The Ladies.”

There was a pensive look in Mr. Ryder’s eyes as he took the floor and adjusted his eyeglasses. He

began by speaking of woman as the gift of Heaven to man, and after some general observations on the

relations of the sexes he said: “But perhaps the quality which most distinguishes woman is her fidelity

8

and devotion to those she loves. History is full of examples, but has recorded none more striking than

one which only to-day came under my notice.”

He then related, simply but effectively, the story told by his visitor of the afternoon. He gave it in

the same soft dialect, which came readily to his lips, while the company listened attentively and

sympathetically. For the story had awakened a responsive thrill in many hearts. There were some

present who had seen, and others who had heard their fathers and grandfathers tell, the wrongs and

sufferings of this past generation, and all of them still felt, in their darker moments, the shadow

hanging over them. Mr. Ryder went on: 

“Such devotion and confidence are rare even among women. There are many who would have

searched a year, some who would have waited five years, a few who might have hoped ten years; but

for twenty-five years this woman has retained her affection for and her faith in a man she has not seen

or heard of in all that time.

“She came to me to-day in the hope that I might be able to help her find this long-lost husband.

And when she was gone I gave my fancy rein, and imagined a case I will put to you.

“Suppose that this husband, soon after his escape, had learned that his wife had been sold away,

and that such inquiries as he could make brought no information of her whereabouts. Suppose that he

was young, and she much older than he; that he was light, and she was black; that their marriage was a

slave marriage, and legally binding only if they chose to make it so after the war. Suppose, too, that he

made his way to the North, as some of us have done, and there, where he had larger opportunities, had

improved them, and had in the course of all these years grown to be as different from the ignorant boy

who ran away from fear of slavery as the day is from the night. Suppose, even, that he had qualified

himself, by industry, by thrift, and by study, to win the friendship and be considered worthy [of] the

society of such people as these I see around me to-night, gracing my board and filling my heart with

gladness; for I am old enough to remember the day when such a gathering would not have been

possible in this land. Suppose, too, that, as the years went by, this man’s memory of the past grew

more and more indistinct, until at last it was rarely, except in his dreams, that any image of this bygone

period rose before his mind. And then suppose that accident should bring to his knowledge the fact that

the wife of his youth, the wife he had left behind him,  not one who had walked by his side and kept

pace with him in his upward struggle, but one upon whom advancing years and a laborious life had set

their mark,  was alive and seeking him, but that he was absolutely safe from recognition or

discovery, unless he chose to reveal himself. My friends, what would the man do? I will presume that

he was one who loved honor, and tried to deal justly with all men. I will even carry the case further,

9

and suppose that perhaps he had set his heart upon another, whom he had hoped to call his own. What

would he do, or rather what ought he to do, in such a crisis of a lifetime?

“It seemed to me that he might hesitate, and I imagined that I was an old friend, a near friend, and

that he had come to me for advice; and I argued the case with him. I tried to discuss it impartially.

After we had looked upon the matter from every point of view, I said to him, in words that we all

know: 

‘This above all: to thine own self be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.’

Then, finally, I put the question to him, ‘Shall you

acknowledge her?’

“And now, ladies and gentlemen, friends and

companions, I ask you, what should he have done?”

There was something in Mr. Ryder’s voice that

stirred the hearts of those who sat around him. It

suggested more than mere sympathy with an

imaginary situation; it seemed rather in the nature

of a personal appeal. It was observed, too, that his

look rested more especially upon Mrs. Dixon, with

a mingled expression of renunciation and inquiry.

She had listened, with parted lips and streaming

eyes. She was the first to speak: “He should have

acknowledged her.”

“Yes,” they all echoed, “he should have

acknowledged her.”

“My friends and companions,” responded Mr. Ryder, “I thank you, one an

expected, for I knew your hearts.”

He turned and walked toward the closed door of an adjoining room, while

in wondering curiosity. He came back in a moment, leading by the hand his v

who stood startled and trembling at the sudden plunge into this scene of brilli

neatly dressed in gray, and wore the white cap of an elderly woman.

“Ladies and gentlemen,” he said, “this is the woman, and I am the man, w

you. Permit me to introduce to you the wife of my youth.

frontispiece

10

d all. It is the answer I

every eye followed him

isitor of the afternoon,

ant gayety. She was

hose story I have told

American history homework help

Assignment topic: THE GREAT FLU OUTBREAK OF 1919

Topic must focus on ONE STATE DURING THE OUTBREAK and will require an argument.

Paper format: CHICAGO

This Written Assignment is at least
three double-spaced pages
of text (Times New Roman, font size 12). Of course, the use of Wikipedia is off-limits. Your paper MAY bleed over onto a fourth page…BUT, if it goes beyond four pages, you will lose points.

The Written Assignment must include a cover page with your name, course number and course title, instructor’s name, and date of turn in to the instructor in the bottom right-hand corner, right justified. Additionally, you need to have a title for your paper (reasonably large print size) about 1/4 of the way down from the top of the page. And, you need to have an appropriate picture centered on the cover page. You must also include a bibliography at the end of your paper. While composing your paper, use proper English.
Do not use abbreviations, contractions, passive voice, or first/second person (I, you, we, our, etc.). The only place you will use first person is in your opinion paragraph
. Before submitting your paper, check your grammar and use spell check. Remember, the way you talk is not the way you write a paper. WARNING: There has been a serious tendency for students to ignore proper punctuation in their papers, lately. This is especially true with leaving out most or all commas. I am going to seriously take off points for punctuation errors. Warning! If you make 5 or more comma errors, I WILL take off 5 points automatically.

American history homework help

Letter written by Prime Minister Daniel Malan defining and defending apartheid.

February 12, 1954

“…It must be appreciated from the outset that Apartheid, separation, segregation or differentiation- whatever the name given the traditional racial policy of South Africa- is part and parcel of the South African tradition as practiced since the first Dutch settlement at the Cape in 1652, and still supported by the large majority of white South Africans…

The deep-rooted color consciousness of the White South Africans- a phenomenon quite beyond the comprehension of the uninformed- arises from the fundamental differences between the two groups, White and Black. The difference in color is merely the physical manifestation of the contrast between two irreconcilable ways of life, between barbarism and civilization, between heathenism and Christianity… The racial differences are as pronounced today as they were 300 years ago…

From the outset the European colonists were far out-numbered; there is no doubt that if they had succumbed to the temptation of assimilation, they would have been submerged by the Black heathendom of Africa… Of necessity they had to arm and protect themselves against this ever-growing menace, and how could it better be done than by throwing an impenetrable armor around themselves- the armor of racial purity and self-preservation?

…This then is the basis of Apartheid. Apartheid is based on what the Afrikaner believes to be his divine calling and his privilege- to convert the heathen to Christianity without obliterating his national identity.

…Theoretically the object of the policy of Apartheid could be fully achieved by dividing the country into two states, with all the Whites in one, all the Blacks in the other. For the foreseeable future, however, this is simply not practical politics.”

American history homework help

Verma 1

Abhishek Verma

History 1302-22701

February 15, 2022

The native Americans and the white Americans had a tainted relationship from their early years. Initially, the native Americans had lived in peace, tilling their lands, and keeping their animals peacefully until new settlers who had whiter skin color emerged from the sea. These new settlers came with the critical mission of conquering this new land for their mother countries while at the same time establishing their homes there. However, the major problem arose with how these white settlers would live together with the land’s original owners- the native Americans. First, the problem emerged because the white settlers soon wanted to take all the fertile lands, displacing their hosts. Second, the Europeans came with certain aspects of cultural attributes that were foreign, such as religious practices. Third, the Europeans appeared to have brought a broad array of afflictions in the form of diseases that plagued the native Americans. Amid all these troubles, the dynamics of American society underwent immense changes. For example, the country attained self-rule from the British crown, and it became apparent that the native Americans had to be integrated into the entire American population. This integration on religion, work, and even governance effectively achieved this fete, which felt that the native Americans had to be fully assimilated into the new cultural dimensions. One of these cultural assimilation strategies was formulated by Captain Richard H. Pratt, who designed the slogan “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man.”

The slogan “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man” was colloquially coined to assimilate native Americans into accepting the “modern” education system. The term killing does not mean physical action but ensures that native Indians lose their hard stance towards their cultural attributes (Pratt). This aspect was after it emerged that it would be difficult to make them conform to the new official requirements owing to their substantial conformity with their traditions. The first step to assimilating native Americans was to go through the stipulated education system that the government provided. It was perceived as a matter of great national interest to mingle the Indians with white Americans to ensure that the country grew steadfast through an inclusion system of governance.

Education was the first mode of killing the Indians among the native Americans. After Pratts’s declaration, the government embarked on a mission to enroll many native American young people into boarding schools (Little, 12). An example of these boarding schools was the Carlisle industrial schools established in 1879 and ran up to the onset of the 20th century. It would be easier for them to see sense in some government acts and grow up to appreciate and support certain aspects of the government’s decision through education. For example, native American students were forbidden from using their native names and speaking their language to ensure that they conformed to the stipulations of “killing the Indian” in them. Second, they were not allowed to practice their religion, maintain their clothing, and do away with their haircut.

The call for assimilation of the Native Americans was a demonization of their tradition and cultures. This aspect is because eliminating any element of their culture was seen as a way of degrading and dismissing the existence or importance of their cultural practices or attributes (Bentley, 9). The mere suggestion of doing away with cultural importance or attributes shows that American society has come a long way as far as the fight for equal rights has come. Moreover, the term used by Pratt also indicates that there is a likelihood that it is not only the African Americans who endured stints of troubles from the hands of the white Americans but also the native Americans. For example, in 1887 there was passed the general allotment act. This act mandated the president to break all the native reservation land from the communal set-up of ownership to individual ownership. The principal aim of this act was to force the native Americans into stopping to put more effort and emphasis on cultural aspects such as land and instead focus on other social-economic elements like the other white Americans. The forced system of assimilation placed the native Americans in certain difficult situations that disadvantaged them economically and socially.

Work cited

Bentley, Matthew Steven. “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”: Manhood at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879-1918. Diss. University of East Anglia, 2012. https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/40572/1/2012BentleyMSPhD.pdf

Little, Becky. “How boarding schools tried to ‘kill the Indian ‘through assimilation.” History. com (2017). https://airc.ucsc.edu/resources/schools-little.pdf

Pratt, Richard H. “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man.” Official Report of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction. 1892, pp. 46-59.

American history homework help

Qs.1 Explain the justifications for the doctrine of manifest destiny, including material and idealistic

motivations.

Qs.2 Why did many Americans criticize the Mexican War? How did they see expansion as a threat to

American liberties?

QS.3 How did the concept of “race” develop by the mid nineteenth century? How did it enter into the

manifest destiny debate?

Qs.4 How did western expansion affect the sectional tensions between the North and South?

Qs.5 How did the market revolution contribute to the rise of the Republican Party? How did those

economic and political factors serve to unite groups in the Northeast and in the Northwest, and why was

that unity significant?

Qs.6 How did the Dred Scott decision spark new debates over citizenship for African-Americans?

Qs.7 Based on Lincoln-Douglass debates, how did the two differ on the expansion of slavery, equal

rights, and the role of the national government? Use examples of their words to illustrate your points.

Qs.8 Why did Stephen Douglas, among others, believe that “popular sovereignty” could resolve sectional

divisions of the 1850s? Why did the ideal not work out?

Qs.9 Who were the fire-eaters?

American history homework help

“RACISM ANYWHERE THREATENS FREEDOM EVERYWHERE”: THE LEGACY OF MARTIN
LUTHER KING, JR. IN BLACK AMERICA’S ANTI-APARTHEID ACTIVISM

Author(s): JESSICA O’CONNOR

Source: Australasian Journal of American Studies , December 2015, Vol. 34, No. 2
(December 2015), pp. 44-58

Published by: Australia New Zealand American Studies Association

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/44779733

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44 AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES

ARTICLES

“RACISM ANYWHERE THREATENS FREEDOM

EVERYWHERE”: THE LEGACY OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
IN BLACK AMERICA’S ANTI-APARTHEID ACTIVISM

JESSICA O’CONNOR

Australian Catholic University

ABSTRACT : Just as opposition to Soviet communism had served as a
measure of American patriotism during the Cold War, so too did opposition
to apartheid evolve to signify the commitment to racial justice in the United
States during the Reagan era. In expanding Jacquelyn Dowd Hall ‘s “The
Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past “framework
it has been possible to break new ground in the historical analysis of the US
anti-apartheid movement. The “long movement” has allowed an historical
analysis of the profound role the legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the
civil rights movement played in the US anti-apartheid movement during the
Reagan era. There is a multi-faceted historical connection between the civil
rights movement and the peak of anti-apartheid activism in the United
States during the 1980s, and it is this connection which this article seeks to
uncover and analyse.

The US anti-apartheid movement launched into public consciousness in
November 1984, when three prominent African Americans were arrested at
the South African embassy in Washington, DC. The embassy sit-in marked
the beginning of a twelve-month protest in which thousands of citizens were
arrested, and local anti-apartheid movements proliferated in cities and
universities across the United States. The tactics, reminiscent of the civil
rights movement, facilitated media and popular interest in US diplomatic
relations with South Africa and came to the forefront of US politics.

Although the role of African Americans in the US anti-apartheid movement
in the 1980s was fundamental to its success, the US anti-apartheid
movement is a relatively neglected area of study in African American
history. Indeed, the role of African Americans in this movement was not
considered until Francis Nesbitt’s Race for Sanctions: African Americans
Against Apartheid, 1946-1994 in 2004. This article analyses the
contributions of African American individuals and organisations to US anti-
apartheid activism, with particular emphasis on the strategy of linking anti-
apartheid to the traditions of the civil rights movement of the 1960s. It adds a
new layer to our understanding of how African Americans struggled against
apartheid, focusing more attention than has been given previously on the

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AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 45

legacy of US civil rights in energising black anti-apartheid activism in the
United States at the peak of the movement.

The first historical analysis of the US anti-apartheid movement was Robert
Massie’s Loosing the Bonds: The United States and South Africa in the
Apartheid Years, which linked the internal struggles against apartheid in
South Africa with anti-apartheid politics in the United States from 1948 to
1994. However, the role of African Americans in the US anti-apartheid
movement was not considered until Francis Nesbitt’s Race for Sanctions.
Nesbitt’s book is the only in-depth examination of African American anti-
apartheid organisations. The third major historical study of the US anti-
apartheid movement, David Hostetter’s Movement Matters: American
Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics, is a
postmodern approach to social movement theory that concentrates on the
shift away from simple black-white politics to multiculturalism in the 1990s,
illustrated in the anti-apartheid movement.1 These historians all acknowledge
the connection between anti-apartheid activism and the civil rights
movement. For example, Massie describes the US anti-apartheid movement
as “the natural extension of America’s turbulent concern about civil rights
and racial justice into the international sphere.”2 However, none of these
historians examine the use of civil rights memory in the US anti-apartheid
movement. This article concentrates on the largely overlooked historical
relationship between the two movements. There is a multi-faceted historical
connection between the civil rights movement and the peak of anti-apartheid
activism in the United States during the 1980s, and it is this connection
which this article seeks to uncover and analyse.

The role of African Americans in the US anti-apartheid movement can be
analysed within two conceptual frameworks. The first framework focuses on
African Americans in the tradition of black internationalism or pan-
Africanism. Pan-Africanism emphasises the African diaspora and sees
blacks as engaged in a collective struggle against the injustices inflicted by
slavery, racism, and colonialism.3 Francis Nesbitt’s Race for Sanctions is an
example of a study of the impact of pan-Africanism on African American
anti-apartheid activists. The second framework in which the US anti-
apartheid movement might be studied is that of “The Long Civil Rights
Movement,” as outlined by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall. Hall’s thesis draws on the
broader connections of the history of African American activism. The “long
movement” calls for historians to recast and extend the traditional civil rights
era in order to challenge the cultural memory of the “King years” and the
linear progression of the struggle to end segregation.4

While these frameworks are not antithetical, the “long movement” allows for
a long duree analysis of black freedom movements in the United States. A

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46 AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES

critical assessment of the use of the legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the
anti-apartheid movement, further, provides an example of the civil rights
movement speaking to a contemporary challenge. This analysis demonstrates
how the memory of the civil rights movement can be “powerful, dangerous,”
and a “form of forgetting.” Remembrance in anti-apartheid activism can also
be understood as a challenge to the New Right’s distorted appropriation of
the “classical” phase of the civil rights movement and a King “frozen” in
1963, which erased any “political bite.” Adopting Hall’s extended timeline
therefore provides a template for a nuanced analysis of the ways in which the
legacy of King was used by anti-apartheid activists not only for their own
agitation, but also to challenge the ideological basis of conservative “colour-
blindness.”

Anti-apartheid activism in the United States emerged with the establishment
of the apartheid regime in South Arica in 1948. During the 1940s and 1950s,
Paul Robeson, W.E.B. Du Bois, and A. Philip Randolph were leaders of the
Council of African Affairs. For example, in 1945 the Council organised a
campaign to raise funds for South Africans during a famine; 5,000 people
attended the rally at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem.5 In 1946, the
Council supported striking miners and directed attention to the African
National Congress’s struggle against the South African government as it
established apartheid, at a meeting attended by 19,000 people in Madison
Square Garden.6 However, during the anti-communist raids of 1950, the
State Department revoked Robeson’s passport and the organisation was
ordered to submit its membership records to the government. In 1951, Du
Bois was indicted as a foreign agent.7 African American anti-apartheid
activism then became a side issue of the civil rights movement.

Martin Luther King, Jr.’s anti-apartheid views crystallised after he witnessed
the independence of Ghana in 1957. After his return to the United States,
King joined the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), the leading civil
rights organisation focused on Africa. In 1957 King co-sponsored a
declaration for world leaders to support “world-wide protest against the
organized inhumanity of the government of South Africa.”8 King’s anti-
apartheid advocacy expanded in 1 962, when he met with the South African
Nobel Peace Prize winner, Albert Luthuli. Together they encouraged
economic sanctions against South Africa. By 1964 King had even begun to
rethink his position on the efficacy of nonviolence in South Africa. For
example, at an address in London while he was travelling to receive the
Nobel Peace Prize, he remarked:

In South Africa even the mildest form of nonviolent resistance meets
with years of imprisonment, and leaders over many years have been
restricted and silenced and imprisoned. We can understand how in

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AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 47

that situation people felt so desperate that they turned to other
methods.9

It was during this address that King announced his support for the tactic of
economic sanctions. On 10 December 1965 King addressed a Human Rights
Day rally in New York, stating, “to list the extensive economic relations of
great powers with South Africa is to suggest a potent nonviolent path.” 10
The speech illustrated King’s growing radicalism; not once did he mention
traditional forms of nonviolent resistance by South Africans.

However, it was not until the 1970s, with the dramatic rise of black elected
officials in the United States, that anti-apartheid activism became a central
concern for African American leaders.11 These black elected officials created

new black-oriented political institutions, most notably the Congressional
Black Caucus, an organisation representing black interests in Congress, and
TransAfrica. Established in 1977, TransAfrica became the leading African
American foreign policy lobby organisation, concentrating on issues of US
policy towards Africa and the black diaspora.

The idea of a black foreign policy lobby in the United States had been
suggested as early as 1959. Congressman Charles Diggs suggested that the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the
oldest and largest African American civil rights organisation, establish an
office to influence US policy on African issues.12 TransAfrica was
established during the Black Leadership Conference in 1976, as events
coincided to push the injustices in South Africa into full public view.
Particularly notable on this front was the Soweto uprising in South Africa
that resulted in hundreds of school children being shot and killed, and the
rise of the Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement (PRWM) in the
United States protesting the company’s investment in South Africa.

Both the Congressional Black Caucus and TransAfrica were central players
in the US anti-apartheid movement during the Reagan era. They sought to
pressure the US government and companies to divest in the racist state in
order to weaken the ability of the apartheid regime to control blacks.13
However, Reagan and US business used the Sullivan Principles to challenge
the viability of the goals of the US anti-apartheid movement.

In 1977 Reverend Leon Sullivan, the only African American on the board of
directors of General Motors, outlined six steps for US companies in South
Africa to comply with, including desegregation of their business operations.
The Sullivan Principles featured in the Reagan administration’s African
foreign policy, Constructive Engagement.

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48 AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES

The policy of Constructive Engagement was conceived by American Chester
Crocker in an article in Foreign Affairs in 1980. 14 The strategy employed
incentives to encourage moderates in the South African National Party to
gradually reform apartheid through positive economic and diplomatic
engagement. The ultimate goal of Constructive Engagement was to prevent
Soviet expansion into southern Africa. The Reagan Administration believed
that punitive measures, like those advocated by anti-apartheid activists,
would have a destabilising effect on South Africa, isolating its government
and radicalising the black opposition.15

By early 1981, African Americans were concerned with the new Reagan
administrations’ direction on racial matters in both the United States and

South Africa. For example, Nathaniel Clay’s article in the African American
newspaper Chicago Metro News, “Blacks have a Right to Oppose Reagan’s
Africa Policy,” outlined African Americans’ concern about the
administration’s approach to civil rights in South Africa:

It is heartening to see the Black community rising up in anger at the
attempt by the Reagan Administration to clean up South Africa’s
image … whether we are successful or not, Black Americans have a
moral obligation to oppose Reagan at every turn in his tilt towards
four million whites on a continent of half a billion blacks}6

The 1981 Annual TransAfrica fundraising dinner also raised enough money
to extend its anti-apartheid activism into major US cities. African American
anti-apartheid organisations began to work in tandem after the Reagan
administration approved an International Monetary Fund loan of $1.1 billion
to South Africa in 1983. 17 TransAfrica circulated copies of a State
Department cable revealing South Africa’s plan to apply for the loan. Seven
Congressional Black Caucus members responded with a letter to the
Secretary of Treasury Donald Regan, asserting, “a vote for a substantial IMF
loan to South Africa would be yet another counterproductive application of

1 Ä

this Administration’s political commitment to Constructive Engagement.”
Caucus member Walter Fauntroy additionally led a march outside the IMF
headquarters in Washington, DC. Joseph Lowery, president of the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King’s civil rights organisation,
also claimed “approval of the loan implies international affirmation of racist
policies of the South African government.”19

On November 21, 1984, four prominent African Americans met with
the South African ambassador to the United States at the South African

embassy in Washington, DC. They demanded the release of all political
prisoners in South Africa, including Nelson Mandela, and a new constitution
for “one man, one vote,” refusing to leave until their demands were met.20

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AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 49

Three were arrested as one addressed the media waiting outside the embassy.
After their release from jail, the group announced the formation of the Free
South Africa Movement, a coalition of individuals, organisations, and unions
dedicated to overturning apartheid in South Africa.21

The Free South Africa Movement began a twelve-month protest in
which protesters were arrested daily at the South African embassy. From
1984 anti-apartheid sentiment gained momentum in the United States with a
series of events coinciding, including the re-election of Reagan, increasing
violence in South Africa, and the Nobel Peace Prize being awarded to South
African bishop Desmond Tutu. These events allowed Randall Robinson,
executive-director of Trans Africa and instigator of the first embassy sit-in, to
capitalise on this momentum and create a mass anti-apartheid movement to
pressure Congress to pass sanctions legislation, as well as to challenge
Reagan’s approach to domestic race relations.

Randall Robinson selected the other members of the embassy sit-in,
not only because of their previous anti-apartheid activism, but also because
of their historical civil rights connections. The Congressional Black Caucus
member, Walter Fauntroy, had previously been the Washington branch
director of the SCLC and was involved in many of the major civil rights
campaigns.22 Mary Frances Berry was chosen because of her position as a
board member of the US Commission on Civil Rights, the agency
monitoring the enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. She was well
known by African Americans at the time because Reagan had removed her
from the position and replaced her with a conservative administration-
friendly commissioner. 23 Georgetown University Law Professor Eleanor
Holmes Norton had been an organiser for the Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee and was highly involved during the civil rights
protests.24 Norton’s involvement in civil rights continued when President
Jimmy Carter appointed her as the first female chair of the US Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission, another organisation subsequently
weakened by the Reagan Administration.25

One of Robinson’s goals in establishing the Free South Africa
Movement was to challenge the Reagan administration’s misappropriation of
King’s legacy. Reagan’s rhetoric on Martin Luther King, Jr. disconnected
contemporary racial tensions from those of the past, by locating the civil
rights movement within an idealised narrative of American progress.26 The
King remembered by Reagan advocated that people be judged “not by the
colour of their skin but the content of their character” – nothing more.27 The
conservative civil rights rhetoric situated Reagan’s political agenda,
attacking programs of “reverse-racism” and civil rights protections, within
the context of the “true” goal of the civil rights movement: colour-blind

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50 AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES

equality.28 Reagan’s civil rights rhetoric and the conservative
misappropriation of King were used to attack policies and programs
beneficial to African Americans, and freed the federal government of
responsibility for improving the social, political, and economic condition of
African Americans.

However, ironically, the anti-apartheid activists’ also, at times,
skewed the memory of King to enhance their own agenda. Many of the
connections with the civil rights movement were consciously developed: in
particular, comparisons of Bishop Desmond Tutu and King. For example,
the Chicago Metro News reported the Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded
to Tutu, “generally viewed as the Martin Luther King … of his country.”29
As Chester Crocker observed in his autobiography, Randall Robinson
simplified the civil rights movement to fit into catchy anti-apartheid
phrases.30

While opposing the racial policies implemented by Reagan, the
African American anti-apartheid movement was prepared to validate the
appropriation of King for their own agenda. To address this limitation,
Trans Africa endeavoured to emphasise the differences between South
African brutality and the brutality witnessed in the pre-civil rights American
South. Robinson published an article in Ebony in 1985, in which he
attempted to clarify the differences between the civil rights movement and
anti-apartheid activism. When recalling his 1976 trip to South Africa,
Robinson described the experience as “another world, closed off,
dramatically crueller than the old south of my memoiy.”31 However, the
media and anti-apartheid activists continued to view South Africa in a “black
vs. white” framework, and the attempts to widen African American
understanding of apartheid in order to challenge Reagan’s civil rights
rhetoric were undermined.

The correlation between anti-apartheid activism and the civil rights
movement was further entrenched with the embassy arrests of civil rights
legends. Rosa Parks, who sparked the civil rights movement in 1955 when
she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus, was arrested in the
South African embassy protests. Coretta Scott-King was arrested for the first
time in her life with her children at the South African embassy in June
1985.32 As they were detained they sang the civil rights anthem “We Shall
Overcome.” Harry Belafonte, the singer, actor, civil rights activist, and a
leading advocate for anti-apartheid activism as a board member of
TransAfrica, was also arrested. The executive-director of SCLC, Joseph
Loweiy was arrested three days after the formation of the Free South Africa
Movement.33

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AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 5 1

In the twelve months of protest in Washington the total number of
arrests amounted to over 5,000, and included nearly every member of the
Congressional Black Caucus. The success of the tactic resulted in the district
attorney dropping all charges to “prevent the clogging of the courts.”34 The
act of civil disobedience, reminiscent of the civil rights movement, spread
into anti-apartheid campaigns throughout the United States, including in
cities such as Seattle, New York, and San Francisco.

The correlation between anti-apartheid activism and the civil rights
movement continued on the anniversary of King’s assassination. As Simon
Anekwe wrote in the black newspaper New York Amsterdam News, anti-
apartheid protests “[had] all been in keeping with Dr. King’s “appeal for
action.”35 For example, Columbia University students marched to Hamilton
Hall and chained shut an entrance to the building. The students demanded
the university disinvest in companies doing business in South Africa. The
students remained at the entrance for three weeks, until university officials
threatened them with expulsion. Once the blockade was over, the students
adopted civil rights tactics by marching to a rally at Canaan Baptist Church
in Harlem.37 The rally was led by Reverend Wyatt Tee Walker, who had
once been chief of staff to Martin Luther King.

In April 1985, the New York Times reported a total of twenty
separate sanctions bills pending in the US Congress.38 US media interest in
the violence in South Africa assisted in maintaining support for the US anti-
apartheid movement and in increasing pressure on the administration and
Congress to address economic sanctions. Reagan signed Executive Order
12532, introducing minor economic sanctions on South Africa to placate
Congress on foreign policy, which was traditionally a matter for the
executive.39 The Order banned the sale of computers to South African
government agencies, prohibited nuclear cooperation, and banned imports of
the Rand.40 The Reagan administration furthermore began to pressure South
African president P.W. Botha to introduce substantial change. 1

However, Botha’s response was a public relations disaster for the
Reagan administration, with Botha announcing he was not prepared to
institute meaningful reforms, stating at one point, “I am not prepared to lead
white South Africans and other minority groups on the road to abdication
and suicide.”42 After the speech, US National Security Advisor Robert
MacFarlane admitted to Crocker that the speech reminded him of US
segregationist Bull Connor and suggested that Congressional economic
sanctions were now all but inevitable. To retain executive control, Vice
President George H.W. Bush told the 77th Annual Convention of the
NAACP that “apartheid must end.”43 The administration then leaked that

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52 AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES

Reagan was considering appointing an African American ambassador to
South Africa.

Parallels between Bishop Tutu and King continued to be made by a
number of African Americans. During the “Family Affair” convention in
Atlanta in August 1985, music and radio pioneer Jack Gibson introduced
Tutu as “an echo of the bravery that propelled the late Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr.”44 In January 1986, Tutu received the Key to the City of Newark,
New Jersey, where more than half the population was African American.
During the ceremony Tutu told the largely black audience, “Racism
anywhere threatens freedom everywhere.”45 This statement echoed King’s
assertion that “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”46

During a sermon he delivered at St. Marks United Methodist Church
in Harlem, Tutu asked his audience not to overlook domestic problems:
“often it is wonderfully easy to be good to people who are over there and yet
you have problems here.”47 The African American understanding of Tutu
within the framework of King was most clearly demonstrated in January
1986, however, when Tutu was awarded the Martin Luther King Peace
Prize, on the first observance of the Martin Luther King Holiday. His speech
opened with the words, “I tremble as I stand in the shadow of so great a
person,” acknowledging their shared commitment to justice, peace, and
reconciliation, before closing with a quote from King: “Free at last, thank
God almighty, we’re free at last.”48

Tutu’s adoption of King’s rhetoric made comparisons inevitable. In
Atlanta, Tutu also preached at King’s pulpit, the Ebenezer Baptist Church,
and pledged a “campaign of civil disobedience against unjust laws.”49
Coretta Scott-King saw the day as “the launching of a new and intensified
phase in the struggle to end apartheid.”50 The celebration of the first Martin
Luther King Holiday as a day of anti-apartheid protest established a tradition
that was to continue until the end of the US anti-apartheid movement.

This representation of anti-apartheid activism within the framework
of King and the civil rights movement was successful in dividing the
Republican Party and permitted the passage of the Comprehensive Anti-
Apartheid Act of 1986. The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act was passed
over Reagan’s presidential veto, with 37 Republicans crossing the floor
against the president.51 After the passage of the Act, the US anti-apartheid
movement faltered. Black leaders attempted to reinvigorate public support
by linking racism in the United States with apartheid, and continued to
invoke Martin Luther King, Jr. as African Americans were confronted by a
resurgence of white racist violence.

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AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 53

The outbreak of racial violence in the United States after 1986

enabled African Americans to develop anti-apartheid campaigns that were
increasingly associated with, and dedicated to, King. Martin Luther King
Day, in particular, became a focal point for anti-apartheid activism. In
January 1986, six members of the Free South Africa Movement staged a sit-
in at the Shell Oil Company office in Washington. Headed by Randall
Robinson, the group demanded Shell’s parent company Royal Dutch/Shell
Group disinvest in South Africa. The sit-in was timed to mark the birth of
Martin Luther King and was supported by African American civil rights
organisations, including the SCLC, the NAACP, Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow
Coalition and the A. Philip Randolph Institute.52

The legacy of the civil rights movement and Martin Luther King, Jr.
also extended into US diplomacy in South Africa. Edward Perkins, a career
diplomat, was the first African American ambassador to South Africa,
appointed by Reagan in 1986. The appointment was to be symbolic both for
the South African government and African American leaders, perhaps
representing a new direction for Constructive Engagement, and was
supported by Reverend Leon Sullivan and Coretta Scott-King.53

As ambassador, Perkins instituted a new US approach to South
Africa that focused on developing relations with liberation organisations.
When asked by a reporter why he attended a black South African protest,
Perkins responded, “Do you remember Martin Luther King Jr. ‘s Letter from
Birmingham Jail? I am here to represent the United States because injustice
is being done.”54 The role of King in his understanding was further
illustrated when Perkins commissioned a bust of King “to stand for
perpetuity” at the US embassy in Pretoria.55

In the United States the second Martin Luther King Holiday in 1987
was marked by small anti-apartheid protests, including a shantytown built in
the lobby of Citicorp in New York. 6 The protesters “hoped that such non-
violent actions [would] provide an appropriate commemoration of Martin
Luther King’s life.”57

Anti-apartheid activists created controversy after the Martin Luther
King Holiday Commission issued an advertisement asking people to become
“a part of history” by having their names laser-inscribed by IBM computers
on a commemorative time capsule.58 IBM, historically the largest computer
supplier to South Africa, had officially divested from South Africa in 1987,
however their products continued to be sold in South Africa and the
company came under attack from anti-apartheid activists.

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American history homework help

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ORAL HISTORY PAPER SUBMISSION 3: INTERVIEW SUMMARY

I interviewed Christina Richards, a retired African-American athlete born in Havana, Florida. I interviewed her regarding the various challenges that women athletics face in this industry and what is being done regarding this issue.

Question: What can you say about the efforts of various governments in encouraging women’s participation in sports?

Christina: many governments are today doing their best to encourage the participation of women in sports. For instance, female Emiratis are making remarkable gains in sport. The number of Emirati women footballers has risen from 800 players in 2014 to 2,300 players by 2020, a significant growth (Rouhani, 2018). Empowerment, opportunity, and facilitation of achievement for women at the local, regional, and worldwide levels are all available in the UAE. As part of its policy to ensure women’s rights and foster their creativity, it contributes to the advancement of its society via this.

Question: what is the major obstacle that women athletes face?

Christina: There’s a common belief that males are better at sports than women because of this. However, it’s important to note that this isn’t always the case. Everyone has a unique set of talents. Because of their gender, several males cannot participate in college athletics, regardless of the sport (Hoggins, & Görzig, 2019). Competencies are what matter. Why can’t a woman play on a men’s team if she has the necessary skills? Why not let that girl play if she believes she is capable of doing so? As our society progresses, more and more women will participate in football games alongside men.

Question: Do female athletes receive equal media coverage as their male counterparts?

Christina: Media coverage of women’s sports continues to be far less than that of men’s sports. This includes Column inches, running time, personal quotations, size and length of articles, the positioning of images, and the size of the header. It’s not uncommon to see pictures of female athletes in sexually suggestive stances.

Question: why do you think there is this kind of bias in the media despite the growing participation of women in sports?

Christina: Women’s sports have made tremendous growth over several decades. According to recent statistics, women now make up 43% of collegiate athletes and 41.5% of high school athletes. That’s a 400% increase in profit. Media coverage of female athletes’ accomplishments still needs improvement, though (Scheadler, & Wagstaff, 2018). Complaints and criticisms of a female athlete’s looks are sometimes replaced with adjectives like “sexy” or “fit,” rather than “strong” or “fit.” Female athletes were shown in the media in a way that made it clear that something had to be done about it.

Questions: What should be done to ensure equality in sports?

Christina: As a result of the shifts taking place on the field and in society about how women are seen and the possibilities accessible to them, the commercial sector of sports has seen a significant shift in its culture. There has been a tremendous amount of progress in the business sphere, and women have been recognized for their competence, aptitude, and unique viewpoint. Because of a generational and cultural transition toward a more equitable society, I believe there has been a beneficial influence. However, we must build a winning culture. Using this method, sports can see what is going well and identify difficulties and challenges early on, allowing them to take appropriate action. It’s now or never to take advantage of the growing momentum.

Thank you very much for the candid discussion.

References

Hoggins, K., & Görzig, A. (2019). The portrayal of Olympic athletes defies traditional gender stereotypes: A content analysis of the 2018 Winter Olympics news outlets. New Vistas4(2), 38-43. retrieved from: uwl_new_vistas_0402_hoggins_gorzig.pdf

Rouhani, N. M. (2018). Women’s sport participation in the United Arab Emirates: A case study (Doctoral dissertation, Deakin University). retrieved from: https://dro.deakin.edu.au/eserv/DU:30112376/rouhani-womenssport-2018.pdf

Scheadler, T., & Wagstaff, A. (2018). Exposure to women’s sports: Changing attitudes toward female athletes. The Sport Journal19, 1-17. retrieved from: Exposure-to-womens-sports-Changing-attitudes-toward-female-athletes.pdf (researchgate.net)