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8083 mod 5 assgn 2



Cyber security

Name of student




The security threats blog

I have chosen cybersecurity as my security threat because it is an emerging trend and also affects the operations of many business organizations. Furthermore, (Ullah et al., 2019). notes that cybersecurity greatly interferes with personal information as most hackers tend to steal and sell personal information such as social security numbers. In the US, almost 5 business organizations usually lose their information to hackers daily. However, cybersecurity threats may result from both national and international hackers. Additionally, business organizations are taking advantage of cybersecurity by hiring hackers that steal information from their rivals. This helps them to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their rivals. As a result, most business organizations in the country employ people who have the knowledge and skills in cyber-crime to protect their personal information. Therefore, this is the reason why I selected this topic.

In exploring this threat, I used statistical software. The statistical software works by carrying out the statistics about a particular issue. For example, in cybersecurity, I used the software to analyze the level of cybersecurity in the US, UK, Russia, and China. The results showed that in all those countries, the level of cybersecurity is more than 20% (Ullah et al., 2019). This software can analyze millions and millions of documents to bring the desired results to the user. Additionally, I decided to use this software due to the nature of the information being evaluated. Cybersecurity is a very wide topic and to bring desired results, I used this software to get the desired information about hacking and security threats to personal information.

The use of statistical software has several advantages. First, it is easy and convenient to use, and therefore, it does not require any technical skills to use (Tweneboah-Koduah, Skouby, and Tadayoni, 2017). Most business organizations use this software daily since the users do not have to undergo training programs on how to use it. Secondly, this software is compatible with most computer systems and it does not require a lot of procedures to install. Thirdly, it works very fast and therefore, results are generated within a short period. This saves the time of the user who can conduct several types of research in an hour or a day. Gunduz and Das (2020) note that the software can be used to solve multiple tasks within a short period due to its flexibility and speed of operation.

However, there several privacy concerns with the use of statistical software. Hackers and information brokers are taking the advantage of this software to access and acquire personal information belonging to the citizens. Therefore, the integrity and privacy of the people’s information may not be guaranteed in the future (Tweneboah-Koduah, Skouby, and Tadayoni, 2017). In the US, for example, citizens are always required to give their social security numbers to get services. There have been cases of such information leaks to the internet and information brokers are taking advantage of statistical software to steal such information and sell it to unauthorized people for their benefits (Lind, Marchal, and Wathen, 2017). However, the benefits of statistical software outweigh the damages. Apart from conducting research, this software is also used by business managers to survey the market, and generate the results for effective decision making. The cases of information leaks have been rare and if the citizens and business organization secure their personal information, there is little chance for hackers and information brokers to get information using the software. However, if cases of information leak will increase in the future, there is a huge possibility of hackers using the software to access other people’s information. The future technology will provide a variety of means by which people can secure their personal information and hence, there will be little chances of information leak.


Gunduz, M. Z., & Das, R. (2020). Cyber-security on the smart grid: Threats and potential solutions. Computer networks, 169, 107094.

Lind, D. A., Marchal, W. G., & Wathen, S. A. (2017). Statistical techniques in business & economics. McGraw-Hill Education.

Tweneboah-Koduah, S., Skouby, K. E., & Tadayoni, R. (2017). Cybersecurity threats to IoT applications and service domains. Wireless Personal Communications, 95(1), 169-185.

Ullah, F., Naeem, H., Jabbar, S., Khalid, S., Latif, M. A., Al-Turjman, F., & Mostarda, L. (2019). Cybersecurity threats detection in the internet of things using deep learning approach. IEEE Access, 7, 124379-124389.

8083 mod 5 assgn 2

Systematic Assessment


Definition Age group

Development milestone to be assessment The area to be assessed

Type of Assessments.

Systematic Assessment

A systematic assessment is an act of monitoring students learning throughout the course and making necessary adjustment to improving learning.

Systematic assessment is key in the manner that it provides a better way in which the teachers will be in a better position to assess the students. It is key in the manner that the teachers will be in a better position to create adjustments where necessary and ensure that learners have a better chance of imporving in their studies.


Age Group

The age group I will be working with is kindergarten children aged 5-8yrs.

The developmental milestone I will focus on is cognitive developmental skill.

Cognitive skills I will focus on are; children’s level of understanding, problem solving skills, reasoning and remembering.

For this age group, the area of content I will focus on is mathematics.

In this case the age groups trhat I will enstirely focus on is that aged 5-8. theye are little children who require much attention and they are developing theuir cognitive skills. It is one of the ways in which I will identify various issues, and how the children get to reason and understand different things. I will basically focus on mathematics.


Area to be Assessed

For this age group, the area of content I will focus on is mathematics.

Most children encounter challenges while solving mathematics problems.

Assessment in this area is very important in helping them overcome their challenges.

Assessment helps to identify what children know and do not know.

Mathematics is the subject area on which I will focus my efforts for this age group. The majority of children have trouble when it comes to arithmetic problems. Assessing their abilities in this area is critical in assisting them in overcoming their difficulties. Assessment is useful in determining what knowledge and skills children have and do not have.


Types of Assessment that could be used for mathematics

The appropriate assessment for this developmental milestone is formative and summative assessments.

Formative Assessment Summative assessment

The most appropriate forms of assessments for this developmental milestone are formative and summative evaluations.In educational settings, there are two forms of evaluation: formative and summative evaluation.


Formative Assessment

Formative assessment refers to the ongoing process students and teachers engage in when they focus on learning goals.

The best formative assessment involves both students and teachers in a recursive process.

This types of assessment helps to identify students weaknesses and strengths.

In formative assessment, a teacher can use standardized tests. This will help students will help understand students understanding in mathematics.

It will help identify the level of understanding and the areas they need more assistance.

While focusing on learning goals, students and teachers engage in formative evaluation on a continual basis. Both students and teachers are involved in a recursive process that culminates in the most effective formative assessment possible in the end. With the help of this kind of assessment, it is possible to identify the weaknesses and strengths of students. Teachers may choose to utilize standardized examinations as part of their formative evaluation process. This will, among other things, aid students in better understanding their classmates’ grasp in mathematics. It will aid in determining their degree of comprehension as well as the areas in which they need further guidance.


Purpose of Formative assessment

The purpose of formative assessment is to identify children’s weaknesses in mathematic subject.

This will help the teacher identify the areas that need more attention to help the child improve on the area.

It will also help the teacher identify the area the students are struggling in and address the areas (Banerjee, 2013).

Identifying the children weaknesses will help in building up the strengths of the child.

Formative assessment is used to identify children’s deficits in mathematic subjects with the purpose of detecting and correcting these shortcomings. Using this information, the instructor will be able to determine the areas in which the student need further focus, allowing the teacher to help the student in improving in those particular areas.Thus, identifying and intervening in the areas where kids are having difficulty will be much simpler for teachers to do (Banerjee, 2013). If a child’s weaknesses are identified and addressed, it will be much easier to assist him or her in developing their strengths.


Cultural responsiveness of Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is cultural responsive since it builds up on the children’s interests and experiences.

While conducting assessment, the educators collaborate with other educators and community members making assessment culturally responsive.

It encourages group work rather than individual work.

The educators use community resources such as libraries during the process of formative assessment.

Examples of culturally appropriate assessments include formative assessment, which takes into account the interests and life experiences of the children who are being assessed. As part of the assessment process, teachers interact with other educators and people of the community to ensure that the assessment is culturally acceptable. Instead of encouraging employees to work alone, this method emphasizes collaborative interaction. Educators seek support from community resources such as libraries in order to guide them through the process of formative evaluation.


Summative Assessment

Summative assessment determines what the children know and what they do not know.

Formative assessment can also be associated with standardized tests to help identify what students know and don’t know.

In most schools, formative assessment is used in grading process.

The information gathered from this type of assessment is important in helping the educators know when the children do not know and hence identify the strategies that can help to improve the students learning (Howlin, 2013).

Summative assessment is used to determine what the children know and don’t know based on their responses to a series of questions. It is also feasible to employ formative assessment in combination with standardized examinations to get a better understanding of what students know and don’t know about certain topics.Formative assessment is used in the majority of schools as part of the grading process. In order to aid educators in detecting when children do not know something and, as a consequence, in finding solutions that may be employed to improve the students’ learning outcomes, it is vital that they get information via this kind of evaluation (Howlin, 2013).


Purpose of Summative Assessment

The objective of summative assessment is to evaluate children’s learning (Howlin, 2013).

It compares learning with some benchmarks and standards. The types of summative assessments have high point value.

Some types of summative assessments that can be used to assess children’s progress in particular subjects such as math are;

A test paper Midterm exam

Cultural Responsiveness of summative Assessment

Summative assessment is culturally responsive since it provides support for all students and incorporates their strengths.

It uses assessment methods that are valid to assess the learning progress of all children.

In summative assessment, cultural examples from all ethnic groups are incorporated

Family and community members are always involved in summative assessment of children.

As a result, summative assessment is culturally relevant in the sense that it gives assistance to all students while also identifying and using their individual talents. An assessment technique that is rigorous and age appropriate is utilized to analyze the learning progression of all the children in order to determine their overall progress. Including cultural examples from a range of ethnic backgrounds in the summative assessment is critical when completing the final evaluation. Families and other members of the community are encouraged to participate in the summative evaluation of children wherever feasible.



In summative assessment, the data collected or gathered is used consistently to inform effective instructional practices.

The educators can refer child’s performance from the standardize test taken by every child to determine whether there is any progress.

Summative assessment data ensure that the teaching practices or styles used can help build the children’s strengths and help them overcome the challenges.

Children’s culture is also incorporated in summative assessment process.

Summative assessment is a kind of evaluation in which the information gathered or received is used on a regular basis to develop effective educational practices. The results of the kid’s performance may be compared to the results of the standardised exam that is given to all kids in order to determine whether or not there has been any progress. Using summative assessment data, teachers may guarantee that the instructional techniques or styles they utilize are conducive to the development of the children’s strengths as well as their capacity to overcome hurdles. Furthermore, the children’s cultural background is taken into account throughout the summative grading process.



Banerjee, R., & Luckner, J. L. (2013). Assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 34(3), 231–248.

Howlin, P. (2013). Authentic assessment for early childhood intervention: Best practices. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(2), 181.

8083 mod 5 assgn 2

Assignment 2: Appropriate and Responsible Practices

Looking back over this course, much information has been presented showing not only the importance of assessment in early childhood, but how assessment can foster healthy development and guide teaching and learning. Throughout the course, you have selected specific assessments for specific purposes and specific age groups. You have researched and analyzed validity and reliability, as well as made modifications based on the needs of students. You have closely examined standards and expectations for early childhood educators that guide assessment in the learning environment.

This Assignment is the first part of your Final Paper/Learning Outcomes Project. At this point in time, all revisions to these documents should have been made based on Instructor and peer feedback. What remains is adding the Introduction and Part 1, as outlined in the Assignment, and submitting the final Learning Outcomes Project. Please be sure to use the rubric and make sure each element has been addressed.

To prepare:

· Review Parts 2, 3, and 4 of the Learning Outcomes Project as assigned throughout this course and organized for Module 4: Week 8, Assignment 3.

· Then, consider how this content could be introduced and framed through the Introduction and Part 1 so that your reader(s) are clear on the most important considerations concerning assessment for young children.

Write an informative and summative overview of the importance of assessment in early childhood.

Be sure to address the following:

· Why should we assess young children?

· What is purposeful assessment?

Part 1 Appropriate and Responsible Practices

Complete Part 1 by providing a thorough discussion of the following:

· The importance of assessment in early childhood

· The need for assessment in early childhood

· How assessment fosters healthy development

· How assessment can guide teaching and learning

· What early intervention can do for children

· How and why families can be and need to be involved in assessment

· The links between instruction, assessment, development, and learning.

All information should be properly cited from course readings and from your own research, including seven or more scholarly resources with at least four from the last 5 years.

Suggested length:

· Introduction: 1 page

· Part 1: Minimun of 4 pages








Mitchell, L. M. (2007). Using technology in Reggio Emilia-inspired programs. Theory Into Practice, 46(1), 32–39.


8083 mod 5 assgn 2

Response 1

Michelle Hampton

Re: Discussion 2 – Module 4

Top of Form


Most states and school districts use a combination of tests and assessment tools to identify gifted and talented students. Relying on a single test or instrument to identify gifted students is uninformative and disadvantageous. To do so leaves too much room for error, such as missing students who do not test well and ignoring or discounting test bias. A multidimensional and multimodal assessment approach that collects information in a variety of ways and from a variety of sources is more accurate and equitable in the identification of GT students (Heward et al., 2022). Because of their diverse needs, it is important to assess gifted and talented children to give them a meaningful learning experience.


Luke is a 10-year-old boy in Grade 5. He has not been formally psychometrically tested. However, Luke’s results from his school-based standardized tests and evidence from the teachers indicate that he performs well in classwork. Since Grade 1, the look has been performing well, and his mother suspects that Luke is gifted. He asks a lot of questions, shows a lot of interest in progress, have in-depth information on many things, and often wants to know why, why not, or how something is so. Luke’s mother is worried that his son might be an underachiever if not given the appropriate learning environment. What is one of the possible assessment tools for Luke?

The best assessment tool for Luke is the innovative assessment design. It is a tool that rates various aspects of the learners including drills of practices, the rate of learning, learning without inquiry, and life concepts that cannot be evaluated through oral tests (they include how a child socializes with other members of the society). This aspect helps to improve the quality over the quantity (VanTassel-Baska and Baska, 2021). Apart from the Academic performance, it will also encourage Luke to work hard in life and focus more on improving himself.

Response 2

Chukwunonyelum Eneje

Re: Discussion 2 – Module 4

Top of Form

Module 4-discussion 2-EDDD 8083

According to Banerjee & Luckner (2013), it states that early childhood educators are most effective when they gather and use assessment data to provide teaching and services to children with and without exceptionalities and their parents. Also, educators should use assessment and intervention to design and apply appropriate programs and service delivery to the children they work with within their setting (Banerjee & Luckner, 2013).

The scenario-

During the writing activity time in the school and other activities that involves writing. A child, Jaina, aged seven years, always writes big letters and words on her paper for every sentence, she wants to write. She finds it difficult to write a word or some words that need to be written in small letters into big letters. Also, mathematics was a struggle and so we’re writing and read. When the educator gives her homework to do that is supposed to take her twenty minutes, she spends over two hours, especially in mathematics. The educators always notice that she will just sit there not understanding anything. She loves stories and telling stories but when she is told to read a book, it takes her many weeks or even months to read it because it is hard for her to focus on lines when she reads. And often she skips letters, words, or even sentences. The child that was discussed in the scenario was diagnosed. And it was found she has a learning disability, Attention Deficit, and Hyperactivity disability (ADHD).

To support her learning, the teacher needs to keep the learning simple and structured. In mathematics, for example, the teacher needs to take time to introduce Jaina to simple topics at a time (VanTassel-Baska and Baska, 2021). Furthermore, the teacher needs to use more graphs and charts to visualize her learning and help her understand the concepts being taught. Positive reinforcement is a vital aspect that will help the student to improve. The teacher needs to be congratulating Jaina on every step that she makes. This would encourage and motivate her to improve from her current situation and become better (Xu and Brown, 2016). Lastly, the teacher also needs to change the environment to limit her distractions. The majority of ADHD students often require peaceful environments to internalize the concepts they are taught. Therefore, her teacher needs to consider shifting the environment. A library would be a better place for Jaina. After changing the environment, she needs to be given extra tests since she is also a slow learner. However, the teacher should also give her breaks during the lessons. Changing the environment and giving her extra tests would help he understand better what she is taught (Xu and Brown, 2016).

My question is, ‘What are the intervention strategies that could be used by the educators and other professionals to support her learning?’



Banerjee, R., & Luckner, J. L. (2013). Assessment practices and training needs of

early childhood professionals. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 34 (3), 231-248.https:/doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2013.816808.

Heward, W., Alber-Morgan, S., and Konrad, M. (2022). Exceptional children:

An introduction to special education. Pearson

VanTassel-Baska, J., & Baska, A. (2021). Curriculum planning & instructional design

for gifted learners. Routledge. Online at: 

Xu, Y., & Brown, G. T. (2016). Teacher assessment literacy in practice:

A reconceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 149-162.

8083 Mod 5 Assgn 2

 Looking back over this course, much information has been presented showing not only the importance of assessment in early childhood, but how assessment can foster healthy development and guide teaching and learning. Throughout the course, you have selected specific assessments for specific purposes and specific age groups. You have researched and analyzed validity and reliability, as well as made modifications based on the needs of students