• Home

8083mod4 assign3


Observation Reflection


Department, Institutional Affiliation




Observation Reflection

There are various strengths and weaknesses that I found about the instruments that are utilized to observe children play in early childhood education and assessment settings. The instruments, for instance, offer comprehensive data about the children’s details and demographic characteristics. They also facilitate the process of easy documentation of evidence in a sequential and organized fashion. Moreover, the tools provide objective, subjective, and descriptive evidences that can be used to inform the process of developing the appropriate interventions for improving the learning, growth, and development process. More specifically, the tools are appropriate for gathering baseline data regarding the children’s interests, capabilities, and skill levels. This is especially important when it comes to designing structured, free flowing instructions for improving both their cognitive and intellectual capabilities.

While these instruments provide efficacious strategies for observing and assessing children playing, they have many shortcomings. The tools are, for instance, time-consuming. This is especially the case since it is difficult to keep up and follow along as children move speedily form one activity to another. Moreover, they may not easily offer practical techniques for educators to be keen to understand the concepts behind the observed phenomena. More importantly, the behaviors that are observed may not necessarily typical for that observation day as compared to other days. This problem can potentially affect the validity and reliability of the observed findings.

I believe that the instruments should be modified to take into consideration factors such as time, date, and settings of the observed behaviors. This should include the details of the children being incorporated into the observation process. The instruments should also be adjusted to incorporate different observation methods in order to gather reliable and accurate data. Further, the modification should take into consideration the cultural factors that may pose obstruction to the gathering of accurate information about the observed behavior of each student group. Finally, the observation instruments need to accommodate environmental rating scales into the evaluation process. These scales may be based on state standards, and utilize evidence-based guidelines, procedures, and actins for evaluation and recommendations.

To promote fair assessment, the proposed instruments will have clearly stated learning outcomes, which are shared to all learners. This will enable them understand the most important goals that are to be take into consideration in the overall evaluation process. The assessment exercise is also going to be matched with what is being taught and vice versa (Scott et al., 2014). If, for instance, the students are expected to demonstrate effective reading skills, then the evaluation will not prematurely assume that they have all undergone the entire learning process or program to train those skills that have already been developed. Fairness and equity will also be promoted by utilizing different measures and outcomes. This strategy will be accompanied by the incorporation of appropriate measures for engaging all the student groups. To that end, the performance of field-dependent students, and those who tend to think more broadly than analytically, may be impacted by the entire classroom’s expressions of confidence in their capacity. Therefore, positive contact with the students from non-western cultures will be helpful in optimizing their levels of engagement, and overall performance and productivity.

The instruments will also promote developmentally-appropriate (DAP) assessment and learning in various ways. To that end, they will include both formal and informal tools for monitoring their progress, especially when they know where each child is with regard to learning goals. This will be done by utilizing developmentally, culturally, and linguistically responsive ways that authentically evaluate their learning outcomes (Goldstein, 2015). This can be done by analyzing all aspects of development, including cognitive, emotional, and intellectual skills. Additionally, both formative and summative evaluation techniques should embraced to attain DAP standards.


Goldstein, L. S. (2015). Using Developmentally Appropriate Practices to Teach the Common

Core: Grades PreK–3. Routledge.

Scott, S., Webber, C. F., Lupart, J. L., Aitken, N., & Scott, D. E. (2014). Fair and equitable

assessment practices for all students. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy &

Practice21(1), 52-70.

8083mod4 assign3


Effective Selection and Planning for Assessment





How to Assess Play


The kindergarten group consists of young children aged between two and four years. The kindergarten children are also known as “playgroups” because they spend much time at the gardens for the purpose of play and companionship. Play is essential in kindergarten because it builds imagination and creativity, fosters cognitive growth, and builds the children’s behaviors and emotions. Play improves children’s literacy levels, promotes independence in daily activities, and improves physical fitness to enable the children to lead healthy lives. The benefits of play outweigh the risks; thus, parents and educators should encourage the kindergarten group to engage in more play (Rowley, 2015).

Play builds creativity and imagination when the children create make-believe games and get lost in pretend worlds. The children imagine themselves in a fantasy world and act out different solutions to boost their confidence and survive in the imagined worlds. Play enables children to imagine one subject as another and uses objects to represent other objects; for example, they can use a stick instead of a spoon or a bowl for a pot. Play promotes brain development by increasing neural connections in the brain to enable children to think and act with maturity. They play to reduce anxiety, irritability, and stress and boost joy and self-esteem. Like adults, kindergarten children require activities to acquire behavioral and emotional benefits (DeLuca et al., 2019).

Play improves literacy by helping the children learn new words from the play environments as described by adults. Children pay more attention to classwork and other daily activities after unstructured play. They develop independence by deciding what to do during play instead of waiting for direction from the teachers and parents. Play enables students to create their own experiences and learn how to live with others, and tackle other tasks together. Physical play promotes children’s physical fitness and development. They sharpen reflexes, improve gross motor skills and increase cardiovascular function. Play improves a kindergarten’s mental system (Danniels et al., 2020).

The developmentally appropriate practices related to kindergarten play assessment include determining the children’s ability to master letters and numbers, know the sounds of each letter, and identify sight words. Assessment in play will include the teachers observing the children as they play alone or with others and analyzing their reactions based on various play activities. The assessments enable teachers to determine appropriate play-based interventions. Teachers gather authentic assessment data based on how children solve problems, regulate emotions and interact with peers. Assessors respect each child’s age and individual needs to create a sense of belonging and involvement and boost the children’s cognitive and mental fitness. Other practices include model reading and writing behavior, responsive conversations, and nurturing individual children’s relationships (Pyle et al., 2020).

The assessments are looking for authenticity and conceptual benefits of kindergarten play. The teachers learn the children’s cognitive development and measure objective behaviors by examining cross-domain kindergarten relationships. Assessment enables teachers to determine kindergarten’s social-emotional, learning approaches and language developmental areas and support the children through the various growth stages. The assessments help the teachers communicate important children’s development milestones to the parents and guardians or directly to the children. Parents and teachers work together to improve children’s welfare mental and cognitive skills. Kindergarten evaluation is essential in determining children’s growth and functioning. Assessment tracks children’s growth and development and helps teachers and parents to make informed decisions about improving their children’s lives (Kelly-Vance & Ryalls, 2020).


Danniels, E., Pyle, A., & DeLuca, C. (2020). The role of technology in supporting classroom assessment in play-based kindergarten. Teaching and Teacher Education88, 102966.

DeLuca, C., Pyle, A., Roy, S., Chalas, A., & Danniels, E. (2019). Perspectives on Kindergarten Assessment: Toward a Common Understanding. Teachers College Record121(3), 1-58.

Kelly-Vance, L., & Ryalls, B. O. (2020). Play-Based Approaches to Preschool Assessment. In Psychoeducational Assessment of Preschool Children (pp. 160-177). Routledge.

Pyle, A., DeLuca, C., Danniels, E., & Wickstrom, H. (2020). A model for assessment in play-based kindergarten education. American Educational Research Journal57(6), 2251-2292.

Rowley, B. (2015). Kindergarten assessment: Analysis of the child behavioral rating scale (CBRS).

8083mod4 assign3

Response 1

Michelle Hampton 

RE: Discussion 2 – Module 4


Top of Form


Most states and school districts use a combination of tests and assessment tools to identify gifted and talented students. Relying on a single test or instrument to identify gifted students is uninformative and disadvantageous. To do so leaves too much room for error, such as missing students who do not test well and ignoring or discounting test bias. A multidimensional and multimodal assessment approach that collects information in a variety of ways and from a variety of sources is more accurate and equitable in the identification of GT students (Heward et al., 2022). Because of their diverse needs, it is important to asses gifted and talented children in order to give them a meaningful learning experience.


Luke is a 10-year-old boy in Grade 5. He has not been formally psychometrically tested. However, Luke’s results from his school-based standardized tests and evidence from the teachers indicate that he performs well in classwork. Since Grade 1, look has been performing well, and his mother suspects that Luke is gifted. He asks a lot of questions, shows a lot of interest in progress, have in-depth information on many things, often want to know why, why not, or how something is so. Luke’s mother is worried that his son might be an underachiever if not given the appropriate learning environment. What is one of the possible assessment tool for Luke?


Heward, W., Alber-Morgan, S., and Konrad, M. (2022).  Exceptional children: An introduction to special education. Pearson

Bottom of Form

Response 2

Chukwunonyelum Eneje 

RE: Discussion 2 – Module 4


Top of Form

Module 4-discussion 2-EDDD 8083

According to Banerjee & Luckner ( 2013), it states that early childhood educators are most effective when they gather and use assessment data to provide teaching and services to children with and without exceptionalities and their parents. Also, educators should use assessment and intervention to design and apply appropriate programs and service delivery to the children they work with within their setting (Banerjee & Luckner, 2013).

The scenario-

During the writing activity time in the school and other activities that involves writing. A child, Jaina, aged seven years, always writes big letters and words on her paper for every sentence, she wants to write. She finds it difficult to write a word or some words that need to be written in small letters into big letters. Also, mathematics was a struggle and so were writing and reading. When the educator gives her homework to do that is supposed to take her twenty minutes, she spends over two hours, especially in mathematics. The educators always notice that she will just sit there not understanding anything. She loves stories and telling stories but when she is told to read a book, it takes her many weeks or even months to read it because it is hard for her to focus on lines when she reads. And often she skips letters, words or even sentences. The child that was discussed in the scenario was diagnosed. And it was found she has a learning disability, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disability (ADHD).

My question is, ‘What are the intervention strategies that could be used by the educators and other professionals to support her learning?’




Banerjee, R., & Luckner, J. L. (2013). Assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 34 (3), 231-248.https:/doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2013.816808.

Bottom of Form

8083mod4 assign3

Assignment 3: Learning Outcomes Project Components Revision and Organization

As you have moved through this course, you have been working on various sections of your Final Paper/Learning Outcomes Project for this program. Feedback from your Instructor and your peers should have been reviewed and sections revised as the course progressed. For this Assignment, you will organize Parts 2 through 4 for initial submission this week.

To prepare:

· If you have not done so already, examine carefully any feedback from your Instructor for each part of the Learning Outcomes Project listed for this Assignment. Revise and edit as needed and make sure each element required has been addressed. Use the rubric for each assignment as a guide. Cite and reference using APA guidelines, adding new resources as needed.

As you organize and review these parts into one document, reflect on the topics and themes of your research and work and how you might introduce the content covered in Parts 2 through 4 for your readers.

Note that the Introduction and Part 1 of the Final Paper/Learning Outcomes Project will be completed during Module 5 in Week 10, at which point you will submit the final MA for the course, including all assigned parts.

Collect and organize the previously assigned Parts of the Learning Outcomes Project into one document:

Part 2: Effective Selection and Planning for Assessment

· Assigned in: Module 2 Week 4, Assignment 1

Part 3: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment Practices

· Assigned in: Module 1, Discussion 1, Initial Discussion Post, Module 2 Week 3, Initial Discussion Post, Module 3 Week 5, Initial Discussion Post

Part 4: Assessments for Readiness Skills, Emerging Content Knowledge, and Intervention

· Assigned in: Module 3 Week 6, Assignment 2

By Day 7 of Week 8

Madaus, J., Rinaldi, C., Bigaj, S., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2009). An examination of current assessment practices in northeastern school districts. Assessment for Effective Interventions, 34(2), 86–93. .




8083mod4 assign3


Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliate


Readiness, Emerging Content Knowledge, and Intervention Assessments This article will explore evaluations that target kindergarten readiness abilities, developing topic understanding, and intervention. This article will describe in detail how these evaluations are utilized to address the three categories mentioned above. This information may be utilized to influence teaching and learning for the selected age range, as well as shared with families. Modifying developing subject knowledge exams for dual language learners and children with impairments will also be discussed.

Assessing a child’s preparedness is critical to effective education. Preschool readiness tests are one way to measure kindergarten preparedness. Preschool readiness is measured in four domains: language and literacy, arithmetic, physical development, and social skills. Readiness checks are credible and trustworthy judgments (NAEYC, 2011). Readiness tests assist instructors vary teaching and overcome learning gaps by identifying children’s strengths and shortcomings. During the first several weeks of school, instructors assess each child’s preparation for kindergarten by observing, asking questions, and assessing performance (Ready at Five, 2020). Readiness checks are associated with the early learning and developmental standards and coincide with the state content requirements for kindergarten. This form of evaluation gives the instructor a picture of a child’s knowledge compared to peers. Observations are another useful tool.

Teachers might use observations to learn more about a child’s classroom behavior. Observations help instructors learn about a child’s growth, interests, and needs. Observations are not one-time appraisals of a child’s ability. Teachers may gather data on a child’s habits and activities by continuously observing them. For example, a teacher could notice a youngster doesn’t connect with books or write, and wonder what it means for the child. Observations enable instructors to gather information on a kid’s development and needs across several domains, enabling them to see the child as a whole (Gillis, West., & Coleman, 2010).

Observations help instructors change classroom procedures, diversify education, and offer accommodations for kids. In order to better fulfill the needs of children, teachers might use observation data to “reflect on the classroom atmosphere, curriculum, and teaching practices” (Gillis, West, & Coleman, 2010, para. 12). A teacher may acquire statistics regarding a child’s growth and development by observing and recording their work throughout a year. This information helps instructors to arrange successful tailored education for each kid.

Exams are not the greatest or most progressive way to evaluate pupils, particularly kindergarteners. Students are at varying levels and talents at this time. Student-led conferencing is one technique to evaluate kindergarteners’ topic understanding. Student-led conferencing is a kind of student-engaged evaluation (ASCD, 2014). Individual meetings with pupils allow instructors to concentrate on their specific needs and talents. Through conferencing, instructors may learn more about their students’ thought processes, what they know, why they struggle, and how they might help them. A reliable evaluation delivers dependable data to the instructor.

Anecdotal notes are another technique to evaluate kindergarten children’ increasing topic mastery. These are brief narrative descriptions of student actions in relation to curriculum, arts, social and emotional development, and physical development (Bates, Schenck, & Hoover, 2019). Anecdotal notes enable teachers to swiftly take notes without disturbing pupils. These comments might help students monitor their development over time. These comments may be used to evaluate student work and track student progress toward objectives. Anecdotal notes drive teaching and help teachers decide modifications required for particular pupils.

English language learners often have a firm command of their native language by kindergarten. When evaluating ELL kids, teachers must recognize their unique obstacles. The pupils’ capacity to acquire and display information may be hampered by their inability to comprehend and utilize English. The tests employed by teachers must match the child’s language ability (Government of Ontario, n.d.). Portfolios may be constructed to test skills and subject understanding.

Portfolios are meant to be comprehensive and honest (Gomez, 2000). Portfolio assessments for ELL students may give a comprehensive picture of their abilities and development. Portfolios may be used to evaluate student work throughout year. Portfolios may be used to gather descriptive records of student work throughout the year. Portfolios include information, work examples, and assessments of student progress (Colorn Colorado, 2016). Portfolios may aid in teaching. A teacher can rapidly assess a child’s needs by looking at their work. When dealing with ELL students, teachers should provide them chances to demonstrate what they know and can accomplish in English. Portfolios allow teachers to illustrate students’ progress in a number of ways.

Examining pupils with impairments is difficult. Students with learning difficulties struggle with testing and cannot finish examinations. However, assessing all pupils is vital because it allows them to display knowledge, competence, and comprehension (Watson, 2019). Checklists may be used to examine kids with learning impairments. Checklists are a great approach to track a child’s growth. Checklists may assist teachers evaluate whether or not students with learning difficulties have reached or are fulfilling their goals and learning objectives. These checklists may help teachers plan future lessons to meet students’ requirements.

When evaluating pupils, it is critical to tell parents of their child’s development. Parents may use the techniques given to evaluate all pupils to track their child’s growth, analyze their strengths and shortcomings, and plan how to help them at home. During kindergarten, instructors must report the child’s progress and success in relation to the learning requirements.


ASCD. (2014). When students lead their learning. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar14/vol71/num06/When- Students-Lead-TheirLearning.aspx

Bates, C., Schenck, S., & Hoover, H. (2019). Quick and east notes: Practical strategies for

busy teachers. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/tyc/oct2019/practical-strategies-teachers

Colorín Colorado. (2016). Using informal assessments for English language learners.

Retrieved from https://www.colorincolorado.org/article/using-informal-assessments- english-language-learners

Gomez, E. (2000). Assessment portfolios: Including english language learners in large-scale assessments. Retrieved from https://www.ericdigests.org/2001-3/large.htm

Government of Ontario. (n.d.). Supporting english language learners in kindergarten: A practical guide for ontario educators. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/kindergarten/index.html

Gillis, M., West, T., & Coleman, M. (2010). Assessment in early childhood. Retrieved from http://www.getreadytoread.org/screening-tools/supportive-materials-for- elors/assessment-in-early-childhood

NAEYC. (2011). Developing kindergarten readiness and other large-scale assessment systems. Retrieved from http://nieer.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/03/Assessment_Systems.pdf

Ready at Five. (2020). How is school readiness measured? Retrieved from https://www.readyatfive.org/school-readiness-data/how-is-school-readiness- measured.html

Watson, S. (2019). Assessing students with special needs. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/assessing-students-with-special-needs-3110248